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Sample records for earth orbit environment

  1. Neutron Environment Calculations for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Atwell, W.

    2001-01-01

    The long term exposure of astronauts on the developing International Space Station (ISS) requires an accurate knowledge of the internal exposure environment for human risk assessment and other onboard processes. The natural environment is moderated by the solar wind, which varies over the solar cycle. The HZETRN high charge and energy transport code developed at NASA Langley Research Center can be used to evaluate the neutron environment on ISS. A time dependent model for the ambient environment in low earth orbit is used. This model includes GCR radiation moderated by the Earth's magnetic field, trapped protons, and a recently completed model of the albedo neutron environment formed through the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. Using this code, the neutron environments for space shuttle missions were calculated and comparisons were made to measurements by the Johnson Space Center with onboard detectors. The models discussed herein are being developed to evaluate the natural and induced environment data for the Intelligence Synthesis Environment Project and eventual use in spacecraft optimization.

  2. Orbital debris environment for spacecraft in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    Modeling and measurement results used in formulating an environment model that can be used for the engineering design of spacecraft are reviewed. Earth-based and space-based sensors are analyzed and it is noted that the effects of satellite breakups can be modeled to predict a uncatalogued population, if the nature of the breakup is understood. It is observed that the telescopic data indicate that the current model is too low for sizes slightly larger than 10 cm, and may be too low for sizes between 2 cm and 10 cm, while there is an uncertainty in the current development, especially for sizes smaller than 10 cm, and at altitudes different from 500 km. Projections for the catastrophic collision rate for different growth conditions are made, emphasizing that the rate of growth of fragments will be twice the rate of intact objects.

  3. Natural and Induced Environment in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Heinbockel, John H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Atwell, William; Huston, Stuart L.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term exposure of astronauts on the developing International Space Station (ISS) requires an accurate knowledge of the internal exposure environment for human risk assessment and other onboard processes. The natural environment is moderated by the solar wind which varies over the solar cycle. The neutron environment within the Shuttle in low Earth orbit has two sources. A time dependent model for the ambient environment is used to evaluate the natural and induced environment. The induced neutron environment is evaluated using measurements on STS-31 and STS-36 near the 1990 solar maximum.

  4. Space environment effects on polymers in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, E.; Gouzman, I.

    2003-08-01

    Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. The low earth orbit (LEO) space environment includes hazards such as atomic oxygen, UV radiation, ionizing radiation (electrons, protons), high vacuum, plasma, micrometeoroids and debris, as well as severe temperature cycles. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The high vacuum induces material outgassing (e.g. low-molecular weight residues, plasticizers and additives) and consequent contamination of nearby surfaces. The present work reviews the LEO space environment constituents and their interactions with polymers. Examples of degradation of materials exposed in ground simulation facilities are presented. The issues discussed include the erosion mechanisms of polymers, formation of contaminants and their interaction with the space environment, and protection of materials from the harsh space environment.

  5. An analysis of the low-earth-orbit communications environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diersing, Robert Joseph

    Advances in microprocessor technology and availability of launch opportunities have caused interest in low-earth-orbit satellite based communications systems to increase dramatically during the past several years. In this research the capabilities of two low-cost, store-and-forward LEO communications satellites operating in the public domain are examined--PACSAT-1 (operated by the Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation) and UoSAT-3 (operated by the University of Surrey, England, Electrical Engineering Department). The file broadcasting and file transfer facilities are examined in detail and a simulation model of the downlink traffic pattern is developed. The simulator will aid the assessment of changes in design and implementation for other systems. The development of the downlink traffic simulator is based on three major parts. First, is a characterization of the low-earth-orbit operating environment along with preliminary measurements of the PACSAT-1 and UoSAT-3 systems including: satellite visibility constraints on communications, monitoring equipment configuration, link margin computations, determination of block and bit error rates, and establishing typical data capture rates for ground stations using computer-pointed directional antennas and fixed omni-directional antennas. Second, arrival rates for successful and unsuccessful file server connections are established along with transaction service times. Downlink traffic has been further characterized by measuring: frame and byte counts for all data-link layer traffic; 30-second interval average response time for all traffic and for file server traffic only; file server response time on a per-connection basis; and retry rates for information and supervisory frames. Finally, the model is verified by comparison with measurements of actual traffic not previously used in the model building process. The simulator is then used to predict operation of the PACSAT-1 satellite with modifications to the original design.

  6. Effects of the low Earth orbital environment on spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    It is evident from space flights during the last three years that the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment interacts with spacecraft surfaces in significant ways. One manifestation of these interactions is recession of, in particular, organic-polymer-based surfaces presumably due to oxidation by atomic oxygen, the major component of the LEO environment. Three experiments have been conducted on Space Shuttle flights 5, 8 and 41-G to measure reaction rates and the effects of various parameters on reaction rates. Surface recession on these flights indicates reaction efficiencies approximately 3 x 10(-24) cu cm/atoms for unfilled organic polymers. Of the metals, silver and osmium are very reactive. Effects on spacecraft or experiment surfaces can be evaluated using the derived reaction efficiencies and a definition of the total exposure to atomic oxygen. This exposure is obtained using an ambient density model, solar activity data and spacecraft parameters of altitude, attitude and operational date. Oxygen flux on a given surface is obtained from the ambient density and spacecraft velocity and can then be integrated to provide the total exposure or fluence. Such information can be generated using simple computational programs and can be converted to various formats. Overall, the extent of damage is strongly dependent on the type of surface and total exposure time.

  7. Laboratory investigations: Low Earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jon B.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin protective coatings such as Al2O3 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.

  8. UV SURFACE ENVIRONMENT OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING FGKM STARS THROUGH GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rugheimer, S.; Sasselov, D.; Segura, A.

    2015-06-10

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UVmore » flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth–Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth–Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.« less

  9. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    A conservative design approach was adopted by the International Space Station Program for specifying total ionizing radiation dose requirements for use in selecting and qualifying materials for construction of the International Space Station. The total ionizing dose design environment included in SSP 30512 Space Station Ionizing Radiation Design Environment is based on trapped proton and electron fluence derived from the solar maximum versions of the AE-8 and AP-8 models, respectively, specified for a circular orbit at 500 km altitude and 51.7 degree inclination. Since launch, the range of altitudes utilized for Space Station operations vary from a minimum of approximately 330 km to a maximum of approximately 405 km with a mean operational altitude less than 400 km. The design environment, therefore, overestimates the radiation environment because the particle flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly is the primary contributor to radiation dose in low Earth orbit and flux within the Anomaly is altitude dependent. In addition, a 2X multiplier is often applied to the design environment to cover effects from the contributions of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particle events, geomagnetic storms, and uncertainties in the trapped radiation models which are not explicitly included in the design environment. Application of this environment may give radiation dose overestimates on the order of 1OX to 30X for materials exposed to the space environment, suggesting that materials originally qualified for ten year exposures on orbit may be used for longer periods without replacement. In this paper we evaluate the "as flown" radiation environments derived from historical records of the ISS flight trajectory since launch and compare the results with the SSP 30512 design environment to document the magnitude of the radiation dose overestimate provided by the design environment. "As flown" environments are obtained from application of the AE-8/AP-8 trapped particle models along

  10. The Near-Earth Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2012-01-01

    The near-Earth space environment has been gradually polluted with orbital debris (OD) since the beginning of space activities 55 years ago. Although this problem has been known to the research community for decades, the public was, in general, unaware of the issue until the anti-satellite test conducted by China in 2007 and the collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009. The latter also underlined the potential of an ongoing collision cascade effect (the "Kessler Syndrome") in the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude). Recent modeling results have indicated that mitigation measures commonly adopted by the international space community will be insufficient to stabilize the LEO debris population. To better limit the OD population increase, more aggressive actions must be considered. There are three options for OD environment remediation-removal of large/massive intact objects to address the root cause of the OD population growth problem, removal of 5-mm-to-1 cm debris to mitigate the main mission-ending threats for the majority of operational spacecraft, and prevention of major debris-generating collisions as a temporary means to slow down the OD population increase. The technology, engineering, and cost challenges to carry out any of these three options are monumental. It will require innovative ideas, game-changing technologies, and major collaborations at the international level to address the OD problem and preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations.

  11. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  12. Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2011-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

  13. Trapped Proton Environment in Medium-Earth Orbit (2000-2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yue; Friedel, Reinhard Hans; Kippen, Richard Marc

    This report describes the method used to derive fluxes of the trapped proton belt along the GPS orbit (i.e., a Medium-Earth Orbit) during 2000 – 2010, a period almost covering a solar cycle. This method utilizes a newly developed empirical proton radiation-belt model, with the model output scaled by GPS in-situ measurements, to generate proton fluxes that cover a wide range of energies (50keV- 6MeV) and keep temporal features as well. The new proton radiation-belt model is developed based upon CEPPAD proton measurements from the Polar mission (1996 – 2007). Comparing to the de-facto standard empirical model of AP8, thismore » model is not only based upon a new data set representative of the proton belt during the same period covered by GPS, but can also provide statistical information of flux values such as worst cases and occurrence percentiles instead of solely the mean values. The comparison shows quite different results from the two models and suggests that the commonly accepted error factor of 2 on the AP8 flux output over-simplifies and thus underestimates variations of the proton belt. Output fluxes from this new model along the GPS orbit are further scaled by the ns41 in-situ data so as to reflect the dynamic nature of protons in the outer radiation belt at geomagnetically active times. Derived daily proton fluxes along the GPS ns41 orbit, whose data files are delivered along with this report, are depicted to illustrate the trapped proton environment in the Medium-Earth Orbit. Uncertainties on those daily proton fluxes from two sources are evaluated: One is from the new proton-belt model that has error factors < ~3; the other is from the in-situ measurements and the error factors could be ~ 5.« less

  14. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Atomic Oxygen Effects. [low earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A workshop was held to address the scientific issues concerning the effects of atomic oxygen on materials in the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment. The program included 18 invited speakers plus contributed posters covering topics such as LEO spaceflight experiments, interaction mechanisms, and atomic oxygen source development. Discussion sessions were also held to organize a test program to evaluate atomic oxygen exposure facilities. The key issues raised in the workshop were: (1) the need to develop a reliable predictive model of the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the LEO environment; (2) the ability of ground-based exposure facilities to provide useful data for development of durable materials; and (3) accurate determination of the composition of the LEO environment. These proceedings include the invited papers, the abstracts for the contributed posters, and an account of the test program discussion sessions.

  15. Improving The Near-Earth Meteoroid And Orbital Debris Environment Definition With LAD-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Giovane, F. J.; Corsaro, R. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Drolshagen, G.; Kawai, H.; Tabata, M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Westphal, A. J.; Yano, H.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the near-Earth meteoroid and orbital debris environment definition, a large area particle sensor/collector is being developed to be placed on the International Space Station (ISS). This instrument, the Large Area Debris Collector (LAD-C), will attempt to record meteoroid and orbital debris impact flux, and capture the same particles with aerogel. After at least one year of deployment, the whole system will be brought back for additional laboratory analysis of the captured meteoroids and orbital debris. This project is led by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) while the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program (STP) is responsible for the integration, deployment, and retrieval of the system. Additional contributing team members of the consortium include the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, JAXA Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Chiba University (Japan), ESA Space Debris Office, University of Kent (UK), and University of California at Berkeley. The deployment of LAD-C on the ISS is planned for 2008, with the system retrieval in late 2009.

  16. Preliminary Experimental Results for Charge Drag in a Simulated Low Earth Orbit Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azema-Rovira, Monica

    Interest in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment is growing in the science community as well as in the private sector. The number of spacecraft launched in these altitudes (150 - 700 km) keeps growing, and this region is accumulating space debris. In this scenario, the precise location of all LEO objects is a key factor to avoid catastrophic collisions and to safely perform station-keeping maneuvers. The detailed study of the atmospheric models in LEO can enhance the disturbances forces calculation of an orbiting object. Recent numerical studies indicate that one of the biggest non-conservative forces on a spacecraft is underestimated, the charge drag phenomenon. Validating these numerical models experimentally, will help to improve the numerical models for future spacecraft mission design. For this reason, the motivation of this thesis is to characterize a plasma source to later be used for charged drag measurements. The characterization has been done at the University of Colorado Colorado Springs in the Chamber for Atmospheric and Orbital Space Simulation. In the characterization process, a nano-Newton Thrust Stand has been characterized as a plasma diagnosis tool and compared with Langmuir Probe data.

  17. Material exposure effects in a simulated low-Earth orbit environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, C.; McHarg, G.; Asmolova, O.; Andersen, G.; Rodrigues, S.; Ketsdever, A.

    2016-11-01

    Spacecraft operating in low-Earth orbit (LEO) are subjected to a number of hazardous environmental constituents that can lead to decreased system performance and reduced operational lifetimes. Due to their thermal, optical, and mechanical properties, polymers are used extensively in space systems; however they are particularly susceptible to material erosion and degradation as a result of exposure to the LEO environment. The focus of this research is to examine the material erosion and mass loss experienced by the Novastrat 500 polyimide due to exposure in a simulated LEO environment. In addition to the polymer samples, chrome, silver and gold specimens will be examined to measure the oxidation rate and act as a control specimen, respectively. A magnetically filtered atomic oxygen plasma source has previously been developed and characterized for the purpose of simulating the low-Earth orbit environment. The plasma source can be operated at a variety of discharge currents and gas flow rates, of which the plasma parameters downstream of the source are dependent. The characteristics of the generated plasma were examined as a function of these operating parameters to optimize the production of O+ ions with energy relevant to LEO applications, where the ram energy of the ions due to the motion of the satellite relative to the LEO plasma is high (e.g. 7800 m/s, which corresponds to approximately 5 eV of kinetic energy for O+ ions). The plasma downstream of the source consists of streaming ions with energy of approximately 5 eV and an ion species fraction that is approximately 90% O+.

  18. Investigating fundamental physics and space environment with a dedicated Earth-orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron, Roberto

    The near-Earth environment is a place of first choice for performing fundamental physics experiments, given its proximity to Earth and at the same time being relatively quiet dynamically for particular orbital arrangements. This environment also sees a rich phenomenology for what concerns gravitation. In fact, the general theory of relativity is an incredibly accurate description of gravitational phenomenology. However, its overall validity is being questioned by the theories that aim at reconciling it with the microscopic domain. Challenges come also from the ‘mysteries’ of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, though mainly at scales from the galactic up to the cosmological. It is therefore important to precisely test the consequences of the theory -- as well as those of competing ones -- at all the accessible scales. At the same time, the development of high-precision experimental space techniques, which are needed for tests in fundamental physics, opens the way to complementary applications. The growth of the (man-made) orbital debris population is creating problems to the future development of space. The year 2009 witnessed the first accidental collision between two satellites in orbit (Iridium and Cosmos) that led to the creation of more debris. International and national agencies are intervening by issuing and/or adopting guidelines to mitigate the growth of orbital debris. A central tenet of these guidelines requires a presence in space shorter than 25 years to satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) after the conclusion of their operational lives. However, the determination of the natural lifetime of a satellite in LEO is very uncertain due to a large extent to the short-term and long-term variability of the atmospheric density in LEO and the comparatively low-accuracy of atmospheric density models. Many satellites orbiting in the 500-1200 km region with circular or elliptical orbits will be hard pressed to establish before flight whether or not they meet the 25

  19. Effects of low Earth orbit environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampair, Thomas R.; Berrios, William M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the benefits of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was the opportunity to study the before and after effects of low earth orbit space environment on the spacecraft thermal control coatings. Since the LDEF's thermal control was totally passive by design, the selection of the external surface absorptivity to emissivity ratio (alpha/epsilon) and the ability for the coating to retain the alpha/epsilon over time was an important consideration in the thermal design of the LDEF. The primary surface coating chosen for the LDEF structure was clear chromic anodized aluminum with an average design alpha/epsilon of 0.32/0.16. External surface absorptivity (alpha) and emissivity (epsilon) were measured on all intercostals, longerons, tray mounting flanges, thermal control panels, and a limited number of experiment surface coatings after the experiment trays were removed from the LDEF structure. All surface alpha/epsilon measurements were made using portable hand held infrared and solar spectrum reflectometers. The absorptivity measurements were taken with a Devices and Services SSR-ER version 5.0 solar spectra reflectometer which has a stated uncertainty of +/- 0.01, and all normal emissivity measurements were made using the Gier Dunkle DB-100 infrared reflectometer also with a stated uncertainty of +/- 0.01. Both instruments were calibrated in the laboratory by LaRC instrumentation personnel before being used in the field at KSC. A combined total of 733 measurements were taken on the anodized aluminum hardware which included the structure (intercostals, longerons, and center ring), earth and space end thermal control panels, and experiment tray mounting flanges. The facility thermal control coatings measured in this survey cover 33 percent of the total exposed LDEF surface area. To correlate low earth orbit environmental effects on the anodized coatings, measurements were taken in both exposed and unexposed surfaces and compared to quality assurance (QA

  20. The viscoelastic characterization of polymer materials exposed to the low-Earth orbit environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strganac, Thomas; Letton, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Recent accomplishments in our research efforts have included the successful measurement of the thermal mechanical properties of polymer materials exposed to the low-earth orbit environment. In particular, viscoelastic properties were recorded using the Rheometrics Solids Analyzer (RSA 2). Dynamic moduli (E', the storage component of the elastic modulus, and E'', the loss component of the elastic modulus) were recorded over three decades of frequency (0.1 to 100 rad/sec) for temperatures ranging from -150 to 150 C. Although this temperature range extends beyond the typical use range of the materials, measurements in this region are necessary in the development of complete viscoelastic constitutive models. The experimental results were used to provide the stress relaxation and creep compliance performance characteristics through viscoelastic correspondence principles. Our results quantify the differences between exposed and control polymer specimens. The characterization is specifically designed to elucidate a constitutive model that accurately predicts the change in behavior of these materials due to exposure. The constitutive model for viscoelastic behavior reflects the level of strain, the rate of strain, and the history of strain as well as the thermal history of the material.

  1. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper

  2. A model of the near-earth plasma environment and application to the ISEE-A and -B orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. W.; Sawyer, K. W.; Vette, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    A model of the near-earth environment to obtain a best estimate of the average flux of protons and electrons in the energy range from 0.1 to 100 keV for the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)-A and -B spacecraft. The possible radiation damage to the thermal coating on these spinning spacecraft is also studied. Applications of the model to other high-altitude satellites can be obtained with the appropriate orbit averaging. This study is the first attempt to synthesize an overall quantitative environment of low-energy particles for high altitude spacecraft, using data from in situ measurements.

  3. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Scheiman, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of post-flight performance testing of the solar cells flown on the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment are reported. Comparison of post-flight current-voltage characteristics with similar pre-flight data revealed little or no change in solar cell conversion efficiency, confirming the reliability and endurance of space photovoltaic cells. This finding is in agreement with the lack of significant physical changes in the solar cells despite nearly six years in the low Earth orbit environment.

  4. Comparison of Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The technological, environmental, social, and political ramifications of low Earth orbits as compared to geosynchronous Earth orbits for the solar power satellite (SPS) are assessed. The capital cost of the transmitting facilities is dependent on the areas of the antenna and rectenna relative to the requirement of high efficiency power transmission. The salient features of a low orbit Earth orbits are discussed in terms of cost reduction efforts.

  5. The Predicted Growth of the Low Earth Orbit Space Debris Environment: An Assessment of Future Risk for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.

    2007-01-01

    Space debris is a worldwide-recognized issue concerning the safety of commercial, military, and exploration spacecraft. The space debris environment includes both naturally occuring meteoroids and objects in Earth orbit that are generated by human activity, termed orbital debris. Space agencies around the world are addressing the dangers of debris collisions to both crewed and robotic spacecraft. In the United States, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center leads the effort to categorize debris, predict its growth, and formulate mitigation policy for the environment from low Earth orbit (LEO) through geosynchronous orbit (GEO). This paper presents recent results derived from the NASA long-term debris environment model, LEGEND. It includes the revised NASA sodium potassium droplet model, newly corrected for a factor of two over-estimation of the droplet population. The study indicates a LEO environment that is already highly collisionally active among orbital debris larger than 1 cm in size. Most of the modeled collision events are non-catastrophic (i.e., They lead to a cratering of the target, but no large scale fragmentation.). But they are potentially mission-ending, and take place between impactors smaller than 10 cm and targets larger than 10 cm. Given the small size of the impactor these events would likely be undetectable by present-day measurement means. The activity continues into the future as would be expected. Impact rates of about four per year are predicted by the current study within the next 30 years, with the majority of targets being abandoned intacts (spent upper stages and spacecraft). Still, operational spacecraft do show a small collisional activity, one that increases over time as the small fragment population increases.

  6. Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2014-09-01

    The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four

  7. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the advanced photovoltaic experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (APEX), containing over 150 solar cells and sensors, was designed to generate laboratory reference standards as well as to explore the durability of a wide variety of space solar cells. Located on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), APEX received the maximum possible dosage of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation, as well as enormous numbers of impacts from micrometeoroids and debris. The effect of the low earth orbital (LEO) environment on the solar cells and materials of APEX will be discussed in this paper. The on-orbit performance of the solar cells, as well as a comparison of pre- and postflight laboratory performance measurements, will be presented.

  8. Effect of long-term exposure to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimcik, D. G.

    1987-01-01

    Data obtained from components and materials from the Solar Maximum Mission satellite are presented and compared to data for similar materials obtained from the Advanced Composite Materials Exposure to Space Experiment (ACOMEX) flown on Shuttle mission STS-41G. In addition to evaluation of surface erosion and mass loss that may be of importance to very long-term missions, comparisons of solar absorptance and thermal emittance measurements for both long and short term exposures were made. Although the ratio of absorptance over emittance can be altered by proper choice of materials to ensure a proper operating environment for the spacecraft, once the thermal design is established, it is important that the material properties not change in order to maintain the operating environment for many payload and bus items such as electronics, batteries, fuel, etc. However, data presented show significant changes after short exposure in low Earth environment. Moreover, the measured changes are shown to differ according to the manner of exposure, i.e., normal or oblique, which also affects the resultant eroded surface morphology. These results identify constraints to be considered in development of flight experiments or laboratory testing.

  9. The simulation of the geosynchronous Earth orbit plasma environment in Chamber A: An assessment of possible experimental investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, W.

    1981-01-01

    The possible use of Chamber A for the replication or simulation of space plasma physics processes which occur in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) environment is considered. It is shown that replication is not possible and that scaling of the environmental conditions is required for study of the important instability processes. Rules for such experimental scaling are given. At the present time, it does not appear technologically feasible to satisfy these requirements in Chamber A. It is, however, possible to study and qualitatively evaluate the problem of vehicle charging at GEO. In particular, Chamber A is sufficiently large that a complete operational spacecraft could be irradiated by beams and charged to high potentials. Such testing would contribute to the assessment of the operational malfunctions expected at GEO and their possible correction. However, because of the many tabulated limitations in such a testing programs, its direct relevance to conditions expected in the geo environment remains questionable.

  10. Oxidation and protection of fiberglass-epoxy composite masts for photovoltaic arrays in the low earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Ciancone, Michael L.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Brady, Joyce A.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of degradation of fiberglass-epoxy composite masts of the Space Station solar array panel, when these are exposed to atomic oxygen environment of the low-earth orbit, was investigated in ground testing of fiberglass-epoxy composites in an RF plasma asher. In addition, several methods of protecting the composite structures were evaluated, including an aluminum braid covering, an In-Sn eutectic, and a silicone based paint. It was found that, during exposure, the epoxy at the surface of the composite was oxidized, exposing individual glass fibers which could easily be removed. The results of mass measurements and SEM examination carried out after thermal cycling and flexing of exposed composite samples indicated that coatings such as In-Sn eutectic may provide adequate protection by containing the glass fibers, even though mass loss still occurs.

  11. Space and Atmospheric Environments: From Low Earth Orbits to Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Natural space and atmospheric environments pose a difficult challenge for designers of technological systems in space. The deleterious effects of environment interactions with the systems include degradation of materials, thermal changes, contamination, excitation, spacecraft glow, charging, radiation damage, and induced background interference. Design accommodations must be realistic with minimum impact on performance while maintaining a balance between cost and risk. The goal of applied research in space environments and effects is to limit environmental impacts at low cost relative to spacecraft cost and to infuse enabling and commercial off-the-shelf technologies into space programs. The need to perform applied research to understand the space environment in a practical sense and to develop methods to mitigate these environment effects is frequently underestimated by space agencies and industry. Applied science research in this area is critical because the complexity of spacecraft systems is increasing, and they are exposed simultaneously to a multitude of space environments.

  12. Oxidation and protection of fiberglass-epoxy composite masts for photovoltaic arrays in the low Earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Brady, Joyce A.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Fiberglass-epoxy composites are considered for use as structural members for the mast of the space station solar array panel. The low Earth orbital environment in which space station is to operate is composed mainly of atomic oxygen, which has been shown to cause erosion of many organic materials and some metals. Ground based testing in a plasma asher was performed to determine the extent of degradation of fiberglass-epoxy composites when exposed to a simulated atomic oxygen environment. During exposure, the epoxy at the surface of the composite was oxidized, exposing individual glass fibers which could easily be removed. Several methods of protecting the composite were evaluated in an atomic oxygen environment and with thermal cycling and flexing. The protection techniques evaluated to date include an aluminum braid covering, an indium-tin eutectic and a silicone based paint. The open aluminum braid offered little protection while the CV-1144 coating offered some initial protection against atomic oxygen, but appears to develop cracks which accelerate degradation when flexed. Coatings such as the In-Sn eutectic may provide adequate protection by containing the glass fibers even though mass loss still occurs.

  13. Operation of commercial R3000 processors in the low earth orbit (LEO) space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschmitter, J. L.; Shaeffer, D. L.; Colella, N. J.; McKnett, C. L.; Coakley, P. G.

    1991-12-01

    Spacecraft processors must operate with minimal degradation of performance in the LEO radiation environment, which includes the effects of total accumulated ionizing dose and single event phenomena (SEP) caused by protons and cosmic rays. Commercially available microprocessors can offer a number of advantages relative to radiation-hardened devices but are not normally designed to tolerate effects induced by the LEO environment. Extensive testing of the MIPS R3000 Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) microprocessor family for operation in LEO environments is reported. The authors have characterized total dose and SEP effects for altitudes and inclinations of interest to systems operating in LEO, and they postulate techniques for detection and alleviation of SEP effects based on experimental results.

  14. Earth from Orbit 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-20

    Every day of every year, NASA satellites provide useful data about our home planet, and along the way, some beautiful images as well. This video includes satellite images of Earth in 2014 from NASA and its partners as well as photos and a time lapse video from the International Space Station. We’ve also included a range of data visualizations, model runs, and a conceptual animation that were produced in 2014 (but in some cases might have been utilizing data from earlier years.) Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  15. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; McWilliams, Brett; Koontz, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    The design estimate for the materials for the International Space Station (ISS) specified in SSP 30512 was a conservative estimate. The environment dose was over estimated. The materials originally qualified for approximately 10-15 years are anticipated to be acceptable for periods of up to 20-30 years based on SSP-30512 or 40-60 years based on 2x SSP-30512. This viewgraph presentation shows charts and graphs that review the altitude, the solar minimum and maximum, and the radiation exposure of other satellite, among other graphics.

  16. Material interactions with the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment: Accurate reaction rate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T.; Leger, Lubert J.

    1987-01-01

    To resolve uncertainties in estimated LEO atomic oxygen fluence and provide reaction product composition data for comparison to data obtained in ground-based simulation laboratories, a flight experiment has been proposed for the space shuttle which utilizes an ion-neutral mass spectrometer to obtain in-situ ambient density measurements and identify reaction products from modeled polymers exposed to the atomic oxygen environment. An overview of this experiment is presented and the methodology of calibrating the flight mass spectrometer in a neutral beam facility prior to its use on the space shuttle is established. The experiment, designated EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials, third series), will provide a reliable materials interaction data base for future spacecraft design and will furnish insight into the basic chemical mechanisms leading to atomic oxygen interactions with surfaces.

  17. The effects of simulated low Earth orbit environments on spacecraft thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Booth, Roy E.

    1993-01-01

    Candidate Space Station Freedom radiator coatings including Z-93, YB-71, anodized aluminum and SiO(x) coated silvered Teflon have been characterized for optical properties degradation upon exposure to environments containing atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and/or silicone contamination. YB-71 coating showed a blue-gray discoloration, which has not been observed in space, upon exposure in atomic oxygen facilities which also provide exaggerated VUV radiation. This is evidence that damage mechanisms occur in these ground laboratory facilities which are different from those which occur in space. Radiator coatings exposed to an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) atomic oxygen source in the presence of silicone-containing samples showed severe darkening from the intense VUV radiation provided by the ECR and from silicone contamination. Samples exposed to atomic oxygen from the ECR source and to VUV lamps, simultaneously, with in situ reflectance measurement, showed that significantly greater degradation occurred when samples received line-of-site ECR beam exposure than when samples were exposed to atomic oxygen scattered off of quartz surfaces without line-of-site view of the ECR beam. For white paints, exposure to air following atomic oxygen/VUV exposure reversed the darkening due to VUV damage. This illustrates the importance of in situ reflectance measurement.

  18. Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, D.; Lashbrook, D.; Mckibben, B.; Gardener, N.; Rivers, T.; Nottingham, G.; Golden, B.; Barfield, B.; Bruening, J.; Wood, D.

    1992-01-01

    A current thrust in satellite communication systems considers a low-Earth orbiting constellations of satellites for continuous global coverage. Conceptual design studies have been done at the time of this design project by LORAL Aerospace Corporation under the program name GLOBALSTAR and by Motorola under their IRIDIUM program. This design project concentrates on the spacecraft design of the GLOBALSTAR low-Earth orbiting communication system. Overview information on the program was gained through the Federal Communications Commission licensing request. The GLOBALSTAR system consists of 48 operational satellites positioned in a Walker Delta pattern providing global coverage and redundancy. The operational orbit is 1389 km (750 nmi) altitude with eight planes of six satellites each. The orbital planes are spaced 45 deg., and the spacecraft are separated by 60 deg. within the plane. A Delta 2 launch vehicle is used to carry six spacecraft for orbit establishment. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize code-division multiple access (spread spectrum modulation) for digital relay, voice, and radio determination satellite services (RDSS) yielding position determination with accuracy up to 200 meters.

  19. Best Mitigation Paths To Effectively Reduce Earth's Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegman, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some ways to reduce the problem posed by debris in orbit around the Earth. It reviews the orbital debris environment, the near-term needs to minimize the Kessler syndrome, also known as collisional cascading, a survey of active orbital debris mitigation strategies, the best paths to actively remove orbital debris, and technologies that are required for active debris mitigation.

  20. Earth orbiting Sisyphus system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurkevich, I.; Krause, K. W.; Neste, S. L.; Soberman, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of employing an optical meteoroid detecting system, known as Sisyphus, to measure the near-earth particulates from an earth orbiting vehicle, is considered. A Sisyphus system can discriminate between natural and man-made particles since the system measures orbital characteristics of particles. A Sisyphus system constructed for the Pioneer F/G missions to Jupiter is used as the baseline, and is described. The amount of observing time which can be obtained by a Sisyphus instrument launched into various orbits is determined. Observation time is lost when, (1) the Sun is in or near the field of view, (2) the lighted Earth is in or near the field of view, (3) the instrument is eclipsed by the Earth, and (4) the phase angle measured at the particle between the forward scattering direction and the instrument is less than a certain critical value. The selection of the launch system and the instrument platform with a dedicated, attitude controlled payload package is discussed. Examples of such systems are SATS and SOLRAD 10(C) vehicles, and other possibilities are AVCO Corp. S4 system, the OWL system, and the Delta Payload Experiment Package.

  1. Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-time Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staniewicz, Robert J.; Willson, John; Briscoe, J. Douglas; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an update on test results from two 16 cell batteries, one in a simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment and the other in simulated Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) environment. The tests measured how voltage and capacity are affected over time by thermal cycling.

  2. Current orbital debris environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    NASA has instituted a plan for the definition of activities and resources required over the coming decade for the deepening of current understanding of anthropogenic orbital debris, and its effects on future mission operations. This understanding will be the basis of policy definition and policy implementation efforts. The most immediate requirement is the definition of the debris environment, with emphasis on data for debris sizes smaller than 4 cm. Systems-damage criteria and hypervelocity-impact theory will then be used to define the hazard to specific spacecraft.

  3. Deep Reconditioning Testing for near Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, F. E.; Barnes, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The problems and benefits of deep reconditioning to near Earth orbit missions with high cycle life and shallow discharge depth requirements is discussed. A simple battery level approach to deep reconditioning of nickel cadmium batteries in near Earth orbit is considered. A test plan was developed to perform deep reconditioning in direct comparison with an alternative trickle charge approach. The results demonstrate that the deep reconditioning procedure described for near Earth orbit application is inferior to the alternative of trickle charging.

  4. Micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact inspection of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 radiator and the implications for the near-Earth small particle environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Anz-Meador, P.; Opiela, J.; Christiansen, E.; Cowardin, H.; Davidson, W.; Ed-Wards, D.; Hedman, T.; Herrin, J.; Hyde, J.; Juarez, Q.; Lear, D.; McNamara, K.; Moser, D.; Ross, D.; Stansbery, E.

    The STS-125 Atlantis astronauts retrieved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) during a very successful servicing mission to the HST in May 2009. The radiator attached to WFPC2 has dimensions of 2.2 m by 0.8 m. Its outermost layer is a 4-mm thick aluminum plate covered with a white thermal control coating. This radiator had been exposed to space since the deployment of WFPC2 in 1993. Due to its large surface area and long exposure time, the radiator serves as a unique witness plate for the micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment between 560 and 620 km altitude. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office is leading an effort, with full support from the HST Program at GSFC, NASA Curation Office at JSC, NASA Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility at JSC, and NASA Meteoroid Environment Office at MSFC, to inspect the exposed radiator surface. The objective is to measure and analyze the MMOD impact damage on the radiator, and then apply the data to validate or improve the near-Earth MMOD environment definition. The initial inspection was completed in September 2009. A total of 685 MMOD impact features (larger than about 0.3 mm) were identified and documented. This paper will provide an overview of the inspection, the analysis of the data, and the initial effort to use the data to model the MMOD environment.

  5. Effects of the low Earth orbit space environment on the surface chemistry of Kapton polyimide film: An XPS study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Myung; Rooney, William; Whiteside, James

    1992-01-01

    Kapton H (DuPont Trademark) polyimide specimens exposed to the low earth (LEO) space environment suffered significant weathering with surface erosions of approximately 8.0 microns. Despite these effects, no significant changes in bulk chemistry were observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine local changes induced from approximately 25 percent in 1980 vintage ground control specimens to nearly 53 percent in space exposed specimens. The greatest increase was observed for the divalent oxygen moieties, although a slight increase in carbonyl oxygen was also measured. Furthermore, the chemical shifts of all XPS peaks of space-exposed Kapton are shifted to higher energy. This is consistent with a higher oxidation state of the space exposed surface. Finally, space exposed specimens had distinct silicon peaks (2p 100 eV and 2s 149 eV) in their XPS spectra in agreement with widespread reports of silicon contamination throughout the LDEF satellite. These results are discussed in terms of surface reactivity of the polyimide exposed to the LEO environment and the chemical nature of contaminants deposited on flight surfaces due to satellite outgassing.

  6. Earth Orbit Raise Design for the Artemis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiffen, Gregory J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

    2011-01-01

    The Artemis mission is an extension of the Themis mission. The Themis mission1 consisted of five identical spacecraft in varying sized Earth orbits designed to make simultaneous measurements of the Earth's electric and magnetic environment. Themis was designed to observe geomagnetic storms resulting from solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. Themis was meant to answer the age old question of why the Earth's aurora can change rapidly on a global scale. The Themis spacecraft are spin stabilized with 20 meter long electric field booms as well as several shorter magnetometer booms. The goal of the Artemis2 mission extension is to deliver the field and particle measuring capabilities of two of the Themis spacecraft to the vicinity of the Moon. The Artemis mission required transferring two Earth orbiting Themis spacecraft on to two different low energy trans-lunar trajectories ultimately ending in lunar orbit. This paper describes the processes that resulted in successful orbit raise designs for both spacecraft.

  7. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francoeur, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission -Ultraviolet Remote Sensing of Earth's Space Environment from Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, A. G.; Eastes, R.

    2017-12-01

    The GOLD mission of opportunity will fly a far ultraviolet imaging spectrograph in geostationary (GEO) orbit as a hosted payload. The mission is scheduled for launch in late January 2018 on SES-14, a commercial communications satellite that will be stationed over eastern South America at 47.5 degrees west longitude. GOLD is on schedule to be the first NASA science mission to fly as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite. The GOLD imager has two identical channels. Each channel can scan the full disk at a 30 minute cadence, making spectral images of Earth's UV emission from 132 to 162 nm, as well as make a measurement on the Earth's limb. Remote sensing techniques that have been proven on previous Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions will be used to derive fundamental parameters for the neutral and ionized space environment. Parameters that will be derived include composition (O/N2 ratio) and temperature of the neutral atmosphere on the dayside disk. On the nightside, peak electron densities will be obtained in the low latitude ionosphere. Many of the algorithms developed for the mission are extensions of ones used on previous earth and planetary missions, with modifications for observations from geostationary orbit. All the algorithms have been tested using simulated observations based on the actual instrument performance. From geostationary orbit, GOLD can repeatedly image the same geographic locations over most of the hemisphere at a cadence comparable to that of the T-I system (order of an hour). Such time resolution and spatial coverage will allow the mission to track the changes due to geomagnetic storms, variations in solar extreme ultraviolet radiation, and forcing from the lower atmosphere. In addition to providing a new perspective by being able to repeatedly remotely sense the same hemisphere at a high cadence, GOLD's simultaneous measurements of not only composition but also temperatures across the disk will provide a valuable, new parameter

  9. Spacewire on Earth orbiting scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Alex; Lang, Minh; Lux, James; Steffke, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The need for a high speed, reliable and easy to implement communication link has led to the development of a space flight oriented version of IEEE 1355 called SpaceWire. SpaceWire is based on high-speed (200 Mbps) serial point-to-point links using Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). SpaceWIre has provisions for routing messages between a large network of processors, using wormhole routing for low overhead and latency. {additionally, there are available space qualified hybrids, which provide the Link layer to the user's bus}. A test bed of multiple digital signal processor breadboards, demonstrating the ability to meet signal processing requirements for an orbiting scatterometer has been implemented using three Astrium MCM-DSPs, each breadboard consists of a Multi Chip Module (MCM) that combines a space qualified Digital Signal Processor and peripherals, including IEEE-1355 links. With the addition of appropriate physical layer interfaces and software on the DSP, the SpaceWire link is used to communicate between processors on the test bed, e.g. sending timing references, commands, status, and science data among the processors. Results are presented on development issues surrounding the use of SpaceWire in this environment, from physical layer implementation (cables, connectors, LVDS drivers) to diagnostic tools, driver firmware, and development methodology. The tools, methods, and hardware, software challenges and preliminary performance are investigated and discussed.

  10. Aqua Satellite Orbiting Earth Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-08

    NASA Aqua satellite carries six state-of-the-art instruments in a near-polar low-Earth orbit. Aqua is seen in this artist concept orbiting Earth. The six instruments are the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A), the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). Each has unique characteristics and capabilities, and all six serve together to form a powerful package for Earth observations. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18156

  11. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Commercial Market Projections

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-05-16

    This study assesses the possible number of small commercial satellites to be : launched to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in the period 1995-2005. The information : provided reflects an Office of Commercial Space Transportation (OCST) : assessment of overall ...

  12. How to Orbit the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Donald J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the geometry, algebra, and logic involved in the solution of a "Mindbenders" problem in "Discover" magazine and applies it to calculations of satellite orbital velocity. Extends the solution of this probe to other applications of falling objects. (JM)

  13. Orbital debris and near-Earth environmental management: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.; Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This chronology covers the 32-year history of orbital debris and near-Earth environmental concerns. It tracks near-Earth environmental hazard creation, research, observation, experimentation, management, mitigation, protection, and policy-making, with emphasis on the orbital debris problem. Included are the Project West Ford experiments; Soviet ASAT tests and U.S. Delta upper stage explosions; the Ariane V16 explosion, U.N. treaties pertinent to near-Earth environmental problems, the PARCS tests; space nuclear power issues, the SPS/orbital debris link; Space Shuttle and space station orbital debris issues; the Solwind ASAT test; milestones in theory and modeling the Cosmos 954, Salyut 7, and Skylab reentries; the orbital debris/meteoroid research link; detection system development; orbital debris shielding development; popular culture and orbital debris; Solar Max results; LDEF results; orbital debris issues peculiar to geosynchronous orbit, including reboost policies and the stable plane; seminal papers, reports, and studies; the increasing effects of space activities on astronomy; and growing international awareness of the near-Earth environment.

  14. Spacecraft Charging and Auroral Boundary Predictions in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Auroral charging of spacecraft is an important class of space weather impacts on technological systems in low Earth orbit. In order for space weather models to accurately specify auroral charging environments, they must provide the appropriate plasma environment characteristics responsible for charging. Improvements in operational space weather prediction capabilities relevant to charging must be tested against charging observations.

  15. Management of the orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.; Kessler, Donald J.; Anz-Meador, Phillip D.

    1991-01-01

    Data regarding orbital debris are presented to shed light on the requirements of environmental management in space, and strategies are given for active intervention and operational strategies. Debris are generated by inadvertent explosions of upper stages, intentional military explosions, and collisional breakups. Design and operation practices are set forth for minimizing debris generation and removing useless debris from orbit in the low-earth and geosynchronous orbits. Self-disposal options include propulsive maneuvers, drag-augmentation devices, and tether systems, and the drag devices are described as simple and passive. Active retrieval and disposition are considered, and the difficulty is examined of removing small debris. Active intervention techniques are required since pollution prevention is more effective than remediation for the problems of both earth and space.

  16. Electric Propulsion for Low Earth Orbit Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Sankovic, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Hall Effect electric propulsion was evaluated for orbit insertion, satellite repositioning, orbit maintenance and de-orbit applications for a sample low earth orbit satellite constellation. Since the low masses of these satellites enable multiple spacecraft per launch, the ability to add spacecraft to a given launch was used as a figure of merit. When compared to chemical propulsion, the Hall thruster system can add additional spacecraft per launch using planned payload power levels. One satellite can be added to the assumed four satellite baseline chemical launch without additional mission times. Two or three satellites may be added by providing part of the orbit insertion with the Hall system. In these cases orbit insertion times were found to be 35 and 62 days. Depending on the electric propulsion scenario, the resulting launch vehicle savings is nearly two, three or four Delta 7920 launch vehicles out of the chemical baseline scenarios eight Delta 7920 launch vehicles.

  17. Electric Propulsion for Low Earth Orbit Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Sankovic, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Hall effect electric propulsion was evaluated for orbit insertion, satellite repositioning, orbit maintenance and de-orbit applications for a sample low earth orbit satellite constellation. Since the low masses of these satellites enable multiple spacecraft per launch, the ability to add spacecraft to a given launch was used as a figure of merit. When compared to chemical propulsion, the Hall thruster system can add additional spacecraft per launch using planned payload power levels. One satellite can be added to the assumed four satellite baseline chemical launch without additional mission times. Two or three satellites may be added by providing part of the orbit insertion with the Hall system. In these cases orbit insertion times were found to be 35 and 62 days. Depending, on the electric propulsion scenario, the resulting launch vehicle savings is nearly two, three or four Delta 7920 launch vehicles out of the chemical baseline scenario's eight Delta 7920 launch vehicles.

  18. Orbit Selection for Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The orbit selection process is simplified for most earth-oriented satellite missions by a restriction to circular orbits, which reduces the primary orbit characteristics to be determined to only two: altitude and inclination. A number of important mission performance characteristics depend on these choices, however, so a major part of the orbit selection task is concerned with developing the correlating relationships in clear and convenient forms to provide a basis for rational orbit selection procedures. The present approach to that task is organized around two major areas of mission performance, orbit plane precession and coverage pattern development, whose dependence on altitude and inclination is delineated graphically in design chart form. These charts provide a visual grasp of the relationships between the quantities cited above, as well as other important mission performance parameters including viewing time of day (solar), sensor swath width (and fields of view), swath sequencing, and pattern repeat condition and repeat periods.

  19. Observations of Human-Made Debris in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardia, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Orbital debris is defined as any human-made object in orbit about the Earth that no longer serves a useful purpose. Beginning in 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1, there have been more than 4,700 launches, with each launch increasing the potential for impacts from orbital debris. Almost 55 years later there are over 16,000 catalogued objects in orbit over 10 cm in size. Agencies world-wide have realized this is a growing issue for all users of the space environment. To address the orbital debris issue, the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) was established to collaborate on monitoring, characterizing, and modeling orbital debris, as well as formulating policies and procedures to help control the risk of collisions and population growth. One area of fundamental interest is measurements of the space debris environment. NASA has been utilizing radar and optical measurements to survey the different orbital regimes of space debris for over 25 years, as well as using returned surfaces to aid in determining the flux and size of debris that are too small to detect with ground-based sensors. This paper will concentrate on the optical techniques used by NASA to observe the space debris environment, specifically in the Geosynchronous earth Orbit (GEO) region where radar capability is severely limited.

  20. Circulating transportation orbits between earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Niehoff, J. C.; Byrnes, D. V.; Longuski, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the basic characteristics of circulating (cyclical) orbit design as applied to round-trip transportation of crew and materials between earth and Mars in support of a sustained manned Mars Surface Base. The two main types of nonstopover circulating trajectories are the socalled VISIT orbits and the Up/Down Escalator orbits. Access to the large transportation facilities placed in these orbits is by way of taxi vehicles using hyperbolic rendezvous techniques during the successive encounters with earth and Mars. Specific examples of real trajectory data are presented in explanation of flight times, encounter frequency, hyperbolic velocities, closest approach distances, and Delta V maneuver requirements in both interplanetary and planetocentric space.

  1. Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Dewey M.

    1988-01-01

    Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

  2. Mitigating Climate Change with Earth Orbital Sunshades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coverstone, Victoria; Johnson, Les

    2015-01-01

    An array of rotating sunshades based on emerging solar sail technology will be deployed in a novel Earth orbit to provide near-continuous partial shading of the Earth, reducing the heat input to the atmosphere by blocking a small percentage of the incoming sunlight, and mitigating local weather effects of anticipated climate change over the next century. The technology will provide local cooling relief during extreme heat events (and heating relief during extreme cold events) thereby saving human lives, agriculture, livestock, water and energy needs. A synthesis of the solar sail design, the sails' operational modes, and the selected orbit combine to provide local weather modification.

  3. Airbreathing Acceleration Toward Earth Orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C

    As flight speed increases, aerodynamic drag rises more sharply than the availability of atmospheric oxygen. The ratio of oxygen mass flux to dynamic pressure cannot be improved by changing altitude. The maximum possible speed for airbreathing propulsion is limited by the ratio of air capture area to vehicle drag area, approximately Mach 6 at equal areas. Simulation of vehicle acceleration shows that the use of atmospheric oxygen offers a significant potential for minimizing onboard consumables at low speeds. These fundamental calculations indicate that a practical airbreathing launch vehicle would accelerate to near steady-state speed while consuming only onboard fuel, thenmore » transition to rocket propulsion. It is suggested that an aircraft carrying a rocket-propelled vehicle to approximately Mach 5 could be a realistic technical goal toward improving access to orbit.« less

  4. Tolerance of the High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology ASIC to potentially destructive radiation processes in Earth-orbit-equivalent environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, D. F.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Wilson, M.; Benmoussa, A.; Campola, M.; Christe, S. D.; Gissot, S.; Jones, L.; Newport, J.; Prydderch, M.; Richards, S.; Seller, P.; Shih, A. Y.; Thomas, S.

    2018-02-01

    The High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology (HEXITEC) ASIC is designed on a 0.35 μm CMOS process to read out CdTe or CZT detectors and hence provide fine-pixellated spectroscopic imaging in the range 2-200 keV. In this paper, we examine the tolerance of HEXITEC to both potentially destructive cumulative and single event radiation effects. Bare ASICs are irradiated with X-rays up to a total ionising dose (TID) of 1 Mrad (SiO2) and bombarded with heavy ions with linear energy transfer (LET) up to 88.3 MeV mg-1 cm-2. HEXITEC is shown to operate reliably below a TID of 150 krad, have immunity to fatal single event latchup (SEL) and have high tolerance to non-fatal SEL up to LETs of at least 88.3 MeV mg-1 cm-2. The results are compared to predictions of TID and SELs for various Earth-orbits and aluminium shielding thicknesses. It is found that HEXITEC's radiation tolerance to both potentially destructive cumulative and single event effects is sufficient to reliably operate in these environments with moderate shielding.

  5. Earth observations taken from shuttle orbiter Columbia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-22

    STS073-728-010 (22 October 1995) --- Photographed by the astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia orbiting at 146 nautical miles above Earth is this scene over West Virginia featuring the Appalachian Mountains. Center point coordinates are 37.5 degrees north latitude and 80.5 degrees west longitude.

  6. Earth Orbital Science, Space in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is part of the "Space in the Seventies" series and reviews the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) earth orbital scientific research programs in progress and those to be pursued in the coming decade. Research in space physics is described in Part One in these areas: interplanetary monitoring platforms, small…

  7. Earth orbital teleoperator systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Slaughter, P. H.; Brye, R. G.; Henderson, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical extension of the human operator to remote and specialized environments poses a series of complex operational questions. A technical and scientific team was organized to investigate these questions through conducting specific laboratory and analytical studies. The intent of the studies was to determine the human operator requirements for remotely manned systems and to determine the particular effects that various system parameters have on human operator performance. In so doing, certain design criteria based on empirically derived data concerning the ultimate control system, the human operator, were added to the Teleoperator Development Program.

  8. The O/OREOS Mission - Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit. [Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Squires, D.; Kitts, C.; Agasid, E.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.; Cook, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small- Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72 deg), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cu cm) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA0s scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.

  9. Earth orbital operations supporting manned interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Whittaker, William L.

    The orbital operations required to accumulate, assemble, test, verify, maintain, and launch complex manned space systems on interplanetary missions from earth orbit are as vital as the flight hardware itself. Vast numbers of orbital crew are neither necessary nor desirable for accomplishing the required tasks. A suite of robotic techniques under human supervisory control, relying on sensors, software and manipulators either currently emergent or already applied in terrestrial settings, can make the job tractable. The mission vehicle becomes largely self-assembling, using its own rigid aerobrake as a work platform. The Space Station, having been used as a laboratory testbed and to house an assembly crew of four, is not dominated by the process. A feasible development schedule, if begun soon, could emplace orbital support technologies for exploration missions in time for a 2004 first interplanetary launch.

