Science.gov

Sample records for earth occultation observations

  1. All-Sky Earth Occultation Observations with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G.; Jenke, P.; Chaplin, V.; Cherry, M.; Connaughton, V.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/ soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique. Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors and spanning 150 keV to 40 MeV for the GBM BGO detectors. Our preliminary catalog consists of galactic X-ray binaries, the Crab Nebula, and active galactic nuclei. In addition, to Earth occultations, we have observed numerous occultations with Fermi's solar panels.

  2. All-Sky Earth Occultation Observations with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G.; Chaplin, V.; Cherry, M.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique. Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors and spanning 150 keV to 40 MeV for the GBM BGO detectors. Our preliminary catalog consists of galactic X-ray binaries, the Crab Nebula, and active galactic nuclei. New sources are added to our catalog as they become active or upon request. In addition to Earth occultations, we have observed numerous occultations with Fermi's solar panels. We will present early results. Regularly updated results will be found on our website http://gammaray.nsstc.nasa.gov/gbm/science/occultation.

  3. Using the EXIST Active Shields for Earth Occultation Observations of X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Fishman, Gerald; Hong, Jae-Sub; Gridlay, Jonathan; Krawczynski, Henric

    2005-01-01

    The EXIST active shields, now being planned for the main detectors of the coded aperture telescope, will have approximately 15 times the area of the BATSE detectors; and they will have a good geometry on the spacecraft for viewing both the leading and training Earth's limb for occultation observations. These occultation observations will complement the imaging observations of EXIST and can extend them to higher energies. Earth occultatio observations of the hard X-ray sky with BATSE on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory developed and demonstrated the capabilities of large, flat, uncollimated detectors for this method. With BATSE, a catalog of 179 X-ray sources was monitored twice every spacecraft orbit for 9 years at energies above about 25 keV, resulting in 83 definite detections and 36 possible detections with 5-sigma detection sensitivities of 3.5-20 mcrab (20-430 keV) depending on the sky location. This catalog included four transients discovered with this technique and many variable objects (galactic and extragalactic). This poster will describe the Earth occultation technique, summarize the BATSE occultation observations, and compare the basic observational parameters of the occultation detector elements of BATSE and EXIST.

  4. Validation of Earth atmosphere models using solar EUV observations from the CORONAS and PROBA2 satellites in occultation mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin; Kuzin, Sergey; Pertsov, Andrey; Berghmans, David; Dominique, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Aims: Knowledge of properties of the Earth's upper atmosphere is important for predicting the lifetime of low-orbit spacecraft as well as for planning operation of space instruments whose data may be distorted by atmospheric effects. The accuracy of the models commonly used for simulating the structure of the atmosphere is limited by the scarcity of the observations they are based on, so improvement of these models requires validation under different atmospheric conditions. Measurements of the absorption of the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in the upper atmosphere below 500 km by instruments operating on low-Earth orbits (LEO) satellites provide efficient means for such validation as well as for continuous monitoring of the upper atmosphere and for studying its response to the solar and geomagnetic activity. Method: This paper presents results of measurements of the solar EUV radiation in the 17 nm wavelength band made with the SPIRIT and TESIS telescopes on board the CORONAS satellites and the SWAP telescope on board the PROBA2 satellite in the occulted parts of the satellite orbits. The transmittance profiles of the atmosphere at altitudes between 150 and 500 km were derived from different phases of solar activity during solar cycles 23 and 24 in the quiet state of the magnetosphere and during the development of a geomagnetic storm. We developed a mathematical procedure based on the Tikhonov regularization method for solution of ill-posed problems in order to retrieve extinction coefficients from the transmittance profiles. The transmittance profiles derived from the data and the retrieved extinction coefficients are compared with simulations carried out with the NRLMSISE-00 atmosphere model maintained by Naval Research Laboratory (USA) and the DTM-2013 model developed at CNES in the framework of the FP7 project ATMOP. Results: Under quiet and slightly disturbed magnetospheric conditions during high and low solar activity the extinction coefficients

  5. Earth Occultation Monitoring with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique (EOT). Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors for daily monitoring. Light curves, updated daily, are available on our website http://heastro.phys.lsu.edu/gbm. Our software is also capable of performing the Earth occultation monitoring using up to 128 energy bands, or any combination of those bands, using our 128-channel, 4-s CSPEC data. The GBM BGO detectors, sensitive from about 200 keV to 40 keV, can also be used with this technique. In our standard application of the EOT, we use a catalog of sources to drive the measurements. To ensure that our catalog is complete, our team has developed an Earth occultation imaging method. In this talk, I will describe both techniques and the current data products available. I will highlight recent and important results from the GBM EOT, including the current status of our observations of hard X-ray variations in the Crab Nebula.

  6. Uranus occults SAO158687. [stellar occultation and planetary parametric observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Veverka, J.; Millis, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Experience gained in obtaining atmospheric parameters, oblatenesses, and diameters of Jupiter and Mars from recent stellar occultations by these planets is used to predict what can be learned from the March 1977 occultation of the star SAO158687 by Uranus. The spectra of this star and Uranus are compared to indicate the relative instrument intensities of the two objects, the four passbands where the relative intensities are most nearly equal are listed, and expected photon fluxes from the star are computed on the assumption that it has UBVRI colors appropriate for a K5 main-sequence object. It is shown that low photon noise errors can be achieved by choosing appropriate passbands for observation, and the rms error expected for the Uranus temperature profiles obtained from the occultation light curves is calculated. It is suggested that observers of this occultation should record their data digitally for optimum time resolution.

  7. Earth rotation derived from occultation records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sôma, Mitsuru; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2016-04-01

    We determined the values of the Earth's rotation parameter, ΔT = T T - UT, around AD 500 after confirming that the value of the tidal acceleration, dot{n}, of the lunar motion remained unchanged during the period between ancient times and the present. For determining of ΔT, we used contemporaneous occultations of planets by the Moon. In general, occultation records are not useful. However, there are some records that give us a stringent condition for the range of ΔT. Records of the lunar occultations in AD 503 and AD 513 are such examples. In order to assure the usefulness of this occultation data, we used contemporaneous annular and total solar eclipses, which have not been used in the preceding work. This is the first work in which the lunar occultation data have been used as primary data to determine the value of ΔT together with auxiliary contemporaneous annular and total solar eclipses. Our ΔT value is less than a smoothed value (Stephenson 1997) by at least 450 s. The result is consistent with our earlier results obtained from solar eclipses.

  8. High Resolution Asteroid Profile by Multi Chord Occultation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenhardt, Scott

    2009-05-01

    For millennia man has observed celestial objects occulting other bodies and distant stars. We have used these celestial synchronicities to measure the properties of objects. On January 1, 1801 Italian astronomer Giusappe Piazzi discovered the first asteroid that would soon be named Ceres. To date 190,000 of these objects have been catalogued, but only a fraction of these have accurate measurements of their true size and shape. The International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) currently facilitates the prediction and reduction of asteroidal occultations. By measuring the shadow cast on the earth by an asteroid during a stellar occultation one can directly measure the physical size, shape, and position in space of this body to accuracies orders of magnitudes better than the best ground based adaptive optics telescope and can provide verification to 3D inverted reflective lightcurve prediction models. Recent novel methods developed by IOTA involving an individual making multiple observations through unattended remote observing stations have made way for numerous chords of occultation measurement through a single body yielding high resolution profiles of asteroid bodies. Methodology of how observing stations are deployed will be demonstrated, results of some of these observations are presented as comparisons to their inverted lightcurve are shown.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. On crewmember's Flickr page - Look straight down into an aurora.

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  12. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  16. Unsuccesfull occultation observation of stars by asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Maley, Paul D.

    2010-12-01

    A report is given about an attempt to observe occultations of stars HIP 7268 and TYC1868-02234-01 by asteroids Tisiphone and Thisbe on 3 november 2010 in Chisinau, The Republic of Moldova, which was placed very close to the central line of the occultations in spite of. The main cause of the insucces was weather. Few days before a cyclon developed above the Black Sea, while above the Western Europe, including Greece the sky was covered during many days. Some critics are made concerning the preparation of astronomical facilities in the Republic of Moldova for succesfull observations. The meteo conditions in Lozova-Ciuciuleni were better, but bad, than in other parts of the Republic of Moldova.

  17. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-16

    ISS024-E-006136 (16 June 2010) --- Polar mesospheric clouds, illuminated by an orbital sunrise, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric, or noctilucent (?night shining?), clouds are observed from both Earth?s surface and in orbit by crew members aboard the space station. They are called night-shining clouds as they are usually seen at twilight. Following the setting of the sun below the horizon and darkening of Earth?s surface, these high clouds are still briefly illuminated by sunlight. Occasionally the ISS orbital track becomes nearly parallel to Earth?s day/night terminator for a time, allowing polar mesospheric clouds to be visible to the crew at times other than the usual twilight due to the space station altitude. This unusual photograph shows polar mesospheric clouds illuminated by the rising, rather than setting, sun at center right. Low clouds on the horizon appear yellow and orange, while higher clouds and aerosols are illuminated a brilliant white. Polar mesospheric clouds appear as light blue ribbons extending across the top of the image. These clouds typically occur at high latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and at fairly high altitudes of 76?85 kilometers (near the boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere atmospheric layers). The ISS was located over the Greek island of Kos in the Aegean Sea (near the southwestern coastline of Turkey) when the image was taken at approximately midnight local time. The orbital complex was tracking northeastward, nearly parallel to the terminator, making it possible to observe an apparent ?sunrise? located almost due north. A similar unusual alignment of the ISS orbit track, terminator position, and seasonal position of Earth?s orbit around the sun allowed for striking imagery of polar mesospheric clouds over the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

  18. Sensing Water Vapon via Spacecraft Radio Occultation Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kursinski, E. Robert; Hajj, George A.

    2000-01-01

    The radio occultation technique has been used to characterize planetary atmospheres since the 1960's spanning atmospheric pressures from 16 microbars to several bars. In 1988, the use of GPS signals to make occultation observations of Earth's atmosphere was realized by Tom Yunck and Gunnar Lindal at JPL. In the GPS to low-Earth-orbiter limb- viewing occultation geometry, Fresnel diffraction yield a unique combination of high vertical resolution of 100 m to 1 km at long wavelengths (approx. 20 cm) insensitive to particulate scattering which allows routine limb sounding from the lower mesosphere through the troposphere. A single orbiting GPS/GLONASS receiver can observe - 1000 to 1400 daily occultations providing as many daily, high vertical resolution soundings as the present global radiosonde network, but with far more evenly distributed, global coverage. The occultations yield profiles of refractivity as a function of height. In the cold, dry conditions of the upper troposphere and above (T less than 240 K), profiles of density, pressure (geopotential), and temperature can be derived. Given additional temperature information, water vapor can be derived in the midddle and lower troposphere with a unique combination of vertical resolution, global distribution and insensitivity to clouds and precipitation to an accuracy of approx. 0.2 g/kg. At low latitudes, moisture profiles will be accurate to 1-5% within the convective boundary layer and better than 20% below 6 to 7 km. Accuracies of climatological averages should be approx. 0. 1 g/kg limited by the biases in the temperature estimates. To use refractivity to constrain water vapor, knowledge of temperature is required. The simplest approach is to use the temperature field from an analysis such as the 6 hour ECMWF global analysis interpolated to the locations of each occultation. A better approach is to combine the temperature and moisture fields from such an analysis with the occultation refractivity in a weighting

  19. Fluctuations of radio occultation signals in sounding the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Valery; Gorbunov, Michael E.; Sofieva, Viktoria F.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the relationships that link the observed fluctuation spectra of the amplitude and phase of signals used for the radio occultation sounding of the Earth's atmosphere, with the spectra of atmospheric inhomogeneities. Our analysis employs the approximation of the phase screen and of weak fluctuations. We make our estimates for the following characteristic inhomogeneity types: (1) the isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence and (2) the anisotropic saturated internal gravity waves. We obtain the expressions for the variances of the amplitude and phase fluctuations of radio occultation signals as well as their estimates for the typical parameters of inhomogeneity models. From the GPS/MET observations, we evaluate the spectra of the amplitude and phase fluctuations in the altitude interval from 4 to 25 km in the middle and polar latitudes. As indicated by theoretical and experimental estimates, the main contribution into the radio signal fluctuations comes from the internal gravity waves. The influence of the Kolmogorov turbulence is negligible. We derive simple relationships that link the parameters of internal gravity waves and the statistical characteristics of the radio signal fluctuations. These results may serve as the basis for the global monitoring of the wave activity in the stratosphere and upper troposphere.

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. Docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft are visible. On crewmember's Flickr page - The Moon, about to dive into a glowing ocean of green᥿9.

  1. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-21

    Earth observation taken during night pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message this is labeled as : Tehran, Iran. Lights along the coast of the Caspian Sea visible through clouds. July 21.

  2. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: From southernmost point of orbit over the South Pacific- all clouds seemed to be leading to the South Pole.

  3. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of the U.S. Lab and PMM are also visible.

  4. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-18

    ISS042E006751 (11/08/2014) --- Earth observation taken from the International Space Station of the coastline of the United Arab Emirates. The large wheel along the coast center left is "Jumeirah" Palm Island, with a conference center, hotels, recreation areas and a large marine zoo.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-02

    ISS028-E-020276 (2 Aug. 2011) --- This photograph of polar mesospheric clouds was acquired at an altitude of just over 202 nautical miles (about 322 kilometers) in the evening hours (03:19:54 Greenwich Mean Time) on Aug. 2, 2011, as the International Space Station was passing over the English Channel. The nadir coordinates of the station were 49.1 degrees north latitude and 5.5 degrees west longitude. Polar mesospheric clouds (also known as noctilucent, or ?night-shining? clouds) are transient, upper atmospheric phenomena that are usually observed in the summer months at high latitudes (greater than 50 degrees) of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They appear bright and cloudlike while in deep twilight. They are illuminated by sunlight when the lower layers of the atmosphere are in the darkness of Earth?s shadow. The horizon of Earth appears at the bottom of the image, with some layers of the lower atmosphere already illuminated by the rising sun. The higher, bluish-colored clouds look much like wispy cirrus clouds, which can be found as high as 60,000 feet (18 kilometers) in the atmosphere. However noctilucent clouds, as seen here, are observed in the mesosphere at altitudes of 250,000 to 280,000 feet (about 76 to 85 kilometers). Astronaut observations of polar mesospheric clouds over northern Europe in the summer are not uncommon.

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-27

    ISS028-E-009979 (27 June 2011) --- The Massachusetts coastline is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. The Crew Earth Observations team at NASA Johnson Space Center sends specific ground targets for photography up to the station crew on a daily basis, but sometimes the crew takes imagery on their own of striking displays visible from orbit. One such display, often visible to the ISS crew due to their ability to look outwards at angles between 0 and 90 degrees, is sunglint on the waters of Earth. Sunglint is caused by sunlight reflecting off of a water surface?much as light reflects from a mirror?directly towards the observer. Roughness variations of the water surface scatter the light, blurring the reflection and producing the typical silvery sheen of the sunglint area. The point of maximum sunglint is centered within Cape Cod Bay, the body of water partially enclosed by the ?hook? of Cape Cod in Massachusetts (bottom). Cape Cod was formally designated a National Seashore in 1966. Sunglint off the water provides sharp contrast with the coastline and the nearby islands of Martha?s Vineyard and Nantucket (lower left), both popular destinations for tourists and summer residents. To the north, rocky Cape Ann extends out into the Atlantic Ocean; the border with New Hampshire is located approximately 30 kilometers up the coast. Further to the west, the eastern half of Long Island, New York is visible emerging from extensive cloud cover over the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern States. Persistent storm tracks had been contributing to record flooding along rivers in the Midwest at the time this image was taken in late June 2011. Thin blue layers of the atmosphere, contrasted against the darkness of space, are visible extending along the Earth?s curvature at top.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-20

    ISS047e069406 (04/20/2016) ---Earth observation image taken by the Expedition 47 crew aboard the International Space Station. This is an oblique south-looking view of the main Bahama island chain. Cuba is across the entire top of the image, the Florida Peninsula on the right margin. In the Bahamas, the main Andros island is just distinguishable under cloud upper left of center. Under less cloud is the Abaco Islands in the foreground (middle of pic nearest camera left of center.)

  8. Case study of inclined sporadic E layers in the Earth's ionosphere observed by CHAMP/GPS radio occultations: Coupling between the tilted plasma layers and internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubenko, Vladimir N.; Pavelyev, A. G.; Kirillovich, I. A.; Liou, Y.-A.

    2018-04-01

    We have used the radio occultation (RO) satellite data CHAMP/GPS (Challenging Minisatellite Payload/Global Positioning System) for studying the ionosphere of the Earth. A method for deriving the parameters of ionospheric structures is based upon an analysis of the RO signal variations in the phase path and intensity. This method allows one to estimate the spatial displacement of a plasma layer with respect to the ray perigee, and to determine the layer inclination and height correction values. In this paper, we focus on the case study of inclined sporadic E (Es) layers in the high-latitude ionosphere based on available CHAMP RO data. Assuming that the internal gravity waves (IGWs) with the phase-fronts parallel to the ionization layer surfaces are responsible for the tilt angles of sporadic plasma layers, we have developed a new technique for determining the parameters of IGWs linked with the inclined Es structures. A small-scale internal wave may be modulating initially horizontal Es layer in height and causing a direction of the plasma density gradient to be rotated and aligned with that of the wave propagation vector k. The results of determination of the intrinsic wave frequency and period, vertical and horizontal wavelengths, intrinsic vertical and horizontal phase speeds, and other characteristics of IGWs under study are presented and discussed.

  9. James Webb Space Telescope Observations of Stellar Occultations by Solar System Bodies and Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; French, R. G.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Stansberry, J.; Lin, Z-Y.; Zhang, Z-W.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, Th.; Ortiz, J. L.; Braga-Ribas, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of Solar System bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun–Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a byproduct of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  10. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-11

    ISS024-E-014233 (11 Sept. 2010) --- A smoke plume near the northern Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. This broad view of the north coast of the Caspian Sea shows a smoke plume (left) and two river deltas (bottom and lower right). The larger delta is that of the Volga River which appears prominently here in sunglint (light reflected off a water surface back towards the observer), and the smaller less prominent delta is that of the Ural River. Wide angle, oblique views ? taken looking outward at an angle, rather than straight down towards Earth ? such as this give an excellent impression of how crew members onboard the space station view Earth. For a sense of scale, the Caucasus Mts. (across the Caspian, top right) are approximately 1,100 kilometers to the southwest of the International Space Station?s nadir point location ? the point on Earth directly underneath the spacecraft ? at the time this image was taken. The smoke plume appears to be sourced in the dark-toned coastal marsh vegetation along the outer fringe of the Ural River delta, rather than in a city or at some oil storage facility. Although even small fires produce plumes that are long and bright and thus easily visible from space, the density of the smoke in this plume, and its 350-kilometer length across the entire north lobe of the Caspian Sea, suggest it was a significant fire. The smoke was thick enough nearer the source to cast shadows on the sea surface below. Lines mark three separate pulses of smoke, the most recent, nearest the source, extending directly south away from the coastline (lower left). With time, plumes become progressively more diffuse. The oldest pulse appears to be the thinnest, casting no obvious shadows (center left).

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-06

    ISS028-E-014782 (6 July 2011) --- The Shoemaker (formerly Teague) Impact Structure, located in Western Australia in a drainage basin south of the Waldburg Range, presents an other-worldly appearance in this detailed photograph recorded from onboard the International Space Station on July 6. The Shoemaker impact site is approximately 30 kilometers in diameter, and is clearly defined by concentric ring structures formed in sedimentary rocks (brown to dark brown, image center) that were deformed by the impact event approximately 1630 million years ago, according to the Earth Impact Database. Several saline and ephemeral lakes?Nabberu, Teague, Shoemaker, and numerous smaller ponds?occupy the land surface between the concentric ring structures. Differences in color result from both water depth and suspended sediments, with some bright salt crusts visible around the edges of smaller ponds (image center The Teague Impact Structure was renamed Shoemaker in honor of the late Dr. Eugene M. Shoemaker, a pioneer in the field of impact crater studies and planetary geology, and founder of the Astrogeology Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The image was recorded with a digital still camera using a 200 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  12. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  13. Several Well-observed Asteroidal Occultations in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timerson, Brad; Durech, J.; Abramson, H.; Brooks, J.; Caton, D.; Clark, D.; Conard, S.; Cooke, B.; Dunham, D. W.; Dunham, J.; Edberg, S.; Ellington, C.; Faircloth, J.; Herchak, S.; Iverson, E.; Jones, R.; Lucas, G.; Lyzenga, G.; Maley, P.; Martinez, L.; Menke, J.; Mroz, G.; Nolan, P.; Peterson, R.; Preston, S.; Rattley, G.; Ray, J.; Scheck, A.; Stamm, J.; Stanton, R.; Suggs, R.; Tatum, R.; Thomas, W.

    2011-10-01

    During 2010 IOTA observers in North America reported about 190 positive observations for 106 asteroid occultation events. For several asteroids, this included observations with multiple chords. For two events, an inversion model was available. An occultation by 16 Psyche on 2010 August 21 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 235.4 x 230.4 km. On 2010 December 24, an occultation by 93 Minerva produced a best-fit ellipse of 179.4 x 133.4 km. An occultation by 96 Aegle on 2010 October 29 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 124.9 x 88.0 km. An occultation by 105 Artemis on 2010 June 24 showed a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 x 92.0 km. An occultation by 375 Ursula on 2010 December 4 produced a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 km x 135.0 km. Of note are two events not summarized in this article. On 2010 August 31, an occultation by 695 Bella yielded a new double star. That event will be summarized in the JDSO. Finally, on 2010 April 6, an occultation of zeta Ophiuchi by 824 Anastasia was observed by 65 observers at 69 locations. Unfortunately a large shift in the path yielded only 4 chords. Results of that event, and all the events mentioned here, can be found on the North American Asteroidal Occultation Results web page.

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-07

    ISS040-E-008174 (7 June 2014) --- Layers of Earth's atmosphere, brightly colored as the sun rises, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-02

    ISS040-E-006817 (2 June 2014) --- Intersecting the thin line of Earth's atmosphere, International Space Station solar array wings are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-10

    ISS032-E-006129 (10 July 2012) --- Flooding in Krymsk in the Krasnodar region of southern Russia is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 32 crew member on the International Space Station. On the night of July 7, 2012 a major storm dumped more than a foot of water on the southern Russian area of Krasnodar, near the Black Sea. The resulting flood was likened to a tsunami, and to date, more than 170 people died, most from the city of Krymsk. The Moscow times reports that more than 19,000 people lost everything. This image taken by cosmonauts aboard the space station shows the city of Krymsk. The tan-colored areas indicate some of the regions that were flooded; the color is probably due to the mud and debris that were left by the floodwaters. Krymsk is located in the western foothills on the northern slope of the Caucasus Mountains?a range that stretches between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The vast amount of rain quickly overwhelmed the small river channels that flow northward from the mountains to the Russian lowlands and the Kuban River; Krymsk, located on one of those tributaries, was directly in the pathway of the flash flood. As part of the international partner agreement to use the International Space Station to benefit humanity, crew members and other Earth observing instruments provide best-effort support to the International Disaster Charter (IDC) when it is activated by collecting imagery of areas on the ground impacted by natural events such as the flooding in Krymsk. This image was acquired July 10, 2012 in response to the IDC activation.

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011843 (24 June 2013) --- Gravity waves and sunglint on Lake Superior are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. From the vantage point of the space station, crew members frequently observe Earth atmospheric and surface phenomena in ways impossible to view from the ground. Two such phenomena?gravity waves and sunglint?are illustrated in this photograph of northeastern Lake Superior. The Canadian Shield of southern Ontario (bottom) is covered with extensive green forest canopy typical of early summer. Offshore, and to the west and southwest of Pukaskwa National Park several distinct sets of parallel cloud bands are visible. Gravity waves are produced when moisture-laden air encounters imbalances in air density, such as might be expected when cool air flows over warmer air; this can cause the flowing air to oscillate up and down as it moves, causing clouds to condense as the air rises (cools) and evaporate away as the air sinks (warms). This produces parallel bands of clouds oriented perpendicular to the wind direction. The orientation of the cloud bands visible in this image, parallel to the coastlines, suggests that air flowing off of the land surfaces to the north is interacting with moist, stable air over the lake surface, creating gravity waves. The second phenomenon?sunglint?effects the water surface around and to the northeast of Isle Royale (upper right). Sunglint is caused by light reflection off a water surface; some of the reflected light travels directly back towards the observer, resulting in a bright mirror-like appearance over large expanses of water. Water currents and changes in surface tension (typically caused by presence of oils or surfactants) alter the reflective properties of the water, and can be highlighted by sunglint. For example, surface water currents are visible to the east of Isle Royale that are oriented similarly to the gravity waves ? suggesting that they too

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-23

    ISS024-E-016042 (23 Aug. 2010) --- This night time view captured by one of the Expedition 24 crew members aboard the International Space Station some 220 miles above Earth is looking southward from central Romania over the Aegean Sea toward Greece and it includes Thessaloniki (near center), the larger bright mass of Athens (left center), and the Macedonian capital of Skopje (lower right). Center point coordinates of the area pictured are 46.4 degrees north latitude and 25.5 degrees east longitude. The picture was taken in August and was physically brought back to Earth on a disk with the return of the Expedition 25 crew in November 2010.

  19. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070412 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 panorama featuring wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. (Note: south is at the top of the frame). The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Parts of Oregon and Washington are included in the scene. Mt. Jefferson, Three Sisters and Mt. St. Helens are all snow-capped and visible in the photo, and the Columbia River can also be delineated.

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070424 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Lightning has been given as the cause of the Ochoco Complex fires in the Ochoco National Forest in central Oregon. The complex has gotten larger since this photo was taken.

  1. Earth observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-04

    ISS040-E-129950 (4 Sept. 2014) --- In this photograph. taken by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, the orange spot located in the very center is the sun, which appears to be sitting on Earth's limb. At far right, a small bright spot is believed to be a reflection from somewhere in the camera system or something on the orbital outpost. When the photographed was exposed, the orbital outpost was flying at an altutude of 226 nautical miles above a point near French Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean.

  2. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-10

    ISS040-E-091158 (10 Aug. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members 225 nautical miles above Earth onboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to record this image of Hawke's Bay, New Zealand on Aug. 10, 2014. Napier and the bay area's most populous area are at bottom center of the frame.

  3. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-13

    ISS036-E-007619 (13 June 2013) --- To a crew member aboard the International Space Station, the home planet is seen from many different angles and perspectives, as evdenced by this Expedition 36 image of Earth's atmophere partially obscured by one of the orbital outpost's solar panels.

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-19

    ISS036-E-002224 (21 May 2013) --- The sun is captured in a "starburst" mode over Earth's horizon by one of the Expedition 36 crew members as the orbital outpost was above a point in southwestern Minnesota on May 21, 2013.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-14

    ISS040-E-011868 (14 June 2014) --- The dark waters of the Salton Sea stand out against neighboring cultivation and desert sands in the middle of the Southern California desert, as photographed by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station on June 14, 2014.

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015354 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at lower left) were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015355 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at bottom center) were recorded in a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-03

    ISS036-E-015292 (3 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 3-4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station. This image was recorded on July 3.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015342 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015335 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038117 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.2 degrees west longitude.

  12. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038114 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.3 degrees west longitude.

  13. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-09

    ISS024-E-014071 (9 Sept. 2010) --- This striking panoramic view of the southwestern USA and Pacific Ocean is an oblique image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member looking outwards at an angle from the International Space Station (ISS). While most unmanned orbital satellites view Earth from a nadir perspective?in other words, collecting data with a ?straight down? viewing geometry?crew members onboard the space station can acquire imagery at a wide range of viewing angles using handheld digital cameras. The ISS nadir point (the point on Earth?s surface directly below the spacecraft) was located in northwestern Arizona, approximately 260 kilometers to the east-southeast, when this image was taken. The image includes parts of the States of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California together with a small segment of the Baja California, Mexico coastline at center left. Several landmarks and physiographic features are readily visible. The Las Vegas, NV metropolitan area appears as a gray region adjacent to the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range (both covered by white clouds). The Grand Canyon, located on the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, is visible (lower left) to the east of Las Vegas with the blue waters of Lake Mead in between. The image also includes the Mojave Desert, stretching north from the Salton Sea (left) to the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The Sierra Nevada range is roughly 640 kilometers long (north-south) and forms the boundary between the Central Valley of California and the adjacent Basin and Range. The Basin and Range is so called due to the pattern of long linear valleys separated by parallel linear mountain ranges ? this landscape, formed by extension and thinning of Earth?s crust, is particularly visible at right.

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070439 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above a point on Earth located at 48.0 degrees north latitude and 116.9 degrees west longitude when the image was exposed. The state of Washington is especially affected by the fires, many of which have been blamed on lightning. This particular fire was part of the Carlton Complex Fire, located near the city of Brewster in north central Washington. The reservoir visible near the center of the image is Banks Lake.

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-081008 (25 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station, flying 225 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of the Tifernine dunes and the Tassili Najjer Mountains in Algeria. The area is about 800 miles south, southeast of Algiers, the capital of Algeria. The dunes are in excess of 1,000 feet in height.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-15

    ISS040-E-063578 (15 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, flying some 225 nautical miles above the Caribbean Sea in the early morning hours of July 15, photographed this north-looking panorama that includes parts of Cuba, the Bahamas and Florida, and even runs into several other areas in the southeastern U.S. The long stretch of lights to the left of center frame gives the shape of Miami.

  17. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-28

    ISS028-E-006059 (28 May 2011) --- One of the Expedition 28 crew members, photographing Earth images onboard the International Space Station while docked with the space shuttle Endeavour and flying at an altitude of just under 220 miles, captured this frame of the Salton Sea. The body of water, easily identifiable from low orbit spacecraft, is a saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault. The agricultural area is within the Coachella Valley.

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018729 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are just below center frame on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  19. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    ISS040-E-005979 (29 May 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to photograph this image from 222 nautical miles above Earth showing Harris County and Galveston County, Texas plus several other surrounding counties, including a long stretch along the Gulf of Mexico (bottom left). The entirety of Galveston Bay is visible at bottom center. Just below center lies the 1625-acre site of NASA's Johnson Space Center, one of the training venues for all space station crew members and the nearby long-time area of residence for NASA astronauts.

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-31

    ISS036-E-027014 (31 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Eastern Europe on July 31, 2013, took this night picture looking toward the Mediterranean Sea, which almost blends into the horizon. Also visible are the Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Parts of the following countries are among those visible as well: Greece, Italy, Sicily, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Albania. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a number of stars in the late July sky. A solar array panel is visible in the darkness on the right side of the frame.

  1. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-17

    ISS036-E-009405 (17 June 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station, some 240 miles above Earth, used a 50mm lens to record this oblique nighttime image of a large part of the nation’s second largest state in area, including the four largest metropolitan areas in population. The extent of the metropolitan areas is easily visible at night due to city and highway lights. The largest metro area, Dallas-Fort Worth, often referred to informally as the Metroplex, is the heavily cloud-covered area at the top center of the photo. Neighboring Oklahoma, on the north side of the Red River, less than 100 miles to the north of the Metroplex, appears to be experiencing thunderstorms. The Houston metropolitan area, including the coastal city of Galveston, is at lower right. To the east near the Texas border with Louisiana, the metropolitan area of Beaumont-Port Arthur appears as a smaller blotch of light, also hugging the coast of the Texas Gulf. Moving inland to the left side of the picture one can delineate the San Antonio metro area. The capital city of Austin can be seen to the northeast of San Antonio. This and hundreds of thousands of other Earth photos taken by astronauts and cosmonauts over the past 50 years are available on http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov

  2. Earth observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-31

    ISS040-E-113700 (31 Aug. 2014) --- This panorama view, photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station, shows tan-colored dust of a major dust storm obscuring the Persian Gulf and the its northern shoreline. Strong north winds often blow in summer, churning up dust from the entire length of the desert surfaces of the Tigris and Euphrates valleys (top left). Dust partly obscures the hundreds of kilometers of Iraq’s light-green agricultural lands along these rivers (left). A line of thunderstorms is being set off by the Zagros Mountains of Iran (right), with the setting sun casting long shadows from the thunderheads. Space station crews see sixteen sunrises and sunsets every day from low Earth orbit. Here the crew captured dusk in a darkening Iranian landscape (right).

  3. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018725 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring most of the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are in lower right portion of the image on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-29

    ISS036-E-025908 (29 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Africa, took this night picture of Sicily (center frame) and much of Italy (frame left to frame center) on July 29, 2013. The Stretto de Messina, which separates Sicily from Italy, is near frame center. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a scenic horizon with a number of stars in the late July sky. Barely visible in the darkness, part of the long arm of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 runs diagonally through the right one-third of the image.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-15

    ISS028-E-017123 (16 July 2011) --- Separate atmospheric optical phenomena were captured in this electronic still photograph from the Inernational Space Station. The thin greenish band stretching along the Earth's horizon is airglow; light emitted by the atmosphere from a layer about 30 kilometers thick and about 100 kilometers in altitude. The predominant emission in airglow is the green 5577 Angstrom wavelength light from atomic oxygen atoms. Airglow is always and everywhere present in the atmosphere; it results from the recombination of molecules that have been broken apart by solar radiation during the day. But airglow is so faint that it can only be seen at night by looking "edge on" at the emission layer, such as the view astronauts and cosmonauts have in orbit. The second phenomenon is the appearnce of Aurora Australis.

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-22

    ISS042E007131 (11/22/2014) — Astronauts aboard the International Space Station captured this image of a huge crater in Africa on Nov. 22, 2014. This is the Richat Structure in northwestern Mauritania, otherwise known as the “Eye of the Sahara.” Scientists are still deciding whether this was formed by a subterranean volcano or impact from a large meteor. Deep in the Sahara Desert it is nearly a perfect circle, it is 1.2 miles (1.9 kilometers) wide, and sports a rim 330 feet (100 meters) tall. The crater sits in a vast plain of rocks so ancient they were deposited hundreds of millions of years before the first dinosaurs walked the Earth.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-30

    ISS040E112662 (08/30/2014) ---- Cancún, Mexico. A long lens was used by astronauts aboard the International Space Station to take this image, and it highlights many natural and built features. The street pattern of Mexico’s tourist mecca, Cancún, contrasts with the waterways of the marinas that open into the bay and the lagoons. Brilliant blue water over coral reefs contrast with the dark waters of inland lagoons. The reefs are the second largest reef system on Earth, and draw tourists from all over the world. The wide, well developed beach on the gulf coast (image upper right) is the result of vigorous wave energy; the white sand makes the beach easily visible from space. But wave energy is reduced along Cancún’s protected shoreline (image center) and the beaches are thin or non-existant. Fair-weather cumulus clouds are scattered across the image top left. To shoot crisp mages with long lenses, astronaut photographers must learn to brace themselves against the ISS bulkhead to prevent any slight shaking that would blur or “smear” the picture. Counterintuitively, they then need to move the camera carefully retaining the target at the same point in the viewfinder (the landscape moves across the viewfinder quickly with long lenses). This is called tracking the target and requires good coordination by the photographer—again, to prevent blurring. Shorter lenses do not require this skill because the image appears to pass more slowly across the viewfinder.

  8. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-20

    ISS024-E-015121 (20 Sept. 2010) --- Twitchell Canyon Fire in central Utah is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS). The Twitchell Canyon Fire near central Utah?s Fishlake National Forest is reported to have an area of approximately 13,383 hectares (approximately 134 square kilometers, or 33,071 acres). This detailed image shows smoke plumes generated by several fire spots close to the southwestern edge of the burned area. The fire was started by a lightning strike on July 20, 2010. Whereas many of the space station images of Earth are looking straight down (nadir), this photograph was exposed at an angle. The space station was located over a point approximately 509 kilometers (316 miles) to the northeast, near the Colorado/Wyoming border, at the time the image was taken on Sept. 20. Southwesterly winds were continuing to extend smoke plumes from the fire to the northeast. While the Twitchell Canyon region is sparsely populated, Interstate Highway 15 is visible at upper left.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    ISS040-E-088891 (5 Aug. 2014) --- Thunderheads near Borneo, Indonesia are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station. Late afternoon sun casts long shadows from high thunderhead anvils over southern Borneo. Crews aboard the space station have recently concentrated on panoramic views of clouds?taken with lenses similar to the focal length of the human eye. These images reveal the kinds of views crews see -- huge areas of the planet, with a strong three-dimensional sense of what it is like to fly 350 kilometers above Earth. Winds usually blow in different directions at different altitudes. High-altitude winds are clearly sweeping the tops off the many tallest thunderclouds, generating long anvils of diffuse cirrus plumes that trail south. At low levels, ?streets? of white dots -- fair-weather cumulus clouds -- are aligned with west-moving winds (lower left). Small smoke plumes from forest fires onshore are also aligned west. Storm formation near the horizon -- more than 1,000 kilometers away (center) -- is assisted by air currents rising over the central mountains of Borneo.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-14

    ISS037-E-011470 (14 Oct. 2013) --- Man-made archipelagos near Dubai, United Arab Emirates, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 37 crew member on the International Space Station, flying at approximately 220 miles above Earth. The municipality of Dubai is the largest city of the Persian Gulf emirate of the same name, and has built a global reputation for large-scale developments and architectural works. Among the most visible of these developments -- particularly from the perspective of astronauts onboard the space station -- are three man-made archipelagos. The two Palm Islands -- Palm Jumeirah (right) and Palm Jebel Ali (out of frame further to the right) -- appear as stylized palm trees when viewed from above. The World Islands (center frame) evoke a rough map of the world from an air- or space-borne perspective. The Palm Jumeirah project began in 2001 and required more than 50 million cubic meters of dredged sand to raise the islands above the Persian Gulf sea level. Construction of the Palm Jumeirah islands was completed in 2006; for several years now they have been developed for residential and commercial housing and infrastructure. Creation of the World Islands was begun in 2003 and completed in 2008, using 320 million cubic meters of sand and 37 million tons of rock for the surrounding 27 kilometer-long protective breakwater.

  11. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-21

    ISS036-E-011034 (21 June 2013) --- The Salton Trough is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. The Imperial and Coachella Valleys of southern California – and the corresponding Mexicali Valley and Colorado River Delta in Mexico – are part of the Salton Trough, a large geologic structure known to geologists as a graben or rift valley that extends into the Gulf of California. The trough is a geologically complex zone formed by interaction of the San Andreas transform fault system that is, broadly speaking, moving southern California towards Alaska; and the northward motion of the Gulf of California segment of the East Pacific Rise that continues to widen the Gulf of California by sea-floor spreading. According to scientists, sediments deposited by the Colorado River have been filling the northern rift valley (the Salton Trough) for the past several million years, excluding the waters of the Gulf of California and providing a fertile environment – together with irrigation—for the development of extensive agriculture in the region (visible as green and yellow-brown fields at center). The Salton Sea, a favorite landmark of astronauts in low Earth orbit, was formed by an irrigation canal rupture in 1905, and today is sustained by agricultural runoff water. A wide array of varying landforms and land uses in the Salton Trough are visible from space. In addition to the agricultural fields and Salton Sea, easily visible metropolitan areas include Yuma, AZ (lower left); Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico (center); and the San Diego-Tijuana conurbation on the Pacific Coast (right). The approximately 72-kilometer-long Algodones Dunefield is visible at lower left.

  12. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-02

    ISS028-E-006687 (2 June 2011) --- Estuaries on the northwestern coast of Madagascar are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. Regions where fresh water flowing in rivers and salt water from the seas and oceans mix are called estuaries, and they are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on Earth. This photograph highlights two estuaries located along the northwestern coastline of the island of Madagascar. The Mozambique Channel (top) separates Madagascar from the southeastern coast of Africa. Bombetoka Bay (upper left) is fed by the Betsiboka River and is a frequent subject of astronaut photography due to its striking red floodplain sediments. Mahajamba Bay (right) is fed by several rivers including the Mahajamba and Sofia Rivers; like the Betsiboka, the floodplains of these rivers also contain reddish sediments eroded from their basins upstream. The brackish (mix of fresh and salty water) conditions found in most estuaries host unique plant and animal species adapted to live in such environments. Mangroves in particular are a common plant species found in and around Madagascar estuaries, and Bombetoka Bay contains some of the largest remaining stands. Estuaries also host abundant fish and shellfish species ? many of which need access to freshwater for a portion of their life cycles ? and these in turn support local and migratory bird species that prey on them. However, human activities such as urban development, overfishing, and increased sediment loading from erosion of upriver highlands threaten the ecosystem health of the estuaries. In particular, the silt deposits in Bombetoka Bay at the mouth of the Betsiboka River have been filling in the bay.

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

  14. A Digital Video System for Observing and Recording Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, M. A. Tony; Gault, Dave; Pavlov, Hristo; Hanna, William; McEwan, Alistair; Filipović, Miroslav D.

    2015-09-01

    Stellar occultations by asteroids and outer solar system bodies can offer ground based observers with modest telescopes and camera equipment the opportunity to probe the shape, size, atmosphere, and attendant moons or rings of these distant objects. The essential requirements of the camera and recording equipment are: good quantum efficiency and low noise; minimal dead time between images; good horological faithfulness of the image timestamps; robustness of the recording to unexpected failure; and low cost. We describe an occultation observing and recording system which attempts to fulfil these requirements and compare the system with other reported camera and recorder systems. Five systems have been built, deployed, and tested over the past three years, and we report on three representative occultation observations: one being a 9 ± 1.5 s occultation of the trans-Neptunian object 28978 Ixion (m v =15.2) at 3 seconds per frame; one being a 1.51 ± 0.017 s occultation of Deimos, the 12 km diameter satellite of Mars, at 30 frames per second; and one being a 11.04 ± 0.4 s occultation, recorded at 7.5 frames per second, of the main belt asteroid 361 Havnia, representing a low magnitude drop (Δm v = ~0.4) occultation.

  15. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-23

    ISS024-E-009404 (23 July 2010) --- This photo taken from the International Space Station on July 23, 2010, shows the Gulf of Mexico oil spill as part of ongoing observations of the region. When this image was taken, three months after the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, the leak had been plugged for eight days. Water surfaces appear bright and land surfaces appear dark in the image. The stark contrast is due to sun glint, in which the sun is reflected brilliantly off all water surfaces back towards the astronaut observer on board the station. The sun glint reveals various features in the Gulf of Mexico, especially sheens of oil as packets of long bright streaks seen on the left side of the image. Sediments carried by the Mississippi River have a light-yellow coloration in this image, with distinct margins between plumes that likely mark tidal pulses of river water into the Gulf of Mexico. A boat wake cuts across one of the oil packets at image lower left. Daily National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) maps of oil distribution show predicted heavier and lighter oil movement near the Gulf coastline. The maps show that on the day this image was taken, the north edge of the ?oiled? zone was expected to bank up against the delta. The observed spread of the surface oil in the approximately 100 days since the explosion highlights the connectivity between the deepwater areas and coastlines of the Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-23

    ISS036-E-010628 (24 June 2013) --- Strait of Tiran, Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. The approximately six-kilometer wide Strait of Tiran (also known as the Straits of Tiran) between the Egyptian mainland and Tiran Island separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea, and provides two channels (290 meters and 73 meters deep, respectively) navigable by large ships bound for ports in Jordan and Israel. A smaller passage also exists between the east side of Tiran Island and Saudi Arabia, but this a single channel that is 16 meters deep. Due to its strategic position, control of the Strait has been an important factor in historical conflicts of the region, such as the Suez Crisis in 1956 and the Six-Day War in 1967. This photograph illustrates the morphology of the Strait. The relatively clear, deep-water passages of the western Strait of Tiran are visible at right, while the more sinuous shallow-water passage on the Saudi Arabia side can be seen at bottom center. Light blue to turquoise areas around Tiran Island indicate shallow water, while the island itself is arid and largely free of vegetation. Coral reefs are also found in the Straits of Tiran and are a popular diving destination. The silvery sheen on the water surface within the Strait and the south of Tiran Island is sunglint – light reflecting off the water surface back towards the observer on the space station. Disturbance to the water surface, as well as presence of substances such as oils and surfactants, can change the reflective properties of the water surface and highlight both surface waves and subsurface currents. For example, a large wave set is highlighted by sunglint at upper left.

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-18

    ISS036-E-032853 (18 Aug. 2013) --- Central Idaho wildfires are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. Taken with a short lens (50 mm), this west-looking image covers much of forested central Idaho?the dark areas are all wooded mountains. The image highlights part of the largest single wilderness area in the contiguous United States (the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness). Within this mountainous region, several fires can be seen producing extensive smoke plumes. Some fires had been named by Aug. 20, 2013, two days after the image was taken. The densest smoke on that day appears to be generated by a combination of the Little Queens and Leggit fires (left, within the Salmon River Mountains). The named fires were mostly set by lightning, and on Aug. 20 totaled 53,000 acres of burned forest south of the Salmon River, and many more if the unnamed fires are included. The Gold Pan fire north of the Salmon River had burned 27,000 acres. For a sense of scale in this oblique view, the Gold Pan fire lies about 125 miles north of the Little Queens fire. This image shows the common pattern of westerly winds transporting smoke in an easterly direction, as seen during the wildfire season of one year ago. Ten days before this image was taken, fires in central Idaho near Boise were aggravated by southerly winds. Some of the fires began to burn in July but were quelled and remain under observation for new flare-ups. Smoke from fires in the south partly obscures the black lava flows of the Craters of the Moon National Monument (lower left). The Beaverhead Mountains mark the eastern boundary of Idaho with Montana.

  18. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-31

    ISS024-E-010403 (31 July 2010) --- This detailed image ? photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS) ? is centered on the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeastern Houston, TX metropolitan area. While initially being represented by a number of temporary locations in Houston, the facility was established in 1961 as the Manned Spacecraft Center and renamed in honor of the late U.S. President Johnson (a Texas native) in 1973. JSC serves as the lead NASA center for both astronaut training and mission control of manned spacecraft - such as the ISS and space shuttle - and has done so throughout the history of the U.S. manned space program. The Center also collaborates with other NASA and international partner facilities in a variety of scientific and engineering programs related to human spaceflight and planetary exploration. JSC is located approximately midway between downtown Houston and Galveston, TX, and is bordered by several smaller municipalities that form a mosaic of urban and suburban land use (grey areas with street grids, and commercial/industrial areas characterized by white rooftops). Large tracts of grassy fields and forests in the area (light to dark green respectively) include nature preserves, grazing lands, and flood control areas. Also visible at upper left is Ellington Field. This airport services a variety of NASA aircraft used for astronaut training, scientific, and cargo transport purposes. Clear Lake, an inlet of Galveston Bay, is located to the immediate southeast of JSC. Both Clear Lake and Galveston Bay appear silver-grey due to sunglint, or light reflected back towards the observer on the ISS that gives the water surface a mirror-like appearance. Several boat wakes are visible in Galveston Bay (right) due to disruption of the water surface that reduces the sunglint effect.

  19. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-29

    ISS028-E-010162 (29 June 2011) --- Sault Ste Marie, Ontario and Michigan are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. The twin cities of Sault Ste Marie are located across the St. Mary?s River that forms part of the international boundary between Canada (Province of Ontario) and the United States (State of Michigan). This photograph highlights the two cities, together with the region of lakes and islands that separates Lakes Huron and Superior, two of the Great Lakes of North America. Smaller lakes include Lake George to the west; the large forested islands of St. Joseph and Drummond are visible at lower left. The Sault Ste Marie urban areas (upper right) have a distinctive gray to white coloration in the image, contrasting with the deep green of forested areas in Ontario and the lighter green of agricultural fields in Michigan. The coloration of water surfaces in the lakes and rivers varies from blue to blue-green to silver, and is likely caused by varying degrees of sediment and sunglint ? light reflecting back to the observer on the space station from the water surface, much as light reflects from a mirror. Prior to formalization of the US/Canada border in 1817, Sault Ste Marie was a single community. Archeological evidence suggests that the region had been occupied by Native Americans at least five hundred years ago. A mission ? the first European settlement in Michigan ? was established there in 1668 by the French Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette. Today, shipping locks and canals in both urban areas are an important part of the Great Lakes shipping traffic system.

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-03

    quadrant known as Mount Venus. The extent of the lakes of Bracciano and Vico are readily apparent in this image due to sunglint – light reflecting back towards the observer from the water surfaces. This reflection gives a mirror-like sheen to the water surfaces in the image. Dark green forested areas associated with parks are visible near both lakes, while light gray to white regions indicate built areas - such as the city of Viterbo at right - and tilled fields (bottom center).

  1. Portable high speed photometry systems for observing occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E. W.

    1986-09-01

    Ring orbit studies for Uranus have been particularly fruitful because of the ability, through occultations, to obtain data of high spatial resolution at the rate of 1 to 2 times per year. The occultation program at M.I.T. involves: (1) identifying the scientific questions that can be answered by occultation events, (2) predicting the zone of visibility for the useful events, (3) maintaining and improving a set of portable high-speed photometric systems, (4) obtaining the observations, and (5) reducing the data and interpreting the results. Two stellar occultations by Uranus occurred in May 1985, and were observed with a network of large telescopes that encompassed the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Portable quartz-oscillator time standards were used at all observatories, and were calibrated before and after each event. Observations obtained form Cerro Tololo and McDonald Observatories of the 4 May and 24 May 1985 occultations by the Uranian rings clearly show a companion to the delta ring on both the immersion and emersion traces. The occultation by Ceres that occurred on 12 November 1984 was observed. Preliminary results give a mean diameter of 933 + or - 10 km, which implies a geometric albedo, Pv = 0.07 + or - 0.01 and a density 2.7 + or - 0.3 gm cu/cm. Hence Ceres is likely composed of silicate material throughout.

  2. CLARREO Cornerstone of the Earth Observing System: Measuring Decadal Change Through Accurate Emitted Infrared and Reflected Solar Spectra and Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is one of four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC Decadal Survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to provide accurate, broadly acknowledged climate records that are used to enable validated long-term climate projections that become the foundation for informed decisions on mitigation and adaptation policies that address the effects of climate change on society. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through rigorous SI traceable decadal change observations that are sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. These same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. For the first time CLARREO will make highly accurate, global, SI-traceable decadal change observations sensitive to the most critical, but least understood, climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks. The CLARREO breakthrough is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. The required accuracy levels are determined so that climate trend signals can be detected against a background of naturally occurring variability. Climate system natural variability therefore determines what level of accuracy is overkill, and what level is critical to obtain. In this sense, the CLARREO mission requirements are considered optimal from a science value perspective. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties associated with instrument calibration, satellite orbit sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most space missions, the CLARREO requirements are driven not by the instantaneous accuracy of the measurements, but by accuracy in

  3. Celestial Exoplanet Survey Occulter: A Concept for Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Earth-like Planets from the Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, M.

    2007-02-01

    We present a new concept for detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets down to Earth size or smaller through direct imaging. The New Worlds Observer (NWO) occulter developed by Cash and coworkers is placed in a particular geometrical setup in which fuel requirements are small and the occulter is used in combination with ground-based telescopes, presumably leading to an extreme cost efficiency compared to other concepts with similar science goals. We investigate the various aspects of the given geometry, such as the dynamics and radiation environment of the occulter, and construct a detailed example target list to ensure that an excellent science case can be maintained despite the limited sky coverage. It is found that more than 200 systems can be observed with two to three visits per system, using only a few tons of fuel. For each system, an Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like albedo can be found in the habitable zone in less than 2 hr.

