Science.gov

Sample records for earth orbit environment

  1. Neutron Environment Calculations for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Atwell, W.

    2001-01-01

    The long term exposure of astronauts on the developing International Space Station (ISS) requires an accurate knowledge of the internal exposure environment for human risk assessment and other onboard processes. The natural environment is moderated by the solar wind, which varies over the solar cycle. The HZETRN high charge and energy transport code developed at NASA Langley Research Center can be used to evaluate the neutron environment on ISS. A time dependent model for the ambient environment in low earth orbit is used. This model includes GCR radiation moderated by the Earth's magnetic field, trapped protons, and a recently completed model of the albedo neutron environment formed through the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. Using this code, the neutron environments for space shuttle missions were calculated and comparisons were made to measurements by the Johnson Space Center with onboard detectors. The models discussed herein are being developed to evaluate the natural and induced environment data for the Intelligence Synthesis Environment Project and eventual use in spacecraft optimization.

  2. Cosmic ray environment model for Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, L.

    1985-01-01

    A set of computer codes, which include the effects of the Earth's magnetic field, used to predict the cosmic ray environment (atomic numbers 1 through 28) for a spacecraft in a near-Earth orbit is described. A simple transport analysis is used to approximate the environment at the center of a spherical shield of arbitrary thickness. The final output is in a form (a Heinrich Curve) which has immediate applications for single event upset rate predictions. The codes will culate the time average environment for an arbitrary number (fractional or whole) of circular orbits. The computer codes were run for some selected orbits and the results, which can be useful for quick estimates of single event upset rates, are given. The codes were listed in the language HPL, which is appropriate or a Hewlett Packard 9825B desk top computer. Extensive documentation of the codes is available from COSMIC, except where explanations have been deferred to references where extensive documentation can be found. Some qualitative aspects of the effects of mass and magnetic shielding are also discussed.

  3. Environments stressful to optical materials in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Malloy, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft in low earth orbit experience a variety of environments which are potentially damaging to materials and to optical systems including electronic controls and components. The low earth orbit (typically 400 km) has a significantly different set of environments than higher orbits. The environments vary not only with altitude but also with inclination. This paper deals with the environment that the Space Station Freedom will experience and with some of the effects on the materials and electronic components that will comprise the optical systems on the station. Specific optical systems are not addressed but the information presented is general and does apply to optical systems.

  4. Energetic particle environment in near-Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Klecker, B

    1996-01-01

    The hazard of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation is one of the primary concerns of extended manned space missions and a continuous threat for the numerous spacecraft in operation today. In the near-Earth environment the main sources of radiation are solar energetic particles (SEP), galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and geomagnetically trapped particles, predominantly protons and electrons. The intensity of the SEP and GCR source depends primarily on the phase of the solar cycle. Due to the shielding effect of the Earth's magnetic field, the observed intensity of SEP and GCR particles in a near-Earth orbit will also depend on the orbital parameters altitude and inclination. The magnetospheric source strength depends also on these orbital parameters because they determine the frequency and location of radiation belt passes. In this paper an overview of the various sources of radiation in the near-Earth orbit will be given and first results obtained with the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) will be discussed. SAMPEX was launched on 3 July 1992 into a near polar (inclination 82 degrees) low altitude (510 x 675 km) orbit. The SAMPEX payload contains four separate instruments of high sensitivity covering the energy range 0.5 to several hundred MeV/nucleon for ions and 0.4 to 30 MeV for electrons. This low altitude polar orbit with zenith-oriented instrumentation provides a new opportunity for a systematic study of the near-Earth energetic particle environment. PMID:11540369

  5. Debris environment interactions with low Earth orbit constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Robert; Bade, Anette; Siebold, Karl; Johnson, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    Several low earth orbit communication satellite constellations are planned. Due to their size and complexity, these constellations potentially contribute to the orbital debris environment. The results of a parametric assessment of the impact of low earth orbit constellations on the orbital debris environment are presented. The increase in loss rate of non constellation spacecraft is considered, as well as the increase in the loss rate or replacement rate of constellation satellites as a result of debris impact. Primary parameters in the analysis are the number, size and altitude of the constellation. Parameters are defined for the vulnerable area of loss of spacecraft and the disposition of constellation spacecraft at the end of its life.

  6. Natural and Induced Environment in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Heinbockel, John H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Atwell, William; Huston, Stuart L.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term exposure of astronauts on the developing International Space Station (ISS) requires an accurate knowledge of the internal exposure environment for human risk assessment and other onboard processes. The natural environment is moderated by the solar wind which varies over the solar cycle. The neutron environment within the Shuttle in low Earth orbit has two sources. A time dependent model for the ambient environment is used to evaluate the natural and induced environment. The induced neutron environment is evaluated using measurements on STS-31 and STS-36 near the 1990 solar maximum.

  7. Cosmic ray environment model for Earth orbit. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, L.

    1985-01-01

    A set of computer codes, which include the effects of the Earth's magnetic field, used to predict the cosmic ray environment (atomic numbers 1 through 28) for a spacecraft in a near-Earth orbit is described. A simple transport analysis is used to approximate the environment at the center of a spherical shield of arbitrary thickness. The final output is in a form (a Heinrich Curve) which has immediate applications for single event upset rate predictions. The codes will culate the time average environment for an arbitrary number (fractional or whole) of circular orbits. The computer codes were run for some selected orbits and the results, which can be useful for quick estimates of single event upset rates, are given. The codes were listed in the language HPL, which is appropriate or a Hewlett Packard 9825B desk top computer. Extensive documentation of the codes is available from COSMIC, except where explanations have been deferred to references where extensive documentation can be found. Some qualitative aspects of the effects of mass and magnetic shielding are also discussed.

  8. An analysis of the low-earth-orbit communications environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diersing, Robert Joseph

    Advances in microprocessor technology and availability of launch opportunities have caused interest in low-earth-orbit satellite based communications systems to increase dramatically during the past several years. In this research the capabilities of two low-cost, store-and-forward LEO communications satellites operating in the public domain are examined--PACSAT-1 (operated by the Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation) and UoSAT-3 (operated by the University of Surrey, England, Electrical Engineering Department). The file broadcasting and file transfer facilities are examined in detail and a simulation model of the downlink traffic pattern is developed. The simulator will aid the assessment of changes in design and implementation for other systems. The development of the downlink traffic simulator is based on three major parts. First, is a characterization of the low-earth-orbit operating environment along with preliminary measurements of the PACSAT-1 and UoSAT-3 systems including: satellite visibility constraints on communications, monitoring equipment configuration, link margin computations, determination of block and bit error rates, and establishing typical data capture rates for ground stations using computer-pointed directional antennas and fixed omni-directional antennas. Second, arrival rates for successful and unsuccessful file server connections are established along with transaction service times. Downlink traffic has been further characterized by measuring: frame and byte counts for all data-link layer traffic; 30-second interval average response time for all traffic and for file server traffic only; file server response time on a per-connection basis; and retry rates for information and supervisory frames. Finally, the model is verified by comparison with measurements of actual traffic not previously used in the model building process. The simulator is then used to predict operation of the PACSAT-1 satellite with modifications to the original design.

  9. Effects of the low Earth orbital environment on spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    It is evident from space flights during the last three years that the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment interacts with spacecraft surfaces in significant ways. One manifestation of these interactions is recession of, in particular, organic-polymer-based surfaces presumably due to oxidation by atomic oxygen, the major component of the LEO environment. Three experiments have been conducted on Space Shuttle flights 5, 8 and 41-G to measure reaction rates and the effects of various parameters on reaction rates. Surface recession on these flights indicates reaction efficiencies approximately 3 x 10(-24) cu cm/atoms for unfilled organic polymers. Of the metals, silver and osmium are very reactive. Effects on spacecraft or experiment surfaces can be evaluated using the derived reaction efficiencies and a definition of the total exposure to atomic oxygen. This exposure is obtained using an ambient density model, solar activity data and spacecraft parameters of altitude, attitude and operational date. Oxygen flux on a given surface is obtained from the ambient density and spacecraft velocity and can then be integrated to provide the total exposure or fluence. Such information can be generated using simple computational programs and can be converted to various formats. Overall, the extent of damage is strongly dependent on the type of surface and total exposure time.

  10. Laboratory investigations: Low Earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Jon B.

    1990-03-01

    Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin protective coatings such as Al2O3 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.

  11. Laboratory investigations: Low Earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jon B.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin protective coatings such as Al2O3 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.

  12. UV Surface Environment of Earth-like Planets Orbiting FGKM Stars through Geological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D.

    2015-06-01

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth-Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth-Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.

  13. UV SURFACE ENVIRONMENT OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING FGKM STARS THROUGH GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rugheimer, S.; Sasselov, D.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2015-06-10

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth–Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth–Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.

  14. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Brasted, Donald K.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a space flight experiment designed to provide reference cell standards for photovoltaic measurements as well as to investigate the solar spectrum and the effect of long-term exposure of solar cells to the space environment are presented. This experiment, the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (APEX), was launched into low Earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility in 1984 and retrieved 69 months later. APEX contained over 150 solar cells of a wide variety of materials, designs and coverglasses. Data on cell performance was recorded for the first year-on-orbit.

  15. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    A conservative design approach was adopted by the International Space Station Program for specifying total ionizing radiation dose requirements for use in selecting and qualifying materials for construction of the International Space Station. The total ionizing dose design environment included in SSP 30512 Space Station Ionizing Radiation Design Environment is based on trapped proton and electron fluence derived from the solar maximum versions of the AE-8 and AP-8 models, respectively, specified for a circular orbit at 500 km altitude and 51.7 degree inclination. Since launch, the range of altitudes utilized for Space Station operations vary from a minimum of approximately 330 km to a maximum of approximately 405 km with a mean operational altitude less than 400 km. The design environment, therefore, overestimates the radiation environment because the particle flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly is the primary contributor to radiation dose in low Earth orbit and flux within the Anomaly is altitude dependent. In addition, a 2X multiplier is often applied to the design environment to cover effects from the contributions of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particle events, geomagnetic storms, and uncertainties in the trapped radiation models which are not explicitly included in the design environment. Application of this environment may give radiation dose overestimates on the order of 1OX to 30X for materials exposed to the space environment, suggesting that materials originally qualified for ten year exposures on orbit may be used for longer periods without replacement. In this paper we evaluate the "as flown" radiation environments derived from historical records of the ISS flight trajectory since launch and compare the results with the SSP 30512 design environment to document the magnitude of the radiation dose overestimate provided by the design environment. "As flown" environments are obtained from application of the AE-8/AP-8 trapped particle models along

  16. The Near-Earth Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2012-01-01

    The near-Earth space environment has been gradually polluted with orbital debris (OD) since the beginning of space activities 55 years ago. Although this problem has been known to the research community for decades, the public was, in general, unaware of the issue until the anti-satellite test conducted by China in 2007 and the collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009. The latter also underlined the potential of an ongoing collision cascade effect (the "Kessler Syndrome") in the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude). Recent modeling results have indicated that mitigation measures commonly adopted by the international space community will be insufficient to stabilize the LEO debris population. To better limit the OD population increase, more aggressive actions must be considered. There are three options for OD environment remediation-removal of large/massive intact objects to address the root cause of the OD population growth problem, removal of 5-mm-to-1 cm debris to mitigate the main mission-ending threats for the majority of operational spacecraft, and prevention of major debris-generating collisions as a temporary means to slow down the OD population increase. The technology, engineering, and cost challenges to carry out any of these three options are monumental. It will require innovative ideas, game-changing technologies, and major collaborations at the international level to address the OD problem and preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations.

  17. Material interactions with the low earth orbital environment Accurate reaction rate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, J. T.; Leger, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between spacecraft surfaces and atomic oxygen within the low earth orbital (LEO) environment have been observed and measured during Space Shuttle flights over the past 3 yr. The results of these experiments have demonstrated that interaction rates for many materials proposed for spacecraft applications are high and that protective coatings must be developed to enable long-lived operation of spacecraft structures in the LEO environment. A flight experiment discussed herein uses the Space Shuttle as an orbiting exposure laboratory to obtain accurate reaction rate measurements for materials typically used in spacecraft construction. An ion-neutral mass spectrometer, installed in the Orbiter cargo bay, will measure diurnal ambient oxygen densities while material samples are exposed at low altitude (222 km) to the orbital environment. From in situ atomic oxygen density information and postflight material recession measurements, accurate reaction rates can be derived to update the Space Station materials interaction data base. Additionally, gases evolved from a limited number of material surfaces subjected to direct oxygen impingement will be identified using the mass spectrometer. These measurements will aid in mechanistic definitions of chemical reactions which cause atom-surface interactions and in validating results of upcoming degradation studies conducted in ground-based neutral beam laboratories.

  18. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  19. Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2011-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

  20. Measured force on elongated bodies in a simulated low-Earth orbit environment

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, C. A.; Ketsdever, A. D.; Gimelshein, S. F.

    2014-12-09

    An overview of the development of a magnetically filtered atomic oxygen plasma source and the application of the source to study low-Earth orbit drag on elongated bodies is presented. Plasma diagnostics show that the magnetic filter plasma source produces atomic oxygen ions (O{sup +}) with streaming energies equivalent to the relative orbital environment of approximately 5eV and can supply the appropriate density for LEO simulation. Previous research has demonstrated that momentum transfer between ions and metal surfaces is equivalent to the momentum transfer expected for neutral molecules with similar energy, due to charge exchange occurring prior to momentum transfer. Total drag measurements of aluminum cuboid geometries of varying length to diameter ratios immersed in the extracted plasma plume are presented as a function of streaming ion energy.

  1. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Atomic Oxygen Effects. [low earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A workshop was held to address the scientific issues concerning the effects of atomic oxygen on materials in the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment. The program included 18 invited speakers plus contributed posters covering topics such as LEO spaceflight experiments, interaction mechanisms, and atomic oxygen source development. Discussion sessions were also held to organize a test program to evaluate atomic oxygen exposure facilities. The key issues raised in the workshop were: (1) the need to develop a reliable predictive model of the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the LEO environment; (2) the ability of ground-based exposure facilities to provide useful data for development of durable materials; and (3) accurate determination of the composition of the LEO environment. These proceedings include the invited papers, the abstracts for the contributed posters, and an account of the test program discussion sessions.

  2. Improving The Near-Earth Meteoroid And Orbital Debris Environment Definition With LAD-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Giovane, F. J.; Corsaro, R. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Drolshagen, G.; Kawai, H.; Tabata, M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Westphal, A. J.; Yano, H.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the near-Earth meteoroid and orbital debris environment definition, a large area particle sensor/collector is being developed to be placed on the International Space Station (ISS). This instrument, the Large Area Debris Collector (LAD-C), will attempt to record meteoroid and orbital debris impact flux, and capture the same particles with aerogel. After at least one year of deployment, the whole system will be brought back for additional laboratory analysis of the captured meteoroids and orbital debris. This project is led by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) while the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program (STP) is responsible for the integration, deployment, and retrieval of the system. Additional contributing team members of the consortium include the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, JAXA Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Chiba University (Japan), ESA Space Debris Office, University of Kent (UK), and University of California at Berkeley. The deployment of LAD-C on the ISS is planned for 2008, with the system retrieval in late 2009.

  3. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is small, and its only effect on the seasons is their unequal durations. Here I show a pleasant way to guide students to the actual value of Earth's orbital eccentricity, starting from the durations of the four seasons. The date of perihelion is also found.

  4. Simulation and analysis of the LUCID experiment in the Low Earth Orbit radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyntie, T.; Harrison, M. A.

    2014-06-01

    The Langton Ultimate Cosmic ray Intensity Detector (LUCID) experiment is a satellite-based device that will use five Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detectors to make measurements of the radiation environment at an altitude of approximately 635 km, i.e. in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The experiment is due to launch aboard Surrey Satellite Technology Limited's (SSTL's) TechDemoSat-1 in 2014. The Timepix detectors, developed by the Medipix Collaboration, are arranged to form the five sides of a cube enclosed by a 0.7 mm thick aluminium "dome", and will be operated in Time-over-Threshold mode to allow the flux, energy and directionality of incident ionising radiation to be measured. To estimate the anticipated data rates with respect to these measurements, the LUCID experiment has been modelled using the GEANT4 software framework. As an input to these simulations, SPENVIS, ESA's Space Environment information system, was used to obtain the estimated flux of trapped protons and electrons in TechDemoSat-1's orbit with NASA's AP-8 and AE-8 models. A web portal, LUCIDITY, was developeded to allow school students from the LUCID Collaboration to manage SPENVIS flux spectra and GEANT4 input cards. The initial results reported here confirm that the LUCID's data transmission allowance is sufficient, and further work applying the techniques to more specific space radiation environments with a more sophisticated simulation is proposed.

  5. Light Curve Observations of Upper Stages in the Low Earth Orbit Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Lederer, S.; Cowardin, H.; Mulrooney, M.; Read, J.; Chun, F.; Dearborn, M.; Tippets, R.

    2012-01-01

    Active debris removal (ADR) is a potential means to remediate the orbital debris environment in low Earth orbit (LEO). Massive intact objects, including spent upper stages and retired payloads, with high collision probabilities have been suggested as potential targets for ADR. The challenges to remove such objects on a routine basis are truly monumental. A key piece of information needed for any ADR operations is the tumble motion of the targets. Rapid tumble motion (in excess of one degree per second) of a multiple-ton intact object could be a major problem for proximity and docking operations. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the general tumble motion of the potential ADR targets for future ADR planning. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has initiated an effort to identify the global tumble behavior of potential ADR targets in LEO. The activities include optical light curve observations, imaging radar data collection, and laboratory light curve simulations and modeling. This paper provides a preliminary summary of light curve data of more than 100 upper stages collected by two telescope facilities in Colorado and New Mexico between 2011 and 2012. Analyses of the data and implications for the tumble motions of the objects are also discussed in the paper.

  6. Investigating fundamental physics and space environment with a dedicated Earth-orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron, Roberto

    The near-Earth environment is a place of first choice for performing fundamental physics experiments, given its proximity to Earth and at the same time being relatively quiet dynamically for particular orbital arrangements. This environment also sees a rich phenomenology for what concerns gravitation. In fact, the general theory of relativity is an incredibly accurate description of gravitational phenomenology. However, its overall validity is being questioned by the theories that aim at reconciling it with the microscopic domain. Challenges come also from the ‘mysteries’ of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, though mainly at scales from the galactic up to the cosmological. It is therefore important to precisely test the consequences of the theory -- as well as those of competing ones -- at all the accessible scales. At the same time, the development of high-precision experimental space techniques, which are needed for tests in fundamental physics, opens the way to complementary applications. The growth of the (man-made) orbital debris population is creating problems to the future development of space. The year 2009 witnessed the first accidental collision between two satellites in orbit (Iridium and Cosmos) that led to the creation of more debris. International and national agencies are intervening by issuing and/or adopting guidelines to mitigate the growth of orbital debris. A central tenet of these guidelines requires a presence in space shorter than 25 years to satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) after the conclusion of their operational lives. However, the determination of the natural lifetime of a satellite in LEO is very uncertain due to a large extent to the short-term and long-term variability of the atmospheric density in LEO and the comparatively low-accuracy of atmospheric density models. Many satellites orbiting in the 500-1200 km region with circular or elliptical orbits will be hard pressed to establish before flight whether or not they meet the 25

  7. Full simulation of the LUCID experiment in the Low Earth Orbit radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyntie, T.; Harrison, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    The Langton Ultimate Cosmic ray Intensity Detector (LUCID) experiment is a satellite-based device that uses five Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detectors to make measurements of the radiation environment at an altitude of approximately 630 km, i.e. in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) . The experiment launched aboard Surrey Satellite Technology Limited's (SSTL's) TechDemoSat-1 on Tuesday the 8th of July 2014. The Timepix detectors, developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration, are arranged to form the five sides of a cube enclosed by a 0.7 mm thick aluminium covering, and are operated in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode to allow the flux, energy and directionality of incident ionising radiation to be measured. To understand the expected detector performance with respect to these measurements, the LUCID experiment has been modelled using the Allpix software package, a generic simulation toolkit for silicon pixel detectors built upon the GEANT4 framework. The work presented here summarises studies completed using the GridPP Collaboration's computing grid infrastructure to perform the simulations, store the resultant datasets, and share that data with the LUCID Collaboration. The analysis of these datasets has given an indication of the expected performance in differing space radiation environments (for example, during passes of the polar regions or the South Atlantic Anomaly), and has allowed the LUCID Collaboration to prepare for when data is transmitted back to Earth in late 2014.