  10. Nickel hydrogen low Earth orbit life testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badcock, C. C.; Haag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A program to demonstrate the long term reliability of NiH2 cells in low Earth orbits (LEO) and support use in mid-altitude orbits (MAO) was initiated. Both 3.5 and 4.5 inch diameter nickel hydrogen cells are included in the test plan. Cells from all U.S. vendors are to be tested. The tests will be performed at -5 and 10 C at 40 and 60% DOD for LEO orbit and 10 C and 80% DOD for MAO orbit simulations. The goals of the testing are 20,000 cycles at 60% DOD and 30,000 cycles at 40% DOD. Cells are presently undergoing acceptance and characterization testing at Naval Weapons Systems Center, Crane.

  11. Earth orbital operations supporting manned interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Whittaker, William L.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital operations required to accumulate, assemble, test, verify, maintain, and launch complex manned space systems on interplanetary missions from earth orbit are as vital as the flight hardware itself. Vast numbers of orbital crew are neither necessary nor desirable for accomplishing the required tasks. A suite of robotic techniques under human supervisory control, relying on sensors, software and manipulators either currently emergent or already applied in terrestrial settings, can make the job tractable. The mission vehicle becomes largely self-assembling, using its own rigid aerobrake as a work platform. The Space Station, having been used as a laboratory testbed and to house an assembly crew of four, is not dominated by the process. A feasible development schedule, if begun soon, could emplace orbital support technologies for exploration missions in time for a 2004 first interplanetary launch.

  12. Earth observations taken from shuttle orbiter Columbia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-26

    STS073-708-089 (26 October 1995) --- As evidenced by this 70mm photograph from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, international borders have become easier to see from space in recent decades. This, according to NASA scientists studying the STS-73 photo collection, is particularly true in arid and semi-arid environments. The scientists go on to cite this example of the razor-sharp vegetation boundary between southern Israel and Gaza and the Sinai. The nomadic grazing practices to the south (the lighter areas of the Sinai and Gaza, top left) have removed most of the vegetation from the desert surface. On the north side of the border, Israel uses advanced irrigation techniques in Israel, mainly "trickle irrigation" by which small amounts of water are delivered directly to plant roots. These water-saving techniques have allowed precious supplies from the Jordan River to be used on farms throughout the country. Numerous fields of dark green can be seen in this detailed view. Scientists say this redistribution of the Jordan River waters has increased the Israeli vegetation cover to densities that approach those that may have been common throughout the Mid-East in wetter early Biblical times. A small portion of the Mediterranean Sea appears top right.

  13. Contamination of optical surfaces in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinser, Donald L.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Wiedlocher, D. E.; Nichols, R.; Tucker, D.; Whitaker, A.

    1992-01-01

    Glass and glass ceramic samples exposed to the low earth orbit environment for approximately 5.5 years on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were found to display limited degradation in optical transmission. Commercial optical quality fused silica samples display decreases in transmission in the 200 to 400 nm wavelength region, and this degradation appears to be a consequence of surface contamination. The contamination, found only on internal surfaces of samples, was measured by medium energy backscattering spectrometry and found to be primarily carbon. Additional thin film contamination by a species with atomic mass near 64, which was present at the level of about 8 x 10 exp 14/sq. cm has not been identified. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that organic binders used in the black absorbing paint (Chem Glaze Z-306) inside the sample holding tray were concentrated in the vicinity of the samples and photolytically cracked by solar UV radiation. The resulting decomposition products were deposited on the interior sample surface and gave rise to the optical transmission loss. No detectable contamination was observed on the external or space exposed surface of the samples. No measurable damage was detected which could be attributed to the direct action of gamma or UV radiation on the glass samples. These results emphasize the need for special precautions in the preparation of spacecraft carrying precision optical components on long duration missions.

  14. Unique Non-Keplerian Orbit Vantage Locations for Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision Roadmaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Young, Corissa; Ross, Adam

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the feasibility of attaining and maintaining unique non-Keplerian orbit vantage locations in the Earth/Moon environment in order to obtain continuous scientific measurements. The principal difficulty associated with obtaining continuous measurements is the temporal nature of astrodynamics, i.e., classical orbits. This investigation demonstrates advanced trajectory designs to meet demanding science requirements which cannot be met following traditional orbital mechanic logic. Examples of continuous observer missions addressed include Earth pole-sitters and unique vertical libration orbits that address Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision roadmaps.

  15. Near Earth asteroid orbit perturbation and fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Harris, Alan W.

    1992-01-01

    Collisions by near earth asteroids or the nuclei of comets pose varying levels of threat to man. A relatively small object, approximately 100 meter diameter, which might be found on an impact trajectory with a populated region of the Earth, could potentially be diverted from an Earth impacting trajectory by mass driver rocket systems. For larger bodies, such systems would appear to be beyond current technology. For any size object, nuclear explosions appear to be more efficient, using either the prompt blow-off from neutron radiation, the impulse from ejecta of near-surface explosion for deflection, or as a fragmenting charge. Practical deflections of bodies with diameters of 0.1, 1, and 10 km require interception, years to decades prior to earth encounter, with explosions a few kilotons, megatons, or gigatons, respectively, of equivalent TNT energy to achieve orbital velocity changes or destruction to a level where fragments are dispersed to harmless spatial densities.

  16. Earth Albedo and the orbit of LAGEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.; Weiss, N. R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-period perturbations in the orbit of the Lageos satellite due to the Earth's albedo have been found using a new analytical formalism. The Earth is assumed to be a sphere whose surface diffusely reflects sunlight according to Lambert's law. Specular reflection is not considered. The formalism is based on spherical harmonics; it produces equations which hold regardless of whether the terminator is seen by the satellite or not. Specializing to the case of a realistic zonal albedo shows that Lageos' orbital semimajor axis changes periodically by only the a few millimeters and the eccentricity by one part in 100,000. The longitude of the node increases secularly. The effect considered here can explain neither the secular decay of 1.1 mm/day in the semimajor axis nor the observed along-track variations in acceleration of order 2 x 10 to the minus 12 power/sq ms.

  17. Earth albedo and the orbit of Lageos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.; Weiss, N. S.

    1986-01-01

    The long-period perturbations in the orbit of the Lageos satellite due to the Earth's albedo have been found using a new analytical formalism. The Earth is assumed to be a sphere whose surface diffusely reflects sunlight according to Lambert's law. Specular reflection is not considered. The formalism is based on spherical harmonics; it produces equations which hold regardless of whether the terminator is seen by the satellite or not. Specializing to the case of a realistic zonal albedo shows that Lageos' orbital semimajor axis changes periodically by only a few millimeters and the eccentricity by one part in 100,000. The longitude of the node increases secularly. The effect considered here can explain neither the secular decay of 1.1 mm/day in the semimajor axis nor the observed along-track variations in acceleration of order 2 x 10 to the minus 12 power/sq ms.

  18. Extravehicular activity at geosynchronous earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William

    1988-01-01

    The basic contract to define the system requirements to support the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has three phases: EVA in geosynchronous Earth orbit; EVA in lunar base operations; and EVA in manned Mars surface exploration. The three key areas to be addressed in each phase are: environmental/biomedical requirements; crew and mission requirements; and hardware requirements. The structure of the technical tasks closely follows the structure of the Advanced EVA studies for the Space Station completed in 1986.

  19. Low-Earth orbit satellite servicing economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. F.; Cepollina, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Servicing economics of low Earth orbit satellites were studied. The following topics are examined: the economic importance of the repair missions; comparison of mission cost as opposed to satellite modulation transfer functions over a 10 year period; the effect of satellite flight rate change due to changes in satellite failure rate; estimated satellite cost reduction with shuttle operation projects from the 1960's to the 1970's; design objectives of the multimission modular spacecraft; and the economic importance of the repair mission.

  20. Cargo launch vehicles to low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    There are two primary space transportation capabilities required to support both base programs and expanded mission requirements: earth-to-orbit (ETO) transportation systems and space transfer vehicle systems. Existing and new ETO vehicles required to support mission requirements, and planned robotic missions, along with currently planned ETO vehicles are provided. Lunar outposts, Mars' outposts, base and expanded model, ETO vehicles, advanced avionics technologies, expert systems, network architecture and operations systems, and technology transfer are discussed.

  1. An Investigation of Low Earth Orbit Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph; Willis, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Internal charging is not generally considered a threat in low Earth orbit due to the relatively short exposure times and low flux of electrons with energies of a few MeV encountered in typical orbits. There are configurations, however, where insulators and ungrounded conductors used on the outside of a spacecraft hull may charge when exposed to much lower energy electrons of some 100's keV in a process that is better characterized as internal charging than surface charging. We investigate the conditions required for this internal charging process to occur in low Earth orbit using a one-dimensional charging model and evaluate the environments for which the process may be a threat to spacecraft.

  2. Earth Rings for Planetary Environment Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Oldson, John; Levin, Eugene; Carroll, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    For most of its past, large parts of the Earth have experienced subtropical climates, with high sea levels and no polar icecaps. This warmer environment was punctuated 570, 280, and 3 million years ago with periods of glaciation that covered temperate regions with thick ice for millions of years. At the end of the current ice age, a warmer climate could flood coastal cities, even without human-caused global warming. In addition, asteroids bombard the Earth periodically, with impacts large enough to destroy most life on Earth, and the sun is warming inexorably. This paper proposes a concept to solve these problems simultaneously, by creating an artificial planetary ring about the Earth to shade it. Past proposals for space climate control have depended on gigantic engineering structures launched from Earth and placed in Earth orbit or at the Earth-Sun L1 libration point, requiring fabrication, large launch masses and expense, constant control, and repair. Our solution is to begin by using lunar material, and then mine and remove Earth-orbit-crossing asteroids and discard the tailings into Earth orbit, to form a broad, flat ring like those of Saturn. This solution is evaluated and compared with other alternatives. Such ring systems can persist for thousands of years, and can be maintained by shepherding satellites or by continual replenishment from new asteroids to replace the edges of the ring lost by diffusion. An Earth ring at R = 1.3-1.83 RE would shade only the equatorial regions, moderating climate extremes, and could reverse a century of global warming. It could also absorb particles from the radiation belts, making trips to high Earth orbit and GEO safer for humans and for electronics. It would also light the night many times as bright as the full moon. A preliminary design of the ring is developed, including its location, mass, composition, stability, and timescale required. A one-dimensional climate model is used to evaluate the Earth ring performance

  3. Analysis of orbital perturbations acting on objects in orbits near geosynchronous earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friesen, Larry J.; Jackson, Albert A., IV; Zook, Herbert A.; Kessler, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical investigation of orbital evolution for objects started in GEO or in orbits near GEO in order to study potential orbital debris problems in this region. Perturbations simulated include nonspherical terms in the earth's geopotential field, lunar and solar gravity, and solar radiation pressure. Objects simulated include large satellites, for which solar radiation pressure is insignificant, and small particles, for which solar radiation pressure is an important force. Results for large satellites are largely in agreement with previous GEO studies that used classical perturbation techniques. The orbit plane of GEO satellites placed in a stable plane orbit inclined approximately 7.3 deg to the equator experience very little precession, remaining always within 1.2 percent of their initial orientation. Solar radiation pressure generates two major effects on small particles: an orbital eccentricity oscillation anticipated from previous research, and an oscillation in orbital inclination.

  4. Effects on the orbital debris environment due to solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Donald J.; Anz-Meador, Phillip D.

    1990-01-01

    The rate that earth-orbiting debris is removed from the environment is dependent on a number of factors which include orbital altitude and solar activity. It is generally believed that at lower altitudes and especially during periods of high solar activity, debris generated in the past will be eliminated from the environment. While some debris is eliminated, most is replaced by old debris from higher altitudes or new debris from recent launches. Some low altitude debris, which would reenter if the debris were in circular orbits, does not reenter because the debris is in higher-energy elliptical orbits.

  5. Earth-to-Orbit Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaurain, Andre; Souchier, Alain; Moravie, Michel; Sackheim, Robert L.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2003-01-01

    The Earth-to-orbit (ETO) phase of access to space is and always will be the first and most critical phase of all space missions. This first phase of all space missions has unique characteristics that have driven space launcher propulsion requirements for more than half a century. For example, the need to overcome the force of the Earth s gravity in combination with high levels of atmospheric drag to achieve the initial orbital velocity; i.e., Earth parking orbit or =9 km/s, will always require high thrust- to-weight (TN) propulsion systems. These are necessary with a T/W ratio greater than one during the ascent phase. The only type of propulsion system that can achieve these high T/W ratios are those that convert thermal energy to kinetic energy. There are only two basic sources of onboard thermal energy: chemical combustion-based systems or nuclear thermal-based systems (fission, fusion, or antimatter). The likelihood of advanced open-cycle, nuclear thermal propulsion being developed for flight readiness or becoming environmentally acceptable during the next century is extremely low. This realization establishes that chemical propulsion for ET0 launchers will be the technology of choice for at least the next century, just as it has been for the last half century of rocket flight into space. The world s space transportation propulsion requirements have evolved through several phases over the history of the space program, as has been necessitated by missions and systems development, technological capabilities available, and the growth and evolution of the utilization of space for economic, security, and science benefit. Current projections for the continuing evolution of requirements and concepts may show how future space transportation system needs could be addressed. The evolution and projections will be described in detail in this manuscript.

  6. Earth orbit navigation study. Volume 2: System evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An overall systems evaluation was made of five candidate navigation systems in support of earth orbit missions. The five systems were horizon sensor system, unkown landmark tracking system, ground transponder system, manned space flight network, and tracking and data relay satellite system. Two reference missions were chosen: a low earth orbit mission and a transfer trajectory mission from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. The specific areas addressed in the evaluation were performance, multifunction utilization, system mechanization, and cost.

  7. Human exposure in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F.

    1984-01-01

    Human exposure to trapped electrons and protons in low Earth orbit (LEO) is evaluated on a basis of a simple approximation of the human geometry for spherical shell shields of varying thickness. A data base is presented that may be used to make preliminary assessment of the impact of radiation exposure constraints on human performance. Detailed shielding studies should be performed before final design considerations. A sample impact assessment is discussed on the basis of presently accepted allowable exposure limits. A brief discussion is given on the anticipated impact of an ongoing reassessment of allowable exposure limits.

  8. Low Earth Orbit satellite traffic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelzel, John

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a significant tool for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) capacity analysis, needed to support marketing, economic, and design analysis, known as a Satellite Traffic Simulator (STS). LEO satellites typically use multiple beams to help achieve the desired communication capacity, but the traffic demand in these beams in usually not uniform. Simulations of dynamic, average, and peak expected demand per beam is a very critical part of the marketing, economic, and design analysis necessary to field a viable LEO system. An STS is described in this paper which can simulate voice, data and FAX traffic carried by LEO satellite beams and Earth Station Gateways. It is applicable world-wide for any LEO satellite constellations operating over any regions. For aeronautical applications to LEO satellites. the anticipates aeronautical traffic (Erlangs for each hour of the day to be simulated) is prepared for geographically defined 'area targets' (each major operational region for the respective aircraft), and used as input to the STS. The STS was designed by Constellations Communications Inc. (CCI) and E-Systems for usage in Brazil in accordance with an ESCA/INPE Statement Of Work, and developed by Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI) to execute on top of its Satellite Tool Kit (STK) commercial software. The STS simulates constellations of LEO satellite orbits, with input of traffic intensity (Erlangs) for each hour of the day generated from area targets (such as Brazilian States). accumulated in custom LEO satellite beams, and then accumulated in Earth Station Gateways. The STS is a very general simulator which can accommodate: many forms of orbital element and Walker Constellation input; simple beams or any user defined custom beams; and any location of Gateways. The paper describes some of these features, including Manual Mode dynamic graphical display of communication links, to illustrate which Gateway links are accessible and which links are not, at each 'step' of the

  9. Earth to Orbit Beamed Energy Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    As a means of primary propulsion, beamed energy propulsion offers the benefit of offloading much of the propulsion system mass from the vehicle, increasing its potential performance and freeing it from the constraints of the rocket equation. For interstellar missions, beamed energy propulsion is arguably the most viable in the near- to mid-term. A near-term demonstration showing the feasibility of beamed energy propulsion is necessary and, fortunately, feasible using existing technologies. Key enabling technologies are large area, low mass spacecraft and efficient and safe high power laser systems capable of long distance propagation. NASA is currently developing the spacecraft technology through the Near Earth Asteroid Scout solar sail mission and has signed agreements with the Planetary Society to study the feasibility of precursor laser propulsion experiments using their LightSail-2 solar sail spacecraft. The capabilities of Space Situational Awareness assets and the advanced analytical tools available for fine resolution orbit determination now make it possible to investigate the practicalities of an Earth-to-orbit Beamed Energy eXperiment (EBEX) - a demonstration at delivered power levels that only illuminate a spacecraft without causing damage to it. The degree to which this can be expected to produce a measurable change in the orbit of a low ballistic coefficient spacecraft is investigated. Key system characteristics and estimated performance are derived for a near term mission opportunity involving the LightSail-2 spacecraft and laser power levels modest in comparison to those proposed previously. While the technology demonstrated by such an experiment is not sufficient to enable an interstellar precursor mission, if approved, then it would be the next step toward that goal.

  10. Supportability for Beyond Low Earth Orbit Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crillo, William M.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Aaseng, Gordon; Stromgren, Chel; Maxwell, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) presents many unique challenges that will require changes from current Supportability approaches. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) is supported and maintained through a series of preplanned resupply flights, on which spare parts, including some large, heavy Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), are delivered to the ISS. The Space Shuttle system provided for a robust capability to return failed components to Earth for detailed examination and potential repair. Additionally, as components fail and spares are not already on-orbit, there is flexibility in the transportation system to deliver those required replacement parts to ISS on a near term basis. A similar concept of operation will not be feasible for beyond LEO exploration. The mass and volume constraints of the transportation system and long envisioned mission durations could make it difficult to manifest necessary spares. The supply of on-demand spare parts for missions beyond LEO will be very limited or even non-existent. In addition, the remote nature of the mission, the design of the spacecraft, and the limitations on crew capabilities will all make it more difficult to maintain the spacecraft. Alternate concepts of operation must be explored in which required spare parts, materials, and tools are made available to make repairs; the locations of the failures are accessible; and the information needed to conduct repairs is available to the crew. In this paper, ISS heritage information is presented along with a summary of the challenges of beyond LEO missions. A number of Supportability issues are discussed in relation to human exploration beyond LEO. In addition, the impacts of various Supportability strategies will be discussed. Any measure that can be incorporated to reduce risk and improve mission success should be evaluated to understand the advantages and disadvantages of implementing those measures. Finally, an effort to model and evaluate

  11. Three Super-Earths Orbiting HD 7924

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Lauren M.; Sinukoff, Evan; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Holden, Bradford P.; Kibrick, Robert I.

    2015-06-01

    We report the discovery of two super-Earth-mass planets orbiting the nearby K0.5 dwarf HD 7924, which was previously known to host one small planet. The new companions have masses of 7.9 and 6.4 {{M}\\oplus }, and orbital periods of 15.3 and 24.5 days. We perform a joint analysis of high-precision radial velocity data from Keck/HIRES and the new Automated Planet Finder Telescope (APF) to robustly detect three total planets in the system. We refine the ephemeris of the previously known planet using 5 yr of new Keck data and high-cadence observations over the last 1.3 yr with the APF. With this new ephemeris, we show that a previous transit search for the inner-most planet would have covered 70% of the predicted ingress or egress times. Photometric data collected over the last eight years using the Automated Photometric Telescope shows no evidence for transits of any of the planets, which would be detectable if the planets transit and their compositions are hydrogen-dominated. We detect a long-period signal that we interpret as the stellar magnetic activity cycle since it is strongly correlated with the Ca ii H and K activity index. We also detect two additional short-period signals that we attribute to rotationally modulated starspots and a one-month alias. The high-cadence APF data help to distinguish between the true orbital periods and aliases caused by the window function of the Keck data. The planets orbiting HD 7924 are a local example of the compact, multi-planet systems that the Kepler Mission found in great abundance. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time was granted for this project by the University of Hawai‘i, the University of California, and NASA.

  12. Taurus lightweight manned spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Kevin A.; Vandersall, Eric J.; Plotkin, Jennifer; Travisano, Jeffrey J.; Loveless, Dennis; Kaczmarek, Michael; White, Anthony G.; Est, Andy; Bulla, Gregory; Henry, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff data of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step towards larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the Space Shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster--1300 kg to a 300 km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The human factors system deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The propulsion section contains the abort system, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and power generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the structures section. The avionics section includes navigation, attitude determination, data processing, communication systems, and sensors. The mission analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The systems integration section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft and addressed costing and reliability.

  13. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosset, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  14. A low Earth orbit molecular beam space simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    A brief synopsis of the low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite environment is presented including neutral and ionic species. Two ground based atomic and molecular beam instruments are described which are capable of simulating the interaction of spacecraft surfaces with the LEO environment and detecting the results of these interactions. The first detects mass spectrometrically low level fluxes of reactively and nonreactively surface scattered species as a function of scattering angle and velocity while the second ultrahigh velocity (UHV) molecular beam, laser induced fluorescence apparatus is capable of measuring chemiluminescence produced by either gas phase or gas-surface interactions. A number of proposed experiments are described.

  15. Synthesis of amino acids in earth orbit: proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Kouchi, Akira; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Saito, Takeshi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    1999-01-01

    Organic compounds in comets are of interest since they could be the sources of the terrestrial biosphere. They are supposed to be formed in an interstellar dust (ISD) environment. We performed laboratory simulation of the formation of bioorganic compounds in ISD environments: Amino acid precursors were detected in the products after ice mixture of CO (or CH4, CH3OH), NH3 and H2O. The present results should be confirmed in actual space conditions, such as in an exposed facility of JEM. We are designing an apparatus of such exobiology experiments in earth orbit (EEEO). Basic designs proposed for EEEO, remaining problems, and expected outcome will be discussed.

  16. Plasma Flowfields Around Low Earth Orbit Objects: Aerodynamics to Underpin Orbit Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capon, Christopher; Boyce, Russell; Brown, Melrose

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between orbiting bodies and the charged space environment are complex. The large variation in passive body parameters e.g. size, geometry and materials, makes the plasma-body interaction in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a region rich in fundamental physical phenomena. The aerodynamic interaction of LEO orbiting bodies with the neutral environment constitutes the largest non-conservative force on the body. However in general, study of the LEO plasma-body interaction has not been concerned with external flow physics, but rather with the effects on surface charging. The impact of ionospheric flow physics on the forces on space debris (and active objects) is not well understood. The work presented here investigates the contribution that plasma-body interactions have on the flow structure and hence on the total atmospheric force vector experienced by a polar orbiting LEO body. This work applies a hybrid Particle-in-Cell (PIC) - Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code, pdFoam, to self-consistently model the electrostatic flowfield about a cylinder with a uniform, fixed surface potential. Flow conditions are representative of the mean conditions experienced by the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) based on the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-86). The electron distribution function is represented by a non-linear Boltzmann electron fluid and ion gas-surface interactions are assumed to be that of a neutralising, conducting, thermally accommodating solid wall with diffuse reflections. The variation in flowfield and aerodynamic properties with surface potential at a fixed flow condition is investigated, and insight into the relative contributions of charged and neutral species to the flow physics experienced by a LEO orbiting body is provided. This in turn is intended to help improve the fidelity of physics-based orbit predictions for space debris and other near-Earth space objects.

  17. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the technical results and conclusions is presented of the hazards analyses of earth orbital operations in conjunction with the space shuttle program. The space shuttle orbiter and a variety of manned and unmanned payloads delivered to orbit by the shuttle are considered. The specific safety areas examined are hazardous payloads, docking, on-orbit survivability, tumbling spacecraft, and escape and rescue.

  18. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  19. Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Andrew B.; Reasoner, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km.

  20. Large-payload earth-orbit transportation with electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    Economical unmanned earth orbit transportation for large payloads is evaluated. The high exhaust velocity achievable with electric propulsion is attractive because it minimizes the propellant that must be carried to low earth orbit. Propellant transport is a principal cost item. Electric propulsion subsystems utilizing advanced ion thrusters are compared to magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrust subsystems. For very large payloads, a large lift vehicle is needed to low earth orbit, and argon propellant is required for electric propulsion. Under these circumstances, the MPD thruster is shown to be desirable over the ion thruster for earth orbit transportation.

  1. Collisional cascading - The limits of population growth in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    Random collisions between made-made objects in earth orbit will lead to a significant source of orbital debris, but there are a number of uncertainties in these models, and additional analysis and data are required to fully characterize the future environment. However, the nature of these uncertainties are such that while the future environment is uncertain, the fact that collisions will control the future environment is less uncertain. The data that already exist is sufficient to show that cascading collisions will control the future debris environment with no, or very minor increases in the current low-earth-orbit population. Two populations control this process: explosion fragments and expended rocket bodies and payloads. Practices are already changing to limit explosions in low earth orbit; it is necessary to begin limiting the number of expended rocket bodies and payloads in orbit.

  2. Single Event Effects Testing For Low Earth Orbit Missions with Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon; O'Neill, Pat; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons can effectively be used to screen electronic parts intended to be used in Low Earth Orbit. This paper compares neutron with proton environments in spacecraft and discusses recent comparison testing.

  3. Material Density Distribution of Small Debris in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, P. H.; Xu, Y.-l.; Opiela, J. N.; Hill, N. M.; Matney, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Earth orbit. The near Earth environment is thus parameterized by debris density percentages within subsections of that environment. This model version is used in the upgraded NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM).

  4. Earth Orbiting Support Systems for commercial low Earth orbit data relay: Assessing architectures through tradespace exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Gianluca; Golkar, Alessandro; Gaudenzi, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    As small satellites and Sun Synchronous Earth Observation systems are assuming an increased role in nowadays space activities, including commercial investments, it is of interest to assess how infrastructures could be developed to support the development of such systems and other spacecraft that could benefit from having a data relay service in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), as opposed to traditional Geostationary relays. This paper presents a tradespace exploration study of the architecture of such LEO commercial satellite data relay systems, here defined as Earth Orbiting Support Systems (EOSS). The paper proposes a methodology to formulate architectural decisions for EOSS constellations, and enumerate the corresponding tradespace of feasible architectures. Evaluation metrics are proposed to measure benefits and costs of architectures; lastly, a multicriteria Pareto criterion is used to downselect optimal architectures for subsequent analysis. The methodology is applied to two case studies for a set of 30 and 100 customer-spacecraft respectively, representing potential markets for LEO services in Exploration, Earth Observation, Science, and CubeSats. Pareto analysis shows how increased performance of the constellation is always achieved by an increased node size, as measured by the gain of the communications antenna mounted on EOSS spacecraft. On the other hand, nonlinear trends in optimal orbital altitude, number of satellites per plane, and number of orbital planes, are found in both cases. An upward trend in individual node memory capacity is found, although never exceeding 256 Gbits of onboard memory for both cases that have been considered, assuming the availability of a polar ground station for EOSS data downlink. System architects can use the proposed methodology to identify optimal EOSS constellations for a given service pricing strategy and customer target, thus identifying alternatives for selection by decision makers.

  5. Extreme Spacecraft Charging in Polar Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Andrew D.; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergaardParker, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft in low altitude, high inclination (including sun-synchronous) orbits are widely used for remote sensing of the Earth's land surface and oceans, monitoring weather and climate, communications, scientific studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and a variety of other scientific, commercial, and military applications. These systems episodically charge to frame potentials in the kilovolt range when exposed to space weather environments characterized by a high flux of energetic (10 s kilovolt) electrons in regions of low background plasma density which is similar in some ways to the space weather conditions in geostationary orbit responsible for spacecraft charging to kilovolt levels. We first review the physics of space environment interactions with spacecraft materials that control auroral charging rates and the anticipated maximum potentials that should be observed on spacecraft surfaces during disturbed space weather conditions. We then describe how the theoretical values compare to the observational history of extreme charging in auroral environments. Finally, a set of extreme DMSP charging events are described varying in maximum negative frame potential from 0.6 kV to 2 kV, focusing on the characteristics of the charging events that are of importance both to the space system designer and to spacecraft operators. The goal of the presentation is to bridge the gap between scientific studies of auroral charging and the need for engineering teams to understand how space weather impacts both spacecraft design and operations for vehicles on orbital trajectories that traverse auroral charging environments.

  6. Extreme Spacecraft Charging in Polar Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Andrew D.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, L. Neergaard

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft in low altitude, high inclination (including sun -synchronous) orbits are widely used for remote sensing of the Earth fs land surface and oceans, monitoring weather and climate, communications, scientific studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and a variety of other scientific, commercial, and military applications. These systems episodically charge to frame potentials in the kilovolt range when exposed to space weather environments characterized by a high flux of energetic (approx.10 fs kilovolt) electrons in regions of low background plasma density. Auroral charging conditions are similar in some ways to the space weather conditions in geostationary orbit responsible for spacecraft charging to kilovolt levels. We first review the physics of space environment interactions with spacecraft materials that control auroral charging rates and the anticipated maximum potentials that should be observed on spacecraft surfaces during disturbed space weather conditions. We then describe how the theoretical values compare to the observational history of extreme charging in auroral environments. Finally, a set of extreme DMSP charging events are described varying in maximum negative frame potential from approx.0.6 kV to approx.2 kV, focusing on the characteristics of the charging events that are of importance both to the space system designer and to spacecraft operators. The goal of the presentation is to bridge the gap between scientific studies of auroral charging and the need for engineering teams to understand how space weather impacts both spacecraft design and operations for vehicles on orbital trajectories that traverse auroral charging environments.

  7. A facility to produce an energetic, ground state atomic oxygen beam for the simulation of the Low-Earth Orbit environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketsdever, Andrew D.; Weaver, David P.; Muntz, E. P.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the continuing commitment to activity in low-Earth orbit (LEO), a facility is under development to produce energetic atmospheric species, particularly atomic oxygen, with energies ranging from 5 to 80 eV. This relatively high flux facility incorporates an ion engine to produce the corresponding specie ion which is charge exchanged to produce a neutral atomic beam. Ion fluxes of around 10(exp 15) sec(exp -1) with energies of 20-70 eV have been achieved. A geometrically augmented inertially tethered charge exchanger (GAITCE) was designed to provide a large column depth of charge exchange gas while reducing the gas load to the low pressure portion of the atomic beam facility. This is accomplished using opposed containment jets which act as collisional barriers to the escape of the dense gas region formed between the jets. Leak rate gains to the pumping system on the order of 10 were achieved for moderate jet mass flows. This system provides an attractive means for the charge exchange of atomic ions with a variety of gases to produce energetic atomic beams.

  8. Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) 1.0: A General Circulation Model for Simulating the Climates of Rocky Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, M. J.; Aleinov, I.; Amundsen, David S.; Chandler, M. A.; Clune, T. L.; Del Genio, A.; Fujii, Y.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N. Y.; Sohl, L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) is a three-dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) developed at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies for the modeling of atmospheres of solar system and exoplanetary terrestrial planets. Its parent model, known as ModelE2, is used to simulate modern Earth and near-term paleo-Earth climates. ROCKE-3D is an ongoing effort to expand the capabilities of ModelE2 to handle a broader range of atmospheric conditions, including higher and lower atmospheric pressures, more diverse chemistries and compositions, larger and smaller planet radii and gravity, different rotation rates (from slower to more rapid than modern Earth's, including synchronous rotation), diverse ocean and land distributions and topographies, and potential basic biosphere functions. The first aim of ROCKE-3D is to model planetary atmospheres on terrestrial worlds within the solar system such as paleo-Earth, modern and paleo-Mars, paleo-Venus, and Saturn's moon Titan. By validating the model for a broad range of temperatures, pressures, and atmospheric constituents, we can then further expand its capabilities to those exoplanetary rocky worlds that have been discovered in the past, as well as those to be discovered in the future. We also discuss the current and near-future capabilities of ROCKE-3D as a community model for studying planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres.

  9. View of Mission Control during Apollo 9 earth orbital mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-03

    S69-26301 (March 1969) --- Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, Building 30, during the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. When this photograph was taken a live television transmission was being received from Apollo 9 as it orbited Earth.

  10. The orbital distribution of Near-Earth Objects inside Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstreet, Sarah; Ngo, Henry; Gladman, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Canada's Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat), set to launch in early 2012, will search for and track Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), tuning its search to best detect objects with a < 1.0 AU. In order to construct an optimal pointing strategy for NEOSSat, we needed more detailed information in the a < 1.0 AU region than the best current model (Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S. [2002]. Icarus 156, 399-433) provides. We present here the NEOSSat-1.0 NEO orbital distribution model with larger statistics that permit finer resolution and less uncertainty, especially in the a < 1.0 AU region. We find that Amors = 30.1 ± 0.8%, Apollos = 63.3 ± 0.4%, Atens = 5.0 ± 0.3%, Atiras (0.718 < Q < 0.983 AU) = 1.38 ± 0.04%, and Vatiras (0.307 < Q < 0.718 AU) = 0.22 ± 0.03% of the steady-state NEO population. Vatiras are a previously undiscussed NEO population clearly defined in our integrations, whose orbits lie completely interior to that of Venus. Our integrations also uncovered the unexpected production of retrograde orbits from main-belt asteroid sources; this retrograde NEA population makes up ≃0.1% of the steady-state NEO population. The relative NEO impact rate onto Mercury, Venus, and Earth, as well as the normalized distribution of impact speeds, was calculated from the NEOSSat-1.0 orbital model under the assumption of a steady-state. The new model predicts a slightly higher Mercury impact flux.

  11. Mission design for a halo orbiter of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, R. W.; Muhonen, D. P.; Richardson, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) scientific satellite to be stationed in 1978 in the vicinity of the sun-earth interior libration point to continuously monitor the space between the sun and the earth, including the distant geomagnetic tail is described. Orbit selection considerations for the ISEE-C are discussed along with stationkeeping requirements and fuel-optimal trajectories. Due to the alignment of the interior libration point with the sun as viewed from the earth, it will be necessary to place the satellite into a 'halo orbit' around the libration point, in order to eliminate solar interference with down-link telemetry. Parametric data for transfer trajectories between an earth parking orbit (altitude about 185 km) and a libration-point orbit are presented. It is shown that the insertion magnitude required for placing a satellite into an acceptable halo orbit is rather modest.

  12. Electric fields in Earth orbital space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, W. P.; Pfitzer, K. A.; Scotti, S. J.

    1982-05-01

    This is a report of progress during the past year. The work was performed in three areas with a long term goal understanding the formation and maintenance of electrostatic fields in the earth's magnetosphere. The entry of low energy charged particles into a magnetically closed magnetosphere has been examined in some detail. Entry is permitted because of the non-uniform nature of the magnetic field over the magnetopause surface. Electrostatic fields may be formed across the tail of the magnetosphere because fo the different 'entry efficiencies ' of protons and electrons. The consequences of this particle entry mechanism for the plasma sheet, plasma mantle, and boundary plasmas in the magnetosphere are examined. The mathematics of particle entry was investigated in a one-dimensional boundary using both kinetic theory and bulk MHD parameters. From our participation in the 6th Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop, we have determined that at least during disturbed magnetic conditions, currents persist near geosynchronous orbit in the nightime region which are presently not included in our dynamic magnetic field models. These currents are probably associated with the field aligned currents which close in the ionosphere near auroral latitudes.

  13. GPS World, Innovation: Autonomous Navigation at High Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, William; Winternitz, Luke; Hay, Curtis

    2005-01-01

    Calculating a spacecraft's precise location at high orbital altitudes-22,000 miles (35,800 km) and beyond-is an important and challenging problem. New and exciting opportunities become possible if satellites are able to autonomously determine their own orbits. First, the repetitive task of periodically collecting range measurements from terrestrial antennas to high altitude spacecraft becomes less important-this lessens competition for control facilities and saves money by reducing operational costs. Also, autonomous navigation at high orbital altitudes introduces the possibility of autonomous station keeping. For example, if a geostationary satellite begins to drift outside of its designated slot it can make orbit adjustments without requiring commands from the ground. Finally, precise onboard orbit determination opens the door to satellites flying in formation-an emerging concept for many scientific space applications. The realization of these benefits is not a trivial task. While the navigation signals broadcast by GPS satellites are well suited for orbit and attitude determination at lower altitudes, acquiring and using these signals at geostationary (GEO) and highly elliptical orbits is much more difficult. The light blue trace describes the GPS orbit at approximately 12,550 miles (20,200 km) altitude. GPS satellites were designed to provide navigation signals to terrestrial users-consequently the antenna array points directly toward the earth. GEO and HE0 orbits, however, are well above the operational GPS constellation, making signal reception at these altitudes more challenging. The nominal beamwidth of a Block II/IIA GPS satellite antenna array is approximately 42.6 degrees. At GEO and HE0 altitudes, most of these primary beam transmissions are blocked by the Earth, leaving only a narrow region of nominal signal visibility near opposing limbs of the earth. This region is highlighted in gray. If GPS receivers at GEO and HE0 orbits were designed to use these

  14. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  15. Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) 1.0: A General Circulation Model for Simulating the Climates of Rocky Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, M. J.; Aleinov, I.; Amundsen, David S.; Chandler, M. A.; Clune, T. L.; Del Genio, A. D.; Fujii, Y.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N. Y.; Sohl, L.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2017-07-01

    Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) is a three-dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) developed at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies for the modeling of atmospheres of solar system and exoplanetary terrestrial planets. Its parent model, known as ModelE2, is used to simulate modern Earth and near-term paleo-Earth climates. ROCKE-3D is an ongoing effort to expand the capabilities of ModelE2 to handle a broader range of atmospheric conditions, including higher and lower atmospheric pressures, more diverse chemistries and compositions, larger and smaller planet radii and gravity, different rotation rates (from slower to more rapid than modern Earth’s, including synchronous rotation), diverse ocean and land distributions and topographies, and potential basic biosphere functions. The first aim of ROCKE-3D is to model planetary atmospheres on terrestrial worlds within the solar system such as paleo-Earth, modern and paleo-Mars, paleo-Venus, and Saturn’s moon Titan. By validating the model for a broad range of temperatures, pressures, and atmospheric constituents, we can then further expand its capabilities to those exoplanetary rocky worlds that have been discovered in the past, as well as those to be discovered in the future. We also discuss the current and near-future capabilities of ROCKE-3D as a community model for studying planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres.

  16. Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) 1.0: A General Circulation Model for Simulating the Climates of Rocky Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Way, M. J.; Aleinov, I.; Amundsen, David S.

    Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) is a three-dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) developed at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies for the modeling of atmospheres of solar system and exoplanetary terrestrial planets. Its parent model, known as ModelE2, is used to simulate modern Earth and near-term paleo-Earth climates. ROCKE-3D is an ongoing effort to expand the capabilities of ModelE2 to handle a broader range of atmospheric conditions, including higher and lower atmospheric pressures, more diverse chemistries and compositions, larger and smaller planet radii and gravity, different rotation rates (from slower tomore » more rapid than modern Earth’s, including synchronous rotation), diverse ocean and land distributions and topographies, and potential basic biosphere functions. The first aim of ROCKE-3D is to model planetary atmospheres on terrestrial worlds within the solar system such as paleo-Earth, modern and paleo-Mars, paleo-Venus, and Saturn’s moon Titan. By validating the model for a broad range of temperatures, pressures, and atmospheric constituents, we can then further expand its capabilities to those exoplanetary rocky worlds that have been discovered in the past, as well as those to be discovered in the future. We also discuss the current and near-future capabilities of ROCKE-3D as a community model for studying planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres.« less

  17. Permanent Habitats in Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol Orbit Positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspon, J.

    Project Outpost is a manned Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol platform that enables permanent occupation in deep space. In order to develop the program elements for this complex mission, Project Outpost will rely primarily on existing/nearterm technology and hardware for the construction of its components. For the purposes of this study, four mission requirements are considered: 1. Outpost - Man's 1st purpose-produced effort of space engineering, in which astructure is developed/constructed in an environment completely alien to currentpractices for EVA guidelines. 2. Newton - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development ofa modified Hohmann personnel orbital transport operating between Earth andMars. Newton would serve as the primary crew delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization. 3. Cruis - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development of amodified Hohmann cargo orbital transport operating between Earth and Mars.Cruis would serve as the primary equipment delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization, and 4. Ares/Diana - a more conventional space platform configuration for Lunar andMars orbit is included as a construction baseline. The operations of these assetsare supported, and used for the support, of the outpost. Outpost would be constructed over a 27-year period of launch opportunities into Earth-Sol or Mars-Sol Lagrange orbit (E-S/M-S L1, 4 or 5). The outpost consists of an operations core with a self-contained power generation ability, a docking and maintenance structure, a Scientific Research complex and a Habitation Section. After achieving initial activation, the core will provide the support and energy required to operate the outpost in a 365

  18. An investigation of the use of cerium and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes for the protection of polymeric epoxy compounds in the low Earth orbit environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piness, Jessica Miriam

    Low Earth orbit presents many hazards for composites including atomic oxygen, UV radiation, thermal cycling, micrometeoroids, and high energy protons. Atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation are of concern for space-bound polymeric materials as they degrade the polymers used as matrices for carbon fiber composites, which are used in satellites and space vehicles due to their high strength to weight ratios. Epoxy-amine thermosets comprise a common class of matrix due to processability and good thermal attributes. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) have shown the ability to reduce erosion in polyimides, polyurethanes, and other polymers when exposed to atomic oxygen. The POSS particle is composed of a SiO1.5 cage from which up to eight organic pendant groups are attached at the silicon corners of the cage. POSS reduced atomic oxygen impact on polymers by a process known as glassification wherein the organic pendants are removed from the cage upon atomic oxygen exposure and then the cage rearranges to a passive silica network. In addition, POSS shows good UV absorbance in the UVb and UVc ranges and POSS can aid dispersion of titanium dioxide in a nanocomposite. In this work, Chapter I focuses on hazards in low Earth orbit, strategies for protecting organic material in orbit, and the capabilities of POSS. Chapter II details the experimental practices used in this work. Chapter III focuses on work to induce POSS phase separation and layering at the surface of an epoxy-amine thermoset. Generally, POSS is dispersed throughout a nanocomposite, and in the process of erosion by atomic oxygen, some polymer mass loss is lost before enough POSS is exposed to begin glassification. Locating POSS at a surface of composite could possibly reduce this mass loss and the objective of this research was to investigate the formation of POSS-rich surfaces. Three POSS derivatives with different pendant groups were chosen. The POSS derivatives had a range of miscibilities

  19. LLOFX earth orbit to lunar orbit delta V estimation program user and technical documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The LLOFX computer program calculates in-plane trajectories from an Earth-orbiting space station to Lunar orbit in such a way that the journey requires only two delta V burns (one to leave Earth circular orbit and one to circularize into Lunar orbit). The program requires the user to supply the Space Station altitude and Lunar orbit altitude (in km above the surface), and the desired time of flight for the transfer (in hours). It then determines and displays the trans-Lunar injection (TLI) delta V required to achieve the transfer, the Lunar orbit insertion (LOI) delta V required to circularize the orbit around the Moon, the actual time of flight, and whether the transfer orbit is elliptical or hyperbolic. Return information is also displayed. Finally, a plot of the transfer orbit is displayed.

  20. Degradation of Spacesuit Fabrics in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Baldwin, Sammantha M.; Folz, Angela D.; Waters, Deborah L.; McCue, Terry R.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Rogers, Kerry J.; Batman, Brittany; Bruce, John; hide

    2012-01-01

    Six samples of pristine and dust-abraded outer layer spacesuit fabrics were included in the Materials International Space Station Experiment-7, in which they were exposed to the wake-side low Earth orbit environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for 18 months in order to determine whether abrasion by lunar dust increases radiation degradation. The fabric samples were characterized using optical microscopy, optical spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and tensile testing before and after exposure on the ISS. Comparison of pre- and post-flight characterizations showed that the environment darkened and reddened all six fabrics, increasing their integrated solar absorptance by 7 to 38 percent. There was a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure of lunar dust abraded Apollo spacesuit fibers by a factor of four and an increase in the elastic modulus by a factor of two.

  1. Angles-only relative orbit determination in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardaens, Jean-Sébastien; Gaias, Gabriella

    2018-06-01

    The paper provides an overview of the angles-only relative orbit determination activities conducted to support the Autonomous Vision Approach Navigation and Target Identification (AVANTI) experiment. This in-orbit endeavor was carried out by the German Space Operations Center (DLR/GSOC) in autumn 2016 to demonstrate the capability to perform spaceborne autonomous close-proximity operations using solely line-of-sight measurements. The images collected onboard have been reprocessed by an independent on-ground facility for precise relative orbit determination, which served as ultimate instance to monitor the formation safety and to characterize the onboard navigation and control performances. During two months, several rendezvous have been executed, generating a valuable collection of images taken at distances ranging from 50 km to only 50 m. Despite challenging experimental conditions characterized by a poor visibility and strong orbit perturbations, angles-only relative positioning products could be continuously derived throughout the whole experiment timeline, promising accuracy at the meter level during the close approaches. The results presented in the paper are complemented with former angles-only experience gained with the PRISMA satellites to better highlight the specificities induced by different orbits and satellite designs.

  2. Space tourism: from earth orbit to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    Travel to and from the lunar surface has been known to be feasible since it was first achieved 34 years ago. Since that time there has been enormous progress in related engineering fields such as rocket propulsion, materials and avionics, and about 1 billion has been spent on lunar science and engineering research. Consequently there are no fundamental technical problems facing the development of lunar tourism - only business and investment problems. The outstanding problem is to reduce the cost of launch to low Earth orbit. Recently there has been major progress towards overturning the myth that launch costs are high because of physical limits. Several "X Prize" competitor vehicles currently in test-flight are expected to be able to perform sub-orbital flights at approximately 1/1,000 of the cost of Alan Shepard's similar flight in 1961. This activity could have started 30 years ago if space agencies had had economic rather than political objectives. A further encouraging factor is that the demand for space tourism seems potentially limitless. Starting with sub-orbital flights and growing through orbital activities, travel to the Moon will offer further unique attractions. In every human culture there is immense interest in the Moon arising from millennia of myths. In addition, bird-like flying sports, first described by Robert Heinlein, will become another powerful demand factor. Roundtrips of 1 to 2 weeks are very convenient for travel companies; and the radiation environment will permit visitors several days of surface activity without significant health risks. The paper also discusses economic aspects of lunar tourism, including the benefits it will have for those on Earth. Lunar economic development based on tourism will have much in common with economic development on Earth based on tourism: starting from the fact that many people spontaneously wish to visit popular places, companies in the tourism industry invest to sell a growing range of services to ever

  3. A Cryogenic Propellant Production Depot for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth D.; Henley, Mark; Guitierrez, Sonia; Fikes, John; Carrington, Connie; Smitherman, David; Gerry, Mark; Sutherlin, Steve; Beason, Phil; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit can be lowered if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The power requirements for a propellant depot that electrolyzes water and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen can be met using technology developed for space solar power. A propellant depot is described that will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit, receive tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth by gun launch or reusable launch vehicle, convert the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and store Lip to 500 metric tonnes of cryogenic propellants. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. The tanks are configured in an inline gravity-gradient configuration to minimize drag and settle the propellant. Temperatures can be maintained by body-mounted radiators; these will also provide some shielding against orbital debris. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotate once per orbit to track the Sun. In the longer term, cryogenic propellant production technology can be applied to a larger LEO depot, as well as to the use of lunar water resources at a similar depot elsewhere.

  4. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a DELTA V penalty. Usually, because of the DELTA V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (4) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO (5) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO.

  5. Earth's external magnetic fields at low orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Under our Jun. 1987 proposal, Magnetic Signatures of Near-Earth Distributed Currents, we proposed to render operational a modeling procedure that had been previously developed to compute the magnetic effects of distributed currents flowing in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. After adaptation of the software to our computing environment we would apply the model to low altitude satellite orbits and would utilize the MAGSAT data suite to guide the analysis. During the first year, basic computer codes to run model systems of Birkeland and ionospheric currents and several graphical output routines were made operational on a VAX 780 in our research facility. Software performance was evaluated using an input matchstick ionospheric current array, field aligned currents were calculated and magnetic perturbations along hypothetical satellite orbits were calculated. The basic operation of the model was verified. Software routines to analyze and display MAGSAT satellite data in terms of deviations with respect to the earth's internal field were also made operational during the first year effort. The complete set of MAGSAT data to be used for evaluation of the models was received at the end of the first year. A detailed annual report in May 1989 described these first year activities completely. That first annual report is included by reference in this final report. This document summarizes our additional activities during the second year of effort and describes the modeling software, its operation, and includes as an attachment the deliverable computer software specified under the contract.

  6. Pervasive orbital eccentricities dictate the habitability of extrasolar earths.

    PubMed

    Kita, Ryosuke; Rasio, Frederic; Takeda, Genya

    2010-09-01

    The long-term habitability of Earth-like planets requires low orbital eccentricities. A secular perturbation from a distant stellar companion is a very important mechanism in exciting planetary eccentricities, as many of the extrasolar planetary systems are associated with stellar companions. Although the orbital evolution of an Earth-like planet in a stellar binary system is well understood, the effect of a binary perturbation on a more realistic system containing additional gas-giant planets has been very little studied. Here, we provide analytic criteria confirmed by a large ensemble of numerical integrations that identify the initial orbital parameters leading to eccentric orbits. We show that an extrasolar earth is likely to experience a broad range of orbital evolution dictated by the location of a gas-giant planet, which necessitates more focused studies on the effect of eccentricity on the potential for life.

  7. MSR ESA Earth Return Orbiter Mission Design Trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Perez, J. M.; Varga, G. I.; Huesing, J.; Beyer, F.

    2018-04-01

    The paper describes the work performed at ESOC in support of the Mars Sample Return ESA Earth Return Orbiter definition studies by exploring the trajectory optimization and mission design trade spaces of Mars return missions using electric and chemical propulsion.

  8. Artist's concept of Skylab space station cluster in Earth's orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-10-01

    S71-52192 (1971) --- An artist's concept of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth's orbit. The cutaway view shows astronaut activity in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The Skylab cluster is composed of the OWS, Airlock Module (AM), Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), and the Command and Service Module (CSM). Photo credit: NASA

  9. Coding performance of the Probe-Orbiter-Earth communication link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.

    1993-01-01

    The coding performance of the Probe-Orbiter-Earth communication link is analyzed and compared for several cases. It is assumed that the coding system consists of a convolutional code at the Probe, a quantizer and another convolutional code at the Orbiter, and two cascaded Viterbi decoders or a combined decoder on the ground.

  10. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gateway: An earth orbiting transportation node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    University of Texas Mission Design (UTMD) has outlined the components that a space based transportation facility must include in order to support the first decade of Lunar base buildup. After studying anticipated traffic flow to and from the hub, and taking into account crew manhour considerations, propellant storage, orbital transfer vehicle maintenance requirements, and orbital mechanics, UTMD arrived at a design for the facility. The amount of activity directly related to supporting Lunar base traffic is too high to allow the transportation hub to be part of the NASA Space Station. Instead, a separate structure should be constructed and dedicated to handling all transportation-related duties. UTMD found that the structure (named Gateway) would need a permanent crew of four to perform maintenance tasks on the orbital transfer and orbital maneuvering vehicles and to transfer payload from launch vehicles to the orbital transfer vehicles. In addition, quarters for 4 more persons should be allocated for temporary accommodation of Lunar base crew passing through Gateway. UTMD was careful to recommend an expendable structure that can adapt to meet the growing needs of the American space program.