  4. Precipitation information from GNSS Polarimetric Radio Occultation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padulles, R.; Cardellach, E.; Turk, J.; Tomás, S.; Ao, C. O.; de la Torre-Juárez, M.

    2017-12-01

    There is currently a gap in satellite observations of the moisture structure during heavy precipitation conditions, since infrared and microwave sounders cannot sense water vapor structure near the surface in the presence of intense precipitation. Conversely, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Radio Occultations (RO) can profile the moisture structure with high precision and vertical resolution, but cannot directly indicate the presence of precipitation. Polarimetric RO (PRO) measurements have been proposed as a method to characterize heavy rain in GNSS RO, by measuring the polarimetric differential phase delay induced by large size hydrometeors. The PRO concept will be tested from space for the first time on board the Spanish PAZ satellite, planned for launch by the end of 2017. Therefore, for the first time ever, GNSS RO measurements will be taken at two polarizations, to exploit the potential capabilities of polarimetric RO for detecting and quantifying heavy precipitation events. If the concept is proved, PAZ will mean a new application of the GNSS Radio-Occultation observations, by providing coincident thermodynamic and precipitation information with high vertical resolution within regions with thick clouds. Before the launch, a series of studies have been performed in order to assess the retrieval of precipitation information from the polarimetric observations. These studies have been based on coincident observations from the COSMIC / FORMOSAT-3 RO satellite constellation, and TRMM and GPM missions. This massive collocation exercise allowed us to build a series of Look Up Tables that relate probabilistically the precipitation intensity to the polarimetric observables. Such studies needed a previous characterization of the polarimetric observable, since it contains contributions from the ionosphere and the emitting and receiving systems. For this purpose, complete end-to-end simulations have been performed, where information from the ionospheric state

  5. The occultation of Kappa Geminorum by Eros. [stellar occultation observed for asteroid size and shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleary, B.; Marsden, B. G.; Dragon, R.; Hauser, E.; Mcgrath, M.; Backus, P.; Robkoff, H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses predictions and observations of the occultation of Kappa Gem by (433) Eros on January 24, 1975. Several positive and negative observations made in western New England are described. Local circumstances for the occultation are reconstructed, and the size and shape of Eros are determined analytically as well as graphically. The calculations yield two extremes for the cross section: a circle 23 km in diameter or a somewhat irregular figure 20 km by 6 or 7 km. Arguments based on the expected albedo of the asteroid suggest that the circle should be warped into an ellipse 21 by 13 km or that the irregular figure might be one component of a dumbbell-like profile.

  6. The Research and Education Collaborative Occultation Network: A System for Coordinated TNO Occultation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc W.; Keller, John M.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a new system and method for collecting coordinated occultation observations of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Occultations by objects in the outer solar system are more difficult to predict due to their large distance and limited span of the astrometric data used to determine their orbits and positions. This project brings together the research and educational community into a unique citizen-science partnership to overcome the difficulties of observing these distant objects. The goal of the project is to get sizes and shapes for TNOs with diameters larger than 100 km. As a result of the system design it will also serve as a probe for binary systems with spatial separations as small as contact systems. Traditional occultation efforts strive to get a prediction sufficiently good to place mobile ground stations in the shadow track. Our system takes a new approach of setting up a large number of fixed observing stations and letting the shadows come to the network. The nominal spacing of the stations is 50 km so that we ensure two chords at our limiting size. The spread of the network is roughly 2000 km along a roughly north-south line in the western United States. The network contains 56 stations that are committed to the project and we get additional ad hoc support from International Occultation Timing Association members. At our minimum size, two stations will record an event while the other stations will be probing the inner regions for secondary events. Larger objects will get more chords and will allow determination of shape profiles. The stations are almost exclusively sited and associated with schools, usually at the 9-12 grade level. We present a full description of the system we have developed for the continued exploration of the Kuiper Belt.

  7. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  8. Exploring earth's atmosphere with radio occultation: contributions to weather, climate and space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthes, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    The launch of the proof-of-concept mission GPS/MET in 1995 began a revolution in profiling earth's atmosphere through radio occultation (RO). GPS/MET; subsequent single-satellite missions CHAMP, SAC-C, GRACE, METOP-A, and TerraSAR-X; and the six-satellite constellation, FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, have proven the theoretical capabilities of RO to provide accurate and precise profiles of electron density in the ionosphere and refractivity, containing information on temperature and water vapor, in the stratosphere and troposphere. This paper summarizes results from these RO missions and the applications of RO observations to atmospheric research and operational weather analysis and prediction.

  9. Preliminary Global Topographic Model of Mars Based on MOLA Altimetry, Earth-Based Radar, and Viking, Mariner and MGS Occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    The recent altimetry data acquired by MOLA over the northern hemisphere of Mars have been combined with the Earth-based radar data obtained between 1971 and 1982, and occultation measurements of the Viking 1 and 2 Orbiters, Mariner 9, and MGS to derive a global model of the shape and topography of Mars. This preliminary model has a horizontal resolution of about 300 km. Vertical accuracy is on average a few hundred meters in the region of the data. Datasets: The altimetry and radar datasets were individually binned in 1.25 degree grids and merged with the occultation data. The Viking and Mariner occultation data in the northern hemisphere were excluded from the combined dataset where MOLA altimetry were available. The laser altimetry provided extensive and almost complete coverage of the northern hemisphere north of latitude 30 while the radar provided longitudinal coverage at several latitude bands between 23N and 23S. South of this region the only data were occultations. The majority of the occultations were obtained from Mariner 9, and the rest from Viking 1 & 2, and MGS. Earlier studies had shown that the Viking and Mariner occultations were on average only accurate to 500 meters. The recent MGS occultations are accurate to a few tens of meters. However, the highest southern latitude reached by the MGS occultations is only about 64S and data near the target region for the Mars 98 lander is limited to a few Viking and Mariner observations of relatively poor quality. In addition to the above datasets the locations of the Viking 1, Viking 2, and Pathfinder landers, obtained from the radio tracking of their signals, were included.

  10. Observing Tropospheric Water Vapor by Radio Occultation using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Hajj, G. A.; Hardy, K. R.; Romans, L. J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1995-01-01

    Given the importance of water vapor to weather, climate and hydrology, global humidity observations from satellites are critical. At low latitudes, radio occultation observations of Earth's atmosphere using the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites allow water vapor profiles to be retrieved with accuracies of 10 to 20% below 6 to 7 km altitude and approx. 5% or better within the boundary layer. GPS observations provide a unique combination of accuracy, vertical resolution (less than or equal to 1 km) and insensitivity to cloud and aerosol particles that is well suited to observations of the lower troposphere. These characteristics combined with the inherent stability of radio occultation observations make it an excellent candidate for the measurement of long term trends.

  11. Observation and Interpretation of Lunar Occultations. Ph.D. Thesis; [Uranus and beta Capricorni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radick, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of timings and high resolution astrometry in occultation observations is discussed as well as the occultation process itself. The design and operation of the telescope, photodetector, and data acquisition systems are described. Methods are presented for data analysis and model fitting. Observations of beta Capricorni and Uranus occultations are examined. General conclusions concerning occultation observations are explored and future activities at Prairie Observatory are discussed.

  12. Observations with the GISMOS Airborne Radio Occultation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muradyan, Paytsar; Haase, Jennifer; Garrison, James; Lulich, Tyler; Xie, Feiqin

    2010-05-01

    The spatial sample density of temperature and moisture profiles derived from the current spaceborne GPS radio occultation (RO) constellation is limited by the number of occultation satellites in operation. With the current RO satellite configuration, only one RO profile per day is typically available in a 160,000 square kilometer area in the mid-latitude and tropics and slightly more in high latitudes. The airborne RO technique, which has the GPS receiver onboard an airplane, offers flexibility and much denser sampling for targeted observation within 400 km of the aircraft, and provides comparable high vertical resolution to that of the spaceborne case. With an airborne system, targeted measurements can be planned in an optimal geometry to study the accuracy of RO measurements in the lower troposphere where strong vertical gradients in moisture might lead to disruption of signal tracking. These dense measurements can also be used to test assimilation techniques of refractivity and lower tropospheric moisture derived from RO data. In February 2008, the GNSS Instrument System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS), developed at Purdue University, was successfully deployed on the NSF HIAPER aircraft for series of research flights in the Gulf of Mexico coastal region to validate the airborne observing system. During this campaign, occultation observations were collected in conjunction with supplemental radiosonde and dropsonde soundings. RO signals were recorded using side-looking GPS antennas and dual frequency GPS receivers. However, these conventional phase-locked-loop GPS receivers cannot always track the signal in the lower troposphere, where there are rapid phase accelerations caused by highly variable moisture structures. To extend the observations deeper into the atmosphere, the raw signal from occulting satellites is recorded at 10MHz sampling interval by a GPS recording system (GRS). Open-loop (OL) tracking, which replaces the traditional GPS

  13. New Atmospheric Observations from the Airborne GNSS Instrument System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J. S.; Xie, F.; Muradyan, P.; Garrison, J. L.; Lulich, T.; Voo, J.; Larson, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Airborne GNSS Instrument System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS) was deployed on the NCAR HIAPER (High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research) aircraft to make atmospheric observations over the Gulf of Mexico coastal region in February 2008. The objective of the measurements was to test the performance of the system in comparisons with radiosonde profiles and dropsonde profiles that were also collected during the field campaign. The airborne GNSS radio occultation measures of GNSS signals from satellites that are setting or rising behind the Earth's limb relative to the receiver on board an aircraft. High-gain side-looking antennas and a 10MHz GPS Recording System that records the raw RF signal make this set of instrumentation unique, and especially adapted for open-loop tracking observations in the lower atmosphere. Measurements of the amount of refraction in the signal ray paths are inverted using an Abel transform procedure to retrieve a profile of refractivity, which depends on atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity. The airborne geometry, in contrast to the space- borne satellite occultation geometry, is affected by a large drift in the tangent point location, that is the location of the closest point to the Earth surface, as the ray path descends in the atmosphere. Therefore plans for the validation campaign included releasing dropsondes in the plane of the line of sight of the satellite-receiver occultation geometry in order to study this effect. Careful timing and location of the flight path was used to coordinate occultation times with operational and supplementary radiosonde launches. A total of 6 days of balloon sounding data were collected with 20 dropsondes and 28 supplementary radiosonde profiles. A discussion of the technical performance of the system will be presented, which describes the signal characteristics and antenna performance. Preliminary results on the quality of retrieved

  14. A unique airborne observation. [Martian atmospheric temperature and abundances from occultation of Epsilon Geminorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E.; Church, C.

    1976-01-01

    The occultation of 3rd magnitude Epsilon Geminorum by Mars was observed using a 36-inch telescope equipped with a photoelectric photometer at the bent Cassegrain focus, carried aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory at altitudes up to 45,000 feet. Scintillation from the earth's atmosphere was greatly reduced in comparison with ground observations. The observations clearly show the central flash, caused by the symmetrical refraction of light by the atmosphere of Mars. The data are being analyzed to obtain temperature profiles and to assess the relative abundance of argon and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the planet.

  15. Observing earth from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.

  16. A Trio of Well-Observed Asteroid Occultations in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timerson, Brad; Durech, J.; Aguirre, S.; Benner, L.; Blacnhette, D.; Breit, D.; Campbell, S.; Campbell, R.; Carlisle, R.; Castro, E.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Correa, A.; Coughlin, K.; Degenhardt, S.; Dunham, D.; Fleishman, R.; Frankenberger, R.; Gabriel, P.; Harris, B.; Herald, D.; Hicks, M.; Hofler, G.; Holmes, A.; Jones, R.; Lambert, R.; Lucas, G.; Lyzenga, G.; Macdougal, C.; Maley, P.; Morgan, W.; Mroz, G.; Nolthenius, R.; Nugent, R.; Preston, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Royer, R.; Sada, P.; Sanchez, E.; Sanford, B.; Sorensen, R.; Stanton, R.; Venable, R.; Vincent, M.; Wasson, R.; Wilson, E.

    2009-07-01

    During 2008, IOTA observers in North America recorded observations for about 100 asteroidal occultation events. Of these, three events were notable for producing well-defined profiles as a result of a large number of well-spaced observation sites at each event. Detailed profiles are presented for three events having the most extensive observations: 9 Metis on 2008 September 12, an irregular ellipse measuring 176.1 ± 3.1 x 161.1 ± 10.5 km; 19 Fortuna on 2008 June 18, an irregular ellipse measuring 229.7 ± 1.7 x 193.6 ± 1.7 km; 135 Hertha on 2008 December 11, an irregular ellipse measuring 101.0 ± 2.1 x 59.3 ± 2.1 km.

  17. Lunar occultation of Saturn. IV - Astrometric results from observations of the satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, D. W.; Elliot, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The method of determining local lunar limb slopes, and the consequent time scale needed for diameter studies, from accurate occultation timings at two nearby telescopes is described. Results for photoelectric observations made at Mauna Kea Observatory during the occultation of Saturn's satellites on March 30, 1974, are discussed. Analysis of all observations of occultations of Saturn's satellites during 1974 indicates possible errors in the ephemerides of Saturn and its satellites.

  18. High spatial resolution multi-color observations of Neptune during occultation by the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1976-01-01

    Preparations for the observation of Mars occultation using the 36 inch telescope on a C-141 airborne observatory were described, including technical improvements made to existing equipment. The abstracts of the following four publications supported by the grant were presented: (1) atmosphere composition from refractivity measurements made during occultations, (2) how big is lapetus?, (3) the diameter of Titan, (4) design and operating characteristics of voltage to frequency converters suited for occultation work. The planned observation of the April 8, 1976 occultation of the epsilon Gem star from the C-141 airborne observatory was described.

  19. Developing an Optical Lunar Occultation Measurement Reduction System for Observations at Kaau Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malawi, Abdulrahman A.

    2013-06-01

    We present here a detailed explanation of the reduction method that we use to determine the angular diameters of the stars occulted by the dark limb of the moon. This is a main part of the lunar occultation observation program running at King Abdul Aziz University observatory since late 1993. The process is based on the least square model fitting method of analyzing occultation data, first introduced by Nather et al. (Astron. J. 75:963, 1970).

  20. Cassini RSS occultation observations of density waves in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGhee, C. A.; French, R. G.; Marouf, E. A.; Rappaport, N. J.; Schinder, P. J.; Anabtawi, A.; Asmar, S.; Barbinis, E.; Fleischman, D.; Goltz, G.; Johnston, D.; Rochblatt, D.

    2005-08-01

    On May 3, 2005, the first of a series of eight nearly diametric occultations by Saturn's rings and atmosphere took place, observed by the Cassini Radio Science (RSS) team. Simultaneous high SNR measurements at the Deep Space Network (DSN) at S, X, and Ka bands (λ = 13, 3.6, and 0.9 cm) have provided a remarkably detailed look at the radial structure and particle scattering behavior of the rings. By virtue of the relatively large ring opening angle (B=-23.6o), the slant path optical depth of the rings was much lower than during the Voyager epoch (B=5.9o), making it possible to detect many density waves and other ring features in the Cassini RSS data that were lost in the noise in the Voyager RSS experiment. Ultimately, diffraction correction of the ring optical depth profiles will yield radial resolution as small as tens of meters for the highest SNR data. At Ka band, the Fresnel scale is only 1--1.5 km, and thus even without diffraction correction, the ring profiles show a stunning array of density waves. The A ring is replete with dozens of Pandora and Prometheus inner Lindblad resonance features, and the Janus 2:1 density wave in the B ring is revealed with exceptional clarity for the first time at radio wavelengths. Weaker waves are abundant as well, and multiple occultation chords sample a variety of wave phases. We estimate the surface mass density of the rings from linear density wave models of the weaker waves. For stronger waves, non-linear models are required, providing more accurate estimates of the wave dispersion relation, the ring surface mass density, and the angular momentum exchange between the rings and satellite. We thank the DSN staff for their superb support of these complex observations.

  1. Atmospheric influences on infrared-laser signals used for occultation measurements between Low Earth Orbit satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, S.; Kirchengast, G.; Proschek, V.

    2011-10-01

    LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO) is a new occultation technique between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, which applies signals in the short wave infrared spectral range (SWIR) within 2 μm to 2.5 μm. It is part of the LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method that enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity) and altitude levels from microwave signals and profiles of greenhouse gases and further variables such as line-of-sight wind speed from simultaneously measured LIO signals. Due to the novelty of the LMIO method, detailed knowledge of atmospheric influences on LIO signals and of their suitability for accurate trace species retrieval did not yet exist. Here we discuss these influences, assessing effects from refraction, trace species absorption, aerosol extinction and Rayleigh scattering in detail, and addressing clouds, turbulence, wind, scattered solar radiation and terrestrial thermal radiation as well. We show that the influence of refractive defocusing, foreign species absorption, aerosols and turbulence is observable, but can be rendered small to negligible by use of the differential transmission principle with a close frequency spacing of LIO absorption and reference signals within 0.5%. The influences of Rayleigh scattering and terrestrial thermal radiation are found negligible. Cloud-scattered solar radiation can be observable under bright-day conditions, but this influence can be made negligible by a close time spacing (within 5 ms) of interleaved laser-pulse and background signals. Cloud extinction loss generally blocks SWIR signals, except very thin or sub-visible cirrus clouds, which can be addressed by retrieving a cloud layering profile and exploiting it in the trace species retrieval. Wind can have a small influence on the trace species absorption, which can be made negligible by using a simultaneously retrieved or a moderately accurate background wind speed profile. We conclude that

  2. Atmospheric gravity wave detection following the 2011 Tohoku earthquakes combining COSMIC occultation and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X.; Tao, Y.; Xia, C.; Qi, Y.; Zuo, X.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have reported the earthquake-induced atmospheric gravity waves detected by some new technologies such as airglow (Makela et al., 2011), GOCE (Garcia et al., 2013), GRACE (Yang et al., 2014), F3/C radio occultation sounding (Coïsson et al., 2015). In this work, we collected all occultation events on 11 March, and selected four events to analyze at last. The original and filtered podTEC is represented as function of the altitude of the impact parameter and UT of the four events. Then, the travel time diagrams of filtered podTEC derived from the events were analyzed. The occultation signal from one event (marked as No.73) is consistent with the previous results reported by Coïsson. 2015, which is corresponds to the ionospheric signal induced from tsunami gravity wave. What is noticeable, in this work, is that three occultation events of No.403, 77 and 118 revealed a disturbance of atmospheric gravity wave with velocity 300m/s, preceding the tsunami. It would probably be correspond to the gravity waves caused by seismic rupture but not tsunami. In addition, it can be seen that the perturbation height of occultation observation TEC is concentrated at 200-400km, corresponding ionosphere F region. The signals detected above are compared with GPS measurements of TEC from GEONET and IGS. From GPS data, traveling ionospheric disturbances were observed spreading out from the epicenter as a quasi-circular propagation pattern with the time. Exactly, we observed an acoustic wave coupled with Rayleigh wave starting from the epicenter with a speed of 3.0km/s and a superimposed acoustic-gravity wave moving with a speed of 800m/s. The acoustic-gravity wave generated at the epicenter and gradually attenuated 800km away, then it is replaced by a gravity wave coupled with the tsunami that moves with a speed of between 100 and 300m/s. It is necessary to confirm the propagation process of the waves if we attempt to evaluate the use of ionospheric seismology as a

  3. Validation of ionospheric electron density profiles inferred from GPS occultation observations of the GPS/MET experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Todd Mori

    In April of 1995, the launch of the GPS Meteorology Experiment (GPS/MET) onboard the Orbview-1 satellite, formerly known as Microlab-1, provided the first technology demonstration of active limb sounding of the Earth's atmosphere with a low Earth orbiting spacecraft utilizing the signals transmitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Though the experiment's primary mission was to probe the troposphere and stratosphere, GPS/MET was also capable of making radio occultation observations of the ionosphere. The application of the GPS occultation technique to the upper atmosphere created a unique opportunity to conduct ionospheric research with an unprecedented global distribution of observations. For operational support requirements, the Abel transform could be employed to invert the horizontal TEC profiles computed from the L1 and L2 phase measurements observed by GPS/MET into electron density profiles versus altitude in near real time. The usefulness of the method depends on how effectively the TEC limb profiles can be transformed into vertical electron density profiles. An assessment of GPS/MET's ability to determine electron density profiles needs to be examined to validate the significance of the GPS occultation method as a new and complementary ionospheric research tool to enhance the observational databases and improve space weather modeling and forecasting. To that end, simulations of the occultation observations and their inversions have been conducted to test the Abel transform algorithm and to provide qualitative information about the type and range of errors that might be experienced during the processing of real data. Comparisons of the electron density profiles inferred from real GPS/MET observations are then compared with coincident in situ measurements from the satellites of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and ground-based remote sensing from digisonde and incoherent scatter radar facilities. The principal focus of

  4. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction) analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  5. The Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Lisa Robock

    1992-01-01

    The restructuring of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), designed to provide comprehensive long term observations from space of changes occurring on the Earth from natural and human causes in order to have a sound scientific basis for policy decisions on protection of the future, is reported. In response to several factors, the original program approved in the fiscal year 1991 budget was restructured and somewhat reduced in scope. The resulting program uses three different sized launch vehicles to put six different spacecraft in orbit in the first phase, followed by two replacement launches for each of five of the six satellites to maintain a long term observing capability to meet the needs of global climate change research and other science objectives. The EOS system, including the space observatories, the data and information system, and the interdisciplinary global change research effort, are approved and proceeding. Elements of EOS are already in place, such as the research investigations and initial data system capabilities. The flights of precursor satellite and Shuttle missions, the ongoing data analysis, and the evolutionary enhancements to the integrated Earth science data management capabilities are all important building blocks to the full EOS program.

  6. Lunar occultation observations at the SAO RAS 6-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachenko, V.; Richichi, A.; Balega, Yu; Beskakotov, A.; Maksimov, A.; Mitrofanova, A.; Rastegaev, D.

    2018-06-01

    We have initiated a program to systematically observe lunar occultations from the SAO RAS 6-m telescope (BTA). So far, twenty-five events have been recorded with some of them leading to accurate measurements of angular diameters in late-type stars and of binary stars. One interesting aspect is that the observations are carried out by the same group and with the same equipment dedicated also to speckle interferometry, so that many of the target objects are being investigated by two independent and complementary techniques almost simultaneously. This represents a novel approach with a potential to provide more complete and extended results than possible until now. In this paper we focus on a general description of the scientific aim and methods, and we provide an overview of the results including an assessment of the quantitative performance, showing that milliarcsecond resolution is achieved on sources as faint as ≈12 mag. Among the sources we discuss in detail are the binary stars SAO 98270 and μ Cet, and the resolved late-type stars 74 Gem, DE Psc and IRC+00213. Other stars with positive results are the subject of dedicated papers. We foresee to continue routine observations with this facility in the immediate future, and to coordinate with other observatories equipped with similar instrumentation.

  7. Preview of the BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; McCollough, M. L.; Robinson, C. R.; Sahi, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has been detecting and monitoring point sources in the high energy sky since 1991. Although BATSE is best known for gamma ray bursts, it also monitors the sky for longer-lived sources of radiation. Using the Earth occultation technique to extract flux information, a catalog is being prepared of about 150 sources potential emission in the large area detectors (20-1000 keV). The catalog will contain light curves, representative spectra, and parametric data for black hole and neutron star binaries, active galaxies, and super-nova remnants. In this preview, we present light curves for persistent and transient sources, and also show examples of what type of information can be obtained from the BATSE Earth occultation database. Options for making the data easily accessible as an "on line" WWW document are being explored.

  8. Monitoring the Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sky Using Earth Occultation with GLAST GBM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, G.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Cherry, M.; Kippen, M.; Ling, J.; Radocinski, R.; Wheaton, W.

    2007-01-01

    Long term all-sky monitoring of the 20 keV - 2 MeV gamma-ray sky using the Earth occultation technique was demonstrated by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The principles and techniques used for the development of an end-to-end earth occultation data analysis system for BATSE can be extended to the GLAST Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), resulting in multiband light curves and time-resolved spectra in the energy range 8 keV to above 1 MeV for known gamma-ray sources and transient outbursts, as well as the discovery of new sources of gamma-ray emission. In this paper we describe the application of the technique to the GBM. We also present the expected sensitivity for the GBM.

  9. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A; Mannucci, Anthony J; Straus, Paul R; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-01-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4–6 times (10–15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters. PMID:26213514

  10. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A; Mannucci, Anthony J; Straus, Paul R; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-11-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4-6 times (10-15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters.

  11. Ionospheric observations using GPS radio occultation from a nanosat platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, R. L.; Redding, M.; Straus, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Compact Total Electron Content Sensor (CTECS) is a GPS radio occultation instrument designed for cubesat platforms that utilizes a COTS receiver, modified firmware, and a custom designed antenna. CTECS was placed on the Pico Satellite Solar Cell Testbed 2 (PSSC2) nanosat that was installed on the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135). PSSC2 was successfully released from the shuttle on 20 July 2011 near 380 km altitude. Because of attitude control and power issues, only 13.5 hours of data was collected during its approximately 5-month mission life. Total Electron Content (TEC) observations were obtained and this presentation will present a summary of all TEC data analyzed from the mission. We will discuss the instrument challenges encountered, data issues, and future planned improvements to CTECS. Two CTECS flight units were delivered in the spring of 2012 for integration on the SMC/XR Space Environment NanoSatellite Experiment (SENSE) spacecrafts that are scheduled for launch in the second half of 2013. We will present a summary of the SENSE mission, performance of the improved CTECS sensors, and the results of ground and day-in-the-life testing.

  12. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  13. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  14. IRTF observations of the occultation of 28 Sgr by Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Cooke, Maren L.; Forrest, William J.; Pipher, Judith L.; Dunham, Edward W.; Elliot, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Mauna Kea IR Telescope Facility obtained an IR-imaging time series for the July 3, 1989 occultation of 28 Sgr by Saturn and its rings; the stellar signal is present in these images throughout the ring occultation event. These data are noted to vary systematically with respect to the Voyager data over large radius scales, perhaps due to stellar signal diffraction through the rings. The stellar diameter, which is projected to be about 20 km, placed most bending- and density-wave trains below measurable resolution. Masses and mean optical depths are presented for individual ring sections.

  15. Feasibility of blocking detection in observations from radio occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Lukas; Steiner, Andrea Karin; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Jury, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Blocking describes an atmospheric situation in which the climatological westerly flow at mid latitudes is weakened or reversed. This is caused by a persistent high pressure system which can be stationary for several days to weeks. In the Northern Hemisphere blocking preferably occurs over the Atlantic/European and the Pacific regions. In recent years blocking has been under close scientific investigation due to its effect on weather extremes, triggering heat waves in summer and cold spells in winter. So far, scientific literature mainly focused on the investigation of blocking in reanalysis and global climate model data sets. However, blocking is underestimated in most climate models due to small-scale processes involved in its evolution. For a detection of blocking, most commonly applied methods are based on the computation of meridional geopotential height gradients at the 500 hPa level. Therefore measurements with adequate vertical, horizontal, and temporal resolution and coverage are required. We use an observational data set based on Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) measurements fulfilling these requirements. RO is a relatively new, satellite based remote sensing technique, delivering profiles of atmospheric parameters such as geopotential height, pressure, and temperature. It is characterized by favorable properties like long-term stability, global coverage, and high vertical resolution. Our data set is based on the most recent WEGC RO retrieval. Here we report on a feasibility study for blocking detection and analysis in RO data for two exemplary blocking events: the blocking over Russia in summer 2010 and the blocking over Greenland in late winter 2013. For these two events about 700 RO measurements per day are available in the Northern Hemisphere. We will show that the measurement density and quality of RO observations are favorable for blocking analysis and can therefore contribute to blocking research.

  16. Titan's Surface Composition from Cassini VIMS Solar Occultation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Thomas; Hayne, Paul; Sotin, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Titan's surface is obscured by a thick absorbing and scattering atmosphere, allowing direct observation of the surface within only a few spectral win-dows in the near-infrared, complicating efforts to identify and map geologi-cally important materials using remote sensing IR spectroscopy. We there-fore investigate the atmosphere's infrared transmission with direct measure-ments using Titan's occultation of the Sun as well as Titan's reflectance measured at differing illumination and observation angles observed by Cas-sini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). We use two im-portant spectral windows: the 2.7-2.8-mm "double window" and the broad 5-mm window. By estimating atmospheric attenuation within these windows, we seek an empirical correction factor that can be applied to VIMS meas-urements to estimate the true surface reflectance and map inferred composi-tional variations. Applying the empirical corrections, we correct the VIMS data for the viewing geometry-dependent atmospheric effects to derive the 5-µm reflectance and 2.8/2.7-µm reflectance ratio. We then compare the cor-rected reflectances to compounds proposed to exist on Titan's surface. We propose a simple correction to VIMS Titan data to account for atmospheric attenuation and diffuse scattering in the 5-mm and 2.7-2.8 mm windows, generally applicable for airmass < 3.0. We propose a simple correction to VIMS Titan data to account for atmospheric attenuation and diffuse scatter-ing in the 5-mm and 2.7-2.8 mm windows, generally applicable for airmass < 3.0. The narrow 2.75-mm absorption feature, dividing the window into two sub-windows, present in all on-planet measurements is not present in the occultation data, and its strength is reduced at the cloud tops, suggesting the responsible molecule is concentrated in the lower troposphere or on the sur-face. Our empirical correction to Titan's surface reflectance yields properties shifted closer to water ice for the majority of the low

  17. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  18. Triton stellar occultation candidates - 1992-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, S. W.; Elliot, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A search for Triton stellar occultation candidates for the period 1992-1994 has been completed with CCD strip-scanning observations. The search reached an R magnitude of about 17.4 and found 129 candidates within 1.5 arcsec of Triton's ephemeris during this period. Of these events, around 30 occultations are expected to be visible from the earth, indicating that a number of Triton occultation events should be visible from major observatories. Even the faintest of the present candidate events could produce useful occultation data if observed with a large enough telescope. The present astrometric accuracy is inadequate to identify which of these appulse events will produce occultations on the earth; further astrometry is needed to refine the predictions for positive occultation identification. To aid in selecting candidates for additional astrometric and photometric studies, finder charts and earth-based visibility charts for each event are included.

  19. Geodetic Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothacher, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Mankind is constantly threatened by a variety of natural disasters and global change phenomena. In order to be able to better predict and assess these catastrophic and disastrous events a continuous observation and monitoring of the causative Earth processes is a necessity. These processes may happen in time scales from extremely short (earthquakes, volcano eruptions, land slides, ...) to very long (melting of ice sheets, sea level change, plate tectonics, ...). Appropriate monitoring and early warning systems must allow, therefore, the detection and quantification of catastrophic events in (near) real-time on the one hand and the reliable identification of barely noticeable, but crucial long-term trends (e.g., sea level rise) on the other hand. The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), established by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) in 2003, already now contributes in a multitude of ways to meet this challenge, e.g., by providing a highly accurate and stable global reference frame, without which the measurement of a sea level rise of 2-3 mm/y would not be possible; by measuring displacements in near real-time and deformations over decades that offer valuable clues to plate tectonics, earthquake processes, tsunamis, volcanos, land slides, and glaciers dynamics; by observing the mass loss of ice sheets with gravity satellite missions; and by estimating essential variables such as the amount of water vapor in the troposphere relevant for weather predictions and climate and the content of free electrons in the ionosphere crucial for space weather.

  20. STS-34 earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-10-20

    STS034-44-023 (20 Oct. 1989) --- The Southern Lights or Aurora Australis were photographed by the STS-34 crewmembers aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis. From the Shuttle astronauts can photograph expanses of auroras, an advantage over scientists on Earth who can only get small sections at a time in a frame of photography. The space position allows for large-scale changes. This scene was one of 26 shown to the press by the five STS-34 crewmembers at their post-flight press conference.

  1. Nimbus earth resources observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatini, R. R.; Rabchevsky, G. A.; Sissala, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The potential for utilizing data gathered by Nimbus satellites to study the earth surface and its physical properties is illustrated. The Nimbus data applicable to investigations of the earth and its resources, and to the problems of resolution and cloud cover are described. Geological, hydrological, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Applications of the data to other fields, such as cartography, agriculture, forestry, and urban analysis are presented. Relevant information is also given on the Nimbus orbit and experiments; surface and atmospheric effects on HRIR and THIR radiation measurements; and noise problems in the AVCS, IDCS, HRIR, and THIR data.

  2. 51F earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    51F-37-014 (29 July-6 Aug 1985) --- This Earth view shows Oregon and Washington including metropolitan Portland at the center. The Columbia River can be seen from Goble (upper left) upstream to Bonneville (upper right). The Willamette River is at the lower photo and seen upstream to east of McMinnville.

  3. Comparing different Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) occultation observations using modeling of water vapor jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portyankina, Ganna; Esposito, Larry W.; Hansen, Candice; Aye, Klaus-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Motivation: On March 11, 2016 the Cassini UVIS observed its 6th star occultation by Enceladus' plume. This observation was aimed to determine variability in the total gas flux from the Enceladus' southern polar region. The analysis of the received data suggests that the total gas flux is moderately increased comparing to the average gas flux observed by UVIS from 2005 to 2011 [1]. However, UVIS detected variability in individual jets. In particular, Baghdad 1 is more collimated in 2016 than in 2005, meaning its gas escapes at higher velocity.Model and fits: We use 3D DSMC model for water vapor jets to compare different UVIS occultation observations from 2005 to 2016. The model traces test articles from jets' sources [2] into space and results in coordinates and velocities for a set of test particles. We convert particle positions into the particle number density and integrate along UVIS line of sight (LoS) for each time step of the UVIS observation using precise observational geometry derived from SPICE [3]. We integrate all jets that are crossed by the LoS and perform constrained least-squares fit of resulting modeled opacities to the observed data to solved for relative strengths of jets. The geometry of each occultation is specific, for example, during solar occultation in 2010 UVIS LoS was almost parallel to tiger stripes, which made it possible to distinguish jets venting from different tiger stripes. In 2011 Eps Orionis occultation LoS was perpendicular to tiger stripes and thus many of the jets were geometrically overlapping. Solar occultation provided us with the largest inventory of active jets - our model fit detects at least 43 non-zero jet contributions. Stellar occultations generally have lower temporal resolution and observe only a sub-set of these jets: 2011 Eps Orionis needs minimum 25 non-zero jets to fit UVIS data. We will discuss different occultations and models fits, including the most recent Epsilon Orionis occultation of 2016.[1] Hansen et al

  4. Observations of the Occultation of Mars by the Moon on July 6, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricra, J. L.; Pajuelo, M. V.; Berrocal, D. R.; Torre, S. E.

    2015-10-01

    We present the results of the observation of the occultation of Mars by the Moon on July 6, 2014. Observations were made from the AFARI Astronomical Observatory, in the town of Tarma, Peru. A Celestron 8 telescope with a camera WATEC 120N (GPS time inserted) were used. Time measurements for the first and second contact were obtained by analyzing the variation of the flux of Mars using the software LiMovie and two different methods of calculation. The measurements obtained were reported to the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA).

  5. The complete set of Cassini's UVIS occultation observations of Enceladus plume: model fits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portyankina, G.; Esposito, L. W.; Hansen, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery in 2005, plume of Enceladus was observed by most of the instruments onboard Cassini spacecraft. Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) have observed Enceladus plume and collimated jets embedded in it in occultational geometry on 6 different occasions. We have constructed a 3D direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model for Enceladus jets and apply it to the analysis of the full set of UVIS occultation observations conducted during Cassini's mission from 2005 to 2017. The Monte Carlo model tracks test particles from their source at the surface into space. The initial positions of all test particles for a single jet are fixed to one of 100 jets sources identified by Porco et al. (2014). The initial three-dimensional velocity of each particle contains two components: a velocity Vz which is perpendicular to the surface, and a thermal velocity which is isotropic in the upward hemisphere. The direction and speed of the thermal velocity of each particle is chosen randomly but the ensemble moves isotropically at a speed which satisfies a Boltzmann distribution for a given temperature Tth. A range for reasonable Vz is then determined by requiring that modeled jet widths match the observed ones. Each model run results in a set of coordinates and velocities of a given set of test particles. These are converted to the test particle number densities and then integrated along LoS for each time step of the occultation observation. The geometry of the observation is calculated using SPICE. The overarching result of the simulation run is a test particle number density along LoS for each time point during the occultation observation for each of the jets separately. To fit the model to the data, we integrate all jets that are crossed by the LoS at each point during an observation. The relative strength of the jets must be determined to fit the observed UVIS curves. The results of the fits are sets of active jets for each occultation. Each UVIS occultation

  6. Information content in reflected signals during GPS Radio Occultation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Josep M.; Cardellach, Estel; Rodríguez, Hilda

    2018-04-01

    The possibility of extracting useful information about the state of the lower troposphere from the surface reflections that are often detected during GPS radio occultations (GPSRO) is explored. The clarity of the reflection is quantified, and can be related to properties of the surface and the low troposphere. The reflected signal is often clear enough to show good phase coherence, and can be tracked and processed as an extension of direct non-reflected GPSRO atmospheric profiles. A profile of bending angle vs. impact parameter can be obtained for these reflected signals, characterized by impact parameters that are below the apparent horizon, and that is a continuation at low altitude of the standard non-reflected bending angle profile. If there were no reflection, these would correspond to tangent altitudes below the local surface, and in particular below the local mean sea level. A forward operator is presented, for the evaluation of the bending angle of reflected GPSRO signals, given atmospheric properties as described by a numerical weather prediction system. The operator is an extension, at lower impact parameters, of standard bending angle operators, and reproduces both the direct and reflected sections of the measured profile. It can be applied to the assimilation of the reflected section of the profile as supplementary data to the direct section. Although the principle is also applicable over land, this paper is focused on ocean cases, where the topographic height of the reflecting surface, the sea level, is better known a priori.

  7. Software and hardware complex for observation of star occultations by asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbovsky, V.; Kleshchonok, V.; Buromsky, M.

    2017-12-01

    The preparation to the program for observation of star occultations by asteroids on the AZT-2 telescope was started in 2016. A new method for registration of occultation with a CCD camera in the synchronous transfer mode was proposed and developed. The special program was written to control the CCD camera and record images during such observations. The speed of image transfer can vary within wide limits, which makes it possible to carry out observations in a wide range of stellar magnitudes. The telescope AZT-2 is used, which has the largest mirror diameter in Kiev (D = 0.7 m. F = 10.5 m). A 3-fold optical reducer was produced, which providing a field of view with a CCD camera Apogee Alta U47 10 arcminutes and the equivalent focal length of the telescope 3.2 meters. The results of test observations are presented. The program is implemented jointly by the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Astronomical Observatory of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Regular observations of star occultation by asteroids are planned with the help of this complex. % Z https://occultations.org Kleshchonok,V.V.,Buromsky,M. I. 2005, Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies, 21, 5, 405 Kleshchonok, V.V., Buromskii, N. I., Khat’ko,I.V.2008, Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies, 24, 2, 114

  8. Earth observation image data format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sos, J. Y.

    1976-01-01

    A flexible format for computer compatable tape (CCT) containing multispectral earth observation sensor data is described. The driving functions which comprise the data format requirements are summarized and general data format guidelines are discussed.

  9. A Climate Benchmark of Upper Air Temperature Observations from GNSS Radio Occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, C. O.; Mannucci, A. J.; Leroy, S. S.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    GPS (Global Positioning System), or more generally Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), radio occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique that produces highly accurate temperature in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere across the globe with fine vertical resolution. Its fundamental measurement is the time delay of the microwave signal as it travels from a GNSS satellite to the receiver in low Earth orbit. With a relatively simple physical retrieval, the uncertainty in the derived temperature can be traced rigorously through the retrieval chain back to the raw measurements. The high absolute accuracy of RO allows these observations to be assimilated without bias correction in numerical weather prediction models and provides an anchor for assimilating other types of observations. The high accuracy, coupled with long-term stability, makes RO valuable in detecting decadal temperature trends. In this presentation, we will summarize the current state of RO observations and show temperature trends derived from 15 years of RO data in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. We will discuss our recent efforts in developing retrieval algorithms that are more tailored towards climate applications. Despite the relatively robust "self-calibrating" nature of RO observations, disparity in receiver hardware and software may introduce subtle differences that need to be carefully addressed. While the historic RO data record came from relatively homogeneous hardware based largely on NASA/JPL design (e.g., CHAMP and COSMIC), the future data will likely be comprised of a diverse set of observations from Europe, China, and various commercial data providers. In addition, the use of non-GPS navigation systems will become more prevalent. We will discuss the challenges involved in establishing a long-term RO climate data record from a suite of research and operational weather satellites with changes in instrumentation and coverage.

  10. The role of GPS in precise earth observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Lindal, Gunnar F.; Liu, Chao-Han

    1988-01-01

    The potential of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for precise earth observation is evaluated. It is projected that soon GPS will be utilized to track remote-sensing satellites with subdecimeter accuracy. The first will be Topex/Poseidon, a US/French ocean altimetry mission to be launched in 1991. In addition, it is suggested that developments planned for future platforms may push orbit accuracy near 1 cm within a decade. GPS receivers on some platforms will track the signals down to the earth limb to observe occultation by intervening media. This will provide comprehensive information on global temperature and climate and help detect the possible onset of a greenhouse effect. It is also projected that dual-frequency observations will be used to trace the flow of energy across earth systems through detection of ionospheric gravity waves, and to map the structure of the ionosphere by computer tomography.

  11. ASTEROID SIZING BY RADIOGALAXY OCCULTATION AT 5 GHZ

    SciTech Connect

    Lehtinen, K.; Muinonen, K.; Poutanen, M.

    Stellar occultations by asteroids observed at visual wavelengths have been an important tool for studying the size and shape of asteroids and for revising the orbital parameters of asteroids. At radio frequencies, a shadow of an asteroid on the Earth is dominated by diffraction effects. Here, we show, for the first time, that a single observation of an occultation of a compact radio source at a frequency of 5 GHz can be used to derive the effective size of the occulting object and to derive the distance between the observer and the center of the occultation path on the Earth.more » The derived diameter of the occulting object, asteroid (115) Thyra, is 75 ± 6 km. The observed occultation profile shows features that cannot be explained by diffraction of a single asteroid.« less

  12. Atmospheric diurnal and semi-diurnal variations observed with GPS radio occultation soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F.; Wu, D. L.; Ao, C. O.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2009-11-01

    Diurnal and semi-diurnal variations, driven by solar forcing, are two fundamental modes in the Earth's weather and climate system. Radio occultation (RO) measurements from the six COSMIC satellites (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate) provide rather uniform global coverage with high vertical resolution, all-weather and diurnal sampling capability. This paper analyzes the diurnal and semi-diurnal variations of both temperature and refractivity from two-year (2007-2008) COSMIC RO measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere. The RO observations reveal both propagating and trapped vertical structures of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations, including transition regions near the tropopause where data with high vertical resolution are critical. In the tropics the diurnal amplitude in refractivity decreases with altitude from a local maximum in the planetary boundary layer and reaches the minimum around 14 km and then further increase amplitude in the stratosphere. The upward propagating component of the migrating diurnal tides in the tropics is clearly captured by the GPS RO measurements, which show a downward progression in phase from upper troposphere to the stratopause with a vertical wavelength of about 25 km. Below 500 hPa (~5.5 km), seasonal variations of the peak diurnal amplitude in the tropics follow the solor forcing change in latitude, while at 30 km the seasonal pattern reverses with the diurnal amplitude peaking at the opposite side of the equator relative to the solar forcing. Polar regions shows large diurnal variations in the stratosphere with strong seasonal variations and the cause(s) of these variations require further investigations.

  13. The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; WilsonHodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4, as well as new transient sources discovered with BATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling to about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (> 10 mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the HEASARC for public use.

  14. The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.; Finger, M. H.; Connaughton, V.; Koshut, T. M.; Henze, W.; McCollough, M. L.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4 (Levine et al. 1984), as well as new transient sources discovered with BATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique (Harmon et al. 2001, astro-ph/0109069) was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling to about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (greater than 10 mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) for public use.

  15. The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.; Finger, M. H.; Connaughton, V.; Koshut, T. M.; Henze, W.; McCollough, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE),aboard the COmptOn Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4 (Levine et al. 19841, as well as new transient sources discovered with RATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique (Harmon et al. 2001, astro-ph/0109069) was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (>lO mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the HEASARC for public use.

  16. The 2011 June 23 Stellar Occultation by Pluto: Airborne and Ground Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Person, M. J.; Dunham, E. W.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S. E.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Pandey, S.; Amrhein, D.; Sallum, S.; Tholen, D. J.; Collins, P.; Bida, T.; Taylor, B.; Bright, L.; Wolf, J.; Meyer, A.; Pfueller, E.; Wiedemann, M.; Roeser, H.-P.; Lucas, R.; Kakkala, M.; Ciotti, J.; Plunkett, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Best, W.; Pilger, E. J.; Micheli, M.; Springmann, A.; Hicks, M.; Thackeray, B.; Emery, J. P.; Tilleman, T.; Harris, H.; Sheppard, S.; Rapoport, S.; Ritchie, I.; Pearson, M.; Mattingly, A.; Brimacombe, J.; Gault, D.; Jones, R.; Nolthenius, R.; Broughton, J.; Barry, T.

    2013-10-01

    On 2011 June 23, stellar occultations by both Pluto (this work) and Charon (future analysis) were observed from numerous ground stations as well as the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This first airborne occultation observation since 1995 with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory resulted in the best occultation chords recorded for the event, in three visible wavelength bands. The data obtained from SOFIA are combined with chords obtained from the ground at the IRTF, the U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, and Leeward Community College to give the detailed state of the Pluto-Charon system at the time of the event with a focus on Pluto's atmosphere. The data show a return to the distinct upper and lower atmospheric regions with a knee or kink in the light curve separating them as was observed in 1988, rather than the smoothly transitioning bowl-shaped light curves of recent years. The upper atmosphere is analyzed by fitting a model to all of the light curves, resulting in a half-light radius of 1288 ± 1 km. The lower atmosphere is analyzed using two different methods to provide results under the differing assumptions of particulate haze and a strong thermal gradient as causes for the lower atmospheric diminution of flux. These results are compared with those from past occultations to provide a picture of Pluto's evolving atmosphere. Regardless of which lower atmospheric structure is assumed, results indicate that this part of the atmosphere evolves on short timescales with results changing the light curve structures between 1988 and 2006, and then reverting these changes in 2011 though at significantly higher pressures. Throughout these changes, the upper atmosphere remains remarkably stable in structure, again except for the overall pressure changes. No evidence of onset of atmospheric collapse predicted by frost migration models is seen, and the atmosphere appears to be remaining at a stable pressure level, suggesting it should persist

  17. International program for Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During the 1990 summer session of the International Space University, graduate students of many different countries and with various academic backgrounds carried out a design project that focused on how to meet the most pressing environmental information requirements of the 1990's. The International Program for Earth Observations (IPEO) is the result of the students labor. The IPEO report examines the legal and institutional, scientific, engineering and systems, financial and economic, and market development approaches needed to improve international earth observations and information systems to deal with environmental issues of global importance. The IPEO scenario is based on the production of a group of lightweight satellites to be used in global remote sensing programs. The design and function of the satellite is described in detail.

  18. The Earth Observation Technology Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, P.; Boyd, D. S.; Danson, F. M.; Donoghue, D. N. M.; Ferrier, G.; Galiatsatos, N.; Marsh, A.; Pope, A.; Ramirez, F. A.; Tate, N. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Earth Observation Technology Cluster is a knowledge exchange initiative, promoting development, understanding and communication about innovative technology used in remote sensing of the terrestrial or land surface. This initiative provides an opportunity for presentation of novel developments from, and cross-fertilisation of ideas between, the many and diverse members of the terrestrial remote sensing community. The Earth Observation Technology Cluster involves a range of knowledge exchange activities, including organisation of technical events, delivery of educational materials, publication of scientific findings and development of a coherent terrestrial EO community. The initiative as a whole covers the full range of remote sensing operation, from new platform and sensor development, through image retrieval and analysis, to data applications and environmental modelling. However, certain topical and strategic themes have been selected for detailed investigation: (1) Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles, (2) Terrestrial Laser Scanning, (3) Field-Based Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, (4) Hypertemporal Image Analysis, and (5) Circumpolar and Cryospheric Application. This paper presents general activities and achievements of the Earth Observation Technology Cluster, and reviews state-of-the-art developments in the five specific thematic areas.

  19. Stellar Occultation Studies of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, James L.

    1998-01-01

    Earth-based observations of stellar occultations provide extremely high spatial resolution for bodies in the outer solar system, about 10,000 times better than that of traditional imaging observations. Stellar occultation data can be used to establish the structure of atmospheres and rings of solar system bodies at high spatial resolution. Airborne occultation observations are particularly effective, since the controlled mobility of the observing platform allows the observer to fly within the optimum part of the occultation shadow for most events that are visible from Earth. Airborne observations are carried out above any clouds and are nearly free of scintillation noise from the Earth's atmosphere. KAO occultation observations resulted in the first detection of gravity waves in the Martian atmosphere, discovery of the Uranian rings, the first detection of Pluto's atmosphere, the first Earth-based investigations of Triton's atmosphere, and the discovery of narrow jets from Chiron's nucleus. The first SOFIA occultation opportunity will be an investigation of Pluto's atmospheric structure in November, 2002, and will resolve a problem that has lingered since the KAO discovery observation fourteen years earlier. We plan to continue our successful airborne occultation program with the greatly enhanced capability provided by SOFIA. We propose here to replace our KAO occultation photometer with one having twice the throughput, half the noise, a somewhat wider wavelength range, four times the field of view, and ten times the frame rate to optimize its performance and to capitalize on the larger collecting area offered by SOFIA. It will also allow for simultaneous visible and IR occultation observations, greatly enriching the results that we can obtain from occultations. We call this new imaging occultation photometer HOPI (High-speed Occultation Photometer and Imager). HOPI will provide a signal-to-noise ratio two to four times that of our present photometer for a given

  20. NASA's future Earth observation plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Paules, Granville E.; McCuistion Ramesh, J. D.