  8. Effects of low Earth orbit environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampair, Thomas R.; Berrios, William M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the benefits of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was the opportunity to study the before and after effects of low earth orbit space environment on the spacecraft thermal control coatings. Since the LDEF's thermal control was totally passive by design, the selection of the external surface absorptivity to emissivity ratio (alpha/epsilon) and the ability for the coating to retain the alpha/epsilon over time was an important consideration in the thermal design of the LDEF. The primary surface coating chosen for the LDEF structure was clear chromic anodized aluminum with an average design alpha/epsilon of 0.32/0.16. External surface absorptivity (alpha) and emissivity (epsilon) were measured on all intercostals, longerons, tray mounting flanges, thermal control panels, and a limited number of experiment surface coatings after the experiment trays were removed from the LDEF structure. All surface alpha/epsilon measurements were made using portable hand held infrared and solar spectrum reflectometers. The absorptivity measurements were taken with a Devices and Services SSR-ER version 5.0 solar spectra reflectometer which has a stated uncertainty of +/- 0.01, and all normal emissivity measurements were made using the Gier Dunkle DB-100 infrared reflectometer also with a stated uncertainty of +/- 0.01. Both instruments were calibrated in the laboratory by LaRC instrumentation personnel before being used in the field at KSC. A combined total of 733 measurements were taken on the anodized aluminum hardware which included the structure (intercostals, longerons, and center ring), earth and space end thermal control panels, and experiment tray mounting flanges. The facility thermal control coatings measured in this survey cover 33 percent of the total exposed LDEF surface area. To correlate low earth orbit environmental effects on the anodized coatings, measurements were taken in both exposed and unexposed surfaces and compared to quality assurance (QA

  9. Modeling the sodium potassium droplet interactions with the low earth orbit space debris environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisko, P. H.; Foster, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    The NASA/JSC sodium potassium (NaK) RORSAT coolant source and propagation model has been extended to 1 mm in diameter via a size distribution, which is an inverse power law fit that has been modified to damp out in the large size regime. This function matches the observed Haystack NaK population down to diameters of about 6 mm. The extrapolated function takes the population to arbitrarily small sizes all the while retaining the mass dominance of the 1-3 cm droplets that is observed in the Haystack data. This result is physically satisfying since the mechanism of NaK ejection appears to be a nonviolent release at low relative velocities. We propose that any NaK particles smaller than about 1 mm that exist would not be due to that mechanism. Instead, we show that such a population could be the result of subsequent collisions of NaK droplets with larger resident space objects and the micrometeoroid population. Our preliminary analysis shows that collisions between these populations are likely in the time period of 1980 through present-day. Though the result of such collisions is generally unknown it is probable that some ejecta of NaK enter the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment as a result. It is these secondary NaK droplets/particles that we contend are the likely impactors noted on returned surfaces.

  10. The viscoelastic characterization of polymer materials exposed to the low-Earth orbit environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strganac, Thomas; Letton, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Recent accomplishments in our research efforts have included the successful measurement of the thermal mechanical properties of polymer materials exposed to the low-earth orbit environment. In particular, viscoelastic properties were recorded using the Rheometrics Solids Analyzer (RSA 2). Dynamic moduli (E', the storage component of the elastic modulus, and E'', the loss component of the elastic modulus) were recorded over three decades of frequency (0.1 to 100 rad/sec) for temperatures ranging from -150 to 150 C. Although this temperature range extends beyond the typical use range of the materials, measurements in this region are necessary in the development of complete viscoelastic constitutive models. The experimental results were used to provide the stress relaxation and creep compliance performance characteristics through viscoelastic correspondence principles. Our results quantify the differences between exposed and control polymer specimens. The characterization is specifically designed to elucidate a constitutive model that accurately predicts the change in behavior of these materials due to exposure. The constitutive model for viscoelastic behavior reflects the level of strain, the rate of strain, and the history of strain as well as the thermal history of the material.

  11. High temperature radiator materials for applications in the low Earth orbital environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, S.K.; Banks, B.A.; Mirtich, M.J.; Lebed, R.; Brady, J.; Hotes, D.; Kussmaul, M.

    1994-09-01

    Radiators must be constructed of materials which have high emittance in order to efficiently radiate heat from high temperature space power systems. In addition, if these radiators are to be used for applications in the low Earth orbital environment, they must not be detrimentally affected by exposure to atomic oxygen. Four materials selected as candidate radiator materials 304 stainless steel, copper, titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium (Ti-6%Al-4%V), and niobium-1% zirconium (Nb-1%Zr) were surface modified by acid etching, heat treating, abrading, sputter texturing, electrochemical etching, and combinations of the above in order to improve their emittance. Combination treatment techniques with heat treating as the second treatment provided about a factor of two improvement in emittance for 304 stainless steel, Ti-6%Al-4%V, and Nb-1%Zr. A factor of three improvement in emittance occurred for discharge chamber sputter textured copper. Exposure to atomic oxygen in RF plasma asher did not significantly change the emittance of those samples that had been heat treated as part of their texturing process. An evaluation of oxygen penetration is needed to understand how oxidation affects the mechanical properties of these materials when heat treated.

  12. High temperature radiator materials for applications in the low Earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Lebed, Richard; Brady, Joyce; Hotes, Deborah; Kussmaul, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Radiators must be constructed of materials which have high emittance in order to efficiently radiate heat from high temperature space power systems. In addition, if these radiators are to be used for applications in the low Earth orbital environment, they must not be detrimentally affected by exposure to atomic oxygen. Four materials selected as candidate radiator materials (304 stainless steel, copper, titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium (Ti-6%Al-4%V), and niobium-1% zirconium (Nb-1%Zr)) were surface modified by acid etching, heat treating, abrading, sputter texturing, electrochemical etching, and combinations of the above in order to improve their emittance. Combination treatment techniques with heat treating as the second treatment provided about a factor of two improvement in emittance for 304 stainless steel, Ti-6%Al-4%V, and Nb-1%Zr. A factor of three improvement in emittance occurred for discharge chamber sputter textured copper. Exposure to atomic oxygen in an RF plasma asher did not significantly change the emittance of those samples that had been heat treated as part of their texturing process. An evaluation of oxygen penetration is needed to understand how oxidation affects the mechanical properties of these materials when heat treated.

  13. A model of the near-earth plasma environment and application to the ISEE-A and -B orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. W.; Sawyer, K. W.; Vette, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    A model of the near-earth environment to obtain a best estimate of the average flux of protons and electrons in the energy range from 0.1 to 100 keV for the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)-A and -B spacecraft. The possible radiation damage to the thermal coating on these spinning spacecraft is also studied. Applications of the model to other high-altitude satellites can be obtained with the appropriate orbit averaging. This study is the first attempt to synthesize an overall quantitative environment of low-energy particles for high altitude spacecraft, using data from in situ measurements.

  14. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper

  15. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Scheiman, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of post-flight performance testing of the solar cells flown on the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment are reported. Comparison of post-flight current-voltage characteristics with similar pre-flight data revealed little or no change in solar cell conversion efficiency, confirming the reliability and endurance of space photovoltaic cells. This finding is in agreement with the lack of significant physical changes in the solar cells despite nearly six years in the low Earth orbit environment.

  16. Charged particle radiation environment for the Spacelab and other missions in low earth orbit, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Wright, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The physical charged particle dose to be encountered in low earth orbit Spacelab missions is estimated for orbits of inclinations from e8.5 to 90 deg and altitudes from 200 to 800 km. The dose encountered is strongly altitude dependent, with a weaker dependence on inclination. Doses range from 0.007 rads/day at 28.5 deg and 200 km to 1.57 rads/day at 28.5 deg and 800 km behind a 5.0 g/sq cm shield. Geomagnetically trapped protons were the primary source of damage over most of the range of altitudes and inclinations, with galactic cosmic rays making a significant contribution at the lowest altitudes.

  17. The Predicted Growth of the Low Earth Orbit Space Debris Environment: An Assessment of Future Risk for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.

    2007-01-01

    Space debris is a worldwide-recognized issue concerning the safety of commercial, military, and exploration spacecraft. The space debris environment includes both naturally occuring meteoroids and objects in Earth orbit that are generated by human activity, termed orbital debris. Space agencies around the world are addressing the dangers of debris collisions to both crewed and robotic spacecraft. In the United States, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center leads the effort to categorize debris, predict its growth, and formulate mitigation policy for the environment from low Earth orbit (LEO) through geosynchronous orbit (GEO). This paper presents recent results derived from the NASA long-term debris environment model, LEGEND. It includes the revised NASA sodium potassium droplet model, newly corrected for a factor of two over-estimation of the droplet population. The study indicates a LEO environment that is already highly collisionally active among orbital debris larger than 1 cm in size. Most of the modeled collision events are non-catastrophic (i.e., They lead to a cratering of the target, but no large scale fragmentation.). But they are potentially mission-ending, and take place between impactors smaller than 10 cm and targets larger than 10 cm. Given the small size of the impactor these events would likely be undetectable by present-day measurement means. The activity continues into the future as would be expected. Impact rates of about four per year are predicted by the current study within the next 30 years, with the majority of targets being abandoned intacts (spent upper stages and spacecraft). Still, operational spacecraft do show a small collisional activity, one that increases over time as the small fragment population increases.

  18. 'Spider' in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module 'Spider' in a lunar landing configuration photographed by Command Module pilot David Scott inside the Command/Service Module 'Gumdrop' on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on 'Spider' has been deployed. lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the 'Spider' were astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 Commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, Lunar Module pilot.

  19. Comparison of Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The technological, environmental, social, and political ramifications of low Earth orbits as compared to geosynchronous Earth orbits for the solar power satellite (SPS) are assessed. The capital cost of the transmitting facilities is dependent on the areas of the antenna and rectenna relative to the requirement of high efficiency power transmission. The salient features of a low orbit Earth orbits are discussed in terms of cost reduction efforts.

  20. Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2014-09-01

    The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four

  1. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the advanced photovoltaic experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (APEX), containing over 150 solar cells and sensors, was designed to generate laboratory reference standards as well as to explore the durability of a wide variety of space solar cells. Located on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), APEX received the maximum possible dosage of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation, as well as enormous numbers of impacts from micrometeoroids and debris. The effect of the low earth orbital (LEO) environment on the solar cells and materials of APEX will be discussed in this paper. The on-orbit performance of the solar cells, as well as a comparison of pre- and postflight laboratory performance measurements, will be presented.

  2. Changes in Tribological Characteristics of MoS2 Bonded Film by Exposure to Low Earth Orbit Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Akiyama, Masao; Tagawa, Masahito

    Effects of a low earth orbit (LEO) space environment on tribological characteristics of a solid lubricant film were evaluated. The tested lubricant, which has been used for space applications, was a bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) film with organic binder. Three sets of the specimen were exposed to a real LEO space environment for about 1, 2 and 3 years aboard the Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by the Space Environment Exposure Device (SEED) experiment. In this paper, results of friction tests in vacuum and surface analyses for the specimens exposed for 1 and 2 years are reported. The results are also compared to those of the specimens irradiated individually with atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet rays (UV) and electron beam (EB) on the ground.

  3. Effect of long-term exposure to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimcik, D. G.

    1987-01-01

    Data obtained from components and materials from the Solar Maximum Mission satellite are presented and compared to data for similar materials obtained from the Advanced Composite Materials Exposure to Space Experiment (ACOMEX) flown on Shuttle mission STS-41G. In addition to evaluation of surface erosion and mass loss that may be of importance to very long-term missions, comparisons of solar absorptance and thermal emittance measurements for both long and short term exposures were made. Although the ratio of absorptance over emittance can be altered by proper choice of materials to ensure a proper operating environment for the spacecraft, once the thermal design is established, it is important that the material properties not change in order to maintain the operating environment for many payload and bus items such as electronics, batteries, fuel, etc. However, data presented show significant changes after short exposure in low Earth environment. Moreover, the measured changes are shown to differ according to the manner of exposure, i.e., normal or oblique, which also affects the resultant eroded surface morphology. These results identify constraints to be considered in development of flight experiments or laboratory testing.

  4. The simulation of the geosynchronous Earth orbit plasma environment in Chamber A: An assessment of possible experimental investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, W.

    1981-01-01

    The possible use of Chamber A for the replication or simulation of space plasma physics processes which occur in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) environment is considered. It is shown that replication is not possible and that scaling of the environmental conditions is required for study of the important instability processes. Rules for such experimental scaling are given. At the present time, it does not appear technologically feasible to satisfy these requirements in Chamber A. It is, however, possible to study and qualitatively evaluate the problem of vehicle charging at GEO. In particular, Chamber A is sufficiently large that a complete operational spacecraft could be irradiated by beams and charged to high potentials. Such testing would contribute to the assessment of the operational malfunctions expected at GEO and their possible correction. However, because of the many tabulated limitations in such a testing programs, its direct relevance to conditions expected in the geo environment remains questionable.

  5. Monitoring Variations to the Near-Earth Space Environment during High Solar Activity Using Orbiting Rocket Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, V.; Ryan, W.; Ryan, E.

    A space object's general characteristics can be substantially influenced by changes in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere environments. These space weather effects can vary according to the space object's orbit, position relative to certain regions in space, the severity of solar activity, and many other factors. Outcomes can range from minor and easily recoverable to total breakdown. Further, technology has advanced such that satellite components have become smaller and smaller, and these micro-systems are increasingly more susceptible to the highly energetic solar particles associated with intense activity. Therefore, additional study of the significance of space weather events on Earth-orbiting objects would be beneficial. A rotating rocket body in orbit experiences a magnetic torque due to the Earth's magnetic field that results in an exponential decay of its rotational frequency and a variation on the axis of rotation. The Photometric Periods of Artificial Satellites (McCants, 2007) database consists of over 60,000 period measurements, mostly visually acquired, dating back to 1958. Although this database validates this predicted exponential decay in rotation rate, many anomalies have been observed, including increased rotational frequencies. Theories for the causes of these anomalies range from leaking fuel tanks to interaction with the local space environment. Our program aims to complement the current visual database through CCD and video photometric observations of rotating rocket bodies using a portable 0.35-meter telescope and the Magdalena Ridge Observatory's 2.4-meter telescope. The goal is to generate a detailed astrometric and photometric database for a small set of targets at different orbital altitudes in order to study the variability in orbital motion and the rotational angular momentum vector, particularly during times of high solar activity. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides daily information and

  6. Improving the Near-Earth Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Environment Definition with LADC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Giovane, F.; Corsaro, R.; Stansbery, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Large Area Debris Collector (LADC) is a 10 m(sup 2) aerogel and acoustic sensor system designed to characterize and collect submillimeter micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the International Space Station (ISS). The project is led by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) with major collaboration by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at Johnson Space Center. The U.S. Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) is responsible for the integration, deployment, and retrieval of the system. The deployment is scheduled for August 2007 with an orbital collection period of one to two years. The combined area time product of LADC will provide a much needed orbital debris population update in the size regime that is important to the safety community - 100 mm and larger. Another key element for LADC is the source identification of the collected samples. Impact features such as track length and track volume can be used to estimate the impact speed and direction of any selected residual embedded in aerogel. Acoustic sensors can provide impact timing and impact location information. The combined dynamical signatures make it possible to reconstruct the orbits of some of the collected samples and lead to their source identification. Compositional analysis on the residuals can also separate debris from meteoroids and provide additional population breakdown for orbital debris (e.g., Al, paint, steel, Al2O3). To maximize the science return and minimize potential contamination from other ISS modules, a careful selection of the location and orientation of LADC on the ISS is needed. Key issues and engineering constraints encountered during mission preparation, and the expected science return based on the mission configuration, are summarized in this paper.

  7. Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth on August 27, 2005 by revealing MODIS true-color imagery for that day. This animation is on a cartesian map projection, so the satellite w...

  8. Lunar Orbiter: Moon and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The worlds first view of the Earth taken by a spacecraft from the vicinity of the Moon. The photo was transmitted to Earth by the United States Lunar Orbiter I and recieved at the NASA tracking station at Robledo de Chavela near Madrid, Spain. This crescent of the Earth was photographed August 23 at 16:35 GMT when the spacecraft was on its 16th orbit and just about to pass behind the Moon. This is the view the astronauts will have when they come around the backside of the Moon and face the Earth. The Earth is shown on the left of the photo with the U.S. east coast in the upper left, southern Europe toward the dark or night side of the Earth, and Antartica at the bottom of the Earth crescent. The surface of the Moon is shown on the right side of the photograph.

  9. Lunar Orbiter I - Moon & Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    First view of the earth and moon from space. Published in: Spaceflight Revolution: Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, by James R. Hansen. NASA History Series. NASA SP ; 4308. p ii. Caption: 'The picture of the century was this first view of the earth from space. Lunar Orbiter I took the photo on 23 August 1966 on its 16th orbit just before it passed behind the moon. The photo also provided a spectacular dimensional view of the lunar surface.'

  10. Oxidation and protection of fiberglass-epoxy composite masts for photovoltaic arrays in the low Earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Brady, Joyce A.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Fiberglass-epoxy composites are considered for use as structural members for the mast of the space station solar array panel. The low Earth orbital environment in which space station is to operate is composed mainly of atomic oxygen, which has been shown to cause erosion of many organic materials and some metals. Ground based testing in a plasma asher was performed to determine the extent of degradation of fiberglass-epoxy composites when exposed to a simulated atomic oxygen environment. During exposure, the epoxy at the surface of the composite was oxidized, exposing individual glass fibers which could easily be removed. Several methods of protecting the composite were evaluated in an atomic oxygen environment and with thermal cycling and flexing. The protection techniques evaluated to date include an aluminum braid covering, an indium-tin eutectic and a silicone based paint. The open aluminum braid offered little protection while the CV-1144 coating offered some initial protection against atomic oxygen, but appears to develop cracks which accelerate degradation when flexed. Coatings such as the In-Sn eutectic may provide adequate protection by containing the glass fibers even though mass loss still occurs.

  11. Space and Atmospheric Environments: From Low Earth Orbits to Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Natural space and atmospheric environments pose a difficult challenge for designers of technological systems in space. The deleterious effects of environment interactions with the systems include degradation of materials, thermal changes, contamination, excitation, spacecraft glow, charging, radiation damage, and induced background interference. Design accommodations must be realistic with minimum impact on performance while maintaining a balance between cost and risk. The goal of applied research in space environments and effects is to limit environmental impacts at low cost relative to spacecraft cost and to infuse enabling and commercial off-the-shelf technologies into space programs. The need to perform applied research to understand the space environment in a practical sense and to develop methods to mitigate these environment effects is frequently underestimated by space agencies and industry. Applied science research in this area is critical because the complexity of spacecraft systems is increasing, and they are exposed simultaneously to a multitude of space environments.

  12. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; McWilliams, Brett; Koontz, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    The design estimate for the materials for the International Space Station (ISS) specified in SSP 30512 was a conservative estimate. The environment dose was over estimated. The materials originally qualified for approximately 10-15 years are anticipated to be acceptable for periods of up to 20-30 years based on SSP-30512 or 40-60 years based on 2x SSP-30512. This viewgraph presentation shows charts and graphs that review the altitude, the solar minimum and maximum, and the radiation exposure of other satellite, among other graphics.

  13. Material interactions with the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment: Accurate reaction rate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T.; Leger, Lubert J.

    1987-01-01

    To resolve uncertainties in estimated LEO atomic oxygen fluence and provide reaction product composition data for comparison to data obtained in ground-based simulation laboratories, a flight experiment has been proposed for the space shuttle which utilizes an ion-neutral mass spectrometer to obtain in-situ ambient density measurements and identify reaction products from modeled polymers exposed to the atomic oxygen environment. An overview of this experiment is presented and the methodology of calibrating the flight mass spectrometer in a neutral beam facility prior to its use on the space shuttle is established. The experiment, designated EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials, third series), will provide a reliable materials interaction data base for future spacecraft design and will furnish insight into the basic chemical mechanisms leading to atomic oxygen interactions with surfaces.

  14. The definition of the low earth orbital environment and its effect on thermal control materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durcanin, J. T.; Chalmers, D. R.; Visentine, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    The LEO environment and its effects on thermal-control materials (TCMs) being evaluated for use in long-term-mission space structures such as the Space Station are characterized, summarizing the results of recent space and laboratory experiments. Factors examined include atomic oxygen (a serious problem out to 600-700 km), ionizing radiation, solar UV radiation, solid particles (manmade debris and micrometeoroids, a significant hazard out to about 1000 km), and synergistic effects. Numerical data on the expected intensity of these effects for the different Space Station components, the resistance of specific TCMs to the effects, and the effectiveness of protective coatings are compiled in extensive tables and illustrated with diagrams, graphs, and micrographs.