  12. Orbital and Landing Operations at Near-Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Orbital and landing operations about near-Earth asteroids are different than classical orbital operations about large bodies. The major differences lie with the small mass of the asteroid, the lower orbital velocities, the larger Solar tide and radiation pressure perturbations, the irregular shape of the asteroid and the potential for non-uniform rotation of the asteroid. These differences change the nature of orbits about an asteroid to where it is often common to find trajectories that evolve from stable, near-circular orbits to crashing or escaping orbits in a matter of days. The understanding and control of such orbits is important if a human or robotic presence at asteroids is to be commonplace in the future.

  13. Numerical orbit generators of artificial earth satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugar, H. K.; Dasilva, W. C. C.

    1984-04-01

    A numerical orbit integrator containing updatings and improvements relative to the previous ones that are being utilized by the Departmento de Mecanica Espacial e Controle (DMC), of INPE, besides incorporating newer modellings resulting from the skill acquired along the time is presented. Flexibility and modularity were taken into account in order to allow future extensions and modifications. Characteristics of numerical accuracy, processing quickness, memory saving as well as utilization aspects were also considered. User's handbook, whole program listing and qualitative analysis of accuracy, processing time and orbit perturbation effects were included as well.

  14. An Earth-mass planet orbiting α Centauri B.

    PubMed

    Dumusque, Xavier; Pepe, Francesco; Lovis, Christophe; Ségransan, Damien; Sahlmann, Johannes; Benz, Willy; Bouchy, François; Mayor, Michel; Queloz, Didier; Santos, Nuno; Udry, Stéphane

    2012-11-08

    Exoplanets down to the size of Earth have been found, but not in the habitable zone--that is, at a distance from the parent star at which water, if present, would be liquid. There are planets in the habitable zone of stars cooler than our Sun, but for reasons such as tidal locking and strong stellar activity, they are unlikely to harbour water-carbon life as we know it. The detection of a habitable Earth-mass planet orbiting a star similar to our Sun is extremely difficult, because such a signal is overwhelmed by stellar perturbations. Here we report the detection of an Earth-mass planet orbiting our neighbour star α Centauri B, a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun. The planet has an orbital period of 3.236 days and is about 0.04 astronomical units from the star (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance).

  15. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Frederick, P. N.; Malone, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    Empirical tests of range estimation accuracy and resolution, via television, under monoptic and steroptic viewing conditions are discussed. Test data are used to derive man machine interface requirements and make design decisions for an orbital remote manipulator system. Remote manipulator system visual tasks are given and the effects of system parameters of these tasks are evaluated.

  16. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is formed in the low Earth orbital environment (LEO) by photo dissociation of diatomic oxygen by short wavelength (< 243 nm) solar radiation which has sufficient energy to break the 5.12 eV O2 diatomic bond in an environment where the mean free path is sufficiently long ( 108 meters) that the probability of reassociation or the formation of ozone (O3) is small. As a consequence, between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km, atomic oxygen is the most abundant species. Spacecraft impact the atomic oxygen resident in LEO with sufficient energy to break hydrocarbon polymer bonds, causing oxidation and thinning of the polymers due to loss of volatile oxidation products. Mitigation techniques, such as the development of materials with improved durability to atomic oxygen attack, as well as atomic oxygen protective coatings, have been employed with varying degrees of success to improve durability of polymers in the LEO environment. Atomic oxygen can also oxidize silicones and silicone contamination to produce non-volatile silica deposits. Such contaminants are present on most LEO missions and can be a threat to performance of optical surfaces. The LEO atomic oxygen environment, its interactions with materials, results of space testing, computational modeling, mitigation techniques, and ground laboratory simulation procedures and issues are presented.

  17. Natural orbital environment definition guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. Jeffrey (Editor); Smith, Robert E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document provides definitions of the natural near-Earth space environment suitable for use in the initial development/design phase of any space vehicle. The natural environment includes the neutral atmosphere, plasma, charged particle radiation, electromagnetic radiation (EMR), meteoroids, orbital debris, magnetic field, physical and thermal constants, and gravitational field. Communications and other unmanned satellites operate in geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GEO); therefore, some data are given for GEO, but emphasis is on altitudes from 200 km to 1000 km (low-Earth orbit (LEO)). This document does not cover the induced environment of other effects resulting from presence of the space vehicle. Manmade factors are included as part of the ambient natural environment; i.e., orbital debris and radio frequency (RF) noise generated on Earth, because they are not caused by the presence of the space vehicle but form part of the ambient environment that the space vehicle experiences.

  18. Effects of Target Fragmentation on Evaluation of LET Spectra From Space Radiation in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Environment: Impact on SEU Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M.; Badavi, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    Recent improvements in the radiation transport code HZETRN/BRYNTRN and galactic cosmic ray environmental model have provided an opportunity to investigate the effects of target fragmentation on estimates of single event upset (SEU) rates for spacecraft memory devices. Since target fragments are mostly of very low energy, an SEU prediction model has been derived in terms of particle energy rather than linear energy transfer (LET) to account for nonlinear relationship between range and energy. Predictions are made for SEU rates observed on two Shuttle flights, each at low and high inclination orbit. Corrections due to track structure effects are made for both high energy ions with track structure larger than device sensitive volume and for low energy ions with dense track where charge recombination is important. Results indicate contributions from target fragments are relatively important at large shield depths (or any thick structure material) and at low inclination orbit. Consequently, a more consistent set of predictions for upset rates observed in these two flights is reached when compared to an earlier analysis with CREME model. It is also observed that the errors produced by assuming linear relationship in range and energy in the earlier analysis have fortuitously canceled out the errors for not considering target fragmentation and track structure effects.

  19. Need for expanded environmental measurement capabilities in geosynchronous Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercanti, Enrico P.

    1991-01-01

    The proliferation of environmental satellites in low altitude earth orbit (LEO) has demonstrated the usefulness of earth remote sensing from space. As use of the technology grows, the limitations of LEO missions become more apparent. Many inadequacies can be met by remote sensing from geosynchronous earth orbits (GEO) that can provide high temporal resolution, consistent viewing of specific earth targets, long sensing dwell times with varying sun angles, stereoscopic coverage, and correlative measurements with ground and LEO observations. An environmental platform in GEO is being studied by NASA. Small research satellite missions in GEO were studied (1990) at GSFC. Some recent independent assessments of NASA Earth Science Programs recommend accelerating the earlier deployment of smaller missions.

  20. 3D Orbit Visualization for Earth-Observing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Plesea, Lucian; Chafin, Brian G.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2011-01-01

    This software visualizes orbit paths for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), but was designed to be general and applicable to any Earth-observing mission. The software uses the Google Earth user interface to provide a visual mechanism to explore spacecraft orbit paths, ground footprint locations, and local cloud cover conditions. In addition, a drill-down capability allows for users to point and click on a particular observation frame to pop up ancillary information such as data product filenames and directory paths, latitude, longitude, time stamp, column-average dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide, and solar zenith angle. This software can be integrated with the ground data system for any Earth-observing mission to automatically generate daily orbit path data products in Google Earth KML format. These KML data products can be directly loaded into the Google Earth application for interactive 3D visualization of the orbit paths for each mission day. Each time the application runs, the daily orbit paths are encapsulated in a KML file for each mission day since the last time the application ran. Alternatively, the daily KML for a specified mission day may be generated. The application automatically extracts the spacecraft position and ground footprint geometry as a function of time from a daily Level 1B data product created and archived by the mission s ground data system software. In addition, ancillary data, such as the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide and solar zenith angle, are automatically extracted from a Level 2 mission data product. Zoom, pan, and rotate capability are provided through the standard Google Earth interface. Cloud cover is indicated with an image layer from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Aqua satellite, which is automatically retrieved from JPL s OnEarth Web service.

  1. Magnus Effect on a Spinning Satellite in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramjatan, Sahadeo; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Yew, Alvin Garwai

    2016-01-01

    A spinning body in a flow field generates an aerodynamic lift or Magnus effect that displaces the body in a direction normal to the freestream flow. Earth orbiting satellites with substantial body rotation in appreciable atmospheric densities may generate a Magnus force to perturb orbital dynamics. We investigate the feasibility of using this effect for spacecraft at a perigee of 80km using the Systems Tool Kit (STK). Results show that for a satellite of reasonable properties, the Magnus effect doubles the amount of time in orbit. Orbital decay was greatly mitigated for satellites spinning at 10000 and 15000RPM. This study demonstrates that the Magnus effect has the potential to sustain a spacecraft's orbit at a low perigee altitude and could also serve as an orbital maneuver capability.

  2. Simulation of interference between Earth stations and Earth-orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    It is often desirable to determine the potential for radio frequency interference between earth stations and orbiting spacecraft. This information can be used to select frequencies for radio systems to avoid interference or it can be used to determine if coordination between radio systems is necessary. A model is developed that will determine the statistics of interference between earth stations and elliptical orbiting spacecraft. The model uses orbital dynamics, detailed antenna patterns, and spectral characteristics to obtain accurate levels of interference at the victim receiver. The model is programmed into a computer simulation to obtain long-term statistics of interference. Two specific examples are shown to demonstrate the model. The first example is a simulation of interference from a fixed-satellite earth station to an orbiting scatterometer receiver. The second example is a simulation of interference from earth-exploration satellites to a deep-space earth station.

  3. Regional positioning using a low Earth orbit satellite constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtark, Tomer; Gurfil, Pini

    2018-02-01

    Global and regional satellite navigation systems are constellations orbiting the Earth and transmitting radio signals for determining position and velocity of users around the globe. The state-of-the-art navigation satellite systems are located in medium Earth orbits and geosynchronous Earth orbits and are characterized by high launching, building and maintenance costs. For applications that require only regional coverage, the continuous and global coverage that existing systems provide may be unnecessary. Thus, a nano-satellites-based regional navigation satellite system in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), with significantly reduced launching, building and maintenance costs, can be considered. Thus, this paper is aimed at developing a LEO constellation optimization and design method, using genetic algorithms and gradient-based optimization. The preliminary results of this study include 268 LEO constellations, aimed at regional navigation in an approximately 1000 km × 1000 km area centered at the geographic coordinates [30, 30] degrees. The constellations performance is examined using simulations, and the figures of merit include total coverage time, revisit time, and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) percentiles. The GDOP is a quantity that determines the positioning solution accuracy and solely depends on the spatial geometry of the satellites. Whereas the optimization method takes into account only the Earth's second zonal harmonic coefficient, the simulations include the Earth's gravitational field with zonal and tesseral harmonics up to degree 10 and order 10, Solar radiation pressure, drag, and the lunisolar gravitational perturbation.

  4. An Investigation of Low Earth Orbit Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NeergaardParker, Linda; Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    Low Earth orbit is usually considered a relatively benign environment for internal charging threats due to the low flux of penetrating electrons with energies of a few MeV that are encountered over an orbit. There are configurations, however, where insulators and ungrounded conductors used on the outside of a spacecraft hull may charge when exposed to much lower energy electrons of some 100's keV in a process that is better characterized as internal charging than surface charging. For example, the minimal radiation shielding afforded by thin thermal control materials such as metalized polymer sheets (e.g., aluminized Kapton or Mylar) and multilayer insulation may allow electrons of 100's of keV to charge underlying materials. Yet these same thermal control materials protect the underlying insulators and ungrounded conductors from surface charging currents due to electrons and ions at energies less than a few keV as well as suppress the photoemission, secondary electron, and backscattered electron processes associated with surface charging. We investigate the conditions required for this low Earth orbit "internal charging" to occur and evaluate the environments for which the process may be a threat to spacecraft. First, we describe a simple one-dimensional internal charging model that is used to compute the charge accumulation on materials under thin shielding. Only the electron flux that penetrates exposed surface shielding material is considered and we treat the charge balance in underlying insulation as a parallel plate capacitor accumulating charge from the penetrating electron flux and losing charge due to conduction to a ground plane. Charge dissipation due to conduction can be neglected to consider the effects of charging an ungrounded conductor. In both cases, the potential and electric field is computed as a function of time. An additional charge loss process is introduced due to an electrostatic discharge current when the electric field reaches a

  5. Relativity mission with two counter-orbiting polar satellites. [nodal dragging effect on earth orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Patten, R. A.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1975-01-01

    In 1918, J. Lense and H. Thirring calculated that a moon in orbit around a massive rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. We describe an experiment to measure this effect with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar earth orbit. For a 2 1/2 year experiment, the measurement accuracy should approach 1%. In addition to precision tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler ranging data are taken at points of passing near the poles. New geophysical information on both earth harmonics and tidal effects is inherent in the polar ranging data.

  6. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, formed in Earth s thermosphere, interacts readily with many materials on spacecraft flying in low Earth orbit (LEO). All hydrocarbon based polymers and graphite are easily oxidized upon the impact of approx.4.5 eV atomic oxygen as the spacecraft ram into the residual atmosphere. The resulting interactions can change the morphology and reduce the thickness of these materials. Directed atomic oxygen erosion will result in the development of textured surfaces on all materials with volatile oxidation products. Examples from space flight samples are provided. As a result of the erosive properties of atomic oxygen on polymers and composites, protective coatings have been developed and are used to increase the functional life of polymer films and composites that are exposed to the LEO environment. The atomic oxygen erosion yields for actual and predicted LEO exposure of numerous materials are presented. Results of in-space exposure of vacuum deposited aluminum protective coatings on polyimide Kapton indicate high rates of degradation are associated with aluminum coatings on both surfaces of the Kapton. Computational modeling predictions indicate that less trapping of the atomic oxygen occurs, with less resulting damage, if only the space-exposed surface is coated with vapor deposited aluminum rather than having both surfaces coated.

  7. Active Debris Removal mission design in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Th.; Pérot, E.; Desjean, M.-Ch.; Bitetti, L.

    2013-03-01

    Active Debris Removal (ADR) aims at removing large sized intact objects ― defunct satellites, rocket upper-stages ― from space crowded regions. Why? Because they constitute the main source of the long-term debris environment deterioration caused by possible future collisions with fragments and worse still with other intact but uncontrolled objects. In order to limit the growth of the orbital debris population in the future (referred to as the Kessler syndrome), it is now highly recommended to carry out such ADR missions, together with the mitigation measures already adopted by national agencies (such as postmission disposal). At the French Space Agency, CNES, and in the frame of advanced studies, the design of such an ADR mission in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is under evaluation. A two-step preliminary approach has been envisaged. First, a reconnaissance mission based on a small demonstrator (˜500 kg) rendezvousing with several targets (observation and in-flight qualification testing). Secondly, an ADR mission based on a larger vehicle (inherited from the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept) being able to capture and deorbit several preselected targets by attaching a propulsive kit to these targets. This paper presents a flight dynamics level tradeoff analysis between different vehicle and mission concepts as well as target disposal options. The delta-velocity, times, and masses required to transfer, rendezvous with targets and deorbit are assessed for some propelled systems and propellant less options. Total mass budgets are then derived for two end-to-end study cases corresponding to the reconnaissance and ADR missions mentioned above.

  8. Human Exploration Missions Study Launch Window from Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    2001-01-01

    The determination of orbital launch window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a Delta(V) penalty. Usually, because of the Delta(V) penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (3) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (4) One impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO), (5) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric

  9. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to the earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a delta V penalty. Usually, because of the delta V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: 1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO); 4) Two impulsive maneuvers form LEO; and 5) Three impulsive maneuvers form LEO. The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric data

  10. Autonomous Navigation Improvements for High-Earth Orbiters Using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Anne; Kelbel, David; Lee, Taesul; Garrison, James; Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center is currently developing autonomous navigation systems for satellites in high-Earth orbits where acquisition of the GPS signals is severely limited This paper discusses autonomous navigation improvements for high-Earth orbiters and assesses projected navigation performance for these satellites using Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Positioning Service (SPS) measurements. Navigation performance is evaluated as a function of signal acquisition threshold, measurement errors, and dynamic modeling errors using realistic GPS signal strength and user antenna models. These analyses indicate that an autonomous navigation position accuracy of better than 30 meters root-mean-square (RMS) can be achieved for high-Earth orbiting satellites using a GPS receiver with a very stable oscillator. This accuracy improves to better than 15 meters RMS if the GPS receiver's signal acquisition threshold can be reduced by 5 dB-Hertz to track weaker signals.

  11. Orbital Debris and Future Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the historical and current orbital debris environment. Included is information about: Projected growth of the future debris population, The need for active debris removal (ADR), A grand challenge for the 21st century and The forward path

  12. Controllability of Large SEP for Earth Orbit Raising

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) simulation was constructed and exercised for a large solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle operating in low Earth orbit Nominal power was 500 kWe, with the large array sizes implied. Controllability issues, including gravity gradient, roll maneuvering for Sun tracking, and flexible arrays, and flight control methods, were investigated. Initial findings are that a SEP vehicle of this size is controllable and could be used for orbit raising of heavy payloads.

  13. On the lunar node resonance of the orbital plane evolution of the Earth's satellite orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effects of lunar node resonance on the circular medium Earth orbits (MEO). The dynamical model is established in classical Hamiltonian systems with the application of Lie transform to remove the non-resonant terms. Resonant condition, stability and phase structures are studied. The lunar node resonance occurs when the secular changing rates of the orbital node (with respect to the equator) and the lunar node (with respect to the ecliptic) form a simple integer ratio. The resonant conditions are satisfied for both inclined and equatorial orbits. The orbital plane would have long period (with typical timescales of several centuries) fluctuation due to the resonance.

  14. FROM ORDER TO CHAOS IN EARTH SATELLITE ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Gkolias, Ioannis; Gachet, Fabien; Daquin, Jérôme

    We consider Earth satellite orbits in the range of semimajor axes where the perturbing effects of Earth’s oblateness and lunisolar gravity are of comparable order. This range covers the medium-Earth orbits (MEO) of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems and the geosynchronous orbits (GEO) of the communication satellites. We recall a secular and quadrupolar model, based on the Milankovitch vector formulation of perturbation theory, which governs the long-term orbital evolution subject to the predominant gravitational interactions. We study the global dynamics of this two-and-a-half degrees-of-freedom Hamiltonian system by means of the fast Lyapunov indicator (FLI), used in a statistical sense. Specifically,more » we characterize the degree of chaoticity of the action space using angle-averaged normalized FLI maps, thereby overcoming the angle dependencies of the conventional stability maps. Emphasis is placed upon the phase-space structures near secular resonances, which are of primary importance to the space debris community. We confirm and quantify the transition from order to chaos in MEO, stemming from the critical inclinations and find that highly inclined GEO orbits are particularly unstable. Despite their reputed normality, Earth satellite orbits can possess an extraordinarily rich spectrum of dynamical behaviors and, from a mathematical perspective, have all the complications that make them very interesting candidates for testing the modern tools of chaos theory.« less

  15. NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE IN HIGH EARTH ORBITS USING NAVIGATOR GPS RECEIVER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, William; Naasz, Bo; Moreau, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    NASA GSFC has developed a GPS receiver that can acquire and track GPS signals with sensitivity significantly lower than conventional GPS receivers. This opens up the possibility of using GPS based navigation for missions in high altitude orbit, such as Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) in a geostationary orbit, and the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission, in highly eccentric orbits extending to 12 Earth radii and higher. Indeed much research has been performed to study the feasibility of using GPS navigation in high Earth orbits and the performance achievable. Recently, GSFC has conducted a series of hardware in-the-loop tests to assess the performance of this new GPS receiver in various high Earth orbits of interest. Tracking GPS signals to down to approximately 22-25 dB-Hz, including signals from the GPS transmitter side-lobes, steady-state navigation performance in a geostationary orbit is on the order of 10 meters. This paper presents the results of these tests, as well as sensitivity analysis to such factors as ionosphere masks, use of GPS side-lobe signals, and GPS receiver sensitivity.

  16. From Order to Chaos in Earth Satellite Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkolias, Ioannis; Daquin, Jérôme; Gachet, Fabien; Rosengren, Aaron J.

    2016-11-01

    We consider Earth satellite orbits in the range of semimajor axes where the perturbing effects of Earth’s oblateness and lunisolar gravity are of comparable order. This range covers the medium-Earth orbits (MEO) of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems and the geosynchronous orbits (GEO) of the communication satellites. We recall a secular and quadrupolar model, based on the Milankovitch vector formulation of perturbation theory, which governs the long-term orbital evolution subject to the predominant gravitational interactions. We study the global dynamics of this two-and-a-half degrees-of-freedom Hamiltonian system by means of the fast Lyapunov indicator (FLI), used in a statistical sense. Specifically, we characterize the degree of chaoticity of the action space using angle-averaged normalized FLI maps, thereby overcoming the angle dependencies of the conventional stability maps. Emphasis is placed upon the phase-space structures near secular resonances, which are of primary importance to the space debris community. We confirm and quantify the transition from order to chaos in MEO, stemming from the critical inclinations and find that highly inclined GEO orbits are particularly unstable. Despite their reputed normality, Earth satellite orbits can possess an extraordinarily rich spectrum of dynamical behaviors and, from a mathematical perspective, have all the complications that make them very interesting candidates for testing the modern tools of chaos theory.

  17. Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

  18. Radio interference in the near-earth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.

    1988-01-01

    Natural and man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) are potentially serious obstacles to the successful operation of an array of spacecraft used for low frequency (1 to 30 MHz) radio interferometry in the near-earth environment. Several satellites and planetary probes have carried radio astronomy experiments, and the moderate data base that they provide are examined to help understand the near-earth RFI environment. The general conclusion is that the region of space within 100 earth-radii of the earth is a hostile environment for any radio astronomy experiment. If a low frequency array in earth orbit is to yield useful astronomical results, severe interference problems must be anticipated and overcome. A number of recommendations are made to further examine the feasibility of such an array.

  19. New method for estimating low-earth-orbit collision probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1991-01-01

    An unconventional but general method is described for estimating the probability of collision between an earth-orbiting spacecraft and orbital debris. This method uses a Monte Caralo simulation of the orbital motion of the target spacecraft and each discrete debris object to generate an empirical set of distances, each distance representing the separation between the spacecraft and the nearest debris object at random times. Using concepts from the asymptotic theory of extreme order statistics, an analytical density function is fitted to this set of minimum distances. From this function, it is possible to generate realistic collision estimates for the spacecraft.

  20. Orbital Noise in the Earth System and Climate Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Frequency noise in the variations of the Earth's obliquity (tilt) can modulate the insolation signal for climate change. Including this frequency noise effect on the incoming solar radiation, we have applied an energy balance climate model to calculate the climate fluctuations for the past one million years. Model simulation results are in good agreement with the geologically observed paleoclimate data. We conclude that orbital noise in the Earth system may be the major cause of the climate fluctuation cycles.

  1. Electric Propulsion for Low Earth Orbit Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    1997-01-01

    Electric propulsion was evaluated for orbit insertion, satellite positioning and de-orbit applications on big (hundreds of kilograms) and little (tens of kilograms) low earth orbit communication satellite constellations. A simple, constant circumferential thrusting method was used. This technique eliminates the complex guidance and control required when shading of the solar arrays must be considered. Power for propulsion was assumed to come from the existing payload power. Since the low masses of these satellites enable multiple spacecraft per launch, the ability to add spacecraft to a given launch was used as a figure of merit. When compared to chemical propulsion ammonia resistojets, ion, Hall, and pulsed plasma thrusters allowed an additional spacecraft per launch Typical orbit insertion and de-orbit times were found to range from a few days to a few months.

  2. Multi-sun-synchronous (MSS) orbits for earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulivieri, Carlo; Anselmo, Luciano

    1992-08-01

    A case study is outlined for a remote-sensing mission at low and middle latitudes based on multi-sun-synchronous (MSS) orbits. The scenario involves the use of small payloads in low-earth posigrade orbits that would overfly the Mediterranean region. A 600-kg spacecraft is considered in an orbit that is 571 km in altitude and at an inclination of 42.5 deg. The orbit is analyzed in terms of mission characteristics, and two years of operation is shown to be feasible with a fuel-consumption rate of less than three kg/yr of hydrazine. The mission could be based on the use of a Scout solid-propellant rockets into an MSS orbit, and only a limited number of ground stations are required for good data collection. A remote-sensing mission at low/middle latitudes is shown to be efficient in terms of both revisit frequency, fuel consumption, and data acquisition.

  3. Solar heavy ion Heinrich fluence spectrum at low earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Croley, D R; Spitale, G C

    1998-01-01

    Solar heavy ions from the JPL Solar Heavy Ion Model have been transported into low earth orbit using the Schulz cutoff criterion for L-shell access by ions of a specific charge to mass ratio. The NASA Brouwer orbit generator was used to get L values along the orbit at 60 second time intervals. Heavy ion fluences of ions 2 < or = Z < or = 92 have been determined for the LET range 1 to 130 MeV-cm2/mg by 60, 120 or 250 mils of aluminum over a period of 24 hours in a 425 km circular orbit inclined 51 degrees. The ion fluence is time dependent in the sense that the position of the spacecraft in the orbit at the flare onset time fixes the relationship between particle flux and spacecraft passage through high L-values where particles have access to the spacecraft.

  4. Effective Coulomb force modeling for spacecraft in Earth orbit plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seubert, Carl R.; Stiles, Laura A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2014-07-01

    Coulomb formation flight is a concept that utilizes electrostatic forces to control the separations of close proximity spacecraft. The Coulomb force between charged bodies is a product of their size, separation, potential and interaction with the local plasma environment. A fast and accurate analytic method of capturing the interaction of a charged body in a plasma is shown. The Debye-Hückel analytic model of the electrostatic field about a charged sphere in a plasma is expanded to analytically compute the forces. This model is fitted to numerical simulations with representative geosynchronous and low Earth orbit (GEO and LEO) plasma environments using an effective Debye length. This effective Debye length, which more accurately captures the charge partial shielding, can be up to 7 times larger at GEO, and as great as 100 times larger at LEO. The force between a sphere and point charge is accurately captured with the effective Debye length, as opposed to the electron Debye length solutions that have errors exceeding 50%. One notable finding is that the effective Debye lengths in LEO plasmas about a charged body are increased from centimeters to meters. This is a promising outcome, as the reduced shielding at increased potentials provides sufficient force levels for operating the electrostatically inflated membrane structures concept at these dense plasma altitudes.

  5. Long-Duration Human Habitation Beyond Low-Earth Orbit: Why is the Near Future Critical?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel; Hatfield, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a decade, habitation systems capable of comfortable human occupation and effective operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) for more than a few weeks have been a priority recommendation to NASA. This capability is a lynch pin for human exploration beyond the Earth-Moon system. Here we describe briefly some relevant concepts and discuss justifications in the current political and financial environment for why near-term human habitation systems beyond LEO is an imperative.

  6. A Survey Of Earth-Moon Libration Orbits: Stationkeeping Strategies And Intra-Orbit Transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Vaughn, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Cislunar space is a readily accessible region that may well develop into a prime staging area in the effort to colonize space near Earth or to colonize the Moon. While there have been statements made by various NASA programs regarding placement of resources in orbit about the Earth-Moon Lagrangian locations, there is no survey of the total cost associated with attaining and maintaining these unique orbits in an operational fashion. Transfer trajectories between these orbits required for assembly, servicing, and positioning of these resources have not been extensively investigated. These orbits are dynamically similar to those used for the Sun-Earth missions, but differences in governing gravitational ratios and perturbation sources result in unique characteristics. We implement numerical computations using high fidelity models and linear and nonlinear targeting techniques to compute the various maneuver (Delta)V and temporal costs associated with orbits about each of the Earth-Moon Lagrangian locations (L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5). From a dynamical system standpoint, we speak to the nature of these orbits and their stability. We address the cost of transfers between each pair of Lagrangian locations.

  7. Design of an unmanned, reusable vehicle to de-orbit debris in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aziz, Shahed; Cunningham, Timothy W.; Moore-Mccassey, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    The space debris problem is becoming more important because as orbital missions increase, the amount of debris increases. It was the design team's objective to present alternative designs and a problem solution for a deorbiting vehicle that will alleviate the problem by reducing the amount of large debris in earth orbit. The design team was asked to design a reusable, unmanned vehicle to de-orbit debris in earth orbit. The design team will also construct a model to demonstrate the system configuration and key operating features. The alternative designs for the unmanned, reusable vehicle were developed in three stages: selection of project requirements and success criteria, formulation of a specification list, and the creation of alternatives that would satisfy the standards set forth by the design team and their sponsor. The design team selected a Chain and Bar Shot method for deorbiting debris in earth orbit. The De-orbiting Vehicle (DOV) uses the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) as the propulsion and command modules with the deorbiting module attached to the front.

  8. Future radiation measurements in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The first Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission has demonstrated the value of the LDEF concept for deep surveys of the space radiation environment. The kinds of measurements that could be done on a second LDEF mission are discussed. Ideas are discussed for experiments which: (1) capitalize on the discoveries from LDEF 1; (2) take advantage of LDEF's unique capabilities; and (3) extend the investigations begun on LDEF 1. These ideas have been gleaned from investigators on LDEF 1 and others interested in the space radiation environment. They include new approaches to the investigation of Be-7 that was discovered on LDEF 1, concepts to obtain further information on the ionic charge state of cosmic rays and other energetic particles in space and other ideas to extend the investigations begun on LDEF 1.

  9. The Orbital Evolution of Near-Earth Asteroid 3753

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, Paul A.; Innanen, Kimmo A.; Mikkola, Seppo

    1998-06-01

    Asteroid 3753 (1986 TO) is in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Earth, on a complex horseshoe-type orbit. Numerical experiments are performed to determine its medium-term stability and the means by which it may have entered its current orbit. Though 3753 moves primarily under the influence of the Sun and Earth, the giant planets (and Jupiter especially) play an important role by influencing, through torque-induced precession, the position of the asteroid's nodes. Variations in the nodal distance strongly affect the interaction of 3753 with Earth and may change or destroy the horseshoe-like behavior currently seen. This precession of the nodes provides a mechanism for placing minor planets into, or removing them from, a variety of horseshoe-type orbits. The chaotic nature of this asteroid's orbit makes predictions difficult on timescales longer than its Lyapunov time (~150 yr); therefore, ensembles of particles on orbits near that of 3753 are considered. The asteroid has a high probability of passing close to Venus and/or Mars on 10^4 yr timescales, pointing to a dynamical age much shorter than that of the solar system.

  10. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn and his wife Annie listen to speakers during a reception at Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn and his wife Annie take the stage during a celebration dinner at The Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn and NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver pose for a photograph during a celebration dinner at Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn talks on stage during a celebration dinner at The Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Ohio State University student Joanna Fedeli interviews Sen. John Glenn and his wife Annie during a celebration dinner at Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn and his wife Annie talk during a celebration dinner at The Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn's wife Annie listens to an interviewers question during a celebration dinner at The Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn, left, and Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong are seen prior to the start of a dinner at Ohio State University that honored the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong speaks during a celebration dinner at Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn's wife Annie, right, and NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver pose for a photograph during a celebration dinner at Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Autonomous Mars ascent and orbit rendezvous for earth return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, H. C.; Balmanno, W. F.; Cruz, Manuel I.; Ilgen, Marc R.

    1991-01-01

    The details of tha assessment of autonomous Mars ascent and orbit rendezvous for earth return missions are presented. Analyses addressing navigation system assessments, trajectory planning, targeting approaches, flight control guidance strategies, and performance sensitivities are included. Tradeoffs in the analysis and design process are discussed.

  1. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn poses for a portrait shortly after doing live television interviews from the Ohio State University Union building on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Today marks the 50th anniversary of his historic flight. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. The orbiter PLB and Earth limb during STS-121

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-15

    S121-E-07909 (15 July 2006) --- Backdropped by the blackness of space and Earth's horizon, Space Shuttle Discovery's aft cargo bay, its vertical stabilizer and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are seen in this image photographed by an STS-121 crewmember onboard the shuttle. The Italian-built Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) is visible in the cargo bay.

  3. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn, left, and NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speak to guest at NASA's Future Forum at Ohio State University on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Today marks the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn, left, and NASA Administrator Charles Bolden address questions from the press during a briefing at Ohio State University on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Today marks the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Trojan Asteroid Shares Orbit with Earth Artist Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-27

    This artist concept illustrates the first known Earth Trojan asteroid, discovered by NEOWISE, the asteroid-hunting portion of NASA WISE mission. The asteroid is shown in gray and its extreme orbit is shown in green. Objects are not drawn to scale.

  6. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden answers a question from the press during a briefing at Ohio State University on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Today marks the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn address questions from the press during a briefing at Ohio State University on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Today marks the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn speaks to guest at NASA's Future Forum at Ohio State University on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Today marks the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, seated right, and Sen. John Glenn address questions from the press during a briefing at Ohio State University as John Glenn's wife Annie Glenn, seated in red, looks on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Today marks the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. The orbiter PLB and Earth limb during STS-121

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-15

    S121-E-07904 (15 July 2006) --- Backdropped by the blackness of space and Earth's horizon, Space Shuttle Discovery's aft cargo bay, its vertical stabilizer and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are seen in this image photographed by an STS-121 crewmember onboard the shuttle. The Italian-built Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) is visible in the cargo bay.

  11. From Earth to orbit. [assessment of transportation options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Blond, Edmund; Brill, Yvonne C.; Budiansky, Bernard; Cooper, Robert S.; Demisch, Wolfgang H.; Hawk, Clark W.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Mager, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Within this document, the National Research Council (NRC) assesses the requirements, benefits, technological feasibility, and roles of Earth-to-orbit transportation options that could be developed in support of the national space program. Among the topics covered are launch vehicles and infrastructure, propulsion, and technology.

  12. Can Sunlight Shift the Earth onto a Different Orbit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article comes from a question asked by a student of mine: if the Sun radiates energy in the form of electromagnetic waves, could they shift the Earth from its current orbit on a suitable timescale? The answer to such a question is apparently obvious and trivial. Nevertheless, it requires an instructive reasoning and interesting estimates of…

  13. Earth-Mars transfers through Moon Distant Retrograde Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Davide; Di Carlo, Marilena; Ho, Koki; Spencer, David B.; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on the trajectory design which is relevant for missions that would exploit the use of asteroid mining in stable cis-lunar orbits to facilitate deep space missions, specifically human Mars exploration. Assuming that a refueling "gas station" is present at a given lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO), ways of departing from the Earth to Mars via that DRO are analyzed. Thus, the analysis and results presented in this paper add a new cis-lunar departure orbit for Earth-Mars missions. Porkchop plots depicting the required C3 at launch, v∞ at arrival, Time of Flight (TOF), and total Δ V for various DRO departure and Mars arrival dates are created and compared with results obtained for low Δ V Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Mars trajectories. The results show that propellant-optimal trajectories from LEO to Mars through a DRO have higher overall mission Δ V due to the additional stop at the DRO. However, they have lower Initial Mass in LEO (IMLEO) and thus lower gear ratio as well as lower TOF than direct LEO to Mars transfers. This results in a lower overall spacecraft dry mass that needs to be launched into space from Earth's surface.

  14. Dose in critical body organs in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F.

    1984-01-01

    Human exposure to trapped radiations in low Earth orbit (LEO) are evaluated on the basis of a simple approximation of the human geometry for spherical shell shields of varying thickness. A data base is presented that may be used to make preliminary assessment of the impact of radiation exposure constraints on human performance. A sample impact assessment is discussed.

  15. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  16. Orbital Boom Sensor System with a cloudy Earth limb

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    S114-E-5712 (28 July 2005) --- This view of the Orbital Boom Sensor System, backdropped by clouds and Earth’s limb, was taken by the STS-114 crew during approach and docking operations with the international space station.

  17. Low earth orbit satellite/terrestrial mobile service compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheriff, R. E.; Gardiner, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Digital cellular mobile 'second generation' systems are now gradually being introduced into service; one such example is GSM, which will provide a digital voice and data service throughout Europe. Total coverage is not expected to be achieved until the mid '90's, which has resulted in several proposals for the integration of GSM with a geostationary satellite service. Unfortunately, because terrestrial and space systems have been designed to optimize their performance for their particular environment, integration between a satellite and terrestrial system is unlikely to develop further than the satellite providing a back-up service. This lack of system compatibility is now being addressed by system designers of third generation systems. The next generation of mobile systems, referred to as FPLMTS (future public land mobile telecommunication systems) by CCIR and UMTS (universal mobile telecommunication system) in European research programs, are intended to provide inexpensive, hand-held terminals that can operate in either satellite, cellular, or cordless environments. This poses several challenges for system designers, not least in terms of the choice of multiple access technique and power requirements. Satellite mobile services have been dominated by the geostationary orbital type. Recently, however, a number of low earth orbit configurations have been proposed, for example Iridium. These systems are likely to be fully operational by the turn of the century, in time for the implementation of FPLMTS. The developments in LEO mobile satellite service technology were recognized at WARC-92 with the allocation of specific frequency bands for 'big' LEO's, as well as a frequency allocation for FPLMTS which included a specific satellite allocation. When considering integrating a space service into the terrestrial network, LEO's certainly appear to have their attractions: they can provide global coverage, the round trip delay is of the order of tens of milliseconds, and

  18. SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) Preliminary Results from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Quinn, R.; Ricco, A. J.; Bramall, N.; Chittenden, J.; Bryson, K.; Minelli, G.

    2012-01-01

    SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) is one of two astrobiology experiments onboard the NASA Organism/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) cubesat, launched in November 2010. The satellite is still operational with nominal performance and records data on a regular basis. In the SEVO experiment, four astrobiologically relevant organic thin films are exposed to radiation in low-earth orbit, including the unfiltered solar spectrum from approximately 120 - 2600 nm. The thin films are contained in each of four separate micro-environments: an atmosphere containing CO2, a low relative humidity (approximately 2%) atmosphere, an inert atmosphere representative of interstellar/interplanetary space, and a SiO2 mineral surface to measure the effects of surface catalysis. The UV/Vis spectrum of each sample is monitored in situ, with a spectrometer onboard the satellite.

  19. The Space Debris Environment for the ISS Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theall, Jeff; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Matney, Mark; Kessler, Don

    2001-01-01

    With thirty-five planned missions over the next five years, the International Space Station (ISS) will be the focus for manned space activity. At least 6 different vehicles will transport crew and supplies to and from the nominally 400 km, 51.6 degree orbit. When completed, the ISS will be the largest space structure ever assembled and hence the largest target for space debris. Recent work at the Johnson Space Center has focused on updating the existing space debris models. The Orbital Debris Engineering Model, has been restructured to take advantage of state of the art desktop computing capability and revised with recent measurements from Haystack and Goldstone radars, additional analysis of LDEF and STS impacts, and the most recent SSN catalog. The new model also contains the capability to extrapolate the current environment in time to the year 2030. A revised meteoroid model based on the work of Divine has also been developed, and is called the JSC Meteoroid Model. The new model defines flux on the target per unit angle per unit speed, and for Earth orbit, includes the meteor showers. This paper quantifies the space debris environment for the ISS orbit from natural and anthropogenic sources. Particle flux and velocity distributions as functions of size and angle are be given for particles 10 microns and larger for altitudes from 350 to 450 km. The environment is projected forward in time until 2030.

  20. A Comparison of Atomic Oxygen Degradation in Low Earth Orbit and in a Plasma Etcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Park, Gloria

    1997-01-01

    In low Earth orbit (LEO) significant degradation of certain materials occurs from exposure to atomic oxygen (AO). Orbital opportunities to study this degradation for specific materials are limited and expensive. While plasma etchers are commonly used in ground-based studies because of their low cost and convenience, the environment produced in an etcher chamber differs greatly from the LEO environment. Because of the differences in environment, the validity of using etcher data has remained an open question. In this paper, degradation data for 22 materials from the orbital experiment Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) are compared with data from EOIM-3 control specimens exposed in a typical plasma etcher. This comparison indicates that, when carefully considered, plasma etcher results can produce order-of-magnitude estimates of orbital degradation. This allows the etcher to be used to screen unacceptable materials from further, more expensive tests.

  1. Orbit Determination Accuracy for Comets on Earth-Impacting Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay-Bunnell, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The results presented show the level of orbit determination accuracy obtainable for long-period comets discovered approximately one year before collision with Earth. Preliminary orbits are determined from simulated observations using Gauss' method. Additional measurements are incorporated to improve the solution through the use of a Kalman filter, and include non-gravitational perturbations due to outgassing. Comparisons between observatories in several different circular heliocentric orbits show that observatories in orbits with radii less than 1 AU result in increased orbit determination accuracy for short tracking durations due to increased parallax per unit time. However, an observatory at 1 AU will perform similarly if the tracking duration is increased, and accuracy is significantly improved if additional observatories are positioned at the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4, or L5. A single observatory at 1 AU capable of both optical and range measurements yields the highest orbit determination accuracy in the shortest amount of time when compared to other systems of observatories.

  2. Spacecraft Charging Hazards In Low-earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P. C.

    The space environment in low-Earth orbit (LEO) has until recently been considered quite benign to high levels of spacecraft charging. However, it has been found that the DMSP spacecraft at 840 km can charge to very large negative voltages (up to - 2000 V) when encountering intense precipitating electron events (auroral arcs) while traversing the auroral zone. The occurrence frequency of charging events, defined as when the spacecraft charged to levels exceeding 100 V negative, was highly correlated with the 11-year solar cycle with the largest number of events occurring during solar minimum. This was due to the requirement that the background thermal plasma den- sity be low, at most 104 cm-2. During solar maximum, the plasma density is typically well above that level due to the solar EUV ionizing radiation, and although the oc- currence frequency of auroral arcs is considerably greater than at solar minimum, the occurrence of high-level charging is minimal. Indeed, of the over 1200 events found during the most recent solar cycle, none occurred during the last solar maximum. This has implications to a number of LEO satellite programs, including the International Space Station (ISS). The plasma density in the ISS orbit, at a much lower altitude than DMSP, is well above that at 840 km and rarely below 104 cm-2. However, in the wake of the ISS, the plasma density can be 2 orders of magnitude or more lower than the background density and thus conditions are ripe for significant charging effects. With an inclination of 51.6 degrees, the ISS does enter the auroral zone, particularly during geomagnetic storms and substorms when the auroral boundary can penetrate to very low latitudes. This has significant implications for EVA operations in the ISS wake.

  3. ISS Charging Hazards and Low Earth Orbit Space Weather Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; Parker, L.; Coffey, V.; Wright K.; Koontz, S.; Edwards, D.

    2008-01-01

    Current collection by high voltage solar arrays on the International Space Station (ISS) drives the vehicle to negative floating potentials in the low Earth orbit daytime plasma environment. Pre-flight predictions of ISS floating potentials Phi greater than |-100 V| suggested a risk for degradation of dielectric thermal control coatings on surfaces in the U.S. sector due to arcing and an electrical shock hazard to astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). However, hazard studies conducted by the ISS program have demonstrated that the thermal control material degradation risk is effectively mitigated during the lifetime of the ISS vehicle by a sufficiently large ion collection area present on the vehicle to balance current collection by the solar arrays. To date, crew risk during EVA has been mitigated by operating one of two plasma contactors during EVA to control the vehicle potential within Phi less than or equal to |-40 V| with a backup process requiring reorientation of the solar arrays into a configuration which places the current collection surfaces into wake. This operation minimizes current collection by the solar arrays should the plasma contactors fail. This paper presents an analysis of F-region electron density and temperature variations at low and midlatitudes generated by space weather events to determine what range of conditions represent charging threats to ISS. We first use historical ionospheric plasma measurements from spacecraft operating at altitudes relevant to the 51.6 degree inclination ISS orbit to provide an extensive database of F-region plasma conditions over a variety of solar cycle conditions. Then, the statistical results from the historical data are compared to more recent in-situ measurements from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) operating on ISS in a campaign mode since its installation in August, 2006.

  4. Modeling of the Orbital Debris Environment Risks in the Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Despite of the tireless work by space surveillance assets, much of the Earth debris environment is not easily measured or tracked. For every object that is in an orbit we can track, there are hundreds of small debris that are too small to be tracked but still large enough to damage spacecraft. In addition, even if we knew today's environment with perfect knowledge, the debris environment is dynamic and would change tomorrow. Therefore, orbital debris scientists rely on numerical modeling to understand the nature of the debris environment and its risk to space operations throughout Earth orbit and into the future. This talk will summarize the ways in which modeling complements measurements to help give us a better picture of what is occurring in Earth orbit, and helps us to better conduct current and future space operations.

  5. Earth observations taken from shuttle orbiter Columbia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-27

    STS073-702-051 (27 October 1995) --- Photographed by the crew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, this detailed scene of East Caicos Island highlights the shallow tropical waters typical of the Bahamas region. The contrast between the light blue shallow water and dark blue deep water marks a sharp difference (hundreds of meters) in water depth. The shallow marine regions include sandbars and tidal channels (just right of center). The coastline of the island is low and swampy, and is also greatly influenced by the tides. Further offshore, the darker regions in the slightly deeper watermark sea grass and algae beds. This sensitive submarine environment can be mapped from space because the waters are so clear. Chains of clouds forming off islands and headlands, mark the downwind direction.

  6. Monitoring objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S.; Pertica, Alexander J.; Riot, Vincent J.; De Vries, Willem H.; Bauman, Brian J.; Nikolaev, Sergei; Henderson, John R.; Phillion, Donald W.

    2015-06-30

    An ephemeris refinement system includes satellites with imaging devices in earth orbit to make observations of space-based objects ("target objects") and a ground-based controller that controls the scheduling of the satellites to make the observations of the target objects and refines orbital models of the target objects. The ground-based controller determines when the target objects of interest will be near enough to a satellite for that satellite to collect an image of the target object based on an initial orbital model for the target objects. The ground-based controller directs the schedules to be uploaded to the satellites, and the satellites make observations as scheduled and download the observations to the ground-based controller. The ground-based controller then refines the initial orbital models of the target objects based on the locations of the target objects that are derived from the observations.

  7. Space as a Tool for Astrobiology: Review and Recommendations for Experimentations in Earth Orbit and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Hervé; Kotler, Julia Michelle; Billi, Daniela; Cockell, Charles; Demets, René; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; d'Hendecourt, Louis; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Martins, Zita; Onofri, Silvano; Quinn, Richard C.; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Ricco, Antonio J.; Slenzka, Klaus; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Westall, Frances; Carrasco, Nathalie; Fresneau, Aurélien; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Kebukawa, Yoko; Nguyen, Dara; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Stalport, Fabien; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Klamm, Benjamin A.

    2017-07-01

    The space environment is regularly used for experiments addressing astrobiology research goals. The specific conditions prevailing in Earth orbit and beyond, notably the radiative environment (photons and energetic particles) and the possibility to conduct long-duration measurements, have been the main motivations for developing experimental concepts to expose chemical or biological samples to outer space, or to use the reentry of a spacecraft on Earth to simulate the fall of a meteorite. This paper represents an overview of past and current research in astrobiology conducted in Earth orbit and beyond, with a special focus on ESA missions such as Biopan, STONE (on Russian FOTON capsules) and EXPOSE facilities (outside the International Space Station). The future of exposure platforms is discussed, notably how they can be improved for better science return, and how to incorporate the use of small satellites such as those built in cubesat format.

  8. Low Earth Orbit Raider (LER) winged air launch vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feaux, Karl; Jordan, William; Killough, Graham; Miller, Robert; Plunk, Vonn

    1989-01-01

    The need to launch small payloads into low earth orbit has increased dramatically during the past several years. The Low Earth orbit Raider (LER) is an answer to this need. The LER is an air-launched, winged vehicle designed to carry a 1500 pound payload into a 250 nautical mile orbit. The LER is launched from the back of a 747-100B at 35,000 feet and a Mach number of 0.8. Three staged solid propellant motors offer safe ground and flight handling, reliable operation, and decreased fabrication cost. The wing provides lift for 747 separation and during the first stage burn. Also, aerodynamic controls are provided to simplify first stage maneuvers. The air-launch concept offers many advantages to the consumer compared to conventional methods. Launching at 35,000 feet lowers atmospheric drag and other loads on the vehicle considerably. Since the 747 is a mobile launch pad, flexibility in orbit selection and launch time is unparalleled. Even polar orbits are accessible with a decreased payload. Most importantly, the LER launch service can come to the customer, satellites and experiments need not be transported to ground based launch facilities. The LER is designed to offer increased consumer freedom at a lower cost over existing launch systems. Simplistic design emphasizing reliability at low cost allows for the light payloads of the LER.

  9. Size Dependence of Dust Distribution around the Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Taku; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kondo, Toru; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2017-05-01

    In the solar system, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) originating mainly from asteroid collisions and cometary activities drift to Earth orbit due to Poynting-Robertson drag. We analyzed the thermal emission from IDPs that was observed by the first Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, AKARI. The observed surface brightness in the trailing direction of the Earth orbit is 3.7% greater than that in the leading direction in the 9 μm band and 3.0% in the 18 μm band. In order to reveal dust properties causing leading-trailing surface brightness asymmetry, we numerically integrated orbits of the Sun, the Earth, and a dust particle as a restricted three-body problem including radiation from the Sun. The initial orbits of particles are determined according to the orbits of main-belt asteroids or Jupiter-family comets. Orbital trapping in mean motion resonances results in a significant leading-trailing asymmetry so that intermediate sized dust (˜10-100 μm) produces a greater asymmetry than zodiacal light. The leading-trailing surface brightness difference integrated over the size distribution of the asteroidal dust is obtained to be 27.7% and 25.3% in the 9 μm and 18 μm bands, respectively. In contrast, the brightness difference for cometary dust is calculated as 3.6% and 3.1% in the 9 μm and 18 μm bands, respectively, if the maximum dust radius is set to be s max = 3000 μm. Taking into account these values and their errors, we conclude that the contribution of asteroidal dust to the zodiacal infrared emission is less than ˜10%, while cometary dust of the order of 1 mm mainly accounts for the zodiacal light in infrared.

  10. Size Dependence of Dust Distribution around the Earth Orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Taku; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    In the solar system, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) originating mainly from asteroid collisions and cometary activities drift to Earth orbit due to Poynting–Robertson drag. We analyzed the thermal emission from IDPs that was observed by the first Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, AKARI . The observed surface brightness in the trailing direction of the Earth orbit is 3.7% greater than that in the leading direction in the 9 μ m band and 3.0% in the 18 μ m band. In order to reveal dust properties causing leading–trailing surface brightness asymmetry, we numerically integrated orbits of the Sun, the Earth, and amore » dust particle as a restricted three-body problem including radiation from the Sun. The initial orbits of particles are determined according to the orbits of main-belt asteroids or Jupiter-family comets. Orbital trapping in mean motion resonances results in a significant leading–trailing asymmetry so that intermediate sized dust (∼10–100 μ m) produces a greater asymmetry than zodiacal light. The leading–trailing surface brightness difference integrated over the size distribution of the asteroidal dust is obtained to be 27.7% and 25.3% in the 9 μ m and 18 μ m bands, respectively. In contrast, the brightness difference for cometary dust is calculated as 3.6% and 3.1% in the 9 μ m and 18 μ m bands, respectively, if the maximum dust radius is set to be s {sub max} = 3000 μ m. Taking into account these values and their errors, we conclude that the contribution of asteroidal dust to the zodiacal infrared emission is less than ∼10%, while cometary dust of the order of 1 mm mainly accounts for the zodiacal light in infrared.« less

  11. Marking Tests to Certify Part Identification Processes for Use in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roxby, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose for the MISSE marking tests was to define Data Matrix symbol marking processes that will remain readable after exposure to Low Earth Orbit environments. A wide range of different Data Matrix symbol marking processes and materials, including some still under development, were evaluated. The samples flown on MISSE 1 and 2 were in orbit for 3 years and 348 days, MISSE 3 and 4 were in orbit for 1 year and 15 days, MISSE 6 was in orbit for 1 year and 130 days, and MISSE 8 was in orbit for 2 years and 55 days. The initial MISSE marking tests clearly reflected that intrusive marking processes can be successfully used for this purpose. All of the intrusive marking processes tested exceeded program expectations and met 100 percent of the principle investigators objectives. However, subsequent tests demonstrated that some additive marking processes will also satisfy the requirements. This was an unexpected result.