    2004-11-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate, working with its domestic and international partners, provides accurate, objective scientific data and analysis to advance our understanding of Earth system processes. Learning more about these processes will enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards. Earth interactions occur on a continuum of spatial and temporal scales ranging from short-term weather to long-term climate, and from local and regional to global. Quantitatively describing these changes means precisely measuring from space scores of biological and geophysical parameters globally. New missions that SMD will launch in the coming decade will complement the first series of the Earth Observing System. These next generation systematic measurement missions are being planned to extend or enhance the record of science-quality data necessary for understanding and predicting global change. These missions include the NPOESS Preparatory Project, Ocean Surface Topography Mission, Global Precipitation Measurement, Landsat Data Continuity Mission, and an aerosol polarimetry mission called Glory. New small explorer missions will make first of a kind Earth observations. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory will measure sources and sinks of carbon to help the Nation and the world formulate effective strategies to constrain the amount of this greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Aquarius will measure ocean surface salinity which is key to ocean circulation in the North Atlantic that produces the current era's mild climate in northern Europe. HYDROS will measure soil moisture globally. Soil moisture is critical to agriculture and to managing fresh water resources. NASA continues to design, develop and launch the Nation's civilian operational environmental satellites, in both polar and geostationary orbits, by agreement with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NASA plans to develop an advanced atmospheric sounder, GIFTS, for

  1. Results of Observations of Occultations of Stars by Main-Belt and Trojan Asteroids, and the Promise of Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David W.; Herald, David Russell; Preston, Steven; Loader, Brian; Bixby Dunham, Joan

    2016-10-01

    For 40 years, the sizes and shapes of scores of asteroids have been determined from observations of asteroidal occultations, and many hundreds of high-precision positions of the asteroids relative to stars have been measured. Earlier this year, the 3000th observation of an asteroidal occultation was documented. Some of the first evidence for satellites of asteroids was obtained from the early efforts; now, the orbits and sizes of some satellites discovered by other means have been refined from occultation observations. Also, several close binary stars have been discovered, and the angular diameters of some stars have been measured from analysis of these observations. The International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) coordinates this activity worldwide, from predicting and publicizing the events, to accurately timing the occultations from as many stations as possible, and publishing and archiving the observations. The first observations were timed visually, but now nearly all observations are either video-recorded, or recorded with CCD drift scans, allowing small magnitude-drop events to be recorded, and resulting in more consistent results. Techniques have been developed allowing one or two observers to set up multiple stations with small telescopes, video cameras, and timers, thereby recording many chords, even across a whole asteroid; some examples will be shown.Later this year, the first release of Gaia data will allow us to greatly improve the vast star catalog that we use for both predicting and analyzing these events. Although the first asteroidal data will wait until the 4th Gaia release, before that, we can greatly improve the orbits of asteroids that have occulted 3 or more stars in the past so that we can start computing the paths of future occultations by them to few km accuracy. In a couple of years, we'll be able to realistically predict one to two orders of magnitude more events than we can now, allowing efforts to be concentrated on smaller

  2. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  3. Pluto’s Atmosphere from the 23 June 2011 Stellar Occultation: Airborne and Ground Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Person, Michael J.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S. E.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Dunham, E. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Pandey, S.; Armhein, D.; Sallum, S.; Tholen, D. J.; Collins, P.; Bida, T.; Taylor, B.; Wolf, J.; Meyer, A.; Pfueller, E.; Wiedermann, M.; Roesser, H.; Lucas, R.; Kakkala, M.; Ciotti, J.; Plunkett, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Best, W.; Pilger, E. L.; Miceli, M.; Springmann, A.; Hicks, M.; Thackeray, B.; Emery, J.; Rapoport, S.; Ritchie, I.

    2012-10-01

    The double stellar occultation by Pluto and Charon of 2011 June 23 was observed from numerous ground stations as well as the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This first airborne occultation observation since 1995 resulted in the best occultation chords recorded for the event, in three optical wavelength bands. The data obtained from SOFIA were combined with chords obtained from the ground at the IRTF (including a full spectral light curve), the USNO--Flagstaff Station, and Leeward Community College to give a detailed profile of Pluto’s atmosphere. The data show a return to the distinct upper and lower atmospheric regions with a knee, or kink in the light curves separating them as was observed in 1988 (Millis et al. 1993), rather than the smoothly transitioning bowl-shaped light curves of recent years (Elliot et al. 2007). We analyze the upper atmosphere by fitting a model to all of the light curves obtained, resulting in a half-light radius of 1288 ± 1 km. We analyze the lower atmosphere with two different methods to provide results under the separate assumptions of particulate haze and a strong thermal gradient. Results indicate that the lower atmosphere evolves on short seasonal timescales, changing between 1988 and 2006, and then returning to approximately the 1988 state in 2011, though at significantly higher pressures. Throughout these changes, the upper atmosphere remains remarkably stable in structure, again excepting the overall pressure changes. No evidence of the onset of atmospheric collapse predicted by frost migration models is yet seen, and the atmosphere appears to be remaining at a stable pressure level. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants to MIT (NNX10AB27G) and Williams College (NNX08AO50G, NNH11ZDA001N), as well as grants from USRA (#8500-98-003) and Ames Research (#NAS2-97-01) to Lowell Observatory.

  4. Spatial irregularities in Jupiter's upper ionosphere observed by Voyager radio occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    Radio scintillations (at 3.6 and 13 cm) produced by scattering from ionospheric irregularities during the Voyager occultations are interpreted using a weak-scattering theory. Least squares solutions for ionospheric parameters derived from the observed fluctuation spectra yield estimates of (1) the axial ratio, (2) angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities, (3) the power law exponent of the spatial spectrum of irregularities, and (4) the magnitude of the spatial variations in electron density. It is shown that the measured angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities indicates magnetic field direction and may provide a basis for refining Jovian magnetic field models.

  5. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  6. THE 2011 JUNE 23 STELLAR OCCULTATION BY PLUTO: AIRBORNE AND GROUND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S. E.

    On 2011 June 23, stellar occultations by both Pluto (this work) and Charon (future analysis) were observed from numerous ground stations as well as the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This first airborne occultation observation since 1995 with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory resulted in the best occultation chords recorded for the event, in three visible wavelength bands. The data obtained from SOFIA are combined with chords obtained from the ground at the IRTF, the U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, and Leeward Community College to give the detailed state of the Pluto-Charon system at the time of the event withmore » a focus on Pluto's atmosphere. The data show a return to the distinct upper and lower atmospheric regions with a knee or kink in the light curve separating them as was observed in 1988, rather than the smoothly transitioning bowl-shaped light curves of recent years. The upper atmosphere is analyzed by fitting a model to all of the light curves, resulting in a half-light radius of 1288 {+-} 1 km. The lower atmosphere is analyzed using two different methods to provide results under the differing assumptions of particulate haze and a strong thermal gradient as causes for the lower atmospheric diminution of flux. These results are compared with those from past occultations to provide a picture of Pluto's evolving atmosphere. Regardless of which lower atmospheric structure is assumed, results indicate that this part of the atmosphere evolves on short timescales with results changing the light curve structures between 1988 and 2006, and then reverting these changes in 2011 though at significantly higher pressures. Throughout these changes, the upper atmosphere remains remarkably stable in structure, again except for the overall pressure changes. No evidence of onset of atmospheric collapse predicted by frost migration models is seen, and the atmosphere appears to be remaining at a stable pressure level, suggesting it

  7. The Burst and Transient Source Experiment(BATSE)Earth Occultation Catalog of Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources. Short title: BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog v2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Connaughton, V.; Henze, W.; Paciesas, W. S.; Finger, M. H.; McCollough, M. L.; Sahi, M.; Peterson, B.

    2003-01-01

    limiting average flux level (9.1 y) for the sample varies from 3.5 to 20 mCrab (5delta) between 20 and 430 keV, depending on systematic error, which in turn is primarily dependent on the sky location. To strengthen the credibility of detection of weaker sources (approx.5-25 mCrab), we generated Earth occultation images, searched for periodic behavior using FFT and epoch folding methods, and critically evaluated the energy-dependent emission in the four flux bands. The deep sample results are intended for guidance in performing future all-sky surveys or pointed observations in the hard X-ray and low-energy gamma-ray band, as well as more detailed studies with the BATSE EOT.

  8. Earth Observing System Data Gateway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe; Amrhein, James; Sefert, Ed; Marsans, Lorena; Solomon, Mark; Nestler, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Data Gateway (EDG) software provides a "one-stop-shopping" standard interface for exploring and ordering Earth-science data stored at geographically distributed sites. EDG enables a user to do the following: 1) Search for data according to high-level criteria (e.g., geographic location, time, or satellite that acquired the data); 2) Browse the results of a search, viewing thumbnail sketches of data that satisfy the user s criteria; and 3) Order selected data for delivery to a specified address on a chosen medium (e.g., compact disk or magnetic tape). EDG consists of (1) a component that implements a high-level client/server protocol, and (2) a collection of C-language libraries that implement the passing of protocol messages between an EDG client and one or more EDG servers. EDG servers are located at sites usually called "Distributed Active Archive Centers" (DAACs). Each DAAC may allow access to many individual data items, called "granules" (e.g., single Landsat images). Related granules are grouped into collections called "data sets." EDG enables a user to send a search query to multiple DAACs simultaneously, inspect the resulting information, select browseable granules, and then order selected data from the different sites in a seamless fashion.

  9. Optical MEMS for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Noell, Wilfried; Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Freire, Marco; Guldimann, Benedikt; Kraft, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the relatively large number of optical Earth Observation missions at ESA, this area is interesting for new space technology developments. In addition to their compactness, scalability and specific task customization, optical MEMS could generate new functions not available with current technologies and are thus candidates for the design of future space instruments. Most mature components for space applications are the digital mirror arrays, the micro-deformable mirrors, the programmable micro diffraction gratings and tiltable micromirrors. A first selection of market-pull and techno-push concepts is done. In addition, some concepts are coming from outside Earth Observation. Finally two concepts are more deeply analyzed. The first concept is a programmable slit for straylight control for space spectro-imagers. This instrument is a push-broom spectroimager for which some images cannot be exploited because of bright sources in the field-of-view. The proposed concept consists in replacing the current entrance spectrometer slit by an active row of micro-mirrors. The MEMS will permit to dynamically remove the bright sources and then to obtain a field-of-view with an optically enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The second concept is a push-broom imager for which the acquired spectrum can be tuned by optical MEMS. This system is composed of two diffractive elements and a digital mirror array. The first diffractive element spreads the spectrum. A micromirror array is set at the location of the spectral focal plane. By putting the micro-mirrors ON or OFF, we can select parts of field-of-view or spectrum. The second diffractive element then recombines the light on a push-broom detector. Dichroics filters, strip filter, band-pass filter could be replaced by a unique instrument.

  10. Small-scale structure of the CO emission in S255 from lunar occultation observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schloerb, F. P.; Scoville, N. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Two lunar occultations of the S255 H II region/molecular cloud complex were observed in the 2.6 mm CO line during 1978 and 1979. The resolution obtained (between 4 arcsec and 7 arcsec) enables us to resolve bright sources that are much smaller than the 44 arcsec telescope beam. In addition to the large-scale structure (approximately 10 arcmin in size) seen in previous CO maps, the observations reveal two high-temperature emission regions in the cloud core associated with two compact infrared sources about 20 arcsec apart. The first CO hot spot is larger in size with a Gaussian width of 41 arcsec + or - 7 arcsec and a peak temperature of 65 K. Its center falls between the two small infrared sources S255 IRS1 and IRS2. The linear size and peak temperature of this source are remarkably similar to those in the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula. The second source is revealed from a discontinuous change in the CO line flux as the lunar limb crossed S255 IRS1. The size of this component is less than 7 arcsec; its temperature must exceed 200 K. No evidence is found for exceptionally high temperatures at the boundary of the two H II regions crossed during the occultations.

  11. Lunar occultations of Aldebaran and other late-type stars observed from Devasthal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richichi, A.; Sharma, S.; Pandey, A. K.; Pandey, R.; Sinha, T.; Norharizan, M. D.

    2018-02-01

    We report on lunar occultations of Aldebaran (α Tau) and other ten, mostly late-type, stars observed with the Devasthal 1.3-m telescope. We derive a detailed brightness profile for Aldebaran, confirming the presence of asymmetries already recently described in a related work. We test the origin of such asymmetries by means of simulations of the effect of scintillation on the reconstructed profiles. We also derive angular diameters for two M giants, Z Cnc and SAO 161635, which we discuss in the context of previous determinations. We find first-time companions around two other stars, SAO 161665 and WZ Psc, and we detect one more previously known binary, SAO 94060. This is the first systematic effort to observe lunar occultations events at this facility, and demonstrates the capability to carry out milliarcsecond-level investigations on sources down to ≈ 9 mag. We plan to continue this routine program in the coming years, eventually utilizing also the 3.6 m DOT telescope recently erected at Devasthal for deeper sensitivity and higher accuracy.

  12. Observations of the 8 December 1987 occultation of AG +40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; Bowell, E.; Nye, R. A.; Thompson, D. T.; White, N. M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    The occultation of AG+40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga on 8 December 1987 was observed at 13 sites in the United States, Japan, and China. At four sites the event was observed photoelectrically; the other observations were visual. A least-squares fit of a circular limb profile to the data gives a diameter of 227.6 + or - 1.9 km. However, this solution is inconsistent with a negative visual observation near the northern edge of the ground track. The inconsistency cannot be removed by assuming an elliptical profile. The data suggest that Bamberga, despite its low-amplitude lightcurve, may depart significantly from a spherical or ellipsoidal shape. The asteroid also appears to be at least 10 percent smaller than indicated by infrared radiometry.

  13. Observations of the 8 December 1987 occultation of AG+40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; Bowell, E.; Nye, R. A.; Thompson, D. T.; White, N. M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    The occultation of AG+40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga on 8 December 1987 was observed at 13 sites in the United States, Japan, and China. At four sites the event was observed photoelectrically; the other observations were visual. A least-squares fit of a circular limb profile to the data gives a diameter of 227.6 + or - 1.9 km. However, this solution is inconsistent with a negative visual observation near the northern edge of the ground track. The inconsistency cannot be removed by assuming an elliptical profile. The data suggest that Bamberga, despite its low-amplitude lightcurve, may depart significantly from a spherical or ellipsoidal shape. The asteroid also appears to be at least 10 percent smaller than indicated by infrared radiometry.

  14. Ultraviolet stellar occultation measurement of the H2 and O2 densities near 100 km in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Wasser, B.; Donahue, T. M.; Sharp, W. E.; Drake, J. F.; Riegler, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study designed to measure the density of H2 near 100 km in the earth's atmosphere from occultation of a star, Gamma Vel, by the earth's atmosphere at several wavelengths near the H2 absorption line at 1108.128 A by a spectrometer on an orbiting astronomical observatory. Measurement of the O2 density between 95 and 123 km is also reported. Attention is focused on testing the predictions of a model of the distribution of hydrogen constituents, H, H2, H2O, CH4, OH, and H2O in the upper atmosphere related to a theory of hydrogen escape developed by Hunten and Strobel (1974) and by Liu and Donahue (1974). The measured H2 densities are found to be in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions, whereas the measured O2 density profile generally agrees with the models except for a wavelike structure in the range 104-114 km.

  15. Titan solar occultation observations reveal transit spectra of a hazy world.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tyler D; Maltagliati, Luca; Marley, Mark S; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2014-06-24

    High-altitude clouds and hazes are integral to understanding exoplanet observations, and are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra. However, it is difficult to make inferences from these data because of the need to disentangle effects of gas absorption from haze extinction. Here, we turn to the quintessential hazy world, Titan, to clarify how high-altitude hazes influence transit spectra. We use solar occultation observations of Titan's atmosphere from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Cassini spacecraft to generate transit spectra. Data span 0.88-5 μm at a resolution of 12-18 nm, with uncertainties typically smaller than 1%. Our approach exploits symmetry between occultations and transits, producing transit radius spectra that inherently include the effects of haze multiple scattering, refraction, and gas absorption. We use a simple model of haze extinction to explore how Titan's haze affects its transit spectrum. Our spectra show strong methane-absorption features, and weaker features due to other gases. Most importantly, the data demonstrate that high-altitude hazes can severely limit the atmospheric depths probed by transit spectra, bounding observations to pressures smaller than 0.1-10 mbar, depending on wavelength. Unlike the usual assumption made when modeling and interpreting transit observations of potentially hazy worlds, the slope set by haze in our spectra is not flat, and creates a variation in transit height whose magnitude is comparable to those from the strongest gaseous-absorption features. These findings have important consequences for interpreting future exoplanet observations, including those from NASA's James Webb Space Telescope.

  16. Titan solar occultation observations reveal transit spectra of a hazy world

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Maltagliati, Luca; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    High-altitude clouds and hazes are integral to understanding exoplanet observations, and are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra. However, it is difficult to make inferences from these data because of the need to disentangle effects of gas absorption from haze extinction. Here, we turn to the quintessential hazy world, Titan, to clarify how high-altitude hazes influence transit spectra. We use solar occultation observations of Titan’s atmosphere from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Cassini spacecraft to generate transit spectra. Data span 0.88–5 μm at a resolution of 12–18 nm, with uncertainties typically smaller than 1%. Our approach exploits symmetry between occultations and transits, producing transit radius spectra that inherently include the effects of haze multiple scattering, refraction, and gas absorption. We use a simple model of haze extinction to explore how Titan’s haze affects its transit spectrum. Our spectra show strong methane-absorption features, and weaker features due to other gases. Most importantly, the data demonstrate that high-altitude hazes can severely limit the atmospheric depths probed by transit spectra, bounding observations to pressures smaller than 0.1–10 mbar, depending on wavelength. Unlike the usual assumption made when modeling and interpreting transit observations of potentially hazy worlds, the slope set by haze in our spectra is not flat, and creates a variation in transit height whose magnitude is comparable to those from the strongest gaseous-absorption features. These findings have important consequences for interpreting future exoplanet observations, including those from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope. PMID:24876272

  17. Earth Observing-1 Extended Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Since November 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission has demonstrated the capabilities of a dozen spacecraft sensor and communication innovations. Onboard the EO-1 spacecraft are two land remote sensing instruments. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) acquires data in spectral bands and at resolutions similar to Landsat. The Hyperion instrument, which is the first civilian spaceborne hyperspectral imager, acquires data in 220 10-nanometer bands covering the visible, near, and shortwave-infrared bands. The initial one-year technology demonstration phase of the mission included a detailed comparison of ALI with the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument. Specifications for the Operational Land Imager (OLI), the planned successor to ETM+, were formulated in part from performance characteristics of ALI. Recognizing the remarkable performance of the satellite's instruments and the exceptional value of the data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA agreed in December 2001 to share responsibility for operating EO-1. The extended mission continues, on a cost-reimbursable basis, as long as customer sales fully recover flight and ground operations costs. As of May 2005, more than 17,800 scenes from each instrument have been acquired, indexed, archived, and made available to the public.

  18. Earth Observing-1 Extended Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    From its beginning in November 2000, the NASA Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission demonstrated the feasibility and performance of a dozen innovative sensor, spacecraft, and operational technologies. The 1-year mission tested a variety of technologies, some of which may be included on the planned 2007 Landsat Data Continuity Mission. Onboard the spacecraft are two land remote sensing instruments: the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), which acquires data in spectral bands and at resolutions similar to Landsat, and Hyperion, which acquires data in 220 10-nanometer-wide bands covering the visible, near-, and shortwave-infrared bands. Recognizing the remarkable performance of the satellite's instruments and the exceptional value of the data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA agreed in December 2001 to share responsibility for operating EO-1 on a cost-reimbursable basis as long as customer sales are sufficient to recover flight and ground operations costs. The EO-1 extended mission operates within constraints imposed by its technology-pioneering origins, but it also provides unique and valuable capabilities. The spacecraft can acquire a target scene three times in a 16-day period. The ALI instrument has additional spectral coverage and greater radiometric dynamic range compared with the sensors on Landsat 7. Hyperion is the first civilian spaceborne hyperspectral imager. As of January 2003, more than 5,000 scenes had been acquired, indexed, and archived.

  19. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  20. Atmospheric soundings by SPICAM occultation observations: aerosol and ozone vertical profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmessin, F.

    2005-12-01

    The SPICAM instrument is a highly versatile, dual spectrometer probing both the UV and the NIR spectral region and is currently flying around Mars onboard Mars Express. Since the beginning of MEx operations, SPICAM has collected about thousand atmospheric profiles while observing in a solar or a stellar occultation mode. UV spectra bear the signatures of several species; i.e carbon dioxide, ozone and aerosols, while infrared spectra potentially bring information on atmospheric condensates and on water vapor. This presentation will focus on the measured aerosol, ozone and water vapor profiles. For the aerosol, we will emphasize the numerous observations made in the polar night and will also discuss some high altitude clouds discovered in the southern hemisphere. Ozone and water vapor profiles will be presented along with some General Circulation Model comparisons. This work has been supported by CNES.

  1. Earth observations during STS-89

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-26

    STS089-743-004 (22-31 Jan. 1998) --- This picture showing Auckland Island, New Zealand was photographed with a 70mm handheld camera from the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Endeavour. A spectacular occurrence of internal waves in the ocean is visible in the wake of the island. These waves can be generated by currents or, in some cases, wind across the island. In this case, the observation was that these waves were visible after the sunglint disappeared, suggesting current generated effects. If so, the circum-polar current that moves west-east around Antarctica would generate the scalloped appearance in the water east of the island. There is characteristically very little surface expression to these waves so they would not be noticed by a ship in this region. Fundamental processes of oceanic circulation and interaction are poorly understood. These shots help oceanographers model the dynamics of the open ocean and work out mixing models for ocean layer and ocean-air interaction (important for modeling CO2 budget, for example). The long linear valleys and bays have been excavated by glaciers cutting into this long-extinct volcano. This island is located on the submerged Campbell Plateau, which is an area almost as large as the exposed land of South Island, New Zealand. Scientists report that the plateau was submerged when New Zealand, Antarctica and Australia separated "around 75 million years ago." This could be viewed as one of the tallest mountains on the plateau. Usually the weather in this area is bad so this photo opportunity was considered a "great catch." Photo credit: NASA

  2. Internal gravity waves in Titan's atmosphere observed by Voyager radio occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    The radio scintillations caused by scattering from small-scale irregularities in Titan's neutral atmosphere during a radio occultation of Voyager 1 by Titan are investigated. Intensity and frequency fluctuations occurred on time scales from about 0.1 to 1.0 sec at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths whenever the radio path passed within 90 km of the surface, indicating the presence of variations in refractivity on length scales from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. Above 25 km, the altitude profile of intensity scintillations closely agrees with the predictions of a simple theory based on the characteristics of internal gravity waves propagating with little or no attenuation through the vertical stratification in Titan's atmosphere. These observations support a hypothesis of stratospheric gravity waves, possibly driven by a cloud-free convective region in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere.

  3. Large Binocular Telescope Observations of Europa Occulting Io's Volcanoes at 4.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Conrad, Albert; Resnick, Aaron; Leisenring, Jarron; Hinz, Phil; de Pater, Imke; de Kleer, Katherine; Spencer, John; Skemer, Andrew; Woodward, Charles E.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Defrére, Denis

    2015-11-01

    On 8 March 2015 Europa passed nearly centrally in front of Io. The Large Binocular Telescope observed this event in dual-aperture AO-corrected Fizeau interferometric imaging mode using the mid-infrared imager LMIRcam operating behind the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) at a broadband wavelength of 4.8 μm (M-band). Occultation light curves generated from frames recorded every 123 milliseconds show that both Loki and Pele/Pillan were well resolved. Europa's center shifted by 2 kilometers relative to Io from frame-to-frame. The derived light curve for Loki is consistent with the double-lobed structure reported by Conrad et al. (2015) using direct interferometric imaging with LBTI.

  4. Deep Space Earth Observations from DSCOVR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, A.; Herman, J.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) at Sun-Earth L1 orbit observes the full sunlit disk of Earth. There are two Earth science instruments on board DSCOVR — EPIC and NISTAR. We discuss if EPIC and NISAR-like instruments can be used in Deep Space Gateway.

  5. An observational study of the nightside ionospheres of Mars and Venus with radio occultation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.H.G.; Luhmann, J.G.; Kliore, A.J.

    1990-10-01

    An analysis of Mars and Venus nightside electron density profiles obtained with radio occultation methods shows how the nightside ionospheres of both planets vary with solar zenith angle. From previous studies it is known that the dayside peak electron densities at Mars and Venus show a basic similarity in that they both exhibit Chapman layer-like behavior. In contrast, the peak altitudes at mars behave like an ideal Chapman layer on the dayside, whereas the altitude of the peak at Venus is fairly constant up to the terminator. The effect of major dust storms can also be seen in the peakmore » altitudes at Mars. All Venus nightside electron density profiles show a distinct main peak for both solar minimum and maximum, whereas many profiles from the nightside of Mars do not show any peak at all. This suggests that the electron density in the Mars nightside ionosphere is frequently too low to be detected by radio occultation. On the Pioneer Venus orbiter, disappearing ionospheres were observed near solar maximum in the in-situ data when the solar wind dynamic pressure was exceptionally high. This condition occurs because the high solar wind dynamic pressure decreases the altitude of the ionopause near the terminator below {approximately}250 km, thus reducing the normal nightward transport of dayside ionospheric plasma. On the basis of the Venus observations, one might predict that if a positive correlation of nightside peak density with dynamic pressure was found, it could mean that transport from the dayside is the only significant source for the nightside ionosphere of Mars. The lack of a correlation would imply that the precipitation source at Mars is quite variable.« less

  6. Observing atmospheric blocking with GPS radio occultation - one decade of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Lukas; Steiner, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric blocking has received a lot of attention in recent years due to its impact on mid-latitude circulation and subsequently on weather extremes such as cold and warm spells. So far blocking studies have been based mainly on re-analysis data or model output. However, it has been shown that blocking frequency exhibits considerable inter-model spread in current climate models. Here we use one decade (2006 to 2016) of satellite-based observations from GPS radio occultation (RO) to analyze blocking in RO data building on work by Brunner et al. (2016). Daily fields on a 2.5°×2.5° longitude-latitude grid are calculated by applying an adequate gridding strategy to the RO measurements. For blocking detection we use a standard blocking detection algorithm based on 500 hPa geopotential height (GPH) gradients. We investigate vertically resolved atmospheric variables such as GPH, temperature, and water vapor before, during, and after blocking events to increase process understanding. Moreover, utilizing the coverage of the RO data set, we investigate global blocking frequencies. The main blocking regions in the northern and southern hemisphere are identified and the (vertical) atmospheric structure linked to blocking events is compared. Finally, an inter-comparison of results from RO data to different re-analyses, such as ERA-Interim, MERRA 2, and JRA-55, is presented. Brunner, L., A. K. Steiner, B. Scherllin-Pirscher, and M. W. Jury (2016): Exploring atmospheric blocking with GPS radio occultation observations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4593-4604, doi:10.5194/acp-16-4593-2016.

  7. Hard X-Ray Emission from Partially Occulted Solar Flares: RHESSI Observations in Two Solar Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Effenberger, Frederic; Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé

    2017-02-01

    Flares close to the solar limb, where the footpoints are occulted, can reveal the spectrum and structure of the coronal looptop source in X-rays. We aim at studying the properties of the corresponding energetic electrons near their acceleration site, without footpoint contamination. To this end, a statistical study of partially occulted flares observed with Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager is presented here, covering a large part of solar cycles 23 and 24. We perform detailed spectra, imaging, and light curve analyses for 116 flares and include contextual observations from SDO and STEREO when available, providing further insights into flaremore » emission that were previously not accessible. We find that most spectra are fitted well with a thermal component plus a broken power-law, non-thermal component. A thin-target kappa distribution model gives satisfactory fits after the addition of a thermal component. X-ray imaging reveals small spatial separation between the thermal and non-thermal components, except for a few flares with a richer coronal source structure. A comprehensive light curve analysis shows a very good correlation between the derivative of the soft X-ray flux (from GOES ) and the hard X-rays for a substantial number of flares, indicative of the Neupert effect. The results confirm that non-thermal particles are accelerated in the corona and estimated timescales support the validity of a thin-target scenario with similar magnitudes of thermal and non-thermal energy fluxes.« less

  8. Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

  9. GNSS Radio Occultation Observations as a data source for Ionospheric Assimilation: COSMIC-1 & COSMIC-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X.; Schreiner, W. S.; Kuo, Y. H.

    2014-12-01

    Since the pioneer GPS/MET mission, low Earth orbit (LEO) based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Radio Occultation (RO) technique has been a powerful technique in ionosphere monitoring. After that, many LEO satellites were launched with RO payload, include: CHAMP , GRACE, SAC-C/D, COSMIC, C/NOFS, Metop-A/B, TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X, and etc. COSMIC was the first constellation of satellites dedicated primarily to RO and delivering RO data in near real time. Currently in UCAR CDAAC, we process most of these missions' RO data for the community. Due to the success of COSMIC mission, a follow on mission called COSMIC-2 will be launched in 2016 and 2018, respectively. The COSMIC-2 RO data will be 4-6 times of COSMIC due to the doubled satellite and GNSS signals. In this paper we will describe: (1) Data process and quality in UCAR/CDAAC; (2) Ionospheric data assimilation results based on COSMIC data; (3) OSSE study for COSMIC-2.

  10. Solar Array and Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-07

    ISS036-E-047951 (7 Sept. 2013) --- Backdropped by a blue and white part of Earth and the blackness of space, International Space Station solar array panels are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member aboard the station.

  11. Occultation and Triangulation Camera (OcTriCam) Cubesat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, D. A.

    2018-02-01

    A camera at Earth-Moon L2 would provide a 240,000 km triangulation baseline to augment near-Earth object observations with Earth-based telescopes such as Pan-STARRS, and planetary occultation research to refine ephemerides and probe ring systems.

  12. The GNSS polarimetric radio-occultation technique to sense precipitation events: a new concept to be tested aboard PAZ Low Earth Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, Sergio; Oliveras, Santi; Cardellach, Estel; Rius, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation (ROHP) experiment, to be conducted aboard the Spanish PAZ satellite, consists of a radio occultation (RO) mission provided with dual-polarization capabilities. The research with polarimetric RO data has the goal of assessing the capabilities and limitations of this technique to infer profiles of heavy precipitation. The technique aims to provide vertical profiles of precipitation simultaneously to the vertical profiles of thermodynamic parameters (standard RO products) perfectly collocated both in space and time. If successful, the polarimetric RO will represent the first technique able to provide these complementary information on precipitation. This is a relevant input for studies on heavy and violent rainfall events, which being poorly represented by the current-generation of Numerical Weather Prediction and General Circulation Models appear to be difficult to forecast on all time-scales. The Low Earth Orbiter hosting this experiment, to be launched in 2013, will orbit at 500 km altitude in a near-Polar orbit. The Radio Occulation payload includes a RO GNSS receiver and a dual polarization (H/V) limb oriented antenna to capture the signals of setting GNSS transmitters. NOAA and UCAR participate in the ground-segment of the radiometric experiment to enable near-real time dissemination of the level-1 standard RO products. The space-based GNSS RO technique scans the atmosphere vertically at fine resolution (close to 300 meter in the troposphere) by precisely measure the delay between a GNSS transmitter and a GNSS receiver aboard a Low Earth Orbiter, when the former is setting below or rising above the Earth limb. The standard, thermodynamical, products are extracted from the excess delay induced by the atmosphere at different layers. This presentation will not focus on this well-established application, but a novel concept using polarimetry to also retrieve rain information. The precipitation-measurement principle is

  13. Occult pneumothorax in the blunt trauma patient: tube thoracostomy or observation?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Heather; Ellsmere, James; Tallon, John; Kirkpatrick, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    The term occult pneumothorax (OP) describes a pneumothorax that is not suspected on the basis of either clinical examination or initial chest radiography, but is subsequently detected on computed tomography (CT) scan. The optimal management of OP in the blunt trauma setting remains controversial. Some physicians favour placement of a thoracostomy tube for patients with OP, particularly those undergoing positive pressure ventilation (PPV), while others favour close observation without chest drainage. This study was conducted both to determine the incidence of OP and to describe its current treatment status in the blunt trauma population at a Canadian tertiary trauma centre. Of interest were the rates of tube thoracostomy vs. observation without chest drainage and their respective outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted of the Nova Scotia Trauma Registry. The data on all consecutive blunt trauma patients between October 1994 and March 2003 was reviewed. Outcome measures evaluated include length of stay, discharge status-dead vs. alive, intervention and time to intervention (tube thoracostomy and its relation to institution of PPV). Direct comparison was made between the OP with tube thoracostomy group and OP without tube thoracostomy group (observation or control group). They were compared in terms of their baseline characteristics and outcome measures. In 1881 consecutive blunt trauma patients over a 102-month period there were 307 pneumothoraces of which 68 were occult. Thirty five patients with OP underwent tube thoracostomy, 33 did not. Twenty nine (82.8%) with tube thoracostomy received positive pressure ventilation (PPV), as did 16 (48.4%) in the observation group. Mean injury severity score (ISS) for tube thoracostomy and observation groups were similar (25.80 and 22.39, p=0.101) whereas length of stay (LOS) was different (17.4 and 10.0 days, p=0.026). Mortality was similar (11.4% and 9.1%). There were no tension pneumothoraces. The natural history of

  14. STS-61A earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-02

    61A-43-029 (2 Nov 1985) --- This view, photographed from the Earth orbiting Challenger, features a vertical view of the Okavango Swamp in Botswana. Center coordinates are 19.0 degrees south latitude and 22.5 degrees east longitude. The Challenger was flying at an altitude of 177 nautical miles when the photo was taken with a 70mm handheld Hasselblad camera.

  15. Earth Observation Services (Forest Imaging)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Two university professors used EOCAP funding to demonstrate that satellite data can generate forest classifications with equal or better accuracy than traditional aerial photography techniques. This comparison had not been previously available. CALFIRST, the resulting processing package, will be marketed to forest companies and government agencies. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of, NASA- developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  16. STS-61A earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-10-30

    61A-31-005 (30 Oct 1985) --- This almost vertical view, photographed from Earth-orbit by an STS-61A crew member, centers on the metropolis of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and some of the adjacent Lake Michigan shoreline, southward toward the Illinois border. The 70mm frame was photographed on the first day of the Spacelab D-1 mission with a handheld Hasselblad camera.

  17. Modeling of the Enceladus water vapor jets for interpreting UVIS star and solar occultation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portyankina, Ganna; Esposito, Larry W.; Aye, Klaus-Michael; Hansen, Candice J.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most spectacular discoveries of the Cassini mission is jets emitting from the southern pole of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The composition of the jets is water vapor and salty ice grains with traces of organic compounds. Jets, merging into a wide plume at a distance, are observed by multiple instruments on Cassini. Recent observations of the visible dust plume by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) identified as many as 98 jet sources located along “tiger stripes” [Porco et al. 2014]. There is a recent controversy on the question if some of these jets are “optical illusion” caused by geometrical overlap of continuous source eruptions along the “tiger stripes” in the field of view of ISS [Spitale et al. 2015]. The Cassini’s Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed occultations of several stars and the Sun by the water vapor plume of Enceladus. During the solar occultation separate collimated gas jets were detected inside the background plume [Hansen et al., 2006 and 2011]. These observations directly provide data about water vapor column densities along the line of sight of the UVIS instrument and could help distinguish between the presence of only localized or also continuous sources. We use Monte Carlo simulations and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to model the plume of Enceladus with multiple (or continuous) jet sources. The models account for molecular collisions, gravitational and Coriolis forces. The models result in the 3-D distribution of water vapor density and surface deposition patterns. Comparison between the simulation results and column densities derived from UVIS observations provide constraints on the physical characteristics of the plume and jets. The specific geometry of the UVIS observations helps to estimate the production rates and velocity distribution of the water molecules emitted by the individual jets.Hansen, C. J. et al., Science 311:1422-1425 (2006); Hansen, C. J. et al, GRL 38:L11202 (2011

  18. The Northrop Grumman External Occulter Testbed: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Amy; Glassman, T.; Lillie, C.

    2007-05-01

    We have built a subscale testbed to demonstrate and validate the performance of the New Worlds Observer (NWO), a terrestrial planet finder external-occulter mission concept. The external occulter concept allows observations of nearby exo-Earths using two spacecraft: one carrying an occulter that is tens of meters in diameter and the other carrying a generic space telescope. The occulter is completely opaque, resembling a flower, with petals having a hypergaussian profile that enable 10-10 intensity suppression of stars that potentially harbor terrestrial planets. The baseline flight NWO system has a 30 meter occulter flying 30,000 km in front of a 4 meter class telescope. Testing the flight configuration on the ground is not feasible, so we have matched the Fresnel number of the flight configuration ( 10) using a subscale occulter. Our testbed consists of an 80 meter length evacuated tube, with a high precision occulter in the center of the tube. The occulter is 4 cm in diameter, manufactured with ¼ micron metrological accuracy and less than 2 micron tip truncation. This mimics a 30 meter occulter with millimeter figure accuracy and less than centimeter tip truncation. Our testbed is an evolving experiment, and we report here the first, preliminary, results using a single wavelength laser (532 nm) as the source.

  19. First Observations of a Stellar Occultation by KBO (50000) Quaoar from MIT's George R. Wallace, Jr., Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallum, Stephanie; Brothers, T.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Zangari, A.; Zuluaga, C.; Levine, S.; Bright, L.; Sheppard, S.; Tilleman, T.

    2011-05-01

    Here we report the first recorded observations of a stellar occultation by Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) (50000) Quaoar. We detected a single-chord stellar occultation by Quaoar of a magnitude 16.2 star designated 26029635 UCAC2 (2MASS ID 1275509401), which occurred on 11 February 2011 UT. The prediction of the occultation was made using long baseline astrometric observations of Quaoar from several sites as part of the MIT Planetary Astronomy Laboratory's continuing effort to improve KBO positions for occultation prediction. The successful observations were made with a Celestron C14 0.36 m telescope and an SBIG STL-1001E CCD camera on a Paramount ME robotic mount. These observations show that a relatively accessible level of astronomical equipment, of the class often used by amateur astronomers, can be used to record KBO occultations. The data were taken at MIT's George R. Wallace, Jr., Astrophysical Observatory in Westford, MA. A light curve was generated from the data using aperture photometry on the individual images and is presented here. This light curve is being analyzed by Person et al. (this meeting) to provide constraints on Quaoar's size. We also discuss various observing strategies that could be used in the future to optimize the data from this type of event. This work was supported in part by grant NNX10AB27G to MIT from NASA's Planetary Astronomy Division. Student participation was supported in part by NSF's REU program, MIT's Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant, and the George R. Wallace, Jr., Astrophysical Observatory.

  20. NASA's mission to planet Earth: Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: global climate change; radiation, clouds, and atmospheric water; the ocean; the troposphere - greenhouse gases; land cover and the water cycle; polar ice sheets and sea level; the stratosphere - ozone chemistry; volcanoes; the Earth Observing System (EOS) - how NASA will support studies of global climate change?; research and assessment - EOS Science Investigations; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); EOS observations - instruments and spacecraft; a national international effort; and understanding the Earth System.

  1. Studies in occultation astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1980-01-01

    Major scientific results are summarized for the following studies: (1) observations of the 8 April 1976 occultation of epsilon Geminorum by Mars; (2) studies in occultation techniques; and (3) the March 1974 occultation of Saturn by the Moon. A re-analysis of the 1974 lunar occultation of the Titan indicates that Titan is strongly limb darkened, with D approximately greater than 5800km; there is internal evidence in the data that Titan's atmosphere is inhomogeneous; and that observations are inconsistent with any sample homogeneous model atmosphere which matches the P (lambda) and Beta (lambda) observations of Titan.

  2. The NASA Space Shuttle Earth Observations Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfert, Michael R.; Wood, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Space Shuttle Earth Observations Office conducts astronaut training in earth observations, provides orbital documentation for acquisition of data and catalogs, and analyzes the astronaut handheld photography upon the return of Space Shuttle missions. This paper provides backgrounds on these functions and outlines the data constraints, organization, formats, and modes of access within the public domain.

  3. STS-61A earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-01

    61A-39-052 (30 Oct-6 Nov 1985) --- This Earth view shows Quinhuangdao, China. The Great Wall of China can be seen in this photograph. The center coordinates are 40.0 north latitude and 120.0 east longitude. This photograph was taken from an altitude of 180 miles, on the 24th orbit of the Space Shuttle Challenger. The crew consists of astronauts Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., commander; Steven R. Nagel, pilot; mission specialists James F. Buchli, Guion S. Bluford, Jr., Bonnie J. Dunbar; payload specialists Reinhard Furrer (DFVLR), Ernst Messerschmid (DFVLR), and Wubbo J. Ockels (ESA).

  4. STS-61A earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-04

    61A-40-38 (30 Oct-6 Nov 1985) --- The coral reef forming the atoll of Midway sits atop a volcanic seamount that has descended more than 3,000 feet (1000 meters) below the sea surface in this ancient region of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. This view was taken by the crew members onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Challenger. The crew consisted of astronauts Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., commander; Steven R. Nagel, pilot; James F. Buchli, Guion S. Bluford, Jr., and Bonnie J. Dunbar, all mission specialists; Reinhard Furrer, Ernst Messerschmid, and Wubbo J. Ockels, all payload specialists. Ockels represents the European Space Agency (ESA).

  5. STS-61A earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-02

    61A-52-049 (30 Oct-6 Nov 1985) --- A 70mm image of the Strait of Dover area showing southeast England as photographed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Challenger by the astronaut crew members of the STS-61A mission. Center point coordinates in the handheld Hasselblad scene are 45.5 degrees north latitude and 0.5 degrees east longitude. Five NASA astronauts were joined by three European scientists for the week-long space flight, marking the largest roster on any Shuttle mission to date.

  6. Earth Observation Services Weather Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Microprocessor-based systems for processing satellite data offer mariners real-time images of weather systems, day and night, of large areas or allow them to zoom in on a few square miles. Systems West markets these commercial image processing systems, which have significantly decreased the cost of satellite weather stations. The company was assisted by the EOCAP program, which provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  7. Case study on complex sporadic E layers observed by GPS radio occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X.; Schreiner, W. S.; Zeng, Z.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Xue, X.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of sporadic E (Es) layers has been a hot scientific topic for a long time. The GNSS (global navigation satellite system)-based radio occultation (RO) has proven to be a powerful technique for detecting the global Es layers. In this paper, we focus on some cases of complex Es layers based on the RO data from multiple missions processed in UCAR/CDAAC (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) Data Analysis and Archive Center (CDAAC)). We first show some examples of multiple Es layers occurred in one RO event. Based on the evaluations between colocated simultaneous RO events and between RO and lidar observations, it could be concluded that some of these do manifest the multiple Es layer structures. We then show a case of the occurrence of Es in a broad region during a certain time interval. The result is then validated by independent ionosondes observations. It is possible to explain these complex Es structures using the popular wind shear theory. We could map the global Es occurrence routinely in the near future, given that more RO data will be available. Further statistical studies will enhance our understanding of the Es mechanism. The understanding of Es should benefit both Es-based long-distance communication and accurate neutral RO retrievals.

  8. Earth observations during STS-95

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-29

    STS089-703-056 (22-31 Jan. 1998) --- This oblique picture of Argentina and other parts of South America was photographed with a 70mm handheld camera from the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Endeavour. Looking westward across the continent, north is toward the upper right corner and the Atlantic Ocean is in the foreground. Rio de la Plata in the center (the confluence of Rio Uruguay and Rio Parana) shows a sediment plume generated by drainage of El Niño rains upslope in the Andean foothills. The sediment plume is possibly more extensive than usual and extends down the coast and out of the bay to the left (south). The city of Buenos Aires, Argentina (population 13 million) is at upper left, and at right center is the city of Montevideo, Uruguay (population 1.2 million). Photo credit: NASA

  9. STS-61A earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-10-31

    61A-51-045 (31 Oct 1985) --- San Francisco Bay and the San Andreas fault line stand out in this 70mm frame exposed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Challenger on October 31, 1985. The California coastline extends from Tomales Bay on the north almost to Santa Cruz (just out of frame) on the south. Parts of the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys are seen along the frame's right edge. Some of the bay's salt evaporators are recognizable by their unique hews, near Fremont and near Vallejo. Center point coordinates are located at 37.5 degrees north latitude and 122.5 degrees west longitude. The Challenger was 180 nautical miles directly above a point centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude and 126.5 degrees west longitude.

  10. Characteristics and climatology of mid-latitude F-region ionospheric irregularities observed by COSMIC radio occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, C.; Pedatella, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Small-medium scale ( 1-50 km) ionospheric plasma irregularities are a ubiquitous feature of the earth's F region ionosphere. COSMIC radio occultation measurements provide a valuable opportunity to improve upon the incomplete global observational picture of irregularity occurrence and characteristics. A climatological database of ionospheric irregularities and their characteristics (e.g. magnitude, scale size, gradient, and associated scintillation) has been developed through detection of total electron content (TEC) perturbations by COSMIC precise orbit determination (POD) antennas and associated receivers. Vertical scale sizes ranging from 1 to 50 km were resolved from 1 Hz TEC measurements stored in podTec files. Amplitude scintillation index (S4) of ScnLv1 files was used as a proxy for the occurrence of smaller scale (<1 km) scintillation producing structures. Four years of processed data (2007-2008 and 2012-2013) has revealed interesting climatological features of irregularity occurrence and characteristics. The presentation will focus on the results at mid-latitudes. One interesting mid-latitude feature is a high occurrence of irregularities in regions corresponding to the solar terminator. Perturbations larger than 0.1 TEC units (TECU) were observed 50%-80% of the time in terminator regions, with higher occurrence and more intense perturbations around sunset and during years of high solar activity. Altitude of peak occurrence of terminator irregularities was about 150 km, with a sharp upper-altitude cut-off of 250 km. The occurrence and characteristics of these irregularities are modified according to proximity to solar terminator location. A possible link to thermospheric neutral density perturbations also associated with the solar terminator will be discussed. The climatology of non-terminator mid-latitude irregularities is consistent with previous observations of mid-latitude field-aligned irregularities (FAIs), including a local-time dependent altitude

  11. NEOCE: a new external occulting coronagraph experiment for ultimate observations of the chromosphere, corona and interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc; Fineschi, Silvano; Kuzin, Sergey; Von Fay-Siebenburgen, Erdélyi Robert

    Several ground facilities and space missions are currently dedicated to the study of the Sun at high resolution and of the solar corona in particular. However, and despite significant progress with the advent of space missions and UV, EUV and XUV direct observations of the hot chromosphere and million-degrees coronal plasma, much is yet to be achieved in the understanding of these high temperatures, fine dynamic dissipative structures and of the coronal heating in general. Recent missions have shown the definite role of a wide range of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic and physically fundamental changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled and governed by the emerging magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. The solar corona consists of many localised loop-like structures or threads with the plasmas brightening and fading independently. The plasma evolution in each thread is believed to be related to the formation of filaments, each one being dynamic, in a non-equilibrium state. The mechanism sustaining this dynamics, oscillations or waves (Alfvén or other magneto-plasma waves), requires both very high-cadence, multi-spectral observations, and high resolution and coronal magnetometry. This is foreseen in the future Space Mission NEOCE (New External Occulting Coronagraph Experiment), the ultimate new generation high-resolution coronagraphic heliospheric mission, to be proposed for ESA M4. NEOCE, an evolution of the HiRISE mission, is ideally placed at the L5 Lagrangian point (for a better follow-up of CMEs), and provides FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (two satellites in formation flying 375 m apart minimizing scattered light) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and

  12. Hand gesture recognition in confined spaces with partial observability and occultation constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2016-05-01

    Human activity detection and recognition capabilities have broad applications for military and homeland security. These tasks are very complicated, however, especially when multiple persons are performing concurrent activities in confined spaces that impose significant obstruction, occultation, and observability uncertainty. In this paper, our primary contribution is to present a dedicated taxonomy and kinematic ontology that are developed for in-vehicle group human activities (IVGA). Secondly, we describe a set of hand-observable patterns that represents certain IVGA examples. Thirdly, we propose two classifiers for hand gesture recognition and compare their performance individually and jointly. Finally, we present a variant of Hidden Markov Model for Bayesian tracking, recognition, and annotation of hand motions, which enables spatiotemporal inference to human group activity perception and understanding. To validate our approach, synthetic (graphical data from virtual environment) and real physical environment video imagery are employed to verify the performance of these hand gesture classifiers, while measuring their efficiency and effectiveness based on the proposed Hidden Markov Model for tracking and interpreting dynamic spatiotemporal IVGA scenarios.

  13. Validation of the Earth atmosphere models using the EUV solar occultation data from the CORONAS and PROBA 2 instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Kuzin, Sergey; Berghmans, David; Pertsov, Andrey; Dominique, Marie; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin

    Absorption in the atmosphere below 500 km results in attenuation of the solar EUV flux, variation of its spectra and distortion of solar images acquired by solar EUV instruments operating on LEO satellites even on solar synchronous orbits. Occultation measurements are important for planning of solar observations from these satellites, and can be used for monitoring the upper atmosphere as well as for studying its response to the solar activity. We present the results of the occultation measurements of the solar EUV radiation obtained by the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope at high solar activity (2002), by the CORONAS-Photon/TESIS telescope at low activity (2009), and by the SWAP telescope and LYRA radiometer onboard the PROBA 2 satellite at moderate activity (2010). The measured attenuation profiles and the retrieved linear extinction coefficients at the heights 200-500 km are compared with simulations by the NRLMSIS-00 and DTM2013 atmospheric models. It was shown that the results of simulations by the DTM2013 model are well agreed with the data of measurements at all stages of solar activity and in presence of the geomagnetic storm, whereas the results of the NRLMSISE-00 model significantly diverge from the measurements, in particular, at high and low activity. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under Grant Agreement “eHeroes” (project No.284461, www.eheroes.eu).

  14. Earth observations during STS-89

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-30

    STS089-709-049 (22-31 Jan. 1998) --- This oblique photograph of Argentina and Chile was among several of South America photographed with a 70mm handheld camera from the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Endeavour. This part of Patagonia in Argentina and the lake district of Chile and Argentina are in southern South America between latitudes 40 degrees and 43 degrees. It is a beautiful alpine region noted for skiing and for the recent immigration of rich Americans and Europeans. On the west side of the Andes are a series of snow-capped volcanoes that are formed due to melting of sediments and portions of the Pacific Plate, which are being subducted beneath South America. East of the mountains the plains are barren and windswept, noted as having "the curse of sterility" by Charles Darwin. In the mountain regions some alpine valleys are filled by lovely lakes, such as Nahuel Huapi (in sunglint). The university town and ski resort of Bariloche, Argentina is the light area on the southeastern shore. In 1901 Robert Leroy Parker and Harry Longabaugh (aka Butch Cassidy and Sundance Kid) bought a ranch near the town of Cholila (lower left in the photo) with the proceeds of a robbery of the First National Bank of Winnemucca, Nevada. They lived there as successful ranchers until 1907, when they were reportedly forced to sell out and flee to Bolivia where their career ended at the hands of the Bolivian army. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 44 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-20

    ISS044E002419 (06/20/2015) --- This Earth observation of Iran was taken by members of Expedition 44 on the International Space Station on June 20, 2015. Described as "Earth Art" it is the western shore of Lake Urmia near Gülmanxana, Iran (~36.6N, 45.3E).

  16. USGEO Common Framework For Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; de la Beaujardiere, J.; Bristol, S.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) is an interagency body established by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The primary purpose of this group is to foster interagency cooperation and collaboration for improving the life cycle data management practices and interoperability of federally held earth observation data consistent with White House documents including the National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations, the National Plan for Civil Earth Observations, and the May 2013 Executive Order on Open Data (M-13-13). The members of the USGEO DMWG are working on developing a Common Framework for Earth Observation Data that consists of recommended standards and approaches for realizing these goals as well as improving the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of federally held earth observation data. These recommendations will also guide work being performed under the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI). This talk will summarize the Common Framework, the philosophy behind it, and next steps forward.