  15. The effects of simulated low Earth orbit environments on spacecraft thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Booth, Roy E.

    1993-01-01

    Candidate Space Station Freedom radiator coatings including Z-93, YB-71, anodized aluminum and SiO(x) coated silvered Teflon have been characterized for optical properties degradation upon exposure to environments containing atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and/or silicone contamination. YB-71 coating showed a blue-gray discoloration, which has not been observed in space, upon exposure in atomic oxygen facilities which also provide exaggerated VUV radiation. This is evidence that damage mechanisms occur in these ground laboratory facilities which are different from those which occur in space. Radiator coatings exposed to an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) atomic oxygen source in the presence of silicone-containing samples showed severe darkening from the intense VUV radiation provided by the ECR and from silicone contamination. Samples exposed to atomic oxygen from the ECR source and to VUV lamps, simultaneously, with in situ reflectance measurement, showed that significantly greater degradation occurred when samples received line-of-site ECR beam exposure than when samples were exposed to atomic oxygen scattered off of quartz surfaces without line-of-site view of the ECR beam. For white paints, exposure to air following atomic oxygen/VUV exposure reversed the darkening due to VUV damage. This illustrates the importance of in situ reflectance measurement.

  16. The effects of simulated low Earth orbit environments on spacecraft thermal control coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Booth, Roy E.

    1993-05-01

    Candidate Space Station Freedom radiator coatings including Z-93, YB-71, anodized aluminum and SiO(x) coated silvered Teflon have been characterized for optical properties degradation upon exposure to environments containing atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and/or silicone contamination. YB-71 coating showed a blue-gray discoloration, which has not been observed in space, upon exposure in atomic oxygen facilities which also provide exaggerated VUV radiation. This is evidence that damage mechanisms occur in these ground laboratory facilities which are different from those which occur in space. Radiator coatings exposed to an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) atomic oxygen source in the presence of silicone-containing samples showed severe darkening from the intense VUV radiation provided by the ECR and from silicone contamination. Samples exposed to atomic oxygen from the ECR source and to VUV lamps, simultaneously, with in situ reflectance measurement, showed that significantly greater degradation occurred when samples received line-of-site ECR beam exposure than when samples were exposed to atomic oxygen scattered off of quartz surfaces without line-of-site view of the ECR beam. For white paints, exposure to air following atomic oxygen/VUV exposure reversed the darkening due to VUV damage. This illustrates the importance of in situ reflectance measurement.

  17. Twenty Years of Radiation Measurements in Low-Earth Orbit - What Have We Learned Space Radiation Environment?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, Michael J.; Weyland, Mark D.; Johnson, A. S.; Semones, E.

    2001-01-01

    The advent of the Space Shuttle program has made possible space radiation environment measurements spanning a wide range of altitudes and orbital inclinations over multiple solar cycles. These measurements range from routine integral dose measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters to particle energy spectra measurements made with a charged particle telescope. This paper will review the new understanding about the space radiation environment gained from this diverse data set. Major findings from these measurements include: estimations of the westward drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) of 0.28-0.49/y; evidence for a northward component to the SAA drift of 0.08-0.12/y; observation of the formation and decay of the pseudo-stable additional radiation belt following the Mar 1991 SPE and geomagnetic storm with an estimated decay e-folding time of 9-10 months; observation of a local geomagnetic east-west trapped proton exposure anisotropy with an estimated magnitude of 1.6-3.3; demonstration that the trapped proton exposure in low-Earth orbit (LEO) can be reasonably modeled as a power law function of atmospheric density in the SAA region, with best correlations obtained when the exospheric temperature saturates at 938-975 K; the actual solar cycle modulation of trapped proton exposure in LEO is less than predicted by the AP8 model; and the testing and validation of GCR flux models, radiation transport codes, and dynamic geomagnetic cutoff models. Long-term, time-resolved proportional counter measurements made aboard the Mir during the same period provides further demonstration of the solar cycle modulation of the trapped protons at low altitudes - the observed modulation is also well described as power law function of atmospheric density. These data and findings have helped to improve the overall accuracy of pre-mission crew exposure projections using various semi-empirical space environment models, radiation transport codes, and spacecraft radiation

  18. Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, D.; Lashbrook, D.; Mckibben, B.; Gardener, N.; Rivers, T.; Nottingham, G.; Golden, B.; Barfield, B.; Bruening, J.; Wood, D.

    1992-01-01

    A current thrust in satellite communication systems considers a low-Earth orbiting constellations of satellites for continuous global coverage. Conceptual design studies have been done at the time of this design project by LORAL Aerospace Corporation under the program name GLOBALSTAR and by Motorola under their IRIDIUM program. This design project concentrates on the spacecraft design of the GLOBALSTAR low-Earth orbiting communication system. Overview information on the program was gained through the Federal Communications Commission licensing request. The GLOBALSTAR system consists of 48 operational satellites positioned in a Walker Delta pattern providing global coverage and redundancy. The operational orbit is 1389 km (750 nmi) altitude with eight planes of six satellites each. The orbital planes are spaced 45 deg., and the spacecraft are separated by 60 deg. within the plane. A Delta 2 launch vehicle is used to carry six spacecraft for orbit establishment. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize code-division multiple access (spread spectrum modulation) for digital relay, voice, and radio determination satellite services (RDSS) yielding position determination with accuracy up to 200 meters.

  19. Best Mitigation Paths To Effectively Reduce Earth's Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegman, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some ways to reduce the problem posed by debris in orbit around the Earth. It reviews the orbital debris environment, the near-term needs to minimize the Kessler syndrome, also known as collisional cascading, a survey of active orbital debris mitigation strategies, the best paths to actively remove orbital debris, and technologies that are required for active debris mitigation.

  20. Electrodynamics of the Plasma Environment Induced around Spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit: Three-Dimensional Theory and Numerical Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos Achilleas

    A study is presented of the electrodynamic interactions within the plasma environment induced around spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit. A fully three-dimensional theory and a computational model is developed for an artificial plasma cloud created by spacecraft with the potential of releasing neutrals and/or plasma into the ambient ionosphere. A fluid model for the plasma transport is derived. The forces included in the momentum balance are due to electric fields, pressure, gravity, drag due to collisions and perturbative inertia terms. The Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) scheme is used for the numerical solution of the hyperbolic continuity equations. This approach limits the artificial dissipation or dispersion arising in the numerical solution. The 3D -FCT algorithm, and the stability characteristics of the high and low order schemes used in the FCT are discussed. The equation for the electrostatic potential is a three-dimensional nonself-adjoint elliptic equation with highly dissimilar coefficients. The numerical solution of the resulting large, sparse, asymmetric system of equations is discussed. Initial time numerical simulations are performed. A water-bag plasma cloud model is used to demonstrate the current coupling process. For neutral densities higher than the ambient the plasma cloud develops a transverse drift of the order of the orbital velocity. Simulations of typical spacecraft operations are performed and the created water plasma cloud is studied. It is shown that the flow of neutrals is in the free molecular regime. The effects of altitude of the release, orientation of the thrust vector with regard to the magnetic field, and latitude are considered. It is shown that a large water ion cloud is formed with densities of the order of the ambient oxygen ions. The ultraviolet radiation emission is shown to modify the signature of the spacecraft. The model predicts qualitatively most of the observations. Quantitatively predictions are within the measured

  1. Distributed earth model/orbiter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisler, Erik; Mcclanahan, Scott; Smith, Gary

    1989-01-01

    Distributed Earth Model/Orbiter Simulation (DEMOS) is a network based application developed for the UNIX environment that visually monitors or simulates the Earth and any number of orbiting vehicles. Its purpose is to provide Mission Control Center (MCC) flight controllers with a visually accurate three dimensional (3D) model of the Earth, Sun, Moon and orbiters, driven by real time or simulated data. The project incorporates a graphical user interface, 3D modelling employing state-of-the art hardware, and simulation of orbital mechanics in a networked/distributed environment. The user interface is based on the X Window System and the X Ray toolbox. The 3D modelling utilizes the Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS) standard and Raster Technologies hardware for rendering/display performance. The simulation of orbiting vehicles uses two methods of vector propagation implemented with standard UNIX/C for portability. Each part is a distinct process that can run on separate nodes of a network, exploiting each node's unique hardware capabilities. The client/server communication architecture of the application can be reused for a variety of distributed applications.

  2. Orbital Analysis for Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    For recently discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO) two body computations can be used to determine the minimum distance between the object's orbit and that of the Earth. Determinations can then be made for potential near-term threats to the Earth. This preliminary orbit analysis must be followed with planetary perturbation computations of the object's future motion to predict actual close Earth approaches.

  3. The Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar II: A new Facility for Measurement of the Dust Environment in near-Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Weryk, R. J.; Wong, D. K.; Campbell-Brown, M. D.

    2012-10-01

    The Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) is a backscatter, multi-station meteor radar operating at 29.85 MHz. CMOR has been in operation as a three station system since 2001, but a major upgrade in 2009 has expanded the system to six stations and doubled the transmit power to 15 kW; the new facility is termed CMOR II. CMOR II measures 5000 individual orbits per day of meteoroids with masses 10-8 kg. These large number statistics permit near real-time identification of as many as a dozen significant daily meteor showers, through application of a 3D wavelet transform. As individual meteor echoes are detected at up to six stations, CMOR II is able to measure electron line density profiles and decelerations for select events. This permits estimation of meteoroid bulk density through comparison with entry models for particles as small 100 μm. For events with more than four station detections, errors in radiant and speed are comparable to similar measurements made with video systems. Making use of multiple, independent techniques for speed measurements, including time-of-flight, Fresnel amplitude and Fresnel phase fitting, it is possible to estimate speed accuracy for individual events. Monte Carlo modeling of individual echoes allow a separate estimate for uncertainty in both speed and radiant measurement. Here we present initial results from CMOR II measurements of major meteor showers including the 2012 Daytime Arietids and South Delta Aquariid streams. Detections of several unusual meteor shower outbursts with CMOR II and verification of previously reported weak showers will also be shown. We will demonstrate the capacity of CMOR II for individual meteoroid physical characterization by using measured trajectory, speed, deceleration and electron line density measurements combined with entry model fits to estimate meteoroid parameters. Funding from the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office through cooperative agreement NNX11AB76A is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Effects of the low Earth orbit space environment on the surface chemistry of Kapton polyimide film: An XPS study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Myung; Rooney, William; Whiteside, James

    1992-01-01

    Kapton H (DuPont Trademark) polyimide specimens exposed to the low earth (LEO) space environment suffered significant weathering with surface erosions of approximately 8.0 microns. Despite these effects, no significant changes in bulk chemistry were observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine local changes induced from approximately 25 percent in 1980 vintage ground control specimens to nearly 53 percent in space exposed specimens. The greatest increase was observed for the divalent oxygen moieties, although a slight increase in carbonyl oxygen was also measured. Furthermore, the chemical shifts of all XPS peaks of space-exposed Kapton are shifted to higher energy. This is consistent with a higher oxidation state of the space exposed surface. Finally, space exposed specimens had distinct silicon peaks (2p 100 eV and 2s 149 eV) in their XPS spectra in agreement with widespread reports of silicon contamination throughout the LDEF satellite. These results are discussed in terms of surface reactivity of the polyimide exposed to the LEO environment and the chemical nature of contaminants deposited on flight surfaces due to satellite outgassing.

  5. Earth Orbit Raise Design for the Artemis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiffen, Gregory J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

    2011-01-01

    The Artemis mission is an extension of the Themis mission. The Themis mission1 consisted of five identical spacecraft in varying sized Earth orbits designed to make simultaneous measurements of the Earth's electric and magnetic environment. Themis was designed to observe geomagnetic storms resulting from solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. Themis was meant to answer the age old question of why the Earth's aurora can change rapidly on a global scale. The Themis spacecraft are spin stabilized with 20 meter long electric field booms as well as several shorter magnetometer booms. The goal of the Artemis2 mission extension is to deliver the field and particle measuring capabilities of two of the Themis spacecraft to the vicinity of the Moon. The Artemis mission required transferring two Earth orbiting Themis spacecraft on to two different low energy trans-lunar trajectories ultimately ending in lunar orbit. This paper describes the processes that resulted in successful orbit raise designs for both spacecraft.

  6. Cycler orbit between Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Dennis V.; Longuski, James M.; Aldrin, Buzz

    1993-01-01

    A periodic orbit between Earth and Mars has been discovered that, after launch, permits a space vehicle to cycle back and forth between the planets with moderate maneuvers at irregular intervals. A Space Station placed in this cycler orbit could provide a safe haven from radiation and comfortable living quarters for astronauts en route to Earth or Mars. The orbit is largely maintained by gravity assist from Earth. Numerical results from multiconic optimization software are presented for a 15-year period from 1995 through 2010.

  7. Spacewire on Earth orbiting scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Alex; Lang, Minh; Lux, James; Steffke, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The need for a high speed, reliable and easy to implement communication link has led to the development of a space flight oriented version of IEEE 1355 called SpaceWire. SpaceWire is based on high-speed (200 Mbps) serial point-to-point links using Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). SpaceWIre has provisions for routing messages between a large network of processors, using wormhole routing for low overhead and latency. {additionally, there are available space qualified hybrids, which provide the Link layer to the user's bus}. A test bed of multiple digital signal processor breadboards, demonstrating the ability to meet signal processing requirements for an orbiting scatterometer has been implemented using three Astrium MCM-DSPs, each breadboard consists of a Multi Chip Module (MCM) that combines a space qualified Digital Signal Processor and peripherals, including IEEE-1355 links. With the addition of appropriate physical layer interfaces and software on the DSP, the SpaceWire link is used to communicate between processors on the test bed, e.g. sending timing references, commands, status, and science data among the processors. Results are presented on development issues surrounding the use of SpaceWire in this environment, from physical layer implementation (cables, connectors, LVDS drivers) to diagnostic tools, driver firmware, and development methodology. The tools, methods, and hardware, software challenges and preliminary performance are investigated and discussed.

  8. Orbital debris and near-Earth environmental management: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.; Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This chronology covers the 32-year history of orbital debris and near-Earth environmental concerns. It tracks near-Earth environmental hazard creation, research, observation, experimentation, management, mitigation, protection, and policy-making, with emphasis on the orbital debris problem. Included are the Project West Ford experiments; Soviet ASAT tests and U.S. Delta upper stage explosions; the Ariane V16 explosion, U.N. treaties pertinent to near-Earth environmental problems, the PARCS tests; space nuclear power issues, the SPS/orbital debris link; Space Shuttle and space station orbital debris issues; the Solwind ASAT test; milestones in theory and modeling the Cosmos 954, Salyut 7, and Skylab reentries; the orbital debris/meteoroid research link; detection system development; orbital debris shielding development; popular culture and orbital debris; Solar Max results; LDEF results; orbital debris issues peculiar to geosynchronous orbit, including reboost policies and the stable plane; seminal papers, reports, and studies; the increasing effects of space activities on astronomy; and growing international awareness of the near-Earth environment.

  9. How to Orbit the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Donald J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the geometry, algebra, and logic involved in the solution of a "Mindbenders" problem in "Discover" magazine and applies it to calculations of satellite orbital velocity. Extends the solution of this probe to other applications of falling objects. (JM)

  10. Pressure Control for Low Earth Orbit Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in cryogenic oxygen storage for an advanced second-generation orbital maneuvering system and reaction control systems in a low Earth orbit because cryogenic propellants are more energetic and environmentally friendly than current storable propellants. Unfortunately, heat transfer or heat leak into these storage systems increases tank pressure. On Earth, pressure is easily controlled by venting from the gaseous, or ullage, space above the liquid. In low gravity, the location of vapor is unknown and direct venting would expel liquid. Historically, upper stages have used auxiliary thrusters to resettle the tank contents and fix the location of the ullage space in orbit.

  11. Management of the orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.; Kessler, Donald J.; Anz-Meador, Phillip D.

    1991-01-01

    Data regarding orbital debris are presented to shed light on the requirements of environmental management in space, and strategies are given for active intervention and operational strategies. Debris are generated by inadvertent explosions of upper stages, intentional military explosions, and collisional breakups. Design and operation practices are set forth for minimizing debris generation and removing useless debris from orbit in the low-earth and geosynchronous orbits. Self-disposal options include propulsive maneuvers, drag-augmentation devices, and tether systems, and the drag devices are described as simple and passive. Active retrieval and disposition are considered, and the difficulty is examined of removing small debris. Active intervention techniques are required since pollution prevention is more effective than remediation for the problems of both earth and space.

  12. Low-earth-orbit effects on strength of glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedlocher, David E.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Nichols, Ron; Kinser, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a 5.8-y exposure to low-earth-orbit environment upon the mechanical properties of five commercial glasses and a low-expansion-coefficient glass-ceramic have been examined. The radiation components of the earth-orbit environment did not degrade the mechanical strength of the samples examined within the limits of experimental error. Statistical problems arising from the low frequency of micrometeorite or space debris impacts upon the samples precluded statistically valid measurement of impacted sample strengths. Upper bounds for the magnitude of the impact event damage upon the strengths for impacted samples have been determined.

  13. Orbit Determination System for Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elisha, Yossi; Shyldkrot, Haim; Hankin, Maxim

    2007-01-01

    The IAI/MBT Precise Orbit Determination system for Low Earth Orbit satellites is presented. The system is based on GPS pesudorange and carrier phase measurements and implements the Reduced Dynamics method. The GPS measurements model, the dynamic model, and the least squares orbit determination are discussed. Results are shown for data from the CHAMP satellite and for simulated data from the ROKAR GPS receiver. In both cases the one sigma 3D position and velocity accuracy is about 0.2 m and 0.5 mm/sec respectively.

  14. Electric Propulsion for Low Earth Orbit Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Sankovic, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Hall Effect electric propulsion was evaluated for orbit insertion, satellite repositioning, orbit maintenance and de-orbit applications for a sample low earth orbit satellite constellation. Since the low masses of these satellites enable multiple spacecraft per launch, the ability to add spacecraft to a given launch was used as a figure of merit. When compared to chemical propulsion, the Hall thruster system can add additional spacecraft per launch using planned payload power levels. One satellite can be added to the assumed four satellite baseline chemical launch without additional mission times. Two or three satellites may be added by providing part of the orbit insertion with the Hall system. In these cases orbit insertion times were found to be 35 and 62 days. Depending on the electric propulsion scenario, the resulting launch vehicle savings is nearly two, three or four Delta 7920 launch vehicles out of the chemical baseline scenarios eight Delta 7920 launch vehicles.

  15. Electric Propulsion for Low Earth Orbit Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Sankovic, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Hall effect electric propulsion was evaluated for orbit insertion, satellite repositioning, orbit maintenance and de-orbit applications for a sample low earth orbit satellite constellation. Since the low masses of these satellites enable multiple spacecraft per launch, the ability to add spacecraft to a given launch was used as a figure of merit. When compared to chemical propulsion, the Hall thruster system can add additional spacecraft per launch using planned payload power levels. One satellite can be added to the assumed four satellite baseline chemical launch without additional mission times. Two or three satellites may be added by providing part of the orbit insertion with the Hall system. In these cases orbit insertion times were found to be 35 and 62 days. Depending, on the electric propulsion scenario, the resulting launch vehicle savings is nearly two, three or four Delta 7920 launch vehicles out of the chemical baseline scenario's eight Delta 7920 launch vehicles.

  16. Observations of Human-Made Debris in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardia, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Orbital debris is defined as any human-made object in orbit about the Earth that no longer serves a useful purpose. Beginning in 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1, there have been more than 4,700 launches, with each launch increasing the potential for impacts from orbital debris. Almost 55 years later there are over 16,000 catalogued objects in orbit over 10 cm in size. Agencies world-wide have realized this is a growing issue for all users of the space environment. To address the orbital debris issue, the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) was established to collaborate on monitoring, characterizing, and modeling orbital debris, as well as formulating policies and procedures to help control the risk of collisions and population growth. One area of fundamental interest is measurements of the space debris environment. NASA has been utilizing radar and optical measurements to survey the different orbital regimes of space debris for over 25 years, as well as using returned surfaces to aid in determining the flux and size of debris that are too small to detect with ground-based sensors. This paper will concentrate on the optical techniques used by NASA to observe the space debris environment, specifically in the Geosynchronous earth Orbit (GEO) region where radar capability is severely limited.