  12. Earth-orbit mission considerations and Space Tug requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The reusable Space Tug is a major system planned to augment the Space Shuttle's capability to deliver, retrieve, and support automated payloads. The Space Tug will be designed to perform round-trip missions from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Space Tug goals and requirements are discussed together with the characteristics of the full capability Tug. The Tug is to be operated in an unmanned 'teleoperator' fashion. Details of potential teleoperator applications are considered, giving attention to related systems studies, candidate Tug mission applications, Tug 'end-effector' alternatives, technical issues associated with Tug payload retrieval, and Tug/payload accommodations.

  13. Orbit determination and orbit control for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herberg, Joseph R.; Folta, David C.

    1993-01-01

    Future NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Spacecraft will make measurements of the earth's clouds, oceans, atmosphere, land and radiation balance. These EOS Spacecraft will be part of the NASA Mission to Planet Earth. This paper specifically addresses the EOS AM Spacecraft, referred to as 'AM' because it has a sun-synchronous orbit with a 10:30 AM descending node. This paper describes the EOS AM Spacecraft mission orbit requirements, orbit determination, orbit control, and navigation system impact on earth based pointing. The EOS AM Spacecraft will be the first spacecraft to use the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) as the primary means of navigation. TONS flight software will process one-way forward Doppler measurements taken during scheduled TDRSS contacts. An extended Kalman filter will estimate spacecraft position, velocity, drag coefficient correction, and ultrastable master oscillator frequency bias and drift. The TONS baseline algorithms, software, and hardware implementation are described in this paper. TONS integration into the EOS AM Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) System; TONS assisted onboard time maintenance; and the TONS Ground Support System (TGSS) are also addressed.

  14. Galileo orbit determination for the Venus and Earth-1 flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallemeyn, P. H.; Haw, R. J.; Pollmeier, V. M.; Nicholson, F. T.; Murrow, D. W.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents the orbit determination strategy and results in navigating the Galileo spacecraft from launch through its Venus and first earth flybys. Many nongravitational effects were estimated, including solar radiation pressure, small velocity impulses from attitude changes and eight trajectory correction maneuvers. Tracking data consisted of S-Band Doppler and range. The fitting of Doppler was difficult since one of the cpacecraft's two antennas was offset from the spin axis, thus producing the sinusoidal velocity fluctuation seen in the data. Finally, Delta Differential One-way Range data was used during the last three months of the earth approach to help deliver the spacecraft to within desired accuracy.

  15. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  16. Mechanical failure probability of glasses in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinser, Donald L.; Wiedlocher, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Results of five years of earth-orbital exposure on mechanical properties of glasses indicate that radiation effects on mechanical properties of glasses, for the glasses examined, are less than the probable error of measurement. During the 5 year exposure, seven micrometeorite or space debris impacts occurred on the samples examined. These impacts were located in locations which were not subjected to effective mechanical testing, hence limited information on their influence upon mechanical strength was obtained. Combination of these results with micrometeorite and space debris impact frequency obtained by other experiments permits estimates of the failure probability of glasses exposed to mechanical loading under earth-orbit conditions. This probabilistic failure prediction is described and illustrated with examples.

  17. Density variations of meteor flux along the Earth's orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svetashkova, N. T.

    1987-01-01

    No model of distribution of meteor substance is known to explain the observed diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates, if that distribution is assumed to be constant during the year. Differences between the results of observations and the prediction of diurnal variation rates leads to the conclusion that the density of the orbits of meteor bodies changes with the motion of the Earth along its orbit. The distributions of the flux density over the celestial sphere are obtained by the method described previously by Svetashkova, 1984. The results indicate that the known seasonal and latitudinal variations of atmospheric conditions does not appear to significantly affect the value of the mean flux density of meteor bodies and the matter influx onto the Earth.

  18. Mechanical properties of silicate glasses exposed to a low-Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedlocher, David E.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Nichols, Ron; Kinser, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a 5.8 year exposure to low earth orbit environment upon the mechanical properties of commercial optical fused silica, low iron soda-lime-silica, Pyrex 7740, Vycor 7913, BK-7, and the glass ceramic Zerodur were examined. Mechanical testing employed the ASTM-F-394 piston on 3-ball method in a liquid nitrogen environment. Samples were exposed on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in two locations. Impacts were observed on all specimens except Vycor. Weibull analysis as well as a standard statistical evaluation were conducted. The Weibull analysis revealed no differences between control samples and the two exposed samples. We thus concluded that radiation components of the Earth orbital environment did not degrade the mechanical strength of the samples examined within the limits of experimental error. The upper bound of strength degradation for meteorite impacted samples based upon statistical analysis and observation was 50 percent.

  19. Low Earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the Photovoltaic Power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the Photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized.

  20. Thin-Film Solar Array Earth Orbit Mission Applicability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2002-01-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the applicability and spacecraft-level impact of using very lightweight thin-film solar arrays with relatively large deployed areas for representative Earth orbiting missions. The most and least attractive features of thin-film solar arrays are briefly discussed. A simple calculation is then presented illustrating that from a solar array alone mass perspective, larger arrays with less efficient but lighter thin-film solar cells can weigh less than smaller arrays with more efficient but heavier crystalline cells. However, a proper spacecraft-level systems assessment must take into account the additional mass associated with solar array deployed area: the propellant needed to desaturate the momentum accumulated from area-related disturbance torques and to perform aerodynamic drag makeup reboost. The results for such an assessment are presented for a representative low Earth orbit (LEO) mission, as a function of altitude and mission life, and a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) mission. Discussion of the results includes a list of specific mission types most likely to benefit from using thin-film arrays. NASA Glenn's low-temperature approach to depositing thin-film cells on lightweight, flexible plastic substrates is also briefly discussed to provide a perspective on one approach to achieving this enabling technology. The paper concludes with a list of issues to be addressed prior to use of thin-film solar arrays in space and the observation that with their unique characteristics, very lightweight arrays using efficient, thin-film cells on flexible substrates may become the best array option for a subset of Earth orbiting missions.

  1. Advanced control techniques for teleoperation in earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Brooks, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Emerging teleoperation tasks in space invite advancements in teleoperator control technology. This paper briefly summarizes the generic issues related to earth orbital applications of teleoperators, and describes teleoperator control technology development work including visual and non-visual sensors and displays, kinesthetic feedback and computer-aided controls. Performance experiments were carried out using sensor and computer aided controls with promising results which are briefly summarized.

  2. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Captain Mark Kelly, commander of the space shuttle Endeavour’s final mission and husband of retired U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords, gives the keynote address during a celebration dinner at Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. The detection of earth orbiting objects by IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Kimberly L.; Sykes, Mark V.; Low, Frank J.; Vilas, Faith

    1990-01-01

    A systematic examination of 1836 images of the sky constructed from scans made by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite has resulted in the detection of 466 objects which are shown to be in earth orbit. Analysis of the spatial and size distribution and thermal properties of these objets, which may include payloads, rocket bodies and debris particles, is being conducted as one step in a feasibility study for space-based debris detection technologies.

  4. The Geomagnetic Field and Radiation in Near-Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This report shows, in detail, how the geomagnetic field interacts with the particle flux of the radiation belts to create a hazard to spacecraft and humans in near-Earth orbit. It illustrates the geometry of the geomagnetic field lines, especially around the area where the field strength is anomalously low in the South Atlantic Ocean. It discusses how the field will probably change in the future and the consequences that may have on hazards in near space.

  5. Low Earth Orbit Rendezvous Strategy for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cates, Grant R.; Cirillo, William M.; Stromgren, Chel

    2006-01-01

    On January 14, 2004 President George W. Bush announced a new Vision for Space Exploration calling for NASA to return humans to the moon. In 2005 NASA decided to use a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) rendezvous strategy for the lunar missions. A Discrete Event Simulation (DES) based model of this strategy was constructed. Results of the model were then used for subsequent analysis to explore the ramifications of the LEO rendezvous strategy.

  6. Auxiliary propulsion technology for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1987-01-01

    The payload which can be delivered to orbit by advanced Earth-to-Orbit vehicles is significantly increased by advanced subsystem technology. Any weight which can be saved by advanced subsystem design can be converted to payload at Main Engine Cut Off (MECO) given the same launch vehicle performance. The auxiliary propulsion subsystem and the impetus for the current hydrogen/oxygen technology program is examined. A review of the auxiliary propulsion requirements of advanced Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicles and their proposed missions is given first. Then the performance benefits of hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion are illustrated using current shuttle data. The proposed auxiliary propulsion subsystem implementation includes liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LO2) primary Reaction Control System (RCS) engines and gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GH2/GO2) vernier RCS engines. A distribution system for the liquid cryogens to the engines is outlined. The possibility of providing one dual-phase engine that can operate on either liquid or gaseous propellants is being explored, as well as the simultaneous firing of redundant primary RCS thrusters to provide Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) level impulse. Scavenging of propellants from integral main engine tankage is proposed to utilize main engine tank residuals and to combine launch vehicle and subsystem reserves.

  7. Orbital and Physical Characteristics of Meter-sized Earth Impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Wiegert, Paul; Clark, David; Tagliaferri, Edward

    2015-11-01

    We have analysed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of more than 60 earth-impacting meteoroids of one meter in diameter or larger. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we find that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in the apparent strength of the population of meter-sized impactors at the Earth. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. We find ~10-15% of our objects have a probable cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, show evidence for the expected weaker than average structure compared to asteroidal bodies. Almost all impactors show peak brightness between 20-40 km altitude. Several events have exceptionally high (relative to the remainder of the population) heights of peak brightness. These are physically most consistent with high microporosity objects, though all were on asteroidal-type orbits. We also find three events, including the Oct 8, 2009 airburst near Sulawesi, Indonesia, which display comparatively low heights of peak brightness, consistent with strong monolithic stones or iron meteoroids. Based on orbital similarity, we find a probable connection among several NEOs in our population with the Taurid meteoroid complex. No other major meteoroid streams show linkages with the pre-atmospheric orbits of our meter-class impactors. Our events cover almost four orders of magnitude in mass, but no trend in height of peak brightness is evident, suggesting no strong trend in strength with size for small NEOs, a finding consistent with the results of Popova et al (2011).

  8. Orbit Determination of Spacecraft in Earth-Moon L1 and L2 Libration Point Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, Daniel; Morinelli, Patrick; Marchese, Jeff; Owens, Brandon; Folta, David

    2011-01-01

    The ARTEMIS mission, part of the THEMIS extended mission, is the first to fly spacecraft in the Earth-Moon Lissajous regions. In 2009, two of the five THEMIS spacecraft were redeployed from Earth-centered orbits to arrive in Earth-Moon Lissajous orbits in late 2010. Starting in August 2010, the ARTEMIS P1 spacecraft executed numerous stationkeeping maneuvers, initially maintaining a lunar L2 Lissajous orbit before transitioning into a lunar L1 orbit. The ARTEMIS P2 spacecraft entered a L1 Lissajous orbit in October 2010. In April 2011, both ARTEMIS spacecraft will suspend Lissajous stationkeeping and will be maneuvered into lunar orbits. The success of the ARTEMIS mission has allowed the science team to gather unprecedented magnetospheric measurements in the lunar Lissajous regions. In order to effectively perform lunar Lissajous stationkeeping maneuvers, the ARTEMIS operations team has provided orbit determination solutions with typical accuracies on the order of 0.1 km in position and 0.1 cm/s in velocity. The ARTEMIS team utilizes the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), using a batch least squares method, to process range and Doppler tracking measurements from the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN), Berkeley Ground Station (BGS), Merritt Island (MILA) station, and United Space Network (USN). The team has also investigated processing of the same tracking data measurements using the Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) software, which uses an extended Kalman filter and recursive smoother to estimate the orbit. The orbit determination results from each of these methods will be presented and we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with using each method in the lunar Lissajous regions. Orbit determination accuracy is dependent on both the quality and quantity of tracking measurements, fidelity of the orbit force models, and the estimation techniques used. Prior to Lissajous operations, the team determined the appropriate quantity of tracking

  9. Super-Earths as Failed Cores in Orbital Migration Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    I explore whether close-in super-Earths were formed as rocky bodies that failed to grow fast enough to become the cores of gas giants before the natal protostellar disk dispersed. I model the failed cores’ inward orbital migration in the low-mass or type I regime to stopping points at distances where the tidal interaction with the protostellar disk applies zero net torque. The three kinds of migration traps considered are those due to the dead zone's outer edge, the ice line, and the transition from accretion to starlight as the disk's main heat source. As the disk disperses, the traps move toward final positions near or just outside 1 au. Planets at this location exceeding about 3 M ⊕ open a gap, decouple from their host traps, and migrate inward in the high-mass or type II regime to reach the vicinity of the star. I synthesize the population of planets that formed in this scenario, finding that a fraction of the observed super-Earths could have been failed cores. Most super-Earths that formed this way have more than 4 M ⊕, so their orbits when the disks dispersed were governed by type II migration. These planets have solid cores surrounded by gaseous envelopes. Their subsequent photoevaporative mass loss is most effective for masses originally below about 6 M ⊕. The failed core scenario suggests a division of the observed super-Earth mass-radius diagram into five zones according to the inferred formation history.

  10. Use of the VLBI delay observable for orbit determination of Earth-orbiting VLBI satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    Very long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations using a radio telescope in Earth orbit were performed first in the 1980s. Two spacecraft dedicated to VLBI are scheduled for launch in 1995; the primary scientific goals of these missions will be astrophysical in nature. This article addresses the use of space VLBI delay data for the additional purpose of improving the orbit determination of the Earth-orbiting spacecraft. In an idealized case of quasi-simultaneous observations of three radio sources in orthogonal directions, analytical expressions are found for the instantaneous spacecraft position and its error. The typical position error is at least as large as the distance corresponding to the delay measurement accuracy but can be much greater for some geometries. A number of practical considerations, such as system noise and imperfect calibrations, set bounds on the orbit-determination accuracy realistically achievable using space VLBI delay data. These effects limit the spacecraft position accuracy to at least 35 cm (and probably 3 m or more) for the first generation of dedicated space VLBI experiments. Even a 35-cm orbital accuracy would fail to provide global VLBI astrometry as accurate as ground-only VLBI. Recommended charges in future space VLBI missions are unlikely to make space VLBI competitive with ground-only VLBI in global astrometric measurements.

  11. Spin-orbit coupling for tidally evolving super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, A.; Callegari, N.; Michtchenko, T. A.; Hussmann, H.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the spin behaviour of close-in rocky planets and the implications for their orbital evolution. Considering that the planet rotation evolves under simultaneous actions of the torque due to the equatorial deformation and the tidal torque, both raised by the central star, we analyse the possibility of temporary captures in spin-orbit resonances. The results of the numerical simulations of the exact equations of motions indicate that, whenever the planet rotation is trapped in a resonant motion, the orbital decay and the eccentricity damping are faster than the ones in which the rotation follows the so-called pseudo-synchronization. Analytical results obtained through the averaged equations of the spin-orbit problem show a good agreement with the numerical simulations. We apply the analysis to the cases of the recently discovered hot super-Earths Kepler-10 b, GJ 3634 b and 55 Cnc e. The simulated dynamical history of these systems indicates the possibility of capture in several spin-orbit resonances; particularly, GJ 3634 b and 55 Cnc e can currently evolve under a non-synchronous resonant motion for suitable values of the parameters. Moreover, 55 Cnc e may avoid a chaotic rotation behaviour by evolving towards synchronization through successive temporary resonant trappings.

  12. Assessing the Impact of Earth Radiation Pressure Acceleration on Low-Earth Orbit Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielberg, Kristin; Forootan, Ehsan; Lück, Christina; Kusche, Jürgen; Börger, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The orbits of satellites are influenced by several external forces. The main non-gravitational forces besides thermospheric drag, acting on the surface of satellites, are accelerations due to the Earth and Solar Radiation Pres- sure (SRP and ERP, respectively). The sun radiates visible and infrared light reaching the satellite directly, which causes the SRP. Earth also emits and reflects the sunlight back into space, where it acts on satellites. This is known as ERP acceleration. The influence of ERP increases with decreasing distance to the Earth, and for low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites ERP must be taken into account in orbit and gravity computations. Estimating acceler- ations requires knowledge about energy emitted from the Earth, which can be derived from satellite remote sensing data, and also by considering the shape and surface material of a satellite. In this sensitivity study, we assess ERP accelerations based on different input albedo and emission fields and their modelling for the satellite missions Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). As input fields, monthly 1°x1° products of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant En- ergy System (CERES), L3 are considered. Albedo and emission models are generated as latitude-dependent, as well as in terms of spherical harmonics. The impact of different albedo and emission models as well as the macro model and the altitude of satellites on ERP accelerations will be discussed.

  13. Use and Protection of GPS Sidelobe Signals for Enhanced Navigation Performance in High Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Joel J. K.; Valdez, Jennifer E.; Bauer, Frank H.; Moreau, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    GPS (Global Positioning System) Space Service Volume (SSV) signal environment is from 3,000-36,000 kilometers altitude. Current SSV specifications only capture performance provided by signals transmitted within 23.5(L1) or 26(L2-L5) off-nadir angle. Recent on-orbit data lessons learned show significant PNT (Positioning, Navigation and Timing) performance improvements when the full aggregate signal is used. Numerous military civil operational missions in High Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (HEOGEO) utilize the full signal to enhance vehicle PNT performance

  14. Earth observation mission operation of COMS during in-orbit test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2011-11-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service after the In-Orbit Test (IOT) phase. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. During the IOT phase the functionality and the performance of many aspects of the COMS satellite and ground station have been checked through the Earth observation mission operation for the observation of the meteorological phenomenon over several areas of the Earth and the monitoring of marine environments around the Korean peninsula. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS during the IOT phase is introduced in terms of mission operation characteristics, mission planning, and mission operation results for the missions of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively.

  15. Advantages of High vs. Low Earth Orbit for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Werner, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    While the subject of this workshop, which we will refer to as ET (for Enlightenment Telescope), is a dazzling successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, its location is unlikely to be the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) used by HST. Locations suggested for ET include High Earth Orbit (HEO) and the moon. The first space telescope to occupy HEO will be the liquid helium cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The selection of HEO for SIRTF was the outcome of a recent study led by the Ames Research Center which showed significant advantages for SIRTF in HEO vs. LEO. This article summarizes the main results of that study. We begin with a review of SIRTF's rationale and requirements, in part because the IR capabilities and low temperature proposed for ET make it something of a successor to SIRTF as well as to HST. We conclude with some comments about another possible location for both SIRTF and ET, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrangian point.

  16. Spacecraft transfer trajectory design exploiting resonant orbits in multi-body environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero Escribano, Tatiana Mar

    Historically, resonant orbits have been employed in mission design for multiple planetary flyby trajectories and, more recently, as a source of long-term orbital stability. For instance, in support of a mission concept in NASA's Outer Planets Program, the Jupiter Europa Orbiter spacecraft is designed to encounter two different resonances with Europa during the 'endgame' phase, leading to Europa orbit insertion on the final pass. In 2011, the Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft was inserted into a stable out-of-plane lunar-resonant orbit, the first of this type for a spacecraft in a long-term Earth orbit. However, resonant orbits have not yet been significantly explored as transfer mechanisms between non-resonant orbits in multi-body systems. This research effort focuses on incorporating resonant orbits into the design process to potentially enable the construction of more efficient or even novel transfer scenarios. Thus, the goals in this investigation are twofold: i) to expand the orbit architecture in multi-body environments by cataloging families of resonant orbits, and ii) to assess the role of such families in the design of transfer trajectories with specific patterns and itineraries. The benefits and advantages of employing resonant orbits in the design process are demonstrated through a variety of astrodynamics applications in several multi-body systems. In the Earth-Moon system, locally optimal transfer trajectories from low Earth orbit to selected libration point orbits are designed by leveraging conic arcs and invariant manifolds associated with resonant orbits. Resonant manifolds in the Earth-Moon system offer trajectories that tour the entire space within reasonable time intervals, facilitating the design of libration point orbit tours as well as Earth-Moon cyclers. In the Saturnian system, natural transitions between resonant and libration point orbits are sought and the problem of accessing Hyperion from orbits that are resonant with Titan is

  17. Near Earth Asteroids- Prospection, Orbit Modification and Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandl, W.; Bazso, A.

    2014-04-01

    The number of known Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) has increased continuously during the last decades. Now we understand the role of asteroid impacts for the evolution of life on Earth. To ensure that mankind will survive in the long run, we have to face the "asteroid threat" seriously. On one hand we will have to develop methods of detection and deflection for Hazardous Asteroids, on the other hand we can use these methods to modify their orbits and exploit their resources. Rare-earth elements, rare metals like platinum group elements, etc. may be extracted more easily from NEAs than from terrestrial soil, without environmental pollution or political and social problems. In a first step NEAs, which are expected to contain resources like nickel-iron, platinum group metals or rare-earth elements, will be prospected by robotic probes. Then a number of asteroids with a minimum bulk density of 2 g/cm^3 and a diameter of 150 to 500 m will be selected for mining. Given the long duration of an individual mission time of 10-20 years, the authors propose a "pipeline" concept. While the observation of NEAs can be done in parallel, the precursor missions of the the next phase can be launched in short intervals, giving time for technical corrections and upgrades. In this way a continuous data flow is established and there are no idle times. For our purpose Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) seem to be a favorable choice for the following reasons: They have frequent closeencounters to Earth, their minimum orbit intersection distance is less than 0.05 AU (Astronomic Units) and they have diameters exceeding 150 meters. The necessary velocity change (delta V) for a spaceship is below 12 km/s to reach the PHA. The authors propose to modify the orbits of the chosen PHAs by orbital maneuvers from solar orbits to stable Earth orbits beyond the Moon. To change the orbits of these celestial bodies it is necessary to develop advanced propulsion systems. They must be able to deliver high

  18. Analysis of orbital configurations for geocenter determination with GPS and low-Earth orbiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Da; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Haines, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    We use a series of simulated scenarios to characterize the observability of geocenter location with GPS tracking data. We examine in particular the improvement realized when a GPS receiver in low Earth orbit (LEO) augments the ground network. Various orbital configurations for the LEO are considered and the observability of geocenter location based on GPS tracking is compared to that based on satellite laser ranging (SLR). The distance between a satellite and a ground tracking-site is the primary measurement, and Earth rotation plays important role in determining the geocenter location. Compared to SLR, which directly and unambiguously measures this distance, terrestrial GPS observations provide a weaker (relative) measurement for geocenter location determination. The estimation of GPS transmitter and receiver clock errors, which is equivalent to double differencing four simultaneous range measurements, removes much of this absolute distance information. We show that when ground GPS tracking data are augmented with precise measurements from a GPS receiver onboard a LEO satellite, the sensitivity of the data to geocenter location increases by more than a factor of two for Z-component. The geometric diversity underlying the varying baselines between the LEO and ground stations promotes improved global observability, and renders the GPS technique comparable to SLR in terms of information content for geocenter location determination. We assess a variety of LEO orbital configurations, including the proposed orbit for the geodetic reference antenna in space mission concept. The results suggest that a retrograde LEO with altitude near 3,000 km is favorable for geocenter determination.

  19. A Comparison of Damaging Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Fluxes in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William; Matney, Mark; Moorhead, Althea V.; Vavrin, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Low Earth orbit is populated with a substantial amount of orbital debris, and it is usually assumed that the flux from these objects contributes to most of the hypervelocity particle risk to spacecraft in this region. The meteoroid flux is known to be dominant at very low altitudes (<300 km), where atmospheric drag rapidly removes debris, and at very high altitudes beyond GEO (geostationary), where debris is practically non-existent. The vagueness of these boundaries has prompted this work, in which we compare the fluxes of meteoroids and orbital debris capable of penetrating a millimeter thick aluminum plate for circular orbits with altitudes ranging from the top of the atmosphere to 100,000 km. The outputs from the latest NASA debris and meteoroid models, ORDEM 3.0 and MEMR2, are combined with the modified Cour-Palais ballistic limit equation to make a realistic evaluation of the damage-capable particle fluxes, thereby establishing the relative contributions of hazardous debris and meteoroids in near Earth space.

  20. A Comparison of Damaging Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Fluxes in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William; Matney, Mark; Moorhead, Althea V.; Vavrin, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Low Earth orbit is populated with a substantial amount of orbital debris, and it is usually assumed that the flux from these objects contributes to most of the hypervelocity particle risk to spacecraft in this region. The meteoroid flux is known to be dominant at very low altitudes (less than 300 km), where atmospheric drag rapidly removes debris, and at very high altitudes (beyond geostationary), where debris is practically non-existent. The vagueness of these boundaries and repeated questions from spacecraft projects have prompted this work, in which we compare the fluxes of meteoroids and orbital debris capable of producing a millimeter-deep crater in aluminum for circular orbits with altitudes ranging from the top of the atmosphere to 100,000 km. The outputs from the latest NASA debris and meteoroid models, ORDEM 3.0 and MEMR2, are combined with the modified Cour-Palais ballistic limit equation to make a realistic evaluation of the damage-capable particle fluxes, thereby establishing the relative contributions of hazardous debris and meteoroids throughout near-Earth space.

  1. A geostationary Earth orbit satellite model using Easy Java Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Hwee Goh, Giam

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic 3D view and associated learning in the real world; (2) comparative visualization of permanent geostationary satellites; (3) examples of non-geostationary orbits of different rotation senses, periods and planes; and (4) an incorrect physics model for conceptual discourse. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the computer model useful in their own classes.

  2. Solar radiation pressure resonances in Low Earth Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Elisa Maria; Schettino, Giulia; Rossi, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to highlight the crucial role that orbital resonances associated with solar radiation pressure can have in Low Earth Orbit. We review the corresponding literature, and provide an analytical tool to estimate the maximum eccentricity which can be achieved for well-defined initial conditions. We then compare the results obtained with the simplified model with the results obtained with a more comprehensive dynamical model. The analysis has important implications both from a theoretical point of view, because it shows that the role of some resonances was underestimated in the past, and also from a practical point of view in the perspective of passive deorbiting solutions for satellites at the end-of-life.

  3. Simulation of the low earth orbital atomic oxygen interaction with materials by means of an oxygen ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Steuber, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is the predominant species in low-Earth orbit between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km. These highly reactive atoms are a result of photodissociation of diatomic oxygen molecules from solar photons having a wavelength less than or equal to 2430A. Spacecraft in low-Earth orbit collide with atomic oxygen in the 3P ground state at impact energies of approximately 4.2 to 4.5 eV. As a consequence, organic materials previously used for high altitude geosynchronous spacecraft are severely oxidized in the low-Earth orbital environment. The evaluation of materials durability to atomic oxygen requires ground simulation of this environment to cost effectively screen materials for durability. Directed broad beam oxygen sources are necessary to evaluate potential spacecraft materials performance before and after exposure to the simulated low-Earth orbital environment. This paper presents a description of a low energy, broad oxygen ion beam source used to simulate the low-Earth orbital atomic oxygen environment. The results of materials interaction with this beam and comparison with actual in-space tests of the same meterials will be discussed. Resulting surface morphologies appear to closely replicate those observed in space tests.

  4. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden surprises Sen. John Glenn, both seated on stage, with a live downlink from International Space Station Expedition 30 crew members Don Pettit, left on screen, Andre Kuipers, and Dan Burbank, right on screen, while Director of the NASA Glenn Research Center Ray Lugo moderates, during NASA's Future Forum at The Ohio State University on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Monday marked the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight as the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. 50th Anniversary First American to Orbit Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    The Ohio State University President E. Gordon Gee, left, Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong, 2nd from left, Former space shuttle astronaut and former Under Secretary of the Air Force Dr. Ron Sega, and Captain Mark Kelly, commander of the space shuttle Endeavour’s final mission and husband of retired U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords, right, talk prior to a reception at Ohio State University honoring the 50th anniversary of John Glenn's historic flight aboard Friendship 7 Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Low Earth Orbit satellite/terrestrial mobile service compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheriff, Ray E.; Gardiner, John G.

    1993-01-01

    Currently the geostationary type of satellite is the only one used to provide commercial mobile-satellite communication services. Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite systems are now being proposed as a future alternative. By the implementation of LEO satellite systems, predicted at between 5 and 8 years time, mobile space/terrestrial technology will have progressed to the third generation stage of development. This paper considers the system issues that will need to be addressed when developing a dual mode terminal, enabling access to both terrestrial and LEO satellite systems.

  7. Computer simulation results of attitude estimation of earth orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kou, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation results of attitude estimation of Earth-orbiting satellites (including Space Telescope) subjected to environmental disturbances and noises are presented. Decomposed linear recursive filter and Kalman filter were used as estimation tools. Six programs were developed for this simulation, and all were written in the basic language and were run on HP 9830A and HP 9866A computers. Simulation results show that a decomposed linear recursive filter is accurate in estimation and fast in response time. Furthermore, for higher order systems, this filter has computational advantages (i.e., less integration errors and roundoff errors) over a Kalman filter.

  8. Analyses of space environment effects on active fiber optic links orbited aboard the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Monarski, T. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the 'Preliminary Analysis of WL Experiment no. 701, Space Environment Effects on Operating Fiber Optic Systems,' is correlated with space simulated post retrieval terrestrial studies performed on the M0004 experiment. Temperature cycling measurements were performed on the active optical data links for the purpose of assessing link signal to noise ratio and bit error rate performance some 69 months following the experiment deployment in low Earth orbit. The early results indicate a high correlation between pre-orbit, orbit, and post-orbit functionality of the first known and longest space demonstration of operating fiber optic systems.

  9. Solar Effects of Low-Earth Orbit objects in ORDEM 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P.; Kelley, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Variances in atmospheric density are directly related to the variances in solar flux intensity between 11- year solar cycles. The Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0) uses a solar flux table as input for calculating orbital lifetime of intact and debris objects in Low-Earth Orbit. Long term projections in solar flux activity developed by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) extend the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space Environment Center (NOAA/SEC) daily historical flux values with a 5-year projection. For purposes of programmatic scheduling, the Q2 2009 solar flux table was chosen for ORDEM 3.0. Current solar flux activity shows that the current solar cycle has entered a period of lower solar flux intensity than previously forecasted in 2009. This results in a deviation of the true orbital debris environment propagation in ORDEM 3.0. In this paper, we present updated orbital debris populations in LEO using the latest solar flux values. We discuss the effects on recent breakup events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test and the Iridium 33 / Cosmos 2251 accidental collision. Justifications for chosen solar flux tables are discussed.

  10. Two Earth-sized planets orbiting Kepler-20.

    PubMed

    Fressin, Francois; Torres, Guillermo; Rowe, Jason F; Charbonneau, David; Rogers, Leslie A; Ballard, Sarah; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Bryson, Stephen T; Buchhave, Lars A; Ciardi, David R; Désert, Jean-Michel; Dressing, Courtney D; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B; Gautier, Thomas N; Henze, Christopher E; Holman, Matthew J; Howard, Andrew; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Quinn, Samuel N; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Seager, Sara; Barclay, Thomas; Mullally, Fergal; Seader, Shawn E; Still, Martin; Twicken, Joseph D; Thompson, Susan E; Uddin, Kamal

    2011-12-20

    Since the discovery of the first extrasolar giant planets around Sun-like stars, evolving observational capabilities have brought us closer to the detection of true Earth analogues. The size of an exoplanet can be determined when it periodically passes in front of (transits) its parent star, causing a decrease in starlight proportional to its radius. The smallest exoplanet hitherto discovered has a radius 1.42 times that of the Earth's radius (R(⊕)), and hence has 2.9 times its volume. Here we report the discovery of two planets, one Earth-sized (1.03R(⊕)) and the other smaller than the Earth (0.87R(⊕)), orbiting the star Kepler-20, which is already known to host three other, larger, transiting planets. The gravitational pull of the new planets on the parent star is too small to measure with current instrumentation. We apply a statistical method to show that the likelihood of the planetary interpretation of the transit signals is more than three orders of magnitude larger than that of the alternative hypothesis that the signals result from an eclipsing binary star. Theoretical considerations imply that these planets are rocky, with a composition of iron and silicate. The outer planet could have developed a thick water vapour atmosphere.

  11. Satellite laser ranging to low Earth orbiters: orbit and network validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Daniel; Montenbruck, Oliver; Hackel, Stefan; Sośnica, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to low Earth orbiters (LEOs) provides optical distance measurements with mm-to-cm-level precision. SLR residuals, i.e., differences between measured and modeled ranges, serve as a common figure of merit for the quality assessment of orbits derived by radiometric tracking techniques. We discuss relevant processing standards for the modeling of SLR observations and highlight the importance of line-of-sight-dependent range corrections for the various types of laser retroreflector arrays. A 1-3 cm consistency of SLR observations and GPS-based precise orbits is demonstrated for a wide range of past and present LEO missions supported by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). A parameter estimation approach is presented to investigate systematic orbit errors and it is shown that SLR validation of LEO satellites is not only able to detect radial but also along-track and cross-track offsets. SLR residual statistics clearly depend on the employed precise orbit determination technique (kinematic vs. reduced-dynamic, float vs. fixed ambiguities) but also reveal pronounced differences in the ILRS station performance. Using the residual-based parameter estimation approach, corrections to ILRS station coordinates, range biases, and timing offsets are derived. As a result, root-mean-square residuals of 5-10 mm have been achieved over a 1-year data arc in 2016 using observations from a subset of high-performance stations and ambiguity-fixed orbits of four LEO missions. As a final contribution, we demonstrate that SLR can not only validate single-satellite orbit solutions but also precise baseline solutions of formation flying missions such as GRACE, TanDEM-X, and Swarm.

  12. Autonomous Mission Design in Extreme Orbit Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovik, David Allen

    An algorithm for autonomous online mission design at asteroids, comets, and small moons is developed to meet the novel challenges of their complex non-Keplerian orbit environments, which render traditional methods inapplicable. The core concept of abstract reachability analysis, in which a set of impulsive maneuvering options is mapped onto a space of high-level mission outcomes, is applied to enable goal-oriented decision-making with robustness to uncertainty. These nuanced analyses are efficiently computed by utilizing a heuristic-based adaptive sampling scheme that either maximizes an objective function for autonomous planning or resolves details of interest for preliminary analysis and general study. Illustrative examples reveal the chaotic nature of small body systems through the structure of various families of reachable orbits, such as those that facilitate close-range observation of targeted surface locations or achieve soft impact upon them. In order to fulfill extensive sets of observation tasks, the single-maneuver design method is implemented in a receding-horizon framework such that a complete mission is constructed on-the-fly one piece at a time. Long-term performance and convergence are assured by augmenting the objective function with a prospect heuristic, which approximates the likelihood that a reachable end-state will benefit the subsequent planning horizon. When state and model uncertainty produce larger trajectory deviations than were anticipated, the next control horizon is advanced to allow for corrective action -- a low-frequency form of feedback control. Through Monte Carlo analysis, the planning algorithm is ultimately demonstrated to produce mission profiles that vary drastically in their physical paths but nonetheless consistently complete all goals, suggesting a high degree of flexibility. It is further shown that the objective function can be tuned to preferentially minimize fuel cost or mission duration, as well as to optimize

  13. Evaluation of Bulk Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit and Earth Escape Trajectories Using the Numit 1-D Charging Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2007-01-01

    The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.

  14. Seeing Earth's Orbit in the Stars: Parallax and Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timberlake, Todd K.

    2013-11-01

    During the 17th century the idea of an orbiting and rotating Earth became increasingly popular, but opponents of this view continued to point out that the theory had observable consequences that had never, in fact, been observed.1 Why, for instance, had astronomers failed to detect the annual parallax of the stars that must occur if Earth orbits the Sun? To address this problem, astronomers of the 17th and 18th centuries sought to measure the annual parallax of stars using telescopes. None of them succeeded. Annual stellar parallax was not successfully measured until 1838, when Friedrich Bessel detected the parallax of the star 61 Cygni.2 But the early failures to detect annual stellar parallax led to the discovery of a new (and entirely unexpected) phenomenon: the aberration of starlight. This paper recounts the story of the discovery of stellar aberration. It is accompanied by a set of activities and computer simulations that allow students to explore this fascinating historical episode and learn important lessons about the nature of science.3

  15. Earth-to-Orbit Education Program 'Makes Science Cool'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this photograph, Jeff Alden (left) and Justin O'Cornor, two middle school students at Lane Middle School in Portland, Oregon are demonstrating their Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Design Challenge project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Jeff and Justin, who are just a couple of 'typical teens,' have been spending their time tackling some of the same challenges NASA engineers face when designing propulsion systems at MSFC. The ETO Design Challenge is a hands-on educational program, targeted to middle school students, in which students are assigned a project engaging in related design challenges in their classrooms under the supervision of their teachers. The project is valuable because it can be used by any student and any teacher, even those without technical backgrounds. Students in 12 states: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Missouri, Montana, New York, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington, are taking part in the MSFC's Earth-to-Orbit program. NASA uses such programs to support educational excellence while participating in educational outreach programs through centers around the country. The Oregon students' teacher, Joanne Fluvog, commented, 'the biggest change I've seen is in the students' motivation and their belief in their ability to think.' Both Justin and Jeff said being involved in a real engineering project has made them realize that 'science is cool.'

  16. Earth-to-Orbit Education Program 'Makes Science Cool'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this photograph, students from all over the country gathered and discussed their Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Design Challenge project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. These students who are just 'typical teens,' have been spending their time tackling some of the same challenges NASA engineers face when designing propulsion systems at MSFC. The ETO Design Challenge is a hands-on educational program, targeted to middle school students, in which students are assigned a project engaging in related design challenges in their classrooms under the supervision of their teachers. The project is valuable because it can be used by any student, and any teacher, even those without technical backgrounds. Student in 12 states: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Missouri, Montana, New York, Ohio, Ternessee, Virginia, and Washington, are taking part in MSFC's Earth-to-Orbit program. NASA uses such programs to support educational excellence while participating in educational outreach programs through centers around the country. One of the students' teachers, Joanne Fluvog, commented, 'the biggest change I've seen is in the students' motivation and their belief in their ability to think.' Justin O'Connor and Jeff Alden, students of Lane Middle School in Portland, Oregon, participated in the ETO program and said being involved in a real engineering project has made them realize that 'science is cool.'

  17. Earth Trek...Explore Your Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This booklet for children emphasizes the exploration and protection of the environment. An introduction discusses the interaction between humankind and the environment, emphasizing that the earth is a closed system. Chapter 1, "Mission: Protect the Water," addresses human dependence on water, water pollution, and water treatment. Chapter…

  18. An Earth Orbiting Satellite Service and Repair Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Andrew; Cardoza, Mike; Chen, John; Daley, Gunter; Frizzell, Andy; Linton, Richard; Rast, Wayne

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design was produced for the Geosynchronous Satellite Servicing Platform (GSSP), an orbital facility capable of repairing and servicing satellites in geosynchronous orbit. The GSSP is a man-tended platform, which consists of a habitation module, operations module, service bay and truss assembly. This design review includes an analysis of life support systems, thermal and power requirements, robotic and automated systems, control methods and navigation, and communications systems. The GSSP will utilize existing technology available at the time of construction, focusing mainly on modifying and integrating existing systems. The entire facility, along with two satellite retrieval vehicles (SRV), will be placed in geosynchronous orbit by the Advanced Launch System. The SRV will be used to ferry satellites to and from the GSSP. Technicians will be transferred from Earth to the GSSP and back in an Apollo-derived Crew Transfer Capsule (CTC). These missions will use advanced telerobotic equipment to inspect and service satellites. Four of these missions are tentatively scheduled per year. At this rate, the GSSP will service over 650 satelites during the projected 25 year lifespan.

  19. Orbital Drivers of Climate Change on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A. P.

    Oscillations of orbital elements and spin axis orientation affect the climate of both Earth and Mars by redistributing solar power both latitudinally and seasonally, often resulting in secondary changes in reflected and emitted radiation (radiative forcing). Multiple feedback loops between different climatic elements operate on both planets, with the result that climate response is generally nonlinear with simple changes in solar energy. Both insolation history and geochemical climate proxies can be treated as time series data, and analyzed in terms of component frequencies. The correspondence between frequencies measured in climate proxies and orbital oscillations is the key to relating orbital cause and climatic effect. Discussions of both Earth and Mars focus on the last 5-10 m.y., because this is the period in which the orbital history and geologic record are best understood. The terrestrial climate is an extraordinarily complex system, and a vast amount of data is available for analysis. While the geologic record strongly supports the role of Milankovitch cycles as the underlying cause of glacial cycles, orbitally driven insolation changes alone cannot explain the observations in detail. Early Pleistocene glacial cycles responded linearly to the 41-k.y. oscillations in obliquity. However, over the last 1 m.y., glacial/interglacial oscillations have become more extreme as the climate has cooled. Long cooling intervals marked by an oscillating buildup of ice sheets are now followed by brief, intense periods of warming. At the same time, glacial/interglacial cycles have shifted from 41 k.y. to ~100 k.y. No such changes occurred in the solar forcing due to orbital oscillations. While orbital oscillations still appear to pace glacial cycles, their subtle interplay with ice-sheet dynamics and shifts in ocean circulation have come to dominate the late Pleistocene climate system. In contrast to Earth, the martian climate is ostensibly a much simpler system about which

  20. Earth-to-Orbit Beamed Energy eXperiment (EBEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    As a means of primary propulsion, beamed energy propulsion offers the benefit of offloading much of the propulsion system mass from the vehicle, increasing its potential performance and freeing it from the constraints of the rocket equation. For interstellar missions, beamed energy propulsion is arguably the most viable in the near- to mid-term. A near-term demonstration showing the feasibility of beamed energy propulsion is necessary and, fortunately, feasible using existing technologies. Key enabling technologies are 1) large area, low mass spacecraft and 2) efficient and safe high power laser systems capable of long distance propagation. NASA is currently developing the spacecraft technology through the Near Earth Asteroid Scout solar sail mission and has signed agreements with the Planetary Society to study the feasibility of precursor laser propulsion experiments using their LightSail-2 solar sail spacecraft. The capabilities of Space Situational Awareness assets and the advanced analytical tools available for fine resolution orbit determination now make it possible to investigate the practicalities of an Earth-to-orbit Beamed Energy eXperiment (EBEX) - a demonstration at delivered power levels that only illuminate a spacecraft without causing damage to it. The degree to which this can be expected to produce a measurable change in the orbit of a low ballistic coefficient spacecraft is investigated. Key system characteristics and estimated performance are derived for a near term mission opportunity involving the LightSail-2 spacecraft and laser power levels modest in comparison to those proposed previously. A more detailed investigation of accessing LightSail-2 from Santa Rosa Island on Eglin Air Force Base on the United States coast of the Gulf of Mexico is provided to show expected results in a specific case. While the technology demonstrated by such an experiment is not sufficient to enable an interstellar precursor mission, it is a first step toward that

  1. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  2. Hardware in-the-Loop Demonstration of Real-Time Orbit Determination in High Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Leitner, Jesse; Carpenter, J. Russell; Gaylor, Dave

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to assess the real-time orbit determination accuracy of GPS-based navigation in a number of different high Earth orbital regimes. Measurements collected from a GPS receiver (connected to a GPS radio frequency (RF) signal simulator) were processed in a navigation filter in real-time, and resulting errors in the estimated states were assessed. For the most challenging orbit simulated, a 12 hour Molniya orbit with an apogee of approximately 39,000 km, mean total position and velocity errors were approximately 7 meters and 3 mm/s respectively. The study also makes direct comparisons between the results from the above hardware in-the-loop tests and results obtained by processing GPS measurements generated from software simulations. Care was taken to use the same models and assumptions in the generation of both the real-time and software simulated measurements, in order that the real-time data could be used to help validate the assumptions and models used in the software simulations. The study makes use of the unique capabilities of the Formation Flying Test Bed at GSFC, which provides a capability to interface with different GPS receivers and to produce real-time, filtered orbit solutions even when less than four satellites are visible. The result is a powerful tool for assessing onboard navigation performance in a wide range of orbital regimes, and a test-bed for developing software and procedures for use in real spacecraft applications.

  3. Two-stage earth-to-orbit vehicles with dual-fuel propulsion in the Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Earth-to-orbit vehicle studies of future replacements for the Space Shuttle are needed to guide technology development. Previous studies that have examined single-stage vehicles have shown advantages for dual-fuel propulsion. Previous two-stage system studies have assumed all-hydrogen fuel for the Orbiters. The present study examined dual-fuel Orbiters and found that the system dry mass could be reduced with this concept. The possibility of staging the booster at a staging velocity low enough to allow coast-back to the launch site is shown to be beneficial, particularly in combination with a dual-fuel Orbiter. An engine evaluation indicated the same ranking of engines as did a previous single-stage study. Propane and RP-1 fuels result in lower vehicle dry mass than methane, and staged-combustion engines are preferred over gas-generator engines. The sensitivity to the engine selection is less for two-stage systems than for single-stage systems.

  4. Surface and atmosphere parameter maps from earth-orbiting radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that an earth-orbiting electrically scanned microwave radiometer (ESMR) is capable of inferring the extent, concentration, and age of sea ice; the extent, concentration, and thickness of lake ice; rainfall rates over oceans; surface wind speeds over open water; particle size distribution in the deep snow cover of continental ice sheets; and soil moisture content in unvegetated fields. Most other features of the surface of the earth and its atmosphere require multispectral imaging techniques to unscramble the combined contributions of the atmosphere and the surface. Multispectral extraction of surface parameters is analyzed on the basis of a pertinent equation in terms of the observed brightness temperature, the emissivity of the surface which depends on wavelength and various parameters, the sensible temperature of the surface, and the total atmospheric opacity which is also wavelength dependent. Implementation of the multispectral technique is examined. Properties of the surface of the earth and its atmosphere to be determined from a scanning multichannel microwave radiometer are tabulated.

  5. Prospects for the Detection of Earths Orbiting Other Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Dunham, Edward W.

    2001-01-01

    Extrasolar planets have been detected by timing the radio signals from millisecond pulsars, from Doppler velocity changes in the spectra of main sequence stars, and most recently by the white-light transit of HD209458. Detection of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of main-sequence stars appears to be extremely difficult, if not impossible, from ground-based observatories because of noise introduced by scintillation and transparency changes in the Earth#s atmosphere. To overcome these difficulties, several spaceborne photometric missions have been proposed. The COROT mission is a CNES/ESA mission with a 30 cm aperture telescope that will monitor each of several star fields for five months to find short period planets. The Kepler project is a USA effort designed to monitor 100,000 solar-like stars in a single field of view for a period of four years. The long duration enables the reliable detection of planets with orbital periods from a few days to as long as two years. Thus it should be able to determine the frequency of planets in and near the habitable zone and associate them with stellar spectral types. Canadian and Scandinavian missions are also being developed. This paper compares these missions and discusses their expected contribution to our understanding of the frequency of terrestrial-sized planets around other stars.

  6. Surveillance of medium and high Earth orbits using large baseline stereovision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danescu, Radu; Ciurte, Anca; Oniga, Florin; Cristea, Octavian; Dolea, Paul; Dascal, Vlad; Turcu, Vlad; Mircea, Liviu; Moldovan, Dan

    2014-11-01

    The Earth is surrounded by a swarm of satellites and associated debris known as Resident Space Objects (RSOs). All RSOs will orbit the Earth until they reentry into Earth's atmosphere. There are three main RSO categories: Low Earth Orbit (LEO), when the satellite orbits at an altitude below 1 500 km; a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) at an altitude of around 20 000 km, and a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) (also sometimes called the Clarke orbit), for geostationary satellites, at an altitude of 36 000 km. The Geostationary Earth Orbits and the orbits of higher altitude are also known as High Earth Orbits (HEO). Crucial for keeping an eye on RSOs, the Surveillance of Space (SofS) comprises detection, tracking, propagation of orbital parameters, cataloguing and analysis of these objects. This paper presents a large baseline stereovision based approach for detection and ranging of RSO orbiting at medium to high altitudes. Two identical observation systems, consisting of camera, telescope, control computer and GPS receiver are located 37 km apart, and set to observe the same region of the sky. The telescopes are placed on equatorial mounts able to compensate for the Earth's rotation, so that the stars appear stationary in the acquired images, and the satellites will appear as linear streaks. The two cameras are triggered simultaneously. The satellite streaks are detected in each image of the stereo pair using its streak-like appearance against point-like stars, the motion of the streaks between successive frames, and the stereo disparity. The detected satellite pixels are then put into correspondence using the epipolar geometry, and the 3D position of the satellite in the Earth Center, Earth Fixed (ECEF) reference frame is computed using stereo triangulation. Preliminary tests have been performed, for both MEO and HEO orbits. The preliminary results indicate a very high detection rate for MEO orbits, and good detection rate for

  7. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  8. The Lunar Space Tug: A sustainable bridge between low Earth orbits and the Cislunar Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammarella, M.; Paissoni, C. A.; Viola, N.; Denaro, A.; Gargioli, E.; Massobrio, F.