  17. Initial observations of the nightside ionosphere of venus from pioneer venus orbiter radio occultations.

    PubMed

    Kliore, A J; Patel, I R; Nagy, A F; Cravens, T E; Gombosi, T I

    1979-07-06

    Pioneer Venus orbiter dual-frequency radio occultation measurements have produced many electron density profiles of the nightside ionosphere of Venus. Thirty-six of these profiles, measured at solar zenith angles (chi) from 90.60 degrees to 163.5 degrees , are discussed here. In the "deep" nightside ionosphere (chi > 110 degrees ), the structure and magnitude of the ionization peak are highly variable; the mean peak electron density is 16,700 +/- 7,200 (standard deviation) per cubic centimeter. In contrast, the altitude of the peak remains fairly constant with a mean of 142.2 +/- 4.1 kilometers, virtually identical to the altitude of the main peak of the dayside terminator ionosphere. The variations in the peak ionization are not directly related to contemporal variations in the solar wind speed. It is shown that electron density distributions similar to those observed in both magnitude and structure can be produced by the precipitation on the nightside of Venus of electron fluxes of about 108 per square centimeter per second with energies less than 100 electron volts. This mechanism could very likely be responsible for the maintenance of the persistent nightside ionosphere of Venus, although transport processes may also be important.

  18. Radial distribution of compressive waves in the solar corona revealed by Akatsuki radio occultation observations

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Mayu; Imamura, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki

    Radial variations of the amplitude and the energy flux of compressive waves in the solar corona were explored for the first time using a spacecraft radio occultation technique. By applying wavelet analysis to the frequency time series taken at heliocentric distances of 1.5-20.5 R{sub S} (solar radii), quasi-periodic density disturbances were detected at almost all distances. The period ranges from 100 to 2000 s. The amplitude of the fractional density fluctuation increases with distance and reaches ∼30% around 5 R{sub S} , implying that nonlinearity of the wave field is potentially important. We further estimate the wave energy flux onmore » the assumption that the observed periodical fluctuations are manifestations of acoustic waves. The energy flux increases with distance below ∼6 R{sub S} and seems to saturate above this height, suggesting that the acoustic waves do not propagate from the low corona but are generated in the extended corona, probably through nonlinear dissipation of Alfvén waves. The compressive waves should eventually dissipate through shock generation to heat the corona.« less

  19. Earth observations during STS-89

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-04

    STS089-742-014 (22-31 Jan. 1998) --- This near-nadir picture of the central Andes, showing Santiago and other parts of Chile and Argentina, was photographed with a 70mm handheld camera from the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Endeavour. Santiago (population 4.7 million) is visible to the right of center, west of the snow-capped Andes Mountains. Mendoza, Argentina is the light spot in the upper center of the image in the eastern foothills of the Andes. Cerro Aconcagua, the highest peak in South America (22,834 feet) is due west of Mendoza. Note the sharp bend in the river valley to the junction with a straight north-trending valley. Aconcagua is the large, rounded mass with a bit of cloud just northwest of the valley junction. Bright white spots on the left of the image are salars, or dry lake beds of gypsum and/or salt. Usually dry, some contain water due to recent rains generated by the record El Nino this year. The Pacific Ocean is to the upper right. The continental shelf is very steep in this region and water depths drop (to almost 17,000 feet over a distance of about 60 miles) over the same distance inland from the coast, the Andes rise +17,000 to almost 23,000 feet. The reason for this is the very rapid plate motion between the Pacific Ocean plate and South America. According to NASA scientists, over the last 140 million years, South America has been overriding the Pacific plate resulting in the rapid rise in the Andes and the rapid subduction of the Pacific plate, along with any sediments that are shed into the ocean along the continental margin. The dark, linear mountain ranges east of the high Andes (right center) constitute the Precordillera block; rock strata there have been correlated with the Ordovician (approximately 470 million years old) rocks near El Paso, Texas. The rocks and the fossils within them are virtually identical in the two areas, which are now widely separated. This region would be considered a "remnant terrain" from the time when this

  20. Impact of fecal occult blood on obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: Observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Watabe, Hirotsugu; Yamada, Atsuo; Suzuki, Hirobumi; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Yamaji, Yutaka; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the association between small bowel diseases (SBDs) and positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). METHODS: Between February 2008 and August 2013, 202 patients with OGIB who performed both capsule endoscopy (CE) and FOBT were enrolled (mean age; 63.6 ± 14.0 years, 118 males, 96 previous overt bleeding, 106 with occult bleeding). All patients underwent immunochemical FOBTs twice prior to CE. Three experienced endoscopists independently reviewed CE videos. All reviews and consensus meeting were conducted without any information on FOBT results. The prevalence of SBDs was compared between patients with positive and negative FOBT. RESULTS: CE revealed SBDs in 72 patients (36%). FOBT was positive in 100 patients (50%) and negative in 102 (50%). The prevalence of SBDs was significantly higher in patients with positive FOBT than those with negative FOBT (46% vs 25%, P = 0.002). In particular, among patients with occult OGIB, the prevalence of SBDs was higher in positive FOBT group than negative FOBT group (45% vs 18%, P = 0.002). On the other hand, among patients with previous overt OGIB, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of SBDs between positive and negative FOBT group (47% vs 33%, P = 0.18). In disease specific analysis among patients with occult OGIB, the prevalence of ulcer and tumor were higher in positive FOBT group than negative FOBT group. In multivariate analysis, only positive FOBT was a predictive factors of SBDs in patients with OGIB (OR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.4-4.6, P = 0.003). Furthermore, the trend was evident among patients with occult OGIB who underwent FOBT on the same day or a day before CE. The prevalence of SBDs in positive vs negative FOBT group were 54% vs 13% in patients with occult OGIB who underwent FOBT on the same day or the day before CE (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference between positive and negative FOBT group in those who underwent

  1. Impact of fecal occult blood on obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: observational study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Watabe, Hirotsugu; Yamada, Atsuo; Suzuki, Hirobumi; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Yamaji, Yutaka; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-07

    To elucidate the association between small bowel diseases (SBDs) and positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Between February 2008 and August 2013, 202 patients with OGIB who performed both capsule endoscopy (CE) and FOBT were enrolled (mean age; 63.6 ± 14.0 years, 118 males, 96 previous overt bleeding, 106 with occult bleeding). All patients underwent immunochemical FOBTs twice prior to CE. Three experienced endoscopists independently reviewed CE videos. All reviews and consensus meeting were conducted without any information on FOBT results. The prevalence of SBDs was compared between patients with positive and negative FOBT. CE revealed SBDs in 72 patients (36%). FOBT was positive in 100 patients (50%) and negative in 102 (50%). The prevalence of SBDs was significantly higher in patients with positive FOBT than those with negative FOBT (46% vs 25%, P = 0.002). In particular, among patients with occult OGIB, the prevalence of SBDs was higher in positive FOBT group than negative FOBT group (45% vs 18%, P = 0.002). On the other hand, among patients with previous overt OGIB, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of SBDs between positive and negative FOBT group (47% vs 33%, P = 0.18). In disease specific analysis among patients with occult OGIB, the prevalence of ulcer and tumor were higher in positive FOBT group than negative FOBT group. In multivariate analysis, only positive FOBT was a predictive factors of SBDs in patients with OGIB (OR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.4-4.6, P = 0.003). Furthermore, the trend was evident among patients with occult OGIB who underwent FOBT on the same day or a day before CE. The prevalence of SBDs in positive vs negative FOBT group were 54% vs 13% in patients with occult OGIB who underwent FOBT on the same day or the day before CE (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference between positive and negative FOBT group in those who underwent FOBT two or more days

  2. Observational Constraints on the Water Vapor Feedback Using GPS Radio Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergados, P.; Mannucci, A. J.; Ao, C. O.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    The air refractive index at L-band frequencies depends on the air's density and water vapor content. Exploiting these relationships, we derive a theoretical model to infer the specific humidity response to surface temperature variations, dq/dTs, given knowledge of how the air refractive index and temperature vary with surface temperature. We validate this model using 1.2-1.6 GHz Global Positioning System Radio Occultation (GPS RO) observations from 2007 to 2010 at 250 hPa, where the water vapor feedback on surface warming is strongest. Current research indicates that GPS RO data sets can capture the amount of water vapor in very dry and very moist air more efficiently than other observing platforms, possibly suggesting larger water vapor feedback than previously known. Inter-comparing the dq/dTs among different data sets will provide us with additional constraints on the water vapor feedback. The dq/dTs estimation from GPS RO observations shows excellent agreement with previously published results and the responses estimated using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data sets. In particular, the GPS RO-derived dq/dTs is larger by 6% than that estimated using the AIRS data set. This agrees with past evidence that AIRS may be dry-biased in the upper troposphere. Compared to the MERRA estimations, the GPS RO-derived dq/dTs is 10% smaller, also agreeing with previous results that show that MERRA may have a wet bias in the upper troposphere. Because of their high sensitivity to fractional changes in water vapor, and their inherent long-term accuracy, current and future GPS RO observations show great promise in monitoring climate feedbacks and their trends.

  3. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 47 Crewmember.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-26

    ISS047e022293 (03/26/2016) --- This Earth Observation image from the International Space Station is of a large extinct volcano in the lower southwest African Brukkaros Mountain in the country of Namibia.

  4. Critical Analysis of Different Methods to Retrieve Atmosphere Humidity Profiles from GNSS Radio Occultation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vespe, Francesco; Benedetto, Catia

    2013-04-01

    The huge amount of GPS Radio Occultation (RO) observations currently available thanks to space mission like COSMIC, CHAMP, GRACE, TERRASAR-X etc., have greatly encouraged the research of new algorithms suitable to extract humidity, temperature and pressure profiles of the atmosphere in a more and more precise way. For what concern the humidity profiles in these last years two different approaches have been widely proved and applied: the "Simple" and the 1DVAR methods. The Simple methods essentially determine dry refractivity profiles from temperature analysis profiles and hydrostatic equation. Then the dry refractivity is subtracted from RO refractivity to achieve the wet component. Finally from the wet refractivity is achieved humidity. The 1DVAR approach combines RO observations with profiles given by the background models with both the terms weighted with the inverse of covariance matrix. The advantage of "Simple" methods is that they are not affected by bias due to the background models. We have proposed in the past the BPV approach to retrieve humidity. Our approach can be classified among the "Simple" methods. The BPV approach works with dry atmospheric CIRA-Q models which depend on latitude, DoY and height. The dry CIRA-Q refractivity profile is selected estimating the involved parameters in a non linear least square fashion achieved by fitting RO observed bending angles through the stratosphere. The BPV as well as all the other "Simple" methods, has as drawback the unphysical occurrence of negative "humidity". Thus we propose to apply a modulated weighting of the fit residuals just to minimize the effects of this inconvenient. After a proper tuning of the approach, we plan to present the results of the validation.

  5. 1993 Earth Observing System reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, Ghassem (Editor); Dokken, David Jon (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is a NASA-sponsored concept that uses space- and ground-based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. The space-based components of MTPE will provide a constellation of satellites to monitor the Earth from space. Sustained observations will allow researchers to monitor climate variables overtime to determine trends; however, space-based monitoring alone is not sufficient. A comprehensive data and information system, a community of scientists performing research with the data acquired, and extensive ground campaigns are all important components. Brief descriptions of the various elements that comprise the overall mission are provided. The Earth Observing System (EOS) - a series of polar-orbiting and low-inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans - is the centerpiece of MTPE. The elements comprising the EOS mission are described in detail.

  6. Water vapour and methane coupling in the stratosphere observed using SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Stefan; Weigel, Katja; Bramstedt, Klaus; Rozanov, Alexei; Weber, Mark; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    2018-04-01

    An improved stratospheric water vapour data set has been retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT solar occultation measurements. It is similar to that successfully applied to methane and carbon dioxide. There is now a consistent set of data products for the three constituents covering the altitudes 17-45 km, the latitude range between about 50 and 70° N, and the period August 2002 to April 2012. The new water vapour concentration profiles agree with collocated results from ACE-FTS and MLS/Aura to within ˜ 5 %. A significant positive linear change in water vapour for the time 2003-2011 is observed at lower stratospheric altitudes with a value of about 0.015 ± 0.008 ppmv year-1 around 17 km. Between 30 and 37 km the changes become significantly negative (about -0.01 ± 0.008 ppmv year-1); all errors are 2σ values. The combined analysis of the SCIAMACHY methane and water vapour time series shows the expected anti-correlation between stratospheric methane and water vapour and a clear temporal variation related to the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Above about 20 km most of the additional water vapour is attributed to the oxidation of methane. In addition short-term fluctuations and longer-term variations on a timescale of 5-6 years are observed. The SCIAMACHY data confirm that at lower altitudes the amount of water vapour and methane are transported from the tropics to higher latitudes via the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation.

  7. A global picture of ionospheric slab thickness derived from GIM TEC and COSMIC radio occultation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yiding; Le, Huijun; Wan, Weixing

    2016-01-01

    The ionospheric equivalent slab thickness (EST), defined as the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2), describes the thickness of the ionospheric profile. In this study, we retrieve EST from TEC data obtained from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM) and NmF2 retrieved from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) ionospheric radio occultation data. The diurnal, seasonal, and solar activity variations of global EST are analyzed as the excellent spatial coverage of GIM and COSMIC data. During solstices, daytime EST in the summer hemisphere is larger than that in the winter hemisphere, except in some high-latitude regions, and the reverse is true for the nighttime EST. The peaks of EST often appear at 0400 local time. The presunrise enhancement in EST appears in all seasons, while the postsunset enhancement in EST is not readily observed in equinox. Both enhancements are attributed to the more remarkable electron density decay of NmF2 compared to that of TEC. The dependence of EST on solar activity is related to the inconsistent solar activity dependences of electron density at different altitudes. Furthermore, it is interesting that EST is enhanced from 0° to 120°E in longitude and 30° to 75°S in latitude during nighttime, just to the east of Weddell Sea Anomaly, during equinox and the Southern Hemisphere summer. This phenomenon is supposed to be related to the effects of geomagnetic declination-related plasma vertical drifts.

  8. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  9. Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

  10. An Occultation by Saturn's Rings on 1991 October 2-3 October 2-3 Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Bosh, A. S.; Cooke, M. L.; Bless, R. C.; Nelson, M. J.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Robinson, E. L.; Van Citters, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    An occultation of the star GSC 6323-01396 (V = 11.9) by Saturn's rings was observed with the High-Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on 1991 October 2-3. This occultation occurred when Saturn was near a stationary point, so the apparent motion of Saturn relative to the star was dominated by the HST orbital motion (8 km/s). Data were recorded simultaneously at effective wavelengths of 3200 and 7500 A, with an integration time of 0.15 s. Fifteen segments of occultation data, totaling 6.8 h, were recorded in 13 successive orbits during the 20.0 h interval from UTC 1991 October 2, 19:35 until UTC 1991 October 3, 15:35. Occultations by 43 different features throughout the classical rings were unambiguously identified in the light curve, with a second occultation by 24 of them occurring due to spacecraft orbital parallax during this extremely slow event. Occultation times for features currently presumed circular were measured and employed in a geometrical model for the rings. This model, relating the observed occultation times to feature radii and longitudes, is presented here and is used in a least-squares fit for the pole direction and radius scale of Saturn's ring system.

  11. The 11 Year Solar Cycle Response of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Observed by GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, King-Fai; Lin, Li-Ching; Bui, Xuan-Hien; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2018-01-01

    We have retrieved the latitudinal and vertical structures of the 11 year solar cycle modulation on ionospheric electron density using 14 years of satellite-based radio occultation measurements utilizing the Global Positioning System. The densities at the crests of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the subtropics near 300 km in 2003 and 2014 (high solar activity with solar 10.7 cm flux, F10.7 ≈ 140 solar flux unit (sfu)) were 3 times higher than that in 2009 (low solar activity F10.7 ≈ 70 sfu). The higher density is attributed to the elevated solar extreme ultraviolet and geomagnetic activity during high solar activity periods. The location of the EIA crests moved 50 km upward and 10° poleward, because of the enhanced E × B force. The EIA in the northern hemisphere was more pronounced than that in the southern hemisphere. This interhemispheric asymmetry is consistent with the effect of enhanced transequatorial neutral wind. The above observations were reproduced qualitatively by the two benchmark runs of the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. In addition, we have studied the impact of the 11 year solar cycle on the 27 day solar cycle response of the ionospheric electron density. Beside the expected modulation on the amplitude of the 27 day solar variation due to the 11 year solar cycle, we find that the altitude of the maximal 27 day solar response is unexpectedly 50 km higher than that of the 11 year solar response. This is the first time that a vertical dependence of the solar responses on different time scales is reported.

  12. Juno Magnetometer Observations in the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E.; Oliversen, R. J.; Espley, J. R.; MacDowall, R. J.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Odom, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Joergensen, J. L.; Joergensen, P. S.; Merayo, J. M.; Denver, T.; Bloxham, J.; Smith, E. J.; Murphy, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Juno spacecraft enjoyed a close encounter with Earth on October 9, 2013, en route to Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI) on July 5, 2016. The Earth Flyby (EFB) provided a unique opportunity for the Juno particles and fields instruments to sample mission relevant environments and exercise operations anticipated for orbital operations at Jupiter, particularly the period of intense activity around perijove. The magnetic field investigation onboard Juno is equipped with two magnetometer sensor suites, located at 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. Each contains a vector fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located non-magnetic star tracker camera heads which provide accurate attitude determination for the FGM sensors. This very capable magnetic observatory sampled the Earth's magnetic field at 64 vector samples/second throughout passage through the Earth's magnetosphere. We present observations of the Earth's magnetic field and magnetosphere obtained throughout the encounter and compare these observations with those of other Earth-orbiting assets, as available, and with particles and fields observations acquired by other Juno instruments operated during EFB.

  13. Vertical Profiles of Phosphine and Ammonia on Saturn Derived from the First Cassini RSS Occultation Observation Using Forward Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, P. N.; Steffes, P. G.; Kliore, A. J.; Anabtawi, A.; Asmar, S. W.; Barbinis, E.; Goltz, G.; Johnston, D.; Marouf, E. A.

    2005-08-01

    The results from the first Cassini Radio Science Subsystem(RSS) occultation, which occurred at the Rev 7 periapse, are being used to derive profiles of the atmospheric constituents encountered by the three frequency (S-, X-, and Ka-band) radio link. A computer model has been developed to simulate ray paths and the ray path parameters in the atmosphere of Saturn encountered during occultation (see Mohammed and Steffes, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc., 36, no. 4, 1107, 2004). This forward model, which can be used on any oblate planet, will be used to determine the refractive defocusing and derive the profiles of phosphine and ammonia using data observed at Ka-band (32 GHz or 9.3 mm), X-band (8.4 GHz or 3.6 cm) and S-band (2.3 GHz or 13 cm). The results of laboratory measurements of the 9 mm opacity of phosphine and ammonia (Mohammed and Steffes, ICARUS 166, 425-435, 2003) and the centimeter wavelength opacity of these constituents measured under simulated conditions for Saturn (see, e.g., Hoffman et. al. ICARUS 152, 172-184, 2001) were incorporated into the forward radio occultation model used in these derivations.

  14. Digest of NASA earth observation sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A digest of technical characteristics of remote sensors and supporting technological experiments uniquely developed under NASA Applications Programs for Earth Observation Flight Missions is presented. Included are camera systems, sounders, interferometers, communications and experiments. In the text, these are grouped by types, such as television and photographic cameras, lasers and radars, radiometers, spectrometers, technology experiments, and transponder technology experiments. Coverage of the brief history of development extends from the first successful earth observation sensor aboard Explorer 7 in October, 1959, through the latest funded and flight-approved sensors under development as of October 1, 1972. A standard resume format is employed to normalize and mechanize the information presented.

  15. Advances and Limitations of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observations with GPS Occultation over Southeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, F.; Wu, D. L.; Ao, C. O.; Mannucci, A. J.; Kursinski, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    The typical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over the southeast (SE) Pacific Ocean is featured with a strong temperature inversion and a sharp moisture gradient across the ABL top. The strong moisture and temperature gradients result in a sharp refractivity gradient that can be precisely detected by the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) measurements. In this paper, the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere & Climate (COSMIC) GPS RO soundings, radiosondes and the high-resolution ECMWF analysis over the SE Pacific are analyzed. COSMIC RO is able to detect a wide range of ABL height variations (1-2 kilometer) as observed from the radiosondes. However, the ECMWF analysis systematically underestimates the ABL heights. The sharp refractivity gradient at the ABL top frequently exceeds the critical refraction (e.g., -157 N-unit per kilometer) and becomes the so-called ducting condition, which results in a systematic RO refractivity bias (or called N-bias) inside the ABL. Simulation study based on radiosonde profiles reveals the magnitudes of the N-biases are vertical resolution dependent. The N-bias is also the primary cause of the systematically smaller refractivity gradient (rarely exceeding -110 N-unit per kilometer) at the ABL top from RO measurement. However, the N-bias seems not affect the ABL height detection. Instead, the very large RO bending angle and the sharp refractivity gradient due to ducting allow reliable detection of the ABL height from GPS RO. The seasonal mean climatology of ABL heights derived from a nine-month composite of COSMIC RO soundings over the SE Pacific reveals significant differences from the ECMWF analysis. Both show an increase of ABL height from the shallow stratocumulus near the coast to a much higher trade wind inversion further off the coast. However, COSMIC RO shows an overall deeper ABL and reveals different locations of the minimum and maximum ABL heights as compared to the ECMWF analysis

  16. Predicted occultation of Regulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-03-01

    The predicted occultation of Regulus (alpha Leo) by the magnitude-12.4 V asteroid (163) Erigone on 2014 March 20 at approximately 02:06 a.m. EDT (06:06 UT) is discussed. The occultation track includes Bermuda and northwest along a corridor stretching from the mid-Atlantic USA through Ontario, Canada. Unusual things about this occultation include the facts that the track includes major metropolitan areas such as New York City, and the star being occulted is one of the brightest in the Northern sky and is in a constellation pattern that makes it easy to find. The International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) website (http://occultations.org/Regulus2014/) has comprehensive information about this predicted occultation and observing and reporting instructions, as well as links to other resources. In addition to witnessing a very rare event (Regulus is the brightest star ever to be predicted to be occulted from the USA), the possibilities for science include these three:! determining the shape of Erigone, detecting a possible companion of Erigone, and detecting the suspected white dwarf companion of Regulus. See the Alert Notice for details.

  17. Earth Observation from Space: Competition or Cooperation?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    or remote sensing from space (2). Earth observations or remote sensing includes all forms of observation by sensors borne by a space object including...3). The capabilities of remote sensing are as varied as the sensors that are built and put in orbit, but =- • I •1 capabilities fall into two...adversary or ally. For example, the ability of one nation to observe and study another through space-borne sensors permits strategic assessment of a

  18. Catalogs of Space Shuttle earth observations photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of postflight cataloging and indexing activities of mission data obtained from Space Shuttle earth observations photography. Each Space Shuttle mission acquires 1300-4400 photographs of the earth that are reviewed and interpreted by a team of photointerpreters and cataloging specialists. Every photograph's manual and electronic set of plots is compared for accuracy of its locational coordinates. This cataloging activity is a critical and principal part of postflight activity and ensures that the database is accurate, updated and consequently made meaningful for further utilization in the applications and research communities. A final product in the form of a Catalog of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Handheld Photography is published for users of this database.

  19. Earth Observing System, Conclusions and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The following Earth Observing Systems (E.O.S.) recommendations were suggested: (1) a program must be initiated to ensure that present time series of Earth science data are maintained and continued. (2) A data system that provides easy, integrated, and complete access to past, present, and future data must be developed as soon as possible. (3) A long term research effort must be sustained to study and understand these time series of Earth observations. (4) The E.O.S. should be established as an information system to carry out those aspects of the above recommendations which go beyond existing and currently planned activities. (5) The scientific direction of the E.O.S. should be established and continued through an international scientific steering committee.

  20. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (aeosis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R.; Grant, F.; Malchow, H.; Walker, B.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of measurements were studied for estimating the orbit and/or attitude of an Earth Observation Satellite. An investigation was made into the use of known ground targets in the earth sensor imagery, in combination with onboard star sightings and/or range and range rate measurements by ground tracking stations or tracking satellites (TDRSS), to estimate satellite attitude, orbital ephemeris, and gyro bias drift. Generalized measurement equations were derived for star measurements with a particular type of star tracker, and for landmark measurements with a multispectral scanner being proposed for an advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The use of infra-red horizon measurements to estimate the attitude and gyro bias drift of a geosynchronous satellite was explored.

  1. Optical MEMS for earth observation payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, B.; Lobb, D. R.; Freire, M.

    2017-11-01

    An ESA study has been taken by Lusospace Ltd and Surrey Satellite Techonoly Ltd (SSTL) into the use of optical Micro Eletro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) for earth Observation. A review and analysis was undertaken of the Micro-Optical Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) available in the market with potential application in systems for Earth Observation. A summary of this review will be presented. Following the review two space-instrument design concepts were selected for more detailed analysis. The first was the use of a MEMS device to remove cloud from Earth images. The concept is potentially of interest for any mission using imaging spectrometers. A spectrometer concept was selected and detailed design aspects and benefits evaluated. The second concept developed uses MEMS devices to control the width of entrance slits of spectrometers, to provide variable spectral resolution. This paper will present a summary of the results of the study.

  2. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  3. Earth Observing System (EOS) advanced altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Walsh, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the post-TOPEX era, satellite radar altimeters will be developed with the capability of measuring the earth's surface topography over a wide swath of coverage, rather than just at the satellite's nadir. The identification of potential spacecraft flight missions in the future was studied. The best opportunity was found to be the Earth Observing System (EOS). It is felt that an instrument system that has a broad appeal to the earth sciences community stands a much better chance of being selected as an EOS instrument. Consequently, the Topography and Rain Radar Imager (TARRI) will be proposed as a system that has the capability to profile the Earth's topography regardless of the surface type. The horizontal and height resolutions of interest are obviously significantly different over land, ice, and water; but, the use of radar to provide an all-weather observation capability is applicable to the whole earth. The scientific guidance for the design and development of this instrument and the eventual scientific utilization of the data produced by the TARRI will be provided by seven science teams. The teams are formed around scientific disciplines and are titled: Geology/Geophysics, Hydrology/Rain, Oceanography, Ice/Snow, Geodesy/Orbit/Attitude, Cartography, and Surface Properties/Techniques.

  4. The Common Framework for Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T. S.; Sherman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Each year, the Federal government records petabytes of data about our home planet. That massive amount of data in turn provides enormous benefits to society through weather reports, agricultural forecasts, air and water quality warnings, and countless other applications. To maximize the ease of transforming the data into useful information for research and for public services, the U.S. Group on Earth Observations released the first Common Framework for Earth Observation Data in March 2016. The Common Framework recommends practices for Federal agencies to adopt in order to improve the ability of all users to discover, access, and use Federal Earth observations data. The U.S. Government is committed to making data from civil Earth observation assets freely available to all users. Building on the Administration's commitment to promoting open data, open science, and open government, the Common Framework goes beyond removing financial barriers to data access, and attempts to minimize the technical impediments that limit data utility. While Earth observation systems typically collect data for a specific purpose, these data are often also useful in applications unforeseen during development of the systems. Managing and preserving these data with a common approach makes it easier for a wide range of users to find, evaluate, understand, and utilize the data, which in turn leads to the development of a wide range of innovative applications. The Common Framework provides Federal agencies with a recommended set of standards and practices to follow in order to achieve this goal. Federal agencies can follow these best practices as they develop new observing systems or modernize their existing collections of data. This presentation will give a brief on the context and content of the Common Framework, along with future directions for implementation and keeping its recommendations up-to-date with developing technology.

  5. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 47 Crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-14

    ISS047e007765 (03/14/2016) --- Using special cameras and Chronophotography aboard the International Space Station, crew members of Expedition 47 during Earth observations capture awesome beauty . This nighttime image shows an approaching lightning storm on the left. The gold and red aurora act as a frame to this display of natures wonders.

  6. Observation of the Earth by radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques and applications of radar observation from Earth satellites are discussed. Images processing and analysis of these images are discussed. Also discussed is radar imaging from aircraft. Uses of this data include ocean wave analysis, surface water evaluation, and topographic analysis.

  7. The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) Earth Occultation Catalog of Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Connaughton, V.; Henze, W.; Paciesas, W. S.; Finger, M. H.; McCollough, M. L.; Sahi, M.; Peterson, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the low-energy gamma-ray sky (approx. 20-1000 keV) between 1991 April and 2000 May (9.1 yr). BATSE monitored the high-energy sky using the Earth occultation technique (EOT) for point sources whose emission extended for times on the order of the CGRO orbital period (approx. 92 min) or greater. Using the EOT to extract flux information, a catalog of sources using data from the BATSE Large Area Detectors has been prepared. The first part of the catalog consists of results from the all-sky monitoring of 58 sources, mostly Galactic, with intrinsic variability on timescales of hours to years. For these sources, we have included tables of flux and spectral data, and outburst times for transients. Light curves (or flux histories) have been placed on the World Wide Web. We then performed a deep sampling of these 58 objects, plus a selection of 121 more objects, combining data from the entire 9.1 yr BATSE data set. Source types considered were primarily accreting binaries, but a small number of representative active galaxies, X-ray-emitting stars, and supernova remnants were also included. The sample represents a compilation of sources monitored and/or discovered with BATSE and other high-energy instruments between 1991 and 2000, known sources taken from the HEAO 1 A-4 and Macomb & Gehrels catalogs. The deep sample results include definite detections of 83 objects and possible detections of 36 additional objects. The definite detections spanned three classes of sources: accreting black hole and neutron star binaries, active galaxies, and Supernova remnants. The average fluxes measured for the fourth class, the X-ray emitting stars, were below the confidence limit for definite detection.

  8. Automating the Processing of Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Votava, Petr

    2003-01-01

    NASA s vision for Earth science is to build a "sensor web": an adaptive array of heterogeneous satellites and other sensors that will track important events, such as storms, and provide real-time information about the state of the Earth to a wide variety of customers. Achieving this vision will require automation not only in the scheduling of the observations but also in the processing of the resulting data. To address this need, we are developing a planner-based agent to automatically generate and execute data-flow programs to produce the requested data products.

  9. Earth observing system - Concepts and implementation strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    The concepts of an Earth Observing System (EOS), an information system being developed by the EOS Science and Mission Requirements Working Group for international use and planned to begin in the 1990s, are discussed. The EOS is designed to study the factors that control the earth's hydrologic cycle, biochemical cycles, and climatologic processes by combining the measurements from remote sensing instruments, in situ measurement devices, and a data and information system. Three EOS platforms are planned to be launched into low, polar, sun-synchronous orbits during the Space Station's Initial Operating Configuration, one to be provided by ESA and two by the United States.

  10. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally, we will present our lessons-learned and conclusions on the applicability of MOOCs in the field of Earth science teaching.

  11. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  12. Measurement of stellar occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    Whenever an asteroid occults a star, we have the opportunity to study that asteroid in great detail. As frequently shown in the past, amateur astronomers1 have the necessary equipment to measure such events successfully2. Combined with the dense net of amateur observatories and online coordination tools3 for movable stations, they can create fine grids to detect even small bodies. The analysis of these events gives us the possibility to receive high precision astrometry data, to determine the asteroids size and shape (and therefore its albedo), and even to collect information on the star itself.4 While usually a set of several light curves is required to do so, a single recording5 of (10734) Wieck's occultation of HIP 22157 on 2008 Feb 08 was sufficient to retrieve the necessary data6. 1 Observation campaigns are organized by the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA), http://www.iota-es.de/ 2 for results see e.g. euraster.net by E. Frappa, http://www.euraster.net/ 3 Occult Watcher by H. Pavlov, http://www.hristopavlov.net/OccultWatcher/OccultWatcher.html 4 see K. Miyashita's analysis of the observation of the occultation of TYC 1886-01206-1 by Kalliope and Linus, http://www005.upp.so-net.ne.jp/k miyash/occ02/kalliope/doublestar en.html 5 recording obtained by H. Michels, MPC Station Code 240 6 using Limovie by K. Miyashita

  13. Properties of an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star: Earth observed by the EPOXI mission.

    PubMed

    Livengood, Timothy A; Deming, L Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Meadows, Victoria S; Robinson, Tyler D; Seager, Sara; Wellnitz, Dennis D

    2011-11-01

    NASA's EPOXI mission observed the disc-integrated Earth and Moon to test techniques for reconnoitering extrasolar terrestrial planets, using the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to observe Earth at the beginning and end of Northern Hemisphere spring, 2008, from a range of ∼1/6 to 1/3 AU. These observations furnish high-precision and high-cadence empirical photometry and spectroscopy of Earth, suitable as "ground truth" for numerically simulating realistic observational scenarios for an Earth-like exoplanet with finite signal-to-noise ratio. Earth was observed at near-equatorial sub-spacecraft latitude on 18-19 March, 28-29 May, and 4-5 June (UT), in the range of 372-4540 nm wavelength with low visible resolving power (λ/Δλ=5-13) and moderate IR resolving power (λ/Δλ=215-730). Spectrophotometry in seven filters yields light curves at ∼372-948 nm filter-averaged wavelength, modulated by Earth's rotation with peak-to-peak amplitude of ≤20%. The spatially resolved Sun glint is a minor contributor to disc-integrated reflectance. Spectroscopy at 1100-4540 nm reveals gaseous water and carbon dioxide, with minor features of molecular oxygen, methane, and nitrous oxide. One-day changes in global cloud cover resulted in differences between the light curve beginning and end of ≤5%. The light curve of a lunar transit of Earth on 29 May is color-dependent due to the Moon's red spectrum partially occulting Earth's relatively blue spectrum. The "vegetation red edge" spectral contrast observed between two long-wavelength visible/near-IR bands is ambiguous, not clearly distinguishing between the verdant Earth diluted by cloud cover versus the desolate mineral regolith of the Moon. Spectrophotometry in at least one other comparison band at short wavelength is required to distinguish between Earth-like and Moon-like surfaces in reconnaissance observations. However, measurements at 850 nm alone, the high-reflectance side of the red edge, could be sufficient to

  14. Copernicus: a quantum leap in Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the most ambitious, most comprehensive Earth observation system world-wide. It aims at giving decision-makers better information to act upon, at global, continental, national and regional level. The European Union (EU) leads the overall programme, while the European Space Agency (ESA) coordinates the space component. Similar to meteorology, satellite data is combined with data from airborne and ground sensors to provide a holistic view of the state of the planet. All these data are fed into a range of thematic information services designed to benefit the environment and to support policy-makers and other stakeholders to make decisions, coordinate policy areas, and formulate strategies relating to the environment. Moreover, the data will also be used for predicting future climate trends. Never has such a comprehensive Earth-observation based system been in place before. It will be fully integrated into an informed decision making process, thus enabling economic and social benefits through better access to information globally. A key feature of Copernicus is the free and open data policy of the Sentinel satellite data. This will enable that Earth observation based information enters completely new domains of daily life. High quality, regularly updated satellite observations become available for basically everyone. To ensure universal access new ground segment and data access concepts need to be developed. As more data are made available, better decisions can made, more business will be created and science and research can be achieved through the upcoming Sentinel data.

  15. Value of Earth Observation for Risk Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, F.; Shapiro, C. D.; Grasso, M.; Pearlman, J.; Adkins, J. E.; Pindilli, E.; Geppi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Societal benefits flowing from Earth observation are intuitively obvious as we use the information to assess natural hazards (such as storm tracks), water resources (such as flooding and droughts in coastal and riverine systems), ecosystem vitality and other dynamics that impact the health and economic well being of our population. The most powerful confirmation of these benefits would come from quantifying the impact and showing direct quantitative links in the value chain from data to decisions. However, our ability to identify and quantify those benefits is challenging. The impact of geospatial data on these types of decisions is not well characterized and assigning a true value to the observations on a broad scale across disciplines still remains to be done in a systematic way. This presentation provides the outcomes of a workshop held in October 2017 as a side event of the GEO Plenary that addressed research on economic methodologies for quantification of impacts. To achieve practical outputs during the meeting, the workshop focused on the use and value of Earth observations in risk mitigation including: ecosystem impacts, weather events, and other natural and manmade hazards. Case studies on approaches were discussed and will be part of this presentation. The presentation will also include the exchange of lessons learned and a discussion of gaps in the current understanding of the use and value of earth observation information for risk mitigation.

  16. JEOS. The JANUS earth observation satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molette, P.; Jouan, J.

    The JANUS multimission platform has been designed to minimize the cost of the satellite (by a maximum reuse of equipment from other proprogrammes) and of its associated launch by Aŕiane (by a piggy-back configuration optimized for Ariane 4). The paper describes the application of the JANUS platform to an Earth observation mission with the objective to provide a given country with a permanent monitoring of its earth resources by exploitation of spaceborne imagery. According to this objective, and to minimize the overall system and operational cost, the JANUS Earth Observation Satellite (JEOS) will provide a limited coverage with real time transmission of image data, thus avoiding need for on-board storage and simplifying operations. The JEOS operates on a low earth, near polar sun synchronous orbit. Launched in a piggy-back configuration on Ariane 4, with a SPOT or ERS spacecraft, it reaches its operational orbit after a drift orbit of a few weeks maximum. In its operational mode, the JEOS is 3-axis stabilised, earth pointed. After presentation of the platform, the paper describes the solid state push-broom camera which is composed of four optical lenses mounted on a highly stable optical bench. Each lens includes an optics system, reused from an on-going development, and two CCD linear arrays of detectors. The camera provides four registered channels in visible and near IR bands. The whole optical bench is supported by a rotating mechanism which allows rotation of the optical axis in the across-track direction. The JEOS typical performance for a 700 km altitude is then summarized: spatial resolution 30 m, swath width 120 km, off-track capability 325 km,… The payload data handling and transmission electronics, derived from the French SPOT satellite, realizes the processing, formatting, and transmission to the ground; this allows reuse of the standard SPOT receiving stations. The camera is only operated when the spacecraft is within the visibility of the ground

  17. Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP), phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Evaluations performed during a Phase B study directed towards defining an optimal design for the Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument is summarized. An overview of the experiment approach is included which provides a summary of the scientific objectives, the background of the measurement approach, and the measurement method. In the instrumentation section, details of the design are discussed starting with the key instrument features required to accomplish the scientific objectives and a system characterization in terms of the Stokes vector/Mueller matrix formalism. This is followed by a detailing of the instrument design concept, the design of the individual elements of the system, the predicted performance, and a summary of appropriate instrument testing and calibration. The selected design makes use of key features of predecessor polarimeters and is fully compatible with the Earth Observing System spacecraft requirements.

  18. Valley Fever: Earth Observations for Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in satellite Earth observation systems, numerical weather prediction, and dust storm modeling yield new tools for public health warnings, advisories and epidemiology of illnesses associated with airborne desert dust. Valley Fever, endemic from California through the US/Mexico border region into Central and South America, is triggered by inhalation of soil-dwelling fungal spores. The path from fungal growth to airborne threat depends on environmental conditions observable from satellite. And space-based sensors provide initial conditions for dust storm forecasts and baselines for the epidemiology of Valley Fever and other dust-borne aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. A new Pan-American Center for the World Meteorological Organization Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System creates an opportunity to advance Earth science applications in public health.

  19. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  20. Seismo-ionospheric Precursors of the Total Electron Content Associated with Global Large Earthquakes Examined by Using Ground-based and Space-based Radio Occultation GNSS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    To verify seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs), statistical analyses are implemented on the relationship between the total electron content (TEC) in the global ionosphere map (GIM) derived from measurements of ground-based GNSS (global navigation satellite system) receivers and worldwide M≥7.0 earthquakes during 2000-2016. A median-based method is employed to determine the characteristic of TEC anomalies related to the earthquakes. It is found that the polarity of both negative (decrease) and positive (increase) in the GIM TEC, which varies location-by location, can be observed few days before the earthquakes. In general, PEIAs with the negative polarity associated with the earthquakes are more frequently detected. Meanwhile, FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) or F3/C in was launched into a circular low-Earth orbit on 15 April 2006. Six F3/C microsatellites with 72-degree inclination angle and 30-degree separation in longitude orbit at 800 km altitude, and conduct the ionospheric radio occultation (RO) observations by receiving signals from GNSS satellites and globally observing about 2500 vertical electron density profiles per day. Both ground-based and space-based RO GNSS observations are used to three dimensionally study SIPs related to the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake.

  1. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  2. Aspiring to Spectral Ignorance in Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Enabling robust, defensible and integrated decision making in the Era of Big Earth Data requires the fusion of data from multiple and diverse sensor platforms and networks. While the application of standardised global grid systems provides a common spatial analytics framework that facilitates the computationally efficient and statistically valid integration and analysis of these various data sources across multiple scales, there remains the challenge of sensor equivalency; particularly when combining data from different earth observation satellite sensors (e.g. combining Landsat and Sentinel-2 observations). To realise the vision of a sensor ignorant analytics platform for earth observation we require automation of spectral matching across the available sensors. Ultimately, the aim is to remove the requirement for the user to possess any sensor knowledge in order to undertake analysis. This paper introduces the concept of spectral equivalence and proposes a methodology through which equivalent bands may be sourced from a set of potential target sensors through application of equivalence metrics and thresholds. A number of parameters can be used to determine whether a pair of spectra are equivalent for the purposes of analysis. A baseline set of thresholds for these parameters and how to apply them systematically to enable relation of spectral bands amongst numerous different sensors is proposed. The base unit for comparison in this work is the relative spectral response. From this input, determination of a what may constitute equivalence can be related by a user, based on their own conceptualisation of equivalence.

  3. Earth Observation Satellites and Chinese Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.

    In this talk existing and future Earth observation satellites are briefly described These satellites include meteorological satellites ocean satellites land resources satellites cartographic satellites and gravimetric satellites The Chinese government has paid and will pay more attention to and put more effort into enhancing Chinese earth observation satellite programs in the next fifteen years The utilization of these satellites will effectively help human beings to solve problems it faces in areas such as population natural resources and environment and natural hazards The author will emphasize the originality of the scientific and application aspects of the Chinese program in the field of Earth observations The main applications include early warning and prevention of forest fires flooding and drought disaster water and ocean ice disasters monitoring of landslides and urban subsidence investigation of land cover change and urban expansion as well as urban and rural planning The author introduces the most up-to-date technology used by Chinese scientists including fusion and integration of multi-sensor multi-platform optical and SAR data of remote sensing Most applications in China have obtained much support from related international organizations and universities around the world These applications in China are helpful for economic construction and the efficient improvement of living quality

  4. Earth Observations: Experiences from Various Communication Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2015-04-01

    With Earth observations and the Group of Earth Observations as the common thread, a variety of communication strategies have been applied showcasing the use of Earth observations in geosciences such as climate change, natural hazards, hydrology and more. Based on the experiences from these communication strategies, using communication channels ranging from popular articles in established media, video production, event-based material and social media, lessons have been learned both with respect to the need of capacity, skills, networks, and resources. In general it is not difficult to mobilize geoscientists willing to spend some time on outreach activities. Time for preparing and training is however scarce among scientists. In addition, resources to cover the various aspects of professional science outreach is far from abundant. Among the challenges is the connection between the scientific networks and media channels. Social media competence and capacity are also issues that needs to be addressed more explicitly and efficiently. An overview of the experiences from several types of outreach activities will be given along with some input on possible steps towards improved communication strategies. Steady development of science communication strategies continuously integrating trainging of scientists in use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community.

  5. Landsat Celebrates 40 Years of Observing Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    An artist's rendition of the next Landsat satellite, the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) that will launch in Feb. 2013. Credit: NASA The Landsat program is the longest continuous global record of Earth observations from space – ever. Since its first satellite went up in the summer of 1972, Landsat has been looking at our planet. The view of Earth that this 40-year satellite program has recorded allows scientists to see, in ways they never imagined, how the Earth's surface has transformed, over time. In the 1970s Landsat captured the first views from space of the Amazonian rainforest and continued to track the area year after year after year, giving the world an unprecedented view of systemic and rapid deforestation. This view from space let us see an activity that was taking place in an exceptionally remote part of our world. These now iconic-images of tropical deforestation spurred the global environmental community to rally in an unprecedented way, and resulted in worldwide attention and action. To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/landsat/news/landsat-history.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. Sensor requirements for Earth and planetary observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa T.

    1990-01-01

    Future generations of Earth and planetary remote sensing instruments will require extensive developments of new long-wave and very long-wave infrared detectors. The upcoming NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) will carry a suite of instruments to monitor a wide range of atmospheric and surface parameters with an unprecedented degree of accuracy for a period of 10 to 15 years. These instruments will observe Earth over a wide spectral range extending from the visible to nearly 17 micrometers with a moderate to high spectral and spacial resolution. In addition to expected improvements in communication bandwidth and both ground and on-board computing power, these new sensor systems will need large two-dimensional detector arrays. Such arrays exist for visible wavelengths and, to a lesser extent, for short wavelength infrared systems. The most dramatic need is for new Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) and Very Long Wavelength Infrared (VLWIR) detector technologies that are compatible with area array readout devices and can operate in the temperature range supported by long life, low power refrigerators. A scientific need for radiometric and calibration accuracies approaching 1 percent translates into a requirement for detectors with excellent linearity, stability and insensitivity to operating conditions and space radiation. Current examples of the kind of scientific missions these new thermal IR detectors would enhance in the future include instruments for Earth science such as Orbital Volcanological Observations (OVO), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Spectroscopy in the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE). Planetary exploration missions such as Cassini also provide examples of instrument concepts that could be enhanced by new IR detector technologies.

  7. Programmable wide field spectrograph for earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Lanzoni, Patrick; Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Costes, Vincent; Hébert, Philippe-Jean

    2017-11-01

    In Earth Observation, Universe Observation and Planet Exploration, scientific return of the instruments must be optimized in future missions. Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) could be key components in future generation of space instruments. These devices are based on the mature micro-electronics technology and in addition to their compactness, scalability, and specific task customization, they could generate new functions not available with current technologies. French and European space agencies, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have initiated several studies with LAM and TAS for listing the new functions associated with several types of MEMS, and developing new ideas of instruments.

  8. Earth as an Extrasolar Planet: Earth Model Validation Using EPOXI Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A.; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K.; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.

    2011-06-01

    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  9. Earth as an Extrasolar Planet: Earth Model Validation Using EPOXI Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A.; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard; Hearty, Thomas; hide

    2011-01-01

    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole disk Earth model simulations used to better under- stand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute s Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model (Tinetti et al., 2006a,b). This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of approx.100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to the Earth s lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves, and residuals of approx.10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We extend our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of approx.7%, and temperature errors of less than 1K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated

  10. Observing and Modeling Earth's Energy Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Bjorn; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews, from the authors' perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within ±2 W m-2. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute

  11. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  12. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution smaller than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have some first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra: MODIS - 1.37 microns cirrus channel; 250 m daily cover for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - Global CO maps and CH4 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  13. Near-Earth asteroids: Observer alert network and physical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R.; Chapman, Clark R.

    1992-01-01

    This project strives to obtain physical observations on newly discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO's) in order to provide fundamental data needed to assess the resources available in the population. The goal is acquiring data on all objects brighter than magnitude V= 17.0. To accomplish this, an electronic mail alert and observer information service that informs observers around the world as to the status of physical observations on currently observable NEO's was established. Such data is also acquired ourselves through a cooperative program with European colleagues that uses telescopes on La Palma to obtain spectra of NEO's and through observations made from a local telescope on Tumamoc Hill. This latter telescope has the advantage that large amounts of observing time are available, so that whenever a new NEO's discovered, we can be assured of getting time to observe it.

  14. Continuity of Earth Radiation Budget Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Su, W.; Wong, T.; Priestley, K.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions. Earth's radiation budget (ERB) involves a balance between how much solar energy Earth absorbs and how much terrestrial thermal infrared radiation is emitted to space. Because of its critical role in climate, continuous monitoring of the ERB is necessary for improved understanding and prediction of climate variability and change. NASA's long history in observing the TOA ERB is acknowledged in the 2007 and 2013 reports of the IPCC (IPCC 2007, 2013), the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey (NRC 2007), and the GCOS implementation plan of the WMO (GCOS 2016). A key reason for NASA's success in this area is due to its support of the CERES Project and its predecessor, ERBE. During ERBE, the TOA ERB was observed using both scanner and nonscanner broadband instruments. The CERES project consists of six scanner instruments flying alongside high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS, VIIRS) in morning and afternoon sun-synchronous orbits. In addition to extending the ERBE TOA radiation budget record, CERES also provides observations of Earth's surface radiation budget with unprecedented accuracy. Here we assess the likelihood of a measurement gap in the ERB record. We show that unless a follow-on ERB instrument to the last available CERES copy (FM6) is built and launched, there is a significant risk of a measurement gap in the ERB record by the mid-2020s. A gap is of concern not only because the ERB would not be monitored during the gap period but also because it would be exceedingly difficult to tie the records before and after the gap together with sufficient accuracy for climate analyses. While ERB instruments are highly stable temporally, they lack the absolute accuracy needed to bridge a gap. Consequently, there is a requirement that

  15. ASTER, a multinational Earth observing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothwell, Graham W.; Geller, Gary N.; Larson, Steven A.; Morrison, Andrew D.; Nichols, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a facility instrument selected for launch in 1998 on the first in a series of spacecraft for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The ASTER instrument is being sponsored and built in Japan. It is a three telescope, high spatial resolution imaging instrument with 15 spectral bands covering the visible through to the thermal infrared. It will play a significant role within EOS providing geological, biological, land hydrological information necessary for intense study of the Earth. The operational capabilities for ASTER, including the necessary interfaces and operational collaborations between the US and Japanese participants, are under development. EOS operations are the responsibility of the EOS Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Although the primary EOS control center is at GSFC, the ASTER control facility will be in Japan. Other aspects of ASTER are discussed.

  16. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 34 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-14

    ISS034-E-48455 (14 Feb. 2013) --- Looking out at Earth?s surface from the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts and cosmonauts frequently observe sunglint highlighting both ocean and inland water surfaces. The Atlantic Ocean, including Cape Cod Bay and Buzzards Bay, along the coastlines of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, has a burnished, mirror-like appearance in this image. This is due to sunlight reflected off the water surface back towards the station crew member who took the photo. The peak reflection point is towards the right side of the image, lending the waters of Long Island Sound and the upper Massachusetts coastline an even brighter appearance. Sunglint also illuminates the surface waters of Chesapeake Bay, located over 400 kilometers (250 miles) to the southwest of the tip of Long Island. This suggests that the Sun was low on the horizon due to the observed extent of the sunglint effect. The time of image acquisition, approximately 4:26 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, was about one hour before local sunset. There is little in this image to indicate that the region was still recovering from a major winter storm that dropped almost one meter (three feet) of snow over much of the northeastern USA less than a week earlier. The high viewing angle from the space station also allows Earth?s curvature, or limb, to be seen; blue atmospheric layers gradually fade into the darkness of space across the top part of the image. Low clouds near Cape Cod, Long Island, and further down the Atlantic coastline cast shadows over the water surfaces, reducing the sunglint in some areas.

  17. The Pinhole/Occulter Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E. A. (Editor); Hudson, H. S. (Editor); Dabbs, J. R. (Editor); Baity, W. A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Scientific objectives and requirements are discussed for solar X-ray observations, coronagraph observations, studies of coronal particle acceleration, and cosmic X-ray observations. Improved sensitivity and resolution can be provided for these studies using the pinhole/occulter facility which consists of a self-deployed boom of 50 m length separating an occulter plane from a detector plane. The X-ray detectors and coronagraphic optics mounted on the detector plane are analogous to the focal plane instrumentation of an ordinary telescope except that they use the occulter only for providing a shadow pattern. The occulter plane is passive and has no electrical interface with the rest of the facility.