  17. Circulating transportation orbits between earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Niehoff, J. C.; Byrnes, D. V.; Longuski, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the basic characteristics of circulating (cyclical) orbit design as applied to round-trip transportation of crew and materials between earth and Mars in support of a sustained manned Mars Surface Base. The two main types of nonstopover circulating trajectories are the socalled VISIT orbits and the Up/Down Escalator orbits. Access to the large transportation facilities placed in these orbits is by way of taxi vehicles using hyperbolic rendezvous techniques during the successive encounters with earth and Mars. Specific examples of real trajectory data are presented in explanation of flight times, encounter frequency, hyperbolic velocities, closest approach distances, and Delta V maneuver requirements in both interplanetary and planetocentric space.

  18. Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Dewey M.

    1988-01-01

    Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

  19. Mitigating Climate Change with Earth Orbital Sunshades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coverstone, Victoria; Johnson, Les

    2015-01-01

    An array of rotating sunshades based on emerging solar sail technology will be deployed in a novel Earth orbit to provide near-continuous partial shading of the Earth, reducing the heat input to the atmosphere by blocking a small percentage of the incoming sunlight, and mitigating local weather effects of anticipated climate change over the next century. The technology will provide local cooling relief during extreme heat events (and heating relief during extreme cold events) thereby saving human lives, agriculture, livestock, water and energy needs. A synthesis of the solar sail design, the sails' operational modes, and the selected orbit combine to provide local weather modification.

  20. Spatial Analysis of Galactic Cosmic Ray Particles in Low Earth Orbit/Near Equator Orbit Using SPENVIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparta, W.; Zulkeple, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    The space environment has grown intensively harmful to spacecraft and astronauts. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are one of the radiation sources that composed of high energetic particles originated from space and capable of damaging electronic systems through single event upset (SEU) process. In this paper, we analyzed GCR fluxes at different altitudes by using Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) software and the results are compared to determine their intensities with respect to distance in the Earth's orbit. The altitudes are set at low earth orbit (400 km and 685 km), medium earth orbit (19,100 km and 20,200 km) and high earth orbit (35,793 km and 1,000,000 km). Then, within Low Earth Orbit (LEO) near the equator (NEqO), we used altitude of 685 km to compare GCRs with the intensities of solar particles and trapped particles in the radiation belt to determine the significance of GCRs in the orbit itself.

  1. Airbreathing Acceleration Toward Earth Orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C

    2007-05-09

    As flight speed increases, aerodynamic drag rises more sharply than the availability of atmospheric oxygen. The ratio of oxygen mass flux to dynamic pressure cannot be improved by changing altitude. The maximum possible speed for airbreathing propulsion is limited by the ratio of air capture area to vehicle drag area, approximately Mach 6 at equal areas. Simulation of vehicle acceleration shows that the use of atmospheric oxygen offers a significant potential for minimizing onboard consumables at low speeds. These fundamental calculations indicate that a practical airbreathing launch vehicle would accelerate to near steady-state speed while consuming only onboard fuel, then transition to rocket propulsion. It is suggested that an aircraft carrying a rocket-propelled vehicle to approximately Mach 5 could be a realistic technical goal toward improving access to orbit.

  2. Earth Orbital Science, Space in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is part of the "Space in the Seventies" series and reviews the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) earth orbital scientific research programs in progress and those to be pursued in the coming decade. Research in space physics is described in Part One in these areas: interplanetary monitoring platforms, small…

  3. Earth orbital teleoperator systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Slaughter, P. H.; Brye, R. G.; Henderson, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical extension of the human operator to remote and specialized environments poses a series of complex operational questions. A technical and scientific team was organized to investigate these questions through conducting specific laboratory and analytical studies. The intent of the studies was to determine the human operator requirements for remotely manned systems and to determine the particular effects that various system parameters have on human operator performance. In so doing, certain design criteria based on empirically derived data concerning the ultimate control system, the human operator, were added to the Teleoperator Development Program.

  4. The O/OREOS Mission - Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit. [Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Squires, D.; Kitts, C.; Agasid, E.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.; Cook, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Mattioda, A.; Nicholson, W.; Quinn, R.; Santos, O.; Tahu, G.; Voytek, M.; Beasley, C.; Bica, L.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Friedericks, C.; Henschke, M.; Mai, N.; McIntyre, M.; Yost, B.

    2014-01-01

    The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small- Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72 deg), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cu cm) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA0s scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.

  5. Unique Non-Keplerian Orbit Vantage Locations for Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision Roadmaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Young, Corissa; Ross, Adam

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the feasibility of attaining and maintaining unique non-Keplerian orbit vantage locations in the Earth/Moon environment in order to obtain continuous scientific measurements. The principal difficulty associated with obtaining continuous measurements is the temporal nature of astrodynamics, i.e., classical orbits. This investigation demonstrates advanced trajectory designs to meet demanding science requirements which cannot be met following traditional orbital mechanic logic. Examples of continuous observer missions addressed include Earth pole-sitters and unique vertical libration orbits that address Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision roadmaps.

  6. Low Earth Orbit Plasma Variability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2003-01-01

    The empirical International Reference Ionosphere is a widely used model for estimating low Earth orbit plasma characteristics for use in spacecraft design and mission analysis. The climatological model provides mean values of plasma density, temperature, composition, and other ionospheric parameters that can be used to estimate the average magnitude of spacecraft charging, current collection for electrodynamic tethers, and other effects on spacecraft design. Mean IRI parameters are not adequate to answer questions such as what is the maximum or minimum value of the spacecraft potential, does the maximum spacecraft potential exceed a program requirement, will an electrodynamic tether provide adequate drag to deorbit a satellite at end of life, and will the tether provide sufficient thrust to reboost a spacecraft at any time in the solar cycle. These questions require estimates of the variability of the ionospheric environment about the mean values. This presentation describes the status of work at MSFC to develop an empirical ionospheric variability model that can be used in conjunction with the climatological IRI model to provide both mean ionospheric parameters and variations of the environment about the mean. Our technique will use an extensive database of satellite and radar observations of the electron density and temperature to derive variances of the data about the model values. The variances will then be incorporated into Fortran wrapper software that calls the IRI-2001 model and provides statistical estimates of the deviation of the environment about the mean IRI values. We will provide an update on the state of the database development and provide examples of analysis and modeling efforts completed specifically for an International Space Station application.

  7. Retrieval of RTG'S in earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, B.; Frieder, M.A.; Skrabek, A.

    1982-08-01

    Since 1961, some ten Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's) have been placed into a variety of spacecraft which are now in earth orbit. All of these spacecraft are in orbits with lifetimes in excess of 100 years and pose no risk. However, since most of these spacecraft are no longer being actively used, these may be subject to an active removal program to reduce the population of objects in space. Therefore, a study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of retrieving or disposing of spacecraft with RTGs on board. Intervention scenarios are developed and an orbital rendezvous vehicle is conceptualized. The costs of RTG retrieval are derived and compared to the costs of RTG disposal, i.e., boost to a higher, multi-millenium-lifetime orbit, and are found to be not significantly different.

  8. Nickel hydrogen low Earth orbit life testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badcock, C. C.; Haag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A program to demonstrate the long term reliability of NiH2 cells in low Earth orbits (LEO) and support use in mid-altitude orbits (MAO) was initiated. Both 3.5 and 4.5 inch diameter nickel hydrogen cells are included in the test plan. Cells from all U.S. vendors are to be tested. The tests will be performed at -5 and 10 C at 40 and 60% DOD for LEO orbit and 10 C and 80% DOD for MAO orbit simulations. The goals of the testing are 20,000 cycles at 60% DOD and 30,000 cycles at 40% DOD. Cells are presently undergoing acceptance and characterization testing at Naval Weapons Systems Center, Crane.

  9. Contamination of optical surfaces in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinser, Donald L.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Wiedlocher, D. E.; Nichols, R.; Tucker, D.; Whitaker, A.

    1992-01-01

    Glass and glass ceramic samples exposed to the low earth orbit environment for approximately 5.5 years on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were found to display limited degradation in optical transmission. Commercial optical quality fused silica samples display decreases in transmission in the 200 to 400 nm wavelength region, and this degradation appears to be a consequence of surface contamination. The contamination, found only on internal surfaces of samples, was measured by medium energy backscattering spectrometry and found to be primarily carbon. Additional thin film contamination by a species with atomic mass near 64, which was present at the level of about 8 x 10 exp 14/sq. cm has not been identified. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that organic binders used in the black absorbing paint (Chem Glaze Z-306) inside the sample holding tray were concentrated in the vicinity of the samples and photolytically cracked by solar UV radiation. The resulting decomposition products were deposited on the interior sample surface and gave rise to the optical transmission loss. No detectable contamination was observed on the external or space exposed surface of the samples. No measurable damage was detected which could be attributed to the direct action of gamma or UV radiation on the glass samples. These results emphasize the need for special precautions in the preparation of spacecraft carrying precision optical components on long duration missions.

  10. MAPPING EARTH ANALOGS FROM PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY: SPIN-ORBIT TOMOGRAPHY FOR PLANETS IN INCLINED ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yuka; Kawahara, Hajime

    2012-08-20

    Aiming at obtaining detailed information on the surface environment of Earth analogs, Kawahara and Fujii proposed an inversion technique of annual scattered light curves named spin-orbit tomography (SOT), which enables us to sketch a two-dimensional albedo map from annual variation of the disk-integrated scattered light, and demonstrated the method with a planet in a face-on orbit. We extend it to be applicable to general geometric configurations, including low-obliquity planets like the Earth in inclined orbits. We simulate light curves of the Earth in an inclined orbit in three photometric bands (0.4-0.5 {mu}m, 0.6-0.7 {mu}m, and 0.8-0.9 {mu}m) and show that the distribution of clouds, snow, and continents is retrieved with the aid of the SOT. We also demonstrate the SOT by applying it to an upright Earth, a tidally locked Earth, and Earth analogs with ancient continental configurations. The inversion is model independent in the sense that we do not assume specific albedo models when mapping the surface, and hence applicable in principle to any kind of inhomogeneity. This method can potentially serve as a unique tool to investigate the exohabitats/exoclimes of Earth analogs.

  11. Near Earth asteroid orbit perturbation and fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Harris, Alan W.

    1992-01-01

    Collisions by near earth asteroids or the nuclei of comets pose varying levels of threat to man. A relatively small object, approximately 100 meter diameter, which might be found on an impact trajectory with a populated region of the Earth, could potentially be diverted from an Earth impacting trajectory by mass driver rocket systems. For larger bodies, such systems would appear to be beyond current technology. For any size object, nuclear explosions appear to be more efficient, using either the prompt blow-off from neutron radiation, the impulse from ejecta of near-surface explosion for deflection, or as a fragmenting charge. Practical deflections of bodies with diameters of 0.1, 1, and 10 km require interception, years to decades prior to earth encounter, with explosions a few kilotons, megatons, or gigatons, respectively, of equivalent TNT energy to achieve orbital velocity changes or destruction to a level where fragments are dispersed to harmless spatial densities.

  12. Analysing the Orbital Movement and Trajectory of LEO (Low Earth Orbit) Satellite Relative to Earth Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohra, Nafeesa; de Meer, Hermann; Memon, Aftab. A.

    Next generation of wireless Internet scenarios include LEOs (Low Earth Orbit Satellites). Lower altitudes of LEO constellations could allow global coverage while offering: low end-to-end propagation delay, low power consumption, and effective frequency usage both for the users and the satellite network. LEOs rotate asynchronously to the earth rotation. Fast movement of LEOs makes it necessary to include efficient mobility management. In past few years mobility patterns have been proposed by considering the full earth coverage constellation whereby, the rotation of earth was often assumed too negligible to be taken into account. The prime objective of this study is to provide facts and figures that show LEOs traverse relative to the rotation of earth. In order to analyse the orbital movement and trajectory of LEOs relative to earth rotation mathematical analysis have been done and justification have been made through equations.

  13. Earth Albedo and the orbit of LAGEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.; Weiss, N. R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-period perturbations in the orbit of the Lageos satellite due to the Earth's albedo have been found using a new analytical formalism. The Earth is assumed to be a sphere whose surface diffusely reflects sunlight according to Lambert's law. Specular reflection is not considered. The formalism is based on spherical harmonics; it produces equations which hold regardless of whether the terminator is seen by the satellite or not. Specializing to the case of a realistic zonal albedo shows that Lageos' orbital semimajor axis changes periodically by only the a few millimeters and the eccentricity by one part in 100,000. The longitude of the node increases secularly. The effect considered here can explain neither the secular decay of 1.1 mm/day in the semimajor axis nor the observed along-track variations in acceleration of order 2 x 10 to the minus 12 power/sq ms.

  14. Cargo launch vehicles to low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    There are two primary space transportation capabilities required to support both base programs and expanded mission requirements: earth-to-orbit (ETO) transportation systems and space transfer vehicle systems. Existing and new ETO vehicles required to support mission requirements, and planned robotic missions, along with currently planned ETO vehicles are provided. Lunar outposts, Mars' outposts, base and expanded model, ETO vehicles, advanced avionics technologies, expert systems, network architecture and operations systems, and technology transfer are discussed.

  15. Extravehicular activity at geosynchronous earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William

    1988-01-01

    The basic contract to define the system requirements to support the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has three phases: EVA in geosynchronous Earth orbit; EVA in lunar base operations; and EVA in manned Mars surface exploration. The three key areas to be addressed in each phase are: environmental/biomedical requirements; crew and mission requirements; and hardware requirements. The structure of the technical tasks closely follows the structure of the Advanced EVA studies for the Space Station completed in 1986.

  16. An Investigation of Low Earth Orbit Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph; Willis, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Internal charging is not generally considered a threat in low Earth orbit due to the relatively short exposure times and low flux of electrons with energies of a few MeV encountered in typical orbits. There are configurations, however, where insulators and ungrounded conductors used on the outside of a spacecraft hull may charge when exposed to much lower energy electrons of some 100's keV in a process that is better characterized as internal charging than surface charging. We investigate the conditions required for this internal charging process to occur in low Earth orbit using a one-dimensional charging model and evaluate the environments for which the process may be a threat to spacecraft.

  17. Earth's magnetic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

    1988-10-01

    The nature of the earth's magnetosphere is outlined. The magnetosphere is illustrated and its regions and features are discussed, including solar wind, bow shock, and the magnetopause. The formation process and characteristics of the magnetotail are presented. The plasmasphere, Van Allen belts, auroras, whistlers, and micropulsations are examined. Effects of the magnetosphere, including problems for communications lines, spacecraft electronics, and communication satellites are considered.

  18. Earth orbit navigation study. Volume 2: System evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An overall systems evaluation was made of five candidate navigation systems in support of earth orbit missions. The five systems were horizon sensor system, unkown landmark tracking system, ground transponder system, manned space flight network, and tracking and data relay satellite system. Two reference missions were chosen: a low earth orbit mission and a transfer trajectory mission from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. The specific areas addressed in the evaluation were performance, multifunction utilization, system mechanization, and cost.

  19. Cauchy Drag Estimation For Low Earth Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Mashiku, Alinda K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work on minimum variances estimators based on Cauchy distributions appear relevant to orbital drag estimation. Samples form Cauchy distributions which are part of a class of heavy-tailed distributions, are characterized by long stretches of fairly small variation, punctuated by large variations that are many times larger than could be expected from a Gaussian. Such behavior can occur when solar storms perturb the atmosphere. In this context, the present work describes an embedding of the scalar Idan-Speyer Cauchy Estimator to estimate density corrections, within an Extended Kalman Filter that estimates the state of a low Earth orbiter. In contrast to the baseline Kalman approach, the larger formal errors of the present approach fully and conservatively bound the predictive error distribution, even in the face of unanticipated density disturbances of hundreds of percent.

  20. Earth-to-Orbit Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaurain, Andre; Souchier, Alain; Moravie, Michel; Sackheim, Robert L.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2003-01-01

    The Earth-to-orbit (ETO) phase of access to space is and always will be the first and most critical phase of all space missions. This first phase of all space missions has unique characteristics that have driven space launcher propulsion requirements for more than half a century. For example, the need to overcome the force of the Earth s gravity in combination with high levels of atmospheric drag to achieve the initial orbital velocity; i.e., Earth parking orbit or =9 km/s, will always require high thrust- to-weight (TN) propulsion systems. These are necessary with a T/W ratio greater than one during the ascent phase. The only type of propulsion system that can achieve these high T/W ratios are those that convert thermal energy to kinetic energy. There are only two basic sources of onboard thermal energy: chemical combustion-based systems or nuclear thermal-based systems (fission, fusion, or antimatter). The likelihood of advanced open-cycle, nuclear thermal propulsion being developed for flight readiness or becoming environmentally acceptable during the next century is extremely low. This realization establishes that chemical propulsion for ET0 launchers will be the technology of choice for at least the next century, just as it has been for the last half century of rocket flight into space. The world s space transportation propulsion requirements have evolved through several phases over the history of the space program, as has been necessitated by missions and systems development, technological capabilities available, and the growth and evolution of the utilization of space for economic, security, and science benefit. Current projections for the continuing evolution of requirements and concepts may show how future space transportation system needs could be addressed. The evolution and projections will be described in detail in this manuscript.

  1. Earth-orbiting resonant-mass gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, Ho Jung

    1989-01-01

    Earth-based gravitational wave detectors suffer from the need to support the large antenna masses against the earth's gravity without transmitting a significant amount of seismic noise. Passive vibration isolation is difficult to achieve below 1 Hz on the earth. Vibration-free space environment thus gives an opportunity to extend the frequency window of gravitational wave detection to ultralow frequencies. The weightless condition of a space laboratory also enables construction of a highly symmetric multimode antenna which is capable of resolving the direction of the source and the polarization of the incoming wave without resorting to multiantenna coincidence. Two types of earth-orbiting resonant-mass gravitational wave detectors are considered. One is a skyhook gravitational wave detector, proposed by Braginsky and Thorne (1985). The other is a spherical detector, proposed by Forward (1971) and analyzed by Wagoner and Paik (1976).

  2. Earth Parking Orbit and Translunar Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to (1) Describe the general characteristics of the Earth Parking Orbit (EPO) and Translunar Injection (TLI) (2) List the general activities that occurred during EPO (4) State what went into verifying a working Saturn IVB S-IVB IU and a CSM GNC (5) Differentiate between a Free-Return Trajectory vs. a Hybrid Non-Free-Return Trajectory (6) Identify the crew monitoring task during the TLI Burn and (7) Identify the abort modes in the event of severe systems problems during the TLI timeframe

  3. Ranking upper stages in low Earth orbit for active removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmo, L.; Pardini, C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of ranking the upper stages in orbit in order to evaluate their potential detrimental effects on the debris environment over the long-term, and the relative advantage of having them actively de-orbited. To do so, a new ranking scheme is introduced, applicable to any object in low Earth orbit (LEO) and able to prioritize the target objects potentially most critical for the future preservation of the LEO protected region. Applying the proposed approach, it was found, for instance, that the 22 most massive upper stages abandoned in LEO, at the beginning of 2015, are on the whole equivalent to several hundred average intact objects in sun-synchronous orbit, regarding their latent detrimental effects on the debris environment over the next 200 years. Most of them could therefore be the top priority targets of any worldwide coordinated effort for active removal and the prevention of new collisional debris. The ranking scheme was also applied to other main models of rocket bodies currently in orbit, trying to identify the combinations of orbital elements and upper stage types requiring particular attention.