    2017-09-01

    The International Space Station is the first space human outpost and over the last 15 years, it has represented a peculiar environment where science, technology and human innovation converge together in a unique microgravity and space research laboratory. With the International Space Station entering the second part of its life and its operations running steadily at nominal pace, the global space community is starting planning how the human exploration could move further, beyond Low-Earth-Orbit. According to the Global Exploration Roadmap, the Moon represents the next feasible path-way for advances in human exploration towards the nal goal, Mars. Based on the experience of the ISS, one of the most widespread ideas is to develop a Cislunar Station in preparation of long duration missions in a deep space environment. Cislunar space is de ned as the area of deep space under the influence of Earth-Moon system, including a set of special orbits, e.g. Earth-Moon Libration points and Lunar Retrograde Orbit. This habitat represents a suitable environment for demonstrating and testing technologies and capabilities in deep space. In order to achieve this goal, there are several crucial systems and technologies, in particular related to transportation and launch systems. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is a reusable transportation capsule designed to provide crew transportation in deep space missions, whereas NASA is developing the Space Launch System, the most powerful rocket ever built, which could provide the necessary heavy-lift launch capability to support the same kind of missions. These innovations would allow quite-fast transfers from Earth to the Cislunar Station and vice versa, both for manned and unmanned missions. However, taking into account the whole Concept of Operations for both the growth and sustainability of the Cislunar Space Station, the Lunar Space Tug can be considered as an additional, new and fundamental element for the mission architecture. The

  9. Application of X-Ray Pulsar Navigation: A Characterization of the Earth Orbit Trade Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The potential for pulsars as a navigation source has been studied since their discovery in 1967. X-ray pulsar navigation (XNAV) is a celestial navigation system that uses the consistent timing nature of x-ray photons from milli-second pulsars (MSP) to perform space navigation. By comparing the detected arrival of x-ray photons to a reference database of expected pulsar lightcurve timing models, one can infer a range and range rate measurement based on light time delay. Much of the challenge of XNAV comes from the faint signal, availability, and distant nature of pulsars. This is a study of potential pulsar XNAV measurements to measure extended Kalman filter (EKF) tracking performance with a wide trade space of bounded Earth orbits, using a simulation of existing x-ray detector space hardware. An example of an x-ray detector for XNAV is the NASA Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation (SEXTANT) mission, a technology demonstration of XNAV set to perform on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2016early 2017. XNAV hardware implementation is driven by trajectory and environmental influences which add noise to the x-ray pulse signal. In a closed Earth orbit, the radiation environment can exponentially increase the signal noise from x-ray pulsar sources, decreasing the quality and frequency of measurements. The SEXTANT mission in particular improves on the signal to noise ratio by focusing an array of 56 x-ray silicon drift detectors at one pulsar target at a time. This reduces timing glitches and other timing noise contributions from ambient x-ray sources to within a 100 nanosecond resolution. This study also considers the SEXTANT scheduling challenges inherent in a single target observation. Finally, as the navigation sources are now relatively inertial targets, XNAV measurements are also subject to periods of occultation from various celestial bodies. This study focuses on the characterization of these drivers in closed Earth orbits and is not a

  10. Application of X-Ray Pulsar Navigation: A Characterization of the Earth Orbit Trade Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne Hong

    2016-01-01

    The potential for pulsars as a navigation source has been studied since their discovery in 1967. X-ray pulsar navigation (XNAV) is a celestial navigation system that uses the consistent timing nature of x-ray photons from millisecond pulsars (MSP) to perform space navigation. By comparing the detected arrival of x-ray photons to a reference database of expected pulsar light-curve timing models, one can infer a range and range rate measurement based on light time delay. Much of the challenge of XNAV comes from the faint signal, availability, and distant nature of pulsars. This is a study of potential pulsar XNAV measurements to measure extended Kalman filter (EKF) tracking performance with a wide trade space of bounded Earth orbits, using a simulation of existing x-ray detector space hardware. An example of an x-ray detector for XNAV is the NASA Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation (SEXTANT) mission, a technology demonstration of XNAV set to perform on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2016early 2017. XNAV hardware implementation is driven by trajectory and environmental influences which add noise to the x-ray pulse signal. In a closed Earth orbit, the radiation environment can exponentially increase the signal noise from x-ray pulsar sources, decreasing the quality and frequency of measurements. The SEXTANT mission in particular improves on the signal to noise ratio by focusing an array of 56 x-ray silicon drift detectors at one pulsar target at a time. This reduces timing glitches and other timing noise contributions from ambient x-ray sources to within a 100 nanosecond resolution. This study also considers the SEXTANT scheduling challenges inherent in a single target observation. Finally, as the navigation sources are now relatively inertial targets, XNAV measurements are also subject to periods of occultation from various celestial bodies. This study focuses on the characterization of these drivers in closed Earth orbits and is not a

  11. Optimization of Return Trajectories for Orbital Transfer Vehicle between Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funase, Ryu; Tsuda, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, optimum trajectories in Earth Transfer Orbit (ETO) for a lunar transportation system are proposed. This paper aims at improving the payload ratio of the reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV), which transports the payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar Low Orbit (LLO) and returns to LEO. In ETO, we discuss ballistic flight using chemical propulsion, multi-impulse flight using electrical propulsion, and aero-assisted flight using aero-brake. The feasibility of the OTV is considered.

  12. Tracking target objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    DOEpatents

    De Vries, Willem H; Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J

    2014-10-14

    A system for tracking objects that are in earth orbit via a constellation or network of satellites having imaging devices is provided. An object tracking system includes a ground controller and, for each satellite in the constellation, an onboard controller. The ground controller receives ephemeris information for a target object and directs that ephemeris information be transmitted to the satellites. Each onboard controller receives ephemeris information for a target object, collects images of the target object based on the expected location of the target object at an expected time, identifies actual locations of the target object from the collected images, and identifies a next expected location at a next expected time based on the identified actual locations of the target object. The onboard controller processes the collected image to identify the actual location of the target object and transmits the actual location information to the ground controller.

  13. Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

    1991-01-01

    This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

  14. On-Orbit Collision Hazard Analysis in Low Earth Orbit Using the Poisson Probability Distribution (Version 1.0)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-08-26

    This document provides the basic information needed to estimate a general : probability of collision in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Although the method : described in this primer is a first order approximation, its results are : reasonable. Furthermore, t...

  15. A comprehensive assessment of collision likelihood in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltrogge, D. L.; Alfano, S.; Law, C.; Cacioni, A.; Kelso, T. S.

    2018-06-01

    Knowing the likelihood of collision for satellites operating in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) is of extreme importance and interest to the global community and the operators of GEO spacecraft. Yet for all of its importance, a comprehensive assessment of GEO collision likelihood is difficult to do and has never been done. In this paper, we employ six independent and diverse assessment methods to estimate GEO collision likelihood. Taken in aggregate, this comprehensive assessment offer new insights into GEO collision likelihood that are within a factor of 3.5 of each other. These results are then compared to four collision and seven encounter rate estimates previously published. Collectively, these new findings indicate that collision likelihood in GEO is as much as four orders of magnitude higher than previously published by other researchers. Results indicate that a collision is likely to occur every 4 years for one satellite out of the entire GEO active satellite population against a 1 cm RSO catalogue, and every 50 years against a 20 cm RSO catalogue. Further, previous assertions that collision relative velocities are low (i.e., <1 km/s) in GEO are disproven, with some GEO relative velocities as high as 4 km/s identified. These new findings indicate that unless operators successfully mitigate this collision risk, the GEO orbital arc is and will remain at high risk of collision, with the potential for serious follow-on collision threats from post-collision debris when a substantial GEO collision occurs.

  16. Direct Data Distribution From Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Fujikawa, Gene; Kunath, Richard R.; Nguyen, Nam T.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Spence, Rodney L.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is developing the space and ground segment technologies necessary to demonstrate a direct data distribution (1)3) system for use in space-to-ground communication links from spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) to strategically located tracking ground terminals. The key space segment technologies include a K-band (19 GHz) MMIC-based transmit phased array antenna, and a multichannel bandwidth- and power-efficient digital encoder/modulate with an aggregate data rate of 622 Mb/s. Along with small (1.8 meter), low-cost tracking terminals on the ground, the D3 system enables affordable distribution of data to the end user or archive facility through interoperability with commercial terrestrial telecommunications networks. The D3 system is applicable to both government and commercial science and communications spacecraft in LEO. The features and benefits of the D3 system concept are described. Starting with typical orbital characteristics, a set of baseline requirements for representative applications is developed, including requirements for onboard storage and tracking terminals, and sample link budgets are presented. Characteristics of the transmit array antenna and digital encoder/modulator are described. The architecture and components of the tracking terminal are described, including technologies for the next generation terminal. Candidate flights of opportunity for risk mitigation and space demonstration of the D3 features are identified.

  17. A Low Earth Orbit satellite marine communication system demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, T. Keith; Butt, Kenneth A.; Asmus, Ken W.

    1995-01-01

    An application of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite communications technology was investigated during a joint Canadian/American scientific expedition to the north pole in the summer of 1994. The Canadian ice breaker involved, was equipped with a store-and-forward LEO satellite terminal which was linked to a ground station in St. John's, Newfoundland, via the near-polar-orbiting satellite, HealthSat-l. The objective was to evaluate the performance of such a system while providing an alternate means of communications in the far north. The system performed well, given its inherent limitations. All 151 attempts to send data files to the ship were successful. Only two (2) of the 35 attempts to send files from the ship were unsuccessful. The files ranged in size from 0.1 to 60 Kbytes. In the high arctic, above 80 deg north, this system often provided the only practical means of data communications. This experiment demonstrated the potential of such a system for not-real-time communications with remote and/or mobile stations, and highlighted the many issues involved. This paper describes the project objectives, system configuration and experimental procedure used, related technical issues, trial results, future work, and conclusions.

  18. PôDET: A Centre for Earth Dynamical Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, D.; Deleflie, F.

    2013-11-01

    The monitoring of the Earth space environment has gained some importance these last decades, in particular at the European level, partly because the phenomenon which origin come from space can have socio-economic consequences; and also because our understanding of those phenomenon - their associated prediction and risks - is still limited. For instance, the Space Situational Awareness programme (SSA) at ESA has set up in 2013 a centre and network for aspects connected to space debris (SST), to space weather (SW), and to near-Earth objects (NEO). At IMCCE, the Pôle sur la dynamique de l'environnement terrestre} (PODET, \\url{podet.imcce.fr}) for the Earth dynamical environment is studying effects and prediction for natural and artificial objects gravitating in the Earth vicinity. These studies englobe near-Earth objects, asteroids, comets, meteoroids, meteorite streams, and space debris. For all object types that are concerned, a general scheme of a functional analysis has been developed. It encompasses data acquisition with dedicated observations--essentially astrometric--or database queries, orbit determination or adjustment, prediction and ephemerides, and eventually impact probability computation and data dissemination. We develop here the general context of this action, the PôDET project, its scientific objectives, interaction with other disciplines, and the development in progress for dedicated tools.

  19. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  20. Orbit determination of highly elliptical Earth orbiters using improved Doppler data-processing modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A navigation error covariance analysis of four highly elliptical Earth orbits is described, with apogee heights ranging from 20,000 to 76,800 km and perigee heights ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 km. This analysis differs from earlier studies in that improved navigation data-processing modes were used to reduce the radio metric data. For this study, X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler data were assumed to be acquired from two Deep Space Network radio antennas and reconstructed orbit errors propagated over a single day. Doppler measurements were formulated as total-count phase measurements and compared to the traditional formulation of differenced-count frequency measurements. In addition, an enhanced data-filtering strategy was used, which treated the principal ground system calibration errors affecting the data as filter parameters. Results suggest that a 40- to 60-percent accuracy improvement may be achievable over traditional data-processing modes in reconstructed orbit errors, with a substantial reduction in reconstructed velocity errors at perigee. Historically, this has been a regime in which stringent navigation requirements have been difficult to meet by conventional methods.

  1. Effects of CubeSat Deployments in Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. J.; Vavrin, A. B.; Manis, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term models, such as NASA's LEGEND (LEO (Low-Earth Orbit)-to-GEO (Geosynchrous Earth Orbit) Environment Debris) model, are used to make predictions about how space activities will affect the long-term evolution of the debris environment. Part of this process is to predict how spacecraft and rocket bodies will be launched and left in the environment in the future. This has usually been accomplished by repeating past launch history to simulate future launches. It was partially upon the basis of the results of such models that both national and international orbital debris mitigation guidelines - especially the "25-year rule" for post-mission disposal - were determined. The proliferation of Cubesat launches in recent years, however, has raised concerns that we are seeing a fundamental shift in how humans launch satellites into space that may alter the assumptions upon which our current mitigation guidelines are based. The large number of Cubesats, and their short lifetime and general inability to perform collision avoidance, potentially makes them an important new source of debris. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has conducted a series of LEGEND computations to investigate the long-term effects of adding Cubesats to the environment. Several possible future scenarios were simulated to investigate the effects of the size of future Cubesat launches and the efficiency of post-mission disposal on the proliferation of catastrophic collisions over the next 200 years. These results are compared to a baseline "business-as-usual" scenario where launches are assumed to continue as in the past without major Cubesat deployments. Using these results, we make observations about the continued use of the 25-year rule and the importance of the universal application of post-mission disposal. We also discuss how the proliferation of Cubesats may affect satellite traffic at lower altitudes.

  2. The orbit and size distribution of small Solar System objects orbiting the Sun interior to the Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodny, Maximilian; Jedicke, Robert; Beshore, Edward C.; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Larson, Stephen

    2008-12-01

    We present the first observational measurement of the orbit and size distribution of small Solar System objects whose orbits are wholly interior to the Earth's (Inner Earth Objects, IEOs, with aphelion <0.983 AU). We show that we are able to model the detections of near-Earth objects (NEO) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) using a detailed parameterization of the CSS survey cadence and detection efficiencies as implemented within the Jedicke et al. [Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Spahr, T., Petit, J.M., Bottke, W.F., 2003. Icarus 161, 17-33] survey simulator and utilizing the Bottke et al. [Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.-M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S., 2002. Icarus 156, 399-433] model of the NEO population's size and orbit distribution. We then show that the CSS detections of 4 IEOs are consistent with the Bottke et al. [Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.-M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S., 2002. Icarus 156, 399-433] IEO model. Observational selection effects for the IEOs discovered by the CSS were then determined using the survey simulator in order to calculate the corrected number and H distribution of the IEOs. The actual number of IEOs with H<18 (21) is 36±26 ( 530±240) and the slope of the H magnitude distribution ( ∝10) for the IEOs is α=0.44-0.22+0.23. The slope is consistent with previous measurements for the NEO population of α=0.35±0.02 [Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.-M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S., 2002. Icarus 156, 399-433] and α=0.39±0.013 [Stuart, J.S., Binzel, R.P., 2004. Icarus 170, 295-311]. Based on the agreement between the predicted and observed IEO orbit and absolute magnitude distributions there is no indication of any non-gravitational effects (e.g. Yarkovsky, tidal disruption) affecting the known IEO population.

  3. From Earth to Orbit: An assessment of transportation options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Blond, Edmund; Brill, Yvonne C.; Budiansky, Bernard; Cooper, Robert S.; Demisch, Wolfgang H.; Hawk, Clark W.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Mager, Artur

    1992-01-01

    The report assesses the requirements, benefits, technological feasibility, and roles of Earth-to-Orbit transportation systems and options that could be developed in support of future national space programs. Transportation requirements, including those for Mission-to-Planet Earth, Space Station Freedom assembly and operation, human exploration of space, space science missions, and other major civil space missions are examined. These requirements are compared with existing, planned, and potential launch capabilities, including expendable launch vehicles (ELV's), the Space Shuttle, the National Launch System (NLS), and new launch options. In addition, the report examines propulsion systems in the context of various launch vehicles. These include the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), the Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU), the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), existing expendable launch vehicle engines, and liquid-oxygen/hydrocarbon engines. Consideration is given to systems that have been proposed to accomplish the national interests in relatively cost effective ways, with the recognition that safety and reliability contribute to cost-effectiveness. Related resources, including technology, propulsion test facilities, and manufacturing capabilities are also discussed.

  4. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.; Joosten, B. J.; Lo, M. W.; Ford, K. M.; Hansen, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospects for the Detection of Earths Orbiting Other Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourcki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Dunham, Edward W.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extrasolar planets have been detected by timing the radio signals from millisecond pulsars, from Doppler velocity changes in the spectra of main sequence stars, and most recently by the white-light transit of HD209458. Detection of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of main-sequence stars appears to be extremely difficult, if not impossible, from ground-based observatories because of noise introduced by scintillation and transparency changes in the Earth's atmosphere. To overcome these difficulties, several spaceborne photometric missions have been proposed. The COROT mission is a CNES/ESA mission with a 30 cm aperture telescope that will monitor each of several star fields for five months to find short period planets. The Kepler project is a USA effort designed to monitor 100,000 solar-like stars in a single field of view for a period of four years. The long duration enables the reliable detection of planets with orbital periods from a few days to as long as two years. Thus it should be able to determine the frequency of planets in and near the habitable zone and associate them with stellar spectral types. Canadian and Scandinavian missions are also being developed. This paper compares these missions and discusses their expected contribution to our understanding of the frequency of terrestrial-sized planets around other stars.

  6. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  7. The Orbital Distribution of Earth-crossing Asteroids and Meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-07-01

    The relationship between meteorites and Earth-crossing asteroids and between individual meteorites and meteor showers has been the subject of debate for some time. Recently, links have been claimed between certain meteorites and meteoroid complexes [e.g., 1] and it has been suggested that some meteorites are members of orbital "streams" [2]. It is difficult to evaluate these ideas because of the lack of appropriate measureable properties in the meteorites themselves. Cosmic ray exposure ages provide one approach but most cosmogenic nuclides have large halflives and hence generally reflect the long term radiation exposure of the body rather than the short term orbital evolution leading up to Earth impact. Here we use natural thermoluminescence (TL) data to determine the "average" perihelion of ordinary chondrites among the modern falls over periods of time of less than 10^3-10^5 years prior to Earth impact. The level of natural TL of a meteorite (at a given glow curve temperature) is a function of buildup through radiation dose (which, in turn, is a function of depth or "shielding" and external cosmic ray flux) and decay through thermal draining [3]. The shallow TL vs. depth profile observed in lunar cores [4] can, after correction for irradiation geometry, be used to to calculate TL profiles in meteoroid-sized bodies. Our new calculations indicate a range of natural TL of only about 15% in large meteoroid-sized bodies and an even smaller range in smaller bodies. The "half-life" of TL is far greater than the solar/cosmic ray flux cycle and hence variations in the external flux over time are expected to have only very minor effects. It is thus possible to calculate an "irradiation temperature" for a meteorite using its natural TL level, which can be shown through decay calculations to largely reflect the perihelion of the meteoroid body. The time period over which this irradiation temperature is averaged is a function of the temperature (perihelion); the period is

  8. A Simple Model for the Orbital Debris Environment in GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar, A. K.; Ananthasayanam, M. R.; Subba Rao, P. V.

    The increase of space debris and its threat to commercial space activities in the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) predictably cause concern regarding the environment over the long term. A variety of studies regarding space debris such as detection, modeling, protection and mitigation measures, is being pursued for the past couple of decades. Due to the absence of atmospheric drag to remove debris in GEO and the increasing number of utility satellites therein, the number of objects in GEO will continue to increase. The characterization of the GEO environment is critical for risk assessment and protection of future satellites and also to incorporate effective debris mitigation measures in the design and operations. The debris measurements in GEO have been limited to objects with size more than 60 cm. This paper provides an engineering model of the GEO environment by utilizing the philosophy and approach as laid out for the SIMPLE model proposed recently for LEO by the authors. The present study analyses the statistical characteristics of the GEO catalogued objects in order to arrive at a model for the GEO space debris environment. It is noted that the catalogued objects, as of now of around 800, by USSPACECOM across the years 1998 to 2004 have the same semi major axis mode (highest number density) around 35750 km above the earth. After removing the objects in the small bin around the mode, (35700, 35800) km containing around 40 percent (a value that is nearly constant across the years) of the objects, the number density of the other objects follow a single Laplace distribution with two parameters, namely location and scale. Across the years the location parameter of the above distribution does not significantly vary but the scale parameter shows a definite trend. These observations are successfully utilized in proposing a simple model for the GEO debris environment. References Ananthasayanam, M. R., Anil Kumar, A. K., and Subba Rao, P. V., ``A New Stochastic

  9. Periodic orbit-attitude solutions along planar orbits in a perturbed circular restricted three-body problem for the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, Lorenzo; Lavagna, Michèle; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2018-06-01

    Interest on Large Space Structures (LSS), orbiting in strategic and possibly long-term stable locations, is nowadays increasing in the space community. LSS can serve as strategic outpost to support a variety of manned and unmanned mission, or may carry scientific payloads for astronomical observations. The paper focuses on analysing LSS in the Earth-Moon system, exploring dynamical structures that are available within a multi-body gravitational environment. Coupling between attitude and orbital dynamics is investigated, with particular interest on the gravity gradient torque exerted by the two massive attractors. First, natural periodic orbit-attitude solutions are obtained; a LSS that exploits such solutions would benefit of a naturally periodic body rotation synchronous with the orbital motion, easing the effort of the attitude control system to satisfy pointing requirements. Then, the solar radiation pressure is introduced into the fully coupled dynamical model and its effects investigated, discovering novel periodic attitude solutions. Benefits of periodic behaviours that incorporate solar radiation pressure are discussed, and analysed via the variation of some parameters (e.g reflection/absorption coefficients, position of the centre of pressure). As a final step to refine the current perturbed orbit-attitude model, a structure flexibility is also superimposed to a reference orbit-attitude rigid body motion via a simple, yet effective model. The coupling of structural vibrations and attitude motion is preliminarily explored, and allows identification of possible challenges, that may be faced to position a LSS in a periodic orbit within the Earth-Moon system.

  10. The Near-Earth Plasma Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Robert F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the plasma environment near the earth is provided. We describe how the near-earth plasma is formed, including photo-ionization from solar photons and impact ionization at high latitudes from energetic particles. We review the fundamental characteristics of the earth's plasma environment, with emphasis on the ionosphere and its interactions with the extended neutral atmosphere. Important processes that control ionospheric physics at low, middle, and high latitudes are discussed. The general dynamics and morphology of the ionized gas at mid- and low-latitudes are described including electrodynamic contributions from wind-driven dynamos, tides, and planetary-scale waves. The unique properties of the near-earth plasma and its associated currents at high latitudes are shown to depend on precipitating auroral charged particles and strong electric fields which map earthward from the magnetosphere. The upper atmosphere is shown to have profound effects on the transfer of energy and momentum between the high-latitude plasma and the neutral constituents. The article concludes with a discussion of how the near-earth plasma responds to magnetic storms associated with solar disturbances.

  11. Modelling the near-Earth space environment using LDEF data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Dale R.; Coombs, Cassandra R.; Crowell, Lawrence B.; Watts, Alan J.

    1992-01-01

    Near-Earth space is a dynamic environment, that is currently not well understood. In an effort to better characterize the near-Earth space environment, this study compares the results of actual impact crater measurement data and the Space Environment (SPENV) Program developed in-house at POD, to theoretical models established by Kessler (NASA TM-100471, 1987) and Cour-Palais (NASA SP-8013, 1969). With the continuing escalation of debris there will exist a definite hazard to unmanned satellites as well as manned operations. Since the smaller non-trackable debris has the highest impact rate, it is clearly necessary to establish the true debris environment for all particle sizes. Proper comprehension of the near-Earth space environment and its origin will permit improvement in spacecraft design and mission planning, thereby reducing potential disasters and extreme costs. Results of this study directly relate to the survivability of future spacecraft and satellites that are to travel through and/or reside in low Earth orbit (LEO). More specifically, these data are being used to: (1) characterize the effects of the LEO micrometeoroid an debris environment on satellite designs and components; (2) update the current theoretical micrometeoroid and debris models for LEO; (3) help assess the survivability of spacecraft and satellites that must travel through or reside in LEO, and the probability of their collision with already resident debris; and (4) help define and evaluate future debris mitigation and disposal methods. Combined model predictions match relatively well with the LDEF data for impact craters larger than approximately 0.05 cm, diameter; however, for smaller impact craters, the combined predictions diverge and do not reflect the sporadic clouds identified by the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) aboard LDEF. The divergences cannot currently be explained by the authors or model developers. The mean flux of small craters (approximately 0.05 cm diameter) is

  12. Contribution of explosion and future collision fragments to the orbital debris environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, S.-Y.; Kessler, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The time evolution of the near-earth man-made orbital debris environment modeled by numerical simulation is presented in this paper. The model starts with a data base of orbital debris objects which are tracked by the NORAD ground radar system. The current untrackable small objects are assumed to result from explosions and are predicted from data collected from a ground explosion experiment. Future collisions between earth orbiting objects are handled by the Monte Carlo method to simulate the range of collision possibilities that may occur in the real world. The collision fragmentation process between debris objects is calculated using an empirical formula derived from a laboratory spacecraft impact experiment to obtain the number versus size distribution of the newly generated debris population. The evolution of the future space debris environment is compared with the natural meteoroid background for the relative spacecraft penetration hazard.

  13. Radiation Information for Designing and Interpreting Biological Experiments Onboard Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straume, T.; Slaba, T.; Bhattacharya, S.; Braby, L. A.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in flying biological experiments beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) to measure biological responses potentially relevant to those expected during a human mission to Mars. Such experiments could be payloads onboard precursor missions, including unmanned private-public partnerships, as well as small low-cost spacecraft (satellites) designed specifically for biosentinel type missions. Designing such experiments requires knowledge of the radiation environment and its interactions with both the spacecraft and the experimental payload. Information is provided here that is useful for designing such experiments.

  14. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 5: Earth storable design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis and parametric design effort was conducted under the earth-storable phase of the program. Passive Acquisition/expulsion system concepts were evaluated for a reusable Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) application. The passive surface tension technique for providing gas free liquid on demand was superior to other propellant acquisition methods. Systems using fine mesh screens can provide the requisite stability and satisfy OMS mission requirements. Both fine mesh screen liner and trap systems were given detailed consideration in the parametric design, and trap systems were selected for this particular application. These systems are compatible with the 100- to 500-manned mission reuse requirements.

  15. Analysis of orbit determination from Earth-based tracking for relay satellites in a perturbed areostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, P.; Pablos, B.; Barderas, G.

    2017-07-01

    Areostationary satellites are considered a high interest group of satellites to satisfy the telecommunications needs of the foreseen missions to Mars. An areostationary satellite, in an areoequatorial circular orbit with a period of 1 Martian sidereal day, would orbit Mars remaining at a fixed location over the Martian surface, analogous to a geostationary satellite around the Earth. This work addresses an analysis of the perturbed orbital motion of an areostationary satellite as well as a preliminary analysis of the aerostationary orbit estimation accuracy based on Earth tracking observations. First, the models for the perturbations due to the Mars gravitational field, the gravitational attraction of the Sun and the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, and solar radiation pressure are described. Then, the observability from Earth including possible occultations by Mars of an areostationary satellite in a perturbed areosynchronous motion is analyzed. The results show that continuous Earth-based tracking is achievable using observations from the three NASA Deep Space Network Complexes in Madrid, Goldstone and Canberra in an occultation-free scenario. Finally, an analysis of the orbit determination accuracy is addressed considering several scenarios including discontinuous tracking schedules for different epochs and different areoestationary satellites. Simulations also allow to quantify the aerostationary orbit estimation accuracy for various tracking series durations and observed orbit arc-lengths.

  16. Mass driver retrievals of earth-approaching asteroids. [earth orbit capture for mining purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleary, B.

    1977-01-01

    Mass driver tugs can be designed to move Apollo and Amor asteroids at opportunities of low velocity increment to the vicinity of the earth. The cost of transferring asteroids through a velocity interval of 3 km/sec by mass driver is about 16 cents per kilogram amortized over 10 years, about ten times less than that required to retrieve lunar resources during the early phases of a program of space manufacturing. About 22 per cent of a 200-meter diameter asteroid could be transferred to high earth orbit by an automated 100 megawatt solar-powered mass driver in a period of five years for a cost of approximately $1 billion. Estimates of the total investment of a space manufacturing program could be reduced twofold by using asteroidal instead of lunar resources; such a program could begin several years sooner with minimal concurrent development if asteroidal search programs and mass driver development are immediately accelerated.

  17. Charged aerodynamics of a Low Earth Orbit cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capon, C. J.; Brown, M.; Boyce, R. R.

    2016-11-01

    This work investigates the charged aerodynamic interaction of a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) cylinder with the ionosphere. The ratio of charge to neutral drag force on a 2D LEO cylinder with diffusely reflecting cool walls is derived analytically and compared against self-consistent electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations. Analytical calculations predict that neglecting charged drag in an O+ dominated LEO plasma with a neutral to ion number density ratio of 102 will cause a 10% over-prediction of O density based on body accelerations when body potential (ɸB) is ≤ -390 V. Above 900 km altitude in LEO, where H+ becomes the dominant ion species, analytical predictions suggest charge drag becomes equivalent to neutral drag for ɸB ≤ -0.75 V. Comparing analytical predictions against PIC simulations in the range of 0 < - ɸB < 50 V found that analytical charged drag was under-estimated for all body potentials; the degree of under-estimation increasing with ɸB. Based on the -50 V PIC simulations, our in-house 6 degree of freedom orbital propagator saw a reduction in the semi-major axis of a 10 kg satellite at 700 km of 6.9 m/day and 0.98 m/day at 900 km compared that caused purely by neutral drag - 0.67 m/day and 0.056 m/day respectively. Hence, this work provides initial evidence that charged aerodynamics may become significant compared to neutral aerodynamics for high voltage LEO bodies.

  18. EURECA orbits above the Earth's surface prior to STS-57 OV-105 RMS capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against open ocean waters, the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) spacecraft, with solar array (SA) panels folded flat against its sides, approaches Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, on flight day five. Later, the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector was used to 'capture' the spacecraft. After ten days in Earth orbit, the crew returned to Earth, bringing EURECA home.

  19. Infrared near-Earth-object survey modeling for observatories interior to the Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, M.

    2014-07-01

    The search for and dynamical characterization of the near-Earth population of objects (NEOs) has been a busy topic for surveys for many years. Most of the work thus far has been from ground-based optical surveys such as the Catalina Sky Survey and LINEAR. These surveys have essentially reached a complete inventory of objects down to 1 km diameter and have shown that the known objects do not pose any significant impact threat. Smaller objects are correspondingly smaller threats but there are more of them and fewer of them have so far been discovered. The next generation of surveys is looking to extend their reach down to much smaller sizes. From an impact risk perspective, those objects as small as 30--40 m are still of interest (similar in size to the Tunguska bolide). Smaller objects than this are largely of interest from a space resource or in-situ analysis efforts. A recent mission concept promoted by the B612 Foundation and Ball Aerospace calls for an infrared survey telescope in a Venus-like orbit, known as the Sentinel Mission. This wide-field facility has been designed to complete the inventory down to a 140 m diameter while also providing substantial constraints on the NEO population down to a Tunguska-sized object. I have been working to develop a suite of tools to provide survey modeling for this class of survey telescope. The purpose of the tool is to uncover hidden complexities that govern mission design and operation while also working to quantitatively understand the orbit quality provided on its catalog of objects without additional followup assets. The baseline mission design calls for a 6.5 year survey lifetime. This survey model is a statistically based tool for establishing completeness as a function of object size and survey duration. Effects modeled include the ability to adjust the field-of-regard (includes all pointing restrictions), field-of-view, focal plane array fill factor, and the observatory orbit. Consequences tracked include time

  20. Probable Rotation States of Rocket Bodies in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojakangas, Gregory W.; Anz-Meador, P.; Cowardin, H.

    2012-01-01

    In order for Active Debris Removal to be accomplished, it is critically important to understand the probable rotation states of orbiting, spent rocket bodies. As compared to the question of characterizing small unresolved debris, in this problem there are several advantages: (1) objects are of known size, mass, shape and color, (2) they have typically been in orbit for a known period of time, (3) they are large enough that resolved images may be obtainable for verification of predicted orientation, and (4) the dynamical problem is simplified to first order by largely cylindrical symmetry. It is also nearly certain for realistic rocket bodies that internal friction is appreciable in the case where residual liquid or, to a lesser degree, unconsolidated solid fuels exist. Equations of motion have been developed for this problem in which internal friction as well as torques due to solar radiation, magnetic induction, and gravitational gradient are included. In the case of pure cylindrical symmetry, the results are compared to analytical predictions patterned after the standard approach for analysis of symmetrical tops. This is possible because solar radiation and gravitational torques may be treated as conservative. Agreement between results of both methods ensures their mutual validity. For monotone symmetric cylinders, solar radiation torque vanishes if the center of mass resides at the geometric center of the object. Results indicate that in the absence of solar radiation effects, rotation states tend toward an equilibrium configuration in which rotation is about the axis of maximum inertia, with the axis of minimum inertia directed toward the center of the earth. Solar radiation torque introduces a modification to this orientation. The equilibrium state is asymptotically approached within a characteristic timescale given by a simple ratio of relevant characterizing parameters for the body in question. Light curves are simulated for the expected asymptotic final

  1. Bringing the environment down to earth.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, F L

    1999-01-01

    The debate on business and the environment has typically been framed in simple yes-or-no terms: "Does it pay to be green?" But the environment, like other business issues, requires a more complex approach--one that demands more than such all-or-nothing thinking. Managers need to ask instead, "Under what circumstances do particular kinds of environmental investments deliver returns to shareholders?" This article presents five approaches that managers can take to identify those circumstances and integrate the environment into their business thinking. These approaches will enable companies with the right industry structure, competitive position, and managerial skills to reconcile their responsibility to shareholders with the pressure to be faithful stewards of the earth's resources. Some companies can distance themselves from competitors by differentiating their products and commanding higher prices for them. Others may be able to "manage" their competitors by imposing a set of private regulations or by helping to shape the rules written by government officials. Still others may be able to cut costs and help the environment simultaneously. Almost all can learn to improve their management of risk and thus reduce the outlays associated with accidents, lawsuits, and boycotts. And some companies may even be able to make systemic changes that will redefine competition in their markets. All five approaches can help managers bring the environment down to earth. And that means bringing the environment back into the fold of business problems and determining when it really pays to be green.

  2. Circumlunar Free-Return Cycler Orbits for a Manned Earth-Moon Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Aldrin, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple free-return circumlunar cycler orbits were designed to allow regular travel between the Earth and Moon by a manned space station. The presented cycler orbits contain circumlunar free-return "figure-8" segments and yield lunar encounters every month. Smaller space "taxi" vehicles can rendezvous with (and depart from) the cycling Earth-Moon space station to enter lunar orbit (and/or land on the lunar surface), return to Earth, or reach destinations including Earth-Moon L1 and L2 halo orbits, near-Earth objects (NEOs), Venus, and Mars. To assess the practicality of the selected orbits, relevant cycler characteristics (including (Delta)V maintenance requirements) are presented and compared.

  3. A Free-Return Earth-Moon Cycler Orbit for an Interplanetary Cruise Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Aldrin, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    A periodic circumlunar orbit is presented that can be used by an interplanetary cruise ship for regular travel between Earth and the Moon. This Earth-Moon cycler orbit was revealed by introducing solar gravity and modest phasing maneuvers (average of 39 m/s per month) which yields close-Earth encounters every 7 or 10 days. Lunar encounters occur every 26 days and offer the chance for a smaller craft to depart the cycler and enter lunar orbit, or head for a Lagrange point (e.g., EM-L2 halo orbit), distant retrograde orbit (DRO), or interplanetary destination such as a near-Earth object (NEO) or Mars. Additionally, return-to-Earth abort options are available from many points along the cycling trajectory.

  4. Preliminary Design Considerations for Access and Operations in Earth-Moon L1/L2 Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Pavlak, Thomas A.; Haapala, Amanda F.; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of manned spaceflight activities, Earth-Moon libration point orbits could support lunar surface operations and serve as staging areas for future missions to near-Earth asteroids and Mars. This investigation examines preliminary design considerations including Earth-Moon L1/L2 libration point orbit selection, transfers, and stationkeeping costs associated with maintaining a spacecraft in the vicinity of L1 or L2 for a specified duration. Existing tools in multi-body trajectory design, dynamical systems theory, and orbit maintenance are leveraged in this analysis to explore end-to-end concepts for manned missions to Earth-Moon libration points.

  5. An Analysis of Recent Major Breakups in he Low Earth Orbit Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Of the 190 known satellite breakups between 1961 and 2006, only one generated more than 500 cataloged fragments. The event was the explosion of the Pegasus Hydrazine Auxiliary Propulsion System in 1996, adding 713 fragments to the U.S. Satellite Catalog. Since the beginning of 2007; however, the near-Earth environment has been subjected to several major breakups, including the Fengyun-1C anti-satellite test and the explosion of Briz-M in 2007, the unusual breakup of Cosmos 2421 in 2008, and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009. Combined, these events added more than 5000 large (> or equal 10 cm) fragments to the environment. Detailed analysis of the radar cross section measurements and orbit histories of the fragments from these major events reveals several unusual characteristics in their size and area-to-mass ratio distributions. The characteristics could be related to the material composition of the parent vehicles, the nature of the breakup, and the composition and physical property of the fragments. In addition, the majority of these fragments are expected to remain in orbit for at least decades. Their long-term impact to the environment is analyzed using the NASA orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND. Descriptions of these analyses and a summary are included in this paper.

  6. The international environment UNISPACE '82 and the ITU: A relationship between orbit-spectrum resource allocation and orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmstead, D.

    1985-01-01

    The 1985 Space WARC will examine and potentially modify the current geostationary orbit spectrum resource allocation methodology. Discussions in this international political environment could likely associate the geostationary orbital debris issue with the politicized issue of orbit spectrum allocation.

  7. LEOrbit: A program to calculate parameters relevant to modeling Low Earth Orbit spacecraft-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, R.; Purschke, D.; Samson, J.

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the physics of interaction between satellites and the space environment is essential in planning and exploiting space missions. Several computer models have been developed over the years to study this interaction. In all cases, simulations are carried out in the reference frame of the spacecraft and effects such as charging, the formation of electrostatic sheaths and wakes are calculated for given conditions of the space environment. In this paper we present a program used to compute magnetic fields and a number of space plasma and space environment parameters relevant to Low Earth Orbits (LEO) spacecraft-plasma interaction modeling. Magnetic fields are obtained from the International Geophysical Reference Field (IGRF) and plasma parameters are obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. All parameters are computed in the spacecraft frame of reference as a function of its six Keplerian elements. They are presented in a format that can be used directly in most spacecraft-plasma interaction models. Catalogue identifier: AENY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 270308 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2323222 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 90. Computer: Non specific. Operating system: Non specific. RAM: 7.1 MB Classification: 19, 4.14. External routines: IRI, IGRF (included in the package). Nature of problem: Compute magnetic field components, direction of the sun, sun visibility factor and approximate plasma parameters in the reference frame of a Low Earth Orbit satellite. Solution method: Orbit integration, calls to IGRF and IRI libraries and transformation of coordinates from geocentric to spacecraft

  8. EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yoshikawa, I.; Ueno, M.; Uemizu, K.; Yamazaki, A.

    2010-01-01

    An Earth-orbiting small satellite “EXtreme ultraviolet spectrosCope for ExosphEric Dynamics” (EXCEED) which will be launched in 2012 is under development. The mission will carry out spectroscopic and imaging observation of EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet: 60-145 nm) emissions from tenuous plasmas around the planets (Venus, Mars, Mercury, and Jupiter). It is essential for EUV observation to put on an observing site outside the Earth’s atmosphere to avoid the absorption. It is also essential that the detection efficiency must be very high in order to catch the faint signals from those targets. In this mission, we employ cesium iodide coated microchannel plate as a 2 dimensional photon counting devise which shows 1.5-50 times higher quantum detection efficiency comparing with the bared one. We coat the surface of the grating and entrance mirror with silicon carbides by the chemical vapor deposition method in order to archive the high diffraction efficiency and reflectivity. The whole spectrometer is shielded by the 2 mm thick stainless steel to prevent the contamination caused by the high energy electrons from the inner radiation belt. In this paper, we will introduce the mission overview, its instrument, and their performance.

  9. Scaling of plasma-body interactions in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capon, C. J.; Brown, M.; Boyce, R. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper derives the generalised set of dimensionless parameters that scale the interaction of an unmagnetised multi-species plasma with an arbitrarily charged object - the application in this work being to the interaction of the ionosphere with Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) objects. We find that a plasma with K ion species can be described by 1 + 4 K independent dimensionless parameters. These parameters govern the deflection and coupling of ion species k , the relative electrical shielding of the body, electron energy, and scaling of temporal effects. The general shielding length λ ϕ is introduced, which reduces to the Debye length in the high-temperature (weakly coupled) limit. The ability of the scaling parameters to predict the self-similar transformations of single and multi-species plasma interactions is demonstrated numerically using pdFOAM, an electrostatic Particle-in-Cell—Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The presented scaling relationships represent a significant generalisation of past work, linking low and high voltage plasma phenomena. Further, the presented parameters capture the scaling of multi-species plasmas with multiply charged ions, demonstrating previously unreported scaling relationship transformations. The implications of this work are not limited to LEO plasma-body interactions but apply to processes governed by the Vlasov-Maxwell equations and represent a framework upon which to incorporate the scaling of additional phenomena, e.g., magnetism and charging.

  10. Neutron measurements in near-Earth orbit with COMPTEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, D. J.; Aarts, H.; Bennett, K.; Lockwood, J. A.; Mcconnell, M. L.; Ryan, J. M.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Peng, X.

    1995-01-01

    The fast neutron flux in near-Earth orbit has been measured with the COMPTEL instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). For this measurement one of COMPTEL's seven liquid scintillator modules was used as an uncollimated neutron detector with threshold of 12.8 MeV. The measurements cover a range of 4.8 to 15.5 GV in vertical cutoff rigidity and 3 deg to 177 deg in spacecraft geocenter zenith angle. One of the measurements occurred near the minimum of the deepest Forbush decrease ever observed by ground-level neutron monitors. After correction for solar modulation, the total flux is well fitted by separable functions in rigidity and zenith angle. With the spacecraft pointed near the nadir the flux is consistent with balloon measurements of the atmospheric neutron albedo. The flux varies by about a factor of 4 between the extremes of rigidity and a factor of 2 between the extremes of zenith angle. The effect of the spacecraft mass in shielding the detector from the atmospheric neutron albedo is much more important than its role as a source of additional secondary neutrons. The neutron spectral hardness varies little with rigidity or zenith angle and lies in the range spanned by earlier atmospheric neutron albedo measurements.

  11. The Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission is shown. The contents include: 1) Why CO2?; 2) What Processes Control CO2 Sinks?; 3) OCO Science Team; 4) Space-Based Measurements of CO2; 5) Driving Requirement: Precise, Bias-Free Global Measurements; 6) Making Precise CO2 Measurements from Space; 7) OCO Spatial Sampling Strategy; 8) OCO Observing Modes; 9) Implementation Approach; 10) The OCO Instrument; 11) The OCO Spacecraft; 12) OCO Will Fly in the A-Train; 13) Validation Program Ensures Accuracy and Minimizes Spatially Coherent Biases; 14) Can OCO Provide the Required Precision?; 15) O2 Column Retrievals with Ground-based FTS; 16) X(sub CO2) Retrieval Simulations; 17) Impact of Albedo and Aerosol Uncertainty on X(sub CO2) Retrievals; 18) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Seasonal Cycle; 19) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: The North-South Gradient in CO2; 20) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Effect of Diurnal Biases; 21) Project Status and Schedule; and 22) Summary.

  12. Thermodynamic Vent System Test in a Low Earth Orbit Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    A thermodynamic vent system for a cryogenic nitrogen tank was tested in a vacuum chamber simulating oxygen storage in low earth orbit. The nitrogen tank was surrounded by a cryo-shroud at -40 F. The tank was insulated with two layers of multi-layer insulation. Heat transfer into cryogenic tanks causes phase change and increases tank pressure which must be controlled. A thermodynamic vent system was used to control pressure as the location of vapor is unknown in low gravity and direct venting would be wasteful. The thermodynamic vent system consists of a Joule-Thomson valve and heat exchanger installed on the inlet side of the tank mixer-pump. The combination is used to extract thermal energy from the tank fluid, reducing temperature and ullage pressure. The system was sized so that the tank mixer-pump operated a small fraction of the time to limit motor heating. Initially the mixer used sub-cooled liquid to cool the liquid-vapor interface inducing condensation and pressure reduction. Later, the thermodynamic vent system was used. Pressure cycles were performed until steady-state operation was demonstrated. Three test runs were conducted at tank fills of 97, 80, and 63 percent. Each test was begun with a boil-off test to determine heat transfer into the tank. The lower tank fills had time averaged vent rates very close to steady-state boil-off rates showing the thermodynamic vent system was nearly as efficient as direct venting in normal gravity.

  13. Physical Limitations of Nuclear Propulsion for Earth to Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, John A.; Patton, Bruce; Rhys, Noah O.; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An assessment of current nuclear propulsion technology for application in Earth to Orbit (ETO) missions has been performed. It can be shown that current nuclear thermal rocket motors are not sufficient to provide single stage performance as has been stated by previous studies. Further, when taking a systems level approach, it can be shown that NTRs do not compete well with chemical engines where thrust to weight ratios of greater than I are necessary, except possibly for the hybrid chemical/nuclear LANTR (LOX Augmented Nuclear Thermal Rocket) engine. Also, the ETO mission requires high power reactors and consequently large shielding weights compared to NTR space missions where shadow shielding can be used. In the assessment, a quick look at the conceptual ASPEN vehicle proposed in 1962 in provided. Optimistic NTR designs are considered in the assessment as well as discussion on other conceptual nuclear propulsion systems that have been proposed for ETO. Also, a quick look at the turbulent, convective heat transfer relationships that restrict the exchange of nuclear energy to thermal energy in the working fluid and consequently drive the reactor mass is included.

  14. Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.

  15. Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James

    2014-01-01

    the number of links looking above and below GEO; the detailed design of a GEO SSBS spacecraft bus and its accommodation of the communication payload, and a summary of the trade study that resulted in the selection of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle to deploy the SSBS and its impact on cost reductions per satellite. ======================================================================== Several initiatives have taken place within NASA1 and international space agencies2 to create a human exploration strategy for expanding human presence into the solar system; these initiatives have been driven by multiple factors to benefit Earth. Of the many elements in the strategy one stands out: to send robotic and human missions to destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), including cis-lunar space, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), the Moon, and Mars and its moons.3, 4 The time frame for human exploration to various destinations, based on the public information available,1,4 is shown in Figure 1. Advance planning is needed to define how future space communications services will be provided in the new budget environment to meet future space communications needs. The spacecraft for these missions can be dispersed anywhere from below LEO to beyond GEO, and to various destinations within the solar system. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program office provides communication and tracking services to space missions during launch, in-orbit testing, and operation phases. Currently, SCaN's space networking relay satellites mainly provide services to users below GEO, at Near Earth Orbit (NEO), below LEO, and in deep space. The potential exists for using a space-based relay satellite, located in the vicinity of various solar system destinations, to provide communication space links to missions both below and above its orbit. Such relays can meet the needs of human exploration missions for maximum connectivity to Earth locations and for reduced latency. In the past, several studies

  16. TRAPPED PROTON FLUXES AT LOW EARTH ORBITS MEASURED BY THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Barbarino, G. C.

    2015-01-20

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above ∼70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350 ÷ 610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra, and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes, placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be usedmore » to validate current trapped particle radiation models.« less

  17. Sun-Earth L1 Region Halo-To-Halo Orbit and Halo-To-LisaJous Orbit Transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig E.; DeFazio, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Practical techniques for designing transfer trajectories between Libration Point Orbits (LPOs) are presented. Motivation for development of these techniques was provided by a hardware contingency experienced by the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) orbiting the L1 point of the Sun-Earth system. A potential solution to the problem involved a transfer from SOHO s periodic halo orbit to a new LPO of substantially different dimensions. Assuming the SOHO halo orbit as the departure orbit, several practical LPO transfer techniques were developed to obtain new Lissajous or periodic halo orbits that satisfy mission requirements and constraints. While not implemented for the SOHO mission, practical LPO transfer techniques were devised that are generally applicable to current and future LPO missions.

  18. Breakthrough Science Enabled by Regular Access to Orbits Beyond Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorjian, V.

    2018-02-01

    Regular launches to the Deep Space Gateway (DSG) will enable smallsats to access orbits not currently easily available to low cost missions. These orbits will allow great new science, especially when using the DSG as an optical hub for downlink.

  19. Periodic Trojan-type orbits in the earth-sun system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, P. R.; Wetherill, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    Periodic orbits about the triangular equilibrium points are found for the planar restricted three-body problem using the earth-sun system. The maximum semimajor axis for tadpole orbits ranges from the infinitesimal orbit at 1.000 AU to the near-limiting orbit at 1.00285 AU. Horseshoe orbits are found for 1.0029 to 1.0080 AU, larger horseshoes being unstable because of close approaches to the earth. Using stability tests devised by Rabe (1961, 1962), the limit of stability for nonperiodic orbits is found to occur for maximum semimajor axes near 1.0020 AU. In addition, near-periodic tadpole orbits appear to be stable against perturbations by Jupiter and Venus for periods of at least 10,000 yr. The possibility that minor planets actually exist in such orbits is considered.

  20. Current and Near-Term Future Measurements of the Orbital Debris Environment at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Gene; Liou, J.-C.; Mulrooney, M.; Horstman, M

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office places great emphasis on obtaining and understanding direct measurements of the orbital debris environment. The Orbital Debris Program Office's environmental models are all based on these measurements. Because OD measurements must cover a very wide range of sizes and altitudes, one technique realistically cannot be used for all measurements. In general, radar measurements have been used for lower altitudes and optical measurements for higher altitude orbits. For very small debris, in situ measurements such as returned spacecraft surfaces are utilized. In addition to receiving information from large debris (> 5-10 cm diameter) from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, NASA conducts statistical measurements of the debris population for smaller sizes. NASA collects data from the Haystack and Goldstone radars for debris in low Earth orbit as small as 2- 4 mm diameter and from the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope for debris near geosynchronous orbit altitude for sizes as small as 30-60 cm diameter. NASA is also currently examining the radiator panel of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 which was exposed to space for 16 years and was recently returned to Earth during the STS- 125 Space Shuttle mission. This paper will give an overview of these on-going measurement programs at NASA as well as discuss progress and plans for new instruments and techniques in the near future.

  1. Delivery of extraterrestrial amino acids to the primitive Earth. Exposure experiments in Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Barbier, B; Bertrand, M; Boillot, F; Chabin, A; Chaput, D; Henin, O; Brack, A

    1998-06-01

    A large collection of micrometeorites has been recently extracted from Antarctic old blue ice. In the 50 to 100 micrometers size range, the carbonaceous micrometeorites represent 80% of the samples and contain 2% of carbon. They might have brought more carbon to the surface of the primitive Earth than that involved in the present surficial biomass. Amino acids such as "-amino isobutyric acid have been identified in these Antarctic micrometeorites. Enantiomeric excesses of L-amino acids have been detected in the Murchison meteorite. A large fraction of homochiral amino acids might have been delivered to the primitive Earth via meteorites and micrometeorites. Space technology in Earth orbit offers a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of amino acids required for the development of primitive life when they are exposed to space conditions, either free or associated with tiny mineral grains mimicking the micrometeorites. Our objectives are to demonstrate that porous mineral material protects amino acids in space from photolysis and racemization (the conversion of L-amino acids into a mixture of L- and D-molecules) and to test whether photosensitive amino acids derivatives can polymerize in mineral grains under space conditions. The results obtained in BIOPAN-1 and BIOPAN-2 exposure experiments on board unmanned satellite FOTON are presented.

  2. Around 1500 near-Earth-asteroid orbits improved via EURONEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Hudin, L.; Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; Tudorica, A.; Toma, R.