  18. Earth Observations for Global Water Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawford, Richard; Strauch, Adrian; Toll, David; Fekete, Balazs; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of population growth, increasing demands for water to support agriculture, energy security, and industrial expansion, and the challenges of climate change give rise to an urgent need to carefully monitor and assess trends and variations in water resources. Doing so will ensure that sustainable access to adequate quantities of safe and useable water will serve as a foundation for water security. Both satellite and in situ observations combined with data assimilation and models are needed for effective, integrated monitoring of the water cycle's trends and variability in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of a review of existing observational systems, we argue that a new integrated monitoring capability for water security purposes is urgently needed. Furthermore, the components for this capability exist and could be integrated through the cooperation of national observational programmes. The Group on Earth Observations should play a central role in the design, implementation, management and analysis of this system and its products.

  19. Deuterium on Venus: Observations from Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Barry L.; Debergh, C.; Bezard, B.; Owen, T.; Crisp, D.; Maillard, J.-P.

    1991-01-01

    In view of the importance of the deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio in understanding the evolutionary scenario of planetary atmospheres and its relationship to understanding the evolution of our own Earth, we undertook a series of observations designed to resolve previous observational conflicts. We observed the dark side of Venus in the 2.3 micron spectral region in search of both H2O and HDO, which would provide us with the D/H ratio in Venus' atmosphere. We identified a large number of molecular lines in the region, belonging to both molecules, and, using synthetic spectral techniques, obtained mixing ratios of 34 plus or minus 10 ppm and 1.3 plus or minus 0.2 ppm for H2O and HDO, respectively. These mixing ratios yield a D/H ratio for Venus of D/H equals 1.9 plus or minus 0.6 times 10 (exp 12) and 120 plus or minus 40 times the telluric ratio. Although the detailed interpretation is difficult, our observations confirm that the Pioneer Venus Orbiter results and establish that indeed Venus had a period in its early history in which it was very wet, perhaps not unlike the early wet period that seems to have been present on Mars, and that, in contrast to Earth, lost much of its water over geologic time.

  20. Cassini Radio Occultation by Enceladus Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliore, A.; Armstrong, J.; Flasar, F.; French, R.; Marouf, E.; Nagy, A.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Schinder, P.; Anabtawi, A.; Asmar, S.; Barbinis, E.; Fleischman, D.; Goltz, G.; Aguilar, R.; Rochblatt, D.

    2006-12-01

    A fortuitous Cassini radio occultation by Enceladus plume occurs on September 15, 2006. The occultation track (the spacecraft trajectory in the plane of the sky as viewed from the Earth) has been designed to pass behind the plume (to pass above the south polar region of Enceladus) in a roughly symmetrical geometry centered on a minimum altitude above the surface of about 20 km. The minimum altitude was selected primarily to ensure probing much of the plume with good confidence given the uncertainty in the spacecraft trajectory. Three nearly-pure sinusoidal signals of 0.94, 3.6, and 13 cm-wavelength (Ka-, X-, and S-band, respectively) are simultaneously transmitted from Cassini and are monitored at two 34-m Earth receiving stations of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in Madrid, Spain (DSS-55 and DSS-65). The occultation of the visible plume is extremely fast, lasting less than about two minutes. The actual observation time extends over a much longer time interval, however, to provide a good reference baseline for potential detection of signal perturbations introduced by the tenuous neutral and ionized plume environment. Given the likely very small fraction of optical depth due to neutral particles of sizes larger than about 1 mm, detectable changes in signal intensity is perhaps unlikely. Detection of plume plasma along the radio path as perturbations in the signals frequency/phase is more likely and the magnitude will depend on the electron columnar density probed. The occultation time occurs not far from solar conjunction time (Sun-Earth-probe angle of about 33 degrees), causing phase scintillations due to the solar wind to be the primary limiting noise source. We estimate a delectability limit of about 1 to 3E16 electrons per square meter columnar density assuming about 100 seconds integration time. Potential measurement of the profile of electron columnar density along the occultation track is an exciting prospect at this time.

  1. Current NASA Earth Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; Myers, Orrin; hide

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews current NASA Earth Remote Sensing observations in specific reference to improving public health information in view of pollen sensing. While pollen sampling has instrumentation, there are limitations, such as lack of stations, and reporting lag time. Therefore it is desirable use remote sensing to act as early warning system for public health reasons. The use of Juniper Pollen was chosen to test the possibility of using MODIS data and a dust transport model, Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) to act as an early warning system.

  2. Earth observation archive activities at DRA Farnborough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, M. D.; Williams, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Space Sector, Defence Research Agency (DRA), Farnborough have been actively involved in the acquisition and processing of Earth Observation data for over 15 years. During that time an archive of over 20,000 items has been built up. This paper describes the major archive activities, including: operation and maintenance of the main DRA Archive, the development of a prototype Optical Disc Archive System (ODAS), the catalog systems in use at DRA, the UK Processing and Archive Facility for ERS-1 data, and future plans for archiving activities.

  3. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 47 Crewmember.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-26

    ISS047e022280 (03/26/2016) --- This interesting Earth observation image from the International Space Station seems an abstract painting but is really the outskirts of the Namib Desert in southwest Africa. One of the oldest and largest deserts in the world, the Namib stretches inland from the Atlantic Ocean, covering large swathes of Namibia and parts of Angola and South Africa. This arid hotspot surprisingly supports a diverse number of plants and animals, some of which are found nowhere else in the world.

  4. The 1990 Reference Handbook: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Earth Observing System (EOS) including goals and requirements is given. Its role in the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the International--Biosphere Program is addressed. The EOS mission requirements, science, fellowship program, data and information systems architecture, data policy, space measurement, and mission elements are presented along with the management of EOS. Descriptions of the facility instruments, instrument investigations, and interdisciplinary investigations are also present. The role of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the mission is mentioned.

  5. Overview of Japanese Earth observation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Haruhisa; Honda, Yoshiaki

    2017-09-01

    Five programs, i.e. ASTER, GOSAT, GCOM-W1, GPM and ALOS-2 are going on in Japanese Earth Observation programs. ASTER has lost its short wave infrared channels. AMSR-E stopped its operation, but it started its operation from Sep. 2012 with slow rotation speed. It finally stopped on December 2015. GCOM-W1 was launched on 18, May, 2012 and is operating well as well as GOSAT. ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) was successfully launched on 24th Jan. 2006. ALOS carries three instruments, i.e., PRISM (Panchromatic Remote Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping), AVNIR-2 (Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), and PALSAR (Phased Array L band Synthetic Aperture Radar). Unfortunately, ALOS has stopped its operation on 22nd, April, 2011 by power loss. GOSAT (Greenhouse Gas Observation Satellite) was successfully launched on 29, January, 2009. GOSAT carries 2 instruments, i.e. a green house gas sensor (TANSO-FTS) and a cloud/aerosol imager (TANSO-CAI). The main sensor is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and covers 0.76 to 15 μm region with 0.2 to 0.5 cm-1 resolution. SMILES (Superconducting Millimeter wave Emission Spectrometer) was launched on September 2009 to ISS and started the observation, but stopped its operation on April 2010. GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) core satellite was launched on Feb. 2014. GPM is a joint project with NASA and carries two instruments. JAXA has developed DPR (Dual frequency Precipitation Radar) which is a follow on of PR on TRMM. ALOS F/O satellites are divided into two satellites, i.e. SAR and optical satellites. The first one of ALOS F/O is called ALOS 2 and carries L-band SAR. It was launched on May 2014. JAXA is planning to launch follow on of optical sensors. It is now called Advanced Optical Satellite and the planned launch date is fiscal 2019. Other future satellites are GCOM-C1 (ADEOS-2 follow on), GOSAT-2 and EarthCare. GCOM-C1 will be launched on 2017 and GOSAT-2 will be launched on fiscal 2018. Another project

  6. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  7. The Group on Earth Observations and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2006-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is leading a worldwide effort to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) over the next 10 years. The GEOSS vision, articulated in its 10-Year Implementation Plan, represents the consolidation of a global scientific and political consensus: the assessment of the state of the Earth requires continuous and coordinated observation of our planet at all scales. GEOSS aims to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth; increase understanding of Earth processes; and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. After the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 highlighted the urgent need for coordinated observations relating to the state of the Earth, GEO was established at the Third Earth Observation Summit in February 2005 and the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan was endorsed. GEO currently involves 60 countries; the European Commission; and 43 international organizations and has begun implementation of the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan. GEO programme activities cover nine societal benefit areas (Disasters; Health; Energy; Climate; Water; Weather; Ecosystems; Agriculture; Biodiversity) and five transverse or crosscutting elements (User Engagement; Architecture; Data Management; Capacity Building; Outreach). All these activities have as their final goal the establishment of the "system of systems" which will yield a broad range of basic societal benefits, including the reduction of loss of life and property from tsunamis, hurricanes, and other natural disasters; improved water resource and energy management; and improved understanding of environmental factors significant to public health. As a "system of systems", GEOSS will work with and build upon existing national, regional, and international systems to provide comprehensive, coordinated Earth observations from thousands of instruments worldwide

  8. NASDA's earth observation satellite data archive policy for the earth observation data and information system (EOIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobue, Shin-ichi; Yoshida, Fumiyoshi; Ochiai, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    NASDA's new Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is scheduled for launch in August, 1996. ADEOS carries 8 sensors to observe earth environmental phenomena and sends their data to NASDA, NASA, and other foreign ground stations around the world. The downlink data bit rate for ADEOS is 126 MB/s and the total volume of data is about 100 GB per day. To archive and manage such a large quantity of data with high reliability and easy accessibility it was necessary to develop a new mass storage system with a catalogue information database using advanced database management technology. The data will be archived and maintained in the Master Data Storage Subsystem (MDSS) which is one subsystem in NASDA's new Earth Observation data and Information System (EOIS). The MDSS is based on a SONY ID1 digital tape robotics system. This paper provides an overview of the EOIS system, with a focus on the Master Data Storage Subsystem and the NASDA Earth Observation Center (EOC) archive policy for earth observation satellite data.

  9. Global Partnership in Global Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    The emergence of a global partnership on earth observations will crucially drive the configuration of future observing systems and consequently shape how socio-economic benefits are generated. In this paper we take a game-theoretical approach to model cooperation on building global earth observation systems. We consider several societies whose economies are subject to shocks mimicking major natural disasters. Economies operate optimally and lead to the best possible expected value for the social welfares in the future. In order to increase its welfare even more society can make a decision to invest into a global alerting system which lowers the risk of disasters. We start our investigation from a single-society case and show conditions under which benefits of such investment can be reaped. The propensity to invest increases with economic affluence and degree of vulnerability to natural disasters. We find that for poor and/or less vulnerable countries it is better to forbear from investment. If to consider a situation of multiple societies a strategic gaming situation emerges motivated by the fact that every society will benefit from a global system regardless of whether they invested or not. Our analysis of possible equilibrium solutions shows that similar to the formation of trading blocks (e.g. EU, NAFTA) only in the case of similar societies we will observe cooperation behavior (when all invest) and otherwise we will observe free-riding. This insight, that we might face a prisoners dilemma problem in the formation of a GEOSS, has important implications for the GEO process.

  10. Observing Climate with GNSS Radio Occultation: Characterization and Mitigation of Systematic Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foelsche, U.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Danzer, J.; Ladstädter, F.; Schwarz, J.; Steiner, A. K.; Kirchengast, G.

    2013-05-01

    GNSS Radio Occultation (RO) data a very well suited for climate applications, since they do not require external calibration and only short-term measurement stability over the occultation event duration (1 - 2 min), which is provided by the atomic clocks onboard the GPS satellites. With this "self-calibration", it is possible to combine data from different sensors and different missions without need for inter-calibration and overlap (which is extremely hard to achieve for conventional satellite data). Using the same retrieval for all datasets we obtained monthly refractivity and temperature climate records from multiple radio occultation satellites, which are consistent within 0.05 % and 0.05 K in almost any case (taking global averages over the altitude range 10 km to 30 km). Longer-term average deviations are even smaller. Even though the RO record is still short, its high quality already allows to see statistically significant temperature trends in the lower stratosphere. The value of RO data for climate monitoring is therefore increasingly recognized by the scientific community, but there is also concern about potential residual systematic errors in RO climatologies, which might be common to data from all satellites. We started to look at different error sources, like the influence of the quality control and the high altitude initialization. We will focus on recent results regarding (apparent) constants used in the retrieval and systematic ionospheric errors. (1) All current RO retrievals use a "classic" set of (measured) constants, relating atmospheric microwave refractivity with atmospheric parameters. With the increasing quality of RO climatologies, errors in these constants are not negligible anymore. We show how these parameters can be related to more fundamental physical quantities (fundamental constants, the molecular/atomic polarizabilities of the constituents of air, and the dipole moment of water vapor). This approach also allows computing

  11. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation we review the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  12. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation I will describe the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data to improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  13. An analysis of the ionosphere around equinoxes from the COSMIC radio occultation and other observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Libo; Wan, Weixing; He, Maosheng; Yue, Xinan

    The seasonal behaviors of the ionosphere have been investigated for many decades, but the differences of the ionosphere between the March and September Equinoxes are still lacking investigations. In this report we utilize data of ionospheric electron density (Ne) profiles from COSMIC radio occultation measurements, total electron density (TEC) from TOPEX and Jason-1, and TEC from Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers as well as global ionosonde measurements of the F2 layer critical frequency to investigate the behaviors of the daytime ionosphere around equinoxes at low solar activity (LSA). With the comination of the data from the above sources, we characterize the intensity of the differences between the two equinoxes. The equinoctial differences show a latitudinal dependence as well as an altitude pattern. Our result indicates that the principal difference of the ionosphere are centered around the crest latitudes of the equatorial ionization anomaly. There are some discrepancies in the equinoctial differences shown in these data sources. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (40725014). This study made use of IRO data from the COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center (CDAAC). Ionosonde data are provided from National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, IPS Radio and Space Services of Australia, and from SPIDR. The JPL GIMs are downloaded from the site: ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov. TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-1 dataset is produced and distributed by the JPL, Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center.

  14. The Prediction and Observation of the 1997 July 18 Stellar Occultation by Triton: More Evidence for Distortion and Increasing Pressure in Triton's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; McDonald, S. W.; Buie, M. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Millis, R. L.; Nye, R. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Young, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    We used CCD (charge coupled device) astrometric data to predict where the occultation path of the star Tr 176 was located, on July 18, 1997. It could be seen from northern Australia and the southern section of North America. We set up an array of portable and mixed telescopes which had high-speed photometric equipment to observe the occultation. Goals included the following: (1) mapping the central flash; (2) obtaining light curves for the signal-to-noise ratio; (3) acquiring light curves from Triton's disk. We combined these with data from others to find the radius and geometry of the half-light surface of the atmosphere, as well as the equivalent-isothermal temperature latitudes below the occultation on Triton.

  15. Earth Observation Research for GMES Initial Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beijma, Sybrand; Balzter, Heiko; Nicolas-Perea, Virginia

    2013-04-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: * Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). * Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centres and market leaders in the private sector. * Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. * Developing a collaborative training network, through the placement of researchers for short periods in other GIONET organizations. Reliable, thorough and up-to-date environmental information is essential for understanding climate change the impacts it has on people's lives and ways to adapt to them. The GIONET researchers are being trained to understand the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers have been placed in industry and universities across Europe, as

  16. Earth as an extrasolar planet: Earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Wellnitz, Dennis D

    2011-06-01

    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  17. Earth as an Extrasolar Planet: Earth Model Validation Using EPOXI Earth Observations

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A.; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K.; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward

  18. Earth observation (Australia) taken by Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Earth observation of Australia was taken by Galileo Spacecraft after completing its first Earth Gravity Assist. Color image of the Simpson Desert in Australia was obtained by Galileo at about 2:30 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST), 12-08-90, at a range of more than 35,000 miles. The color composite was made from images taken through the red, green, and violet filters. The area shown, about 280 miles wide by about 340 miles north-to-south, is southeast of Alice Springs. At lower left is Lake Eyre, a salt lake below sea level, subject to seasonal water-level fluctuations; when this image was acquired the lake was nearly dry. At lower right is the greenish Lake Blanche. Fields of linear sand dunes stretch north and east of Lake Eyre, shaped by prevailing winds from the south and showing, in different colors, the various sources and/or ages of their sands. Photo provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P-37331, 12-19-90.

  19. STS-4 earth observations from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    STS-4 earth observations from space. Views include both Florida coasts, with Cape Canaveral visible at the center of the frame. The photo was exposed through the aft window on the flight deck of the Columbia. The vertical tail and both orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pods are visible in the foreground. Other features on the Earth which are visible include Tampa Bay and several lakes, including Apopka, Tohopekaliga, East Tahopekaliga, Harris, Cypress and a number of small reservoirs (33223); This is a north-easterly looking view toward California's Pacific Coast. The coastal area covered includes San Diego northward to Pismo Beach. Los Angeles is near center. The arc of the Temblor-Tehachapi-Sierra Nevada surrounds the San Joaquin Valley at left. The Mojave desert lies between the San Andres and Garlock Faults (33224); Mexico's Baja California and Sonora state are visible in the STS-4 frame. The islands of Angel de la Guardia and Tiburon stand out above and right of center. Low clouds

  20. Space and Earth Observations from Stratospheric Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterzen, Steven; Ubertini, Pietro; Masi, Silvia; Ibba, Roberto; Ivano, Musso; Cardillo, Andrea; Romeo, Giovanni; Dragøy, Petter; Spoto, Domenico

    Stratospheric balloons are rapidly becoming the vehicle of choice for near space investigations and earth observations by a variety of science disciplines. With the ever increasing research into climatic change, instruments suspended from stratospheric balloons offer the science team a unique, stable and reusable platform that can circle the Earth in the polar region or equatorial zone for thirty days or more. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range (Andenes, Norway) has opened access in the far northern latitudes above 78o N from Longyearbyen, Svalbard. In 2006 the first Italian UltraLite Long Duration Balloon was launched from Baia Terra Nova, Mario Zuchelli station in Antarctica and now ASI is setting up for the their first equatorial stratospheric launch from their satellite receiving station and rocket launch site in Malindi, Kenya. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennal oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds. Maintaining these launch sites offer the science community 3 point world coverage for heavy lift balloons as well as the rapidly deployed Ultralight payloads and TM system ASI developed to use for test platforms, micro experiments, as well as a comprehensive student pilot program

  1. Coordinating an Autonomous Earth-Observing Sensorweb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert; Cichy, Benjamin; Tran, Daniel; Chien, Steve; Rabideau, Gregg; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; frye, Stuart; Mandl, Dan; Shulman, Seth; hide

    2006-01-01

    A system of software has been developed to coordinate the operation of an autonomous Earth-observing sensorweb. Sensorwebs are collections of sensor units scattered over large regions to gather data on spatial and temporal patterns of physical, chemical, or biological phenomena in those regions. Each sensor unit is a node in a data-gathering/ data-communication network that spans a region of interest. In this case, the region is the entire Earth, and the sensorweb includes multiple terrestrial and spaceborne sensor units. In addition to acquiring data for scientific study, the sensorweb is required to give timely notice of volcanic eruptions, floods, and other hazardous natural events. In keeping with the inherently modular nature of the sensory, communication, and data-processing hardware, the software features a flexible, modular architecture that facilitates expansion of the network, customization of conditions that trigger alarms of hazardous natural events, and customization of responses to alarms. The soft8 NASA Tech Briefs, July 2006 ware facilitates access to multiple sources of data on an event of scientific interest, enables coordinated use of multiple sensors in rapid reaction to detection of an event, and facilitates the tracking of spacecraft operations, including tracking of the acquisition, processing, and downlinking of requested data.

  2. Lidar instruments for ESA Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    for Earth Observation by initiating feasibility studies of a spaceborne concept to monitor atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases. The purpose of this paper is to present the instruments concept and related technology/instrument developments that are currently running at the European Space Agency. The paper will also outline the development planning proposed for future lidar systems.

  3. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Var, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

  4. Landsat: Sustaining earth observations beyond Landsat 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites began 41-years ago as a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior (DOI) and The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the past 41 years, Landsat satellites and associated U.S. Government ground processing, distribution, and archiving systems have acquired and made available global, moderate-resolution, multispectral measurements of land and coastal regions, providing humankind’s longest record of our planet from space. Landsat information is truly a national asset, providing an important and unique capability that benefits abroad community, including Federal, state, and local governments; globalchange science; academia, and the private sector.

  5. Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well understood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis we have developed a representative set of problems, produced optimization software (in Java) to solve them, and run experiments comparing techniques. This paper presents initial results of a comparison of several evolutionary and other optimization techniques; namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization, and stochastic hill climbing. We also compare separate satellite vs. integrated scheduling of a two satellite constellation. While the results are not definitive, tests to date suggest that simulated annealing is the best search technique and integrated scheduling is superior.

  6. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  7. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 26 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    ISS026-E-006255 (30 Nov. 2010) --- This night time image, photographed by an Expedition 26 crew member on the International Space Station, features the Las Vegas, Nevada metropolitan area, located near the southern tip of the state within the Mohave Desert of the southwestern USA. While the city of Las Vegas proper is famous for its casinos and resort hotels – the city bills itself as “the entertainment capital of the world” – the metropolitan area includes several other incorporated cities and unincorporated (not part of a state-recognized municipality) areas. Crew members onboard the ISS observe and photograph numerous metropolitan sites when the areas are illuminated by sunlight, but the extent and pattern of these areas are perhaps best revealed by the city lights at night. The surrounding dark desert presents a stark contrast to the brightly lit, regular street grid of the developed metropolitan area. The Vegas Strip (center) is reputed to be the brightest spot on Earth due to the concentration of lights associated with its hotels and casinos. The tarmac of McCarran International Airport to the south is a dark feature by comparison. The airstrips of Nellis Air Force Base on the northeastern fringe of the metropolitan area are likewise dark compared to the well-lit adjacent streets and neighborhoods. The dark mass of Frenchman Mountain borders the metropolitan area to the east. Acquisition of focused night time images such as this one requires space station crew members to track the target with the handheld camera while the ISS is moving at a speed of more than seven kilometers per second (15,659 miles per hour) relative to Earth’s surface. This was achieved during ISS Expedition Six using a homemade tracking device, but subsequent crews have needed to develop manual tracking skills. These skills, together with advances in digital camera technology, have enabled recent ISS crews to acquire striking night time images of Earth.

  8. Moon-based Earth Observation for Large Scale Geoscience Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Ding, Yixing

    2016-07-01

    The capability of Earth observation for large-global-scale natural phenomena needs to be improved and new observing platform are expected. We have studied the concept of Moon as an Earth observation in these years. Comparing with manmade satellite platform, Moon-based Earth observation can obtain multi-spherical, full-band, active and passive information,which is of following advantages: large observation range, variable view angle, long-term continuous observation, extra-long life cycle, with the characteristics of longevity ,consistency, integrity, stability and uniqueness. Moon-based Earth observation is suitable for monitoring the large scale geoscience phenomena including large scale atmosphere change, large scale ocean change,large scale land surface dynamic change,solid earth dynamic change,etc. For the purpose of establishing a Moon-based Earth observation platform, we already have a plan to study the five aspects as follows: mechanism and models of moon-based observing earth sciences macroscopic phenomena; sensors' parameters optimization and methods of moon-based Earth observation; site selection and environment of moon-based Earth observation; Moon-based Earth observation platform; and Moon-based Earth observation fundamental scientific framework.

  9. Cloud Based Earth Observation Data Exploitation Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, A.; Pinto, S.; Loekken, S.; Marin, A.

    2017-12-01

    In the last few years data produced daily by several private and public Earth Observation (EO) satellites reached the order of tens of Terabytes, representing for scientists and commercial application developers both a big opportunity for their exploitation and a challenge for their management. New IT technologies, such as Big Data and cloud computing, enable the creation of web-accessible data exploitation platforms, which offer to scientists and application developers the means to access and use EO data in a quick and cost effective way. RHEA Group is particularly active in this sector, supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) in the Exploitation Platforms (EP) initiative, developing technology to build multi cloud platforms for the processing and analysis of Earth Observation data, and collaborating with larger European initiatives such as the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) and the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). An EP is a virtual workspace, providing a user community with access to (i) large volume of data, (ii) algorithm development and integration environment, (iii) processing software and services (e.g. toolboxes, visualization routines), (iv) computing resources, (v) collaboration tools (e.g. forums, wiki, etc.). When an EP is dedicated to a specific Theme, it becomes a Thematic Exploitation Platform (TEP). Currently, ESA has seven TEPs in a pre-operational phase dedicated to geo-hazards monitoring and prevention, costal zones, forestry areas, hydrology, polar regions, urban areas and food security. On the technology development side, solutions like the multi cloud EO data processing platform provides the technology to integrate ICT resources and EO data from different vendors in a single platform. In particular it offers (i) Multi-cloud data discovery, (ii) Multi-cloud data management and access and (iii) Multi-cloud application deployment. This platform has been demonstrated with the EGI Federated Cloud, Innovation Platform Testbed Poland

  10. Interleaved Observation Execution and Rescheduling on Earth Observing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Frank, Jeremy; Smith, David; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Observation scheduling for Earth orbiting satellites solves the following problem: given a set of requests for images of the Earth, a set of instruments for acquiring those images distributed on a collecting of orbiting satellites, and a set of temporal and resource constraints, generate a set of assignments of instruments and viewing times to those requests that satisfy those constraints. Observation scheduling is often construed as a constrained optimization problem with the objective of maximizing the overall utility of the science data acquired. The utility of an image is typically based on the intrinsic importance of acquiring it (for example, its importance in meeting a mission or science campaign objective) as well as the expected value of the data given current viewing conditions (for example, if the image is occluded by clouds, its value is usually diminished). Currently, science observation scheduling for Earth Observing Systems is done on the ground, for periods covering a day or more. Schedules are uplinked to the satellites and are executed rigorously. An alternative to this scenario is to do some of the decision-making about what images are to be acquired on-board. The principal argument for this capability is that the desirability of making an observation can change dynamically, because of changes in meteorological conditions (e.g. cloud cover), unforeseen events such as fires, floods, or volcanic eruptions, or un-expected changes in satellite or ground station capability. Furthermore, since satellites can only communicate with the ground between 5% to 10% of the time, it may be infeasible to make the desired changes to the schedule on the ground, and uplink the revisions in time for the on-board system to execute them. Examples of scenarios that motivate an on-board capability for revising schedules include the following. First, if a desired visual scene is completely obscured by clouds, then there is little point in taking it. In this case

  11. Studying Big Planets with Small Telescopes: The z'-Band Occultation of WASP-19b Observed with EulerCam and TRAPPIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, Monika; Gillon, Michael; Queloz, Didier

    2013-04-01

    Transiting planets have opened up a window to the detailed study of extrasolar planets as their orbital orientation allows the measurement of the planet/star radius and flux ratios. From the observation of planetary transits and occultations at different wavelengths we can gain insights into the planets temperature, atmospheric composition, energy redistribution and albedo. In order to contribute to the characterization of planetary atmospheres, it is necessary to obtain high precision measurements of planetary transits and occultations as the signals of interest have amplitudes of typically 100 ppm. We use two dedicated instruments, EulerCam at the 1.2m Euler-Swiss telescope and the 0.6m TRAPPIST telescope for the in-depth study of transiting planets through time resolution photometry. While single lightcurves from 1m class telescopes typically reach photometric precisions of around 1mmag, we obtain very high accuracy on the transit and occultation shape by not relying on single observations but collecting larger samples of lightcurves. In this framework, we have performed an extensive observing campaign on the Hot Jupiter WASP-19b collecting over 60 hours of observations with EulerCam and TRAPPIST. The data cover 14 transits and 10 occultations of WASP-19b. We demonstrate how the attainable photometric precision and accuracy of the derived parameters can be greatly improved by combining an increasing number of lightcurves as instrumental and stellar effects can be identified and accounted for. We report the detection of the occultation of WASP-19b in the z'-band. This measurement is one of only a handful of exoplanet occultations detected from the ground at wavelengths shorter than 1μm , and so far the only one obtained from the ground using 1m class telescopes. Our value adds to an ensemble of occultation measurements for this planet, and is indicative of an Oxygen-dominated chemistry. From our sample of transits, we measure the transit depth to a precision of

  12. Infrared sensors for Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, P.; Thorne, P.; Weller, H.; Baker, I.

    2007-10-01

    SELEX S&AS is developing a family of infrared sensors for earth observation missions. The spectral bands cover shortwave infrared (SWIR) channels from around 1μm to long-wave infrared (LWIR) channels up to 15μm. Our mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) technology has enabled a sensor array design that can satisfy the requirements of all of the SWIR and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) bands with near-identical arrays. This is made possible by the combination of a set of existing technologies that together enable a high degree of flexibility in the pixel geometry, sensitivity, and photocurrent integration capacity. The solution employs a photodiode array under the control of a readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The ROIC allows flexible geometries and in-pixel redundancy to maximise operability and reliability, by combining the photocurrent from a number of photodiodes into a single pixel. Defective or inoperable diodes (or "sub-pixels") can be deselected with tolerable impact on the overall pixel performance. The arrays will be fabricated using the "loophole" process in MCT grown by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). These arrays are inherently robust, offer high quantum efficiencies and have been used in previous space programs. The use of loophole arrays also offers access to SELEX's avalanche photodiode (APD) technology, allowing low-noise, highly uniform gain at the pixel level where photon flux is very low.

  13. CubeSat Nighttime Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, D. W.; Hardy, B. S.; Longcore, T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite monitoring of visible emissions at night has been established as a useful capability for environmental monitoring and mapping the global human footprint. Pioneering work using Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP) sensors has been followed by new work using the more capable Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). Beginning in 2014, we have been investigating the ability of small visible light cameras on CubeSats to contribute to nighttime Earth science studies via point-and-stare imaging. This paper summarizes our recent research using a common suite of simple visible cameras on several AeroCube satellites to carry out nighttime observations of urban areas and natural gas flares, nighttime weather (including lighting), and fishing fleet lights. Example results include: urban image examples, the utility of color imagery, urban lighting change detection, and multi-frame sequences imaging nighttime weather and large ocean areas with extensive fishing vessel lights. Our results show the potential for CubeSat sensors to improve monitoring of urban growth, light pollution, energy usage, the urban-wildland interface, the improvement of electrical power grids in developing countries, light-induced fisheries, and oil industry flare activity. In addition to orbital results, the nighttime imaging capabilities of new CubeSat sensors scheduled for launch in October 2017 are discussed.

  14. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. For example, the small hills in the foreground and behind the central volcano are cinder cones, approximately only 200 meters high. Note the sharp triangular shadow from the conical volcano at right. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk

  15. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk and brought home with the flight crewmembers for processing. ESC was developed by the JSC Man-Systems Division and this mission's application of it is part of a continuing evolutionary development le

  16. STS-43 Earth observation of a colorful sunrise

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    STS-43 Earth observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, captures the Earth's limb at sunrise with unusual cloud patterns silhouetted by the sunlight and rising into the terminator lines.

  17. MACSAT - A Near Equatorial Earth Observation Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. J.; Park, S.; Kim, E.-E.; Park, W.; Chang, H.; Seon, J.

    MACSAT mission was initiated by Malaysia to launch a high-resolution remote sensing satellite into Near Equatorial Orbit (NEO). Due to its geographical location, Malaysia can have large benefits from NEO satellite operation. From the baseline circular orbit of 685 km altitude with 7 degrees of inclination, the neighboring regions around Malaysian territory can be frequently monitored. The equatorial environment around the globe can also be regularly observed with unique revisit characteristics. The primary mission objective of MACSAT program is to develop and validate technologies for a near equatorial orbit remote sensing satellite system. MACSAT is optimally designed to accommodate an electro-optic Earth observation payload, Medium-sized Aperture Camera (MAC). Malaysian and Korean joint engineering teams are formed for the effective implementation of the satellite system. An integrated team approach is adopted for the joint development for MACSAT. MAC is a pushbroom type camera with 2.5 m of Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) in panchromatic band and 5 m of GSD in four multi-spectral bands. The satellite platform is a mini-class satellite. Including MAC payload, the satellite weighs under 200 kg. Spacecraft bus is designed optimally to support payload operations during 3 years of mission life. The payload has 20 km of swath width with +/- 30 o of tilting capability. 32 Gbits of solid state recorder is implemented as the mass image storage. The ground element is an integrated ground station for mission control and payload operation. It is equipped with S- band up/down link for commanding and telemetry reception as well as 30 Mbps class X-band down link for image reception and processing. The MACSAT system is capable of generating 1:25,000-scale image maps. It is also anticipated to have capability for cross-track stereo imaging for Digital elevation Model (DEM) generation.

  18. Radio scintillations observed during atmospheric occultations of Voyager: Internal gravity waves at Titan and magnetic field orientations at Jupiter and Saturn. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinson, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The refractive index of planetary atmospheres at microwave frequencies is discussed. Physical models proposed for the refractive irregularities in the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere serve to characterize the atmospheric scattering structures, and are used subsequently to compute theoretical scintillation spectra for comparison with the Voyager occultation measurements. A technique for systematically analyzing and interpreting the signal fluctuations observed during planetary occultations is presented and applied to process the dual-wavelength data from the Voyager radio occultations by Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan. Results concerning the plasma irregularities in the upper ionospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are reported. The measured orientation of the irregularities is used to infer the magnetic field direction at several locations in the ionospheres of these two planets; the occultation measurements conflict with the predictions of Jovian magnetic field models, but generally confirm current models of Saturn's field. Wave parameters, including the vertical fluxes of energy and momentum, are estimated, and the source of the internal gravity waves discovered in Titan's upper atmosphere is considered.

  19. Wave optics of the central spot in planetary occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    The detection of a bright central spot during the occultation of epsilon Geminorum by Mars demonstrates that an exponentially-stratified planetary atmosphere can act as a lens providing very high resolution of distant objects (e.g., quasars, white dwarfs, and pulsars). The diffraction nature of the central occultation spot is investigated, with special reference to Mars and Venus. In practice, however, central occultations by these planets are seldom observable from the earth's surface, and spacecraft would have to be used to obtain a suitable orientation for observers. Further difficulties may be encountered in image deconvolution needed for extended objects, in location of the image of a true point source, and in compensation for peculiarities of planets and their atmospheres.

  20. Assessment of COSMIC radio occultation and AIRS hyperspectral IR sounder temperature products in the stratosphere using observed radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltz, M. L.; Knuteson, R. O.; Revercomb, H. E.

    2017-08-01

    Upper air temperature is defined as an essential climate variable by the World Meteorological Organization. Two remote sensing technologies being promoted for monitoring stratospheric temperatures are GPS radio occultation (RO) and spectrally resolved IR radiances. This study assesses RO and hyperspectral IR sounder derived temperature products within the stratosphere by comparing IR spectra calculated from GPS RO and IR sounder products to coincident IR observed radiances, which are used as a reference standard. RO dry temperatures from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission are compared to NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrievals using a previously developed profile-to-profile collocation method and vertical temperature averaging kernels. Brightness temperatures (BTs) are calculated for both COSMIC and AIRS temperature products and are then compared to coincident AIRS measurements. The COSMIC calculated minus AIRS measured BTs exceed the estimated 0.5 K measurement uncertainty for the winter time extratropics around 35 hPa. These differences are attributed to seasonal UCAR COSMIC biases. Unphysical vertical oscillations are seen in the AIRS L2 temperature product in austral winter Antarctic regions, and results imply a small AIRS tropical warm bias around 35 hPa in the middle stratosphere.

  1. Earth observations taken by Expedition 38 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-24

    ISS038-E-007756 (24 Nov. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 38 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station used an 800mm lens to record this nadir image of Key West, Florida on Nov. 24, 2013.

  2. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 47 Crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-17

    ISS047e010211 (03/17/2016) --- NASA astronaut Tim Kopra sent this interesting image out via Twitter with the comment " Lake in #Brazil - looks like something from #MiddleEarth. @Space_Station #TheShire #Explore".

  3. Earth radiation balance and climate: Why the Moon is the wrong place to observe the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Robert S.

    1994-06-01

    Increasing 'greenhouse' gases in the Earth's atmosphere will perturb the Earth's radiation balance, forcing climate change over coming decades. Climate sensitivity depends critically on cloud-radiation feedback: its evaluation requires continual observation of changing patterns of Earth radiation balance and cloud cover. The Moon is the wrong place for such observations, with many disadvantages compared to an observation system combining platforms in low polar, intermediate-inclination and geostationary orbits. From the Moon, active observations are infeasible; thermal infrared observations require very large instruments to reach spatial resolutions obtained at much lower cost from geostationary or lower orbits. The Earth's polar zones are never well observed from the Moon; other zones are invisible more than half the time. The monthly illumination cycle leads to further bias in radiation budget determinations. The Earth will be a pretty sight from the Earth-side of the Moon, but serious Earth observations will be made elsewhere.

  4. Earth Observations taken by STS-127 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-30

    S127-E-012774 (30 July 2009) --- Backdropped by Earth?s horizon and the blackness of space, a Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite (DRAGONSat) is photographed after its release from Space Shuttle Endeavour?s payload bay by STS-127 crew members. DRAGONSat will look at independent rendezvous of spacecraft in orbit using Global Positioning Satellite data. The two satellites were designed and built by students at the University of Texas, Austin, and Texas A&M University, College Station.

  5. Earth Observations taken by STS-127 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-30

    S127-E-012776 (30 July 2009) --- Backdropped by Earth?s horizon and the blackness of space, a Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite (DRAGONSat) is photographed after its release from Space Shuttle Endeavour?s payload bay by STS-127 crew members. DRAGONSat will look at independent rendezvous of spacecraft in orbit using Global Positioning Satellite data. The two satellites were designed and built by students at the University of Texas, Austin, and Texas A&M University, College Station.

  6. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 41 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-17

    ISS041-E-016740 (17 Sept. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 41 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station exposed this Sept. 17 nocturnal scene featuring most of the largest cities on the central eastern seaboard. Even at 221 nautical miles above Earth, the 28mm focal length on the still camera was able to pick up detail in the image, for example, Central Park on Manhattan at right frame. The nation?s capital is very near frame center.

  7. Earth observation taken by Expedition 35 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-05

    ISS035-E-034848 (5 May 2013) --- The sun is about to come up over the South Pacific Ocean in this colorful scene photographed by one of the Expedition 35 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station between 4 and 5 a.m. local time, May 5, 2013. The outpost was at a point above Earth located at 27.4 degrees south latitude and 110.1 degrees west longitude, a few hundred miles east of Easter Island.

  8. The future of Earth observation in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Matthew F.; Rodell, Matthew; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Miralles, Diego G.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Wagner, Wolfgang; Lucieer, Arko; Houborg, Rasmus; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Franz, Trenton E.; Shi, Jiancheng; Gao, Huilin; Wood, Eric F.

    2017-07-01

    In just the past 5 years, the field of Earth observation has progressed beyond the offerings of conventional space-agency-based platforms to include a plethora of sensing opportunities afforded by CubeSats, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and smartphone technologies that are being embraced by both for-profit companies and individual researchers. Over the previous decades, space agency efforts have brought forth well-known and immensely useful satellites such as the Landsat series and the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system, with costs typically of the order of 1 billion dollars per satellite and with concept-to-launch timelines of the order of 2 decades (for new missions). More recently, the proliferation of smartphones has helped to miniaturize sensors and energy requirements, facilitating advances in the use of CubeSats that can be launched by the dozens, while providing ultra-high (3-5 m) resolution sensing of the Earth on a daily basis. Start-up companies that did not exist a decade ago now operate more satellites in orbit than any space agency, and at costs that are a mere fraction of traditional satellite missions. With these advances come new space-borne measurements, such as real-time high-definition video for tracking air pollution, storm-cell development, flood propagation, precipitation monitoring, or even for constructing digital surfaces using structure-from-motion techniques. Closer to the surface, measurements from small unmanned drones and tethered balloons have mapped snow depths, floods, and estimated evaporation at sub-metre resolutions, pushing back on spatio-temporal constraints and delivering new process insights. At ground level, precipitation has been measured using signal attenuation between antennae mounted on cell phone towers, while the proliferation of mobile devices has enabled citizen scientists to catalogue photos of environmental conditions, estimate daily average temperatures from battery state, and sense other

  9. NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory's Data Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, L. E.; Williams, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) maintains an extensive collection of complex, multi-disciplinary datasets from national and international, current and historical projects accessible through field project web pages (https://www.eol.ucar.edu/all-field-projects-and-deployments). Data orders are processed through the EOL Metadata Database and Cyberinfrastructure (EMDAC) system. Behind the scenes is the institutionally created EOL Computing, Data, and Software/Data Management Group (CDS/DMG) Data Tracking System (DTS) tool. The DTS is used to track the complete life cycle (from ingest to long term stewardship) of the data, metadata, and provenance for hundreds of projects and thousands of data sets. The DTS is an EOL internal only tool which consists of three subsystems: Data Loading Notes (DLN), Processing Inventory Tool (IVEN), and Project Metrics (STATS). The DLN is used to track and maintain every dataset that comes to the CDS/DMG. The DLN captures general information such as title, physical locations, responsible parties, high level issues, and correspondence. When the CDS/DMG processes a data set, IVEN is used to track the processing status while collecting sufficient information to ensure reproducibility. This includes detailed "How To" documentation, processing software (with direct links to the EOL Subversion software repository), and descriptions of issues and resolutions. The STATS subsystem generates current project metrics such as archive size, data set order counts, "Top 10" most ordered data sets, and general information on who has ordered these data. The DTS was developed over many years to meet the specific needs of the CDS/DMG, and it has been successfully used to coordinate field project data management efforts for the past 15 years. This paper will describe the EOL CDS/DMG Data Tracking System including its basic functionality, the provenance maintained within the system, lessons learned, potential improvements, and future developments.

  10. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  11. Earth observations taken during STS-1 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-24

    STS001-13-443 (12-14 April 1981) --- This photograph showing much of Italy was taken with a hand-held 70mm camera from 276 kilometers above Earth as the NASA space shuttle Columbia and its crew were marking their last few hours in space on the historic first space mission utilizing a reusable vehicle. Included in the area of the frame are Golfo de Napoli, Napoli (Naples), Castellammare, Amalfi, Capri, Sorrento, Mt. Vesuvius and the ruins of Pompei. Astronauts John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen exposed eight magazines of color 70mm film during their two-and-one-third days in Earth orbit. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Project Copernicus: An Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation is presenting this proposal for Project Copernicus to fulfill the need for space-based remote sensing of Earth. Concentration is on data acquisition. Copernicus is designed to be a flexible system of spacecraft in a low near-polar orbit. The goal is to acquire data so that the scientists may begin to understand many Earth processes and interactions. The mission objective of Copernicus is to provide a space-based, remote-sensing measurement data acquisition and transfer system for 15 years. A description of the design project is presented.

  13. Connecting Earth observation to high-throughput biodiversity data.

    PubMed

    Bush, Alex; Sollmann, Rahel; Wilting, Andreas; Bohmann, Kristine; Cole, Beth; Balzter, Heiko; Martius, Christopher; Zlinszky, András; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Cobbold, Christina A; Dawson, Terence P; Emerson, Brent C; Ferrier, Simon; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Herold, Martin; Jones, Laurence; Leendertz, Fabian H; Matthews, Louise; Millington, James D A; Olson, John R; Ovaskainen, Otso; Raffaelli, Dave; Reeve, Richard; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Rodgers, Torrey W; Snape, Stewart; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid; Vogler, Alfried P; White, Piran C L; Wooster, Martin J; Yu, Douglas W

    2017-06-22

    Understandably, given the fast pace of biodiversity loss, there is much interest in using Earth observation technology to track biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, because most biodiversity is invisible to Earth observation, indicators based on Earth observation could be misleading and reduce the effectiveness of nature conservation and even unintentionally decrease conservation effort. We describe an approach that combines automated recording devices, high-throughput DNA sequencing and modern ecological modelling to extract much more of the information available in Earth observation data. This approach is achievable now, offering efficient and near-real-time monitoring of management impacts on biodiversity and its functions and services.

  14. Earth Observations taken by STS-116 Crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-13

    S116-E-06081 (13 Dec. 2006) -- Backdropped against a colorful part of Earth, Progress 23 supply vehicle docked to the Zvezda Service Module's aft port of International Space Station, is featured in this image photographed by a STS-116 crewmember while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the station. Shark Bay, Australia is visible at lower right.

  15. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 44 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-22

    ISS044E002699 (06/23/2015) --- This spectacular view of the Earth with colorful aurora, sparkling city lights, and a rising sun over a background of diamond twinkling stars was taken by members of Expedition 44 on the International Space Station on June 23, 2015.

  16. Apollo 9 Mission image - Earth Observation - Georgia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-03

    AS09-23-3567 (3-13 March 1969) --- Oblique view of the Atlanta, Georgia area as photographed from the Apollo 9 spacecraft during its Earth-orbital mission. The Chattahoochee River runs from Lake Sidney Lanier, near Gainesville (at upper left corner), south-westward by Atlanta and between Newnan and Carrollton (lower right). Allatoona Lake is at left center.

  17. Earth observations taken from shuttle orbiter Columbia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-22

    STS073-728-010 (22 October 1995) --- Photographed by the astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia orbiting at 146 nautical miles above Earth is this scene over West Virginia featuring the Appalachian Mountains. Center point coordinates are 37.5 degrees north latitude and 80.5 degrees west longitude.

  18. NASA Facts, Observing Earth from Skylab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    The process of high-altitude photography and its uses are the topics of this publication. The advantages of color infrared photography over black and white images are discussed, using as evidence a series of skylab photographs. The major portion of this work is devoted to the detection of natural resources of the earth from the analysis of…

  19. Earth Observation taken during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-23

    S127-E-008040 (23 July 2009) --- This is a view of Egypt's Lake Nasser from the shuttle-station tandem currently flying 220 miles above Earth. An international crew of thirteen astronauts and cosmonaut are working together to continue work on the orbital outpost

  20. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 34 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-25

    ISS034-E-056011 (25 Feb. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 34 crew members aboard the International Space Station took advantage of clear skies over Indianapolis, Indiana on Feb. 25 and captured this image of the capital city from a point some 240 miles above Earth.

  1. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 47 Crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-25

    ISS047e020123 (03/25/2016) --- A golden reflection of the rising sun on the Earths oceans greets the crew of Expedition 47 on board the International Space station. Another day begins for the crew in their pursuit of science that will aid humankind.

  2. Earth observations taken during STS-8 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    STS008-50-1840 (30 Aug-5 Sept 1983) --- An active 5,500 foot high volcano on Adonara Island in Indonesia leaves a 30 mile long visible trail of smoke. The surrounding islands are Flores (lower right) Solor (right edge) and Lomblen (upper center). This photograph was made from the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Challenger on its third mission.

  3. Calculated occultation profiles of Io and the hot spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.; Soderblom, L. A.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.

    1986-01-01

    Occultations of Io by other Galilean satellites in 1985 provide a means to locate volcanic hot spots and to model their temperatures. The expected time variations in the integral reflected and emitted radiation of the occultations are computed as a function of wavelength (visual to 8.7 microns). The best current ephemerides were used to calculate the geometry of each event as viewed from earth. Visual reflectances were modeled from global mosaics of Io. Thermal emission from the hot spots was calculated from Voyager 1 IRIS observations and, for regions unobserved by IRIS, from a model based on the distribution of low-albedo features. The occultations may help determine (1) the location and temperature distribution of Loki; (2) the source(s) of excess emission in the region from long 50 deg to 200 deg and (3) the distribution of small, high-temperature sources.

  4. Towards disruptions in Earth observation? New Earth Observation systems and markets evolution: Possible scenarios and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Gil; Claverie, Alain; Pasco, Xavier; Darnis, Jean-Pierre; de Maupeou, Benoît; Lafaye, Murielle; Morel, Eric

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews the trends in Earth observation (EO) and the possible impacts on markets of the new initiatives, launched either by existing providers of EO data or by new players, privately funded. After a presentation of the existing models, the paper discusses the new approaches, addressing both commercial and institutional markets. New concepts for the very high resolution markets, in Europe and in the US, are the main focus of this analysis. Two complementary perspectives are summarised: on the one hand, the type of system and its operational performance and, on the other, the related business models, concepts of operation and ownership schemes.

  5. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  6. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 34 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-21

    ISS034-E-056100 (21 Feb. 2013) --- One of the most recognizable natural features on Earth, when viewing from space, is the Manicouagan Crater, one of the oldest known impact craters on Earth. Photographed by one of the Expedition 34 crew members onboard the International Space Station, the crater is located primarily in Manicouagan Regional County Municipality in the Côte-Nord region of Québec, Canada, about 300 kilometers (190 miles) north of the city of Baie-Comeau. Manicouagan is one of the oldest large astroblemes still visible on the surface. The crater is a multiple-ring structure about 100 kilometers (60 miles) across, with its 70 kilometer (40 mile) diameter inner ring its most prominent feature; it contains a 70 kilometer (40 mile) diameter annular lake, the Manicouagan Reservoir, surrounding an inner island plateau.

  7. The Nimbus satellites - Pioneering earth observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Carolynne

    1990-01-01

    The many scientific achievements of the Nimbus series of seven satellites for low-altitude atmospheric research and global weather surveillance are reviewed. The series provides information on fishery resources, weather modeling, atmospheric pollution monitoring, earth's radiation budget, ozone monitoring, ocean dynamics, and the effects of cloudiness. Data produced by the forty-eight instruments and sensors flown on the satellites are applied in the fields of oceanography, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, geography, cartography, agriculture and meteorology. The instruments include the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (which depicts phytoplankton concentrations in coastal areas), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (which measures sea-surface temperatures and sea-surface wind-speed), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (which provides information on total amounts of ozone in the earth's atmosphere).

  8. Earth observations taken during STS-41C

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    41C-51-2414 (6-13 April 1984) --- The entire Texas portion of the Gulf Coast and part of Louisiana's shoreline are visible in this frame, photographed on 4"x5" roll film using a large format camera aboard the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger. Coastal bays and other geographic features from the Boca Chica (mouth of Rio Grande), to the mouth of the Mississippi are included in the frame, photographed from approximately 285 nautical miles above Earth. Inland cities that can be easily delineated are San Antonio, Austin, College Station, Del Rio and Lufkin. Easily pinpointed coastal cities include Houston, Galveston and Corpus Christi. The 41-C crew members used this frame as one of the visuals for their post-flight press conference on April 24, 1984.

  9. Scheduling Observations of Celestial Objects for Earth Observing Sensor Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Truman; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of Earth-observing satellite sensors is critical for tracking on-orbit gain changes through- out the satellite's mission. The Moon, being a stable, well-characterized radiometric target, has been used effectively for tracking the relative gain changes of the reflective solar bands for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board EOS AM-1 (Terra) and PM-1 (Aqua). The Moon is viewed through the MODIS space-view port, and the relative phase of the Moon is restricted to within 0.5 degrees of a chosen target phase to increase the accuracy of the calibration. These geometric restrictions require spacecraft maneuvers in order to bring space-view port into proper alignment with the position of the Moon when the phase requirement is met. In this paper, we describe a versatile tool for scheduling such maneuvers based on the required geometry and lunar phase restrictions for a general spacecraft bound instrument. The results of the scheduling tool have been verified using lunar images from Aqua and Terra MODIS after a scheduled roll maneuver was performed. This tool has also been tested for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder on-board the Suomi-NPP spacecraft. As an extension of this work, we have also developed a tool for scheduling views of bright stars. These stars provide another well-characterized radiometric source that can be used for sensor calibration. This tool has been implemented to determine the times in which a chosen star can be viewed by the high gain stages of the day/night band for the VIIRS instrument.