  4. Low Earth Orbit satellite traffic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelzel, John

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a significant tool for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) capacity analysis, needed to support marketing, economic, and design analysis, known as a Satellite Traffic Simulator (STS). LEO satellites typically use multiple beams to help achieve the desired communication capacity, but the traffic demand in these beams in usually not uniform. Simulations of dynamic, average, and peak expected demand per beam is a very critical part of the marketing, economic, and design analysis necessary to field a viable LEO system. An STS is described in this paper which can simulate voice, data and FAX traffic carried by LEO satellite beams and Earth Station Gateways. It is applicable world-wide for any LEO satellite constellations operating over any regions. For aeronautical applications to LEO satellites. the anticipates aeronautical traffic (Erlangs for each hour of the day to be simulated) is prepared for geographically defined 'area targets' (each major operational region for the respective aircraft), and used as input to the STS. The STS was designed by Constellations Communications Inc. (CCI) and E-Systems for usage in Brazil in accordance with an ESCA/INPE Statement Of Work, and developed by Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI) to execute on top of its Satellite Tool Kit (STK) commercial software. The STS simulates constellations of LEO satellite orbits, with input of traffic intensity (Erlangs) for each hour of the day generated from area targets (such as Brazilian States). accumulated in custom LEO satellite beams, and then accumulated in Earth Station Gateways. The STS is a very general simulator which can accommodate: many forms of orbital element and Walker Constellation input; simple beams or any user defined custom beams; and any location of Gateways. The paper describes some of these features, including Manual Mode dynamic graphical display of communication links, to illustrate which Gateway links are accessible and which links are not, at each 'step' of the

  5. Supportability for Beyond Low Earth Orbit Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crillo, William M.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Aaseng, Gordon; Stromgren, Chel; Maxwell, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) presents many unique challenges that will require changes from current Supportability approaches. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) is supported and maintained through a series of preplanned resupply flights, on which spare parts, including some large, heavy Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), are delivered to the ISS. The Space Shuttle system provided for a robust capability to return failed components to Earth for detailed examination and potential repair. Additionally, as components fail and spares are not already on-orbit, there is flexibility in the transportation system to deliver those required replacement parts to ISS on a near term basis. A similar concept of operation will not be feasible for beyond LEO exploration. The mass and volume constraints of the transportation system and long envisioned mission durations could make it difficult to manifest necessary spares. The supply of on-demand spare parts for missions beyond LEO will be very limited or even non-existent. In addition, the remote nature of the mission, the design of the spacecraft, and the limitations on crew capabilities will all make it more difficult to maintain the spacecraft. Alternate concepts of operation must be explored in which required spare parts, materials, and tools are made available to make repairs; the locations of the failures are accessible; and the information needed to conduct repairs is available to the crew. In this paper, ISS heritage information is presented along with a summary of the challenges of beyond LEO missions. A number of Supportability issues are discussed in relation to human exploration beyond LEO. In addition, the impacts of various Supportability strategies will be discussed. Any measure that can be incorporated to reduce risk and improve mission success should be evaluated to understand the advantages and disadvantages of implementing those measures. Finally, an effort to model and evaluate

  6. Earth's Electromagnetic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The natural spectrum of electromagnetic variations surrounding Earth extends across an enormous frequency range and is controlled by diverse physical processes. Electromagnetic (EM) induction studies make use of external field variations with frequencies ranging from the solar cycle which has been used for geomagnetic depth sounding through the 10^{-4}-10^4 Hz frequency band widely used for magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric studies. Above 10^4 Hz, the EM spectrum is dominated by man-made signals. This review emphasizes electromagnetic sources at ˜1 Hz and higher, describing major differences in physical origin and structure of short- and long-period signals. The essential role of Earth's internal magnetic field in defining the magnetosphere through its interactions with the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field is briefly outlined. At its lower boundary, the magnetosphere is engaged in two-way interactions with the underlying ionosphere and neutral atmosphere. Extremely low-frequency (3 Hz-3 kHz) electromagnetic signals are generated in the form of sferics, lightning, and whistlers which can extend to frequencies as high as the VLF range (3-30 kHz).The roughly spherical dielectric cavity bounded by the ground and the ionosphere produces the Schumann resonance at around 8 Hz and its harmonics. A transverse resonance also occurs at 1.7-2.0 kHz arising from reflection off the variable height lower boundary of the ionosphere and exhibiting line splitting due to three-dimensional structure. Ground and satellite observations are discussed in the light of their contributions to understanding the global electric circuit and for EM induction studies.

  7. A low Earth orbit molecular beam space simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    A brief synopsis of the low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite environment is presented including neutral and ionic species. Two ground based atomic and molecular beam instruments are described which are capable of simulating the interaction of spacecraft surfaces with the LEO environment and detecting the results of these interactions. The first detects mass spectrometrically low level fluxes of reactively and nonreactively surface scattered species as a function of scattering angle and velocity while the second ultrahigh velocity (UHV) molecular beam, laser induced fluorescence apparatus is capable of measuring chemiluminescence produced by either gas phase or gas-surface interactions. A number of proposed experiments are described.

  8. Taurus lightweight manned spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Kevin A.; Vandersall, Eric J.; Plotkin, Jennifer; Travisano, Jeffrey J.; Loveless, Dennis; Kaczmarek, Michael; White, Anthony G.; Est, Andy; Bulla, Gregory; Henry, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff data of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step towards larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the Space Shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster--1300 kg to a 300 km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The human factors system deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The propulsion section contains the abort system, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and power generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the structures section. The avionics section includes navigation, attitude determination, data processing, communication systems, and sensors. The mission analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The systems integration section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft and addressed costing and reliability.

  9. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosset, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  10. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosset, M.

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  11. Plasma Flowfields Around Low Earth Orbit Objects: Aerodynamics to Underpin Orbit Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capon, Christopher; Boyce, Russell; Brown, Melrose

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between orbiting bodies and the charged space environment are complex. The large variation in passive body parameters e.g. size, geometry and materials, makes the plasma-body interaction in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a region rich in fundamental physical phenomena. The aerodynamic interaction of LEO orbiting bodies with the neutral environment constitutes the largest non-conservative force on the body. However in general, study of the LEO plasma-body interaction has not been concerned with external flow physics, but rather with the effects on surface charging. The impact of ionospheric flow physics on the forces on space debris (and active objects) is not well understood. The work presented here investigates the contribution that plasma-body interactions have on the flow structure and hence on the total atmospheric force vector experienced by a polar orbiting LEO body. This work applies a hybrid Particle-in-Cell (PIC) - Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code, pdFoam, to self-consistently model the electrostatic flowfield about a cylinder with a uniform, fixed surface potential. Flow conditions are representative of the mean conditions experienced by the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) based on the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-86). The electron distribution function is represented by a non-linear Boltzmann electron fluid and ion gas-surface interactions are assumed to be that of a neutralising, conducting, thermally accommodating solid wall with diffuse reflections. The variation in flowfield and aerodynamic properties with surface potential at a fixed flow condition is investigated, and insight into the relative contributions of charged and neutral species to the flow physics experienced by a LEO orbiting body is provided. This in turn is intended to help improve the fidelity of physics-based orbit predictions for space debris and other near-Earth space objects.

  12. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  13. Collisional cascading - The limits of population growth in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    Random collisions between made-made objects in earth orbit will lead to a significant source of orbital debris, but there are a number of uncertainties in these models, and additional analysis and data are required to fully characterize the future environment. However, the nature of these uncertainties are such that while the future environment is uncertain, the fact that collisions will control the future environment is less uncertain. The data that already exist is sufficient to show that cascading collisions will control the future debris environment with no, or very minor increases in the current low-earth-orbit population. Two populations control this process: explosion fragments and expended rocket bodies and payloads. Practices are already changing to limit explosions in low earth orbit; it is necessary to begin limiting the number of expended rocket bodies and payloads in orbit.

  14. Single Event Effects Testing For Low Earth Orbit Missions with Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon; O'Neill, Pat; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons can effectively be used to screen electronic parts intended to be used in Low Earth Orbit. This paper compares neutron with proton environments in spacecraft and discusses recent comparison testing.

  15. Observatories in earth orbit and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present volume on observations in earth orbit and beyond discusses current and future missions, launch vehicles, the relative merits of various observatories, and long-term future issues. Attention is given to the Granat automatic spacecraft, the prospects of the Hipparcos mission, EUV and FUV astronomy from Voyagers 1 and 2, and the X-ray Timing Explorer. Topics addressed include the SAX mission for X-ray astronomy, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Ulysses mission in the high-latitude heliosphere, and science operations for future space astrophysics missions. Also discussed are science observations with the IUE using the one-gyro mode, new methods of determining spacecraft attitude, cryogenic testing of optics for ISOCAM, and the stellar X-ray polarimeter for the Spectrum-X-Gamma mission.

  16. Investigation of Teflon FEP embrittlement on spacecraft in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Smith, Daniela C.

    1997-01-01

    Teflon(TM) fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) is used on the exterior of spacecraft surfaces in the low earth orbit environment for thermal control. Silverized or aluminized Teflon(TM) FEP used in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provided evidence of the low earth orbit environments. Samples from the LDEF and HST were evaluated for solar induced embrittlement and for synergistic effects of solar degradation and atomic oxygen.

  17. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  18. A facility to produce an energetic, ground state atomic oxygen beam for the simulation of the Low-Earth Orbit environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketsdever, Andrew D.; Weaver, David P.; Muntz, E. P.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the continuing commitment to activity in low-Earth orbit (LEO), a facility is under development to produce energetic atmospheric species, particularly atomic oxygen, with energies ranging from 5 to 80 eV. This relatively high flux facility incorporates an ion engine to produce the corresponding specie ion which is charge exchanged to produce a neutral atomic beam. Ion fluxes of around 10(exp 15) sec(exp -1) with energies of 20-70 eV have been achieved. A geometrically augmented inertially tethered charge exchanger (GAITCE) was designed to provide a large column depth of charge exchange gas while reducing the gas load to the low pressure portion of the atomic beam facility. This is accomplished using opposed containment jets which act as collisional barriers to the escape of the dense gas region formed between the jets. Leak rate gains to the pumping system on the order of 10 were achieved for moderate jet mass flows. This system provides an attractive means for the charge exchange of atomic ions with a variety of gases to produce energetic atomic beams.

  19. Material Density Distribution of Small Debris in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, P. H.; Xu, Y.-l.; Opiela, J. N.; Hill, N. M.; Matney, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Earth orbit. The near Earth environment is thus parameterized by debris density percentages within subsections of that environment. This model version is used in the upgraded NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM).

  20. Tethered Capturing Scenarios in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keramati Nigjeh, Behzad; Trivailo, Pavel; Blanksby, Chris

    To-date, a few actuation methods have been presented which enable zero differential velocity rendezvous for the tip of a space tether and a payload. Some researchers in the field have also investigated the futuristic, ambitious, tethered capturing scenarios for interplanetary transfers. This paper investigates some new and beneficial tethered space capturing scenarios, which can be implemented for near-term space mass/momentum transfer missions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), by using currently available technology and resources. Zero differential velocity capture could be achieved by initiating a swinging motion in the tether before rendezvous. The lack of significant damping forces in space, means the swinging motion continues after capture, which is extremely undesirable for the retrieval phase and poses a serious danger for the platform as the payload approaches to it. Although exploiting space propulsion on the capturing device at the tip of the tether could stop the swinging motion of the tether directly after the capture, another alternative presented in this paper is to use the space propulsion to boost the payload to the same orbit as the platform. This has the benefit of dramatically reducing fuel consumption and accomplishment of the retrieval phase with low risk of impact to the platform. The numerical methods utilized in the dynamic simulation have been used to evaluate the efficiency of the tethered capturing scenarios mentioned above in comparison to the direct space capture and ideal Hohmann orbit transfer. The payload mass addition to the tip of the elastic tether at capture causes a longitudinal vibration mode (Bobbing mode) in the tether. Since the structural damping in the tether is negligible, a precise length rate/tension control could be used to dampen this mode in the first semi-period, demolishing any subsequent tension peak. This is a new mathematical non-linear control scheme, which is described for tension mitigation and damping of Bobbing

  1. Intracellular molecular distributions in spacecraft experiments in orbit around Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haranas, Ioannis; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis; Zouganelis, George D.

    2012-04-01

    It is possible that the nucleolous inside the cell plays the role of a "gravity receptor". Furthermore, cells up to 10 μm in diameter can demonstrate some effect due to the redistribution of mitochondria or nucleolous. Effects of gravity should be present in various cell systems where larger objects such as the ribosomes move from cell to cell. In this paper we study the effects of gravity on cells. In particular, we examine the resulting intracellular molecular distribution due to Brownian motion and the ordered distribution of molecules under the action of gravity, where n0 is the number per unit volume at certain level, and n is the number per unit volume above that level. This is an experiment that takes place at a certain orbital altitude in a spacecraft in orbit around Earth, where the acceleration due to the central field is corrected for the oblateness and also the rotation of the Earth. We found that equatorial circular and elliptical orbits have the highest n/n0 ratios. This experiment takes place in circular and elliptical orbits, with eccentricities e = 0, 0.1 and involves a bacterial cell at an orbital altitude of 300 km. We found that n/n0 = 1.00299 and 1.0037 respectively, which is still a 0.6-0.7 % higher than n/n0 = 0.0996685 calculated on the surface of the Earth. Examining mitochondria in similar orbital experiments we found that equatorial orbits result to higher n/n0 ratios. In particular, we found that n/n0 = 8.38119, where an elliptical orbit of eccentricity e = 0.1 results to n/n0 = 13.8525. Both are high above 100%, signifying the importance of Brownian motion over gravity. Our results are of interest to biomedical applications. Molecular concentrations are important for various processes such as the embryogenesis, positional homeostasis and its relation to cell energy expenditure, cell torque, cell deformation, and more. These results indicate that statistical molecular distributions play an important role for the recognition of a

  2. Earth Orbiting Support Systems for commercial low Earth orbit data relay: Assessing architectures through tradespace exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Gianluca; Golkar, Alessandro; Gaudenzi, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    As small satellites and Sun Synchronous Earth Observation systems are assuming an increased role in nowadays space activities, including commercial investments, it is of interest to assess how infrastructures could be developed to support the development of such systems and other spacecraft that could benefit from having a data relay service in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), as opposed to traditional Geostationary relays. This paper presents a tradespace exploration study of the architecture of such LEO commercial satellite data relay systems, here defined as Earth Orbiting Support Systems (EOSS). The paper proposes a methodology to formulate architectural decisions for EOSS constellations, and enumerate the corresponding tradespace of feasible architectures. Evaluation metrics are proposed to measure benefits and costs of architectures; lastly, a multicriteria Pareto criterion is used to downselect optimal architectures for subsequent analysis. The methodology is applied to two case studies for a set of 30 and 100 customer-spacecraft respectively, representing potential markets for LEO services in Exploration, Earth Observation, Science, and CubeSats. Pareto analysis shows how increased performance of the constellation is always achieved by an increased node size, as measured by the gain of the communications antenna mounted on EOSS spacecraft. On the other hand, nonlinear trends in optimal orbital altitude, number of satellites per plane, and number of orbital planes, are found in both cases. An upward trend in individual node memory capacity is found, although never exceeding 256 Gbits of onboard memory for both cases that have been considered, assuming the availability of a polar ground station for EOSS data downlink. System architects can use the proposed methodology to identify optimal EOSS constellations for a given service pricing strategy and customer target, thus identifying alternatives for selection by decision makers.

  3. Extreme Spacecraft Charging in Polar Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Andrew D.; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergaardParker, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft in low altitude, high inclination (including sun-synchronous) orbits are widely used for remote sensing of the Earth's land surface and oceans, monitoring weather and climate, communications, scientific studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and a variety of other scientific, commercial, and military applications. These systems episodically charge to frame potentials in the kilovolt range when exposed to space weather environments characterized by a high flux of energetic (10 s kilovolt) electrons in regions of low background plasma density which is similar in some ways to the space weather conditions in geostationary orbit responsible for spacecraft charging to kilovolt levels. We first review the physics of space environment interactions with spacecraft materials that control auroral charging rates and the anticipated maximum potentials that should be observed on spacecraft surfaces during disturbed space weather conditions. We then describe how the theoretical values compare to the observational history of extreme charging in auroral environments. Finally, a set of extreme DMSP charging events are described varying in maximum negative frame potential from 0.6 kV to 2 kV, focusing on the characteristics of the charging events that are of importance both to the space system designer and to spacecraft operators. The goal of the presentation is to bridge the gap between scientific studies of auroral charging and the need for engineering teams to understand how space weather impacts both spacecraft design and operations for vehicles on orbital trajectories that traverse auroral charging environments.

  4. Extreme Spacecraft Charging in Polar Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Andrew D.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, L. Neergaard

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft in low altitude, high inclination (including sun -synchronous) orbits are widely used for remote sensing of the Earth fs land surface and oceans, monitoring weather and climate, communications, scientific studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and a variety of other scientific, commercial, and military applications. These systems episodically charge to frame potentials in the kilovolt range when exposed to space weather environments characterized by a high flux of energetic (approx.10 fs kilovolt) electrons in regions of low background plasma density. Auroral charging conditions are similar in some ways to the space weather conditions in geostationary orbit responsible for spacecraft charging to kilovolt levels. We first review the physics of space environment interactions with spacecraft materials that control auroral charging rates and the anticipated maximum potentials that should be observed on spacecraft surfaces during disturbed space weather conditions. We then describe how the theoretical values compare to the observational history of extreme charging in auroral environments. Finally, a set of extreme DMSP charging events are described varying in maximum negative frame potential from approx.0.6 kV to approx.2 kV, focusing on the characteristics of the charging events that are of importance both to the space system designer and to spacecraft operators. The goal of the presentation is to bridge the gap between scientific studies of auroral charging and the need for engineering teams to understand how space weather impacts both spacecraft design and operations for vehicles on orbital trajectories that traverse auroral charging environments.

  5. Extreme Spacecraft Charging in Polar Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colson, A.; Minow, J. I.; Parker, L.

    2012-12-01

    Spacecraft in low altitude, high inclination (including sun-synchronous) orbits are widely used for remote sensing of the Earth's land surface and oceans, monitoring weather and climate, communications, scientific studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and a variety of other scientific, commercial, and military applications. These systems episodically charge to frame potentials in the kilovolt range when exposed to space weather environments characterized by a high flux of energetic (~10's kilovolt) electrons in regions of low background plasma density which is similar in some ways to the space weather conditions in geostationary orbit responsible for spacecraft charging to kilovolt levels. We first review the physics of space environment interactions with spacecraft materials that control auroral charging rates and the anticipated maximum potentials that should be observed on spacecraft surfaces during disturbed space weather conditions. We then describe how the theoretical values compare to the observational history of extreme charging in auroral environments. Finally, a set of extreme DMSP charging events are described varying in maximum negative frame potential from ~0.6 kV to ~2 kV, focusing on the characteristics of the charging events that are of importance both to the space system designer and to spacecraft operators. The goal of the presentation is to bridge the gap between scientific studies of auroral charging and the need for engineering teams to understand how space weather impacts both spacecraft design and operations for vehicles on orbital trajectories that traverse auroral charging environments.

  6. The orbital distribution of Near-Earth Objects inside Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstreet, Sarah; Ngo, Henry; Gladman, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Canada's Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat), set to launch in early 2012, will search for and track Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), tuning its search to best detect objects with a < 1.0 AU. In order to construct an optimal pointing strategy for NEOSSat, we needed more detailed information in the a < 1.0 AU region than the best current model (Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S. [2002]. Icarus 156, 399-433) provides. We present here the NEOSSat-1.0 NEO orbital distribution model with larger statistics that permit finer resolution and less uncertainty, especially in the a < 1.0 AU region. We find that Amors = 30.1 ± 0.8%, Apollos = 63.3 ± 0.4%, Atens = 5.0 ± 0.3%, Atiras (0.718 < Q < 0.983 AU) = 1.38 ± 0.04%, and Vatiras (0.307 < Q < 0.718 AU) = 0.22 ± 0.03% of the steady-state NEO population. Vatiras are a previously undiscussed NEO population clearly defined in our integrations, whose orbits lie completely interior to that of Venus. Our integrations also uncovered the unexpected production of retrograde orbits from main-belt asteroid sources; this retrograde NEA population makes up ≃0.1% of the steady-state NEO population. The relative NEO impact rate onto Mercury, Venus, and Earth, as well as the normalized distribution of impact speeds, was calculated from the NEOSSat-1.0 orbital model under the assumption of a steady-state. The new model predicts a slightly higher Mercury impact flux.

  7. European activities in exobiology in earth orbit: results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    1999-01-01

    A large portion of European activities in Earth orbit have concentrated on studies of the responses of resistant microbes to the harsh environment of space with the aim of providing experimental evidence testing the hypothesis that interplanetary transfer of life is possible. Various types of microorganisms, such as bacterial or fungal spores, as well as viruses and biomolecules, such as DNA, amino acids and liposomes, have been exposed to selected and combined space conditions outside the Earth's magnetic field (Apollo 16) or in low Earth orbit (Spacelab 1, Spacelab D2, ERA on EURECA, LDEF, BIOPAN on FOTON). Space parameters, such as high vacuum, intense solar ultraviolet radiation, different components of the cosmic radiation field and temperature extremes affected the genetic stability of the organisms in space, leading to increased mutation rates, DNA damage and inactivation. Extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most lethal factor. If shielded against the influx of solar UV, spores of Bacillus subtilis survived for more than 5 years in space. Future research will be directed towards long-term studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and endoevaporitic ecosystems. For these studies, the European Space Agency will provide the facility EXPOSE to be accommodated on the External Platform of the International Space Station during the Early Utilization Phase.