    2014-07-01

    Born in 2006 in Paris, the European Near Earth Asteroids Research project (EURONEAR, euronear.imcce.fr) aims ''to study NEAs and PHAs using existing telescopes available to its network and hopefully in the future some automated dedicated 1--2 m facilities''. Although we believe the first aim is fulfilled, the second was not achieved yet, requiring serious commitment from the European NEA researchers and funding agencies. Mainly using free labor by about 30 students and amateur astronomers (from Romania, Chile, UK, France, etc), the PI backed up by his associates M. Birlan (IMCCE Paris) and J. Licandro (IAC Tenerife) and a few other astronomers of the EURONEAR network having access to a few telescopes are approaching around 1,500 observed NEAs whose orbits were improved based on our astrometric contributions. To achive this milestone, we used two main resources and a total of 15 facilities: i) Observing time obtained at 11 professional 1--4 m class telescopes (Chile, La Palma, France, Germany) plus 3 smaller 30--50 cm educational/public outreach telescopes (Romania and Germany) adding about 1,000 observed NEAs; and ii) astrometry obtained from data mining of 4 major image archives (ESO/MPG WFI, INT WFC, CFHTLS Megacam and Subaru SuprimeCam) adding about 500 NEAs recovered in archival images. Among the highlights, about 100 NEAs, PHAs and VIs were observed, recovered or precovered in archives at their second opposition (up to about 15 years away from discovery) or have their orbital arc much extended, and a few VIs and PHAs were eliminated. Incidentally, about 15,000 positions of almost 2,000 known MBAs were reported (mostly in the INT, ESO/MPG and Blanco large fields). About 40 new (one night) NEO candidates and more than 2,000 (one night) unknown MBAs were reported, including about 150 MBAs credited as EURONEAR discoveries. Based on the INT and Blanco data we derived some statistics about the MBA and NEA population observable with 2m and 4m telescopes, proposing a

  3. Harnessing Orbital Debris to Sense the Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutschler, S.; Axelrad, P.; Matsuo, T.

    A key requirement for accurate space situational awareness (SSA) is knowledge of the non-conservative forces that act on space objects. These effects vary temporally and spatially, driven by the dynamical behavior of space weather. Existing SSA algorithms adjust space weather models based on observations of calibration satellites. However, lack of sufficient data and mismodeling of non-conservative forces cause inaccuracies in space object motion prediction. The uncontrolled nature of debris makes it particularly sensitive to the variations in space weather. Our research takes advantage of this behavior by inverting observations of debris objects to infer the space environment parameters causing their motion. In addition, this research will produce more accurate predictions of the motion of debris objects. The hypothesis of this research is that it is possible to utilize a "cluster" of debris objects, objects within relatively close proximity of each other, to sense their local environment. We focus on deriving parameters of an atmospheric density model to more precisely predict the drag force on LEO objects. An Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is used for assimilation; the prior ensemble to the posterior ensemble is transformed during the measurement update in a manner that does not require inversion of large matrices. A prior ensemble is utilized to empirically determine the nonlinear relationship between measurements and density parameters. The filter estimates an extended state that includes position and velocity of the debris object, and atmospheric density parameters. The density is parameterized as a grid of values, distributed by latitude and local sidereal time over a spherical shell encompassing Earth. This research focuses on LEO object motion, but it can also be extended to additional orbital regimes for observation and refinement of magnetic field and solar radiation models. An observability analysis of the proposed approach is presented in terms of the

  4. Colors of extreme exo-Earth environments.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Siddharth; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has already detected rocky planets and several planetary candidates with minimum masses that are consistent with rocky planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. A low-resolution spectrum in the form of a color-color diagram of an exoplanet is likely to be one of the first post-detection quantities to be measured for the case of direct detection. In this paper, we explore potentially detectable surface features on rocky exoplanets and their connection to, and importance as, a habitat for extremophiles, as known on Earth. Extremophiles provide us with the minimum known envelope of environmental limits for life on our planet. The color of a planet reveals information on its properties, especially for surface features of rocky planets with clear atmospheres. We use filter photometry in the visible as a first step in the characterization of rocky exoplanets to prioritize targets for follow-up spectroscopy. Many surface environments on Earth have characteristic albedos and occupy a different color space in the visible waveband (0.4-0.9 μm) that can be distinguished remotely. These detectable surface features can be linked to the extreme niches that support extremophiles on Earth and provide a link between geomicrobiology and observational astronomy. This paper explores how filter photometry can serve as a first step in characterizing Earth-like exoplanets for an aerobic as well as an anaerobic atmosphere, thereby prioritizing targets to search for atmospheric biosignatures.

  5. Effects of Low Earth Orbit on Docking Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imka, Emily C.; Asmar, Olivia C.; deGroh, Henry C., III; Banks, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft docking seals are typically made of silicone elastomers. When such seals are exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions, they can suffer damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO, or monoatomic oxygen, the predominant oxygen species in LEO). An experiment flew on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure the effects of LEO on seal materials S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 and various mating counterface materials which included anodized aluminum. Samples flown in different orientations received different amounts of UV and AO. The hypotheses were that most of the damage would be from UV, and 10 days or more of exposure in LEO would badly damage the seals. Eighteen seals were exposed for 543 days in ram (windward), zenith (away from Earth), or wake (leeward) orientations, and 15 control samples (not flown) provided undamaged baseline leakage. To determine post-flight leak rates, each of the 33 seals were placed in an O-ring groove of a leak test fixture and pressure tested over time. Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), pressure transducers, and LabVIEW (National Instruments) programs were used to measure and analyze the temperature and pressure and calculate leakage. Average leakage of control samples was 2.6 x 10(exp -7) lbs/day. LEO exposure did not considerably damage ELA-SA-401. The S0383-70 flight samples leaked at least 10 times more than ELA-SA-401 in all cases except one, demonstrating that ELA-SA-401 may be a more suitable sealing material in LEO. AO caused greater damage than UV; samples in ram orientation (receiving an AO fluence of 4.3 x 10(exp 21) atoms/(sq cm) and in wake (2.9x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)) leaked more than those in zenith orientation (1.58 x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)), whereas variations in UV exposure did not seem to affect the samples. Exposure to LEO did less damage to the seals than hypothesized, and the data did not support the conjecture that UV causes more damage than AO.

  6. Habitation Concepts for Human Missions Beyond Low-Earth-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been engaged for several years in a variety of study activities to help define various options for deep space habitation. This work includes study activities supporting asteroid, lunar and Mars mission activities for the Human spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT), the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project, and the Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project through the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program. The missions under consideration required human habitation beyond low-Earth-orbit (LEO) including deep space habitation in the lunar vicinity to support asteroid retrieval missions, human and robotic lunar surface missions, deep space research facilities, Mars vehicle servicing, and Mars transit missions. Additional considerations included international interest and near term capabilities through the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. A variety of habitat layouts have been considered, including those derived from the existing ISS systems, those that could be fabricated from SLS components, and other approaches. This paper presents an overview of several leading designs explored in late fiscal year (FY) 2015 for asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission habitats and identifies some of the known advantages and disadvantages inherent in each. Key findings indicate that module diameters larger than those used for ISS can offer lighter structures per unit volume, and sufficient volume to accommodate consumables for long-duration missions in deep space. The information provided with the findings includes mass and volume data that should be helpful to future exploration mission planning and deep space habitat design efforts.

  7. Autonomous Low Earth Orbit Satellite and Orbital Debris Tracking Using Mid Aperture COTS Optical Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhorn, B.; Azari, D.

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Orbital Debris tracking have become considerably important with regard to Space Situational Awareness (SSA). This paper discusses the capabilities of autonomous LEO and Orbital Debris Tracking Systems using commercially available (mid aperture 20-24 inch) telescopes, tracking gimbals, and CCD imagers. RC Optical Systems has been developing autonomous satellite trackers that allow for unattended acquisition, imaging, and orbital determination of LEOs using low cost COTS equipment. The test setup from which we are gathering data consists of an RC Optical Systems Professional Series Elevation over Azimuth Gimbal with field de-rotation, RC Optical Systems 20 inch Ritchey-Chretien Telescope coupled to an e2v CCD42-40 CCD array, and 77mm f/4 tracking lens coupled to a KAF-0402ME CCD array. Central to success of LEO acquisition and open loop tracking is accurate modeling of Gimbal and telescope misalignments and flexures. Using pro-TPoint and a simple automated mapping routine we have modeled our primary telescope to achieve pointing and tracking accuracies within a population standard deviation of 1.3 arc-sec (which is 1.1 arc-sec RMS). Once modeled, a mobile system can easily and quickly be calibrated to the sky using a simple 6-10 star map to solve for axis tilt and collimation coefficients. Acquisition of LEO satellites is accomplished through the use of a wide field imager. Using a 77mm f/4 lens and 765 x 510 x 9mu CCD array yields a 1.28 x 0.85 degree field of view in our test setup. Accurate boresite within the acquisition array is maintained throughout the full range of motion through differential tpoint modeling of the main and acquisition imagers. Satellite identification is accomplished by detecting a stationary centroid as a point source and differentiating from the background of streaked stars in a single frame. We found 100% detection rate of LEO with radar cross sections (RCS) of > 0.5 meter*meter within the acquisition array, and

  8. Assessment of the consequences of the Fengyun-1C breakup in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen

    On 11 January 2007, the 880 kg (958 kg at launch) weather spacecraft Fengyun-1C, launched on 10 May 1999 into a sun-synchronous orbit with a CZ-4B booster from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, was destroyed over central China as a result of the first successful Chinese anti-satellite weapon test. It was carried out with a direct ascent interception with a kinetic energy kill vehicle launched by an SC-19 missile, fired from a mobile ground platform close to the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. While the technical details of the test, probably the third attempt, and the characteristics of the weapon used remain shrouded in secrecy, the intentional breakup of the aging weather spacecraft, fully functional until 2005, produced a huge amount of debris in one of the orbital regimes already most affected by past fragmentation events. At present, the US Space Surveillance Network has identified about 2600 objects, typically larger than 10 cm, but the fragments larger than 1 cm may be more than 100,000. After two decades of substantial international progress in the field of orbital debris mitigation, in order to preserve the low Earth and geosynchronous environments for future space missions, the Fengyun-1C destruction represented a serious turnabout. In fact, it abruptly increased by approximately 20% the number of cataloged debris in orbit. To give a rough idea of the impact of this single event on the circumterrestrial environment, it is sufficient to realize that about 15 years of global space activity - including failures and accidental breakups - had been needed to increase, by a comparable amount, the number of cataloged debris in orbit to the level observed before the Chinese anti-satellite test. The purpose of this presentation is to assess the impact of the debris cloud generated by the Fengyun-1C breakup on the low Earth environment. The anti-satellite test was carried out at an altitude of about 863 km, spreading the cataloged fragments between 200 and 4000

  9. Investigation of Teflon FEP Embrittlement on Spacecraft in Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1997-01-01

    Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) (DuPont) is commonly used on exterior spacecraft surfaces for thermal control in the low-Earth orbit environment. Silverized or aluminized Teflon FEP is used for the outer layers of the thermal control blanket because of its high reflectance, low solar absorptance, and high thermal emittance. Teflon FEP is also desirable because, compared with other spacecraft polymers (such as Kapton), it has relatively high resistance to atomic oxygen erosion. Because of its comparably low atomic oxygen erosion yield, Teflon FEP has been used unprotected in the space environment. Samples of Teflon FEP from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the Hubble Space Telescope (retrieved during its first servicing mission) were evaluated for solar-induced embrittlement and for synergistic effects of solar degradation and atomic oxygen.

  10. Oxidation-resistant reflective surfaces for solar dynamic power generation in near Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.; Mgf2, Sio2, Al2o3, and si3n4, we

    1986-01-01

    Reflective surfaces for space station power generation systems are required to withstand the atomic oxygen-dominated environment of near Earth orbit. Thin films of platinum and rhodium, which are corrosion resistant reflective metals, have been deposited by ion beam sputter deposition onto various substrate materials. Solar reflectances were then measured as a function of time of exposure to a RF-generated air plasma. Similarly, various protective coating materials, including MgF2, SiO2, Al2O3, and Si3N4, were deposited onto silver-coated substrates and then exposed to the plasma. Analysis of the films both before and after exposure by both ESCA and Auger spectroscopy was also performed. The results indicate that Pt and Rh do not suffer any loss in reflectance over the duration of the tests. Also, each of the coating materials survived the plasma environment. The ESCA and Auger analyses are discussed as well.

  11. G-38, 39 and 40: An artist's exploration of space. [using the space environment to create orbiting sphere configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcshane, J. W.; Coursen, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three experiments are described which use space processing technology in the formation of and coating of bubbles and spheres to be orbited as sculptures visible from Earth. In one experiment, a 22,000 m1 sphere is to ride into orbit containing a 15 psi Earth atmosphere. Once in orbit, a controller directs a valve to open, linking the sphere to a vacuum of space. Technologies used in the fabrication of these art forms include vacuum film deposition and large bubble formation in the space environment.

  12. Laser propulsion to earth orbit. Has its time come?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantrowitz, Arthur

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in high energy lasers, adaptive optics, and atmospheric transmission bring laser propulsion much closer to realization. Proposed here is a reference vehicle for study which consists of payload and solid propellant (e.g. ice). A suitable laser pulse is proposed for using a Laser Supported Detonation wave to produce thrust efficiently. It seems likely that a minimum system (10 Mw CO2 laser and 10 m dia. mirror) could be constructed for about $150 M. This minimum system could launch payloads of about 13 kg to a 400 km orbit every 10 minutes. The annual launch capability would be about 683 tons times the duty factor. Laser propulsion would be an order of magnitude cheaper than chemical rockets if the duty factor was 20 percent (10,000 launches/yr). Launches beyond that would be even cheaper. The chief problem which needs to be addressed before these possibilities could be realized is the design of a propellant to turn laser energy into thrust efficiently and to withstand the launch environment.

  13. Low-gravity Orbiting Research Laboratory Environment Potential Impact on Space Biology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol

    2006-01-01

    One of the major objectives of any orbital space research platform is to provide a quiescent low gravity, preferably a zero gravity environment, to perform fundamental as well as applied research. However, small disturbances exist onboard any low earth orbital research platform. The impact of these disturbances must be taken into account by space research scientists during their research planning, design and data analysis in order to avoid confounding factors in their science results. The reduced gravity environment of an orbiting research platform in low earth orbit is a complex phenomenon. Many factors, among others, such as experiment operations, equipment operation, life support systems and crew activity (if it is a crewed platform), aerodynamic drag, gravity gradient, rotational effects as well as the vehicle structural resonance frequencies (structural modes) contribute to form the overall reduced gravity environment in which space research is performed. The contribution of these small disturbances or accelerations is precisely why the environment is NOT a zero gravity environment, but a reduced acceleration environment. This paper does not discuss other factors such as radiation, electromagnetic interference, thermal and pressure gradient changes, acoustic and CO2 build-up to name a few that affect the space research environment as well, but it focuses solely on the magnitude of the acceleration level found on orbiting research laboratory used by research scientists to conduct space research. For ease of analysis this paper divides the frequency spectrum relevant to most of the space research disciplines into three regimes: a) quasi-steady, b) vibratory and c) transient. The International Space Station is used as an example to illustrate the point. The paper discusses the impact of these three regimes on space biology research and results from space flown experiments are used to illustrate the potential negative impact of these disturbances (accelerations

  14. The Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Orbital debris scientists from major international space agencies, including JAXA and NASA, have worked together to predict the trend of the future environment. A summary presentation was given to the United Nations in February 2013. The orbital debris population in LEO will continue to increase. Catastrophic collisions will continue to occur every 5 to 9 years center dot To limit the growth of the future debris population and to better protect future spacecraft, active debris removal, should be considered.

  15. High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Coverage of Earth from Commercial AVSTAR Systems in Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Heaps, J. F.; Williams, F. H.

    Imaging the earth from Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) allows frequent updates of environmental conditions within an observable hemisphere at time and spatial scales appropriate to the most transient observable terrestrial phenomena. Coverage provided by current GEO Meteorological Satellites (METSATS) fails to fully exploit this advantage due primarily to obsolescent technology and also institutional inertia. With the full benefit of GEO based imaging unrealized, rapidly evolving phenomena, occurring at the smallest spatial and temporal scales that frequently have significant environmental impact remain unobserved. These phenomena may be precursors for the most destructive natural processes that adversely effect society. Timely distribution of information derived from "real-time" observations thus may provide opportunities to mitigate much of the damage to life and property that would otherwise occur. AstroVision International's AVStar Earth monitoring system is designed to overcome the current limitations if GEO Earth coverage and to provide real time monitoring of changes to the Earth's complete atmospheric, land and marine surface environments including fires, volcanic events, lightning and meteoritic events on a "live," true color, and multispectral basis. The understanding of severe storm dynamics and its coupling to the earth's electro-sphere will be greatly enhanced by observations at unprecedented sampling frequencies and spatial resolution. Better understanding of these natural phenomena and AVStar operational real-time coverage may also benefit society through improvements in severe weather prediction and warning. AstroVision's AVStar system, designed to provide this capability with the first of a constellation of GEO- based commercial environmental monitoring satellites to be launched in late 2003 will be discussed, including spatial and temporal resolution, spectral coverage with applications and an inventory of the potential benefits to society

  16. Advantage of Animal Models with Metabolic Flexibility for Space Research Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griko, Yuri V.; Rask, Jon C.; Raychev, Raycho

    2017-01-01

    As the world's space agencies and commercial entities continue to expand beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), novel approaches to carry out biomedical experiments with animals are required to address the challenge of adaptation to space flight and new planetary environments. The extended time and distance of space travel along with reduced involvement of Earth-based mission support increases the cumulative impact of the risks encountered in space. To respond to these challenges, it becomes increasingly important to develop the capability to manage an organism's self-regulatory control system, which would enable survival in extraterrestrial environments. To significantly reduce the risk to animals on future long duration space missions, we propose the use of metabolically flexible animal models as "pathfinders," which are capable of tolerating the environmental extremes exhibited in spaceflight, including altered gravity, exposure to space radiation, chemically reactive planetary environments and temperature extremes. In this report we survey several of the pivotal metabolic flexibility studies and discuss the importance of utilizing animal models with metabolic flexibility with particular attention given to the ability to suppress the organism's metabolism in spaceflight experiments beyond LEO. The presented analysis demonstrates the adjuvant benefits of these factors to minimize damage caused by exposure to spaceflight and extreme planetary environments. Examples of microorganisms and animal models with dormancy capabilities suitable for space research are considered in the context of their survivability under hostile or deadly environments outside of Earth. Potential steps toward implementation of metabolic control technology in spaceflight architecture and its benefits for animal experiments and manned space exploration missions are discussed.

  17. Advantage of Animal Models with Metabolic Flexibility for Space Research Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griko, Yuri V.; Rask, Jon C.; Raychev, Raycho

    2017-01-01

    As the worlds space agencies and commercial entities continue to expand beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), novel approaches to carry out biomedical experiments with animals are required to address the challenge of adaptation to space flight and new planetary environments. The extended time and distance of space travel along with reduced involvement of Earth-based mission support increases the cumulative impact of the risks encountered in space. To respond to these challenges, it becomes increasingly important to develop the capability to manage an organisms self-regulatory control system, which would enable survival in extraterrestrial environments. To significantly reduce the risk to animals on future long duration space missions, we propose the use of metabolically flexible animal models as pathfinders, which are capable of tolerating the environmental extremes exhibited in spaceflight, including altered gravity, exposure to space radiation, chemically reactive planetary environments and temperature extremes.In this report we survey several of the pivotal metabolic flexibility studies and discuss the importance of utilizing animal models with metabolic flexibility with particular attention given to the ability to suppress the organism's metabolism in spaceflight experiments beyond LEO. The presented analysis demonstrates the adjuvant benefits of these factors to minimize damage caused by exposure to spaceflight and extreme planetary environments. Examples of microorganisms and animal models with dormancy capabilities suitable for space research are considered in the context of their survivability under hostile or deadly environments outside of Earth. Potential steps toward implementation of metabolic control technology in spaceflight architecture and its benefits for animal experiments and manned space exploration missions are discussed.

  18. Essentials for Team Based Rehearsals and the Differences Between Earth Orbiting and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez-Rosa, Carlos; Cifuentes, Juan; Wasiak, Francis; Alfonzo, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    The mission readiness environment is where spacecraft and ground systems converge to form the entire as built flight system for the final phase of operationally-themed testing. For most space missions, this phase starts between nine to twelve months prior to the planned launch. In the mission readiness environment, the goal is to perform sufficient testing to exercise the flight teams and systems through all mission phases in order to demonstrate that all elements are ready to support. As part of the maturation process, a mission rehearsal program is introduced to focus on team processes within the final flight system, in a more realistic operational environment. The overall goal for a mission rehearsal program is to: 1) ensure all flight system elements are able to meet mission objectives as a cohesive team; 2) reduce the risk in space based operations due to deficiencies in people, processes, procedures, or systems; and 3) instill confidence in the teams that will execute these first time flight activities. A good rehearsal program ensures critical events are exercised, discovers team or flight system nuances whose impact were previously unknown, and provides a real-time environment in which to interact with the various teams and systems. For flight team members, the rehearsal program provides experience and training in the event of planned (or unplanned) flight contingencies. To preserve the essence for team based rehearsals, this paper will explore the important elements necessary for a successful rehearsal program, document differences driven by Earth Orbiting (Aqua, Aura, Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP)) and Deep Space missions (New Horizons, Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN)) and discuss common challenges to both mission types. In addition, large scale program considerations and enhancements or additional steps for developing a rehearsal program will also be considered. For NASA missions, the mission rehearsal phase is a key

  19. The O/OREOS mission—Astrobiology in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Squires, D.; Kitts, C.; Agasid, E.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.; Cook, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Mattioda, A.; Nicholson, W.; Quinn, R.; Santos, O.; Tahu, G.; Voytek, M.; Beasley, C.; Bica, L.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Friedericks, C.; Henschke, M.; Landis, D.; Luzzi, E.; Ly, D.; Mai, N.; Minelli, G.; McIntyre, M.; Neumann, M.; Parra, M.; Piccini, M.; Rasay, R.; Ricks, R.; Schooley, A.; Stackpole, E.; Timucin, L.; Yost, B.; Young, A.

    2014-01-01

    The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small-Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72°), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cm3) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA's scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.

  20. Effects of Solar Radiation Pressure on Earth Satellite Orbits.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, R W; Jones, H M; Shapiro, I I

    1960-03-25

    Calculations show that, at a mean altitude of 1000 miles, radiation pressure can displace the orbit of the 100-foot Echo balloon at rates up to 3.7 miles per day, the orbit of the 12-foot Beacon satellite at 0.7 mile per day. For certain resonant conditions this effect accumulates, drastically affecting the satellite's lifetime.

  1. The Effect of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (1 X 1019 atoms/cm2). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, these materials do not exhibit linear erosion rates which is in contrast with most organic polymers. Qualitatively, the results obtained from these analyses compare favorably with those obtained from samples exposed to atomic oxygen and or oxygen plasma in ground based exposure experiments. The results of the low Earth orbit atomic oxygen exposure on these materials will be compared with those of ground based exposure to AO.

  2. A Survey of Radiation Measurements Made Aboard Russian Spacecraft in Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate prediction of ionizing radiation exposure in low-Earth orbit is necessary in order to minimize risks to astronauts, spacecraft and instrumentation. To this end, models of the radiation environment, the AP-8 trapped proton model and the AE-8 trapped electron model, have been developed for use by spacecraft designers and mission planners. It has been widely acknowledged for some time now by the space radiation community that these models possess some major shortcomings. Both models cover only a limited trapped particle energy region and predictions at low altitudes are extrapolated from higher altitude data. With the launch of the first components of the International Space Station with numerous constellations of low-Earth orbit communications satellites now being planned and deployed, the inadequacies of these trapped particle models need to be addressed. Efforts are now underway both in the U.S. and in Europe to refine the AP-8 and AE-8 trapped particle models. This report is an attempt to collect a significant fraction of data for use in validation of trapped radiation models at low altitudes.

  3. Rings of earth. [orbiting bands of space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Richard M.; Randolph, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Small particles moving at an orbital velocity of 7.6 kilometers per second can present a considerable hazard to human activity in space. For astronauts outside of the protective shielding of their space vehicles, such particles can be lethal. The powerful radar at NASA's Goldstone Deep Communications Complex was used to monitor such orbital debris. This radar can detect metallic objects as small as 1.8 mm in diameter at 600 km altitude. The results of the preliminary survey show a flux (at 600 km altitude) of 6.4 objects per square kilometer per day of equivalent size of 1.8 mm or larger. Forty percent of the observed particles appear to be concentrated into two orbits. An orbital ring with the same inclination as the radar (35.1 degrees) is suggested. However, an orbital band with a much higher inclination (66 degrees) is also a possibility.

  4. Global communication using a constellation of low earth meridian orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oli, P. V. S.; Nagarajan, N.; Rayan, H. R.

    1993-07-01

    The concept of 'meridian orbits' is briefly reviewed. It is shown that, if a satellite in the meridian orbit makes an odd number of revolutions per day, then the satellite passes over the same set of meridians twice a day. Satellites in such orbits pass over the same portion of the sky twice a day and every day. This enables a user to adopt a programmed mode of tracking, thereby avoiding a computational facility for orbit prediction, look angle generation, and auto tracking. A constellation of 38 or more satellites placed in a 1200 km altitude circular orbit is favorable for global communications due to various factors. It is shown that appropriate phasing in right ascension of the ascending node and mean anomaly results in a constellation, wherein each satellite appears over the user's horizon one satellite after another. Visibility and coverage plots are provided to verify the continuous coverage.

  5. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 5: Space shuttle payloads: Safety requirements and guidelines on-orbit phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Safety requirements and guidelines are listed for the sortie module, upper stage vehicle, and space station for the earth orbit operations of the space shuttle program. The requirements and guidelines are for vehicle design, safety devices, warning devices, operational procedures, and residual hazards.

  6. Artist concept of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) orbiting Earth after deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-05

    This artist concept shows the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in operational configuration orbiting the Earth after its deploy from Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103 during STS-31. The high gain antennas (HGAs) and solar arrays (SAs) have been extended. HST's aperature door is open as it views the universe from a vantage point above the Earth's atmosphere. View provided by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  7. Tests of general relativity in earth orbit using a superconducting gravity gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    Interesting new tests of general relativity could be performed in earth orbit using a sensitive superconducting gravity gradiometer under development. Two such experiments are discussed here: a null test of the tracelessness of the Riemann tensor and detection of the Lense-Thirring term in the earth's gravity field. The gravity gradient signals in various spacecraft orientations are derived, and dominant error sources in each experimental setting are discussed. The instrument, spacecraft, and orbit requirements imposed by the experiments are derived.

  8. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology information, dissemination and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    In this period of performance a conference (The 1994 Conference on Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology) was organized and implemented by the University of Alabama in Huntsville and held May 15-17 to assemble and disseminate the current information on Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology. The results were assembled for publication as NASA-CP-3282, Volume 1 and 2 and NASA-CP-3287.

  9. Characteristics of spacecraft charging in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Phillip C.

    2012-07-01

    It has been found that the DMSP spacecraft at 840 km can charge to very large negative voltages (up to -2000 V) when encountering intense precipitating electron events (auroral arcs). We present an 11-year study of over 1600 charging events, defined as when the spacecraft charged to levels exceeding 100 V negative during an auroral crossing. The occurrence frequency of events was highly correlated with the 11-year solar cycle with the largest number of events occurring during solar minimum. This was due to the requirement that the background thermal plasma density be low, at most 104 cm-3. During solar maximum, the plasma density is typically well above that level due to the solar EUV ionizing radiation, and although the occurrence frequency of auroral arcs is considerably greater than at solar minimum, the occurrence of high-level charging is minimal. As a result of this study, we produced a model spectrum for precipitating electrons that can be used as a specification for the low-altitude auroral charging environment. There are implications from this study on a number of LEO satellite programs, including the International Space Station, which does enter the auroral zone, particularly during geomagnetic activity when the auroral boundary can penetrate to very low latitudes. The plasma density in the ISS orbit is usually well above the minimum required density for charging. However, in the wake of the ISS, the plasma density can be 2 orders of magnitude or more lower than the background density and thus conditions are ripe for charging.

  10. Possible tidal resonance of the early Earth's ocean due to the lunar orbit evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoyama, M.; Tsunakawa, H.; Takahashi, F.

    2016-12-01

    The ocean tide is one of the most important factors affecting the Earth's surface environment and the evolution of the Earth-Moon system (e.g. Goldreich, 1966). According to the Giant Impact hypothesis, the Moon was formed very near the Earth 4.6 billion years ago (Hartmann and Davis, 1979). At that time, the tidal force would be about several thousand times as strong as the present. However previous studies pointed out that significant attenuation of tidal waves might have occurred due to mechanical response of water motion (e.g. Hansen, 1982; Abe and Ooe, 2001), resulting in relatively calm state like the present ocean.In the present study, we analyze tidal response of the ocean on the early Earth using a model of constant-depth ocean covering all the surface of the rigid Earth. The examined modes of response are not only M2 corresponding to spherical harmonics Y22 but also others such as Y21, since the lunar orbital plane would be inclined.First, estimated is an ocean depth for possible resonance of the individual mode. Eigen frequencies of the fluid on a rotating sphere with no friction are calculated on the basis of previous study (Longuet-Higgins, 1968). These frequencies depend on the Earth's rotation rate and the ocean depth. The Earth's rotation period is assumed to have changed from 5 hours to 24 hours for the past 4.6 billion years (e.g. Mignard, 1980; Stacey and Davis, 2008). It is found that resonance could occur for diurnal modes of Y21 and Y31 with reasonable depths of the ancient ocean (1300 - 5200 m).Then we obtain a 2D response function on a sphere with friction in order to estimate the tidal amplitude of the ocean for main modes . The response function in the present study shows good agreement with the numerical simulation result of the tidal torque response of M2 (Abe et al., 1997). The calculation results suggest that diurnal modes of Y21 and Y31 would grown on the early Earth, while the other modes would fairly be attenuated. In particular

  11. Approximate analytic method for high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashkovyaka, M. A.; Zaslavskii, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an approach to the study of the evolution of high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites. We describe parameters of the motion model used for the artificial Earth's satellite such that the principal gravitational perturbations of the Moon and Sun, nonsphericity of the Earth, and perturbations from the light pressure force are approximately taken into account. To solve the system of averaged equations describing the evolution of the orbit parameters of an artificial satellite, we use both numeric and analytic methods. To select initial parameters of the twelve-hour orbit, we assume that the path of the satellite along the surface of the Earth is stable. Results obtained by the analytic method and by the numerical integration of the evolving system are compared. For intervals of several years, we obtain estimates of oscillation periods and amplitudes for orbital elements. To verify the results and estimate the precision of the method, we use the numerical integration of rigorous (not averaged) equations of motion of the artificial satellite: they take into account forces acting on the satellite substantially more completely and precisely. The described method can be applied not only to the investigation of orbit evolutions of artificial satellites of the Earth; it can be applied to the investigation of the orbit evolution for other planets of the Solar system provided that the corresponding research problem will arise in the future and the considered special class of resonance orbits of satellites will be used for that purpose.

  12. Astrometric detectability of systems with unseen companions: effects of the Earth orbital motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkevich, Alexey G.

    2018-06-01

    The astrometric detection of an unseen companion is based on an analysis of the apparent motion of its host star around the system's barycentre. Systems with an orbital period close to 1 yr may escape detection if the orbital motion of their host stars is observationally indistinguishable from the effects of parallax. Additionally, an astrometric solution may produce a biased parallax estimation for such systems. We examine the effects of the orbital motion of the Earth on astrometric detectability in terms of a correlation between the Earth's orbital position and the position of the star relative to its system barycentre. The χ2 statistic for parallax estimation is calculated analytically, leading to expressions that relate the decrease in detectability and accompanying parallax bias to the position correlation function. The impact of the Earth's motion critically depends on the exoplanet's orbital period, diminishing rapidly as the period deviates from 1 yr. Selection effects against 1-yr-period systems is, therefore, expected. Statistical estimation shows that the corresponding loss of sensitivity results in a typical 10 per cent increase in the detection threshold. Consideration of eccentric orbits shows that the Earth's motion has no effect on detectability for e≳ 0.5. The dependence of the detectability on other parameters, such as orbital phases and inclination of the orbital plane to the ecliptic, are smooth and monotonic because they are described by simple trigonometric functions.

  13. Performance and Comparison of Lithium-Ion Batteries Under Low-Earth-Orbit Mission Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Gitzendanner, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The performance of two 28 V, 25 Ah lithium-ion batteries is being evaluated under low-Earth-orbit mission profiles for satellite and orbiter applications. The batteries are undergoing life testing and have achieved over 12,000 cycles to 40 percent depth-of-discharge.

  14. Information services platforms at geosynchronous earth orbit: A requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The potential user requirements for Information Services Platforms at geosynchronous orbits were investigated. A rationale for identifying the corollary system requirements and supporting research and technology needs was provided.

  15. Exotic Optical Fibers and Glasses: Innovative Material Processing Opportunities in Earth's Orbit.

    PubMed

    Cozmuta, Ioana; Rasky, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    Exotic optical fibers and glasses are the platform material for photonics applications, primarily due to their superior signal transmission (speed, low attenuation), with extending bandwidth deep into the infrared, exceeding that of silica fibers. Gravitational effects (convection sedimentation) have a direct impact on the phase diagram of these materials and influence melting properties, crystallization temperatures, and viscosity of the elemental mix during the manufacturing process. Such factors constitute limits to the yield, transmission quality, and strength and value of these fibers; they also constrain the range of applications. Manufacturing in a gravity-free environment such as the Earth's Orbit also helps with other aspects of the fabrication process (i.e., improved form factor of the manufacturing unit, sustainability). In this article, revolutionary developments in the field of photonics over the past decade merge with the paradigm shift in the privatization of government-owned capabilities supporting a more diverse infrastructure (parabolic, suborbital, orbital), reduced price, and increased frequency to access space and the microgravity environment. With the increased dependence on data (demand, bandwidth, efficiency), space and the microgravity environment provide opportunities for optimized performance of these exotic optical fibers and glasses underlying the development of enabling technologies to meet future data demand. Existing terrestrial markets (Internet, telecommunications, market transactions) and emerging space markets (on-orbit satellite servicing, space manufacturing, space resources, space communications, etc.) seem to converge, and this innovative material processing opportunity of exotic optical fibers and glasses might just be that "killer app": technologically competitive, economically viable, and with the ability to close the business case.

  16. Exotic Optical Fibers and Glasses: Innovative Material Processing Opportunities in Earth's Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Rasky, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Exotic optical fibers and glasses are the platform material for photonics applications, primarily due to their superior signal transmission (speed, low attenuation), with extending bandwidth deep into the infrared, exceeding that of silica fibers. Gravitational effects (convection sedimentation) have a direct impact on the phase diagram of these materials and influence melting properties, crystallization temperatures, and viscosity of the elemental mix during the manufacturing process. Such factors constitute limits to the yield, transmission quality, and strength and value of these fibers; they also constrain the range of applications. Manufacturing in a gravity-free environment such as the Earth's Orbit also helps with other aspects of the fabrication process (i.e., improved form factor of the manufacturing unit, sustainability). In this article, revolutionary developments in the field of photonics over the past decade merge with the paradigm shift in the privatization of government-owned capabilities supporting a more diverse infrastructure (parabolic, suborbital, orbital), reduced price, and increased frequency to access space and the microgravity environment. With the increased dependence on data (demand, bandwidth, efficiency), space and the microgravity environment provide opportunities for optimized performance of these exotic optical fibers and glasses underlying the development of enabling technologies to meet future data demand. Existing terrestrial markets (Internet, telecommunications, market transactions) and emerging space markets (on-orbit satellite servicing, space manufacturing, space resources, space communications, etc.) seem to converge, and this innovative material processing opportunity of exotic optical fibers and glasses might just be that “killer app”: technologically competitive, economically viable, and with the ability to close the business case. PMID:29375939

  17. Formation Flying in Earth, Libration, and Distant Retrograde Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation examines the current and future state of formation flying, LEO formations, control strategies for flight in the vicinity of the libration points, and distant retrograde orbit formations. This discussion of LEO formations includes background on perturbation theory/accelerations and LEO formation flying. The discussion of strategies for formation flight in the vicinity of the libration points includes libration missions and natural and controlled libration orbit formations. A reference list is included.

  18. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Loucks, Michael; Carrico, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this extended abstract is to present results from a failed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver contingency analysis for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The LADEE spacecrafts nominal trajectory implemented multiple sub-lunar phasing orbits centered at Earth before eventually reaching the Moon (Fig. 1) where a critical LOI maneuver was to be performed [1,2,3]. If this LOI was missed, the LADEE spacecraft would be on an Earth-escape trajectory, bound for heliocentric space. Although a partial mission recovery is possible from a heliocentric orbit (to be discussed in the full paper), it was found that an escape-prevention maneuver could be performed several days after a hypothetical LOI-miss, allowing a return to the desired science orbit around the Moon without leaving the Earths sphere-of-influence (SOI).

  19. Low-Thrust Transfers from Distant Retrograde Orbits to L2 Halo Orbits in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Nathan L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Hughes, Steven P.; Heiligers, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of transfers between distant retrograde orbits (DROs) and L2 halo orbits in the Earth-Moon system that could be flown by a spacecraft with solar electric propulsion (SEP). Two collocation-based optimal control methods are used to optimize these highly-nonlinear transfers: Legendre pseudospectral and Hermite-Simpson. Transfers between DROs and halo orbits using low-thrust propulsion have not been studied previously. This paper offers a study of several families of trajectories, parameterized by the number of orbital revolutions in a synodic frame. Even with a poor initial guess, a method is described to reliably generate families of solutions. The circular restricted 3-body problem (CRTBP) is used throughout the paper so that the results are autonomous and simpler to understand.

  20. Low Earth Orbit Environmental Durability of Recently Developed Thermal Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment provided a means to expose materials and devices to the low Earth orbit environment on the exterior of the International Space Station. By returning the specimens to Earth after flight, the specimens could be evaluated by comparison with pre-flight measurements. One area of continuing interest is thermal control paints and coatings that are applied to exterior surfaces of spacecraft. Though traditional radiator coatings have been available for decades, recent work has focused on new coatings that offer custom deposition or custom optical properties. The custom deposition of interest is plasma spraying and one type of coating recently developed as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort was designed to be plasma sprayed onto radiator surfaces. The custom optical properties of interest are opposite to those of a typical radiator coating, having a combination of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance for solar absorber applications, and achieved in practice via a cermet coating. Selected specimens of the plasma sprayed coatings and the solar absorber coating were flown on Materials International Space Station Experiment 7, and were recently returned to Earth for post-flight analyses. For the plasma sprayed coatings in the ram direction, one specimen increased in solar absorptance and one specimen decreased in solar absorptance, while the plasma sprayed coatings in the wake direction changed very little in solar absorptance. For the cermet coating deployed in both the ram and wake directions, the solar absorptance increased. Interestingly, all coatings showed little change in infrared emittance.

  1. Large-size space debris flyby in low earth orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. A.; Grishko, D. A.; Razoumny, Y. N.

    2017-09-01

    the analysis of NORAD catalogue of space objects executed with respect to the overall sizes of upper-stages and last stages of carrier rockets allows the classification of 5 groups of large-size space debris (LSSD). These groups are defined according to the proximity of orbital inclinations of the involved objects. The orbits within a group have various values of deviations in the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN). It is proposed to use the RAANs deviations' evolution portrait to clarify the orbital planes' relative spatial distribution in a group so that the RAAN deviations should be calculated with respect to the concrete precessing orbital plane of the concrete object. In case of the first three groups (inclinations i = 71°, i = 74°, i = 81°) the straight lines of the RAAN relative deviations almost do not intersect each other. So the simple, successive flyby of group's elements is effective, but the significant value of total Δ V is required to form drift orbits. In case of the fifth group (Sun-synchronous orbits) these straight lines chaotically intersect each other for many times due to the noticeable differences in values of semi-major axes and orbital inclinations. The intersections' existence makes it possible to create such a flyby sequence for LSSD group when the orbit of one LSSD object simultaneously serves as the drift orbit to attain another LSSD object. This flyby scheme requiring less Δ V was called "diagonal." The RAANs deviations' evolution portrait built for the fourth group (to be studied in the paper) contains both types of lines, so the simultaneous combination of diagonal and successive flyby schemes is possible. The value of total Δ V and temporal costs were calculated to cover all the elements of the 4th group. The article is also enriched by the results obtained for the flyby problem solution in case of all the five mentioned LSSD groups. The general recommendations are given concerned with the required reserve of total

  2. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  3. Measuring the Eccentricity of the Earth's Orbit with a Nail and a Piece of Plywood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahaye, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    I describe how to obtain a rather good experimental determination of the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit, as well as the obliquity of the Earth's rotation axis, by measuring, over the course of a year, the elevation of the Sun as a function of time during a day. With a very simple "instrument" consisting of an elementary sundial, first-year…

  4. Supporting a Deep Space Gateway with Free-Return Earth-Moon Periodic Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, A. L.; Dunham, D. W.; Hardgrove, C.

    2018-02-01

    Earth-Moon periodic orbits travel between the Earth and Moon via free-return circumlunar segments and can host a station that can provide architecture support to other nodes near the Moon and Mars while enabling science return from cislunar space.

  5. Exobiology in Earth orbit: The results of science workshops held at NASA, Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, D. (Editor); Brownlee, D. (Editor); Tarter, J. (Editor); Usher, D. (Editor); Irvine, W. (Editor); Klein, H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Workshops on Exobiology in Earth Orbit were held to explore concepts for orbital experiments of exobiological interest and make recommendations on which classes of experiments should be carried out. Various observational and experimental opportunities in Earth orbit are described including those associated with the Space Shuttle laboratories, spacecraft deployed from the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles, the Space Station, and lunar bases. Specific science issues and technology needs are summarized. Finally, a list of recommended experiments in the areas of observational exobiology, cosmic dust collection, and in situ experiments is presented.

  6. Stationkeeping of the First Earth-Moon Libration Orbiters: The ARTEMIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, D.

    2011-01-01

    Libration point orbits near collinear locations are inherently unstable and must be controlled. For Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) Earth-Moon Lissajous orbit operations, stationkeeping is challenging because of short time scales, large orbital eccentricity of the secondary, and solar gravitational and radiation pressure perturbations. ARTEMIS is the first NASA mission continuously controlled at both Earth-Moon L1 and L2 locations and uses a balance of optimization, spacecraft implementation and constraints, and multi-body dynamics. Stationkeeping results are compared to pre-mission research including mode directions.

  7. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Because atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation present in the low earth orbital (LEO) environment can alter the chemistry of polymers resulting in degradation, their effects and mechanisms of degradation must be determined in order to determine the long term durability of polymeric surfaces to be exposed on missions such as Space Station Freedom. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymers which contain protective coatings must also be explored, since unique damage mechanisms can occur in areas where the protective coatings has failed. Mechanisms can be determined by utilizing results from previous LEO missions, by performing ground based LEO simulation tests and analysis, and by carrying out focussed space experiments. A survey is presented of the interactions and possible damage mechanisms for environmental atomic oxygen and UV radiation exposure of polymers commonly used in LEO.

  8. Free-falling Crystals: Biological Macromolecular Crystal Growth Studies in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, E. H.; Pusey, M. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft orbiting the earth experience a reduced acceleration environment due to being in a state of continuous free-fall. This state colloquially termed microgravity, has produced improved X-ray diffraction quality crystals of biological macromolecules. Improvements in X-ray diffraction resolution (detail) or signal to noise, provide greater detail in the three-dimensional molecular structure providing information about the molecule, how it works, how to improve its function or how to impede it. Greater molecular detail obtained by crystallization in microgravity, has important implications for structural biology. In this article we examine the theories behind macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity using results obtained from studies with the model protein, chicken egg white lysozyme.

  9. Handover aspects for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) CDMA Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, P.; Beach, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of handoff in a land mobile satellite (LMS) system between adjacent satellites in a low earth orbit (LEO) constellation. In particular, emphasis is placed on the application of soft handoff in a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) LMS system. Soft handoff is explained in terms of terrestrial macroscopic diversity, in which signals transmitted via several independent fading paths are combined to enhance the link quality. This concept is then reconsidered in the context of a LEO LMS system. A two-state Markov channel model is used to simulate the effects of shadowing on the communications path from the mobile to each satellite during handoff. The results of the channel simulation form a platform for discussion regarding soft handoff, highlighting the potential merits of the scheme when applied in a LEO LMS environment.

  10. A Dynamic/Anisotropic Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Ionizing Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; West, Katie J.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Abrahms, Briana L.; Luetke, Nathan J.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides the proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the experimental validation of ionizing radiation environmental models, nuclear transport code algorithms, and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the Space Transportation System (STS; Shuttle) have provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code development by requiring dynamic models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Previous studies using Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of the evolving ISS configurations with Thermo Luminescent Detector (TLD) area monitors, demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate non-isotropic as well as dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate 6 degree of freedom (DOF) description of ISS trajectory and orientation.

  11. An evaluation of radiation damage to solid state components flown in low earth orbit satellites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myung-Won; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    The effects of total ionising radiation dose upon commercial off-the-shelf semiconductors fitted to satellites operating in low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions was evaluated. The evaluation was performed for the Korea Institute of Technology SATellite-1, (KITSAT-1) which was equipped with commercial solid state components. Two approximate calculation models for space radiation shielding were developed. Verification was performed by comparing the results with detailed three-dimensional calculations using the Monte-Carlo method and measured data from KITSAT-1. It was confirmed that the developed approximate models were reliable for satellite shielding calculations. It was also found that commercial semiconductor devices, which were not radiation hardened, could be damaged within their lifetime due to the total ionising dose they are subject to in the LEO environment. To conclude, an intensive shielding analysis should be considered when commercial devices are used.

  12. Sheath effects observed on a 10 meter high voltage panel in simulated low earth orbit plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccox, J. E.; Konradi, A.

    1979-01-01

    A large (1m x 10m) flat surface of conductive material was biased to high voltage (+ or - 3000 V) to simulate the behavior of a large solar array in low earth orbit. The model array was operated in a plasma environment of 1,000 to 1,000,000/cu cm, with sufficient free space around it for the resulting plasma sheaths to develop unimpeded for 5-10 meters into the surrounding plasma. Measurements of the resulting sheath thickness were obtained. The observed thickness varied approximately as V to the 3/4 power and N to the 1/2 power. This effect appears to limit total current leakage from the test array until sheath dimensions exceed about 1 meter. Total leakage current was also measured with the array.

  13. Temporal Evolution of the Plasma Sheath Surrounding Solar Cells in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Pour, Maria Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    High voltage solar array interactions with the space environment can have a significant impact on array performance and spacecraft charging. Over the past 10 years, data from the International Space Station has allowed for detailed observations of these interactions over long periods of time. Some of the surprising observations have been floating potential transients, which were not expected and are not reproduced by existing models. In order to understand the underlying processes producing these transients, the temporal evolution of the plasma sheath surrounding the solar cells in low Earth orbit is being investigated. This study includes lumped element modeling and particle-in-cell simulation methods. This presentation will focus on recent results from the on-going investigations.

  14. A fully coupled flow simulation around spacecraft in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justiz, C. R.; Sega, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to provide a full flow simulation of a spacecraft in low earth orbit (LEO). Due to the nature of the environment, the simulation includes the highly coupled effects of neutral particle flow, free stream plasma flow, nonequilibrium gas dynamics effects, spacecraft charging and electromagnetic field effects. Emphasis is placed on the near wake phenomenon and will be verified in space by the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and developed for application to Space Station conditions as well as for other spacecraft. The WSF is a metallic disk-type structure that will provide a controlled space platform for highly accurate measurements. Preliminary results are presented for a full flow around a metallic disk.

  15. Lessons Learned From Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Spacecraft Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    There have been five Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) passive experiment carriers (PECs) (MISSE 1-5) to date that have been launched, exposed in space on the exterior of International Space Station (ISS) and then returned to Earth for analysis. An additional four MISSE PECs (MISSE 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B) are in various stages of completion. The PECs are two-sided suitcase to size sample carriers that are intended to provide information on the effects of the low Earth orbital environment on a wide variety of materials and components. As a result of post retrieval analyses of the retrieved MISSE 2 experiments and numerous prior space experiments, there have been valuable lessons learned and needs identified that are worthy of being documented so that planning, design, and analysis of future space environment experiments can benefit from the experience in order to maximize the knowledge gained. Some of the lessons learned involve the techniques, concepts, and issues associated with measuring atomic oxygen erosion yields. These are presented along with several issues to be considered when designing experiments, such as the uncertainty in mission duration, scattering and contamination effects on results, and the accuracy of measuring atomic oxygen erosion.

  16. Diagnosing low earth orbit satellite anomalies using NOAA-15 electron data associated with geomagnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nizam; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Djamaluddin, Thomas; Usui, Hideyuki; Miyake, Yohei

    2018-05-01

    A satellite placed in space is constantly affected by the space environment, resulting in various impacts from temporary faults to permanent failures depending on factors such as satellite orbit, solar and geomagnetic activities, satellite local time, and satellite construction material. Anomaly events commonly occur during periods of high geomagnetic activity that also trigger plasma variation in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. In this study, we diagnosed anomalies in LEO satellites using electron data from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-15 satellite. In addition, we analyzed the fluctuation of electron flux in association with geomagnetic disturbances 3 days before and after the anomaly day. We selected 20 LEO anomaly cases registered in the Satellite News Digest database for the years 2000-2008. Satellite local time, an important parameter for anomaly diagnosis, was determined using propagated two-line element data in the SGP4 simplified general perturbation model to calculate the longitude of the ascending node of the satellite through the position and velocity vectors. The results showed that the majority of LEO satellite anomalies are linked to low-energy electron fluxes of 30-100 keV and magnetic perturbations that had a higher correlation coefficient ( 90%) on the day of the anomaly. The mean local time calculation for the anomaly day with respect to the nighttime migration of energetic electrons revealed that the majority of anomalies (65%) occurred on the night side of Earth during the dusk-to-dawn sector of magnetic local time.

  17. Pulsed Plasma Propulsion - Making CubeSat Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit Possible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northway, P.

    2015-12-01

    As CubeSat missions become more and more popular means of scientific exploration of space, the current direction of interest is to utilize them in areas beyond low earth orbit. The University of Washington CubeSat program focuses on examining possible mission scenarios in addition to technology development and integration. Specifically, we are developing an inert CubeSat propulsion system in the form of a pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) capable of orbit maneuvers. Such a system would allow for missions at the Earth beyond LEO, extended missions at the Moon, and even missions at Europa, when assisted to the Jovian system. We will discuss how starting with a CubeSat design using PPTs for orbital maneuvers, other developing compact technology can be adapted to create a full suite of systems that would meet the requirements for a mission traveling outside low earth orbit.

  18. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 1: Analytical manual for earth orbital MAPSEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An introduction to the MAPSEP organization and a detailed analytical description of all models and algorithms are given. These include trajectory and error covariance propagation methods, orbit determination processes, thrust modeling, and trajectory correction (guidance) schemes. Earth orbital MAPSEP contains the capability of analyzing almost any currently projected low thrust mission from low earth orbit to super synchronous altitudes. Furthermore, MAPSEP is sufficiently flexible to incorporate extended dynamic models, alternate mission strategies, and almost any other system requirement imposed by the user. As in the interplanetary version, earth orbital MAPSEP represents a trade-off between precision modeling and computational speed consistent with defining necessary system requirements. It can be used in feasibility studies as well as in flight operational support. Pertinent operational constraints are available both implicitly and explicitly. However, the reader should be warned that because of program complexity, MAPSEP is only as good as the user and will quickly succumb to faulty user inputs.