  10. Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  11. Earth observations taken during STS-8

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    STS008-32-748 (30 Aug-5 Sept 1983) --- Bora-Bora, with its wide-fringing reef, stands out in the center of this photographed, taken over the Society Island chain from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Challenger on its third spaceflight. In the upper left corner are the islands of Raiatea and Tahaa. The ancient volcano islands are very slowly sinking into the oceanic crust, while coral growth maintains a reef platform.

  12. Earth Observations taken by Expeditiion 38 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-12

    ISS038-E-000649 (12 Nov. 2013) --- Although crew members on the International Space Station view literally hundreds of scenes of the moon rising and setting over Earth on each several- month increment, the home planet's natural satellite never ceases to escape the crew's attention and impulse to grab a camera from time to time. Such was the case with this image of a waxing gibbous moon recorded exactly at 00:00:00 GMT, Nov. 12, 2013.

  13. Earth observations taken during STS-77

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-21

    STS077-704-010 (19-29 May 1996) --- The northeastern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula is visible in this Earth scene. The eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula is characterized by bluffs, bays, and islands. Isla Mujeres is one of the larger islands off the eastern coast where a tourism industry is being developed. The different shades of blue along the coast is an indication of water depth, with the lighter shades representing more shallow water.

  14. Earth Observation Services (Oil Spill Mapping)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An EOCAP project led Research Planning, Inc. to the development of advanced techniques for "environmental sensitivity" oil spill mapping. The new method incorporates satellite remote sensing and GIS technologies and was utilized to assess the damage potential of the Gulf war oil spill. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the, use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  15. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-22

    ISS030-E-048067 (22 Jan. 2012) --- With hardware from the Earth-orbiting International Space Station appearing in the near foreground, a night time European panorama reveals city lights from Belgium and the Netherlands at bottom center, the British Isles partially obscured by solar array panels at left, the North Sea at left center, and Scandinavia at right center beneath the end effector of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2.

  16. Earth observation taken during STS-102

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-06-14

    STS102-342-024 (8-21 March 2001)--- The largest percentage of astronaut out-the-window photography is scientific in nature. However, occasionally scenes such as this one showing the moon over Earth's airglow are irresistable for crew members with cameras. The 35mm scene was recorded by one of the STS-102 astronauts from the aft flight deck of the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  17. Earth Observation taken by STS-116 Crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-20

    S116-E-07663 (20 Dec. 2006) --- One of the STS-116 crewmembers onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery captured this picture of Aurora Borealis over Norway, Poland and Sweden, as the crew made preparations for a Dec. 22 landing. European Space Agency astronaut Christer Fuglesang onboard the shuttle noted the rarity of pictures over this area from shuttle missions, and especially pictures that included the Northern Lights. Fuglesang is from Sweden. The city lights of Copenhagen (bright cluster of lights in the middle left portion of the image), Stockholm (under the aurora on the far right side of the image), and Gdansk (in the center forefront) are seen. The formation of the aurora starts with the sun releasing solar particles. The Earth's magnetic field captures and channels the solar particles toward the Earth's two magnetic poles (north and south). As the solar particles move towards the poles they collide with the Earth's atmosphere, which acts as an effective shield against these deadly particles. The collision between the solar particles and the atmospheric gas molecule emits a light particle (photon). When there are many collisions the aurora is formed.

  18. Earth's transmission spectrum from lunar eclipse observations.

    PubMed

    Pallé, Enric; Osorio, María Rosa Zapatero; Barrena, Rafael; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Martín, Eduardo L

    2009-06-11

    Of the 342 planets so far discovered orbiting other stars, 58 'transit' the stellar disk, meaning that they can be detected through a periodic decrease in the flux of starlight. The light from the star passes through the atmosphere of the planet, and in a few cases the basic atmospheric composition of the planet can be estimated. As we get closer to finding analogues of Earth, an important consideration for the characterization of extrasolar planetary atmospheres is what the transmission spectrum of our planet looks like. Here we report the optical and near-infrared transmission spectrum of the Earth, obtained during a lunar eclipse. Some biologically relevant atmospheric features that are weak in the reflection spectrum (such as ozone, molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide and methane) are much stronger in the transmission spectrum, and indeed stronger than predicted by modelling. We also find the 'fingerprints' of the Earth's ionosphere and of the major atmospheric constituent, molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which are missing in the reflection spectrum.

  19. Waste Management with Earth Observation Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarit, Gerard; Tabasco, A.

    2010-05-01

    The range of applications where Earth Observation (EO) can be useful has been notably increased due to the maturity reached in the adopted technology and techniques. In most of the cases, EO provides a manner to remotely monitor particular variables and parameters with a more efficient usage of the available resources. Typical examples are environmental (forest, marine, resources…) monitoring, precision farming, security and surveillance (land, maritime…) and risk / disaster management (subsidence, volcanoes…). In this context, this paper presents a methodology to monitor waste disposal sites with EO. In particular, the explored technology is Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which applies the interferometric concept to SAR images. SAR is an advanced radar concept able to acquire 2D coherent microwave reflectivity images for large scenes (tens of thousands kilometres) with fine resolution (< 1 m). The main product of InSAR is Digital Elevation Models (DEM) that provide key information about the tri-dimensional configuration of a scene, that is, a height map of the scene. In practice, this represents an alternative way to obtain the same information than in-situ altimetry can provide. In the case of waste management, InSAR has been used to evaluate the potentiality of EO to monitor the disposed volume along a specific range of time. This activity has been developed in collaboration with the Agència de Resídus de Catalunya (ARC) (The Waste Agency of Catalonia), Spain, in the framework of a pilot project. The motivation comes from the new law promoted by the regional Government that taxes the volume of disposed waste. This law put ARC in duty to control that the real volume matches the numbers provided by the waste processing firms so that they can not commit illegal actions. Right now, this task is performed with in-situ altimetry. But despite of the accurate results, this option is completely inefficient and limits the numbers of polls that

  20. Operational evapotranspiration based on Earth observation satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise; Ghilain, Nicolas; Arboleda, Alirio; Barrios, Jose-Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Geostationary satellites have the potential to follow fast evolving atmospheric and Earth surface phenomena such those related to cloud cover evolution and diurnal cycle. Since about 15 years, EUMETSAT has set up a network named 'Satellite Application Facility' (SAF, http://www.eumetsat.int/website/home/Satellites/GroundSegment/Safs/index.html) to complement its ground segment. The Land Surface Analysis (LSA) SAF (http://landsaf.meteo.pt/) is devoted to the development of operational products derived from the European meteorological satellites. In particular, an evapotranspiration (ET) product has been developed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. Instantaneous and daily integrated results are produced in near real time and are freely available respectively since the end of 2009 and 2010. The products cover Europe, Africa and the Eastern part of South America with the spatial resolution of the SEVIRI sensor on-board Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites. The ET product algorithm (Ghilain et al., 2011) is based on a simplified Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere transfer (SVAT) scheme, forced with MSG derived radiative products (LSA SAF short and longwave surface fluxes, albedo). It has been extensively validated against in-situ validation data, mainly FLUXNET observations, demonstrating its good performances except in some arid or semi-arid areas. Research has then been pursued to develop an improved version for those areas. Solutions have been found in reviewing some of the model parameterizations and in assimilating additional satellite products (mainly vegetation indices and land surface temperature) into the model. The ET products will be complemented with related latent and sensible heat fluxes, to allow the monitoring of land surface energy partitioning. The new algorithm version should be tested in the LSA-SAF operational computer system in 2016 and results should become accessible to beta-users/regular users by the end of 2016/early 2017. In

  1. Portable Telescopic Observations of the 3 June 2017 Stellar Occultation by New Horizons Kuiper Extended Mission Target (486958) 2014 MU69

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbiscer, Anne J.; Buie, Marc W.; Porter, Simon Bernard; Tamblyn, Peter; Terrell, Dirk; Benecchi, Susan; Parker, Alex; Soto, Alejandro; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Young, Eliot F.; Zangari, Amanda Marie; New Horizons MU69 Occultation Team

    2017-10-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft will encounter the cold classical Kuiper Belt Object (486958) 2014 MU69 on 1 January 2019. Because it is extremely faint (V mag ~27), MU69 has only been directly observed by the Hubble Space Telescope since its discovery (by HST) in 2014 (Spencer et al. 2015 EPSC 10, 417S). Current knowledge of the physical properties of MU69 is therefore limited to its red color (F606W-F814W = 0.99 ± 0.18, Benecchi et al. 2017) and a crude estimate on its size (20-40 km) based on association with other cold classical KBO visible albedos (0.04-0.15). Stellar occultations are powerful tools with which to measure the size and shape of objects whose distance and faintness precludes any spatially resolved observations. Here we report the results of a stellar occultation of a g’=15.33 magnitude star by MU69 on 3 June 2017. The shadow path crossed both southern Africa and South America. We deployed 12 portable telescopes from Mendoza, Argentina and 13 portable telescopes from Clanwilliam, Western Cape, South Africa. Although 24 of these 25 telescopes successfully observed the occultation star at the predicted event time, no solid body detection appeared in any of the acquired lightcurves. Following the successful detection of MU69 by stellar occultation on 17 July 2017, revised predictions of the location of the shadow path on 3 June now allow the lightcurves obtained on 3 June to place important constraints on the environment surrounding MU69 as well as upper limits on the size of any small satellites in the regions probed. This work would not have been possible without the financial support of NASA, the New Horizons Project, the astrometric support of the Gaia mission, and logistical support from the South African Astronomical Observatory, the US Embassies in Buenos Aires and Pretoria and the US Consulate in Cape Town.

  2. INTEGRATED EARTH OBSERVATIONS: APPLICATION TO AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 2005, ministers from 60 countries and the European Commission met in Brussels, Belgium to endorse the 10-year plan for a Global Earth Observation System of Systems(GEOSS) prepared by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), a partnership of nations and international org...

  3. Faraday rotation fluctutation spectra observed during solar occultation of the Helios spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V.; Efimov, A. I.; Samoznaev, L.; Bird, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Faraday rotation (FR) measurements using linearly polarized radio signals from the two Helios spacecraft were carried out during the period from 1975 to 1984. This paper presents the results of a spectral analysis of the Helios S-band FR fluctuations observed at heliocentric distances from 2.6 to 15 solar radii during the superior conjunctions 1975-1983. The mean intensity of the FR fluctuations does not exceed the noise level for solar offsets greater than ca. 15 solar radii. The rms FR fluctuation amplitude increases rapidly as the radio ray path approaches the Sun, varying according to a power law (exponent: 2.85 +/- 0.15) at solar distances 4-12 solar radii. At distances inside 4 solar radii the increase is even steeper (exponent: 5.6 +/- 0.2). The equivalent two-dimensional FR fluctuation spectrum is well modeled by a single power-law over the frequency range from 5 to 50 mHz. For heliocentric distances larger than 4 solar radii the spectral index varies between 1.1 and 1.6 with a mean value of 1.4 +/- 0.2, corresponding to a 3-D spectral index p = 2.4. FR fluctuations thus display a somwhat lower spectral index compared with phase and amplitude fluctuations. Surprisingly high values of the spectral index were found for measurements inside 4 solar radii (p = 2.9 +/- 0.2). This may arise from the increasingly dominant effect of the magnetic field on radio wave propagation at small solar offsets. Finally, a quasiperiodic component, believed to be associated with Alfven waves, was discovered in some (but not all!) fluctuation spectra observed simultaneously at two ground stations. Characteristic periods and bulk velocities of this component were 240 +/- 30 sec and 300 +/- 60 km/s, respectively.

  4. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 26 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-23

    ISS026-E-029133 (24 Feb. 2011) --- From approximately 220 miles above Earth, an Expedition 26 crew member aboard the International Space Station exposed this oblique-angle still frame of parts of New Zealand including those impacted by an earthquake almost four days ago. This image provides a view across the South Island of New Zealand. One can see the Southern Alps mountain range, along the length of the island (more on the west side) which is formed where the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates meet. Death toll announced on Feb. 24, the day this picture was taken, had reached slightly above 100.

  5. Earth observations taken during STS-81 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-21

    STS081-711-009 (12-22 Jan. 1997) --- As photographed with a 70mm handheld camera from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis, this image provides a northeastward panorama of the Florida peninsula, the northern Bahamas and Cuba as well as a synoptic view of the northern Caribbean region. Lake Okeechobee and the urban region around Miami are the two key visual points in Florida. The turquoise shallow water platforms around the Florida Keys, the Bahamas, and south of Cuba contrast with the deep blue color of the deeper channels which separate Florida from Cuba and the Bahamas. Offshore breezes keep the coastal areas clear of clouds.

  6. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-01

    ISS030-E-038622 (1 Jan. 2012) --- Framed by a window of the Cupola on the International Space Station is a scene photographed by one of the Expedition 30 crew members aboard the orbital outpost showing two Russian spacecraft that are currently docked to it. A Soyuz (near foreground) is docked to Rassvet, also known as the Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1), and a Progress is linked to the Pirs Docking Compartment, just above center frame. Part of Earth, mostly clouds and water, can be seen running horizontally through the scene.

  7. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 26 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-20

    ISS026-E-028384 (22 Feb. 2011) --- This high oblique night time view of the bottom two thirds of the Florida peninsula, photographed by an Expedition 26 crew member aboard the International Space Station at 220 miles above Earth, displays many of the state's well-lighted metropolitan areas. The crew member used a digital still camera equipped with an 80-mm lens to expose the frame. The station was above the Gulf of Mexico, facing eastward toward the Atlantic, at the time the photo was taken.

  8. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    ISS030-E-060478 (30 Jan. 2012) --- The city lights of Madrid (just right of center) stand out in this photograph from the International Space Station. Recorded by one of the Expedition 30 crew members, the view shows almost the entire Iberian Peninsula (both Spain and Portugal) with the Strait of Gibraltar and Morocco appearing at lower left. What is thought to be a blur of the moon appears in upper left corner. The faint gold or brownish line of airglow?caused by ultraviolet radiation exciting the gas molecules in the upper atmosphere?parallels the horizon or Earth limb.

  9. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 41 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-27

    ISS041-E-045469 (27 Sept. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 41 crew members aboard the International Space Station, flying at an altitude of 222 nautical miles above a point in the Atlantic Ocean several hundred miles off the coast of Africa near the Tropic of Cancer, photographed this eye-catching panorama of the night sky on Sept. 27. NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, flight engineer, tweeted the image, which was taken with an electronic still camera, set with a 24mm focal length. In his accompanying comments, Wiseman stated, "Sahara sands make the Earth glow orange."

  10. Reduction and analysis of seasons 15 and 16 (1991 - 1992) Pioneer Venus radio occultation data and correlative studies with observations of the near-infrared emission of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    1992-01-01

    Radio occultation experiments, and radio astronomical observations have suggested that significant variations (both spatial and temporal) in the abundances of sulfur-bearing gases are occurring below the Venus cloud layers. In addition, recent Near Infra-Red images of the nightside of Venus revealed large-scale features which sustain their shape over multiple rotations (the rotation periods of the features are 6.0 +/- 0.5 days). Presumably, the contrast variations in the NIR images are caused by variations in the abundance of large particles in the cloud deck. If these particles are composed of liquid sulfuric acid, one would expect a strong anticorrelation between regions with a high abundance of sulfuric acid vapor, and regions where there are large particles. One technique for monitoring the abundance and distribution of sulfuric acid vapor (H2SO4) at and below the main Venus cloud layer (altitudes below 50 km) is to measure the 13-cm wavelength opacity using Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radio Occultation Studies (PV-ORO). We are working to characterize variations in the abundance and distribution of subcloud H2SO4(g) in the Venus atmosphere by using a number of 13-cm radio occultation measurements conducted with the Pioneer Venus Orbiter near the inferior conjunction of 1991. When retrieved, the vertical profiles of the abundance of H2SO4(g) will be compared and correlated with NIR images of the night side of Venus made during the same period of time. Hopefully, the combination of these two different types of data will make it possible to constrain or identify the composition of the large particles causing the features observed in the NIR images. Considered on their own, however, the parameters retrieved from the radio occultation experiments are valuable science products.

  11. Observational Characteristics of the Tropopause Inversion Layer derived from CHAMP/GRACE Radio Occultations and MOZAIC Aircraft Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Cammas, J.; Heise, S.; Wickert, J.; Haser, A.

    2010-12-01

    In this study we discuss characteristics of the northern hemisphere (NH) midlatitude (40°N-60°N) tropopause inversion layer (TIL) based on two datasets. First, temperature measurements from GPS radio occultation data (CHAMP and GRACE) for the time interval 2001-2009 are used to exhibit seasonal properties of the TIL bottom height defined here as the height of the squared buoyancy frequency minimum N2 below the thermal tropopause, the TIL maximum height as the height of the N2 maximum above the tropopause and the TIL top height as the height of the temperature maximum above the tropopause. Mean values of the TIL bottom, TIL maximum and TIL top heights relative to the thermal tropopause for the NH midlatitudes are (-2.08±0.35) km, (0.52±0.10) km and (2.10±0.23) km, respectively. A seasonal cycle of the TIL bottom and TIL top height is observed with values closer to the thermal tropopause during summer. Secondly, high-resolution temperature and trace gas profile measurements onboard commercial aircrafts (MOZAIC program) from 2001-2008 for the NH midlatitude (40°N-60°N) region are used to characterize the TIL as a mixing layer around the tropopause. Mean TIL bottom, TIL maximum and TIL top heights based on the MOZAIC temperature (N2) measurements confirm the results from the GPS data, even though most of the MOZAIC profiles used here are available under cyclonic situations. Further, we demonstrate that the mixing ratio gradients of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) are suitable parameters for characterizing the TIL structure. Using O3-CO correlations we also show that on average the highest mixing occurs in a layer less than 1 km above the thermal tropopause, i.e., within the TIL.

  12. Observational characteristics of the tropopause inversion layer derived from CHAMP/GRACE radio occultations and MOZAIC aircraft data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Cammas, J.-P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Heise, S.; Wickert, J.; Haser, A.

    2010-12-01

    In this study we discuss characteristics of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitude (40°N-60°N) tropopause inversion layer (TIL) based on two data sets. First, temperature measurements from GPS radio occultation data (CHAMP and GRACE) for the time interval 2001-2009 are used to exhibit seasonal properties of the TIL bottom height defined here as the height of the squared buoyancy frequency minimum N2 below the thermal tropopause, the TIL maximum height as the height of the N2 maximum above the tropopause, and the TIL top height as the height of the temperature maximum above the tropopause. Mean values of the TIL bottom, TIL maximum, and TIL top heights relative to the thermal tropopause for the NH midlatitudes are (-2.08 ± 0.35) km, (0.52 ± 0.10) km and (2.10 ± 0.23) km, respectively. A seasonal cycle of the TIL bottom and TIL top height is observed with values closer to the thermal tropopause during summer. Secondly, high-resolution temperature and trace gas profile measurements on board commercial aircrafts (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program) from 2001-2008 for the NH midlatitude (40°N-60°N) region are used to characterize the TIL as a mixing layer around the tropopause. Mean TIL bottom, TIL maximum, and TIL top heights based on the MOZAIC temperature (N2) measurements confirm the results from the GPS data, even though most of the MOZAIC profiles used here are available under cyclonic situations. Further, we demonstrate that the mixing ratio gradients of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) are suitable parameters for characterizing the TIL structure.

  13. The U.S. National Plan for Civil Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, T.; Clavin, C.; Gallo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, the United Sates Government is one of the largest providers of environmental and Earth-system data. As the nation's Earth observation capacity has grown, so have the complexity and challenges associated with managing Earth observation systems and related data holdings. In July 2014, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the first-ever National Plan for Civil Earth Observations to address these challenges. The Plan provides a portfolio management-based framework for maximizing the value of Federal Earth observations. The Plan identifies Federal priorities for Earth observations and improved management of their data. Through routine assessments, expanding data management efforts, interagency planning, and international collaboration, OSTP and its partner agencies will seek ensure the continued provision of and access to key Earth observation data, which support a broad range of public services and research programs. The presenters will provide a detailed review of the components of the National Plan, its impacts across the Federal agencies involved in Earth observations, and associated efforts to enable interagency coordination.

  14. Cassini First Diametric Radio Occultation of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marouf, E.; French, R.; Rappaport, N.; Kliore, A.; Flasar, M.; Nagy, A.; Ambrosini, R.; McGhee, C.; Schinder, P.; Anabtawi, A.; Barbinis, E.; Goltz, G.; Thomson, F.; Wong, K.

    2005-05-01

    We present preliminary results expected from the first planned Cassini radio occultation observation of Saturn's rings, to be conducted on May 3rd, 2005. The path of Cassini as seen from Earth (the occultation track) has been designed to cross the rings from the west to the east ansa almost diametrically, allowing for occultation of all major ring features at two widely separated longitudes (about 180 deg apart). The duration of the geometric occultation is about 1.5 hours on each side. During the occultation, Cassini transmits through the rings three coherent monochromatic radio signals of wavelength 0.94, 3.6, and 13 cm (Ka-, X-, and S-band respectively), a capability unique to Cassini. The perturbed signals received at the Earth are recorded at the NASA DSN complexes at Goldstone and Canberra. Both direct and forward-scattered components of the signal may be identified in spectrograms of the received signals. The time history of the extinction of the direct signal is expected to yield high-spatial-resolution optical depth and phase shift profiles of ring structure. The timing of the occultation was optimized to allow probing the rings when the ring-opening-angle B (the angle between the line-of-sight and the ring plane) is relatively large (B = 23 deg), hence maximizing chances of measuring for the first time the structure of the relatively optically thick Ring B. In a similar experiment by Voyager in 1980, excessive signal attenuation along the long path within the nearly closed rings (B = 5.9 deg) limited the utility of the observations in relatively thick ring regions, in particular the main Ring B. For the Cassini optimized occultation geometry, a large B, slow radial velocity along the occultation track, and much improved phase stability of the reference ultrastable oscillator (USO) on board Cassini combine to promise achievable radial resolution approaching 100 m over a good fraction of the rings. Measurement of the amplitude and phase of the diffracted

  15. Ionospheric winter anomaly and annual anomaly observed from Formosat-3/COSMIC Radio Occultation observations during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Gowtam, V.; Tulasi Ram, S.

    2017-10-01

    Ionospheric winter and annual anomalies have been investigated during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 using high-resolution global 3D - data of the FORMOSAT - 3/COSMIC (Formosa satellite - 3/Constellation Observing System for Meterology, Ionosphere and Climate) radio occultation observations. Our detailed analysis shows that the occurrence of winter anomaly at low-latitudes is confined only to the early morning to afternoon hours, whereas, the winter anomaly at mid-latitudes is almost absent at all local times during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. Further, in the topside ionosphere (altitudes of 400 km and above), the winter anomaly is completely absent at all local times. In contrast, the ionospheric annual anomaly is consistently observed at all local times and altitudes during this ascending phase of solar cycle 24. The annual anomaly exhibits strong enhancements over southern EIA crest latitudes during day time and around Weddle Sea Anomaly (WSA) region during night times. The global mean annual asymmetry index is also computed to understand the altitudinal variation. The global mean AI maximizes around 300-500 km altitudes during the low solar active periods (2008-10), whereas it extends up to 600 km during moderate to high (2011) solar activity period. These findings from our study provide new insights to the current understanding of the annual anomaly.

  16. [Stellar Occultation Studies of Small Bodies in the Outer Solar System: Accomplishments, Status, and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, James

    2005-01-01

    Bodies residing in the outer solar system exhibit unique physical processes, and some of the lessons learned from them can be applied to understanding what occurred in the outer solar system during its formation and early evolution. Pluto, the largest known Kuiper Belt object (KBO), and its near twin Triton--an ex-KBO that has been captured by Neptune--have nitrogen atmospheres that are in vapor-pressure equilibrium with surface ice. These atmospheres are most sensitively probed from Earth by the technique of Stellar occultations, which can provide the temperature and pressure profiles of these atmospheres at a spatial resolution of a few kilometers. Recent results from occultations show that the surface pressure of Triton's atmosphere has been increasing and that the shape of the atmosphere deviates from its expected spherical figure. With the occultation technique we can also learn the sizes of smaller bodies that have formed in the outer solar system: Charon, the Centaurs, and KBOs. Our proposed program involves identifying occultation candidates, predicting occultations, observing occultations, analysis of the data, and synthesis of the occultation results with other data. The main goals for our proposed work are to (i) further observe occultations by Triton with the objectives of understanding its pressure changes, distortion, and enigmatic thermal structure (ii) determine whether the abrupt drop in Pluto's stellar occultation light curve is caused by a sharp thermal gradient near its surface or by atmospheric haze, (iii) further observations to characterize the potential collapse of Pluto's atmosphere as it recedes from the sun (information that should be of interest to the Pluto-Kuiper Express), ( iv ) determine Charon's radius more accurately than can be done with the mutual events to derive a better estimate of Charon's density, and ( v ) directly determine the size (and albedo) of Centaurs with the goal of more accurately estimating the sizes of KBOS.

  17. Using GPS radio occultation data in the study of tropical cyclogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didlake, A. C., Jr.; Kuo, Y. B.; Metcalfe, T.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous studies have examined atmospheric conditions and patterns in tropical cyclogenesis. Although much has been accomplished, a complete understanding of tropical cyclogenesis is hindered by the lack of data in the regions where formation occurs. The GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation technique can provide valuable data in key areas. In GPS radio occultation, GPS satellites emit radio signals through the atmosphere that are received by another satellite in a low Earth orbit. Various atmospheric properties are calculated based on the alteration of the signal. This study assessed the value of GPS radio occultation data in the study of tropical cyclogenesis by examining storms of the 2002 Western North Pacific typhoon season. The signature of precursor disturbances to tropical cyclogenesis was determined by analyzing composites of data from the NCEP Aviation (AVN) analysis over four days. Similar composites of GPS radio occultation data were produced. The AVN analysis showed strong signals of precursor disturbances in the low-level wind fields and atmospheric refractivity. The GPS radio occultation data detected similarly increased refractivity values in corresponding regions, but had sizeable measurement differences with the AVN analysis. These differences were attributed to AVN analysis error due to the lack of input observational data and the high accuracy of GPS radio occultation measurements. Further comparisons showed that with the limited quantity of data currently available, GPS radio occultation by itself was not sufficient to detect precursor disturbances. It can best be used in data assimilation to improve the analysis and forecasts of tropical storms.

  18. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 38 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-02

    ISS038-E-025350 (2 Jan. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 38 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this image which features the Manicouagan Crater and reservoir located primarily in Manicouagan Regional County Municipality in the Cote-Nord region of Quebec, Canada. Scientists believe the crater was caused by the impact of a 5 kilometer (3 mile) diameter asteroid about 215.5 million years ago (Triassic Period). The crater is a multiple-ring structure about 100 kilometers (60 miles) across, with its 70 kilometer (40 mile) diameter inner ring as its most prominent feature; it contains a 70 kilometer (40 mile) diameter annular lake, the Manicouagan Reservoir, surrounding an inner island plateau, Rene-Levasseur Island. Because it is so unique and easily recognizable from the sky and space, the crater has been the subject of hundreds of images from astronauts for 45-plus years.

  19. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 34 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-15

    ISS034-E-029105 (15 Jan. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 34 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image of the Piccaninny impact structure, located within the semi-arid Purnululu National Park and World Heritage site in Australia. The structure is believed by most scientists to have been formed less than 360 million years ago. Specifically, the 7.5 kilometer diameter structure forms a roughly circular plateau within the striking sandstone cone towers of the Bungle Bungle Range. Geological evidence indicating an impact structure includes regional folding and faulting patterns both within and surrounding the plateau. Features confirming an impact, such as shock textures (indicating rapid compression, melting, and fracturing during impact) in rocks and minerals have not yet been found; this, according to scientists, is perhaps due to removal during erosion of an original crater.

  20. Earth Observations taken during Expedition Four

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-21

    ISS004-E-10288 (21 April 2002) --- This view featuring the San Francisco Bay Area was photographed by an Expedition 4 crewmember onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The gray urban footprint of San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, and their surrounding suburbs contrasts strongly with the green hillsides. Of particular note are the Pacific Ocean water patterns that are highlighted in the sun glint. Sets of internal waves traveling east impinge on the coastline south of San Francisco. At the same time, fresher bay water flows out from the bay beneath the Golden Gate Bridge, creating a large plume traveling westward. Tidal current channels suggest the tidal flow deep in the bay. Because the ISS orbits are not synchronous with the sun, station crewmembers view Earth with variable solar illumination angles. This allows them to document phenomena such as the sun reflecting differentially off surface waters in a way that outlines complicated water structures.

  1. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-29

    ISS030-E-055569 (29 Jan. 2012) --- Southeastern USA at night is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 30 crew member on the International Space Station. The brightly lit metropolitan areas of Atlanta, GA (center) and Jacksonville, FL (lower right) appear largest in the image with numerous other urban areas forming an interconnected network of light across the region. A large dark region to the northwest of Jacksonville, FL is the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge; likewise the ridges of the Appalachian Mountains form dark swaths to the north of Atlanta, GA and west of Charlotte, NC (center). The faint gold and green line of airglow—caused by ultraviolet radiation exciting the gas molecules in the upper atmosphere—parallels the horizon (or Earth limb).

  2. Earth observations during STS-89 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-28

    STS089-703-007 (22-32 Jan. 1998) --- This picture of southern Australia was photographed with a 70mm handheld camera from the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Endeavour. The Nullarbor Plain (behind the boom of Russia’s Mir Space Station) has been one of the least photographed features of the continents. The coastal escarpment rises abruptly to 500 feet above sea level. The limestone bedrock has been dissolved away along fractures and joints. In this photo of the western Australian Bight, solution grooves can be seen to have localized sand deposits in long bands. Both inland and along the coast, rounded sinkholes and depressions attest to solution of the surficial limestone’s; "karst" is the term for this kind of terrain. Caves such as Cocklebiddy and Weebubbie are common along the coast and linear passages, formed by dissolution of joints, commonly connect rooms. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Orbit Selection for Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The orbit selection process is simplified for most earth-oriented satellite missions by a restriction to circular orbits, which reduces the primary orbit characteristics to be determined to only two: altitude and inclination. A number of important mission performance characteristics depend on these choices, however, so a major part of the orbit selection task is concerned with developing the correlating relationships in clear and convenient forms to provide a basis for rational orbit selection procedures. The present approach to that task is organized around two major areas of mission performance, orbit plane precession and coverage pattern development, whose dependence on altitude and inclination is delineated graphically in design chart form. These charts provide a visual grasp of the relationships between the quantities cited above, as well as other important mission performance parameters including viewing time of day (solar), sensor swath width (and fields of view), swath sequencing, and pattern repeat condition and repeat periods.

  4. Earth observations taken during STS-98 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-07

    STS098-819-038 (17 February 2001) --- Much of Metropolitan Houston appears in this nearly vertical image photographed with a handheld 70mm camera onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis. Interstate 45 and Highways 146 and 6 can be traced from lower right in Galveston County as they head into different directions toward a wide range of points in the city and its suburbs. NASA's Johnson Space Center can be easily pin-pointed just above the center point in the frame. Other points of interest in the area can be located by tracking over the various U.S., state and interstate highways---10, 51, 610 loop, Beltway 8 and others. Downtown Houston is at left center, but the so-called Uptown area is just out of frame at left. Galveston Bay takes up most of the upper right quadrant. Lake Houston is at upper left. A small piece of the Gulf of Mexico is in lower right.

  5. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-04

    ISS030-E-010008 (4 Dec. 2011) --- One of the Expedition 30 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this night time scene of the Iberian Peninsula on Dec. 4, 2011. The city lights of Spain and Portugal define the peninsula. Several large metropolitan areas are visible, marked by their relatively large and brightly lit areas, such as two capital cities -- Madrid, Spain, located near the center of the peninsula?s interior, and Lisbon, Portugal, located along the southwestern coastline. Ancient Seville, visible at image right to the north of the approximately 14 kilometer-wide Strait of Gibraltar, is one of the largest cities in Spain. All together, the Principality of Andorra, the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic total approximately 590,000 square kilometers of landmass. The peninsula is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the northwest, west, and southwest and the Mediterranean Sea to the east. Its northeastern boundary with the rest of continental Europe is marked by the Pyrenees mountain range. The view is looking outwards from the orbital outpost toward the east. The network of smaller cities and towns in the interior and along the coastline attest to the large extent of human presence on the Iberian landscape. Blurring of the city lights is caused by thin cloud cover (image left and center), while the cloud tops are dimly illuminated by moonlight. Though obscured, the lights of France are visible near the horizon line at image upper left, while the lights of northern Africa are more clearly discernable at image right. The gold to green line of airglow, caused by excitation of upper atmosphere gas molecules by ultraviolet radiation, parallels the horizon line (or Earth limb).

  6. Exploring the Solar System with Stellar Occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    By recording the light intensity as a function of time when a planet occults a relatively bright star, the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere of the planet can be probed. The main feature of stellar occultation observations is their high spatial resolution, typically several thousand times better than the resolution achievable with ground-based imaging. Five stellar occultations have been observed. The main results of these observations are summarized. Stellar occultations have been observed on Uranus, Mars, Pallas, Neptune and the Jovian Ring.

  7. Earth Observing Data System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klene, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. The NASA Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) is an effort to make the acquired science data more discoverable, accessible, and usable. This presentation will provide a brief introduction to the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project and the nature of advances that have been made by BEDI to other Federal Users.

  8. An Algorithm for Converting Static Earth Sensor Measurements into Earth Observation Vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, R.; Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed that converts penetration angles reported by Static Earth Sensors (SESs) into Earth observation vectors. This algorithm allows compensation for variation in the horizon height including that caused by Earth oblateness. It also allows pitch and roll to be computed using any number (greater than 1) of simultaneous sensor penetration angles simplifying processing during periods of Sun and Moon interference. The algorithm computes body frame unit vectors through each SES cluster. It also computes GCI vectors from the spacecraft to the position on the Earth's limb where each cluster detects the Earth's limb. These body frame vectors are used as sensor observation vectors and the GCI vectors are used as reference vectors in an attitude solution. The attitude, with the unobservable yaw discarded, is iteratively refined to provide the Earth observation vector solution.

  9. Value of Earth Observations: NASA Activities with Socioeconomic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, L.

    2016-12-01

    There is greater emphasis internationally on the social and economic benefits that organizations can derive from applications of Earth observations. A growing set of qualitative, anecdotal examples on the uses of Earth observations across a range of sectors can be complemented by the quantitative substantiation of the socioeconomic benefits. In turn, the expanding breadth of environmental data available and the awareness of their beneficial applications to inform decisions can support new products and services. To support these efforts, there are needs to develop impact assessments, populate the literature, and develop familiarity in the Earth science community with the terms, concepts and methods to assess impacts. Within NASA, the Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences Program has initiated and supported numerous activities in recent years to quantify the socioeconomic benefits from Earth observations applications and to build familiarity within the Earth science community. This paper will present an overview of measuring socioeconomic impacts of Earth observations and how the measures can be translated into a value of Earth observation information. It will address key terms, techniques, principles and applications of socioeconomic impact analyses. It will also discuss activities to support analytic techniques, expand the literature, and promote broader skills and capabilities.

  10. An Evolving Model for Capacity Building with Earth Observation Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylak-Glassman, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    For the first forty years of Earth observation satellite imagery, all imagery was collected by civilian or military governmental satellites. Over this timeframe, countries without observation satellite capabilities had very limited access to Earth observation data or imagery. In response to the limited access to Earth observation systems, capacity building efforts were focused on satellite manufacturing. Wood and Weigel (2012) describe the evolution of satellite programs in developing countries with a technology ladder. A country moves up the ladder as they move from producing satellites with training services to building satellites locally. While the ladder model may be appropriate if the goal is to develop autonomous satellite manufacturing capability, in the realm of Earth observation, the goal is generally to derive societal benefit from the use of Earth observation-derived information. In this case, the model for developing Earth observation capacity is more appropriately described by a hub-and-spoke model in which the use of Earth observation imagery is the "hub," and the "spokes" describe the various paths to achieving that imagery: the building of a satellite (either independently or with assistance), the purchase of a satellite, participation in a constellation of satellites, and the use of freely available or purchased satellite imagery. We discuss the different capacity-building activities that are conducted in each of these pathways, such as the "Know-How Transfer and Training" program developed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. , Earth observation imagery training courses run by SERVIR in developing countries, and the use of national or regional remote sensing centers (such as those in Morocco, Malaysia, and Kenya) to disseminate imagery and training. In addition, we explore the factors that determine through which "spoke" a country arrives at the ability to use Earth observation imagery, and discuss best practices for achieving the capability to use

  11. Pluto-Charon Stellar Occultation Candidates: 1990-1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, E. W.; McDonald, S. W.; Elliot, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    We have carried out a search to identify stars that might be occulted by Pluto or Charon during the period 1990-1995 and part of 1996. This search was made with an unfiltered CCD camera operated in the strip scanning mode, and it reaches an R magnitude of approximately 17.5-about 1.5 mag fainter than previous searches. Circumstances for each of the 162 potential occultations are given, including an approximate R magnitude of the star, which allows estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for observation of each occultation. The faintest stars in our list would yield an S/N of about 20 for a 1 S integration when observed with a CCD detector on an 8 m telescope under a dark sky. Our astrometric precision (+/- 0.2 arcsec, with larger systematic errors possible for individual cases) is insufficient to serve as a final prediction for these potential occultations, but is sufficient to identify stars deserving of further, more accurate, astrometric observations. Statistically, we expect about 32 of these events to be observable somewhere on Earth. The number of events actually observed will be substantially smaller because of clouds and the sparse distribution of large telescopes. Finder charts for each of the 91 stars involved are presented.

  12. Pluto-Charon stellar occultation candidates - 1990-1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, E. W.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Elliot, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    A search to identify stars that might be occulted by Pluto or Charon during the period 1990-1995 and part of 1996 is studied. This search was made with an unfiltered CCD camera operated in the strip scanning mode, and it reaches an R magnitude of approximately 17.5 - about 1.5 mag fainter than previous searches. Circumstances for each of the 162 potential occultations are given, including an approximate R magnitude of the star, which allows estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for observation of each occultation. The faintest stars in the list would yield an S/N of about 20 for a 1 s integration when observed with a CCD detector on an 8 m telescope under a dark sky. The astrometric precision (+/- 0.2 arcsec, with larger systematic errors possible for individual cases) is insufficient to serve as a final prediction for these potential occultations, but is sufficient to identify stars deserving of further, more accurate, astrometric observations. Statistically, about 32 of these events to be observable somewhere on earth are expected. The number of events actually observed will be substantially smaller because of clouds and the sparse distribution of large telescopes. Finder charts for each of the 91 stars involved are presented.

  13. Earth observations taken from shuttle orbiter Columbia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-26

    STS073-708-089 (26 October 1995) --- As evidenced by this 70mm photograph from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, international borders have become easier to see from space in recent decades. This, according to NASA scientists studying the STS-73 photo collection, is particularly true in arid and semi-arid environments. The scientists go on to cite this example of the razor-sharp vegetation boundary between southern Israel and Gaza and the Sinai. The nomadic grazing practices to the south (the lighter areas of the Sinai and Gaza, top left) have removed most of the vegetation from the desert surface. On the north side of the border, Israel uses advanced irrigation techniques in Israel, mainly "trickle irrigation" by which small amounts of water are delivered directly to plant roots. These water-saving techniques have allowed precious supplies from the Jordan River to be used on farms throughout the country. Numerous fields of dark green can be seen in this detailed view. Scientists say this redistribution of the Jordan River waters has increased the Israeli vegetation cover to densities that approach those that may have been common throughout the Mid-East in wetter early Biblical times. A small portion of the Mediterranean Sea appears top right.

  14. Earth observations taken during STS-98 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-07

    STS098-714A-020 (7-20 February 2001) ---One of the STS-98 astronauts aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis used a 70mm handheld camera to record this image of Southern California. Snow blanketing the higher elevations in the Los Padres National Forest (center of the image) and that covering the Angeles National Forest (right middle) help to accentuate and separate three major landform regions in southern California. The northern Los Angeles Basin that includes the San Fernando Valley and the Santa Monica Mountains is visible in the lower right quadrant of the image. The western end of the Mojave Desert (upper right) shows the two distinctive mountain boundaries along the southwest and northwest edge of the desert. The San Andreas Fault and the Garlock Fault converge (snow covered in this scene) at the western end of the desert. The intensively irrigated and cultivated southern end of the San Joaquin Valley that includes Bakersfield is visible (upper left) north of the snow-covered, northeast-southwest trending Tehachapi Mountains. The island off of the California coast (bottom left) is Santa Cruz Island.

  15. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 34 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-05

    ISS034-E-61717 (5 March 2013) --- One of the Expedition 34 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station captured this image of Belgrade, the capital city of the Republic of Serbia. Located at the confluence of the Danube and Sava Rivers, the Belgrade metropolitan area has a population of 1.65 million (2011 census information) which ranks it as one of the largest such areas in southeastern Europe. Human occupation of the Belgrade area can be traced back over 6000 years. According to historical reports, a city that eventually became Belgrade existed by at least 279 BC. The core of old Belgrade – known as Kalemegdan –is located along the right banks of both the Danube and the Sava Rivers (image center). To the west across the Sava, Novi Beograd (New Belgrade) was constructed following World War II. The photograph was acquired on March 5, 2013 with a digital camera using the equivalent of a 700 millimeter lens.

  16. Earth observations taken during STS-3 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-24

    STS003-10-567 (22-30 March 1982) --- Manila Bay, the city of Manila, Clark Air Force Base and other features can be delineated in this nearly vertical view of Luzon in the Philippines, as photographed with a handheld camera from the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Columbia on NASA's STS-3 mission. Hold picture with largest cloud mass at bottom so that north will be at top right corner. A number of volcanoes can be seen in the picture: Mariveles (left center), Natib (just north of Mariveles), Pinatubo (upper right) and Arayet (east-southeast of Pinatubo). Manila is in the south portion of the picture (lower left corner). The island of Corregidor is clearly visible at the mouth of the bay. Clark Air Force Base can be seen between Mt. Pinatubo and Mt. Arayet. Subic Naval Base is just northwest of Mt. Natib on the coast of the South China Sea. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Since this photograph was taken, an important update. June 20, 1991, a small eruption in April northwest of the summit at the geothermal area was followed on June 11, 1991, by a larger one, which climaxed June 15 and 16, 1991, into an event of historic proportions. Until the 1991 eruptions, the volcano had not erupted for 635 years.

  17. Patterns in Crew-Initiated Photography of Earth from ISS - Is Earth Observation a Salutogenic Experience?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Slack, Kelley; Olson, V.; Trenchard, M.; Willis, K.; Baskin, P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation asks the question "Is the observation of earth from the ISS a positive (salutogenic) experience for crew members?"All images are distributed to the public via the "Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov. The objectives of the study are (1) Mine the dataset of Earth Observation photography--What can it tell us about the importance of viewing the Earth as a positive experience for the crewmembers? (2) Quantify extent to which photography was self-initiated (not requested by scientists) (3) Identify patterns photography activities versus scientific requested photography.

  18. Earth observation taken by the Expedition 43 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-26

    ISS043E142265 (04/26/2015) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly on the International Space Station Apr.26, 2015 tweeted this image out of an Earth observation as part of his Space Geo contest "name this location" with this remark and clue: "This frozen body of water is the world's oldest (25 million years) and deepest basin on Earth. Name it!"

  19. The Operations Security Concept for Future ESA Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, D.; Bargellini, P.; Merri, M.

    2008-08-01

    Next-generation European earth observation missions will play a critical role in public safety and security infrastructures. This makes it necessary for ESA to protect the communication infrastructure of these missions in order to guarantee their service availability. In this paper, we discuss the development process for a generic earth observation security concept. This concept has been developed as part of a GMES Flight Operation Segment security study with the objective to analyse and select a number of high level security requirements for the missions. Further, we studied the impact of an implementation for these requirements on the operational infrastructure of current earth observation missions.

  20. A Dynamic Earth: 50 Years of Observations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the surface of the Earth began more than a half century ago with the earliest space missions. The global geopolitical environment at the beginning of the space age fueled advances in rocketry and human exploration, but also advances in remote sensing. At the same time that space-based Earth Observations were developing, global investments in infrastructure that were initiated after World War II accelerated large projects such as the construction of highways, the expansion of cities and suburbs, the damming of rivers, and the growth of big agriculture. These developments have transformed the Earth s surface at unprecedented rates. Today, we have a remarkable library of 50 years of observations of the Earth taken by satellite-based sensors and astronauts, and these images and observations provide insight into the workings of the Earth as a system. In addition, these observations record the footprints of human activities around the world, and illustrate how our activities contribute to the changing face of the Earth. Starting with the iconic "Blue Marble" image of the whole Earth taken by Apollo astronauts, we will review a timeline of observations of our planet as viewed from space.

  1. Occultation studies of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    The planetary occultation program began at Lowell Observatory in 1973 with a worldwide campaign to observe mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean Satellites. Then the temperature profile of the Martian atmosphere was measured from data taken during the occultation of epsilon Geminorum, the Rings of Uranus were discovered as they occulted SAO 158687, and the dimensions of Pallas were measured when that minor planet occulted SAO 85009. In 1979 the present grant was initiated, providing funds for portable photometric instrumentation used to observe occultations by asteroids as well as by Uranus and Neptune. Software for predicting occultations of catalog stars by asteroids, planets, and comets was written in 1983. Lowell currently provides most of the available predictions for asteroid occultations. Realizing in 1983 that the lack of a high-quality astrometric telescope dedicated to occultation work was limiting progress, an 18-inch, F/8 lens was acquired and adapted to an existing mounting at Lowell. Although acquisition of the lens and implementation of the new telescope has been accomplished primarily with non-grant funds, the instrument makes a major contribution to occultation research.

  2. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 38 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-16

    ISS038-E-005515 (16 Nov. 2013) --- Activity at Kliuchevskoi Volcano on Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Federation is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member on the International Space Station. When viewing conditions are favorable, crew members onboard the space station can take unusual and striking images of Earth. This photograph provides a view of an eruption plume emanating from Kliuchevskoi Volcano, one of the many active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Nadir views – looking “straight down”—that are typical of orbital satellite imagery tend to flatten the appearance of the landscape by reducing the sense of three dimensions of the topography. In contrast, this image was taken from the ISS with a very oblique viewing angle that gives a strong sense of three dimensions, which is accentuated by the shadows cast by the volcanic peaks. This resulted in a view similar to what a person might see from a low-altitude airplane. The image was taken when the space station was located over a ground position more than 1,500 kilometers to the southwest. The plume – likely a combination of steam, volcanic gases, and ash – is extended to the east-southeast by prevailing winds; the dark region to the north-northwest of the plume is likely a product of both shadow and ash settling out. Several other volcanoes are visible in the image, including Ushkovsky, Tolbachik, Zimina, and Udina. To the south-southwest of Kliuchevskoi lies Bezymianny Volcano which appears to be emitting a small steam plume (visible at center).

  3. Earth observations taken during STS-98 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-07

    STS098-712-091 (7-20 February 2001) --- The forested area of the Panama Canal Zone can be seen near the center of this north-looking image, photographed with a 70mm handheld camera from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis. (NOTE: The image should be oriented with Panama running horizontally and the majority of the clouds at the top). The Panama Canal Zone extends 5 miles (8 kilometers) on either side of the Panama Canal. The forested zone acts as a buffer for the canal to help prevent erosion and sediment from clogging the canal. Most of the countryside on both sides of the Canal Zone has been deforested to make way for large ranches and the raising of cattle. Though some sedimentation is occurring, dredging of the canal keeps the passage clear. The Panama Canal is 40 miles (64 kilometers) long including dredged approach channels at each end. With the Caribbean Sea covering the upper portion of the image and the Pacific Ocean covering the lower portion of the image, the canal traverses the Isthmus of Panama in a northwest to southeast direction. Gatun Lake, one of the largest artificial lakes in the world, is visible at the north end of the Canal Zone. Panama City (light-colored grayish area) is discernible to the right of the canal at its southern entrance from the Pacific Ocean. In 1996, 15,000 ships traveled through the canal, an average of 42 ships per day. Passage through the canal requires 7 to 8 hours.

  4. Earth observations taken during STS-83 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-12

    STS083-747-033 (4-8 April 1997) --- Center Pivot Irrigation, in Saudi Arabia. This irrigation project in Saudi Arabia is typical of many isolated irrigation projects scattered throughout the arid and hyper-arid regions of the Earth. Fossil water is mined from depths as great as 3,000 feet, pumped to the surface, and distributed via large center pivot irrigation feeds. The circles of green irrigated vegetation may comprise a variety of agricultural commodities from alfalfa to wheat. Diameters of the normally circular fields range from a few hundred meters to as much as 2 miles. The projects often trace out a narrow, sinuous, and seemingly random path. Actually, engineers generally seek ancient river channels now buried by the sand seas. The fossil waters mined in these projects accumulated during periods of wetter climate in the Pleistocene glacial epochs, between 10,000 to 2 million years ago, and are not being replenished under current climatic conditions. The projects, therefore, will have limited production as the reservoirs are drained. Water, of course, is the key to agriculture in Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom has implemented a multifaceted program to provide the vast supplies of water necessary to achieve the spectacular growth of the agricultural sector. A network of dams has been built to trap and utilize precious seasonal floods. Vast underground water reservoirs have been tapped through deep wells. Desalination plants have been built to produce fresh water from the sea for urban and industrial use, thereby freeing other sources for agriculture. Facilities have also been put into place to treat urban and industrial run-off for agricultural irrigation. These efforts collectively have helped transform vast tracts of the desert into fertile farmland. Land under cultivation has grown from under 400,000 acres in 1976 to more than 8 million acres in 1993.