  8. GPS World, Innovation: Autonomous Navigation at High Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, William; Winternitz, Luke; Hay, Curtis

    2005-01-01

    Calculating a spacecraft's precise location at high orbital altitudes-22,000 miles (35,800 km) and beyond-is an important and challenging problem. New and exciting opportunities become possible if satellites are able to autonomously determine their own orbits. First, the repetitive task of periodically collecting range measurements from terrestrial antennas to high altitude spacecraft becomes less important-this lessens competition for control facilities and saves money by reducing operational costs. Also, autonomous navigation at high orbital altitudes introduces the possibility of autonomous station keeping. For example, if a geostationary satellite begins to drift outside of its designated slot it can make orbit adjustments without requiring commands from the ground. Finally, precise onboard orbit determination opens the door to satellites flying in formation-an emerging concept for many scientific space applications. The realization of these benefits is not a trivial task. While the navigation signals broadcast by GPS satellites are well suited for orbit and attitude determination at lower altitudes, acquiring and using these signals at geostationary (GEO) and highly elliptical orbits is much more difficult. The light blue trace describes the GPS orbit at approximately 12,550 miles (20,200 km) altitude. GPS satellites were designed to provide navigation signals to terrestrial users-consequently the antenna array points directly toward the earth. GEO and HE0 orbits, however, are well above the operational GPS constellation, making signal reception at these altitudes more challenging. The nominal beamwidth of a Block II/IIA GPS satellite antenna array is approximately 42.6 degrees. At GEO and HE0 altitudes, most of these primary beam transmissions are blocked by the Earth, leaving only a narrow region of nominal signal visibility near opposing limbs of the earth. This region is highlighted in gray. If GPS receivers at GEO and HE0 orbits were designed to use these

  9. NASA Now: Orbital Mechanics: Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Video Gallery

    This NASA Now program is all about satellites and their orbits. Dr. James Gleason, project scientist for NPP, explains what it takes for a satellite to stay in orbit, why there are different types ...

  10. Permanent Habitats in Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol Orbit Positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspon, J.

    Project Outpost is a manned Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol platform that enables permanent occupation in deep space. In order to develop the program elements for this complex mission, Project Outpost will rely primarily on existing/nearterm technology and hardware for the construction of its components. For the purposes of this study, four mission requirements are considered: 1. Outpost - Man's 1st purpose-produced effort of space engineering, in which astructure is developed/constructed in an environment completely alien to currentpractices for EVA guidelines. 2. Newton - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development ofa modified Hohmann personnel orbital transport operating between Earth andMars. Newton would serve as the primary crew delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization. 3. Cruis - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development of amodified Hohmann cargo orbital transport operating between Earth and Mars.Cruis would serve as the primary equipment delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization, and 4. Ares/Diana - a more conventional space platform configuration for Lunar andMars orbit is included as a construction baseline. The operations of these assetsare supported, and used for the support, of the outpost. Outpost would be constructed over a 27-year period of launch opportunities into Earth-Sol or Mars-Sol Lagrange orbit (E-S/M-S L1, 4 or 5). The outpost consists of an operations core with a self-contained power generation ability, a docking and maintenance structure, a Scientific Research complex and a Habitation Section. After achieving initial activation, the core will provide the support and energy required to operate the outpost in a 365

  11. LLOFX earth orbit to lunar orbit delta V estimation program user and technical documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The LLOFX computer program calculates in-plane trajectories from an Earth-orbiting space station to Lunar orbit in such a way that the journey requires only two delta V burns (one to leave Earth circular orbit and one to circularize into Lunar orbit). The program requires the user to supply the Space Station altitude and Lunar orbit altitude (in km above the surface), and the desired time of flight for the transfer (in hours). It then determines and displays the trans-Lunar injection (TLI) delta V required to achieve the transfer, the Lunar orbit insertion (LOI) delta V required to circularize the orbit around the Moon, the actual time of flight, and whether the transfer orbit is elliptical or hyperbolic. Return information is also displayed. Finally, a plot of the transfer orbit is displayed.

  12. Collision risk against space debris in Earth orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A.; Valsecchi, G. B.

    2006-05-01

    Öpik’s formulae for the probability of collision are applied to the analysis of the collision risk against space debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) and Medium Earth Orbit. The simple analytical formulation of Öpik’s theory makes it applicable to complex dynamical systems, such as the interaction of the ISS with the whole debris population in LEO The effect of a fragmentation within a multiplane constellation can also be addressed. The analysis of the evolution of the collision risk in Earth orbit shows the need of effective mitigation measures to limit the growth of the collision risk and of the fragmentation debris in the next century.

  13. Degradation of Spacesuit Fabrics in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Baldwin, Sammantha M.; Folz, Angela D.; Waters, Deborah L.; McCue, Terry R.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Rogers, Kerry J.; Batman, Brittany; Bruce, John; Mengesu, Tsega

    2012-01-01

    Six samples of pristine and dust-abraded outer layer spacesuit fabrics were included in the Materials International Space Station Experiment-7, in which they were exposed to the wake-side low Earth orbit environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for 18 months in order to determine whether abrasion by lunar dust increases radiation degradation. The fabric samples were characterized using optical microscopy, optical spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and tensile testing before and after exposure on the ISS. Comparison of pre- and post-flight characterizations showed that the environment darkened and reddened all six fabrics, increasing their integrated solar absorptance by 7 to 38 percent. There was a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure of lunar dust abraded Apollo spacesuit fibers by a factor of four and an increase in the elastic modulus by a factor of two.

  14. Space tourism: from earth orbit to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    Travel to and from the lunar surface has been known to be feasible since it was first achieved 34 years ago. Since that time there has been enormous progress in related engineering fields such as rocket propulsion, materials and avionics, and about 1 billion has been spent on lunar science and engineering research. Consequently there are no fundamental technical problems facing the development of lunar tourism - only business and investment problems. The outstanding problem is to reduce the cost of launch to low Earth orbit. Recently there has been major progress towards overturning the myth that launch costs are high because of physical limits. Several "X Prize" competitor vehicles currently in test-flight are expected to be able to perform sub-orbital flights at approximately 1/1,000 of the cost of Alan Shepard's similar flight in 1961. This activity could have started 30 years ago if space agencies had had economic rather than political objectives. A further encouraging factor is that the demand for space tourism seems potentially limitless. Starting with sub-orbital flights and growing through orbital activities, travel to the Moon will offer further unique attractions. In every human culture there is immense interest in the Moon arising from millennia of myths. In addition, bird-like flying sports, first described by Robert Heinlein, will become another powerful demand factor. Roundtrips of 1 to 2 weeks are very convenient for travel companies; and the radiation environment will permit visitors several days of surface activity without significant health risks. The paper also discusses economic aspects of lunar tourism, including the benefits it will have for those on Earth. Lunar economic development based on tourism will have much in common with economic development on Earth based on tourism: starting from the fact that many people spontaneously wish to visit popular places, companies in the tourism industry invest to sell a growing range of services to ever

  15. A Cryogenic Propellant Production Depot for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth D.; Henley, Mark; Guitierrez, Sonia; Fikes, John; Carrington, Connie; Smitherman, David; Gerry, Mark; Sutherlin, Steve; Beason, Phil; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit can be lowered if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The power requirements for a propellant depot that electrolyzes water and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen can be met using technology developed for space solar power. A propellant depot is described that will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit, receive tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth by gun launch or reusable launch vehicle, convert the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and store Lip to 500 metric tonnes of cryogenic propellants. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. The tanks are configured in an inline gravity-gradient configuration to minimize drag and settle the propellant. Temperatures can be maintained by body-mounted radiators; these will also provide some shielding against orbital debris. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotate once per orbit to track the Sun. In the longer term, cryogenic propellant production technology can be applied to a larger LEO depot, as well as to the use of lunar water resources at a similar depot elsewhere.

  16. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a DELTA V penalty. Usually, because of the DELTA V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (4) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO (5) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO.

  17. Earth's external magnetic fields at low orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Under our Jun. 1987 proposal, Magnetic Signatures of Near-Earth Distributed Currents, we proposed to render operational a modeling procedure that had been previously developed to compute the magnetic effects of distributed currents flowing in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. After adaptation of the software to our computing environment we would apply the model to low altitude satellite orbits and would utilize the MAGSAT data suite to guide the analysis. During the first year, basic computer codes to run model systems of Birkeland and ionospheric currents and several graphical output routines were made operational on a VAX 780 in our research facility. Software performance was evaluated using an input matchstick ionospheric current array, field aligned currents were calculated and magnetic perturbations along hypothetical satellite orbits were calculated. The basic operation of the model was verified. Software routines to analyze and display MAGSAT satellite data in terms of deviations with respect to the earth's internal field were also made operational during the first year effort. The complete set of MAGSAT data to be used for evaluation of the models was received at the end of the first year. A detailed annual report in May 1989 described these first year activities completely. That first annual report is included by reference in this final report. This document summarizes our additional activities during the second year of effort and describes the modeling software, its operation, and includes as an attachment the deliverable computer software specified under the contract.

  18. Pervasive orbital eccentricities dictate the habitability of extrasolar earths.

    PubMed

    Kita, Ryosuke; Rasio, Frederic; Takeda, Genya

    2010-09-01

    The long-term habitability of Earth-like planets requires low orbital eccentricities. A secular perturbation from a distant stellar companion is a very important mechanism in exciting planetary eccentricities, as many of the extrasolar planetary systems are associated with stellar companions. Although the orbital evolution of an Earth-like planet in a stellar binary system is well understood, the effect of a binary perturbation on a more realistic system containing additional gas-giant planets has been very little studied. Here, we provide analytic criteria confirmed by a large ensemble of numerical integrations that identify the initial orbital parameters leading to eccentric orbits. We show that an extrasolar earth is likely to experience a broad range of orbital evolution dictated by the location of a gas-giant planet, which necessitates more focused studies on the effect of eccentricity on the potential for life. PMID:20879864

  19. Pervasive orbital eccentricities dictate the habitability of extrasolar earths.

    PubMed

    Kita, Ryosuke; Rasio, Frederic; Takeda, Genya

    2010-09-01

    The long-term habitability of Earth-like planets requires low orbital eccentricities. A secular perturbation from a distant stellar companion is a very important mechanism in exciting planetary eccentricities, as many of the extrasolar planetary systems are associated with stellar companions. Although the orbital evolution of an Earth-like planet in a stellar binary system is well understood, the effect of a binary perturbation on a more realistic system containing additional gas-giant planets has been very little studied. Here, we provide analytic criteria confirmed by a large ensemble of numerical integrations that identify the initial orbital parameters leading to eccentric orbits. We show that an extrasolar earth is likely to experience a broad range of orbital evolution dictated by the location of a gas-giant planet, which necessitates more focused studies on the effect of eccentricity on the potential for life.

  20. Sensing the solar-wind termination shock from Earth's orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, K. C.; Shih, K. L.; Jokipii, J. R.; Gruntman, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The solar-wind termination shock is inaccessible for repeated in situ investigation. We examine, therefore, the possibility of remote sensing the entire heliopause from Earth's orbit using the energetic neutral atoms (ENA) produced by charge exchange between energetic ions and the neutral atoms of the interstellar medium at and beyond the termination shock. We estimate the ENA fluxes at Earth's orbit coming from the thermalized solar-wind ions and the shock-accelerated anomalous cosmic rays (ACR) at the heliospheric boundary.

  1. Accelerated simulation of near-Earth-orbit polymer degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric

    1992-01-01

    There is a need to simulate the near-Earth-orbit environmental conditions, and it is useful to be able to monitor the changes in physical properties of spacecraft materials. Two different methods for simulating the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray near-Earth-orbit flux are presented. Also, methods for monitoring the changes in optical ultraviolet transmission and mass loss are presented. The results of exposures to VUV photons and charged particles on these materials are discussed.

  2. Surface mass variation monitoring from orbit information of GPS-tracked low-Earth orbiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, O.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Zehentner, N.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; van Dam, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, temporal variations of the gravity field from GRACE inter-satellite observations have become one of the most ubiquitous and valuable sources of information for environmental studies. In order to bridge the likely gap between the present GRACE and the upcoming GRACE follow-on projects, we investigate the potential of gravity field information derived from orbit analysis for surface mass variation detection. The Swarm mission - launched on November 22, 2013 - is the most promising candidate to directly acquire large-scale mass variation information on the Earth's surface in the absence of GRACE. Although the magnetometry mission Swarm has not been designed for gravity field purposes, its three satellites have the appropriate orbit characteristics for such an endeavour. Hence, from an orbit analysis point of view the Swarm satellites are comparable to the CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE spacecraft. In a first study, we assess the stand-alone capability of the Swarm mission for mass variation detection in a real-case environment. For this purpose, we ''approximate'' the Swarm scenario by the GRACE+CHAMP constellation. In a second study, we incorporate tracking observations from a series of additional satellites (e.g., GOCE, MetOp, TanDEM-X, Swarm) and extend the length of the time series according to data availability. We will demonstrate to what extent these measures improve the inference of time-variable features from orbit information. For both studies, in the first step, kinematic orbits of the individual satellites are derived from GPS observations. From these orbits, we compute monthly combined time-variable gravity fields. Finally, we infer mass variation in selected areas from the gravity signal. These results are compared to the findings obtained from mass variation detection exploiting CSR-RL05 gravity fields (the latter serve as ''benchmark solutions'').

  3. GPS early-orbit subsystem for earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laczo, V. T.; Maury, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The early-orbit capability of the Goddard Trajectory Determination System, which determines starting vectors for earth satellites from angles-only or range-angles observations, is described and documented. Early-orbit results obtained from a variety of satellites, data types and methods of solution are also presented.

  4. Radiation Environment at Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 8, 2003

    This graphic shows the radiation dose equivalent as measured by Odyssey's martian radiation environment experiment at Mars and by instruments aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station (ISS), for the 18-month period from April 2002 through October 2003. The accumulated total in Mars orbit is just over two times larger than that aboard the Space Station. The bars where the Mars instrument's measurements are well above the average (as shown by the orange line) are months when there was significant solar activity, which increases the dose equivalent. Dose equivalent is expressed in units of milliSieverts per day.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington. The radiation experiment was provided by the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Image Stacking Method Application for Low Earth Orbit Faint Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Oda, H.; Kitazawa, Y.; Hanada, T.

    2013-09-01

    Space situational awareness is one of the most important actions for safe and sustainable space development and its utilization. Tracking and maintaining debris catalog are the basis of the actions. Current minimum size of objects in the catalog that routinely tracked and updated is approximately 10 cm in the Low Earth Orbit region. This paper proposes collaborative observation of space-based sensors and ground facilities to improve tracking capability in low Earth orbit. This observation geometry based on role-sharing idea. A space-based sensor has advantage in sensitivity and observation opportunity however, it has disadvantages in periodic observation which is essential for catalog maintenance. On the other hand, a ground facility is inferior to space-based sensors in sensitivity however; observation network composed of facilities has an advantage in periodic observation. Whole observation geometry is defined as follows; 1) space-based sensors conduct initial orbit estimation for a target 2) ground facility network tracks the target based on estimated orbit 3) the network observes the target periodically and updates its orbit information. The second phase of whole geometry is based on image stacking method developed by the Japan aerospace exploration agency and this method is verified for objects in geostationary orbit. This method enables to detect object smaller than a nominal size limitation by stacking faint light spot along archived time-series frames. The principle of this method is prediction and searching target's motion on the images. It is almost impossible to apply the method to objects in Low Earth Orbit without proper orbit information because Low Earth Orbit objects have varied orbital characteristics. This paper discusses whether or not initial orbit estimation results given by space-based sensors have enough accuracy to apply image stacking method to Low Earth Orbit objects. Ground-based observation procedure is assumed as being composed of

  6. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars.

  7. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. PMID:11863032

  8. High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.; Critchley, E.

    1993-02-01

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented.

  9. Low-Earth Orbit Determination from Gravity Gradient Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiucong; Chen, Pei; Macabiau, Christophe; Han, Chao

    2016-06-01

    An innovative orbit determination method which makes use of gravity gradients for Low-Earth-Orbiting satellites is proposed. The measurement principle of gravity gradiometry is briefly reviewed and the sources of measurement error are analyzed. An adaptive hybrid least squares batch filter based on linearization of the orbital equation and unscented transformation of the measurement equation is developed to estimate the orbital states and the measurement biases. The algorithm is tested with the actual flight data from the European Space Agency's Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE). The orbit determination results are compared with the GPS-derived orbits. The radial and cross-track position errors are on the order of tens of meters, whereas the along-track position error is over one order of magnitude larger. The gravity gradient based orbit determination method is promising for potential use in GPS-denied spacecraft navigation.

  10. Gateway: An earth orbiting transportation node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    University of Texas Mission Design (UTMD) has outlined the components that a space based transportation facility must include in order to support the first decade of Lunar base buildup. After studying anticipated traffic flow to and from the hub, and taking into account crew manhour considerations, propellant storage, orbital transfer vehicle maintenance requirements, and orbital mechanics, UTMD arrived at a design for the facility. The amount of activity directly related to supporting Lunar base traffic is too high to allow the transportation hub to be part of the NASA Space Station. Instead, a separate structure should be constructed and dedicated to handling all transportation-related duties. UTMD found that the structure (named Gateway) would need a permanent crew of four to perform maintenance tasks on the orbital transfer and orbital maneuvering vehicles and to transfer payload from launch vehicles to the orbital transfer vehicles. In addition, quarters for 4 more persons should be allocated for temporary accommodation of Lunar base crew passing through Gateway. UTMD was careful to recommend an expendable structure that can adapt to meet the growing needs of the American space program.

  11. Inhomogeneities in the use of orbit - Impact of earth stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, C. K.

    The paper highlights rapid increase in demand for the two limited natural resources, the geostationary satellite orbit (GSO) and radio frequency spectrum, arising from spectacular growth of satellite communication systems in the recent years. Certain parts of the GSO are relatively more congested due to uneven distribution of countries, their sizes, population, geographical factors and telecommunication requirements over the surface of the earth. Consideration for the selection of the orbit slots, inhomogeneity in the use of GSO and technical factors relating to intersatellite spacing are presented. Uneven use of GSO, intersatellite interference and impact of earth station parameters has been discussed. Techno-economic factors influencing earth station subsystems are given.

  12. Natural orbital environment definition guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. Jeffrey (Editor); Smith, Robert E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document provides definitions of the natural near-Earth space environment suitable for use in the initial development/design phase of any space vehicle. The natural environment includes the neutral atmosphere, plasma, charged particle radiation, electromagnetic radiation (EMR), meteoroids, orbital debris, magnetic field, physical and thermal constants, and gravitational field. Communications and other unmanned satellites operate in geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GEO); therefore, some data are given for GEO, but emphasis is on altitudes from 200 km to 1000 km (low-Earth orbit (LEO)). This document does not cover the induced environment of other effects resulting from presence of the space vehicle. Manmade factors are included as part of the ambient natural environment; i.e., orbital debris and radio frequency (RF) noise generated on Earth, because they are not caused by the presence of the space vehicle but form part of the ambient environment that the space vehicle experiences.

  13. 2012 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since Sentinels of the Heliosphere in 2008, there have been a few new missions, and a few missions have been shut down. As of Fall of 2012, here's a tour of the NASA Near-Earth Heliophysics fleet, ...

  14. Radio interference in the near-earth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.

    1988-01-01

    Natural and man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) are potentially serious obstacles to the successful operation of an array of spacecraft used for low frequency (1 to 30 MHz) radio interferometry in the near-earth environment. Several satellites and planetary probes have carried radio astronomy experiments, and the moderate data base that they provide are examined to help understand the near-earth RFI environment. The general conclusion is that the region of space within 100 earth-radii of the earth is a hostile environment for any radio astronomy experiment. If a low frequency array in earth orbit is to yield useful astronomical results, severe interference problems must be anticipated and overcome. A number of recommendations are made to further examine the feasibility of such an array.