  19. Access to Mars from Earth-Moon Libration Point Orbits:. [Manifold and Direct Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakoi, Masaki; Howell, Kathleen C.; Folta, David

    2014-01-01

    This investigation is focused specifically on transfers from Earth-Moon L(sub 1)/L(sub 2) libration point orbits to Mars. Initially, the analysis is based in the circular restricted three-body problem to utilize the framework of the invariant manifolds. Various departure scenarios are compared, including arcs that leverage manifolds associated with the Sun-Earth L(sub 2) orbits as well as non-manifold trajectories. For the manifold options, ballistic transfers from Earth-Moon L(sub 2) libration point orbits to Sun-Earth L(sub 1)/L(sub 2) halo orbits are first computed. This autonomous procedure applies to both departure and arrival between the Earth-Moon and Sun-Earth systems. Departure times in the lunar cycle, amplitudes and types of libration point orbits, manifold selection, and the orientation/location of the surface of section all contribute to produce a variety of options. As the destination planet, the ephemeris position for Mars is employed throughout the analysis. The complete transfer is transitioned to the ephemeris model after the initial design phase. Results for multiple departure/arrival scenarios are compared.

  20. Low-Thrust Transfers from Distant Retrograde Orbits to L2 Halo Orbits in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Nathan L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Hughes, Steven P.; Heiligers, Jennette

    2016-01-01

    Enable future missions Any mission to a DRO or halo orbit could benefit from the capability to transfer between these orbits Chemical propulsion could be used for these transfers, but at high propellant cost Fill gaps in knowledge A variety of transfers using SEP or solar sails have been studied for the Earth-Moon system Most results in literature study a single transfer This is a step toward understanding the wide array of types of transfers available in an N-body force model.

  1. Dynamics of Orbits near 3:1 Resonance in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dichmann, Donald J.; Lebois, Ryan; Carrico, John P., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft is currently in a highly elliptical orbit around Earth with a period near 3:1 resonance with the Moon. Its orbit is oriented so that apogee does not approach the Moon. Simulations show this orbit to be remarkably stable over the next twenty years. This article examines the dynamics of such orbits in the Circular Restricted 3-Body Problem (CR3BP). We look at three types of periodic orbits, each exhibiting a type of symmetry of the CR3BP. For each of the orbit types, we assess the local stability using Floquet analysis. Although not all of the periodic solutions are stable in the mathematical sense, any divergence is so slow as to produce practical stability over several decades. We use Poincare maps with twenty-year propagations to assess the nonlinear stability of the orbits, where the perturbation magnitudes are related to the orbit uncertainty for the IBEX mission. Finally we show that these orbits belong to a family of orbits connected in a bifurcation diagram that exhibits exchange of stability. The analysis of these families of period orbits provides a valuable starting point for a mission orbit trade study.

  2. Guidance Scheme for Modulation of Drag Devices to Enable Return from Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Glass, Christopher E.; Powell, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Passive drag devices provide opportunities to return payloads from low Earth orbits quickly without using onboard propulsive systems to de-orbit the spacecraft. However, one potential disadvantage of such systems has been the lack of landing accuracy. Drag modulation or changing the shape of the drag device during flight offer a way to control the de-orbit trajectory and target a specific landing location. This paper discusses a candidate passive drag based system, called Exo-brake, as well as efforts to model the dynamics of the vehicle as it de-orbits and guidance schemes used to control the trajectory. Such systems can enable quick return of payloads from low Earth orbit assets like the International Space Station without the use of large re-entry cargo capsules or propulsive systems.

  3. Mission Preparation Program for Exobiological Experiments in Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Guenther; Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra

    The ESA facilities EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-E on board of the the International Space Station ISS provide the technology for exposing chemical and biological samples in a controlled manner to outer space parameters, such as high vacuum, intense radiation of galactic and solar origin and microgravity. EXPOSE-E has been attached to the outer balcony of the European Columbus module of the ISS in Febraury 2008 and will stay for about 1 year in space, EXPOSE-R will be attached to the Russian Svezda module of the ISS in fall 2008. The EXPOSE facilities are a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to Space Environment (ROSE concortium). The results from the EXPOSE missions will give new insights into the survivability of terrestrial organisms in space and will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.To test the compatibility of the different biological and chemical systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. It resulted in several experiment verification tests EVTs and an experiment sequence test EST that were conducted in the carefully equipped and monitored planetary and space simulation facilities PSI of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at DLR in Cologne, Germany. These ground based pre-flight studies allow the investigation of a much wider variety of samples and the selection of the most promising organisms for the flight experiment. The procedure and results of these EVT tests and EST will be presented. These results are an essential prerequisite for the success of the EXPOSE missions and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results gained during the simulation experiments demonstrated mission

  4. Biofilms On Orbit and On Earth: Current Methods, Future Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vega, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms have played a significant role on the effectiveness of life support hardware on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). This presentation will discuss how biofilms impact flight hardware, how on orbit biofilms are analyzed from an engineering and research perspective, and future needs to analyze and utilize biofilms for long duration, deep space missions.

  5. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 2: Analysis of hazardous payloads, docking, on-board survivability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detailed and supporting analyses are presented of the hazardous payloads, docking, and on-board survivability aspects connected with earth orbital operations of the space shuttle program. The hazards resulting from delivery, deployment, and retrieval of hazardous payloads, and from handling and transport of cargo between orbiter, sortie modules, and space station are identified and analyzed. The safety aspects of shuttle orbiter to modular space station docking includes docking for assembly of space station, normal resupply docking, and emergency docking. Personnel traffic patterns, escape routes, and on-board survivability are analyzed for orbiter with crew and passenger, sortie modules, and modular space station, under normal, emergency, and EVA and IVA operations.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of attitude and orbit estimation using real earth magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    A single, augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit was developed and tested with simulated and real magnetometer and rate data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is accurately known, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft's orbit, are a function of orbit and attitude errors. These differences can be used to estimate the orbit and attitude. The test results of the EKF with magnetometer and gyro data from three NASA satellites are presented and evaluated.

  7. Low Earth orbit atomic oxygen simulation for durability evaluation of solar reflector surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the performance and durability of solar reflector surfaces in the atomic oxygen environment typical of low Earth orbit (LEO), one must expose the reflector surface either directly to LEO or to ground-laboratory atomic oxygen environments. Although actual LEO exposures are most desired, such opportunities are typically scarce, expensive, and of limited duration. As a result, ground-laboratory exposures must be relied upon as the most practical long-term durability evaluation technique. Plasma ashers are widely used as LEO simulation facilities by producing atomic oxygen environments for durability evaluation of potential spacecraft materials. Atomic oxygen arrival differs between ground and space exposure in that plasma asher exposure produces isotropic arrival and space solar tracking produces sweeping arrival. Differences in initial impact reaction probability occur, dependent upon the energy and species existing in these environments. Due to the variations in ground-laboratory and space atomic oxygen, quantification of in-space performance based on plasma asher testing is not straightforward. The various atomic oxygen interactions that can occur with reflector surfaces, such as undercutting in organic substrates at protective coating defect sites, ground-laboratory techniques recommended for evaluating the atomic oxygen durability of reflectors based on asher exposures, and computational techniques which make use of ground-laboratory atomic oxygen exposure to predict in-space LEO durability are addressed.

  8. Cost-effective and robust mitigation of space debris in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R.; Martin, C.

    It is predicted that the space debris population in low Earth orbit (LEO) will continue to grow and in an exponential manner in the long-term due to an increasing rate of collisions between large objects, unless internationally-accepted space debris mitigation measures are adopted soon. Such measures are aimed at avoiding the future generation of space debris objects and primarily need to be effective in preventing significant long-term growth in the debris population, even in the potential scenario of an increase in future space activity. It is also important that mitigation measures can limit future debris population levels, and therefore the underlying collision risk to space missions, to the lowest extent possible. However, for their wide acceptance, the cost of implementation associated with mitigation measures needs to be minimised as far as possible. Generally, a lower collision risk will cost more to achieve and vice versa, so it is necessary to strike a balance between cost and risk in order to find a cost-effective set of mitigation measures. In this paper, clear criteria are established in order to assess the cost-effectiveness of space debris mitigation measures. A full cost-risk-benefit trade-off analysis of numerous mitigation scenarios is presented. These scenarios consider explosion prevention and post-mission disposal of space systems, including de-orbiting to limited lifetime orbits and re-orbiting above the LEO region. The ESA DELTA model is used to provide long-term debris environment projections for these scenarios as input to the benefit and risk parts of the trade-off analysis. Manoeuvre requirements for the different post-mission disposal scenarios were also calculated in order to define the cost-related element. A 25-year post-mission lifetime de-orbit policy, combined with explosion prevention and mission-related object limitation, was found to be the most cost-effective solution to the space debris problem in LEO. This package would also

  9. Space Shuttle Orbiter logistics - Managing in a dynamic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renfroe, Michael B.; Bradshaw, Kimberly

    1990-01-01

    The importance and methods of monitoring logistics vital signs, logistics data sources and acquisition, and converting data into useful management information are presented. With the launch and landing site for the Shuttle Orbiter project at the Kennedy Space Center now totally responsible for its own supportability posture, it is imperative that logistics resource requirements and management be continually monitored and reassessed. Detailed graphs and data concerning various aspects of logistics activities including objectives, inventory operating levels, customer environment, and data sources are provided. Finally, some lessons learned from the Shuttle Orbiter project and logistics options which should be considered by other space programs are discussed.

  10. Enhanced solar energy options using earth-orbiting mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, W. P.; Billman, K. W.; Bowen, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A system of orbiting space reflectors is described, analyzed, and shown to economically provide nearly continuous insolation to preselected ground sites, producing benefits hitherto lacking in conventional solar farms and leading to large reductions in energy costs for such installations. Free-flying planar mirrors of about 1 sq km are shown to be optimum and can be made at under 10 g/sq m of surface, thus minimizing material needs and space transportation costs. Models are developed for both the design of such mirrors and for the analysis of expected ground insolation as a function of orbital parameters, time, and site location. Various applications (agricultural, solar-electric production, weather enhancement, etc.) are described.

  11. Advanced technology and future earth-orbit transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, B. Z.; Eldred, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the identification and evaluation of technology developments which offer potential for high return on investment when applied to advanced transportation systems. These procedures are applied in a study of winged single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles, which are considered feasible by the 1990s. Advanced technology is considered a key element in achieving improved economics, and near term investment in selected technology areas is recommended.

  12. Dynamical Sequestration of the Moon-Forming Impactor in Co-Orbital Resonance with Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Hartmann, William J.

    2015-11-01

    Recent concerns about the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon, and an associated “isotope crisis” are assuaged if the impactor was a local object that formed near Earth and the impact occurred relatively late. We investigated a scenario that may meet these criteria, with the moon-forming impactor originating in 1:1 co-orbital resonance with Earth. Using N-body numerical simulations we explored the dynamical consequences of placing Mars-mass companions in various co-orbital configurations with a proto-Earth having 90% of its current mass. We modeled configurations that include the four terrestrial planets as well as configurations that also include the four giant planets. In both the 4- and 8-planet models we found that a single additional Mars-mass companion typically remains a stable co-orbital of Earth for the entire 250 million year (Myr) duration of our simulations (33 of 34 simulations). In an effort to destabilize such a system we carried out an additional 45 simulations that included a second Mars-mass co-orbital companion. Even with two Mars-mass companions sharing Earth’s orbit most of these models (28) also remained stable for the entire 250 Myr duration of the simulations. Of the 17 two-companion models that eventually became unstable 12 impacts were observed between Earth and an escaping co-orbital companion. The average delay we observed for an impact of a Mars-mass companion with Earth was 101 Myr, and the longest delay was 221 Myr. Several of the stable simulations involved unusual 3-planet co-orbital configurations that could exhibit interesting observational signatures in plantetary transit surveys.

  13. Analysis of Static Spacecraft Floating Potential at Low Earth Orbit (LEO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, Joel L.; Hwang, K. S.; Wu, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    Spacecraft floating potential is the charge on the external surfaces of orbiting spacecraft relative to the space. Charging is caused by unequal negative and positive currents to spacecraft surfaces. The charging process continues until the accelerated particles can be collected rapidly enough to balance the currents at which point the spacecraft has reached its equilibrium or floating potential. In low inclination. Low Earth Orbit (LEO), the collection of positive ion and negative electrons. in a particular direction. are typically not equal. The level of charging required for equilibrium to be established is influenced by the characteristics of the ambient plasma environment. by the spacecraft motion, and by the geometry of the spacecraft. Using the kinetic theory, a statistical approach for studying the interaction is developed. The approach used to study the spacecraft floating potential depends on which phenomena are being applied. and on the properties of the plasma. especially the density and temperature. The results from kinetic theory derivation are applied to determine the charging level and the electric potential distribution at an infinite flat plate perpendicular to a streaming plasma using finite-difference scheme.

  14. International Space Station as a Platform for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Woodcock, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has established a new model for the achievement of the most difficult engineering goals in space: international collaboration at the program level with competition at the level of technology. This strategic shift in management approach provides long term program stability while still allowing for the flexible evolution of technology needs and capabilities. Both commercial and government sponsored technology developments are well supported in this management model. ISS also provides a physical platform for development and demonstration of the systems needed for missions beyond low earth orbit. These new systems at the leading edge of technology require operational exercise in the unforgiving environment of space before they can be trusted for long duration missions. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. We will describe representative mission profiles showing how ISS can support exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. Example missions would include humans to lunar surface and return, and humans to Mars orbit as well as Mars surface and return. ISS benefits include: international access from all major launch sites; an assembly location with crew and tools that could help prepare departing expeditions that involve more than one launch; a parking place for reusable vehicles; and the potential to add a propellant depot.

  15. In-Orbit Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Battery Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Anisa; Enciso, Marlon; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) power system and battery history. ERBS spacecraft and battery cell failures are listed with the reasons for failure. The battery management decision and stabilization of the batteries is discussed. Present battery operations are shown to be successful.

  16. Earth observations taken from orbiter Discovery during STS-91 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-24

    STS091-708-077 (2-12 June 1998) -- The cloud shadows grew long as the STS-91 astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery approached the dark side of the Earth during "sunset" over Poland. The taller building cumulus clouds cast shadows over the lower clouds.

  17. Verification of KAM Theory on Earth Orbiting Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    9 2.2 The Two Body Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.3 Geocentric and Geographic...Center of Earth Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Geocentric Latitude...their gravitational fields a different approach must be used. For the moment the above representation is sufficient, but a more accurate model will be

  18. Ideas for a future earth observing system from geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, William E.; Hall, Forrest; Esaias, Wayne; Maxwell, Marvin; Suomi, Verner E.; Von Bun, Fritz

    1986-01-01

    Uses for the proposed geosynchronous platform are described. The geosynchronous satellite could provide good spatial and temporal resolution, a large field-of-view, easier calibration, stereography, and data relay. The limitations of the platform are discussed. The applications of the geosynchronous platform to meteorology, earth surveying, and oceanography are examined.

  19. Medium Earth Orbits: Is There a Need for a Third Protected Region?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2010-01-01

    The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and the United Nations have adopted the concept of near-Earth regions which should be afforded protection from the accumulation of orbital debris. These regions are low Earth orbit (LEO), which extends up to 2000 km altitude, and geosynchronous orbit (GEO), which includes the volume of space encompassed by 35,786 km +/- 200 km in altitude and +/- 15 degrees in inclination. The region between LEO and GEO is commonly referred to as Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). Although historically a small minority of spacecraft have operated in MEO, the number of such satellites residing in or routinely transiting the zone is increasing. The question thus arises: should MEO be considered an orbital debris protected region? This paper first reviews the characteristics of space systems now utilizing MEO, as well as those anticipated to join them in the near future. MEO is then contrasted with LEO and GEO, both physically and pragmatically. Recommended orbital debris mitigation guidelines for MEO space vehicles are highlighted, and the challenges of spacecraft and launch vehicle stage disposal are recognized. Note is also made of the principal tenets of the United Nations Outer Space Treaty and of recent trends toward de facto partitioning of MEO. Finally, the efficacy and practicality of establishing MEO as a new protected region with regard to orbital debris is addressed.

  20. Periodic orbits of solar sail equipped with reflectance control device in Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianping; Gao, Chen; Zhang, Junhua

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, families of Lyapunov and halo orbits are presented with a solar sail equipped with a reflectance control device in the Earth-Moon system. System dynamical model is established considering solar sail acceleration, and four solar sail steering laws and two initial Sun-sail configurations are introduced. The initial natural periodic orbits with suitable periods are firstly identified. Subsequently, families of solar sail Lyapunov and halo orbits around the L1 and L2 points are designed with fixed solar sail characteristic acceleration and varying reflectivity rate and pitching angle by the combination of the modified differential correction method and continuation approach. The linear stabilities of solar sail periodic orbits are investigated, and a nonlinear sliding model controller is designed for station keeping. In addition, orbit transfer between the same family of solar sail orbits is investigated preliminarily to showcase reflectance control device solar sail maneuver capability.

  1. Dynamical sequestration of the Moon-forming impactor in co-orbital resonance with Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Hartmann, William K.

    2016-09-01

    Recent concerns about the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon, and an associated "isotope crisis" may be assuaged if the impactor was a local object that formed near Earth. We investigated a scenario that may meet this criterion, with protoplanets assumed to originate in 1:1 co-orbital resonance with Earth. Using N-body numerical simulations we explored the dynamical consequences of placing Mars-mass companions in various co-orbital configurations with a proto-Earth of 0.9 Earth-masses (M⊕). We modeled 162 different configurations, some with just the four terrestrial planets and others that included the four giant planets. In both the 4- and 8-planet models we found that a single Mars-mass companion typically remained a stable co-orbital of Earth for the entire 250 million year (Myr) duration of our simulations (59 of 68 unique simulations). In an effort to destabilize such a system we carried out an additional 94 simulations that included a second Mars-mass co-orbital companion. Even with two Mars-mass companions sharing Earth's orbit about two-thirds of these models (66) also remained stable for the entire 250 Myr duration of the simulations. Of the 28 2-companion models that eventually became unstable 24 impacts were observed between Earth and an escaping co-orbital companion. The average delay we observed for an impact of a Mars-mass companion with Earth was 102 Myr, and the longest delay was 221 Myr. In 40% of the 8-planet models that became unstable (10 out of 25) Earth collided with the nearly equal mass Venus to form a super-Earth (loosely defined here as mass ≥1.7 M⊕). These impacts were typically the final giant impact in the system and often occurred after Earth and/or Venus has accreted one or more of the other large objects. Several of the stable configurations involved unusual 3-planet hierarchical co-orbital systems.

  2. The Earth's Electrical Environment: Studies in Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael C.

    As stated clearly in the preface, The Earth's Electrical Environment was written to aid policy members in assessing the importance of atmospheric electricity research. The reviewer has no idea whether this principle goal has been met and can only dicuss the text in relation to other works of the same general type.This class of book is actually a relatively new invention by the scientific community, and there is a real doubt in the reviewer's mind whether it should be classified as a book at all. It is more a collection of short stories with, hopefully, a common thread binding them together. In literature, such an anthology is often viewed as a way of enjoying and/or understanding the breadth and versatility of an author. In the present case, each entry is written by a different person. This makes it impossible for a reviewer to make any useful comments on the style, completeness, or coherence. The review itself might then degenerate into 16 different reviews, each potentially too shallow to be meaningful. This leaves something of a dilemma. The reviewer cannot comment on the primary purpose of the text, cannot comment on the style of the text or author, and is not competent to judge the 16 different research areas. With this somewhat pessimistic preamble, I will try to make some useful, general comments.

  3. Viscoelastic characterization of thin-film polymers exposed to low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letton, Alan; Farrow, Allan; Strganac, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The materials made available through the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite provide a set of specimens that can be well characterized and have a known exposure history with reference to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation exposure. Mechanical characteristics measured from control samples and exposed samples provide a data base for predicting the behavior of polymers in low earth orbit. Samples of 1.0 mil thick low density polyethylene were exposed to the low earth orbit environment for a period of six years. These materials were not directly exposed to ram atomic oxygen and offer a unique opportunity for measuring the effect of atomic oxygen and UV radiation on mechanical properties with little concern to the effect of erosion. The viscoelastic characteristics of these materials were measured and compared to the viscoelastic characteristics of control samples. To aid in differentiating the effects of changes in crystallinity resulting from thermal cycling, from the effects of changes in chemical structure resulting from atomic oxygen/UV attack to the polymer, a second set of control specimens, annealed to increase crystallinity, were measured as well. The resulting characterization of these materials will offer insight into the impact of atomic oxygen/UV on the mechanical properties of polymeric materials. The viscoelastic properties measured for the control, annealed, and exposed specimens were the storage and loss modulus as a function of frequency and temperature. From these datum is calculated the viscoelastic master curve derived using the principle of time/temperature superposition. Using the master curve, the relaxation modulus is calculated using the method of Ninomiya and Ferry. The viscoelastic master curve and the stress relaxation modulus provide a direct measure of the changes in the chemical or morphological structure. In addition, the effect of these changes on long-term and short-term mechanical properties is known directly. It

  4. Consequences of Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Silicone and Silicone Contamination on Surfaces in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Haytas, Christy A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of silicones to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit causes oxidation of the surface, resulting in conversion of silicone to silica. This chemical conversion increases the elastic modulus of the surface and initiates the development of a tensile strain. Ultimately, with sufficient exposure, tensile strain leads to cracking of the surface enabling the underlying unexposed silicone to be converted to silica resulting in additional depth and extent of cracking. The use of silicone coatings for the protection of materials from atomic oxygen attack is limited because of the eventual exposure of underlying unprotected polymeric material due to deep tensile stress cracking of the oxidized silicone. The use of moderate to high volatility silicones in low Earth orbit has resulted in a silicone contamination arrival at surfaces which are simultaneously being bombarded with atomic oxygen, thus leading to conversion of the silicone contaminant to silica. As a result of these processes, a gradual accumulation of contamination occurs leading to deposits which at times have been up to several microns thick (as in the case of a Mir solar array after 10 years in space). The contamination species typically consist of silicon, oxygen and carbon. which in the synergistic environment of atomic oxygen and UV radiation leads to increased solar absorptance and reduced solar transmittance. A comparison of the results of atomic oxygen interaction with silicones and silicone contamination will be presented based on the LDEF, EOIM-111, Offeq-3 spacecraft and Mir solar array in-space results. The design of a contamination pin-hole camera space experiment which uses atomic oxygen to produce an image of the sources of silicone contamination will also be presented.

  5. Geo-oculus: high resolution multi-spectral earth imaging mission from geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillon, L.; Schull, U.; Knigge, T.; Bevillon, C.

    2017-11-01

    Geo-Oculus is a GEO-based Earth observation mission studied by Astrium for ESA in 2008-2009 to complement the Sentinel missions, the space component of the GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment & Security). Indeed Earth imaging from geostationary orbit offers new functionalities not covered by existing LEO observation missions, like real-time monitoring and fast revisit capability of any location within the huge area in visibility of the satellite. This high revisit capability is exploited by the Meteosat meteorogical satellites, but with a spatial resolution (500 m nadir for the third generation) far from most of GMES needs (10 to 100 m). To reach such ground resolution from GEO orbit with adequate image quality, large aperture instruments (> 1 m) and high pointing stability (<< 1 μrad) are required, which are the major challenges of such missions. To address the requirements from the GMES user community, the Geo-Oculus mission is a combination of routine observations (daily systematic coverage of European coastal waters) with "on-demand" observation for event monitoring (e.g. disasters, fires and oil slicks). The instrument is a large aperture imaging telescope (1.5 m diameter) offering a nadir spatial sampling of 10.5 m (21 m worst case over Europe, below 52.5°N) in a PAN visible channel used for disaster monitoring. The 22 multi-spectral channels have resolutions over Europe ranging from 40 m in UV/VNIR (0.3 to 1 μm) to 750 m in TIR (10-12 μm).

  6. Simulation of major space particles toward selected materials in a near-equatorial low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparta, Wayan; Zulkeple, Siti Katrina

    2017-05-01

    A low earth orbit near the equator (LEO-NEqO) is exposed to the highest energies from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and from trapped protons with a wide range of energies. Moreover, GCR fluxes were seen to be the highest in 2009 to 2010 when communication belonging to the RazakSAT-1 satellite was believed to have been lost. Hence, this study aimed to determine the influence of the space environment toward the operation of LEO-NEqO satellites by investigating the behavior of major space particles toward satellite materials. The space environment was referred to GCR protons and trapped protons. Their fluxes were obtained from the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) and their tracks were simulated through three materials using a simulation program called Geometry and Tracking (Geant4). The materials included aluminum (Al), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si). Then the total ionizing dose (TID) and non-ionizing dose (NIEL) were calculated for a three-year period. Simulations showed that GCR traveled at longer tracks and produced more secondary radiation than trapped protons. Al turned out to receive the lowest total dose, while GaAs showed to be susceptible toward GCR than Si. However, trapped protons contributed the most in spacecraft doses where Si received the highest doses. Finally, the comparison between two Geant4 programs revealed the estimated doses differed at <18%.

  7. The Expose-R2 mission: astrobiology and astrochemistry in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, René

    EXPOSE is an exposure platform developed by ESA which permits scientists to install test samples for 1 to 2 years at the outer surface of the ISS. In that way, the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical sample materials can be explored. This environment, featuring full-spectrum solar light, near-vacuum, cosmic radiation, wide temperature variations and near-weightlessness, is impossible to reproduce in its entirety in the lab. As such, EXPOSE offers astrochemists and astrobiologists a chance to acquire novel scientific data. Astrochemists are interested in Low Earth Orbit conditions due to the fact that photochemistry in space is quite different from photochemistry on Earth, where the high-energy UV compounds of the solar spectrum are filtered away by our atmosphere. As for the astro biologists, EXPOSE offers an attractive opportunity to expand earlier results obtained during short-duration LEO flights, which have shown that particular microbes and, amazingly, even some multi-cellular macroscopic organisms were able to cope with a two-week exposure to space. The open space environment, often described as harsh and hostile, can apparently be tolerated by some robust inhabitants of our Earth - unprotected, in the absence of a space suit! The first mission of EXPOSE, as an external payload on the European Columbus module, happened during 2008-2009 with the test samples provided by five separate research teams. Three additional teams were involved in the monitoring of space environment. The results were published collectively in 2012 in a special issue of the monthly journal Astrobiology. Several organisms survived, having spent 1.5 years in space. The second mission was called EXPOSE-R, the R referring to ‘Russian segment’, the location where the EXPOSE instrument was installed this time. The EXPOSE-R mission took place in 2009-2011, ten science teams were involved. The publication of the results, again as a collection, is currently in

  8. Relativistic effects in earth-orbiting Doppler lidar return signals.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Neil

    2007-11-01

    Frequency shifts of side-ranging lidar signals are calculated to high order in the small quantities (v/c), where v is the velocity of a spacecraft carrying a lidar laser or of an aerosol particle that scatters the radiation back into a detector (c is the speed of light). Frequency shift measurements determine horizontal components of ground velocity of the scattering particle, but measured fractional frequency shifts are large because of the large velocities of the spacecraft and of the rotating earth. Subtractions of large terms cause a loss of significant digits and magnify the effect of relativistic corrections in determination of wind velocity. Spacecraft acceleration is also considered. Calculations are performed in an earth-centered inertial frame, and appropriate transformations are applied giving the velocities of scatterers relative to the ground.

  9. Initial Determination of Low Earth Orbits Using Commercial Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    many new technologies have significantly changed the face of private astronomy . Developments such as inexpensive but high-quality sensors, rapid... astronomy . Unpar- alleled access to quality equipment, rapid personal computing, and extensive community support enable nearly anyone to achieve feats in...other subdisciplines of astronomy , this field benefits greatly from recent advances. This project examines how modern equipment is used to track Low Earth

  10. Orbit-dependent spectral trends for the near-Earth asteroid population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fevig, Ronald Adrey

    Results of visible to near-infrared spectrophotometric observations of 55 near- Earth asteroids (NEAs) are reported. The observing techniques, instrumentation, and method of data analysis are described. A new asteroid classification method that directly compares these NEA spectra with spectral features of meteorites is presented. Two major siliceous groups (having discernible "1-mm" absorptions) result from this method, OC-likes which match the spectra of ordinary chondrites and S-types. The dataset shows a preponderance of spectra consistent with ordinary chondrites (23 NEAs), as well as S-types (19), 2 with spectra consistent with black ordinary chondrites, 2 R-types, and 9 that show no 1-mm absorption. The spectral characteristics of the siliceous S-type and OC-like asteroids blend together, providing evidence that S-type asteroids are simply ordinary chondrites whose surface has been modified by weathering. This helps resolve the long standing question of the lack of main belt asteroids having spectra matching ordinary chondrite meteorites. Main belt asteroids have on average much older surfaces while NEAs that exhibit OC-like spectra have younger surfaces. It was found that fresh objects having spectra consistent with ordinary chondrites (1) occupy mostly highly eccentric Apollo orbits which encounter a strong collisional environment in the asteroid main-belt, (2) may have been recently injected into high eccentricity orbits, or (3) have suffered tidal disruption. S-type NEAs reside primarily in orbits that do not cross the asteroid main-belt. This orbit dependent trend is verified by using the larger NEA dataset of Binzel et al. (2004a). Nine NEAs from this survey exhibiting no 1-mm absorption can be associated with extinct comets, iron meteorites or enstatite meteorites. It is shown that most of these NEAs must be extinct comets, implying a considerably larger fraction of comets among the NEA population than previously thought. A correlation of these objects

  11. Solar dynamic heat receiver thermal characteristics in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Roschke, E. J.; Birur, G. C.

    1988-01-01

    A simplified system model is under development for evaluating the thermal characteristics and thermal performance of a solar dynamic spacecraft energy system's heat receiver. Results based on baseline orbit, power system configuration, and operational conditions, are generated for three basic receiver concepts and three concentrator surface slope errors. Receiver thermal characteristics and thermal behavior in LEO conditions are presented. The configuration in which heat is directly transferred to the working fluid is noted to generate the best system and thermal characteristics. as well as the lowest performance degradation with increasing slope error.

  12. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  13. Computer modeling of high-voltage solar array experiment using the NASCAP/LEO (NASA Charging Analyzer Program/Low Earth Orbit) computer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Karl O., Jr.

    1987-06-01

    The relationship between the Interactions Measurement Payload for Shuttle (IMPS) flight experiment and the low Earth orbit plasma environment is discussed. Two interactions (parasitic current loss and electrostatic discharge on the array) may be detrimental to mission effectiveness. They result from the spacecraft's electrical potentials floating relative to plasma ground to achieve a charge flow equilibrium into the spacecraft. The floating potentials were driven by external biases applied to a solar array module of the Photovoltaic Array Space Power (PASP) experiment aboard the IMPS test pallet. The modeling was performed using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program/Low Earth Orbit (NASCAP/LEO) computer code which calculates the potentials and current collection of high-voltage objects in low Earth orbit. Models are developed by specifying the spacecraft, environment, and orbital parameters. Eight IMPS models were developed by varying the array's bias voltage and altering its orientation relative to its motion. The code modeled a typical low Earth equatorial orbit. NASCAP/LEO calculated a wide variety of possible floating potential and current collection scenarios. These varied directly with both the array bias voltage and with the vehicle's orbital orientation.

  14. Studies of neutron and proton nuclear activation in low-Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The expected induced radioactivity of experimental material in low Earth orbit was studied for characteristics of activating particles such as cosmic rays, high energy Earth albedo neutrons, trapped protons, and secondary protons and neutrons. The activation cross sections for the production of long lived radioisotopes and other existing nuclear data appropriate to the study of these reactions were compiled. Computer codes which are required to calculate the expected activation of orbited materials were developed. The decreased computer code used to predict the activation of trapped protons of materials placed in the expected orbits of LDEF and Spacelab II. Techniques for unfolding the fluxes of activating particles from the measured activation of orbited materials are examined.

  15. Precise orbit determination for NASA's earth observing system using GPS (Global Positioning System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a precision orbit determination technique for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. This technique allows the geometric information from measurements of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudo-range to be exploited while minimizing requirements for precision dynamical modeling. The method combines geometric and dynamic information to determine the spacecraft trajectory; the weight on the dynamic information is controlled by adjusting fictitious spacecraft accelerations in three dimensions which are treated as first order exponentially time correlated stochastic processes. By varying the time correlation and uncertainty of the stochastic accelerations, the technique can range from purely geometric to purely dynamic. Performance estimates for this technique as applied to the orbit geometry planned for the EOS platforms indicate that decimeter accuracies for EOS orbit position may be obtainable. The sensitivity of the predicted orbit uncertainties to model errors for station locations, nongravitational platform accelerations, and Earth gravity is also presented.

  16. KOI2138 -- a Spin-Orbit Aligned Intermediate Period Super-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.

    2015-11-01

    A planet's formation and evolution are encoded in spin-orbit alignment -- the planet's inclination relative to its star's equatorial plane. While the solar system's spin-orbit aligned planets indicate our own relatively quiescent history, many close-in giant planets show significant misalignment. Some planets even orbit retrograde! Hot Jupiters, then, have experienced fundamentally different histories than we experienced here in the solar system. In this presentation, I will show a new determination of the spin-orbit alignment of 2.1 REarth exoplanet candidate KOI2138. KOI2138 shows a gravity-darkened transit lightcurve that is consistent with spin-orbit alignment. This measurement is important because the only other super-Earth with an alignment determination (55 Cnc e, orbit period 0.74 days) is misaligned. With an orbital period of 23.55 days, KOI2138 is far enough from its star to avoid tidal orbit evolution. Therefore its orbit is likely primordial, and hence it may represent the tip of an iceberg of terrestrial, spin-orbit aligned planets that have histories that more closely resemble that of the solar system's terrestrial planets.

  17. Servicing and Deployment of National Resources in Sun-Earth Libration Point Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Beckman, Mark; Mar, Greg C.; Mesarch, Michael; Cooley, Steven; Leete, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft travel between the Sun-Earth system, the Earth-Moon system, and beyond has received extensive attention recently. The existence of a connection between unstable regions enables mission designers to envision scenarios of multiple spacecraft traveling cheaply from system to system, rendezvousing, servicing, and refueling along the way. This paper presents examples of transfers between the Sun-Earth and Earth-Moon systems using a true ephemeris and perturbation model. It shows the (Delta)V costs associated with these transfers, including the costs to reach the staging region from the Earth. It explores both impulsive and low thrust transfer trajectories. Additionally, analysis that looks specifically at the use of nuclear power in libration point orbits and the issues associated with them such as inadvertent Earth return is addressed. Statistical analysis of Earth returns and the design of biased orbits to prevent any possible return are discussed. Lastly, the idea of rendezvous between spacecraft in libration point orbits using impulsive maneuvers is addressed.

  18. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  19. Free Space Laser Communication Experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Zellar, Ronald S.; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  20. Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles: A comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A representative set of space systems, functions, and missions for NASA and DoD from which launch vehicle requirements and characteristics was established as well as a set of air-breathing launch vehicles based on graduated technology capabilities corresponding to increasingly higher staging Mach numbers. The utility of the air-breathing launch vehicle candidates based on lift-off weight, performance, technology needs, and risk was assessed and costs were compared to alternative concepts. The results indicate that a fully reusable launch vehicle, whether two stage or one stage, could potentially reduce the cost per flight 60-80% compared to that for a partially reusable vehicle but would require advances in thermal protection system technology. A two-stage-to-orbit, parallel-lift vehicle with an air-breathing booster would cost approximately the same as a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, but the former would have greater flexibility and a significantly reduced developmental risk. A twin-booster, subsonic-staged, parallel-lift vehicle represents the lowest system cost and developmental risk. However, if a large supersonic turbojet engine in the 350,000-N thrust class were available, supersonic staging would be preferred, and the investment in development would be returned in reduced program cost.

  1. Future earth orbit transportation systems/technology implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, B. Z.; Decker, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Assuming Space Shuttle technology to be state-of-the-art, projected technological advances to improve the capabilities of single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) derivatives are examined. An increase of about 30% in payload performance can be expected from upgrading the present Shuttle system through weight and drag reductions and improvements in the propellants and engines. The ODINEX (Optimal Design Integration Executive Computer Program) program has been used to explore design options. An advanced technology SSTO baseline system derived from ODINEX analysis has a conventional wing-body configuration using LOX/LH engines, three with two-position nozzles with expansion ratios of 40 and 200 and four with fixed nozzles with an expansion ratio of 40. Two assisted-takeoff approaches are under consideration in addition to a concept in which the orbital vehicle takes off empty using airbreathing propulsion and carries out a rendezvous with two large cryogenic tankers carrying propellant at an altitude of 6100 m. Further approaches under examination for propulsion, aerothermodynamic design, and design integration are described.

  2. Orbit and size distributions for asteroids temporarily captured by the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Jedicke, Robert

    2017-03-01

    As a continuation of the work by Granvik et al. (2012), we expand the statistical treatment of Earth's temporarily-captured natural satellites from temporarily-captured orbiters (TCOs, i.e., objects which make at least one orbit around the Earth) to the newly redefined subpopulation of temporarily-captured flybys (TCFs). TCFs are objects that while being gravitationally bound fail to make a complete orbit around the Earth while on a geocentric orbit, but nevertheless approach the Earth within its Hill radius. We follow the trajectories of massless test asteroids through the Earth-Moon system and record the orbital characteristics of those that are temporarily captured. We then carry out a steady-state analysis utilizing the novel NEO population model by Granvik et al. (2016). We also investigate how an quadratic distribution at very small values of e⊙ and i⊙ affects the predicted population statistics of Earth's temporarily-captured natural satellites. The steady-state population in both cases (constant and quadratic number distributions inside the e and i bins) is predicted to contain a slightly reduced number of meter-sized asteroids compared to the values of the previous paper. For the combined TCO/TCF population, we find the largest body constantly present on a geocentric orbit to be on the order of 80 cm in diameter. In the phase space, where the capture is possible, the capture efficiency of TCOs and TCFs is O(10-6 -10-4) . We also find that kilometer-scale asteroids are captured once every 10 Myr.

  3. How to Take 30 Years Off the Life of an Earth-Orbiter Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, C. D.; Perkins, R. C.; Baker, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the mid 1960's the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network installed a global 26-meter antenna network to support a large group of Low Earth Orbiters and Highly Elliptical Orbiters. Although this network was equipped with then state-of-the-art equipment, operations were labor- intensive. A study is discussed which takes a close look at re- engineering the 26-meter antenna network from all aspects.

  4. Study of multi-kW solar arrays for Earth orbit application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Low cost low Earth orbit (LOW) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) Solar Array concepts in the 300 to 1000 kW range which could be reduced to hardware in the mid 1980's, are identified. Size scaling factors and longer life demands are recognized as the prime drivers for the designs if low life cycle costs for energy are to be achieved. Technology is identified which requires further development in order to assure component readiness and availability. Use of the low concentration ratio (CR) concentrator, which uses gallium arsenide solar cells for both LEO and GEO applications, is recommended.

  5. Earth orbital assessment of solar electric and solar sail propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teeter, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    The earth orbital applications potential of Solar Electric (Ion Drive) and Solar Sail low-thrust propulsion systems are evaluated. Emphasis is placed on mission application in the 1980s. The two low-thrust systems are compared with each other and with two chemical propulsion Shuttle upper stages (the IUS and SSUS) expected to be available in the 1980s. The results indicate limited Earth orbital application potential for the low-thrust systems in the 1980s (primarily due to cost disadvantages). The longer term potential is viewed as more promising. Of the two systems, the Ion Drive exhibits better performance and appears to have better overall application potential.

  6. ADCS controllers comparison for small satellitess in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Daniel; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Lapuerta, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    Fuzzy logic controllers are flexible and simple, suitable for small satellites Attitude Determination and Control Subsystems (ADCS). In a previous work, a tailored Fuzzy controller was designed for a nanosatellite. Its performance and efficiency were compared with a traditional Proportional Integrative Derivative (PID) controller within the same specific mission. The orbit height varied along the mission from injection at around 380 km down to 200 km height, and the mission required pointing accuracy over the whole time. Due to both, the requirements imposed by such a low orbit, and the limitations in the power available for the attitude control, an efficient ADCS is required. Both methodologies, fuzzy and PID, were fine-tuned using an automated procedure to grant maximum efficiency with fixed performances. The simulations showed that the Fuzzy controller is much more efficient (up to 65% less power required) in single manoeuvres, achieving similar, or even better, precision than the PID. The accuracy and efficiency improvement of the Fuzzy controller increase with orbit height because the environmental disturbances decrease, approaching the ideal scenario. However, the controllers are meant to be used in a vast range of situations and configurations which exceed those used in the calibration process carried out in the previous work. To assess the suitability and performance of both controllers in a wider framework, parametric and statistical methods have been applied using the Monte Carlo technique. Several parameters have been modified randomly at the beginning of each simulation: the moments of inertia of the whole satellite and of the momentum wheel, the residual magnetic dipole and the initial conditions of the test. These parameters have been chosen because they are the main source of uncertainty during the design phase. The variables used for the analysis are the error (critical for science) and the operation cost (which impacts the mission lifetime and

  7. Earth observations taken from orbiter Discovery during STS-91 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-24

    STS091-707-008 (2-12 June 1998) --- Photographed by one of the STS-91 crew members aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery, this area northwest of Monterrey, Mexico is a good example of a tectonic landform where the Earth's crust folds in a "wrinkled-rug" style. The Sierra Madrid Oriental is the easternmost extension of the North American Cordillera. The complicated structure of this arid region is the affects of wind eroding the softer rocks and leaving the harder ones making it look like it may be a photo of another planet. Monclova, Mexico is located near the center of the photo.

  8. Lissajous Orbit Control for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sarah; Reagoso, John

    2015-01-01

    DSCOVR Lissajous Orbit sized such that orbit track never extends beyond 15 degrees from Earth-Sun line (as seen from Earth). Requiring delta-V maneuvers, control orbit to obey a Solar Exclusion Zone (SEZ) cone of half-angle 4 degrees about the Earth-Sun line. Spacecraft should never be less than 4 degrees from solar center as seen from Earth. Following Lissajous Orbit Insertion (LOI), DSCOVR should be in an opening phase that just skirts the 4-degree SEZ. Maximizes time to the point where a closing Lissajous will require avoidance maneuvers to keep it out of the SEZ. Station keeping maneuvers should take no more than 15 minutes.

  9. Materials selection for long life in low earth orbit - A critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Albyn, K.; Leger, L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined in thermal atom environments are compared with those observed in LEO and in high-quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies (cu cm/atom) measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-thousandth to one ten-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of eight in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain speciic thermal atom test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools.

  10. Relative Attitude Determination of Earth Orbiting Formations Using GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, E. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Satellite formation missions require the precise determination of both the position and attitude of multiple vehicles to achieve the desired objectives. In order to support the mission requirements for these applications, it is necessary to develop techniques for representing and controlling the attitude of formations of vehicles. A generalized method for representing the attitude of a formation of vehicles has been developed. The representation may be applied to both absolute and relative formation attitude control problems. The technique is able to accommodate formations of arbitrarily large number of vehicles. To demonstrate the formation attitude problem, the method is applied to the attitude determination of a simple leader-follower along-track orbit formation. A multiplicative extended Kalman filter is employed to estimate vehicle attitude. In a simulation study using GPS receivers as the attitude sensors, the relative attitude between vehicles in the formation is determined 3 times more accurately than the absolute attitude.

  11. Earth observations taken from orbiter Discovery during STS-85 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-08-15

    STS085-722-019 (15 August 1997) --- This view of supertyphoon Winnie was taken on August 15, 1997, as the storm swirled about 400 miles south of the southern tip of Japan. Sustained winds were 105 knots, gusting to 130 knots. This photo was shot on the Space Shuttle Discovery's twenty-third flight, as it glided by 170 miles above the sea surface on Orbit 123. On one pass the Discovery flew right over the eye; the commander commented that the eye was so large that it completely filled the window. The robotic arm crosses the top of the view. The cloud mass associated with Winnie covered thousands of square miles as this storm grew to supertyphoon status in the previous days, and raked across the Marianas Islands. A few days after this shot was taken, Winnie ploughed ashore on the coast of China, a bit south of the major metropolis of Shanghai, reportedly killing at least 100 people.

  12. Attitude control challenges for earth orbiters of the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, W.

    1980-01-01

    Experience gained in designing attitude control systems for orbiting spacecraft of the late 1980's is related. Implications for satellite attitude control design of the guidance capabilities, rendezvous and recovery requirements, use of multiple-use spacecraft and the development of large spacecraft associated with the advent of the Space Shuttle are considered. Attention is then given to satellite attitude control requirements posed by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System, the Global Positioning System, the NASA End-to-End Data System, and Shuttle-associated subsatellites. The anticipated completion and launch of the Space Telescope, which will provide one of the first experiences with the new generation of attitude control, is also pointed out.

  13. Differential neutron energy spectra measured on spacecraft low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Dudkin, E. V.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.

    1995-01-01

    Two methods for measuring neutrons in the range from thermal energies to dozens of MeV were used. In the first method, alpha-particles emitted from the (sup 6) Li(n.x)T reaction are detected with the help of plastic nuclear track detectors, yielding results on thermal and resonance neutrons. Also, fission foils are used to detect fast neutrons. In the second method, fast neutrons are recorded by nuclear photographic emulsions (NPE). The results of measurements on board various satellites are presented. The neutron flux density does not appear to correlate clearly with orbital parameters. Up to 50% of neutrons are due to albedo neutrons from the atmosphere while the fluxes inside the satellites are 15-20% higher than those on the outside. Estimates show that the neutron contribution to the total equivalent radiation dose reaches 20-30%.

  14. Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology 1986, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues related to oxygen/hydrogen and oxygen/hydrocarbon propulsion are addressed. Specific topics addressed include: rotor dynamics; fatigue/fracture and life; bearings; combustion and cooling processes; and hydrogen environment embrittlement in advanced propulsion systems.

  15. Solar Energetic Proton Nowcast for Low Earth Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, L. M.; Quinn, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Solar energetic proton flux levels above > 10 pfu can damage spacecraft and pose a hazard to astronauts as well as passengers and crew on polar commercial flights. While the GOES satellites provide real-time data of SEP levels in geosynchronous orbit, it is also important to determine the risk to objects in lower altitude orbits. To assess this risk in real-time, we created a web-based nowcast of SEP flux. The tool determines the current solar energetic proton flux level given input position (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and energy of the protons (e.g., > 10 MeV). The effective cutoff energy is calculated for the location and current geomagnetic storm level (i.e., the Kp value from SWPC) using the Shea & Smart (e.g., Smart et al. 1999abc, 2000) geomagnetic cutoff model, which uses a trajectory tracing technique through the Tsyganenko magnetospheric model for the geomagnetic field. With the cutoff energy and GOES proton flux measurements, a map of the current predicted proton flux level at the input energy is displayed along with the calculated integral spectrum for the input position. This operational tool is a powerful new diagnostic for assessing the risk to spacecraft from current solar proton levels, with easy to read color-coded maps generated for all GOES integral proton flux energies and a range of altitudes (1000 - 35000 km). The figures show example maps over a ';'quiet'' (03-26-13) and active (10-30-03) time, with high proton levels easily distinguishable at or above the NOAA warning level (yellow-orange-red). The tool also displays the current GOES integral spectrum and fit, and the estimated spectrum at a user-defined location and altitude.

  16. Targeting Ballistic Lunar Capture Trajectories Using Periodic Orbits in the Sun-Earth CRTBP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, D.S.; Griesemer, Paul Ricord; Ocampo, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    A particular periodic orbit in the Earth-Sun circular restricted three body problem is shown to have the characteristics needed for a ballistic lunar capture transfer. An injection from a circular parking orbit into the periodic orbit serves as an initial guess for a targeting algorithm. By targeting appropriate parameters incrementally in increasingly complicated force models and using precise derivatives calculated from the state transition matrix, a reliable algorithm is produced. Ballistic lunar capture trajectories in restricted four body systems are shown to be able to be produced in a systematic way.

  17. Spacecraft orbit/earth scan derivations, associated APL program, and application to IMP-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    The derivation of a time shared, remote site, demand processed computer program is discussed. The computer program analyzes the effects of selected orbit, attitude, and spacecraft parameters on earth sensor detections of earth. For prelaunch analysis, the program may be used to simulate effects in nominal parameters which are used in preparing attitude data processing programs. After launch, comparison of results from a simulation and from satellite data will produce deviations helpful in isolating problems.

  18. Earth-to-Geostationary Orbit Transportation for Space Solar Power System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Schuyler C.; McClanahan, James A.; Carrington, Connie K. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space solar power satellites have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electricity for use on Earth. One concept, the Sun Tower, can be assembled in geostationary orbit from pieces transferred from Earth. The cost of transportation is one of the major hurdles to space solar power. This study found that autonomous solar-electric transfer is a good choice for the transportation from LEO to GEO.

  19. The integration of the motion equations of low-orbiting earth satellites using Taylor's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivov, A. V.; Chernysheva, N. A.

    1990-04-01

    A method for the numerical integration of the equations of motion for a satellite is proposed, taking the earth's oblateness and atmospheric drag into account. The method is based on Taylor's representation of the solution to the corresponding polynomial system. The algorithm for choosing the integration step and error estimation is constructed. The method is realized as a subrouting package. The method is applied to a low-orbiting earth satellite and the results are compared with those obtained using Everhart's method.

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of Attitude and Orbit Estimation Using Actual Earth Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie K.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2000-01-01

    A single, augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit has been developed and successfully tested with real magnetometer and gyro data only. Because the earth magnetic field is a function of time and position, and because time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both orbit and attitude errors. Thus, conceivably these differences could be used to estimate both orbit and attitude; an observability study validated this assumption. The results of testing the EKF with actual magnetometer and gyro data, from four satellites supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center, are presented and evaluated. They confirm the assumption that a single EKF can estimate both attitude and orbit when using gyros and magnetometers only.

  1. Technology requirements for future Earth-to-geosynchronous orbit transportation systems. Volume 2: Technical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caluori, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    Technologies either critical to performance of offering cost advantages compared to the investment required to bring them to usable confidence levels are identified. A total transportation system is used as an evaluation yardstick. Vehicles included in the system are a single stage to orbit launch vehicle used in a priority cargo role, a matching orbit transfer vehicle, a heavy lift launch vehicle with a low Earth orbit delivery capability of 226, 575 kg, and a matching solar electric cargo orbit transfer vehicle. The system and its reference technology level are consistent with an initial operational capability in 1990. The 15 year mission scenario is based on early space industrialization leading to the deployment of large systems such as power satellites. Life cycle cost benefits in discounted and undiscounted dollars for each vehicle, technology advancement, and the integrated transportation system are calculated. A preliminary functional analysis was made of the operational support requirements for ground based and space based chemical propulsion orbit transfer vehicles.

  2. High Earth orbit design for lunar assisted small Explorer class missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, M.; Hametz, M.; Cooley, J.; Skillman, D.