  5. Earth observations during STS-89 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-31

    STS089-706-068 (22-31 Jan. 1998) --- This nadir view of the southern Cape District of South Africa was photographed with a 70mm handheld camera from the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Endeavour. Prominent landmarks are the Cape of Good Hope, False Bay and Cape Town. Cape Town is the gray area at the base of the peninsula that forms the Cape of Good Hope. East and north of Cape Town the dark mountain ranges are the Cape Fold Belt. Northerly structures of the region formed approximately 580 million years ago when east Antarctica, Africa and parts of South America combined. According to NASA scientists those continents separated and then recombined about 230 million years ago; in the later event, the northerly structures were again active and the west-trending folds of the Great and Little Karroo ranges formed. The westerly structures of the Karroo formed somewhat later; the northerly structures were re-folded at that time. The great continental mass, Gondwana, remained together until around 175 million years ago, when it rifted apart leaving the coastline essentially as it is seen today. Photos such as this are useful to geologists working in these areas as they provide, quite literally, the big picture in complex regions. Other items of interest are the internal waves noted offshore, several trains can be seen east, north and south of Cape Town. In the mountains to the north (upper left corner) a large brush fire is seen from the smoke plume. The giant gold and diamond mines are located northeast and east of this photo. The gold province is primarily located around Johannesburg (450 miles northeast) and the diamond mines are approximately 300 miles northeast around Kimberley. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 34 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-28

    ISS034-E-057550 (28 Feb. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 34 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring the Southern High Plains of northwestern Texas, directly south of the city of Amarillo (off the image to the north). At first glance the picture appears more like a map than an actual photo. The winter of 2012-2013 has been marked by powerful snowstorms with record-setting snowfall throughout much of the Midwestern United States The snowstorm that passed through this area left a record snowfall of approximately 43 centimeters (17 inches). Snow blankets the city of Canyon, Texas. Urban street grids and stream channels appear etched into the landscape by the snow, a result of both melting and street clearing in the urban regions and of the incised nature of stream channels in the surrounding plains. Agricultural fields are easily identified due to the even snow cover broken only by roadways between the fields. Palo Duro Canyon is largely free of snow along the Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River channel and at lower elevations, allowing the red sedimentary rocks of the canyon walls to be visible. Lake Tanglewood, a reservoir to the northeast of Canyon, appears dark due to a lack of ice cover. Another dark region to the northwest of Canyon is a feed yard for cattle; any snowfall in this area has been removed by the actions of the livestock. The image was recorded with a digital camera using a 400 millimeter lens,

  7. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 26 Crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-13

    ISS026-E-026761 (13 Feb. 2011) --- Medano Blanco coastal dunes in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 26 crew member on the International Space Station. The Medano Blanco (White Dunes) are a well known recreational area 35 kilometers west of the twin cities of Nicochea-Quequen, one of the biggest ports in the province of Buenos Aires, central Argentina. The Medano Blanco dunes separate the Atlantic Ocean from intensive sunflower agricultural cropland, visible as the angular pattern of green and brown fields at left. The dune field extends 3.5 kilometers at its widest part. Narrow cordons of coastal dunes stretch along this part of Argentina’s coastline for hundreds of kilometers. Small streams, oriented towards the coast, cross the farmland at upper left. Water from these is dammed behind the dunes, and even within the dunes, where wetlands flourish. This is the drier southern part of Buenos Aires province near the more arid and windier border with Patagonia—one of the windiest places on Earth. The effect of strong westerly winds (blowing bottom to top in this slightly oblique image) can be seen everywhere in this detailed photograph. The dune sand is blown from local beaches onshore where it forms the dunes. The prominent dune ridge crests are oriented at right angles to the prevailing wind. Geologists suspect that erosion by wind has excavated numerous hollows which now dot the farmland as small shallow lakes. A stand of dark green trees has been planted on the upwind side of a health spa—located at the white dot (center left) which is the roof of a stately building—as a protective barrier against the wind. The white fringe along the seashore is formed from lines of breaking waves. Crossing swell trains can be seen offshore in the Atlantic Ocean. The curvature of the swell pattern offshore also shows the effect of the westerly wind, and indeed drives the local sea current in this area—slightly more

  8. The Geolocation model for lunar-based Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yixing; Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Lv, Mingyang

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, people are more and more aware of that the earth need to treated as an entirety, and consequently to be observed in a holistic, systematic and multi-scale view. However, the interaction mechanism between the Earth's inner layers and outer layers is still unclear. Therefore, we propose to observe the Earth's inner layers and outer layers instantaneously on the Moon which may be helpful to the studies in climatology, meteorology, seismology, etc. At present, the Moon has been proved to be an irreplaceable platform for Earth's outer layers observation. Meanwhile, some discussions have been made in lunar-based observation of the Earth's inner layers, but the geolocation model of lunar-based observation has not been specified yet. In this paper, we present a geolocation model based on transformation matrix. The model includes six coordinate systems: The telescope coordinate system, the lunar local coordinate system, the lunar-reference coordinate system, the selenocentric inertial coordinate system, the geocentric inertial coordinate system and the geo-reference coordinate system. The parameters, lncluding the position of the Sun, the Earth, the Moon, the libration and the attitude of the Earth, can be acquired from the Ephemeris. By giving an elevation angle and an azimuth angle of the lunar-based telescope, this model links the image pixel to the ground point uniquely.

  9. Priorities to Advance Monitoring of Ecosystem Services Using Earth Observation.

    PubMed

    Cord, Anna F; Brauman, Kate A; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Huth, Andreas; Ziv, Guy; Seppelt, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    Managing ecosystem services in the context of global sustainability policies requires reliable monitoring mechanisms. While satellite Earth observation offers great promise to support this need, significant challenges remain in quantifying connections between ecosystem functions, ecosystem services, and human well-being benefits. Here, we provide a framework showing how Earth observation together with socioeconomic information and model-based analysis can support assessments of ecosystem service supply, demand, and benefit, and illustrate this for three services. We argue that the full potential of Earth observation is not yet realized in ecosystem service studies. To provide guidance for priority setting and to spur research in this area, we propose five priorities to advance the capabilities of Earth observation-based monitoring of ecosystem services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Earth Atmosphere Observations taken by the Expedition 35 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-03

    Earth atmosphere observation taken by the Expedition 35 crew aboard the ISS. The colors roughly denote the layers of the atmosphere (the orange troposphere, the white stratosphere, and the blue mesosphere).

  11. Earth observation taken by the Expedition 42 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-02

    ISS042E311037 (03/02/2015) --- A waning sun, splayed its light across the planet and created this serene scene. US astronauts aboard the International Space Station snapped this Earth Observation on Mar 2, 2015.

  12. Lunar-based Earth observation geometrical characteristics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuanzhen; Liu, Guang; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    As is known to all, there are various platforms for carrying sensors to observe Earth, such as automobiles, aircrafts and satellites. Nowadays, we focus on a new platform, Moon, because of its longevity, stability and vast space. These advantages make it to be the next potential platform for observing Earth, enabling us to get the consistent and global measurements. In order to get a better understanding of lunar-based Earth observation, we discuss its geometrical characteristics. At present, there are no sensors on the Moon for observing Earth and we are not able to obtain a series of real experiment data. As a result, theoretical modeling and numerical calculation are used in this paper. At first, we construct an approximate geometrical model of lunar-based Earth observation, which assumes that Earth and Moon are spheres. Next, we calculate the position of Sun, Earth and Moon based on the JPL ephemeris. With the help of positions data and geometrical model, it is possible for us to decide the location of terminator and substellar points. However, in order to determine their precise position in the conventional terrestrial coordinate system, reference frames transformations are introduced as well. Besides, taking advantages of the relative positions of Sun, Earth and Moon, we get the total coverage of lunar-based Earth optical observation. Furthermore, we calculate a more precise coverage, considering placing sensors on different positions of Moon, which is influenced by its attitude parameters. In addition, different ephemeris data are compared in our research and little difference is found.

  13. [Clinical assessment of occult infections in children].

    PubMed

    Sporisević, L; Bajraktarević, A; Begić, Z

    2000-01-01

    Children's occult infections are characterised presenting pathogenic bacteries in blood of children in age 3 to 36 months, but they are good general aspect and orderly immunologic status and they don't have signs of focal infection. Manifestation of occult infections determined: age of child, increasing bodies temperature, testsphysical observance and clinical-biochemistry tests. Prevalence of manifestation occult infections is 3-8%, but they manifest ni a form occult bacteremia, occult pneumonia nad occult urinary infection. Methodic, systematic admission and adequate clinical-biochemical monitoring, we minimise sequeles of occult infections. Risk of serious sequeles at occult infections is importantly decreasing by epidemiological changes that it rises by using vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae is leading ethiological source. Many contraversal opinions are presented in glance of therapeutic strategy at children's occult infection. Future of solutions at many hesitations ni context diagnosis and therapy of occult infections is established in using recent detectional tests /pneumococcus PCR, plasmas tumor reaction, interleukin lâ/ and preventive intervetions activities /conjugated pneumococcus vaccination/.

  14. STS-59 crewmembers in training for onboard Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The six astronauts in training for the STS-59 mission are shown onboard Earth observations tips by Justin Wilkinson (standing, foreground) of the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project (SSEOP) group. Astronaut Sidney M. Gutierrez, mission commander, is at center on the left side of the table. Others, left to right, are Astronauts Kevin P. Chilton, pilot; Jerome (Jay) Apt and Michael R.U. (Rich) Clifford, both mission specialists; Linda M. Godwin, payload commander; and Thomas D. Jones, mission specialist.

  15. Constellations: A New Paradigm for Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Volz, Stephen M.; Yuhas, Cheryl L.; Case, Warren F.

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in the number and the capabilities of remote sensing satellites launched by the international community. A relatively new approach has been the launching of satellites into heterogeneous constellations. Constellations provide the scientists a capability to acquire science data, not only from specific instruments on a single satellite, but also from instruments on other satellites that fly in the same orbit. Initial results from the A-Train (especially following the CALIPSO/CloudSat launch) attest to the tremendous scientific value of constellation flying. This paper provides a history of the constellations (particularly the A-Train) and how the A-Train mission design was driven by science requirements. The A-Train has presented operational challenges which had not previously been encountered. Operations planning had to address not only how the satellites of each constellation operate safely together, but also how the two constellations fly in the same orbits without interfering with each other when commands are uplinked or data are downlinked to their respective ground stations. This paper discusses the benefits of joining an on-orbit constellation. When compared to a single, large satellite, a constellation infrastructure offers more than just the opportunities for coincidental science observations. For example, constellations reduce risks by distributing observing instruments among numerous satellites; in contrast, a failed launch or a system failure in a single satellite would lead to loss of all observations. Constellations allow for more focused, less complex satellites. Constellations distribute the development, testing, and operations costs among various agencies and organizations for example, the Morning and Afternoon Constellations involve several agencies within the U.S. and in other countries. Lastly, this paper addresses the need to plan for the long-term evolution of a constellation. Agencies need to have

  16. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  17. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 38 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-05

    ISS038-E-025895 (5 Jan. 2014) --- Bazman volcano in Iran is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member on the International Space Station. Bazman volcano is located in a remote southern region within the Bazman Protected Area of Sistan and Baluchestan Provinces. While the volcano has the classic cone shape associated with stratovolcanoes, it is also heavily dissected by channels that extend downwards from the 3,490-meter-above-sea-level summit. This radial drainage pattern - looking similar to the spokes of a bicycle wheel - is readily observed in this photograph. Such patterns can form around high, symmetric peaks when water runoff and erosion is not constrained by the resistance of geologic materials or barriers to flow, leading to essentially even distribution of water runoff channels around the central peak. While there is no historical record of volcanism at Bazman, and no geologic record of eruptive activity within the past 10,000 years, some fumarolic activity - gas and steam emissions - have been reported, according to the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History's Global Volcanism Program. The summit of the volcano is marked by a well-formed explosion crater, and lava cones formed on the flanks of the main volcano are associated with well-preserved lava flows-a particularly striking example is visible on the north flank of Bazman at center. Together, these observations and features are suggestive that Bazman may be a dormant, rather than extinct, volcano.

  18. Development of the AuScope Australian Earth Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawling, T.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in monitoring technology and significant investment in new national research initiatives, will provide significant new opportunities for delivery of novel geoscience data streams from across the Australian continent over the next decade. The AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (AEOS) is linking field and laboratory infrastructure across Australia to form a national sensor array focusing on the Solid Earth. As such AuScope is working with these programs to deploy observational infrastructure, including MT, passive seismic, and GNSS networks across the entire Australian Continent. Where possible the observational grid will be co-located with strategic basement drilling in areas of shallow cover and tied with national reflection seismic and sampling transects. This integrated suite of distributed earth observation and imaging sensors will provide unprecedented imaging fidelity of our crust, across all length and time scales, to fundamental and applied researchers in the earth, environmental and geospatial sciences. The AEOS will the Earth Science community's Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - a distributed telescope that looks INTO the earth rather than away from it - a 10 million SKA. The AEOS is strongly aligned with other community strategic initiatives including the UNCOVER research program as well as other National Collaborative Research Infrastructure programs such as the Terrestrial Environmental Research Network (TERN) and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) providing an interdisciplinary collaboration platform across the earth and environmental sciences. There is also very close alignment between AuScope and similar international programs such as EPOS, the USArray and EarthCube - potential collaborative linkages we are currently in the process of pursuing more fomally. The AuScope AEOS Infrastructure System is ultimately designed to enable the progressive construction, refinement and ongoing enrichment of a live, "FAIR" four

  19. Earth Observations by the Expedition 19 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-07

    ISS019-E-014918 (7 May 2009) --- Saint Helena Island is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 19 crewmember on the International Space Station. This isolated island, located in the South Atlantic Ocean approximately 1860 kilometers to the west of the African coastline, is perhaps best known as the final resting place of Napoleon Bonaparte I of France. Bonaparte was exiled to the island following his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815; he died on the island six years later in 1821. Today, the island is a British Overseas Territory, with access provided thirty times a year by a single ship, the RMS St. Helena. The rugged topography evident in this photograph is the result of erosion of the volcanic rocks that make up the island into sharp peaks and deep ravines. A climatic gradient related to elevation is also evident ? the higher, wetter central portion of the island is covered with green vegetation, whereas the lower coastal areas are drier and hotter with little vegetation cover. Human presence on the island has also caused dramatic changes to the original flora and fauna of the island. Only approximately 10 percent of the forest cover observed by the first explorers now remains in a semi-natural state, and that is concentrated in the interior highlands. Saint Helena Island was also visited by Charles Darwin during his scientific voyages in the 19th century. He visited the island in 1836 aboard HMS Beagle, recording observations of the flora, fauna, and geology that would inform his theory of evolution. This image was acquired by crew members onboard the International Space Station as part of an ongoing project (the HMS Beagle Project) to document current biodiversity in areas visited by Charles Darwin.

  20. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-26

    ISS030-E-005456 (26 Nov. 2011) --- Emi Koussi Volcano and Aorounga Impact Crater, Chad are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 30 crew member on the International Space Station. This striking photograph features two examples of circular landscape features?labeled as craters?that were produced by very different geological processes. At left, the broad grey-green shield volcano of Emi Koussi is visible. The volcano is marked by three overlapping calderas formed by eruptions; these form a large oblong depression at the 3,415 meter ASL summit of the volcano. A smaller crater sits within the larger caldera depression. While volcanic activity has not been observed, nor is mentioned in the historical record, an active thermal area is located on the southern flank. The circular Aorounga Impact Crater is located approximately 110 kilometers to the southeast of Emi Koussi and has its origin in forces from above rather than eruptions from below. According to scientists, the Aorounga structure is thought to record a meteor impact approximately 345-370 million years ago. The circular feature visible at upper right may be only one of three impact craters formed by the same event ? the other two are buried by sand deposits. The linear features (lower right) that arc around Emi Koussi and overprint Aorounga and the surrounding bedrock are known as yardangs; these are rock ridges formed by wind erosion.

  1. Earth observations taken during STS-83 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-12

    STS083-712-063 (4-8 April 1997) --- Northern half of Long Island, Bahamas. The vivid blues of the Bahamas stand out from space. Long Island and Great Exuma Island, which extends from the west north west into the photo, is on the eastern side of the Great Bahama Bank and form the borders of Exuma Sound. This photograph provides a rare opportunity to observe a natural chemical laboratory at work. Limestone of quite a different sort from that forming the Great Barrier Reef is actually in the process of formation. Long Island itself is little more than a sandbar rising just a few meters (about 30 to 50 meters) above sea level but it separates the deep, dark blue waters of the Atlantic on the right from the 10-meter (33 feet) shallows of the Great Bahama Bank (left). Details of the topography of the bank are visible through the clear waters. The shallow waters are warm and become extremely salty. Crystals of aragonite, a calcium carbonate mineral, are precipitated and formed into spherical sand-sized oolites as the tidal currents swirl back and forth. Lithification of the carbonate sands produces an oolithic limestone. Although the water is warm and clear, corals do not live in the shallows, probably because of the elevated salt content. Although chemically similar, the oolithic limestone forming Long Island is very different from coral reef limestone. An airfield is visible at the northern and central (bottom of photo) part of the island.

  2. Earth Observations taken during Expedition Four

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-15

    ISS004-E-11807 (15 May 2002) --- This digital photograph, taken through the windows of the International Space Station on May 15, 2002, shows condensation trails over the Rhône Valley in the region west of Lyon, France. Condensation trails-or contrails-are straight lines of ice crystals that form in the wake of jet liners where air temperatures are lower than about -40 degrees Centigrade. Scientists have observed that newer contrails are thin whereas older trails have widened with time as a result of light winds. Because of this tendency for thin contrails to cover greater areas with time, it is estimated that these “artificial clouds” cover 0.1 per cent of the planet’s surface. Percentages are far higher in some places, say the scientists, such as southern California, the Ohio River Valley and parts of Europe, as illustrated here. The climatic impact of such clouds is poorly understood, which is why scientists continue to study them using images such as this.

  3. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  4. Optical data communication for Earth observation satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, J.; Loecherbach, E.

    1991-10-01

    The current development status of optical communication engineering in comparison to the conventional microwave systems and the different configurations of the optical data communication for Earth observation satellite systems are described. An outlook to future optical communication satellite systems is given. During the last decade Earth observation became more and more important for the extension of the knowledge about our planet and the human influence on nature. Today pictures taken by satellites are used, for example, to discover mineral resources or to predict harvest, crops, climate, and environment variations and their influence on the population. A new and up to date application for Earth observation satellites can be the verification of disarmament arrangements and the control of crises areas. To solve these tasks a system of Earth observing satellites with sensors tailored to the envisaged mission is necessary. Besides these low Earth orbiting satellites, a global Earth observation system consists of at least two data relay satellites. The communication between the satellites will be established via Inter-Satellite Links (ISL) and Inter-Orbit Links (IOL). On these links, bitrates up to 1 Gbit/s must be taken into account. Due to the increasing scarcity of suitable frequencies, higher carrier frequencies must probably be considered, and possible interference with terrestrial radio relay systems are two main problems for a realization in microwave technique. One important step to tackle these problems is the use of optical frequencies for IOL's and ISL's.

  5. ESA Earth Observation missions at the service of geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, Josef

    2017-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and boundary conditions. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific endeavours. Meteorological satellites help to predict the weather and feature the most mature application of Earth observation. Over the last four decades satellites have been radically improving the accuracy of weather forecasts by providing unique and indispensable input data to numerical computation models. In addition, Essential Climate Variables (ECV) are constantly monitored within ESA's Climate Change Initiative in order to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters. All of these activities can only be carried out in international cooperation. Accordingly, ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and relevant institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges as well as to requirements resulting from political priorities, such as the United Nations' Sustainable Development

  6. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 34 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-05

    ISS034-E-024622 (5 Jan. 2013) --- Polar mesospheric clouds over the South Pacific Ocean are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 34 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric clouds—also known as noctilucent, or “night shining” clouds—are formed 76 to 85 kilometers above Earth’s surface near the mesosphere-thermosphere boundary of the atmosphere, a region known as the mesopause. At these altitudes, water vapor can freeze into clouds of ice crystals. When the sun is below the horizon such that the ground is in darkness, these high clouds may still be illuminated—lending them their ethereal, “night shining” qualities. Noctilucent clouds have been observed from all human vantage points in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres – from the surface, in aircraft, and in orbit from the space station—and tend to be most visible during the late spring and early summer seasons. Polar mesospheric clouds also are of interest to scientists studying the atmosphere. While some scientists seek to understand their mechanisms of formation, others have identified them as potential indicators of atmospheric changes resulting from increases in greenhouse gas concentrations. This photograph was taken when the station was over the Pacific Ocean south of French Polynesia. While most polar mesospheric cloud images are taken from the orbital complex with relatively short focal length lens to maximize the field of view, this image was taken with a long lens (400 mm) allowing for additional detail of the cloud forms to be seen. Below the brightly-lit noctilucent clouds in the center of the image, the pale orange band indicates the stratosphere.

  7. Earth Observations by the Expedition 19 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-08

    ISS019-E-005286 (8 April 2009) --- Mount Fuji, Japan is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 19 crew member on the International Space Station. The 3,776 meters high Mount Fuji volcano, located on the island of Honshu in Japan, is one of the world?s classic examples of a stratovolcano. The volcano?s steep, conical profile is the result of numerous interlayered lava flows and explosive eruption products ? such as ash, cinders, and volcanic bombs ? building up the volcano over time. The steep profile is possible because of the relatively high viscosity of the volcanic rocks typically associated with stratovolcanoes. This leads to thick sequences of lava flows near the eruptive vent that build the cone structure, rather than low viscosity flows that spread out over the landscape and build lower-profile shield volcanoes. According to scientists, Mount Fuji, or Fuji-san in Japan, is actually comprised of several overlapping volcanoes that began erupting in the Pleistocene Epoch (1.8 million to approximately 10,000 years ago). Scientists believe that the currently active volcano, known as Younger Fuji, began forming approximately 11,000 to 8,000 years ago. The most recent explosive activity occurred in 1707, creating Hoei Crater on the southeastern flank of the volcano (center). This eruption deposited ash on Edo (present-day Tokyo) located 95 kilometers to the northeast. While there have been no further eruptions of Mount Fuji, steam was observed at the summit during 1780?1820, and the volcano is considered active. This oblique photograph illustrates the snow-covered southeastern flank of the volcano; the northeastern flank can be seen here. A representation of the topography of Mt. Fuji and its surroundings can be viewed here.

  8. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-31

    ISS030-E-030265 (31 Dec. 2011) --- The Payun Matru Volcanic Field in Argentina is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 30 crew member on the International Space Station. The Payun Matru (3,680 meters above sea level) and Payun Liso (3,715 meters above sea level) stratovolcanoes are the highest points of the Payun Matru Volcanic Field located in west-central Argentina, approximately 140 kilometers to the east of the Andes mountain chain. This photograph illustrates some of the striking geological features of the field visible from space. The summit of Payun Matru is dominated by a roughly 15 kilometer-in-diameter caldera (center), formed by an explosive eruption sometime after approximately 168,000 years ago. Several dark lava flows, erupted from smaller vents and fissures, are visible in the northwestern part of the volcanic field. One distinct flow, erupted from Volcan Santa Maria located to the northwest of Payun Matru, is approximately 15 kilometers long. A number of small cinder cones, appearing as brown dots due to the short lens used, are built on older lava flows (grey) to the northeast of Payun Matru. While there is no recorded historical observation of the most recent volcanic activity in the field, oral histories suggest that activity was witnessed by indigenous peoples. Most Andean volcanoes—and earthquakes—follow the trend of the greater Andes chain of mountains, and are aligned roughly N-S above the tectonic boundary between the subducting (descending) Nazca Plate and the overriding South American Plate as is predicted from plate tectonic theory. Other major volcanic centers located some distance away from the major trend typically result from more complex geological processes associated with the subduction zone, and can provide additional insight into the subduction process.

  9. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-15

    ISS030-E-162344 (15 March 2012) --- Ice floes along the Kamchatka coastline are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 30 crew member on the International Space Station. The vantage point from orbit frequently affords the opportunity to observe processes that are impossible to see on the ground – or in this case the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The winter season blankets the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia in snow, but significant amounts of sea ice can also form and collect along the coastline. As ice floes grind against each other, they produce smaller floes that can be moved by wind and water currents acting along the coastline. The irregular southeastern coastline of Kamchatka helps to produce large circular eddy currents from the main southwestward-flowing Kamchatka current. Three such eddies are clearly highlighted by surface ice floe patterns at center. The ice patterns are very difficult (and dangerous) to navigate in an ocean vessel – while the floes may look thin and delicate from the space station vantage point, even the smaller ice chunks are likely several meters across. White clouds at top right are distinguished from the sea ice and snow cover in the image by their high brightness and discontinuous nature. The Kamchatka Peninsula also hosts many currently and historically active stratovolcanoes. Kliuchevskoi Volcano, the highest in Kamchatka (summit elevation 4,835 meters) and one of the most active, had its most recent confirmed eruption in June of 2011, while Karymsky Volcano to the south likely produced ash plumes days before this image was taken; the snow cover near the volcano to the south and east of the summit is darkened, probably due to a cover of fresh ash, or melted away altogether (bottom center). In contrast, Kronotsky Volcano – a “textbook” symmetrical cone-shaped stratovolcano – last erupted in 1923.

  10. The PHEMU15 catalogue and astrometric results of the Jupiter's Galilean satellite mutual occultation and eclipse observations made in 2014-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquet, E.; Emelyanov, N.; Robert, V.; Arlot, J.-E.; Anbazhagan, P.; Baillié, K.; Bardecker, J.; Berezhnoy, A. A.; Bretton, M.; Campos, F.; Capannoli, L.; Carry, B.; Castet, M.; Charbonnier, Y.; Chernikov, M. M.; Christou, A.; Colas, F.; Coliac, J.-F.; Dangl, G.; Dechambre, O.; Delcroix, M.; Dias-Oliveira, A.; Drillaud, C.; Duchemin, Y.; Dunford, R.; Dupouy, P.; Ellington, C.; Fabre, P.; Filippov, V. A.; Finnegan, J.; Foglia, S.; Font, D.; Gaillard, B.; Galli, G.; Garlitz, J.; Gasmi, A.; Gaspar, H. S.; Gault, D.; Gazeas, K.; George, T.; Gorda, S. Y.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Gualdoni, C.; Guhl, K.; Halir, K.; Hanna, W.; Henry, X.; Herald, D.; Houdin, G.; Ito, Y.; Izmailov, I. S.; Jacobsen, J.; Jones, A.; Kamoun, S.; Kardasis, E.; Karimov, A. M.; Khovritchev, M. Y.; Kulikova, A. M.; Laborde, J.; Lainey, V.; Lavayssiere, M.; Le Guen, P.; Leroy, A.; Loader, B.; Lopez, O. C.; Lyashenko, A. Y.; Lyssenko, P. G.; Machado, D. I.; Maigurova, N.; Manek, J.; Marchini, A.; Midavaine, T.; Montier, J.; Morgado, B. E.; Naumov, K. N.; Nedelcu, A.; Newman, J.; Ohlert, J. M.; Oksanen, A.; Pavlov, H.; Petrescu, E.; Pomazan, A.; Popescu, M.; Pratt, A.; Raskhozhev, V. N.; Resch, J.-M.; Robilliard, D.; Roschina, E.; Rothenberg, E.; Rottenborn, M.; Rusov, S. A.; Saby, F.; Saya, L. F.; Selvakumar, G.; Signoret, F.; Slesarenko, V. Y.; Sokov, E. N.; Soldateschi, J.; Sonka, A.; Soulie, G.; Talbot, J.; Tejfel, V. G.; Thuillot, W.; Timerson, B.; Toma, R.; Torsellini, S.; Trabuco, L. L.; Traverse, P.; Tsamis, V.; Unwin, M.; Abbeel, F. Van Den; Vandenbruaene, H.; Vasundhara, R.; Velikodsky, Y. I.; Vienne, A.; Vilar, J.; Vugnon, J.-M.; Wuensche, N.; Zeleny, P.

    2018-03-01

    During the 2014-2015 mutual events season, the Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides (IMCCE), Paris, France, and the Sternberg Astronomical Institute (SAI), Moscow, Russia, led an international observation campaign to record ground-based photometric observations of Galilean moon mutual occultations and eclipses. We focused on processing the complete photometric observations data base to compute new accurate astrometric positions. We used our method to derive astrometric positions from the light curves of the events. We developed an accurate photometric model of mutual occultations and eclipses, while correcting for the satellite albedos, Hapke's light scattering law, the phase effect, and the limb darkening. We processed 609 light curves, and we compared the observed positions of the satellites with the theoretical positions from IMCCE NOE-5-2010-GAL satellite ephemerides and INPOP13c planetary ephemeris. The standard deviation after fitting the light curve in equatorial positions is ±24 mas, or 75 km at Jupiter. The rms (O-C) in equatorial positions is ±50 mas, or 150 km at Jupiter.

  11. Laboratory Verification of Occulter Contrast Performance and Formation Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirbu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Direct imaging of an exo-Earth is a difficult technical challenge. First, the intensity ratio between the parent star and its dim, rocky planetary companion is expected to be ten billion times. Additionally, for a planetary companion in the habitable zone the angular separation to the star is very small, such that only nearby stars are feasible targets. An external occulter is a spacecraft that is flown in formation with the observing space telescope and blocks starlight prior to the entrance pupil. Its shape must be specially designed to control for diffraction and be tolerant of errors such as misalignment, manufacturing, and deformations. In this dissertation, we present laboratory results pertaining to the optical verification of the contrast performance of a scaled occulter and implementation of an algorithm for the alignment of the telescope in the shadow of the occulter. The experimental testbed is scaled from space dimensions to the laboratory by maintaining constant Fresnel numbers while preserving an identical diffraction integral. We present monochromatic results in the image plane showing contrast better than 10 orders of magnitude, consistent with the level required for imaging an Exo-earth, and obtained using an optimized occulter shape. We compare these results to a baseline case using a circular occulter and to the theoretical predictions. Additionally, we address the principal technical challenge in the formation flight problem through demonstration of an alignment algorithm that is based on out-of-band leaked light. Such leaked light can be used a map to estimate the location of the telescope in the shadow and perform fine alignment during science observations.

  12. Laser technology developments in support of ESA's earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Y.; Bézy, J.-L.; Meynart, R.

    2008-02-01

    Within the context of ESA's Living Planet Programme, the European Space Agency has selected three missions embarking lidar instruments: ADM-Aeolus (Atmospheric Dynamics Mission) planed for launch in 2009 with a Doppler Wind Lidar, ALADIN, as unique payload; EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer) planed for launch in 2013 including an ATmospheric backscatter LIDar (ATLID); at last, A-SCOPE (Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth), candidate for the 7 th Earth Explorer, relying on a CO II Total Column Differential Absorption Lidar. To mitigate the technical risks for selected missions associated with the different sorts of lidar, ESA has undertaken critical technology developments, from the transmitter to the receiver and covering both components and sub-systems development and characterization. The purpose of this paper is to present the latest results obtained in the area of laser technology that are currently ongoing in support to EarthCARE, A-SCOPE and ADM-Aeolus.

  13. Re-examination of the Possibility of Haze in Pluto's Atmosphere Based on Multi-Wavelength Observations of the Pluto Occultation of P131.1.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Osip, J. E.; Elliot, J. L.; Clancy, K. B.

    2002-12-01

    Multi-wavelength observations of the occultation of P131.1 by Pluto (see Elliot et al., this conference) allow for a re-examination of the possibility of the existence of haze in Pluto's atmosphere. Models of the extinction efficiency of haze particles as a function of wavelength are being used investigate the potential for the existence of haze in the 2002 Pluto atmosphere. The existence of a haze layer in Pluto's atmosphere was postulated to explain the abrupt change in slope seen in the light curve of the 1988 stellar occultation by Pluto (Elliot and Young 1992, AJ, 103, 991). An alternative explanation (Hubbard et al. 1990, Icarus, 84, 1) includes a steep thermal gradient near the surface instead of, or in addition to, a haze layer. Modeling of the growth and sedimentation of photo-chemically produced spherical aerosols (Stansberry et al. 1989, Geophys. Res. Let., 16, 1221) suggested that an appropriate production rate is not sufficient to produce the opacity necessary to account for change in slope found in the 1988 light curve, if it were due solely to spherical particle haze extinction. Recent studies (see for example, Rannou et al. 1995, Icarus, 188, 355 and Thomas-Osip et al. 2002, Icarus, submitted) have shown that it is likely that photochemical hazes on Titan are aggregate in nature. Fractal aggregate particles can have larger extinction efficiencies than equivalent mass spheres of the same material (Rannou et al. 1999, Planet. Space Sci., 47,385). We are, therefore, also re-examining the effect of a haze with an aggregate morphology on modeling of the 1988 occultation observations. This research has been supported in part by NSF Grant AST-0073447 and NASA Grant NAG5-10444.

  14. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-30

    ISS030-E-234965 (30 Dec. 2011) --- The Etosha Pan in Namibia is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 30 crew member on the International Space Station. This photograph shows the white, salt-covered floor of the northwest corner of the great dry lake in northern Namibia known as the Etosha Pan (left margin). Two rivers, the Ekuma and Oshigambo, transport water from the north down to the Etosha Pan proper. In a relatively rare event, water from recent rains has flowed down the larger Ekuma River?in which it appears as a thin blue line within the generally light grey-green floodplain?and fills a lobe of the lake with light green water (lower right quarter of image). Water has also flowed into a small offshoot dry lake where it appears a brighter green (upper right quarter of image). Other smaller lakes at center and top center show red and brown water colors. The different colors of lake water are determined by the interplay of water depth and resident organisms such as algae; the algae color varies depending on water temperature and salinity. A similar process is observed in pink and red floodwaters ponded in Lake Eyre, a usually dry lake in Australia?s arid center. In this case it is known that the coloration is indeed due to algae growth. Typically, little river water or sediment reaches the floor of the Etosha dry lake because water seeps into the riverbeds along their courses. The floor of the pan itself is seldom seen with even a thin sheet of water. In this image, there was enough surface flow to reach the pan, but too little to flow beyond the inlet bay. A prior flood event, when water entered the pan via the Oshigambo River, was documented in astronaut imagery in 2006. The straight line that crosses the image from top center to bottom is the northern fence line of Namibia?s Etosha National Park. This straight, three-meter-high fence keeps wildlife from crossing into the numerous small farms of the relatively densely populated Owambo region of

  15. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-14

    the rift in the region. Much of the faulting observed in this image cuts through such lavas. Elsewhere along the rift system individual volcanoes form. Some of those volcanoes are very large, including Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya. In this image, rising 400 meters above the valley floor, a volcano appears to be superimposed on the faults—indicating that the volcano is younger than the faults it covers. Deeply eroded slopes also suggest that the volcano has not been active for a long time. The largest vegetated area (lower left)—in an desert zone with no vegetation visible to the naked eye from space—is the green floor of a valley which drains an area large enough for water to exist near the surface so that plants can thrive. For a sense of scale, the vegetated valley floor is 17 kilometers long (10.5 miles).

  16. Remote Sensing the Thermal and Humidity Structure of the Earth's Atmosphere Using the GPS Radio Occultation Technique: Applications in Climate Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergados, P.; Mannucci, A. J.; Ao, C. O.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Iijima, B.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation introduces the fundamentals of the Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS RO) remote sensing technique in retrieving atmospheric temperature and humidity information and presents the use of these observations in climate research. Our objective is to demonstrate and establish the GPS RO remote sensing technique as a complementary data set to existing state-of-the-art space-based platforms for climate studies. We show how GPS RO measurements at 1.2-1.6 GHz frequency band can be used to infer the upper tropospheric water vapor and temperature feedbacks and we present a decade-long specific humidity (SH) record from January 2007 until December 2015. We cross-compare the GPS RO-estimated climate feedbacks and the SH long-record with independent data sets from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim), and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument. These cross-comparisons serve as a performance guide for the GPS-RO observations with respect to other data sets by providing an independent measure of climate feedbacks and humidity short-term trends.

  17. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 4: Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The earth observations capability of the space station and space shuttle program definition is discussed. The stress in the functional program element has been to update the sensor specifications and to shift some of the emphasis from sensors to experiments to be done aboard the facility. The earth observations facility will include provisions for data acquisition, sensor control and display, data analysis, and maintenance and repair. The facility is research and development in nature with a potential for operational applications.

  18. Observed tidal braking in the earth/moon/sun system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The low degree and order terms in the spherical harmonic model of the tidal potential were observed through the perturbations which are induced on near-earth satellite orbital motions. Evaluations of tracking observations from 17 satellites and a GEM-T1 geopotential model were used in the tidal recovery which was made in the presence of over 600 long-wavelength coefficients from 32 major and minor tides. Wahr's earth tidal model was used as a basis for the recovery of the ocean tidal terms. Using this tidal model, the secular change in the moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation was found to be -25.27 + or - 0.61 arcsec/century squared. The estimation of lunar acceleration agreed with that observed from lunar laser ranging techniques (-24.9 + or - 1.0 arcsec/century squared), with the corresponding tidal braking of earth's rotation being -5.98 + or - 0.22 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared. If the nontidal braking of the earth due to the observed secular change in the earth's second zonal harmonic is considered, satellite techniques yield a total value of the secular change of the earth's rotation rate of -4.69 + or - 0.36 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared.

  19. Observed tidal braking in the earth/moon/sun system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    The low degree and order terms in the spherical harmonic model of the tidal potential were observed through the perturbations which are induced on near-earth satellite orbital motions. Evaluations of tracking observations from 17 satellites and a GEM-T1 geopotential model were used in the tidal recovery which was made in the presence of over 600 long-wavelength coefficients from 32 major and minor tides. Wahr's earth tidal model was used as a basis for the recovery of the ocean tidal terms. Using this tidal model, the secular change in the moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation was found to be -25.27 + or - 0.61 arcsec/century-squared. The estimation of lunar acceleration agreed with that observed from lunar laser ranging techniques (-24.9 + or - 1.0 arcsec/century-squared), with the corresponding tidal braking of earth's rotation being -5.98 + or - 0.22 X 10 to the -22 rad/second-squared. If the nontidal braking of the earth due to the observed secular change in the earth's second zonal harmonic is considered, satellite techniques yield a total value of the secular change in the earth's rotation rate of -4.69 + or - 0.36 X 10 to the -22 rad/second-squared.

  20. Stellar Occultation Studies of Pluto, Triton, Charon, and Chiron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, James L.

    2002-01-01

    Bodies inhabiting the outer solar system are of interest because, due to the colder conditions, they exhibit unique physical processes. Also, some of the lessons learned from them can be applied to understanding what occurred in the outer solar system during its formation and early evolution. The thin atmospheres of Pluto and Triton have structure that is not yet understood, and they have been predicted to undergo cataclysmic seasonal changes. Charon may have an atmosphere - we don't know. Chiron exhibits cometary activity so far from the sun (much further than most comets), so that H2O sublimation cannot be the driving mechanism. Probing these bodies from Earth with a spatial resolution of a few kilometers can be accomplished only with the stellar occultation technique. In this program we find and predict stellar occultation events by small outer-solar system bodies and then attempt observations of the ones that can potentially answer interesting questions. We also develop new methods of data analysis for occultations and secure other observations that are necessary for interpretation of the occultation data.

  1. Earth rotation excitation mechanisms derived from geodetic space observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göttl, F.; Schmidt, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earth rotation variations are caused by mass displacements and motions in the subsystems of the Earth. Via the satellite Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field variations can be identified which are caused by mass redistribution in the Earth system. Therefore time variable gravity field models (GFZ RL04, CSR RL04, JPL RL04, ITG-Grace03, GRGS, ...) can be used to derive different impacts on Earth rotation. Furthermore satellite altimetry provides accurate information on sea level anomalies (AVISO, DGFI) which are caused by mass and volume changes of seawater. Since Earth rotation is solely affected by mass variations and motions the volume (steric) effect has to be reduced from the altimetric observations in order to infer oceanic contributions to Earth rotation variations. Therefore the steric effect is estimated from physical ocean parameters such as temperature and salinity changes in the oceans (WOA05, Ishii). In this study specific individual geophysical contributions to Earth rotation variations are identified by means of a multitude of accurate geodetic space observations in combination with a realistic error propagation. It will be shown that due to adjustment of altimetric and/or gravimetric solutions the results for polar motion excitations can be improved.

  2. Improving the Interoperability and Usability of NASA Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Berrick, S. W.; Murphy, K. J.; Mitchell, A. E.; Tilmes, C.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS) is charged with managing, maintaining, and evolving NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is responsible for processing, archiving, and distributing NASA Earth Science data. The system supports a multitude of missions and serves diverse science research and other user communities. While NASA has made, and continues to make, great strides in the discoverability and accessibility of its earth observation data holdings, issues associated with data interoperability and usability still present significant challenges to realizing the full scientific and societal benefits of these data. This concern has been articulated by multiple government agencies, both U.S. and international, as well as other non-governmental organizations around the world. Among these is the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy who, in response, has launched the Big Earth Data Initiative and the Climate Data Initiative to address these concerns for U.S. government agencies. This presentation will describe NASA's approach for addressing data interoperability and usability issues with our earth observation data.

  3. Scientific Contributions to GEO Global Earth Observation Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, L.; Ledrew, E.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous counties and non-governmental organizations have produced documents, held workshops, and published reports in the past decade that identify Earth observation needs to meet their particular objectives. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has conducted a review of these documents, workshops, and reports to identify the priority observations common to many societal benefit areas. GEO has made a concerted effort to include materials from a broad range of user types, including scientific researchers, resource managers, and policy makers. GEO has also sought an international breadth in the materials reviewed, including observation priorities from developing countries. The activity will help GEO optimize the observations in GEOSS that are most likely to provide societal benefits, and GEO members will use the results of this meta-analysis to support investment decisions. The Earth observations in GEOSS serve scientific research and applications endeavors. As a primary user of ground-based, airborne, in situ, and space-based observations of the Earth, the scientific community has a significant voice and vested interest in the observations offered through GEOSS. Furthermore, the science and technology community will have opportunities to identify critical scientific/technological advances needed to produce any observations that are needed yet not currently available. In this paper, we will discuss this GEO effort to identify Earth observations priorities. We will present initial findings for some societal benefit areas and the overall meta-analysis. We will also discuss possible roles for the science and technology community to contribute to those priorities, such as scientific advances needed to achieve the observations or to realize societal benefits from the observations.

  4. EarthObserver: Bringing the world to your fingertips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, W. B.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Coplan, J.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Chan, S.; Bonczkowski, J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Morton, J. J.; McLain, K.; Weissel, R.

    2011-12-01

    EarthObserver (http://www.earth-observer.org/), developed by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, brings a wealth of geoscience data to Apple iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch mobile devices. Built around an easy-to-use interface, EarthObserver allows users to explore and visualise a wide range of data sets superimposed upon a detailed base map of land elevations and ocean depths - tapping the screen will instantly return the height or depth at that point. A simple transparency function allows direct comparison of built-in content. Data sets include high-resolution coastal bathymetry of bays, sounds, estuaries, harbors and rivers; geological maps of the US states and world - tapping the screen displays the rock type, and full legends can be viewed; US Topo sheets; and, geophysical content including seafloor crustal age and sediment thickness, earthquake and volcano data, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and plate boundary descriptions. The names of physiographic features are automatically displayed. NASA Visible Earth images along with ocean temperature, salinity and productivity maps and precipitation information expose data sets of interest to the atmospheric, oceanic and biological communities. Natural hazard maps, population information and political boundaries allow users to explore impacts upon society. EarthObserver, so far downloaded by more than 55,000 users, offers myriad ways for educators at all levels to bring research-quality geoscience data into the learning environment, whether for use as an in-class illustration or for extensive exploration of earth sciences data. By using cutting-edge mobile app technology, EarthObserver boosts access to relevant earth science content. The EarthObserver base map is the Global Multi-Resolution Topography digital elevation model (GMRT; http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt/), also developed at LDEO and updated regularly. It provides land elevations with horizontal resolution as high as 10m for

  5. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  6. LIDAR technology developments in support of ESA Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Yannig; Caron, Jérôme; Hélière, Arnaud; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    Critical lidar technology developments have been ongoing at the European Space Agency (ESA) in support of EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer), the 6th Earth Explorer mission, and A-SCOPE (Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth), one of the candidates for the 7th Earth Explorer mission. EarthCARE is embarking an Atmospheric backscatter Lidar (ATLID) while A-SCOPE is based on a Total Column Differential Absorption Lidar. As EarthCARE phase B has just started, the pre-development activities, aiming at validating the technologies used in the flight design and at verifying the overall instrument performance, are almost completed. On the other hand, A-SCOPE pre-phase A has just finished. Therefore technology developments are in progress, addressing critical subsystems or components with the lowest TRL, selected in the proposed instrument concepts. The activities described in this paper span over a broad range, addressing all critical elements of a lidar from the transmitter to the receiver.

  7. Planning for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations was established to promote comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained Earth observations. Its mandate is to implement the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) in accord with the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan and Reference Document. During the months over which the GEOSS Implementation Plan was developed, many issues surfaced and were addressed. This article discusses several of the more interesting or challenging of those issues-e.g. fitting in with existing organizations and securing stable funding - some of which have yet to be resolved fully as of this writing. Despite the relatively short period over which the Implementation Plan had to be developed, there is a good chance that the work undertaken will be influential for decades to come. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Montaguto earth flow: nine years of observation and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guerriero, L.; Revellino, R; Grelle, G.; Diodato, N; Guadagno, F.M.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methods, results, and interpretation of analyses carried out between 2006 and 2015 at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy. We conducted a multi-temporal analysis of earth-flow activity to reconstruct the morphological and structural evolution of the flow. Data from field mapping were combined with a geometric reconstruction of the basal slip surface in order to investigate relations between basal-slip surface geometry and deformation styles of earth-flow material. Moreover, we reconstructed the long-term pattern of earth-flow movement using both historical observations and modeled hydrologic and climatic data. Hydrologic and climatic data were used to develop a Landslide Hydrological Climatological (LHC) indicator model.

  9. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  10. New Earth Observation Capabilities For The Commercial Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Earth observation data collected from orbital remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly critical to the short- and long-term operations of many commercial industries including agriculture, energy exploration, environmental management, transportation, and urban planning and operations. In this panel, I will present an overview of current and planned NASA remote sensing systems for Earth observation with relevance to commercial and industrial applications. Special emphasis will be given to the International Space Station (ISS) as a platform for both commercial technology demonstration/development and operational data collection through the ISS National Laboratory.

  11. Exposing NASA's Earth Observations to the Applications Community and Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N. N.; Thompson, C. K.; Schmaltz, J. E.; King, B. A.; Wong, M. M.; Rice, Z.; Gunnoe, T.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J.; De Luca, A. P.; King, J.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) generates a wealth of data products which are generally intended for scientific research. In recent years, however, this data has also become more accessible to the applications community and public through the Worldview app and Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). These mapping interfaces provide historical and near real-time access to NASA's Earth observations for a wide range of uses. This presentation will focus on how the applications community, public, and media use these interfaces for decision-making, leisure, and anything in between.

  12. Exposing NASA's Earth Observations to the Applications Community and Public

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boller, R.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N.; Thompson, C.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Wong, M.; King, B.; Rice, Z.; Sprague, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) generates a wealth of data products which are generally intended for scientific research. In recent years, however, this data has also become more accessible to the applications community and public through the Worldview app and Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). These mapping interfaces provide historical and near real time access to NASA's Earth observations for a wide range of uses. This presentation will focus on how the applications community, public, and media use these interfaces for decision-making, leisure, and anything in between.

  13. "New Space Explosion" and Earth Observing System Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stensaas, G. L.; Casey, K.; Snyder, G. I.; Christopherson, J.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe recent developments in spaceborne remote sensing, including introduction to some of the increasing number of new firms entering the market, along with new systems and successes from established players, as well as industry consolidation reactions to these developments from communities of users. The information in this presentation will include inputs from the results of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) 2017 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop and the use of the US Geological Survey's Requirements Capabilities and Analysis for Earth Observation (RCA-EO) centralized Earth observing systems database and how system performance parameters are used with user science applications requirements.

  14. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  15. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  16. A review of earth observation using mobile personal communication devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferster, Colin J.; Coops, Nicholas C.

    2013-02-01

    Earth observation using mobile personal communication devices (MPCDs) is a recent advance with considerable promise for acquiring important and timely measurements. Globally, over 5 billion people have access to mobile phones, with an increasing proportion having access to smartphones with capabilities such as a camera, microphone, global positioning system (GPS), data storage, and networked data transfer. Scientists can view these devices as embedded sensors with the potential to take measurements of the Earth's surface and processes. To advance the state of Earth observation using MPCDs, scientists need to consider terms and concepts, from a broad range of disciplines including citizen science, image analysis, and computer vision. In this paper, as a result of our literature review, we identify a number of considerations for Earth observation using MPCDs such as methods of field collection, collecting measurements over broad areas, errors and biases, data processing, and accessibility of data. Developing effective frameworks for mobile data collection with public participation and strategies for minimizing bias, in combination with advancements in image processing techniques, will offer opportunities to collect Earth sensing data across a range of scales and perspectives, complimenting airborne and spaceborne remote sensing measurements.

  17. Arecibo Radar Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Virkki, Anne; Saran Bhiravarasu, Sriram; Venditti, Flaviane; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa Fernanda; Aponte-Hernandez, Betzaida

    2017-10-01

    The Arecibo S-Band (2.38 GHz, 12.6 cm; 1 MW) planetary radar system at the 305-m William E. Gordon Telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico is the most active, most powerful, and most sensitive planetary radar facility in the world. As such, Arecibo is vital for post-discovery characterization and orbital refinement of near-Earth asteroids. Since August 2016, the program has observed 100 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), of which 38 are classified as potentially hazardous to Earth and 31 are compliant with the NASA Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Arecibo observations are critical for identifying NEAs that may be on a collision course with Earth in addition to providing detailed physical characterization of the objects themselves in terms of size, shape, spin, and surface properties, which are valuable for assessing impact mitigation strategies. Here, we will present a sampling of the asteroid zoo observed by Arecibo, including press-noted asteroids 2014 JO25 and the (163693) Atira binary system.

  18. 3D Orbit Visualization for Earth-Observing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Plesea, Lucian; Chafin, Brian G.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2011-01-01

    This software visualizes orbit paths for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), but was designed to be general and applicable to any Earth-observing mission. The software uses the Google Earth user interface to provide a visual mechanism to explore spacecraft orbit paths, ground footprint locations, and local cloud cover conditions. In addition, a drill-down capability allows for users to point and click on a particular observation frame to pop up ancillary information such as data product filenames and directory paths, latitude, longitude, time stamp, column-average dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide, and solar zenith angle. This software can be integrated with the ground data system for any Earth-observing mission to automatically generate daily orbit path data products in Google Earth KML format. These KML data products can be directly loaded into the Google Earth application for interactive 3D visualization of the orbit paths for each mission day. Each time the application runs, the daily orbit paths are encapsulated in a KML file for each mission day since the last time the application ran. Alternatively, the daily KML for a specified mission day may be generated. The application automatically extracts the spacecraft position and ground footprint geometry as a function of time from a daily Level 1B data product created and archived by the mission s ground data system software. In addition, ancillary data, such as the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide and solar zenith angle, are automatically extracted from a Level 2 mission data product. Zoom, pan, and rotate capability are provided through the standard Google Earth interface. Cloud cover is indicated with an image layer from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Aqua satellite, which is automatically retrieved from JPL s OnEarth Web service.

  19. Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.

    2011-12-01

    To ensure that appropriate near real-time (NRT) and historical Earth observation data are available to benefit society and meet end-user needs, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) sponsored a multi-disciplinary study to identify a set of critical and common Earth observations associated with 9 Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate, Disasters, Ecosystems, Energy, Health, Water, and Weather. GEO is an intergovernmental organization working to improve the availability, access, and use of Earth observations to benefit society through a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The study, overseen by the GEO User Interface Committee, focused on the "demand" side of Earth observation needs: which users need what types of data, and when? The methodology for the study was a meta-analysis of over 1,700 publicly available documents addressing Earth observation user priorities, under the guidance of expert advisors from around the world. The result was a ranking of 146 Earth observation parameters that are critical and common to multiple SBAs, based on an ensemble of 4 statistically robust methods. Within the results, key details emerged on NRT observations needed to serve a broad community of users. The NRT observation priorities include meteorological parameters, vegetation indices, land cover and soil property observations, water body and snow cover properties, and atmospheric composition. The results of the study and examples of NRT applications will be presented. The applications are as diverse as the list of priority parameters. For example, NRT meteorological and soil moisture information can support monitoring and forecasting for more than 25 infectious diseases, including epidemic diseases, such as malaria, and diseases of major concern in the U.S., such as Lyme disease. Quickly evolving events that impact forests, such as fires and insect outbreaks, can be monitored and forecasted with a combination of vegetation indices, fuel

  20. ESA's Earth observation priority research objectives and satellite instrument requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, M. L.