  15. An Earth-mass planet orbiting α Centauri B.

    PubMed

    Dumusque, Xavier; Pepe, Francesco; Lovis, Christophe; Ségransan, Damien; Sahlmann, Johannes; Benz, Willy; Bouchy, François; Mayor, Michel; Queloz, Didier; Santos, Nuno; Udry, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    Exoplanets down to the size of Earth have been found, but not in the habitable zone--that is, at a distance from the parent star at which water, if present, would be liquid. There are planets in the habitable zone of stars cooler than our Sun, but for reasons such as tidal locking and strong stellar activity, they are unlikely to harbour water-carbon life as we know it. The detection of a habitable Earth-mass planet orbiting a star similar to our Sun is extremely difficult, because such a signal is overwhelmed by stellar perturbations. Here we report the detection of an Earth-mass planet orbiting our neighbour star α Centauri B, a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun. The planet has an orbital period of 3.236 days and is about 0.04 astronomical units from the star (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance).

  16. Numerical orbit generators of artificial earth satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugar, H. K.; Dasilva, W. C. C.

    1984-04-01

    A numerical orbit integrator containing updatings and improvements relative to the previous ones that are being utilized by the Departmento de Mecanica Espacial e Controle (DMC), of INPE, besides incorporating newer modellings resulting from the skill acquired along the time is presented. Flexibility and modularity were taken into account in order to allow future extensions and modifications. Characteristics of numerical accuracy, processing quickness, memory saving as well as utilization aspects were also considered. User's handbook, whole program listing and qualitative analysis of accuracy, processing time and orbit perturbation effects were included as well.

  17. Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Frederick, P. N.; Brye, R.; Malone, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of an orbital teleoperator system which includes small dextrous servicing manipulators to be used in satellite servicing was examined. System/operator performance testing was implemented and the results of a fine positioning control test using two different manipulator systems varying widely in manipulator configuration and control systems are presented. Fine position control is viewed as representing a fundamental requirement placed on manipulator control. The relationship of position control to more complex tasks which directly represent on-orbit servicing operations are also presented.

  18. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is formed in the low Earth orbital environment (LEO) by photo dissociation of diatomic oxygen by short wavelength (< 243 nm) solar radiation which has sufficient energy to break the 5.12 eV O2 diatomic bond in an environment where the mean free path is sufficiently long ( 108 meters) that the probability of reassociation or the formation of ozone (O3) is small. As a consequence, between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km, atomic oxygen is the most abundant species. Spacecraft impact the atomic oxygen resident in LEO with sufficient energy to break hydrocarbon polymer bonds, causing oxidation and thinning of the polymers due to loss of volatile oxidation products. Mitigation techniques, such as the development of materials with improved durability to atomic oxygen attack, as well as atomic oxygen protective coatings, have been employed with varying degrees of success to improve durability of polymers in the LEO environment. Atomic oxygen can also oxidize silicones and silicone contamination to produce non-volatile silica deposits. Such contaminants are present on most LEO missions and can be a threat to performance of optical surfaces. The LEO atomic oxygen environment, its interactions with materials, results of space testing, computational modeling, mitigation techniques, and ground laboratory simulation procedures and issues are presented.

  19. Effects of target fragmentation on evaluation of LET spectra from space radiation in low-earth orbit (LEO) environment: impact on SEU predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Badhwar, G. D.; O'Neill, P. M.; Badavi, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    Recent improvements in the radiation transport code HZETRN/BRYNTRN and galactic cosmic ray environmental model have provided an opportunity to investigate the effects of target fragmentation on estimates of single event upset (SEU) rates for spacecraft memory devices. Since target fragments are mostly of very low energy, an SEU prediction model has been derived in terms of particle energy rather than linear energy transfer (LET) to account for nonlinear relationship between range and energy. Predictions are made for SEU rates observed on two Shuttle flights, each at low and high inclination orbit. Corrections due to track structure effects are made for both high energy ions with track structure larger than device sensitive volume and for low energy ions with dense track where charge recombination is important. Results indicate contributions from target fragments are relatively important at large shield depths (or any thick structure material) and at low inclination orbit. Consequently, a more consistent set of predictions for upset rates observed in these two flights is reached when compared to an earlier analysis with CREME model. It is also observed that the errors produced by assuming linear relationship in range and energy in the earlier analysis have fortuitously canceled out the errors for not considering target fragmentation and track structure effects.

  20. Effects of Target Fragmentation on Evaluation of LET Spectra From Space Radiation in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Environment: Impact on SEU Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M.; Badavi, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    Recent improvements in the radiation transport code HZETRN/BRYNTRN and galactic cosmic ray environmental model have provided an opportunity to investigate the effects of target fragmentation on estimates of single event upset (SEU) rates for spacecraft memory devices. Since target fragments are mostly of very low energy, an SEU prediction model has been derived in terms of particle energy rather than linear energy transfer (LET) to account for nonlinear relationship between range and energy. Predictions are made for SEU rates observed on two Shuttle flights, each at low and high inclination orbit. Corrections due to track structure effects are made for both high energy ions with track structure larger than device sensitive volume and for low energy ions with dense track where charge recombination is important. Results indicate contributions from target fragments are relatively important at large shield depths (or any thick structure material) and at low inclination orbit. Consequently, a more consistent set of predictions for upset rates observed in these two flights is reached when compared to an earlier analysis with CREME model. It is also observed that the errors produced by assuming linear relationship in range and energy in the earlier analysis have fortuitously canceled out the errors for not considering target fragmentation and track structure effects.

  1. Colors of extreme exoEarth environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, S.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2012-04-01

    The color of a planet is likely to be the first post-detection quantity to be measured for the case of direct detection of an extrasolar rocky planet in the future. Although spectroscopic studies provide detailed characteristics of a planet, the low signal-to-noise ratios that are presently achievable, limit spectroscopic measurements of distant extrasolar worlds. Filter photometry on the other hand, requires relatively low exposure times and therefore serves well as a first line of characterization for planets orbiting around distant stars. The color of a planet reveals a host of important planetary properties. Of particular interest in this regard is the characterization of the surface features that make up a planet. It is known that different surfaces on the Earth have characteristic albedos and therefore one can distinguish these surface environments of rocky planets in the visible waveband even with the help of a low-resolution color-color diagram. On Earth, extremophiles have been known to thrive under extremes of physical and geochemical conditions that are otherwise uninhabitable to most life forms. They provide us with the minimum envelope of environmental limits whilst looking for life elsewhere on a potentially habitable planet. In this talk, using a low-resolution characterization, we link the different remotely detectable surface features to the extreme forms of life that such environments could potentially harbor for cases of an aerobic as well as an anaerobic atmosphere.

  2. Simulation of interference between Earth stations and Earth-orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    It is often desirable to determine the potential for radio frequency interference between earth stations and orbiting spacecraft. This information can be used to select frequencies for radio systems to avoid interference or it can be used to determine if coordination between radio systems is necessary. A model is developed that will determine the statistics of interference between earth stations and elliptical orbiting spacecraft. The model uses orbital dynamics, detailed antenna patterns, and spectral characteristics to obtain accurate levels of interference at the victim receiver. The model is programmed into a computer simulation to obtain long-term statistics of interference. Two specific examples are shown to demonstrate the model. The first example is a simulation of interference from a fixed-satellite earth station to an orbiting scatterometer receiver. The second example is a simulation of interference from earth-exploration satellites to a deep-space earth station.

  3. Need for expanded environmental measurement capabilities in geosynchronous Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercanti, Enrico P.

    1991-01-01

    The proliferation of environmental satellites in low altitude earth orbit (LEO) has demonstrated the usefulness of earth remote sensing from space. As use of the technology grows, the limitations of LEO missions become more apparent. Many inadequacies can be met by remote sensing from geosynchronous earth orbits (GEO) that can provide high temporal resolution, consistent viewing of specific earth targets, long sensing dwell times with varying sun angles, stereoscopic coverage, and correlative measurements with ground and LEO observations. An environmental platform in GEO is being studied by NASA. Small research satellite missions in GEO were studied (1990) at GSFC. Some recent independent assessments of NASA Earth Science Programs recommend accelerating the earlier deployment of smaller missions.

  4. 3D Orbit Visualization for Earth-Observing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Plesea, Lucian; Chafin, Brian G.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2011-01-01

    This software visualizes orbit paths for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), but was designed to be general and applicable to any Earth-observing mission. The software uses the Google Earth user interface to provide a visual mechanism to explore spacecraft orbit paths, ground footprint locations, and local cloud cover conditions. In addition, a drill-down capability allows for users to point and click on a particular observation frame to pop up ancillary information such as data product filenames and directory paths, latitude, longitude, time stamp, column-average dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide, and solar zenith angle. This software can be integrated with the ground data system for any Earth-observing mission to automatically generate daily orbit path data products in Google Earth KML format. These KML data products can be directly loaded into the Google Earth application for interactive 3D visualization of the orbit paths for each mission day. Each time the application runs, the daily orbit paths are encapsulated in a KML file for each mission day since the last time the application ran. Alternatively, the daily KML for a specified mission day may be generated. The application automatically extracts the spacecraft position and ground footprint geometry as a function of time from a daily Level 1B data product created and archived by the mission s ground data system software. In addition, ancillary data, such as the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide and solar zenith angle, are automatically extracted from a Level 2 mission data product. Zoom, pan, and rotate capability are provided through the standard Google Earth interface. Cloud cover is indicated with an image layer from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Aqua satellite, which is automatically retrieved from JPL s OnEarth Web service.

  5. Magnus Effect on a Spinning Satellite in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramjatan, Sahadeo; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Yew, Alvin Garwai

    2016-01-01

    A spinning body in a flow field generates an aerodynamic lift or Magnus effect that displaces the body in a direction normal to the freestream flow. Earth orbiting satellites with substantial body rotation in appreciable atmospheric densities may generate a Magnus force to perturb orbital dynamics. We investigate the feasibility of using this effect for spacecraft at a perigee of 80km using the Systems Tool Kit (STK). Results show that for a satellite of reasonable properties, the Magnus effect doubles the amount of time in orbit. Orbital decay was greatly mitigated for satellites spinning at 10000 and 15000RPM. This study demonstrates that the Magnus effect has the potential to sustain a spacecraft's orbit at a low perigee altitude and could also serve as an orbital maneuver capability.

  6. An Investigation of Low Earth Orbit Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NeergaardParker, Linda; Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    Low Earth orbit is usually considered a relatively benign environment for internal charging threats due to the low flux of penetrating electrons with energies of a few MeV that are encountered over an orbit. There are configurations, however, where insulators and ungrounded conductors used on the outside of a spacecraft hull may charge when exposed to much lower energy electrons of some 100's keV in a process that is better characterized as internal charging than surface charging. For example, the minimal radiation shielding afforded by thin thermal control materials such as metalized polymer sheets (e.g., aluminized Kapton or Mylar) and multilayer insulation may allow electrons of 100's of keV to charge underlying materials. Yet these same thermal control materials protect the underlying insulators and ungrounded conductors from surface charging currents due to electrons and ions at energies less than a few keV as well as suppress the photoemission, secondary electron, and backscattered electron processes associated with surface charging. We investigate the conditions required for this low Earth orbit "internal charging" to occur and evaluate the environments for which the process may be a threat to spacecraft. First, we describe a simple one-dimensional internal charging model that is used to compute the charge accumulation on materials under thin shielding. Only the electron flux that penetrates exposed surface shielding material is considered and we treat the charge balance in underlying insulation as a parallel plate capacitor accumulating charge from the penetrating electron flux and losing charge due to conduction to a ground plane. Charge dissipation due to conduction can be neglected to consider the effects of charging an ungrounded conductor. In both cases, the potential and electric field is computed as a function of time. An additional charge loss process is introduced due to an electrostatic discharge current when the electric field reaches a

  7. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, formed in Earth s thermosphere, interacts readily with many materials on spacecraft flying in low Earth orbit (LEO). All hydrocarbon based polymers and graphite are easily oxidized upon the impact of approx.4.5 eV atomic oxygen as the spacecraft ram into the residual atmosphere. The resulting interactions can change the morphology and reduce the thickness of these materials. Directed atomic oxygen erosion will result in the development of textured surfaces on all materials with volatile oxidation products. Examples from space flight samples are provided. As a result of the erosive properties of atomic oxygen on polymers and composites, protective coatings have been developed and are used to increase the functional life of polymer films and composites that are exposed to the LEO environment. The atomic oxygen erosion yields for actual and predicted LEO exposure of numerous materials are presented. Results of in-space exposure of vacuum deposited aluminum protective coatings on polyimide Kapton indicate high rates of degradation are associated with aluminum coatings on both surfaces of the Kapton. Computational modeling predictions indicate that less trapping of the atomic oxygen occurs, with less resulting damage, if only the space-exposed surface is coated with vapor deposited aluminum rather than having both surfaces coated.

  8. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to the earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a delta V penalty. Usually, because of the delta V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: 1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO); 4) Two impulsive maneuvers form LEO; and 5) Three impulsive maneuvers form LEO. The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric data

  9. Human Exploration Missions Study Launch Window from Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    2001-01-01

    The determination of orbital launch window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a Delta(V) penalty. Usually, because of the Delta(V) penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (3) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (4) One impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO), (5) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric

  10. Dynamics of Drag Free Formations in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploen, Scott R.; Scharf, Daniel P.; Hadaegh, Fred. Y.; Acikmese, A. Behcet

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the translational equations of motion of a formation of n spacecraft in Earth orbit, n(sub f) of which are drag-free spacecraft, are derived in a coordinate-free manner using the balance of linear momentum and direct tensor notation. A drag-free spacecraft consists of a spacecraft bus and a proof mass shielded from external disturbances in an internal cavity. By controlling the spacecraft so that the proof mass remains centered in the cavity, the spacecraft follows a purely gravitational orbit. The results described in this paper provide a first step toward coupling drag-free control technology with formation flying in order to mitigate the effect of differential aerodynamic drag on formation flying missions (e.g., Earth imaging applications) in low Earth orbit.

  11. Autonomous Navigation Improvements for High-Earth Orbiters Using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Anne; Kelbel, David; Lee, Taesul; Garrison, James; Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center is currently developing autonomous navigation systems for satellites in high-Earth orbits where acquisition of the GPS signals is severely limited This paper discusses autonomous navigation improvements for high-Earth orbiters and assesses projected navigation performance for these satellites using Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Positioning Service (SPS) measurements. Navigation performance is evaluated as a function of signal acquisition threshold, measurement errors, and dynamic modeling errors using realistic GPS signal strength and user antenna models. These analyses indicate that an autonomous navigation position accuracy of better than 30 meters root-mean-square (RMS) can be achieved for high-Earth orbiting satellites using a GPS receiver with a very stable oscillator. This accuracy improves to better than 15 meters RMS if the GPS receiver's signal acquisition threshold can be reduced by 5 dB-Hertz to track weaker signals.

  12. Orbital Debris and Future Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the historical and current orbital debris environment. Included is information about: Projected growth of the future debris population, The need for active debris removal (ADR), A grand challenge for the 21st century and The forward path

  13. Earth Orbit v2.1: a 3-D visualization and analysis model of Earth's orbit, Milankovitch cycles and insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.

    2014-06-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing and duration of the seasons. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB® as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g., Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and several relevant paleoclimatological data sets can be produced. Both

  14. Earth Orbit v2.1: a 3-D visualization and analysis model of Earth's orbit, Milankovitch cycles and insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.

    2013-11-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing of the seasons with respect to perihelion. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB® as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g. Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and EPICA ice core CO2 and temperature data can be produced. Both

  15. Platinum in Earth surface environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, F.; Campbell, S. G.; Ball, A. S.; Pring, A.; Southam, G.

    2014-04-01

    Platinum (Pt) is a rare precious metal that is a strategic commodity for industries in many countries. The demand for Pt has more than doubled in the last 30 years due to its role in the catalytic conversion of CO, hydrocarbons and NOx in modern automobiles. To explore for new Pt deposits, process ores and deal with ecotoxicological effects of Pt mining and usage, the fundamental processes and pathways of Pt dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments need to be understood. Hence, the aim of this review is to develop a synergistic model for the cycling of Pt in Earth surface environments. This is achieved by integrating the geological/(biogeo)chemical literature, which focuses on naturally occurring Pt mobility around ore deposits, with the environmental/ecotoxicological literature dealing with anthropogenic Pt dispersion. In Pt deposits, Pt occurs as sulfide-, telluride- and arsenide, native metal and alloyed to other PGEs and iron (Fe). Increased mining and utilization of Pt combined with the burning of fossil fuels have led to the dispersion of Pt-containing nano- and micro-particles. Hence, soils and sediments in industrialized areas, urban environments and along major roads are now commonly Pt enriched. Platinum minerals, nuggets and anthropogenic particles are transformed by physical and (bio)geochemical processes. Complexation of Pt ions with chloride, thiosulfate, ammonium, cyanide, low- and high molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs and HMWOAs) and siderophores can facilitate Pt mobilization. Iron-oxides, clays, organic matter and (micro)biota are known to sequester Pt-complexes and -particles. Microbes and plants are capable of bioaccumulating and reductively precipitating mobile Pt complexes. Bioaccumulation can lead to toxic effects on plants and animals, including humans. (Bio)mineralization in organic matter-rich sediments can lead to the formation of secondary Pt particles and -grains. Ultimately, Pt is enriched in oceanic sediments

  16. Controllability of Large SEP for Earth Orbit Raising

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) simulation was constructed and exercised for a large solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle operating in low Earth orbit Nominal power was 500 kWe, with the large array sizes implied. Controllability issues, including gravity gradient, roll maneuvering for Sun tracking, and flexible arrays, and flight control methods, were investigated. Initial findings are that a SEP vehicle of this size is controllable and could be used for orbit raising of heavy payloads.

  17. From Order to Chaos in Earth Satellite Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkolias, Ioannis; Daquin, Jérôme; Gachet, Fabien; Rosengren, Aaron J.

    2016-11-01

    We consider Earth satellite orbits in the range of semimajor axes where the perturbing effects of Earth’s oblateness and lunisolar gravity are of comparable order. This range covers the medium-Earth orbits (MEO) of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems and the geosynchronous orbits (GEO) of the communication satellites. We recall a secular and quadrupolar model, based on the Milankovitch vector formulation of perturbation theory, which governs the long-term orbital evolution subject to the predominant gravitational interactions. We study the global dynamics of this two-and-a-half degrees-of-freedom Hamiltonian system by means of the fast Lyapunov indicator (FLI), used in a statistical sense. Specifically, we characterize the degree of chaoticity of the action space using angle-averaged normalized FLI maps, thereby overcoming the angle dependencies of the conventional stability maps. Emphasis is placed upon the phase-space structures near secular resonances, which are of primary importance to the space debris community. We confirm and quantify the transition from order to chaos in MEO, stemming from the critical inclinations and find that highly inclined GEO orbits are particularly unstable. Despite their reputed normality, Earth satellite orbits can possess an extraordinarily rich spectrum of dynamical behaviors and, from a mathematical perspective, have all the complications that make them very interesting candidates for testing the modern tools of chaos theory.

  18. Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

  19. Long-Duration Human Habitation Beyond Low-Earth Orbit: Why is the Near Future Critical?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel; Hatfield, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a decade, habitation systems capable of comfortable human occupation and effective operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) for more than a few weeks have been a priority recommendation to NASA. This capability is a lynch pin for human exploration beyond the Earth-Moon system. Here we describe briefly some relevant concepts and discuss justifications in the current political and financial environment for why near-term human habitation systems beyond LEO is an imperative.

  20. New method for estimating low-earth-orbit collision probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1991-01-01

    An unconventional but general method is described for estimating the probability of collision between an earth-orbiting spacecraft and orbital debris. This method uses a Monte Caralo simulation of the orbital motion of the target spacecraft and each discrete debris object to generate an empirical set of distances, each distance representing the separation between the spacecraft and the nearest debris object at random times. Using concepts from the asymptotic theory of extreme order statistics, an analytical density function is fitted to this set of minimum distances. From this function, it is possible to generate realistic collision estimates for the spacecraft.

  1. Electric Propulsion for Low Earth Orbit Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    1997-01-01

    Electric propulsion was evaluated for orbit insertion, satellite positioning and de-orbit applications on big (hundreds of kilograms) and little (tens of kilograms) low earth orbit communication satellite constellations. A simple, constant circumferential thrusting method was used. This technique eliminates the complex guidance and control required when shading of the solar arrays must be considered. Power for propulsion was assumed to come from the existing payload power. Since the low masses of these satellites enable multiple spacecraft per launch, the ability to add spacecraft to a given launch was used as a figure of merit. When compared to chemical propulsion ammonia resistojets, ion, Hall, and pulsed plasma thrusters allowed an additional spacecraft per launch Typical orbit insertion and de-orbit times were found to range from a few days to a few months.