    1994-01-01

    Small Expendable launch vehicles are capable of injecting modest payloads into high Earth orbits having apogee near the lunar distance. However, lunar and solar perturbations can quickly lower perigee and cause premature reentry. Costly perigee raising maneuvers by the spacecraft are required to maintain the orbit. In addition, the range of inclinations achievable is limited to those of launch sites unless costly spacecraft maneuvers are performed. This study investigates the use of a lunar swingby in a near-Hohmann transfer trajectory to raise perigee into the 8 to 25 solar radius range and reach a wide variety of inclinations without spacecraft maneuvers. It is found that extremely stable orbits can be obtained if the postencounter spacecraft orbital period is one-half of a lunar sidereal revolution and the Earth-vehicle-Moon geometry is within a specified range. Criteria for achieving stable orbits with various perigee heights and ecliptic inclinations are developed, and the sensitivity of the resulting mission orbits to transfer trajectory injection (TTI) errors is examined. It is shown that carefully designed orbits yield lifetimes of several years, with excellent ground station coverage characteristics and minimal eclipses. A phasing loop error correction strategy is considered with the spacecraft propulsion system delta V demand for TTI error correction and a postlunar encounter apogee trim maneuver typically in the 30 to 120 meters per second range.

  3. Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars.

    PubMed

    Petigura, Erik A; Howard, Andrew W; Marcy, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-26

    Determining whether Earth-like planets are common or rare looms as a touchstone in the question of life in the universe. We searched for Earth-size planets that cross in front of their host stars by examining the brightness measurements of 42,000 stars from National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kepler mission. We found 603 planets, including 10 that are Earth size ( ) and receive comparable levels of stellar energy to that of Earth (1 - 2 R[Symbol: see text] ). We account for Kepler's imperfect detectability of such planets by injecting synthetic planet-caused dimmings into the Kepler brightness measurements and recording the fraction detected. We find that 11 ± 4% of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet receiving between one and four times the stellar intensity as Earth. We also find that the occurrence of Earth-size planets is constant with increasing orbital period (P), within equal intervals of logP up to ~200 d. Extrapolating, one finds 5.7(-2.2)(+1.7)% of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet with orbital periods of 200-400 d.

  4. Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars

    PubMed Central

    Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Determining whether Earth-like planets are common or rare looms as a touchstone in the question of life in the universe. We searched for Earth-size planets that cross in front of their host stars by examining the brightness measurements of 42,000 stars from National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Kepler mission. We found 603 planets, including 10 that are Earth size () and receive comparable levels of stellar energy to that of Earth (). We account for Kepler’s imperfect detectability of such planets by injecting synthetic planet–caused dimmings into the Kepler brightness measurements and recording the fraction detected. We find that 11 ± 4% of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet receiving between one and four times the stellar intensity as Earth. We also find that the occurrence of Earth-size planets is constant with increasing orbital period (P), within equal intervals of logP up to ∼200 d. Extrapolating, one finds % of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet with orbital periods of 200–400 d. PMID:24191033

  5. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, Jeffery C; Scott, Graham B I; Sutton, Jeffrey P

    2014-09-11

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other "omics" areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  6. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Chancellor, Jeffery C.; Scott, Graham B. I.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:25370382

  7. Environmental Durability Issues for Solar Power Systems in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Smith, Daniela C.

    1994-01-01

    Space solar power systems for use in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment experience a variety of harsh environmental conditions. Materials used for solar power generation in LEO need to be durable to environmental threats such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and debris impact. Another threat to LEO solar power performance is due to contamination from other spacecraft components. This paper gives an overview of these LEO environmental issues as they relate to space solar power system materials. Issues addressed include atomic oxygen erosion of organic materials, atomic oxygen undercutting of protective coatings, UV darkening of ceramics, UV embrittlement of Teflon, effects of thermal cycling on organic composites, and contamination due to silicone and organic materials. Specific examples of samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and materials returned from the first servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. Issues concerning ground laboratory facilities which simulate the LEO environment are discussed along with ground-to-space correlation issues.

  8. Technology Development to Support Human Health and Performance in Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, C.E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Charles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of defining the level of risks and mitigating the risks for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit, NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) has identified the need for technology development in several areas. Long duration missions increase the risk of serious medical conditions due to limited options for return to Earth; no resupply; highly limited mass, power, volume; and communication delays. New space flight compatible medical capabilities required include: diagnostic imaging, oxygen concentrator, ventilator, laboratory analysis (saliva, blood, urine), kidney stone diagnosis & treatment, IV solution preparation and delivery. Maintenance of behavioral health in such an isolated, confined and extreme environment requires new sensory stimulation (e.g., virtual reality) technology. Unobtrusive monitoring of behavioral health and treatment methods are also required. Prolonged exposure to weightlessness deconditions bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. Novel exercise equipment or artificial gravity are necessary to prevent deconditioning. Monitoring of the degree of deconditioning is required to ensure that countermeasures are effective. New technologies are required in all the habitable volumes (e.g., suit, capsule, habitat, exploration vehicle, lander) to provide an adequate food system, and to meet human environmental standards for air, water, and surface contamination. Communication delays require the crew to be more autonomous. Onboard decision support tools that assist crew with real-time detection and diagnosis of vehicle and habitat operational anomalies will enable greater autonomy. Multi-use shield systems are required to provide shielding from solar particle events. The HRP is pursuing the development of these technologies in laboratories, flight analog environments and the ISS so that the human health and performance risks will be acceptable with the available resources.

  9. Cosmic Influence on the Sun-Earth Environment

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Saumitra

    2008-01-01

    SOHO satellite data reveals geophysical changes before sudden changes in the Earth's Sun-Earth environment. The influence of extragalactic changes on the Sun as well as the Sun-Earth environment seems to be both periodic and episodic. The periodic changes in terms of solar maxima and minima occur every 11 years, whereas the episodic changes can happen at any time. Episodic changes can be monitored by cosmic ray detectors as a sudden increase or decrease of activity. During these solar and cosmic anomaly periods the environment of the Earth is affected. The Star-Sun-Earth connection has the potential to influence the thermosphere, atmosphere, ionosphere and lithosphere. Initial correlation of the cosmic and Sun-Earth connection has shown the possibility of predicting earthquakes, sudden changes in atmospheric temperatures and erratic rainfall/snowfall patterns. PMID:27873955

  10. Probable Rotation States of Rocket Bodies in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojakangas, G.; Anz-Meador, P.; Cowardin, H.

    2012-09-01

    In order for Active Debris Removal to be accomplished, it is critically important to understand the probable rotation states of orbiting, spent rocket bodies (RBs). However, rotational dynamics is non-intuitive and misconceptions are common. Determinations of rotation and precession rates from light curves have been published that are inconsistent with the theory presented here. In a state of free precession, the total angular momentum of the object is constant, while kinetic energy decreases due to internal friction, approaching rotation about the axis of maximum inertia. For solid internal friction the timescale is hundreds to thousands of years for quality factors of ~100 and assuming metallic rigidities, but for friction in partially-filled liquid fuel tanks we predict that the preferred rotational state is approached rapidly, within days to months. However, history has shown that theoretical predictions of the timescale have been notoriously inaccurate. In free precession, the 3-1-3 Euler angle rates dphi/dt (precession rate of long axis about fixed angular momentum with cone angle theta) and dpsi/dt (roll rate around long axis) have comparable magnitudes until very close to theta=pi/2, so that otherwise the true rotation period is not simply twice the primary light curve period. Furthermore dtheta/dt, nonzero due to friction, becomes asymptotically smaller as theta=pi/2 is approached, so that theta can linger within several degrees of flat spin for a relatively long time. Such a condition is likely common, and cannot be distinguished from the wobble of a cylinder with a skewed inertia tensor unless the RB has non-axisymmetric reflectivity characteristics. For an RB of known dimensions, a given value of theta fixes the relative values of dpsi/dt and dphi/dt. In forced precession, the angular momentum precesses about a symmetry axis defined by the relevant torque. However, in LEO, only gravity gradient and magnetic eddy current torques are dominant, and these

  11. Multi-layered foil capture of micrometeoroids and orbital debris in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearsley, A.; Graham, G.

    Much of our knowledge concerning the sub-millimetre orbital debris population that poses a threat to orbiting satellites has been gleaned from examination of surfaces retrieved and subsequently analysed as part of post-flight investigations. The preservation of the hypervelocity impact-derived remnants located on these surfaces is very variable, whether of space debris or micrometeoroid origin. Whilst glass and metallic materials show highly visible impact craters when examined using optical and electron microscopes, complex mixing between the target material and the impacting particle may make unambiguous interpretation of the impactor origin difficult or impossible. Our recent detailed examination of selected multi-layered insulation (MLI) foils from the ISAS Space Flyer Unit (SFU), and our preliminary study of NASA's Trek blanket, exposed on the Mir station, show that these constructions have the potential to preserve abundant residue material of a quality sufficient for detailed analysis. Although there are still limitations on the recognition of certain sources of orbital debris, the foils complement the metal and glass substrates. We suggest that a purpose-built multi-layered foil structure may prove to be extremely effective for rapid collection and unambiguous analysis of impact- derived residues. Such a collector could be used an environmental monitor for ISS, as it would have low mass, high durability, easy deployment, recovery and storage, making it an economically viable and attractive option.

  12. Study of an evolutionary interim earth orbit program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Alton, L. R.; Arno, R. D.; Deerwester, J. M.; Edsinger, L. E.; Sinclair, K. F.; Tindle, E. L.; Wood, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    An evolutionary, gradual, and step-wise spacecraft systems technology development from those used on the Apollos and Skylab 1 to that required for the space station was considered. The four mission spacecraft were dry workshop versions of the Saturn 4-B stage, and each individually configured, outfitted and launched by INT-21 vehicles. These spacecraft were evaluated for crews of three, six and nine men and for mission lifetimes of one year. Two versions of the Apollo CSM, a three man and a four man crew, were considered as the logistic vehicle. The solar cell electrical power system of the first mission evolves into a light weight panel system supplemented by an operating isotope-Brayton system on the later missions. The open life support system of the first mission evolves to a system which recovers both water and oxygen on the last mission. The data handling, communications, radiation shielding, micrometeoroid protection, and orbit keeping systems were determined. The program costs were estimated and, excluding operational costs, the cost for each mission would average about $2 billion of which one-sixth would be for development, one-fourth for experiments, and the balance for vehicle acquisition.

  13. Medium Earth Orbit Scatterometer (MEOScat) Concept Phase Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    In this report, advanced scatterometer concept options to operate in the post-SeaWinds era are examined. In order to meet the future requirements of scientific and operational users, a variety of scatterometer systems capable of producing improved wind vector products are evaluated. Special emphasis is placed on addressing concept options that operate at higher altitudes in order to improve the temporal revisit time. A preliminary set of generalized wind measurement goals designed to meet the future needs of both scientific and operational communities is put forth. Geophysically based measurement constraints (such as allowable carrier frequencies and measurement incidence angles) are identified. It was found that a potential key constraint at higher satellite altitudes is the longer time required to make all of the azimuth measurements. The revisit and coverage characteristics of a variety of platform orbits throughout the MEO range is studied in detail, and a discussion of the associated increase in radiation is presented. The "trade space" of scatterometer architectures and design options, along with associated advantages and disadvantages, is described for mission options in the MEO range. Finally, key technology studies that will enable further development of a MEO scatterometer mission are identified.

  14. An Investigation of Low Earth Orbit Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph; Willis, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Built internal charging model for spacecraft design and anomaly assessment that calculates number of internal discharges given material properties and environment characteristics. As shielding decreases, the number of discharges increases. Ungrounded MLI produced a significant number of discharges even through thin layers.

  15. Near-earth orbital guidance and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The curriculum of a short course in remote sensing and parameter optimization is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) basics of remote sensing and the user community, (2) multivariant spectral analysis, (3) advanced mathematics and physics of remote sensing, (4) the atmospheric environment, (5) imaging sensing, and (6)nonimaging sensing. Mathematical models of optimization techniques are developed.

  16. The Impact of New Trends in Satellite Launches on Orbital Debris Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; Stupl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to examine the impact of new trends in satellite launch activities on the orbital debris environment and collision risk. Starting from the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, space borne technology has become an indispensable part of our lives. More than 6,000 satellites have been launched into Earth orbit. Though the annual number of satellites launched stayed flat for many decades, the trend has recently changed. The satellite market has been undergoing a major evolution with new space companies replacing the traditional approach of deploying a few large, complex and costly satellites with an approach to use a multitude of smaller, less complex and cheaper satellites. This new approach creates a sharp increase in the number of satellites and so the historic trends are no longer representative. As a foundation for this study, a scenario for satellite deployments based on the publicly announced future satellite missions has been developed. These constellation-deploying companies include, but are not limited to, Blacksky, CICERO, EROS, Landmapper, Leosat, Northstar, O3b, OmniEarth, OneWeb, Orbcomm, OuterNet, PlanetIQ, Planet Labs, Radarsat, RapidEye Next Generation, Sentinel, Skybox, SpaceX, and Spire. Information such as the annual number of launches, the number of orbital planes to be used by the constellation, as well as apogee, perigee, inclination, spacecraft mass and area were included or approximated. Besides the production of satellites, a widespread ongoing effort to enhance orbital injection capabilities will allow delivery of more spacecraft more accurately into Earth orbits. A long list of companies such as Microcosm, Rocket Lab, Firefly Space Systems, Sierra Nevada Corporation and Arca Space Corporation are developing new launch vehicles dedicated for small satellites. There are other projects which intend to develop interstages with propulsive capabilities which will allow the deployment of satellites into

  17. Tidal Heating of Earth-like Exoplanets around M Stars: Thermal, Magnetic, and Orbital Evolutions.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, P E; Barnes, R

    2015-09-01

    The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low-mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the "tidal zone," where tidal dissipation is expected to be a significant heat source in the interior. We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a viscoelastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within 0.07 AU circularize before 10 Gyr, independent of initial eccentricity. Once circular, these planets cool monotonically and maintain dynamos similar to that of Earth. Planets forced into eccentric orbits can experience a super-cooling of the core and rapid core solidification, inhibiting dynamo action for planets in the habitable zone. We find that tidal heating is insignificant in the habitable zone around 0.45 (or larger) solar-mass stars because tidal dissipation is a stronger function of orbital distance than stellar mass, and the habitable zone is farther from larger stars. Suppression of the planetary magnetic field exposes the atmosphere to stellar wind erosion and the surface to harmful radiation. In addition to weak magnetic fields, massive melt eruption rates and prolonged magma oceans may render eccentric planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars inhospitable for life.

  18. GOCE: The first seismometer in orbit around the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphael F.; Bruinsma, Sean; Lognonné, Philippe; Doornbos, Eelco; Cachoux, Florian

    2013-03-01

    The first in situ sounding of a post-seismic infrasound wavefront is presented, using data from the GOCE mission. The atmospheric infrasounds following the great Tohoku earthquake (on 11 March 2011) induce variations of air density and vertical acceleration of the GOCE platform. These signals are detected at two positions along the GOCE orbit corresponding to a crossing and a doubling of the infrasonic wavefront created by seismic surface waves. Perturbations up to 11% of air density and 1.35 × 10 - 7 m/s2 of vertical acceleration are observed and modeled with two different solid-atmosphere coupling codes. These perturbations are a due to acoustic waves creating vertical velocities up to 130 m/s. Amplitudes and arrival times of these perturbations are reproduced respectively within a factor 2, and within a 60 s time window. Waveforms present a good agreement with observed data. The vertical acceleration to air density perturbation ratio is higher for these acoustic waves than for gravity waves. Combining these two pieces of information offers a new way to distinguish between these two wave types. This new type of data is a benchmark for the models of solid-atmosphere coupling. Amplitude and frequency content constrain the infrasound attenuation related to atmosphere viscosity and thermal conductivity. Observed time shifts between data and synthetics are ascribed to lateral variations of the seismic and atmospheric sound velocities and to the influence of atmospheric winds. These effects should be included in future modeling. This validation of our modeling tools allows to specify more precisely future observation projects.

  19. Characteristics of the Earth's orbit by observations of the setting Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sclar, N.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements of the setting Sun were carried out over a period of 16 months at Aliso Pier in Laguna Beach, CA, USA. The measurements are treated with simple analyses to provide good estimates of the obliquity of the ecliptic, and the eccentricity, velocities and radii of the Earth's elliptical orbit about the Sun.

  20. Study on networking issues of medium earth orbit satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araki, Noriyuki; Shinonaga, Hideyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    1993-01-01

    Two networking issues of communications systems with medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites, namely network architectures and location determination and registration methods for hand-held terminals, are investigated in this paper. For network architecture, five candidate architectures are considered and evaluated in terms of signaling traffic. For location determination and registration, two methods are discussed and evaluated.

  1. Air-Cored Linear Induction Motor for Earth-to-Orbit Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabar, Zivan; Levi, Enrico; Birenbaum, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The need for lowering the cost of Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) launches has prompted consideration of electromagnetic launchers. A preliminary design based on the experience gained in an advanced type of coilgun and on innovative ideas shows that such a launcher is technically feasible with almost off-the-shelf components.

  2. Seeing Earth's Orbit in the Stars: Parallax and Aberration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Todd K.

    2013-01-01

    During the 17th century the idea of an orbiting and rotating Earth became increasingly popular, but opponents of this view continued to point out that the theory had observable consequences that had never, in fact, been observed. Why, for instance, had astronomers failed to detect the annual parallax of the stars that "must" occur if…

  3. A constant current charge technique for low Earth orbit life testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glueck, Peter

    1991-01-01

    A constant current charge technique for low earth orbit testing of nickel cadmium cells is presented. The method mimics the familiar taper charge of the constant potential technique while maintaining cell independence for statistical analysis. A detailed example application is provided and the advantages and disadvantages of this technique are discussed.

  4. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 [IB Docket No. 12-376; FCC 12-161] Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal...

  5. Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Assessment: Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Hyde, James L.; Bjorkman, Michael D.; Hoffman, Kevin D.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides results of a Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) risk assessment of the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle (MSR EEV). The assessment was performed using standard risk assessment methodology illustrated in Figure 1-1. Central to the process is the Bumper risk assessment code (Figure 1-2), which calculates the critical penetration risk based on geometry, shielding configurations and flight parameters. The assessment process begins by building a finite element model (FEM) of the spacecraft, which defines the size and shape of the spacecraft as well as the locations of the various shielding configurations. This model is built using the NX I-deas software package from Siemens PLM Software. The FEM is constructed using triangular and quadrilateral elements that define the outer shell of the spacecraft. Bumper-II uses the model file to determine the geometry of the spacecraft for the analysis. The next step of the process is to identify the ballistic limit characteristics for the various shield types. These ballistic limits define the critical size particle that will penetrate a shield at a given impact angle and impact velocity. When the finite element model is built, each individual element is assigned a property identifier (PID) to act as an index for its shielding properties. Using the ballistic limit equations (BLEs) built into the Bumper-II code, the shield characteristics are defined for each and every PID in the model. The final stage of the analysis is to determine the probability of no penetration (PNP) on the spacecraft. This is done using the micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment definitions that are built into the Bumper-II code. These engineering models take into account orbit inclination, altitude, attitude and analysis date in order to predict an impacting particle flux on the spacecraft. Using the geometry and shielding characteristics previously defined for the spacecraft and combining that information with the

  6. Precision GPS orbit determination strategies for an earth orbiter and geodetic tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Bertiger, Willy I.; Border, James S.

    1988-01-01

    Data from two 1985 GPS field tests were processed and precise GPS orbits were determined. With a combined carrier phase and pseudorange, the 1314-km repeatability improves substantially to 5 parts in 10 to the 9th (0.6 cm) in the north and 2 parts in 10 to the 8th (2-3 cm) in the other components. To achieve these levels of repeatability and accuracy, it is necessary to fine-tune the GPS solar radiation coefficients and ground station zenith tropospheric delays.

  7. Degradation of Beta-Cloth Covering for a Battery Orbital Replacement Unit in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Baldwin, Sammantha; Folz, Angela D.; Waters, Deborah L.; Loos, Alyssa

    2016-01-01

    Samples from the B-cloth cover for a battery orbit replaceable unit from the International Space Station were characterized using optical and electron microscopy, UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometry, and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results showed that in areas where the fabric was exposed to solar radiation the absorptance increased by as much as 20 percent, and the peak difference was in the ultraviolet, indicating that the increased absorptance may have been due to radiation. The emissivity of the material over a temperature range of 300 - 700 K was essentially unchanged.

  8. Degradation of Beta Cloth Covering for a Battery Orbital Replacement Unit in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Waters, Deborah L.; Baldwin, Sammantha; Folz, Angela D.; Loos, Alyssa

    2016-01-01

    Samples from the beta cloth cover for a battery orbit replaceable unit from the International Space Station (ISS) were characterized using optical and electron microscopy, UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometry, and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results showed that in areas where the fabric was exposed to solar radiation the absorptance increased by as much as 20 percent, and the peak difference was in the ultraviolet, indicating that the increased absorptance may have been due to radiation. The emissivity of the material over a temperature range of 300 to 700 K was essentially unchanged.

  9. Trajectory Optimization for Crewed Missions to an Earth-Moon L2 Halo Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Jennifer

    Baseline trajectories to an Earth-Moon L2 halo orbit and round trip trajectories for crewed missions have been created in support of an advanced Orion mission concept. Various transfer durations and orbit insertion locations have been evaluated. The trajectories often include a deterministic mid-course maneuver that decreases the overall change in velocity in the trajectory. This paper presents the application of primer vector theory to study the existence, location, and magnitude of the mid-course maneuver in order to understand how to build an optimal round trip trajectory to an Earth-Moon L2 halo orbit. The lessons learned about when to add mid-course maneuvers can be applied to other mission designs.

  10. Optimum satellite orbits for accurate measurement of the earth's radiation budget, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, G. G.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum set of orbit inclinations for the measurement of the earth radiation budget from spacially integrating sensor systems was estimated for two and three satellite systems. The best set of the two were satellites at orbit inclinations of 80 deg and 50 deg; of three the inclinations were 80 deg, 60 deg and 50 deg. These were chosen on the basis of a simulation of flat plate and spherical detectors flying over a daily varying earth radiation field as measured by the Nimbus 3 medium resolution scanners. A diurnal oscillation was also included in the emitted flux and albedo to give a source field as realistic as possible. Twenty three satellites with different inclinations and equator crossings were simulated, allowing the results of thousand of multisatellite sets to be intercompared. All were circular orbits of radius 7178 kilometers.

  11. Artist concept of Galileo with inertial upper stage (IUS) in low Earth orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-08-25

    S89-42940 (April 1989) --- In this artist's rendition, the Galileo spacecraft is being boosted into its inter-planetary trajectory by the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) rocket. The Space Shuttle Atlantis, which is scheduled to take Galileo and the IUS from Earth's surface into space, is depicted against the curve of Earth. Galileo will be placed on a trajectory to Venus, from which it will return to Earth at higher velocity and then gain still more energy in two gravity-assist passes, until it has enough velocity to reach Jupiter. Passing Venus, it will take scientific data using instruments designed for observing Jupiter; later, it will make measurements at Earth and the moon, crossing above the moon's north pole in the second pass. Between the two Earth passes, it will edge into the asteroid belt, beyond Mars' orbit; there, the first close-up observation of an asteroid is planned. Crossing the belt later, another asteroid flyby is possible.

  12. Sources of orbital debris and the projected environment for future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The major source of the nearly 5000 objects currently observed orbiting the earth is from rocket explosions. These explosions have almost certainly produced an even larger unobserved population. If the current trend continues, collisions between orbiting fragments and other space objects could be frequent. By the year 2000 satellite fragmentation by hypervelocity collisions could become the major source of earth orbiting objects, resulting in a self propagating debris belt. The flux within this belt could exceed the meteoroid flux, affecting future spacecraft design.

  13. A Small Spacecraft Swarm Deployment and Stationkeeping Strategy for Sun-Earth L1 Halo Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conn, Tracie R.; Bookbinder, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft orbits about the Sun-Earth librarian point L1 have been of interest since the 1950s. An L1 halo orbit was first achieved with the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) mission, and similar orbits around Sun-Earth L1 were achieved in the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Genesis, and Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) missions. With recent advancements in CubeSat technology, we envision that it will soon be feasible to deploy CubeSats at L1. As opposed to these prior missions where one large satellite orbited alone, a swarm of CubeSats at L1 would enable novel science data return, providing a topology for intersatellite measurements of heliophysics phenomena both spatially and temporally, at varying spatial scales.The purpose of this iPoster is to present a flight dynamics strategy for a swarm of numerous CubeSats orbiting Sun-Earth L1. The presented method is a coupled, two-part solution. First, we present a deployment strategy for the CubeSats that is optimized to produce prescribed, time-varying intersatellite baselines for the purposes of collecting magnetometer data as well as radiometric measurements from cross-links. Second, we employ a loose control strategy that was successfully applied to SOHO and ACE for minimized stationkeeping fuel expenditure. We emphasize that the presented solution is practical within the current state-of-the-art and heritage CubeSat technology, citing capabilities of CubeSat designs that will launch on the upcoming Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) to lunar orbits and beyond. Within this iPoster, we present animations of the simulated deployment strategy and resulting spacecraft trajectories. Mission design parameters such as total delta-v required for long-term station keeping and minimummaximummean spacecraft separation distances are also presented.

  14. A Small Spacecraft Swarm Deployment and Stationkeeping Strategy for Sun-Earth L1 Halo Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renea Conn, Tracie; Bookbinder, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft orbits about the Sun-Earth librarian point L1 have been of interest since the 1950s. An L1 halo orbit was first achieved with the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) mission, and similar orbits around Sun-Earth L1 were achieved in the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Genesis, and Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) missions. With recent advancements in CubeSat technology, we envision that it will soon be feasible to deploy CubeSats at L1. As opposed to these prior missions where one large satellite orbited alone, a swarm of CubeSats at L1 would enable novel science data return, providing a topology for intersatellite measurements of heliophysics phenomena both spatially and temporally, at varying spatial scales.The purpose of this iPoster is to present a flight dynamics strategy for a swarm of numerous CubeSats orbiting Sun-Earth L1. The presented method is a coupled, two-part solution. First, we present a deployment strategy for the CubeSats that is optimized to produce prescribed, time-varying intersatellite baselines for the purposes of collecting magnetometer data as well as radiometric measurements from cross-links. Second, we employ a loose control strategy that was successfully applied to SOHO and ACE for minimized stationkeeping propellant expenditure. We emphasize that the presented solution is practical within the current state-of-the-art and heritage CubeSat technology, citing capabilities of CubeSat designs that will launch on the upcoming Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) to lunar orbits and beyond. Within this iPoster, we present animations of the simulated deployment strategy and resulting spacecraft trajectories. Mission design parameters such as total Δv required for long-term station keeping and minimum/maximum/mean spacecraft separation distances are also presented.

  15. Techniques of orbital decay and long-term ephemeris prediction for satellites in earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, B. F.; Pimm, R. S.; Rowe, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    In the special perturbation method, Cowell and variation-of-parameters formulations of the motion equations are implemented and numerically integrated. Variations in the orbital elements due to drag are computed using the 1970 Jacchia atmospheric density model, which includes the effects of semiannual variations, diurnal bulge, solar activity, and geomagnetic activity. In the general perturbation method, two-variable asymptotic series and automated manipulation capabilities are used to obtain analytical solutions to the variation-of-parameters equations. Solutions are obtained considering the effect of oblateness only and the combined effects of oblateness and drag. These solutions are then numerically evaluated by means of a FORTRAN program in which an updating scheme is used to maintain accurate epoch values of the elements. The atmospheric density function is approximated by a Fourier series in true anomaly, and the 1970 Jacchia model is used to periodically update the Fourier coefficients. The accuracy of both methods is demonstrated by comparing computed orbital elements to actual elements over time spans of up to 8 days for the special perturbation method and up to 356 days for the general perturbation method.

  16. Precipitation regions on the Earth of high energy electrons, injected by a point source moving along a circular Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.; Klyushnikov, G. N.

    2018-05-01

    In the paper we continue the study of precipitation regions of high-energy charged particles, carried out by the authors since 2002. In contrast to previous papers, where a stationary source of electrons was considered, it is assumed that the source moves along a low circular near-earth orbit with a constant velocity. The orbit position is set by the inclination angle of the orbital plane to the equatorial plane and the longitude of the ascending node. The total number of injected electrons is determined by the source strength and the number of complete revolutions that the source makes along the circumference. Construction of precipitation regions is produced using the computational algorithm based on solving of the system of ordinary differential equations. The features of the precipitation regions structure for the dipole approximation of the geomagnetic field and the symmetrical arrangement of the orbit relative to the equator are noted. The dependencies of the precipitation regions on different orbital parametres such as the incline angle, the ascending node position and kinetic energy of injected particles have been considered.

  17. Durability of Intercalated Graphite Epoxy Composites in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Davidson, Michelle L.; Shively, Rhonda

    1996-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of graphite epoxy composites can be substantially increased by intercalating (inserting guest atoms or molecules between the graphene planes) the graphite fibers before composite formation. The resulting high strength, low density, electrically conducting composites have been proposed for EMI shielding in spacecraft. Questions have been raised, however, about their durability in the space environment, especially with respect to outgassing of the intercalates, which are corrosive species such as bromine. To answer those concerns, six samples of bromine intercalated graphite epoxy composites were included in the third Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) experiment flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-46). Changes in electrical conductivity, optical reflectance, surface texture, and mass loss for SiO2 protected and unprotected samples were measured after being exposed to the LEO environment for 42 hours. SiO2 protected samples showed no degradation, verifying conventional protection strategies are applicable to bromine intercalated composites. The unprotected samples showed that bromine intercalation does not alter the degradation of graphite-epoxy composites. No bromine was detected to have been released by the fibers allaying fears that outgassing could be disruptive to the sensitive electronics the EMI shield is meant to protect.

  18. Resistance of CFRP structures to environmental degradation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliga, Agnieszka

    Within this study, a development of a protection strategy for ultra-thin CFRP structures from degrading effects of low Earth orbit (LEO) is presented. The proposed strategy involves an application of a modified epoxy resin system on outer layers of the structure, which is cycloaliphatic in its chemical character and reinforced with POSS nanoparticles. The core of the CFRP structure is manufactured using a highly aromatic epoxy resin system which provides excellent mechanical properties, however, its long-term ageing performance in space is not satisfactory, and hence a surface treatment is required to improve its longevity. The developed resin system presented in this thesis is a hybrid material, designed in such a way that its individual constituents each contribute to combating the detrimental effects of radiation, atomic oxygen (AO), temperature extremes and vacuum induced outgassing of exposed material surfaces while operating in LEO. The cycloaliphatic nature of the outer epoxy increases UV resistance and the embedded silicon nanoparticles improve AO and thermal stability. During the study, a material characterization of the developed cycloaliphatic epoxy resins was performed including the effects of nanoparticles on morphology, curing behaviour, thermal-mechanical properties and surface chemistry. Following on that, the efficacy of the modified resin system on space-like resistance was studied. It was found that when the ultra-thin CFRP structures are covered with the developed resin system, their AO resistance is approximately doubled, UV susceptibility decreased by 80% and thermal stability improved by 20%. Following on the successful launch of the InflateSail mission earlier this year, which demonstrated a sail deployment and a controlled de-orbiting, the findings of this study are of importance for the future generation of similar, but significantly longer missions. Ensuring resistance of CFRP structures in a highly corrosive LEO environment is a critical

  19. The rotational motion of an earth orbiting gyroscope according to the Einstein theory of general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoots, F. R.; Fitzpatrick, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    The classical Poisson equations of rotational motion are used to study the attitude motions of an earth orbiting, rapidly spinning gyroscope perturbed by the effects of general relativity (Einstein theory). The center of mass of the gyroscope is assumed to move about a rotating oblate earth in an evolving elliptic orbit which includes all first-order oblateness effects produced by the earth. A method of averaging is used to obtain a transformation of variables, for the nonresonance case, which significantly simplifies the Poisson differential equations of motion of the gyroscope. Long-term solutions are obtained by an exact analytical integration of the simplified transformed equations. These solutions may be used to predict both the orientation of the gyroscope and the motion of its rotational angular momentum vector as viewed from its center of mass. The results are valid for all eccentricities and all inclinations not near the critical inclination.

  20. An introduction to orbit dynamics and its application to satellite-based earth monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    The long term behavior of satellites is studied at a level of complexity suitable for the initial planning phases of earth monitoring missions. First-order perturbation theory is used to describe in detail the basic orbit dynamics of satellite motion around the earth and relative to the sun. Surface coverage capabilities of satellite orbits are examined. Several examples of simulated observation and monitoring missions are given to illustrate representative applications of the theory. The examples stress the need for devising ways of maximizing total mission output in order to make the best possible use of the resultant data base as input to those large-scale, long-term earth monitoring activities which can best justify the use of satellite systems.

  1. Visible and Ultraviolet Detectors for High Earth Orbit and Lunar Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of detectors for the visible and UV for future large observatories in earth orbit and the moon is briefly reviewed. For the visible, CCDs have the highest quantum efficiency, but are subject to contamination of the data by cosmic ray hits. For the moon, the level of hits can be brought down to that at the earth's surface by shielding below about 20 meters of rock. For high earth orbits above the geomagnetic shield, CCDs might be able to be used by combining many short exposures and vetoing the cosmic ray hits, otherwise photoemissive detectors will be necessary. For the UV, photoemissive detectors will be necessary to reject the visible; to use CCDs would require the development of UV-efficient filters which reject the visible by many orders of magnitude. Development of higher count rate capability would be desirable for photoemissive detectors.

  2. Remote Sensing of Earth and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertler, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…

  3. The 2011 Draconid Shower Risk to Earth-Orbiting Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.; Moser, Danielle E.

    2010-01-01

    Current meteor shower forecast models project a strong Draconid outburst, possibly a storm, on October 8, 2011, with a duration of approximately 7 hours and peaking between 19 and 21 hours UT. Predicted rates span an order of magnitude, with maximum Zenithal Hourly Rates (ZHRs) ranging from a few tens to several hundred. Calibration of the NASA MSFC Meteoroid Stream Model 1 to radar and optical observations of past apparitions, particularly the 2005 Draconid outburst 2, suggest that the maximum rate will be several hundreds per hour. Given the high spatial density of the Draconid stream, this implies a maximum meteoroid flux of 5-10 Draconids km(exp -2)/hr (to a limiting diameter of 1 mm), some 25-50 times greater than the normal sporadic flux of 0.2 km(exp -2)/ hr for particles of this size. Total outburst fluence, assuming a maximum ZHR of 750, is 15.5 Draconids km(exp -2), resulting in an overall 10x risk increase to spacecraft surfaces vulnerable to hypervelocity impacts by 1 mm particles. It is now established that a significant fraction of spacecraft anomalies produced by shower meteoroids (e.g. OLYMPUS and LandSat 5) are caused by electrostatic discharges produced by meteoroid impacts. In these cases, the charge generated is roughly proportional to v(exp 3.5(4)), giving a Draconid moving at 20 km/s approximately 1/80th the electrical damage potential of a Leonid of the same mass. In other words, a Draconid outburst with a maximum ZHR of 800 presents the same electrical risk as a normal Leonid shower with a ZHR of 15, assuming the mass indices and shower durations are the same. This is supported by the fact that no spacecraft electrical anomalies were reported during the strong Draconid outbursts of 1985 and 1998. However, the lack of past anomalies should not be taken as carte blanche for satellite operators to ignore the 2011 Draconids, as the upcoming outburst will constitute a period of enhanced risk for vehicles in near-Earth space. Each spacecrft is

  4. A Reflight of the Explorer-1 Science Mission: The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Obland, M.; Hunyadi, G.; Jepsen, S.; Larsen, B.; Kankelborg, C.; Hiscock, W.

    2001-05-01

    Montana State University's interdisciplinary Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) under support from the Montana NASA Space Grant Consortium is engaged in an earth orbiting satellite student design and flight project. The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE) will carry a modern-day reproduction of the scientific payload carried on Explorer-1. On February 1, 1958 the United States launched its first earth orbiting satellite carrying a 14 kg scientific experiment built by Professor James Van Allen's group at the State University of Iowa (now The University of Iowa). The MEROPE student satellite will carry a reproduction, using current-day technology, of the scientific payload flown on Explorer-1. The CubeSat-class satellite will use currently available, low cost technologies to produce a payload-carrying satellite with a total orbital mass of 1 kg in a volume of 1 cubic liter. The satellite is to be launched in late 2001 into a 600 km, 65° inclination orbit. MEROPE will utilize passive magnetic orientation for 2-axis attitude control. A central microprocessor provides timing, controls on-board operations and switching, and enables data storage. Body mounted GaAs solar arrays are expected to provide in excess of 1.5 W. to maintain battery charge and operate the bus and payload. The Geiger counter will be operated at approximately 50% duty cycle, primarily during transits of the earth's radiation belts. Data will be stored on board and transmitted approximately twice per day to a ground station located on the Bozeman campus of the Montana State University. Owing to the 65° inclination, the instrument will also detect the higher energy portion of the electron spectrum responsible for the production of the Aurora Borealis. This paper describes both the technical implementation and design of the satellite and its payload as well as the not inconsiderable task of large team organization and management. As of March 2001, the student team consists of

  5. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 4: Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The earth observations capability of the space station and space shuttle program definition is discussed. The stress in the functional program element has been to update the sensor specifications and to shift some of the emphasis from sensors to experiments to be done aboard the facility. The earth observations facility will include provisions for data acquisition, sensor control and display, data analysis, and maintenance and repair. The facility is research and development in nature with a potential for operational applications.

  6. Radiation Protection Effectiveness of Polymeric Based Shielding Materials at Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Stewart-Sloan, Charlotte R.; Wilson, John W.; Adams, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    Correlations of limited ionizing radiation measurements onboard the Space Transportation System (STS; shuttle) and the International Space Station (ISS) with numerical simulations of charged particle transport through spacecraft structure have indicated that usage of hydrogen rich polymeric materials improves the radiation shielding performance of space structures as compared to the traditionally used aluminum alloys. We discuss herein the radiation shielding correlations between measurements on board STS-81 (Atlantis, 1997) using four polyethylene (PE) spheres of varying radii, and STS-89 (Endeavour, 1998) using aluminum alloy spheres; with numerical simulations of charged particle transport using the Langley Research Center (LaRC)-developed High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN) algorithm. In the simulations, the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) component of the ionizing radiation environment at Low Earth Orbit (LEO) covering ions in the 1< or equals Z< or equals 28 range is represented by O'Neill's (2004) model. To compute the transmission coefficient for GCR ions at LEO, O'Neill's model is coupled with the angular dependent LaRC cutoff model. The trapped protons/electrons component of LEO environment is represented by a LaRC-developed time dependent procedure which couples the AP8min/AP8max, Deep River Neutron Monitor (DRNM) and F10.7 solar radio frequency measurements. The albedo neutron environment resulting from interaction of GCR ions with upper atmosphere is modeled through extrapolation of the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) measurements. With the validity of numerical simulations through correlation with PE and aluminum spheres measurements established, we further present results from the expansion of the simulations through the selection of high hydrogen content commercially available polymeric constituents such as PE foam core and Spectra fiber(Registered TradeMark) composite face sheet to assess their radiation shield properties as compared to

  7. Confirmation of Earth-Mass Planets Orbiting the Millisecond Pulsar PSR B1257 + 12.

    PubMed

    Wolszczan, A

    1994-04-22

    The discovery of two Earth-mass planets orbiting an old ( approximately 10(9) years), rapidly spinning neutron star, the 6.2-millisecond radio pulsar PSR B1257+12, was announced in early 1992. It was soon pointed out that the approximately 3:2 ratio of the planets' orbital periods should lead to accurately predictable and possibly measurable gravitational perturbations of their orbits. The unambiguous detection of this effect, after 3 years of systematic timing observations of PSR B1257+12 with the 305-meter Arecibo radiotelescope, as well as the discovery of another, moon-mass object in orbit around the pulsar, constitutes irrefutable evidence that the first planetary system around a star other than the sun has been identified.

  8. Scheduler for monitoring objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J; Riot, Vincent J; De Vries, Willem H; Bauman, Brian J; Nikolaev, Sergei; Henderson, John R; Phillion, Donald W

    2015-04-28

    An ephemeris refinement system includes satellites with imaging devices in earth orbit to make observations of space-based objects ("target objects") and a ground-based controller that controls the scheduling of the satellites to make the observations of the target objects and refines orbital models of the target objects. The ground-based controller determines when the target objects of interest will be near enough to a satellite for that satellite to collect an image of the target object based on an initial orbital model for the target objects. The ground-based controller directs the schedules to be uploaded to the satellites, and the satellites make observations as scheduled and download the observations to the ground-based controller. The ground-based controller then refines the initial orbital models of the target objects based on the locations of the target objects that are derived from the observations.

  9. Applicability of the control configured design approach to advanced earth orbital transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Zeck, H.; Walker, W. H.; Shafer, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The applicability of the control configured design approach (CCV) to advanced earth orbital transportation systems was studied. The baseline system investigated was fully reusable vertical take-off/horizontal landing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle and had mission requirements similar to the space shuttle orbiter. Technical analyses were made to determine aerodynamic, flight control and subsystem design characteristics. Figures of merit were assessed on vehicle dry weight and orbital payload. The results indicated that the major parameters for CCV designs are hypersonic trim, aft center of gravity, and control surface heating. Optimized CCV designs can be controllable and provide substantial payload gains over conventional non-CCV design vertical take-off vehicles.

  10. Earth-Moon Libration Point Orbit Stationkeeping: Theory, Modeling and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Pavlak, Thomas A.; Haapala, Amanda F.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Woodard, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Collinear Earth-Moon libration points have emerged as locations with immediate applications. These libration point orbits are inherently unstable and must be maintained regularly which constrains operations and maneuver locations. Stationkeeping is challenging due to relatively short time scales for divergence effects of large orbital eccentricity of the secondary body, and third-body perturbations. Using the Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission orbit as a platform, the fundamental behavior of the trajectories is explored using Poincare maps in the circular restricted three-body problem. Operational stationkeeping results obtained using the Optimal Continuation Strategy are presented and compared to orbit stability information generated from mode analysis based in dynamical systems theory.

  11. The Disposal of Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle Stages in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft and launch vehicle stages abandoned in Earth orbit have historically been a primary source of debris from accidental explosions. In the future, such satellites will become the principal cause of orbital debris via inadvertent collisions. To curtail both the near-term and far-term risks posed by derelict spacecraft and launch vehicle stages to operational space systems, numerous national and international orbital debris mitigation guidelines specifically recommend actions which could prevent or limit such future debris generation. Although considerable progress has been made in implementing these recommendations, some changes to existing vehicle designs can be difficult. Moreover, the nature of some missions also can present technological and budgetary challenges to be compliant with widely accepted orbital debris mitigation measures.

  12. Determination of celestial bodies orbits and probabilities of their collisions with the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Yuri; Vavilov, Dmitrii

    In this work we have developed a universal method to determine the small bodies orbits in the Solar System. In the method we consider different planes of body’s motion and pick up which is the most appropriate. Given an orbit plane we can calculate geocentric distances at time of observations and consequence determinate all orbital elements. Another technique that we propose here addresses the problem of estimation probability of collisions celestial bodies with the Earth. This technique uses the coordinate system associated with the nominal osculating orbit. We have compared proposed technique with the Monte-Carlo simulation. Results of these methods exhibit satisfactory agreement, whereas, proposed method is advantageous in time performance.

  13. Orbital Debris Environment Assessment and Mitigation for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the debris that is in orbit, and reduction of the orbital debris. Specifically, attention is paid to the reduction of orbital debris from launch vehicle stages after the launch.

  14. Non-numeric computation for high eccentricity orbits. [Earth satellite orbit perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, R.; Renard, M. L.

    1975-01-01

    Geocentric orbits of large eccentricity (e = 0.9 to 0.95) are significantly perturbed in cislunar space by the sun and moon. The time-history of the height of perigee, subsequent to launch, is particularly critical. The determination of 'launch windows' is mostly concerned with preventing the height of perigee from falling below its low initial value before the mission lifetime has elapsed. Between the extremes of high accuracy digital integration of the equations of motion and of using an approximate, but very fast, stability criteria method, this paper is concerned with the developement of a method of intermediate complexity using non-numeric computation. The computer is used as the theory generator to generalize Lidov's theory using six osculating elements. Symbolic integration is completely automatized and the output is a set of condensed formulae well suited for repeated applications in launch window analysis. Examples of applications are given.

  15. An Automated Optical Fiber Puller for Use in Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    With the slowdown in space station construction, limiting astronaut time for scientific experiments, an effort is being made to automate certain experiments. One such experiment is production of heavy metal fluoride fibers in the microgravity environment. Previous work by this author and others have shown that microgravity inhibits crystallization of ZBLAN glass. Thus an automated experiment has been designed. This experiment will consist of several elements, one which includes the use of an autonomous robot to initiate fiber pulling. The first element will be to melt the preform to eliminate crystals. The preform tip will then be heated to the viscosity necessary for fiber drawing. The robot will initiate the draw and attach the fiber end to the take-up reel. Once fiber pulling has commenced, sensors will be used to detect a fiber break, whereupon the robot can re-initiate the pulling process. The fiber will be coated with a polymer and the polymer cured with ultraviolet light. A laser micrometer will be used to monitor fiber diameter. The experiment is designed so that up to 10 preforms can be pulled into fiber during one flight. The apparatus will be mounted on a free-flying carrier which will be placed into low-earth orbit from the cargo bay of the space shuttle by the shuttle robot arm. The experiment can be started by a signal from the shuttle or from the ground via telescience. The experiment will proceed automatically using specially designed algorithms and will be monitored from the ground. The carrier will be picked up by the shuttle before return to earth.

  16. The 2017 Meteor Shower Activity Forecast for Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, Althea; Cooke, Bill; Moser, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Most meteor showers will display typical activity levels in 2017. Perseid activity is expected to be higher than normal but less than in 2016; rates may reach 80% of the peak ZHR in 2016. Despite this enhancement, the Perseids rank 4th in flux for 0.04-cm-equivalent meteoroids: the Geminids (GEM), Daytime Arietids (ARI), and Southern delta Aquariids (SDA) all produce higher fluxes. Aside from heightened Perseid activity, the 2017 forecast includes a number of changes. In 2016, the Meteoroid Environment Office used 14 years of shower flux data to revisit the activity profiles of meteor showers included in the annual forecast. Both the list of showers and the shape of certain major showers have been revised. The names and three-letter shower codes were updated to match those in the International Astronomical Union (IAU) Meteor Data Center, and a number of defunct or insignificant showers were removed. The most significant of these changes are the increased durations of the Daytime Arietid (ARI) and Geminid (GEM) meteor showers. This document is designed to supplement spacecraft risk assessments that incorporate an annual averaged meteor shower flux (as is the case with all NASA meteor models). Results are presented relative to this baseline and are weighted to a constant kinetic energy. Two showers - the Daytime Arietids (ARI) and the Geminids (GEM) - attain flux levels approaching that of the baseline meteoroid environment for 0.1-cm-equivalent meteoroids. This size is the threshold for structural damage. These two showers, along with the Quadrantids (QUA) and Perseids (PER), exceed the baseline flux for 0.3-cm-equivalent particles, which is near the limit for pressure vessel penetration. Please note, however, that meteor shower fluxes drop dramatically with increasing particle size. As an example, the Arietids contribute a flux of about 5x10(exp -6) meteoroids m(exp -2) hr-1 in the 0.04-cm-equivalent range, but only 1x10(exp -8) meteoroids m(sub -2) hr-1 for the 0

  17. Evaluation of Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Reed, Charles K.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control coatings were exposed to simulated low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental conditions to determine effects on optical properties. In one test, samples of the white paint coating Z-93P were coated with outgassed products from Tefzel(R) (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer) power cable insulation as-may occur on ISS. These samples were then exposed, along with an uncontaminated Z-93P witness sample, to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation to determine solar absorptance degradation. The Z-93P samples coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products experienced greater increases in solar absorptance than witness samples not coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products. In another test, samples of second surface silvered Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), SiO. (where x=2)-coated silvered Teflon(R) FEP, and Z-93P witness samples were exposed to the combined environments of atomic oxygen and VLTV radiation to determine optical properties changes due to these simulated ISS environmental effects. This test verified the durability of these materials in the absence of contaminants.

  18. Evaluation of Low-Earth-Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft thermal control coatings in low Earth orbit (LEO) can be affected by solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. Ultraviolet radiation can darken some polymers and oxides commonly used in thermal control materials. Atomic oxygen can erode polymer materials, but it may reverse the ultraviolet-darkening effect on oxides. Maintaining the desired solar absorptance for thermal control coatings is important to assure the proper operating temperature of the spacecraft. Thermal control coatings to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) were evaluated for their performance after exposure in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen-Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure (AO-VUV) facility. This facility simulated the LEO environments of solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation (wavelength range, 115 to 200 nanometers (nm)) and VUV combined with atomic oxygen. Solar absorptance was measured in vacuo to eliminate the "bleaching" effects of ambient oxygen on VUV-induced degradation. The objective of these experiments was to determine solar absorptance increases of various thermal control materials due to exposure to simulated LEO conditions similar to those expected for ISS. Work was done in support of ISS efforts at the requests of Boeing Space and Defense Systems and Lockheed Martin Vought Systems.

  19. Techniques for Measuring Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, a low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen reaction with polymers causes erosion, which is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, where the atomic oxygen fluence is often so low that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties, recession measurements based on atomic force microscopy analyses can be used. Equally necessary to knowing the mass loss or recession depth for determining the erosion yield of polymers is the knowledge of the atomic oxygen fluence that the polymers were exposed to in space. This paper discusses the procedures and relevant issues for mass loss and recession depth measurements for passive atomic oxygen erosion yield characterization of polymers, along with techniques for active atomic oxygen fluence and erosion characterization. One active atomic oxygen erosion technique discussed is a new technique based on optical measurements. Details including the use of both semi-transparent and opaque polymers for active erosion measurement are reviewed.

  20. Electrical Breakdown of Anodized Structures in a Low Earth Orbital Environmental

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, J. T.; Doreswamy, C. V.; Vayner, B. V.; Snyder, D. B.; Ferguson, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive set of investigations involving arcing on a negatively biased anodized aluminum plate immersed in a low density argon plasma at low pressures (P(sub O), 7.5 x 10(exp -5) Torr) have been performed. These arcing experiments were designed to simulate electrical breakdown of anodized coatings in a Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment. When electrical breakdown of an anodized layer occurs, an arc strikes, and there is a sudden flux of electrons accelerated into the ambient plasma. This event is directly followed by ejection of a quasi-neutral plasma cloud consisting of ejected material blown out of the anodized layer. Statistical analysis of plasma cloud expansion velocities have yielded a mean propagation velocity, v = (19.4 +/- 3.5) km/s. As the plasma cloud expands into the ambient plasma, energy in the form of electrical noise is generated. The radiated electromagnetic noise is detected by means of an insulated antenna immersed in the ambient plasma. The purpose of the investigations is (1) to observe and record the electromagnetic radiation spectrum resulting from the arcing process. (2) Make estimates of the travel time of the quasi-neutral plasma cloud based on fluctuations to several Langmuir probes mounted in the ambient plasma. (3) To study induced arcing between two anodized aluminum structures in close proximity.