    2018-04-01

    Since 1996 the European Space Agency has been pursuing an Earth Observation strategy based on a resolution endorsed by European Minister at a meeting in Toulouse. This resolution recognised a broad distinction between purely research objectives, on the one hand, and purely application objectives on the other. However, this is not to be understood as an absolute separation, but rather as an identification of the major driving emphasis for the definition of mission requirement. Indeed, application satellites can provide a wealth of data for research objectives and scientific earth observation programmes can equally provide an important source of data to develop and demonstrate new applications. It is sufficient to look at the data utilisation of Meteosat and ERS to find very many examples of this. This paper identifies the priority research objectives defined for scientific Earth Explorer missions and the resulting instrument needs. It then outlines the requirements for optical instruments.

  1. Air-cooling mathematical analysis as inferred from the air-temperature observation during the 1st total occultation of the Sun of the 21st century at Lusaka, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze mathematically air temperature measurements made near the ground by the Williams College expedition to observe the first total occultation of the Sun [TOS (commonly known as a total solar eclipse)] of the 21st century in Lusaka, Zambia, in the afternoon of June 21, 2001. To do so, we have revisited some earlier and contemporary methods to test their usefulness for this analysis. Two of these methods, based on a radiative scheme for solar radiation modeling and that has been originally applied to a morning occultation, have successfully been combined to obtain the delay function for an afternoon occultation, via derivation of the so-called instantaneous temperature profiles. For this purpose, we have followed the suggestion given by the third of these previously applied methods to calculate this function, although by itself it failed to do so at least for this occultation. The analysis has taken into account the limb-darkening, occultation and obscuration functions. The delay function obtained describes quite fairly the lag between the solar radiation variation and the delayed air temperature measured. Also, in this investigation, a statistical study has been carried out to get information on the convection activity produced during this event. For that purpose, the fluctuations generated by turbulence has been studied by analyzing variance and residuals. The results, indicating an irreversible steady decrease of this activity, are consistent with those published by other studies. Finally, the air temperature drop due to this event is well estimated by applying the empirical scheme given by the fourth of the previously applied methods, based on the daily temperature amplitude and the standardized middle time of the occultation. It is demonstrated then that by using a simple set of air temperature measurements obtained during solar occultations, along with some supplementary data, a simple mathematical analysis can be achieved by applying of the four

  2. Pull vs. Push: How OmniEarth Delivers Better Earth Observation Information to Subscribers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, C.; Slagowski, S.; Dyrud, L.; Fentzke, J.; Hargis, B.; Steerman, M.

    2015-04-01

    Until very recently, the commercialization of Earth observation systems has largely occurred in two ways: either through the detuning of government satellites or the repurposing of NASA (or other science) data for commercial use. However, the convergence of cloud computing and low-cost satellites is enabling Earth observation companies to tailor observation data to specific markets. Now, underserved constituencies, such as agriculture and energy, can tap into Earth observation data that is provided at a cadence, resolution and cost that can have a real impact to their bottom line. To connect with these markets, OmniEarth fuses data from a variety of sources, synthesizes it into useful and valuable business information, and delivers it to customers via web or mobile interfaces. The "secret sauce" is no longer about having the highest resolution imagery, but rather it is about using that imagery - in conjunction with a number of other sources - to solve complex problems that require timely and contextual information about our dynamic and changing planet. OmniEarth improves subscribers' ability to visualize the world around them by enhancing their ability to see, analyze, and react to change in real time through a solutions-as-a-service platform.

  3. Recent KBO (Pluto/Charon and beyond, including Quaoar) Occultation Observations by the Williams College Team as part of the Williams-MIT Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Davis, A. B.; Pandey, S.; Lu, M.; Rogosinski, Z.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Gulbis, A. S.; Naranjo, O.; Navas, G.; Zerpa, L.; Villarreal, J.; Rojo, P.; Förster, F.; Servajean, E.

    2013-10-01

    The Williams College-MIT collaboration has observed numerous occultations of stars by Pluto/Charon and other Kuiper-belt objects (www.stellaroccultations.info), since its establishment three decades ago with an attempted discovery of Neptune's rings in 1983. In this paper, we describe several recent occultation observations, both successful and (for reasons of path uncertainties and/or weather) unsuccessful. Light curves made or arranged by Williams College faculty and students were used together with light curves by MIT colleagues and others to study Pluto's atmosphere and Charon's size, to discover one of the highest-known solar-system albedos (KBO 55636), and to attempt to study 1000-km-diameter Quaoar. Observations discussed include light curves for KBO 55636 on 9 October 2009 from Hawaii; Pluto on 3/4 July 2010 from Chile, 22 May 2011 from Williamstown, Massachusetts, 23 June 2011 from Hawaii (in support of SOFIA observations of Pluto's atmosphere, discussed in an article in press in AJ and of the pair of Pluto/Charon occultations of the same star), and 4 May 2013 (Bosh et al., this conference) and 15 July 2013 from Williamstown; Charon on 15 June 2013 from Williamstown; Quaoar from a picket fence ranging from Chile through Venezuela (with a detection there) to Massachusetts on July 8/9 and in South Africa on 12 July 2013. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNX08AO50G and NNH11ZDA001N to Williams College, NNX10AB27G to MIT, and USRA grant #8500-98-003 to Lowell Observatory. We thank Steven P. Souza at Williams; Steven Levine at Lowell Obs.; Jennifer G. Winters (GSU) in Chile; Richard Rojas/Jorge Moreno in Venezuela; Scott Sheppard; Federica Bianco; David Osip; and others. ZR (Vassar '14) was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow at Williams College, supported by an NSF/REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. ES: partial support from Programa Nacional de Becas de Postgrado (CONICYT Grant 21110496). FF

  4. Earth Glint Observations Conducted During the Deep Impact Spacecraft Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. K.; Deming, L. D.; Robinson, T.; Hewagama, T.

    2010-01-01

    We describe observations of Earth conducted using the High Resolution Instrument (HRI) - a 0.3 m f/35 telescope - on the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft during its recent flybys. Earth was observed on five occasions: 2008-Mar-18 18:18 UT, 2008-May-28 20:05 UT, 2008-Jun-4 16:57 UT, 2009-Mar-27 16:19 and 2009-Oct-4 09:37 UT. Each set of observations was conducted over a full 24-hour rotation of Earth and a total of thirteen NIR spectra were taken on two-hour intervals during each observing period. Photometry in the 450, SSO, 650 and 8S0 nm filters was taken every fifteen minutes and every hour for the 350, 750 and 950 nm filters. The spacecraft was located over the equator for the three sets of observations in 2008, while the 2009- Mar and 2009-Oct were taken over the north and south Polar Regions, respectively. Observations of calibrator stars Canopus and Achernar were conducted on multiple occasions through all filters. The observations detected a strong specular glint not necessarily associated with a body of water. We describe spectroscopic characterization of the glint and evidence for the possibility of detection of reflection from high cirrus clouds. We describe implications for observations of extrasolar planets.

  5. The Earth Phenomena Observing System: Intelligent Autonomy for Satellite Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricard, Michael; Abramson, Mark; Carter, David; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Earth monitoring systems of the future may include large numbers of inexpensive small satellites, tasked in a coordinated fashion to observe both long term and transient targets. For best performance, a tool which helps operators optimally assign targets to satellites will be required. We present the design of algorithms developed for real-time optimized autonomous planning of large numbers of small single-sensor Earth observation satellites. The algorithms will reduce requirements on the human operators of such a system of satellites, ensure good utilization of system resources, and provide the capability to dynamically respond to temporal terrestrial phenomena. Our initial real-time system model consists of approximately 100 satellites and large number of points of interest on Earth (e.g., hurricanes, volcanoes, and forest fires) with the objective to maximize the total science value of observations over time. Several options for calculating the science value of observations include the following: 1) total observation time, 2) number of observations, and the 3) quality (a function of e.g., sensor type, range, slant angle) of the observations. An integrated approach using integer programming, optimization and astrodynamics is used to calculate optimized observation and sensor tasking plans.

  6. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) through 2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Barbara; Cripe, Douglas

    Ministers from the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Member governments, meeting in Geneva, Switzerland in January 2014, unanimously renewed the mandate of GEO through 2025. Through a Ministerial Declaration, they reconfirmed that GEO’s guiding principles of collaboration in leveraging national, regional and global investments and in developing and coordinating strategies to achieve full and open access to Earth observations data and information in order to support timely and knowledge-based decision-making - are catalysts for improving the quality of life of people around the world, advancing global sustainability, and preserving the planet and its biodiversity. GEO Ministers acknowledged and valued the contributions of GEO Member governments and invited all remaining Member States of the United Nations to consider joining GEO. The Ministers also encouraged all Members to strengthen national GEO arrangements, and - of particular interest to COSPAR - they highlighted the unique contributions of Participating Organizations. In this regard, ten more organizations saw their applications approved by Plenary and joined the ranks along with COSPAR to become a Participating Organization in GEO, bringing the current total to 77. Building on the efforts of a Post-2015 Working Group, in which COSPAR participated, Ministers provided additional guidance for GEO and the evolution of its Global Earth Observation System of System (GEOSS) through 2025. Five key areas of activities for the next decade include the following: 1.) Advocating for the value of Earth observations and the need to continue improving Earth observation worldwide; 2.) Urging the adoption and implementation of data sharing principles globally; 3.) Advancing the development of the GEOSS information system for the benefit of users; 4.) Developing a comprehensive interdisciplinary knowledge base defining and documenting observations needed for all disciplines and facilitate availability and accessibility of

  7. The Occult Today: Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Gary E.

    1975-01-01

    Author offered some reflections on the "why" of the contemporary interest in the occult. He attempted to convince the reader that, if he or she has been surprised by the recent rise of occultism, sober reflection will dispell some fears and, perhaps, even convince him or her that occultism is not merely superstition. (Author/RK)

  8. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet.

  9. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation

    PubMed Central

    TSUDA, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10–100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50–90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10–50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet. PMID:24492645

  10. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 39 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-10

    Earth observation taken by the Expedition 39 crew aboard the ISS. A portion of the docked Soyuz TMA-11M spacecraft is in view. Image was released by astronaut on Instagram and downlinked in folder: Personal photos and the Maldive islands.

  11. Earth observation taken by the Expedition 43 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-14

    ISS043E120523 (04/14/2015) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly on the International Space Station tweeted this earth observation image out on Apr. 14, 2015 as part of his Space Geo contest of "name this location": Scott tweeted this comment and clue: "#SpaceGeo! In 1962, former Astronaut John Glenn's Friendship 7 Mercury landed in this vicinity. Name it!"

  12. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  13. Sensor Web Interoperability Testbed Results Incorporating Earth Observation Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Daniel J.; Alameh, Nadine; Bambacus, Myra; Cappelaere, Pat; Falke, Stefan; Derezinski, Linda; Zhao, Piesheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an Earth Observation Sensor Web scenario based on the Open Geospatial Consortium s Sensor Web Enablement and Web Services interoperability standards. The scenario demonstrates the application of standards in describing, discovering, accessing and tasking satellites and groundbased sensor installations in a sequence of analysis activities that deliver information required by decision makers in response to national, regional or local emergencies.

  14. Earth observation taken by the Expedition 43 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-10

    ISS043E184521 (05/10/2015) --- NASA astronaut Terry Virts Expedition 43 Commander on the International Space Station tweeted this Earth observation image of South America with the following comment: "Salar de Uyuni in the #Bolivia desert #SouthAmerica. The world's largest salt flat".

  15. Earth observation taken by the Expedition 43 crew.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-13

    Earth observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 43 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Sent as part of Twitter message: #HappyStPatrickDay with best wishes from the #E43 crew! From space you can see the “Emerald Isle” is very green!

  16. Earth observation taken by the Expedition 46 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-23

    ISS046e021993 (01/23/2016) --- Earth observation of the coast of Oman taken during a night pass by the Expedition 46 crew aboard the International Space Station. NASA astronaut Tim Kopra tweeted this image out with this message: "Passing over the Gulf of #Oman at night -- city lights of #Muscat #Dubai #AbuDhabi and #Doha in the distance".

  17. First tsunami gravity wave detection in ionospheric radio occultation data

    DOE PAGES

    Coïsson, Pierdavide; Lognonné, Philippe; Walwer, Damian; ...

    2015-05-09

    After the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami off the coast of Tohoku, the ionospheric signature of the displacements induced in the overlying atmosphere has been observed by ground stations in various regions of the Pacific Ocean. We analyze here the data of radio occultation satellites, detecting the tsunami-driven gravity wave for the first time using a fully space-based ionospheric observation system. One satellite of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) recorded an occultation in the region above the tsunami 2.5 h after the earthquake. The ionosphere was sounded from top to bottom, thus providing themore » vertical structure of the gravity wave excited by the tsunami propagation, observed as oscillations of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC). The observed vertical wavelength was about 50 km, with maximum amplitude exceeding 1 total electron content unit when the occultation reached 200 km height. We compared the observations with synthetic data obtained by summation of the tsunami-coupled gravity normal modes of the Earth/Ocean/atmosphere system, which models the associated motion of the ionosphere plasma. These results provide experimental constraints on the attenuation of the gravity wave with altitude due to atmosphere viscosity, improving the understanding of the propagation of tsunami-driven gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. They demonstrate that the amplitude of the tsunami can be estimated to within 20% by the recorded ionospheric data.« less

  18. CEOS Committee on Earth Observations Satellites Consolidated Report, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A concise overview of the committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS) and its Working Groups, covering the history and purpose of the Committee and its accomplishments to date are provided. The report will be updated annually before each Plenary meeting, and as developments in the Working Groups warrant. The committee on Earth Observations Satellites (originally named the International Earth Observations Satellite committee, IEOS) was treated in 1984, in response to a recommendation from the Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations Working Group on Growth, Technology, and Employment's Panel of Experts on Satellite Remote Sensing. This group recognized the multidisciplinary nature of satellite Earth observations, and the value of coordinating across all proposed missions. Thus, CEOS combined the previously existing groups for coordination on Ocean Remote-Sensing Satellites (CORSS) and coordination on Land Remote-Sensing Satellites (CLRSS), and established a broad framework for coordination across all spaceborne Earth observations missions. The first three LEOS Plenary meetings focused on treating and guiding the Working Groups deemed necessary to carry out the objectives of the CEOS members. After the third meeting, it was agreed that a more active orientation was required by the Plenary, and additional issues were brought before the group at the fourth meeting. At the fifth Plenary, international scientific programs and relevant intergovernmental organizations accepted invitations and participated as affiliate members of CEOS. This enabled progress toward integrating satellite data users' requirements into the CEOS process. Data exchange principles for global change research were also adopted. An interim CEOS Plenary meeting was held in April 1992, in preparation for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Brief encapsulations of the Plenary sessions immediately follow the Terms of Reference that govern the activities of CEOS as

  19. Earth Observations taken during mission STS-111 UF-2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-15

    STS111-367-014 (5-19 June 2002) --- This view featuring Canadian forest fires was photographed by the STS-111 crewmembers aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. It represents an oblique view northward of one of the numerous fires observed and reported burning in the dry boreal forests of Saskatchewan and Manitoba during the month of June. The location of this one is roughly between Candle Lake, Saskatchewan and Lake Winnepegosis, Manitoba. The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth (link to http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/sseop/) provides searchable access to other photographs of Earth taken by astronauts.

  20. Radiometric calibration of the Earth observing system's imaging sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1987-01-01

    Philosophy, requirements, and methods of calibration of multispectral space sensor systems as applicable to the Earth Observing System (EOS) are discussed. Vicarious methods for calibration of low spatial resolution systems, with respect to the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), are then summarized. Finally, a theoretical introduction is given to a new vicarious method of calibration using the ratio of diffuse-to-global irradiance at the Earth's surfaces as the key input. This may provide an additional independent method for in-flight calibration.

  1. Earth observations from space: History, promise, and reality. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this report the Committee on Earth Studies (CES), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board (SSB) within the National Research Council (NRC), reviews the recent history (nominally from 1981 to 1995) of the U.S. earth observations programs that serve civilian needs. The principal observations programs examined are those of NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The Air Force' s Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is discussed, but only from the perspective of its relationship to civil needs and the planned merger with the NOAA polar-orbiting system. The report also reviews the interfaces between the earth observations satellite programs and the major national and international environmental monitoring and research programs. The monitoring and research programs discussed are the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), related international scientific campaigns, and operational programs for the sharing and application of environmental data. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad historical review and commentary based on the views of the CES members, with particular emphasis on tracing the lengthy record of advisory committee recommendations. Any individual topic could be the subject of an extended report in its own right. Indeed, extensive further reviews are already under way to that end. If the CES has succeeded in the task it has undertaken. This report will serve as a useful starting point for any such more intensive study. The report is divided into eight chapters: ( I ) an introduction, (2) the evolution of the MTPE, (3) its relationship to the USGCRP, (4) applications of earth observations data, (5) the role that smaller satellites can play in research and operational remote sensing, (6) earth system modeling and information systems, (7) a number of associated activities that contribute to the MTPE

  2. Crew Earth Observations: Twelve Years of Documenting Earth from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Stefanov, William L.; Willis, Kimberley; Runco, Susan; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Dawson, Melissa; Trenchard, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload was one of the initial experiments aboard the International Space Station, and has been continuously collecting data about the Earth since Expedition 1. The design of the experiment is simple: using state-of-the-art camera equipment, astronauts collect imagery of the Earth's surface over defined regions of scientific interest and also document dynamic events such as storms systems, floods, wild fires and volcanic eruptions. To date, CEO has provided roughly 600,000 images of Earth, capturing views of features and processes on land, the oceans, and the atmosphere. CEO data are less rigorously constrained than other remote sensing data, but the volume of data, and the unique attributes of the imagery provide a rich and understandable view of the Earth that is difficult to achieve from the classic remote sensing platforms. In addition, the length-of-record of the imagery dataset, especially when combined with astronaut photography from other NASA and Russian missions starting in the early 1960s, provides a valuable record of changes on the surface of the Earth over 50 years. This time period coincides with the rapid growth of human settlements and human infrastructure.

  3. Radar observations of near-Earth asteroids from Arecibo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano Marin, Luisa Fernanda; Virkki, Anne; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida

    2016-10-01

    The Arecibo S-Band (2.38 GHz, 12.6 cm, 1 MW) planetary radar system at the 305-m William E. Gordon Telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico is the most active and most sensitive planetary radar facility in the world. Since October 2015, we have detected 56 near-Earth asteroids, of which 17 are classified as potentially hazardous to Earth and 22 are compliant with the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Target Study (NHATS) as possible future robotic- or human-mission destinations. We will present a sampling of the asteroid zoo observed by the Arecibo radar since the 2015 DPS meeting. This includes press-noted asteroids 2015 TB145, the so-called "Great Pumpkin", and 2003 SD220, the so-called "Christmas Eve asteroid".

  4. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of New Zealand (South Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image shows New Zealand (South Island) as recorded on the 45th orbit of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Westport is easily delineated in the image, which was recorded by the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates are 41.836 degrees south latitude and 171.641 degrees east longitude. (300mm lens, no filter). Digital file name is ESC07007.IMG.

  5. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

  6. Patterns in Crew-Initiated Photography of Earth from ISS - Is Earth Observation a Salutogenic Experience?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Olson, Valerie A.; Trenchard, Mike; Willis, Kim; Baskin, Pam; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2006-01-01

    To provide for the well-being of crewmembers on future exploration missions, understanding how space station crewmembers handle the inherently stressful isolation and confinement during long-duration missions is important. A recent retrospective survey of previously flown astronauts found that the most commonly reported psychologically enriching aspects of spaceflight had to do with their Perceptions of Earth. Crewmembers onboard the International Space Station (ISS) photograph Earth through the station windows. Some of these photographs are in response to requests from scientists on the ground through the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload. Other photographs taken by crewmembers have not been in response to these formal requests. The automatically recorded data from the camera provides a dataset that can be used to test hypotheses about factors correlated with self-initiated crewmember photography. The present study used objective in-flight data to corroborate the previous questionnaire finding and to further investigate the nature of voluntary Earth-Observation activity. We examined the distribution of photographs with respect to time, crew, and subject matter. We also determined whether the frequency fluctuated in conjunction with major mission events such as vehicle dockings, and extra-vehicular activities (EVAs, or spacewalks), relative to the norm for the relevant crew. We also examined the influence of geographic and temporal patterns on frequency of Earth photography activities. We tested the hypotheses that there would be peak photography intensity over locations of personal interest, and on weekends. From December 2001 through October 2005 (Expeditions 4-11) crewmembers took 144,180 photographs of Earth with time and date automatically recorded by the camera. Of the time-stamped photographs, 84.5% were crew-initiated, and not in response to CEO requests. Preliminary analysis indicated some phasing in patterns of photography during the course of a

  7. On the development of earth observation satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Subsequent to the launching of the first LANDSAT by NASA, Japan has recognized the importance of data from earth observation satellites, has conducted studies, and is preparing to develop an independent system. The first ocean observation satellite will be launched in 1983, the second in 1985. The first land observation satellite is scheduled to be launched in 1987 and by 1990 Japan intends to have both land and ocean observation systems in regular operation. The association reception and data processing systems are being developed.

  8. Principle characteristics of the National Earth Observation Satellite. Project SPOT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cazenave, M.

    1977-01-01

    A recent meeting of the Economic and Social Committee examined the programs and means currently being implemented by France in the field in the field of space research and industry which could bring about fast results. This was prompted by man's desire to insure rational resource management of his planet and by man's awareness of the definite contribution that space observation can make to this field of research. Through discussion, the Economic and Social Committee has approved the plan for creating an earth observation satellite. A detailed discussion of the principle characteristics of this earth observation satellite include the objectives, the orbit, characteristics and operations of the platform, maintenance, attitude measurement, the power available and many other characteristics.

  9. Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

  10. Transforming Water Management: an Emerging Promise of Integrated Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Throughout its history, civilization has relied on technology to facilitate many of its advances. New innovations and technologies have often provided strategic advantages that have led to transformations in institutions, economies and ultimately societies. Observational and information technologies are leading to significant developments in the water sector. After a brief introduction tracing the role of observational technologies in the areas of hydrology and water cycle science, this talk explores the existing and potential contributions of remote sensing data in water resource management around the world. In particular, it outlines the steps being undertaken by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and its Water Task to facilitate capacity building efforts in water management using Earth Observations in Asia, Africa and Latin and Caribbean America. Success stories on the benefits of using Earth Observations and applying GEO principles are provided. While GEO and its capacity building efforts are contributing to the transformation of water management through interoperability, data sharing, and capacity building, the full potential of these contributions has not been fully realized because impediments and challenges still remain.

  11. GLOBE Observer: Earth Science in the Palm of Your Hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, K. L. K.; Riebeek Kohl, H.

    2017-12-01

    You can get involved in doing Earth system science research tied to NASA research and data. This demo will introduce GLOBE and GLOBE Observer, a student and citizen science program designed to collect observations of the environment. The GLOBE Observer app, released in September 2016, harnesses smart phone technology to simplify select GLOBE observations to open the program to new audiences and to increase data volume. The end goal is to facilitate new student and scientific research. The demo will provide an overview of the app and show you how to access GLOBE Observer environmental data. The app includes a protocol for observing clouds and sky color (air quality proxy), mosquito habitats, and land cover/land use. The GLOBE Observer observations may be matched to NASA satellite data for a more in-depth analysis.

  12. Observational characteristics of the tropopause inversion layer derived from CHAMP/GRACE radio occultations and MOZAIC aircraft data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Torsten; Heise, Stefan; Wickert, Jens; Haser, Antonia; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Smit, Herman G. J.

    In this study we discuss characteristics of the tropopause inversion layer (TIL) based on two datasets. Temperature measurements from GPS radio occultation (RO) data (CHAMP and GRACE) for the time interval 2001-2009 are used to exhibit seasonal properties of the TIL on a global scale. In agreement with previous studies the vertical structure of the TIL is investigated using the square of the buoyancy frequency N. For the extratropics on both hemispheres N2 has an universal distribution independent from season: a local minimum about 2 km below the lapse rate tropopause height (LRTH), an absolute maximum about 1 km above the LRTH, and a local minimum about 4 km above the LRTH. In the tropics (15° N-15° S) the N2 maximum above the tropopause is 200-300 m higher compared with the extratropics and the local minimum of N2 below the tropopause appears about 4 km below the LRTH. Trace gas measurements onboard commercial aircrafts from 2001-2008 are used as a complementary dataset (MOZAIC program). We demonstrate that the mixing ratio gradients of ozone, carbon monoxide and water vapor are suitable parameters for characterizing the TIL reproducing most of the vertical structure of N2 . We also show that the LRTH is strongly correlated with the absolute maxima of ozone and carbon monoxide mixing ratio gradients.

  13. Stellar occultation studies of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers the principles, observational procedures, and results relating to occultations of stars by solar system bodies other than the moon. Physical processes involved in occultations are presented including (1) extinction by ring material, (2) differential refraction by a planetary atmosphere, (3) extinction by a planetary atmosphere, and (4) Fresnel diffraction by sharp edges. It is noted that from a sufficient number of immersion and emersion timings of a stellar occultation, the radius and ellipticity of the occulting body can be accurately determined. From an occultation by a planet having an atmosphere, temperature, pressure, and number density profiles can be obtained along with information about the composition of the atmosphere and the extinction.

  14. Earth Observations from the International Space Station: Benefits for Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for observation of the Earth's land surface, oceans, and atmosphere. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted active and passive remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to autonomous, sun-synchronous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. Beginning in May 2012, NASA ISS sensor systems have been available to respond to requests for data through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, also known as the "International Disaster Charter" or IDC. Data from digital handheld cameras, multispectral, and hyperspectral imaging systems has been acquired in response to IDC activations and delivered to requesting agencies through the United States Geological Survey. The characteristics of the ISS for Earth observation will be presented, including past, current, and planned NASA, International Partner, and commercial remote sensing systems. The role and capabilities of the ISS for humanitarian benefit, specifically collection of remotely sensed disaster response data, will be discussed.

  15. A Potpourri of Near-Earth Asteroid Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholen, David J.; Ramanjooloo, Yudish; Fohring, Dora; Hung, Denise; Micheli, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Ongoing astrometric follow-up of near-Earth asteroids has yielded a variety of interesting results. In the limited space of a DPS abstract, three recently observed objects are worth mentioning.2008 HU4 is among the most accessible asteroids for a human space flight mission. We successfully recovered this object at a second opposition on 2016 April 26 despite the large ephemeris uncertainty. The small size of this asteroid makes it relatively easy to detect the departure from purely gravitational motion caused by solar radiation pressure, which can be used to estimate the density of the object. At the time of this writing, the object remains bright enough for additional observations, so we expect to improve on our five-sigma detection of a relatively low density (roughly similar to water, indicating a high porosity) between now and the DPS meeting.2016 HO3 is a newly-discovered co-orbital with the Earth. Our 2016 May 10-11 observations extended the observational arc by enough to permit backward extrapolation that led to prediscovery observations by Pan-STARRS in 2015, and then annually back to 2011, and ultimately to Sloan DSS observations in 2004. The 12-year arc is sufficient to examine the dynamical behavior of the object, which shows how it will remain in the vicinity of the Earth for decades, if not centuries. Our observations also revealed a rapid rotation (less than a half hour) with large brightness variation (in excess of 1 magnitude), which helps to explain why this object eluded discovery until this year.2011 YV62 is among the top 20 largest near-Earth asteroids with Earth impact solutions (in 2078 and 2080). At the time of this writing, the object is flagged as being "lost", but a re-examination of observations made in 2013 and 2015 finally yielded a successful recovery at a magnitude fainter than 24. We expect the new observations to eliminate the impact possibilities. The story behind this difficult recovery is fascinating.

  16. Quantifying Atmospheric Moist Processes from Earth Observations. Really?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Salmon, O. E.; Heimburger, A. M. F.; Davis, K. J.; Lauvaux, T.; McGowan, L. E.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.; Sarmiento, D. P.; Hardesty, M.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Iraci, L. T.; Hillyard, P. W.; Podolske, J. R.; Gurney, K. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.; O'Keeffe, D.; Turnbull, J. C.; Vimont, I.; Whetstone, J. R.; Possolo, A.; Prasad, K.; Lopez-Coto, I.

    2014-12-01

    The amount of water in the Earth's atmosphere is tiny compared to all other sources of water on our planet, fresh or otherwise. However, this tiny amount of water is fundamental to most aspects of human life. The tiny amount of water that cycles from the Earth's surface, through condensation into clouds in the atmosphere returning as precipitation falling is not only natures way of delivering fresh water to land-locked human societies but it also exerts a fundamental control on our climate system producing the most important feedbacks in the system. The representation of these processes in Earth system models contain many errors that produce well now biases in the hydrological cycle. Surprisingly the parameterizations of these important processes are not well validated with observations. Part of the reason for this situation stems from the fact that process evaluation is difficult to achieve on the global scale since it has commonly been assumed that the static observations available from snap-shots of individual parameters contain little information on processes. One of the successes of the A-Train has been the development of multi-parameter analysis based on the multi-sensor data produced by the satellite constellation. This has led to new insights on how water cycles through the Earth's atmosphere. Examples of these insights will be highlighted. It will be described how the rain formation process has been observed and how this has been used to constrain this process in models, with a huge impact. How these observations are beginning to reveal insights on deep convection and examples of the use these observations applied to models will also be highlighted as will the effects of aerosol on clouds on radiation.

  17. Quantifying Atmospheric Moist Processes from Earth Observations. Really?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    The amount of water in the Earth's atmosphere is tiny compared to all other sources of water on our planet, fresh or otherwise. However, this tiny amount of water is fundamental to most aspects of human life. The tiny amount of water that cycles from the Earth's surface, through condensation into clouds in the atmosphere returning as precipitation falling is not only natures way of delivering fresh water to land-locked human societies but it also exerts a fundamental control on our climate system producing the most important feedbacks in the system. The representation of these processes in Earth system models contain many errors that produce well now biases in the hydrological cycle. Surprisingly the parameterizations of these important processes are not well validated with observations. Part of the reason for this situation stems from the fact that process evaluation is difficult to achieve on the global scale since it has commonly been assumed that the static observations available from snap-shots of individual parameters contain little information on processes. One of the successes of the A-Train has been the development of multi-parameter analysis based on the multi-sensor data produced by the satellite constellation. This has led to new insights on how water cycles through the Earth's atmosphere. Examples of these insights will be highlighted. It will be described how the rain formation process has been observed and how this has been used to constrain this process in models, with a huge impact. How these observations are beginning to reveal insights on deep convection and examples of the use these observations applied to models will also be highlighted as will the effects of aerosol on clouds on radiation.

  18. Probing Pluto's Atmosphere Using Ground-Based Stellar Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Rio de Janeiro Occultation Team, Granada Team, International Occultation and Timing Association, Royal Astronomical Society New Zealand Occultation Section, Lucky Star associated Teams

    2016-10-01

    Over the last three decades, some twenty stellar occultations by Pluto have been monitored from Earth. They occur when the dwarf planet blocks the light from a star for a few minutes as it moves on the sky. Such events led to the hint of a Pluto's atmosphere in 1985, that was fully confirmed during another occultation in 1988, but it was only in 2002 that a new occultation could be recorded. From then on, the dwarf planet started to move in front of the galactic center, which amplified by a large factor the number of events observable per year.Pluto occultations are essentially refractive events during which the stellar rays are bent by the tenuous atmosphere, causing a gradual dimming of the star. This provides the density, pressure and temperature profiles of the atmosphere from a few kilometers above the surface up to about 250 km altitude, corresponding respectively to pressure levels of about 10 and 0.1 μbar. Moreover, the extremely fine spatial resolution (a few km) obtained through this technique allows the detection of atmospheric gravity waves, and permits in principle the detection of hazes, if present.Several aspects make Pluto stellar occultations quite special: first, they are the only way to probe Pluto's atmosphere in detail, as the dwarf planet is far too small on the sky and the atmosphere is far too tenuous to be directly imaged from Earth. Second, they are an excellent example of participative science, as many amateurs have been able to record those events worldwide with valuable scientific returns, in collaboration with professional astronomers. Third, they reveal Pluto's climatic changes on decade-scales and constrain the various seasonal models currently explored.Finally, those observations are fully complementary to space exploration, in particular with the New Horizons (NH) mission. I will show how ground-based occultations helped to better calibrate some NH profiles, and conversely, how NH results provide some key boundary conditions

  19. US data policy for Earth observation from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Lisa Robock

    1992-01-01

    Distribution of data from U.S. Earth observations satellites is subject to different data policies and regulations depending on whether the systems in question are operational or experimental. Specific laws, regulations, and policies are in place for the distribution of satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operational environmental satellites and from NASA experimental systems. There is a government wide policy for exchange of data for global change research. For the Earth Observing System (EOS) and its international partner programs, a set of data exchange principles is nearing completion. The debate over the future of the LANDSAT program in the U.S. will impact policy for the programs, but the outcome of the debate is not yet known.

  20. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J Eric; Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M; Douglass, Anne R; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided.

  1. Data acquisition system for operational earth observation missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerwester, J. M.; Alexander, D.; Arno, R. D.; Edsinger, L. E.; Norman, S. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Tindle, E. L.; Wood, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The data acquisition system capabilities expected to be available in the 1980 time period as part of operational Earth observation missions are identified. By data acquisition system is meant the sensor platform (spacecraft or aircraft), the sensors themselves and the communication system. Future capabilities and support requirements are projected for the following sensors: film camera, return beam vidicon, multispectral scanner, infrared scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave scanner, microwave radiometer, coherent side-looking radar, and scatterometer.

  2. Ames Research Center SR&T program and earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.

    1972-01-01

    An overview is presented of the research activities in earth observations at Ames Research Center. Most of the tasks involve the use of research aircraft platforms. The program is also directed toward the use of the Illiac 4 computer for statistical analysis. Most tasks are weighted toward Pacific coast and Pacific basin problems with emphasis on water applications, air applications, animal migration studies, and geophysics.

  3. Space Shuttle earth observations photography - Data listing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh

    1992-01-01

    The data listing process of the electronic data base of the Catalogs of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Photography is described. Similar data are recorded for each frame in each role from the mission. At the end of each roll, a computer printout is checked for mistakes, glitches, and typographical errors. After the roll and frames have been corrected, the data listings are ready for transfer to the data base and for development of the catalog.

  4. Focal plane for the next generation of earth observation instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranyies, P.; Toubhans, I.; Badoil, B.; Tanguy, F.; Descours, Francis

    2017-09-01

    Sodern is the French focal plane provider for Earth Observation (EO) satellites. Since the 1980's, Sodern has played an active role first in the SPOT program. Within the two-spacecraft constellation Pleiades 1A/1B over the next years, Sodern introduced advanced technologies as Silicon Carbide (SiC) focal plane structure and multispectral strip filters dedicated to multiple-lines detectors.

  5. 2011 Year in review - Earth Resources Observation and Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center's 2011 Year in Review is an annual report recounting the broad scope of the Center's 2011 accomplishments. The report covers preparations for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) launch, the ever-increasing use of free Landsat data, monitoring the effects of natural hazards, and more to emphasize the importance of innovation in using satellite data to study change over time.

  6. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hill, C. T.; Morgan, R. P.; Gohagan, J. K.; Hays, T. R.; Ballard, R. J.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    State, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management were investigated as potential users of satellite remotely sensed data. This group's needs are assessed and alternative data management systems serving some of those needs are outlined. It is concluded that an operational earth observation data management system will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services -- from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  7. Mission Operations of Earth Observing-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Tran, Daniel Q.; Chien, Steve; Cichy, Benjamin; Sherwood, Rob; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Boyer, Darrell; hide

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the past mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the more autonomous operations to which we transferred as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE).

  8. Temporal Variability of Observed and Simulated Hyperspectral Earth Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Yolanda; Pilewskie, Peter; Kindel, Bruce; Feldman, Daniel; Collins, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a climate observation system designed to study Earth's climate variability with unprecedented absolute radiometric accuracy and SI traceability. Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) were developed using GCM output and MODTRAN to simulate CLARREO reflectance measurements during the 21st century as a design tool for the CLARREO hyperspectral shortwave imager. With OSSE simulations of hyperspectral reflectance, Feldman et al. [2011a,b] found that shortwave reflectance is able to detect changes in climate variables during the 21st century and improve time-to-detection compared to broadband measurements. The OSSE has been a powerful tool in the design of the CLARREO imager and for understanding the effect of climate change on the spectral variability of reflectance, but it is important to evaluate how well the OSSE simulates the Earth's present-day spectral variability. For this evaluation we have used hyperspectral reflectance measurements from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY), a shortwave spectrometer that was operational between March 2002 and April 2012. To study the spectral variability of SCIAMACHY-measured and OSSE-simulated reflectance, we used principal component analysis (PCA), a spectral decomposition technique that identifies dominant modes of variability in a multivariate data set. Using quantitative comparisons of the OSSE and SCIAMACHY PCs, we have quantified how well the OSSE captures the spectral variability of Earth?s climate system at the beginning of the 21st century relative to SCIAMACHY measurements. These results showed that the OSSE and SCIAMACHY data sets share over 99% of their total variance in 2004. Using the PCs and the temporally distributed reflectance spectra projected onto the PCs (PC scores), we can study the temporal variability of the observed and simulated reflectance spectra. Multivariate time

  9. Io hot spots - Infrared photometry of satellite occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, J. D.; Matson, D. L.; Sinton, W. M.; Howell, R. R.; Dyck, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    Io's active hot spots, which are presently mapped on the basis of IR photometry of this moon's occultation by other Gallilean satellites, are obtained with greatest spatial resolution near the sub-earth point. A model is developed for the occultation lightcurves, and its fitting to the data defines the apparent path of the occulting satellite relative to Io; the mean error in apparent relative position of occulting satellites is of the order of 178 km. A heretofore unknown, 20-km diameter hot spot is noted on Io's leading hemisphere.

  10. Sub-seasonal temperature variability in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere observed with GPS radio occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Randel, William J.; Kim, Joowan

    2017-04-01

    We investigate sub-seasonal temperature variability in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region using daily gridded fields of GPS radio occultation measurements. The unprecedented vertical resolution (from about 100 m in the troposphere to about 1.5 km in the stratosphere) and high accuracy and precision (0.7 K to 1 K between 8 km and 25 km) make these data ideal for characterizing temperature oscillations with short vertical wavelengths. Long-term behavior of sub-seasonal temperature variability is investigated using the entire RO record from January 2002 to December 2014 (13 years of data). Transient sub-seasonal waves including eastward-propagating Kelvin waves (isolated with space-time spectral analysis) dominate large-scale zonal temperature variability in the tropical tropopause region and in the lower stratosphere. Above 20 km, Kelvin waves are strongly modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Enhanced wave activity can be found during the westerly shear phase of the QBO. In the tropical tropopause region, however, sub-seasonal waves are highly transient in time. Several peaks of Kelvin-wave activity coincide with short-term fluctuations in tropospheric deep convection, but other episodes are not evidently related. Also, there are no obvious relationships with zonal winds or stability fields near the tropical tropopause. Further investigations of convective forcing and atmospheric background conditions along the waves' trajectories are needed to better understand sub-seasonal temperature variability near the tropopause. For more details, see Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Randel, W. J., and Kim, J.: Tropical temperature variability and Kelvin-wave activity in the UTLS from GPS RO measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 793-806, doi:10.5194/acp-17-793-2017, 2017. http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/17/793/2017/acp-17-793-2017.html

  11. Observational characteristics of the tropopause inversion layer derived from CHAMP/GRACE radio occultations and MOZAIC aircraft data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Torsten; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Heise, Stefan; Wickert, Jens; Haser, Antonia

    2010-05-01

    In this study we discuss characteristics of the tropopause inversion layer (TIL) based on two datasets. Temperature measurements from GPS radio occultation (RO) data (CHAMP and GRACE) for the time interval 2001-2009 are used to exhibit seasonal properties of the TIL on a global scale. In agreement with previous studies the vertical structure of the TIL is investigated using the square of the buoyancy frequency N. For the extratropics on both hemispheres N2 has an universal distribution independent from season: a local minimum about 2 km below the lapse rate tropopause height (LRTH), an absolute maximum about 1 km above the LRTH, and a local minimum about 4 km above the LRTH. In the tropics (15°N-15°S) the N2 maximum above the tropopause is 200-300 m higher compared with the extratropics and the local minimum of N2 below the tropopause appears about 4 km below the LRTH. Trace gas measurements onboard commercial aircrafts from 2001-2007 are used as a complementary dataset (MOZAIC program). We demonstrate that the mixing ratio gradients of ozone, carbon monoxide and water vapor are suitable parameters for characterizing the TIL reproducing most of the vertical structure of N2. We also show that the LRTH is strongly correlated with the absolute maxima of ozone and carbon monoxide mixing ratio gradients. Mean deviations of the heights of the absolute maxima of mixing ratio gradients from O3 and CO to the LRTH are (-0.02±1.51) km and (-0.35±1.28) km, respectively.

  12. Calibration and Validation of Aqua AIRS and AMSU Measurements using COSMIC Global Positioning System Radio Occultation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S. P.; Peng, L.

    2015-12-01

    On board NASA Aqua satellite, the hyper-spectral infrared sounding from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is the first of a new generation of operational remote sensors for upwelling atmospheric emission that provide excellent temperature and water vapor retrievals at middle atmosphere, which has significant impacts on short-term numerical weather forecasts. Also on board NASA Aqua satellite, Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) measurements provide the all weather temperature and water vapor profiles which are used as the first guess for AIRS inversion algorithm. However, due to lack of absolute on orbit calibration, both AIRS and AMSU also exhibit biases in retrieving atmospheric temperatures and moistures when compared with in situ measurements. These retrieval biases have diverse and complex dependencies on the temperature/moisture being measured, the season and geographical location, surface conditions, and sensor temperature, which is difficult to quantify. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) data to serve as a climate calibration observatory in orbit to calibrate and validate AIRS and AMSU measurements. In this study, we use COSMIC RO data to simulate AMSU and AIRS brightness temperatures for the lower stratosphere (TLS) and compare them to AMSU TLS and those of AIRS brightness temperatures at the same height. Our analysis shows that because RO data do not contain mission-dependent biases and orbit drift errors, and are not affected by on-orbit heating and cooling of the satellite component, they are very useful to identify the AMSU time/location dependent biases for different NOAA missions and possible long term drift of the AIRS retrieved temperatures.

  13. Earth Observation from Space - The Issue of Environmental Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrieu, Sylvie; Nelson, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing scientists work under assumptions that should not be taken for granted and should, therefore, be challenged. These assumptions include the following: 1. Space, especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will always be available to governmental and commercial space entities that launch Earth remote sensing missions. 2. Space launches are benign with respect to environmental impacts. 3. Minimization of Type 1 error, which provides increased confidence in the experimental outcome, is the best way to assess the significance of environmental change. 4. Large-area remote sensing investigations, i.e. national, continental, global studies, are best done from space. 5. National space missions should trump international, cooperative space missions to ensure national control and distribution of the data products. At best, all of these points are arguable, and in some cases, they're wrong. Development of observational space systems that are compatible with sustainability principles should be a primary concern when Earth remote sensing space systems are envisioned, designed, and launched. The discussion is based on the hypothesis that reducing the environmental impacts of thedata acquisition step,which is at the very beginning of the information streamleading to decision and action, will enhance coherence in the information streamand strengthen the capacity of measurement processes to meet their stated functional goal, i.e. sustainable management of Earth resources. We suggest that unconventional points of view should be adopted and when appropriate, remedial measures considered that could help to reduce the environmental footprint of space remote sensing and of Earth observation and monitoring systems in general. This article discusses these five assumptions inthe contextof sustainablemanagementof Earth's resources. Takingeachassumptioninturn,we find the following: (1) Space debris may limit access to Low Earth Orbit over the next decades. (2) Relatively speaking, given

  14. Earth's colour unchanged since 1967: results from earthshine observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejll, Peter; Flynn, Chris; Gleisner, Hans; Schwarz, Henriette

    2014-05-01

    The colour of Earthlight is a function of atmospheric, surface and ocean conditions because each scatters light in a characteristic way. The colour of Earth can in principle be determined and monitored from satellites - but geostationary satellites do not observe in multiple visual bands, and low Earth orbit platforms do not provide instantaneous colour pictures of the terrestrial disc. Observations of the dark side of the Moon - illuminated by earthlight - can be used to determine the terrestrial colour, and was done accurately in 1967 with astronomical photometric techniques. Until now, such techniques have not been re-applied. We report on multi-band visual photometry of the earthshine in 2011/2012. Scattered light in the atmosphere and the equipment is a difficult issue to circumvent - but for a unique pair of observations in the Johnson B and V bands we have a situation where scattered light cancels closely and thus we can estimate the Johnson B-V colours of the earthshine itself. By arguing on the basis of changes in reflected sunlight we can estimate the colour of the earthlight striking the Moon - and hence the colour of the Earth at that particular time. We find good agreement with the a measurement performed 47 years previously, and broad agreement with historic measurements from the 1920s and 30s. This similarity has fundamental consequences for the climate system feedback mechanisms, discussed in this poster.

  15. New Occultation Systems and the 2005 July 11 Charon Occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, L. A.; French, R. G.; Gregory, B.; Olkin, C. B.; Ruhland, C.; Shoemaker, K.; Young, E. F.

    2005-08-01

    Charon's density is an important input to models of its formation and internal structure. Estimates range from 1.59 to 1.83 g/cm3 (Olkin et al. 2003. Icarus 164, 254), with Charon's radius as the main source of uncertainty. Reported values of Charon's radius from mutual events range from 593±13 (Buie et al. 1992, Icarus 97, 211) to 621±21 km (Young & Binzel 1994, Icarus 108), while an occultation observed from a single site gives a lower limit on the radius of 601.5 km (Walker 1980 MNRAS 192, 47; Elliot & Young 1991, Icarus 89, 244). On 2005 July 11 UT (following this abstract submission date), Charon is predicted to occult the star C313.2. If successful, this event will be the first Charon occultation observed since 1980, and the first giving multiple chords across Charon's disk. This event is expected to measure Charon's radius to 1 km. Our team is observing from three telescopes in Chile, the 4.0-m Blanco and the 0.9-m telescopes at Cerro Tololo and the 4.2-m SOAR telescope at Cerro Pachon. At SOAR, we will be using the camera from our new PHOT systems (Portable High-speed Occultation Telescopes). The PHOT camera is a Princeton Instrument MicroMAX:512BFT from Roper Scientific, a 512×512 frame-transfer CCD with a readnoise of only 3 electrons at the 100 kHz digitization rate. The camera's exposures are triggered by a custom built, compact, stand-alone GPS-based pulse-train generator. A PHOT camera and pulse-train generator were used to observe the occultation of 2MASS 1275723153 by Pluto on 2005 June 15 UT from Sommers-Bausch Observatory in Boulder Colorado; preliminary analysis shows this was at best a grazing occultation from this site and a successful engineering run for the July 11 Charon occultation. The work was supported, in part, by NSF AST-0321338 (EFY) and NASA NNG-05GF05G (LAY).

  16. Towards a Preservation Content Standard for Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Lowe, Dawn; Murphy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Information from Earth observing missions (remote sensing with airborne and spaceborne instruments, and in situ measurements such as those from field campaigns) is proliferating in the world. Many agencies across the globe are generating important datasets by collecting measurements from instruments on board aircraft and spacecraft, globally and constantly. The data resulting from such measurements are a valuable resource that needs to be preserved for the benefit of future generations. These observations are the primary record of the Earths environment and therefore are the key to understanding how conditions in the future will compare to conditions today. Earth science observational data, derived products and models are used to answer key questions of global significance. In the near-term, as long as the missions data are being used actively for scientific research, it continues to be important to provide easy access to the data and services commensurate with current information technology. For the longer term, when the focus of the research community shifts toward new missions and observations, it is essential to preserve the previous mission data and associated information. This will enable a new user in the future to understand how the data were used for deriving information, knowledge and policy recommendations and to repeat the experiment to ascertain the validity and possible limitations of conclusions reached in the past and to provide confidence in long term trends that depended on data from multiple missions. Organizations that collect, process, and utilize Earth observation data today have a responsibility to ensure that the data and associated content continue to be preserved by them or are gathered and handed off to other organizations for preservation for the benefit of future generations. In order to ensure preservation of complete content necessary for understanding and reusing the data and derived digital products from todays missions, it is

  17. Flexible Description and Adaptive Processing of Earth Observation Data through the BigEarth Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Bacu, Victor; Stefanut, Teodor; Nandra, Cosmin; Mihon, Danut

    2016-04-01

    The Earth Observation data repositories extending periodically by several terabytes become a critical issue for organizations. The management of the storage capacity of such big datasets, accessing policy, data protection, searching, and complex processing require high costs that impose efficient solutions to balance the cost and value of data. Data can create value only when it is used, and the data protection has to be oriented toward allowing innovation that sometimes depends on creative people, which achieve unexpected valuable results through a flexible and adaptive manner. The users need to describe and experiment themselves different complex algorithms through analytics in order to valorize data. The analytics uses descriptive and predictive models to gain valuable knowledge and information from data analysis. Possible solutions for advanced processing of big Earth Observation data are given by the HPC platforms such as cloud. With platforms becoming more complex and heterogeneous, the developing of applications is even harder and the efficient mapping of these applications to a suitable and optimum platform, working on huge distributed data repositories, is challenging and complex as well, even by using specialized software services. From the user point of view, an optimum environment gives acceptable execution times, offers a high level of usability by hiding the complexity of computing infrastructure, and supports an open accessibility and control to application entities and functionality. The BigEarth platform [1] supports the entire flow of flexible description of processing by basic operators and adaptive execution over cloud infrastructure [2]. The basic modules of the pipeline such as the KEOPS [3] set of basic operators, the WorDeL language [4], the Planner for sequential and parallel processing, and the Executor through virtual machines, are detailed as the main components of the BigEarth platform [5]. The presentation exemplifies the development

  18. Evaluation of Inversion Methods Applied to Ionospheric ro Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios Caceres, Arq. Estela Alejandra; Rios, Victor Hugo; Guyot, Elia

    The new technique of radio-occultation can be used to study the Earth's ionosphere. The retrieval processes of ionospheric profiling from radio occultation observations usually assume spherical symmetry of electron density distribution at the locality of occultation and use the Abel integral transform to invert the measured total electron content (TEC) values. This pa-per presents a set of ionospheric profiles obtained from SAC-C satellite with the Abel inversion technique. The effects of the ionosphere on the GPS signal during occultation, such as bending and scintillation, are examined. Electron density profiles are obtained using the Abel inversion technique. Ionospheric radio occultations are validated using vertical profiles of electron con-centration from inverted ionograms , obtained from ionosonde sounding in the vicinity of the occultation. Results indicate that the Abel transform works well in the mid-latitudes during the daytime, but is less accurate during the night-time.

  19. Experimenting with Sensor Webs Using Earth Observing 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing 1 ( EO-1) satellite was launched November 21, 2000 as a one year technology validation mission. After an almost flawless first year of operations, EO-1 continued to operate in a test bed d e to validate additional technologies and concepts that will be applicable to future sensor webs. A sensor web is a group of sensors, whether space-based, ground-based or air plane-based which act in a collaborative autonomous manner to produce more value than would otherwise result from the individual observations.

  20. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.