  2. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  3. The Sun and Earth's Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2009-01-01

    Earth's space environment is closely controlled by solar variability over various time scales. Solar variability is characterized by its output in the form of mass and electromagnetic output. Solar mass emission also interacts with mass entering into the heliosphere in the form of cosmic rays and neutral material. This paper provides an overview of how the solar variability affects Earth's space environment.

  4. A Survey Of Earth-Moon Libration Orbits: Stationkeeping Strategies And Intra-Orbit Transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Vaughn, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Cislunar space is a readily accessible region that may well develop into a prime staging area in the effort to colonize space near Earth or to colonize the Moon. While there have been statements made by various NASA programs regarding placement of resources in orbit about the Earth-Moon Lagrangian locations, there is no survey of the total cost associated with attaining and maintaining these unique orbits in an operational fashion. Transfer trajectories between these orbits required for assembly, servicing, and positioning of these resources have not been extensively investigated. These orbits are dynamically similar to those used for the Sun-Earth missions, but differences in governing gravitational ratios and perturbation sources result in unique characteristics. We implement numerical computations using high fidelity models and linear and nonlinear targeting techniques to compute the various maneuver (Delta)V and temporal costs associated with orbits about each of the Earth-Moon Lagrangian locations (L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5). From a dynamical system standpoint, we speak to the nature of these orbits and their stability. We address the cost of transfers between each pair of Lagrangian locations.

  5. Averaging on Earth-Crossing Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronchi, G. F.; Milani, A.

    The orbits of planet-crossing asteroids (and comets) can undergo close approaches and collisions with some major planet. This introduces a singularity in the N-body Hamiltonian, and the averaging of the equations of motion, traditionally used to compute secular perturbations, is undefined. We show that it is possible to define in a rigorous way some generalised averaged equations of motion, in such a way that the generalised solutions are unique and piecewise smooth. This is obtained, both in the planar and in the three-dimensional case, by means of the method of extraction of the singularities by Kantorovich. The modified distance used to approximate the singularity is the one used by Wetherill in his method to compute probability of collision. Some examples of averaged dynamics have been computed; a systematic exploration of the averaged phase space to locate the secular resonances should be the next step. `Alice sighed wearily. ``I think you might do something better with the time'' she said, ``than waste it asking riddles with no answers'' (Alice in Wonderland, L. Carroll)

  6. A Comparison of Atomic Oxygen Degradation in Low Earth Orbit and in a Plasma Etcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Park, Gloria

    1997-01-01

    In low Earth orbit (LEO) significant degradation of certain materials occurs from exposure to atomic oxygen (AO). Orbital opportunities to study this degradation for specific materials are limited and expensive. While plasma etchers are commonly used in ground-based studies because of their low cost and convenience, the environment produced in an etcher chamber differs greatly from the LEO environment. Because of the differences in environment, the validity of using etcher data has remained an open question. In this paper, degradation data for 22 materials from the orbital experiment Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) are compared with data from EOIM-3 control specimens exposed in a typical plasma etcher. This comparison indicates that, when carefully considered, plasma etcher results can produce order-of-magnitude estimates of orbital degradation. This allows the etcher to be used to screen unacceptable materials from further, more expensive tests.

  7. Design of an unmanned, reusable vehicle to de-orbit debris in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aziz, Shahed; Cunningham, Timothy W.; Moore-Mccassey, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    The space debris problem is becoming more important because as orbital missions increase, the amount of debris increases. It was the design team's objective to present alternative designs and a problem solution for a deorbiting vehicle that will alleviate the problem by reducing the amount of large debris in earth orbit. The design team was asked to design a reusable, unmanned vehicle to de-orbit debris in earth orbit. The design team will also construct a model to demonstrate the system configuration and key operating features. The alternative designs for the unmanned, reusable vehicle were developed in three stages: selection of project requirements and success criteria, formulation of a specification list, and the creation of alternatives that would satisfy the standards set forth by the design team and their sponsor. The design team selected a Chain and Bar Shot method for deorbiting debris in earth orbit. The De-orbiting Vehicle (DOV) uses the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) as the propulsion and command modules with the deorbiting module attached to the front.

  8. SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) Preliminary Results from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Quinn, R.; Ricco, A. J.; Bramall, N.; Chittenden, J.; Bryson, K.; Minelli, G.

    2012-01-01

    SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) is one of two astrobiology experiments onboard the NASA Organism/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) cubesat, launched in November 2010. The satellite is still operational with nominal performance and records data on a regular basis. In the SEVO experiment, four astrobiologically relevant organic thin films are exposed to radiation in low-earth orbit, including the unfiltered solar spectrum from approximately 120 - 2600 nm. The thin films are contained in each of four separate micro-environments: an atmosphere containing CO2, a low relative humidity (approximately 2%) atmosphere, an inert atmosphere representative of interstellar/interplanetary space, and a SiO2 mineral surface to measure the effects of surface catalysis. The UV/Vis spectrum of each sample is monitored in situ, with a spectrometer onboard the satellite.

  9. Can Sunlight Shift the Earth onto a Different Orbit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article comes from a question asked by a student of mine: if the Sun radiates energy in the form of electromagnetic waves, could they shift the Earth from its current orbit on a suitable timescale? The answer to such a question is apparently obvious and trivial. Nevertheless, it requires an instructive reasoning and interesting estimates of…

  10. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  11. Microlensing planet detection via geosynchronous and low Earth orbit satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogavero, F.; Beaulieu, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Planet detection through microlensing is usually limited by a well-known degeneracy in the Einstein timescale tE, which prevents mass and distance of the lens to be univocally determined. It has been shown that a satellite in geosynchronous orbit could provide masses and distances for most standard planetary events (tE ≈ 20 days) via a microlens parallax measurement. This paper extends the analysis to shorter Einstein timescales, tE ≈ 1 day, when dealing with the case of Jupiter-mass lenses. We then study the capabilities of a low Earth orbit satellite on even shorter timescales, tE ≈ 0.1 days. A Fisher matrix analysis is employed to predict how the 1-σ error on parallax depends on tE and the peak magnification of the microlensing event. It is shown that a geosynchronous satellite could detect parallaxes for Jupiter-mass free floaters and discover planetary systems around very low-mass brown dwarfs. Moreover, a low Earth orbit satellite could lead to the discovery of Earth-mass free-floating planets. Limitations to these results can be the strong requirements on the photometry, the effects of blending, and in the case of the low orbit, the Earth's umbra.

  12. From Earth to orbit. [assessment of transportation options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Blond, Edmund; Brill, Yvonne C.; Budiansky, Bernard; Cooper, Robert S.; Demisch, Wolfgang H.; Hawk, Clark W.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Mager, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Within this document, the National Research Council (NRC) assesses the requirements, benefits, technological feasibility, and roles of Earth-to-orbit transportation options that could be developed in support of the national space program. Among the topics covered are launch vehicles and infrastructure, propulsion, and technology.

  13. EVOLVE 5.0 historical and projected orbital debris environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisko, P.; Anz-Meador, P.; Opiela, J.; Matney, M.

    The NASA/JSC orbital debris research effort within Earth's low-altitude orbit continues with the upgrade of the debris environment simulation model EVOLVE to version 5.0. Two main improvements to this new version include an updated, expanded set of launch/orbital injection files and an upgraded explosion fragmentation model. The new database includes such improvements as high fidelity launch times and orbital elements, data-derived area-to-mass ratios, and individual object dry mass and physical description. The new explosion model is a modification of the previous version in the 10-cm through 1-mm size regime. This is the debris population that the previous model slightly overestimated. Resulting present day environments are presented in comparison to the US SPACECOM Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog and Haystack radar and Haystack Auxiliary Radar (HAX) data. Long-term projection environments, given presumed future launch rates and mitigation measures, are also shown and compared with those of the previous version of EVOLVE.

  14. Low earth orbit satellite/terrestrial mobile service compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheriff, R. E.; Gardiner, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Digital cellular mobile 'second generation' systems are now gradually being introduced into service; one such example is GSM, which will provide a digital voice and data service throughout Europe. Total coverage is not expected to be achieved until the mid '90's, which has resulted in several proposals for the integration of GSM with a geostationary satellite service. Unfortunately, because terrestrial and space systems have been designed to optimize their performance for their particular environment, integration between a satellite and terrestrial system is unlikely to develop further than the satellite providing a back-up service. This lack of system compatibility is now being addressed by system designers of third generation systems. The next generation of mobile systems, referred to as FPLMTS (future public land mobile telecommunication systems) by CCIR and UMTS (universal mobile telecommunication system) in European research programs, are intended to provide inexpensive, hand-held terminals that can operate in either satellite, cellular, or cordless environments. This poses several challenges for system designers, not least in terms of the choice of multiple access technique and power requirements. Satellite mobile services have been dominated by the geostationary orbital type. Recently, however, a number of low earth orbit configurations have been proposed, for example Iridium. These systems are likely to be fully operational by the turn of the century, in time for the implementation of FPLMTS. The developments in LEO mobile satellite service technology were recognized at WARC-92 with the allocation of specific frequency bands for 'big' LEO's, as well as a frequency allocation for FPLMTS which included a specific satellite allocation. When considering integrating a space service into the terrestrial network, LEO's certainly appear to have their attractions: they can provide global coverage, the round trip delay is of the order of tens of milliseconds, and

  15. Instability of the Current Space Debris Population in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniwa, Kazuaki; Hanada, Toshiya; Kawamoto, Satomi

    Since the launch of Sputnik, orbital debris population continues to increase due to ongoing space activities, on-orbit explosions, and accidental collisions. In the future, it is expected that a great deal of fragments will be created by explosions and collisions. Thus, the number of space debris may increase exponentially (Kessler Syndrome). This paper analyzes the Kessler Syndrome using the Low Earth Orbital Debris Environmental Evolutionary Model (LEODEEM) developed at Kyushu University with collaboration from JAXA. The purpose of the study aims at understanding the issues related to space environment conservation. The results provide effective conditions of Active Debris Removal which is one of the space debris mitigation procedures.

  16. EVOLVE historical and projected orbital debris test environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisko, P. H.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/JSC orbital debris research effort within the Earth's low-altitude regime continues with the upgrade of the debris environment simulation model EVOLVE. Two main contributions to this new version will include a more streamlined structure (transparent to the analyst) and an updated, expanded set of launch/orbital insertion files. The new database includes such improvements as high fidelity launch times and orbital elements, dataderived area-to-mass ratios, and individual object dry mass and physical description. As an additional test of the new code, a version of the Anz-Meador [Adv. Space Res. (2004)] explosive fragmentation model is implemented and the resulting historical and projected LEO environments are compared to those of the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN) Catalog, ORDEM2000, and EVOLVE 4.1 (the current production version of the code) historical and projection periods EVOLVE test historical environments compare well with the catalog and ORDEM2000 environments over the 1-mm and larger size range. However, it should be noted that SRM slag is not included in EVOLVE at this time. Differences between the EVOLVE test and the EVOLVE 4.1 long-term projection environments are traced directly to the modified launch cycle and the chosen form of the Anz-Meador [Adv. Space Res. (2004)] breakup model of this EVOLVE test.

  17. Future radiation measurements in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The first Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission has demonstrated the value of the LDEF concept for deep surveys of the space radiation environment. The kinds of measurements that could be done on a second LDEF mission are discussed. Ideas are discussed for experiments which: (1) capitalize on the discoveries from LDEF 1; (2) take advantage of LDEF's unique capabilities; and (3) extend the investigations begun on LDEF 1. These ideas have been gleaned from investigators on LDEF 1 and others interested in the space radiation environment. They include new approaches to the investigation of Be-7 that was discovered on LDEF 1, concepts to obtain further information on the ionic charge state of cosmic rays and other energetic particles in space and other ideas to extend the investigations begun on LDEF 1.

  18. Modeling of the Orbital Debris Environment Risks in the Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Despite of the tireless work by space surveillance assets, much of the Earth debris environment is not easily measured or tracked. For every object that is in an orbit we can track, there are hundreds of small debris that are too small to be tracked but still large enough to damage spacecraft. In addition, even if we knew today's environment with perfect knowledge, the debris environment is dynamic and would change tomorrow. Therefore, orbital debris scientists rely on numerical modeling to understand the nature of the debris environment and its risk to space operations throughout Earth orbit and into the future. This talk will summarize the ways in which modeling complements measurements to help give us a better picture of what is occurring in Earth orbit, and helps us to better conduct current and future space operations.

  19. Single and dual burn maneuvers for low earth orbit maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Andrew A.

    1994-12-01

    Optimal control theory suggests maintaining an orbital altitude band for Low-Earth-Orbiting (LEO) satellites using periodic thrusting than forced Keplerian motion, i.e. a trajectory obtained by thrust-drag cancellation. Designing guidance algorithm for orbit maintenance is complicated by the nonlinearities associated with orbital motion. An algorithm developed previously using thrusters firing significantly off the direction of motion successfully maintains an orbital band, but is very inefficient. This thesis develops two different control strategies based on the osculating orbital parameters. taking a conservative approach to keeping within altitude limitations. Thrust is in the local horizontal plane along the direction of flight. Single and dual burn maneuvers are considered for various bandwidths and thruster sizes. The dual burn strategy is somewhat close to a Hohmann transfer. The specified orbital band is generally maintained, with some cases slightly exceeding the upper limit. Propellant consumptions for both maneuvers is significantly better than previous methods. This thesis shows that forward firing thrusters can be used with osculating orbital parameters to obtain efficiencies within forced Keplerian motion values.

  20. PRODUCTION OF NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS ON RETROGRADE ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Greenstreet, S.; Gladman, B.; Ngo, H.; Granvik, M.; Larson, S.

    2012-04-20

    While computing an improved near-Earth object (NEO) steady-state orbital distribution model, we discovered in the numerical integrations the unexpected production of retrograde orbits for asteroids that had originally exited from the accepted main-belt source regions. Our model indicates that {approx}0.1% (a factor of two uncertainty) of the steady-state NEO population (perihelion q < 1.3 AU) is on retrograde orbits. These rare outcomes typically happen when asteroid orbits flip to a retrograde configuration while in the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and then live for {approx}0.001 to 100 Myr. The model predicts, given the estimated near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population, that a few retrograde 0.1-1 km NEAs should exist. Currently, there are two known MPC NEOs with asteroidal designations on retrograde orbits which we therefore claim could be escaped asteroids instead of devolatilized comets. This retrograde NEA population may also answer a long-standing question in the meteoritical literature regarding the origin of high-strength, high-velocity meteoroids on retrograde orbits.

  1. Orbit Determination Accuracy for Comets on Earth-Impacting Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay-Bunnell, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The results presented show the level of orbit determination accuracy obtainable for long-period comets discovered approximately one year before collision with Earth. Preliminary orbits are determined from simulated observations using Gauss' method. Additional measurements are incorporated to improve the solution through the use of a Kalman filter, and include non-gravitational perturbations due to outgassing. Comparisons between observatories in several different circular heliocentric orbits show that observatories in orbits with radii less than 1 AU result in increased orbit determination accuracy for short tracking durations due to increased parallax per unit time. However, an observatory at 1 AU will perform similarly if the tracking duration is increased, and accuracy is significantly improved if additional observatories are positioned at the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4, or L5. A single observatory at 1 AU capable of both optical and range measurements yields the highest orbit determination accuracy in the shortest amount of time when compared to other systems of observatories.

  2. ISS Charging Hazards and Low Earth Orbit Space Weather Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; Parker, L.; Coffey, V.; Wright K.; Koontz, S.; Edwards, D.

    2008-01-01

    Current collection by high voltage solar arrays on the International Space Station (ISS) drives the vehicle to negative floating potentials in the low Earth orbit daytime plasma environment. Pre-flight predictions of ISS floating potentials Phi greater than |-100 V| suggested a risk for degradation of dielectric thermal control coatings on surfaces in the U.S. sector due to arcing and an electrical shock hazard to astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). However, hazard studies conducted by the ISS program have demonstrated that the thermal control material degradation risk is effectively mitigated during the lifetime of the ISS vehicle by a sufficiently large ion collection area present on the vehicle to balance current collection by the solar arrays. To date, crew risk during EVA has been mitigated by operating one of two plasma contactors during EVA to control the vehicle potential within Phi less than or equal to |-40 V| with a backup process requiring reorientation of the solar arrays into a configuration which places the current collection surfaces into wake. This operation minimizes current collection by the solar arrays should the plasma contactors fail. This paper presents an analysis of F-region electron density and temperature variations at low and midlatitudes generated by space weather events to determine what range of conditions represent charging threats to ISS. We first use historical ionospheric plasma measurements from spacecraft operating at altitudes relevant to the 51.6 degree inclination ISS orbit to provide an extensive database of F-region plasma conditions over a variety of solar cycle conditions. Then, the statistical results from the historical data are compared to more recent in-situ measurements from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) operating on ISS in a campaign mode since its installation in August, 2006.

  3. A search for asteroids on Earth horseshoe orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J. L.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2003-08-01

    There are currently about a dozen known near-Earth objects with well-determined orbits and semi-major axis between 0.99 and 1.01 AU (Ted Bowell's asteroid database, 2003). We examined their orbital trajectories using the Horizons integrator (Giorgini, 1996) in an effort to find asteroids on Earth horseshoe orbits. Two objects (2002 AA29 and 2000 PH5) displayed a recent abrupt reversal in the evolution of their ecliptic longitude with respect to that of Earth, indicating a classic horseshoe or tadpole behavior. In a Sun-centered frame co-rotating with Earth, their trajectory displays the horseshoe pattern with the expected libration period of ˜100 years. 2002 AA29 was previously recognized as being on a horseshoe trajectory (Connors et al., 2002). Wiegert et al. (2002) suggested that 2000 PH5 and 2001 GO2 are on horseshoe orbits, although their claim rests on a single 4.5-day observational arc for 2001 GO2. Although the mean longitude of 2000 PH5 always remains at least ˜25 degrees away from the longitude of Earth, the asteroid makes very close Earth approaches, within a few lunar distances. This is due to its significant ˜0.2 eccentricity and the corresponding epicycle-like motion that is superimposed on the libration in mean longitude. The fact that this object happens to have just the right eccentricity to bring it so close to Earth suggests that it may have been barely ejected from the Earth-Moon system into an heliocentric orbit. Goldstone radar observations conducted by JLM and collaborators show that the object does not appear to be man-made. Higher resolution observations with the Arecibo radar will be conducted in an attempt to constrain its plausible source region. Because of its peculiar origin, repeating close approaches to Earth, and low delta-V, this object may be an attractive target for a sample return mission. A long-lived transponder on its surface would also provide interesting dynamical information.

  4. Precise halo orbit design and optimal transfer to halo orbits from earth using differential evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Pranav; Ramanan, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    The mission design to a halo orbit around the libration points from Earth involves two important steps. In the first step, we design a halo orbit for a specified size and in the second step, we obtain an optimal transfer trajectory design to the halo orbit from an Earth parking orbit. Conventionally, the preliminary design for these steps is obtained using higher order analytical solution and the dynamical systems theory respectively. Refinements of the design are carried out using gradient based methods such as differential correction and pseudo arc length continuation method under the of circular restricted three body model. In this paper, alternative single level schemes are developed for both of these steps based on differential evolution, an evolutionary optimization technique. The differential evolution based scheme for halo orbit design produces precise halo orbit design avoiding the refinement steps. Further, in this approach, prior knowledge of higher order analytical solutions for the halo orbit design is not needed. The differential evolution based scheme for the transfer trajectory, identifies the precise location on the halo orbit that needs minimum energy for insertion and avoids exploration of multiple points. The need of a close guess is removed because the present scheme operates on a set of bounds for the unknowns. The constraint on the closest approach altitude from Earth is handled through objective function. The use of these schemes as the design and analysis tools within the of circular restricted three body model is demonstrated through case studies for missions to the first libration point of Sun-Earth system.

  5. Monitoring objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, Scot S.; Pertica, Alexander J.; Riot, Vincent J.; De Vries, Willem H.; Bauman, Brian J.; Nikolaev, Sergei; Henderson, John R.; Phillion, Donald W.

    2015-06-30

    An ephemeris refinement system includes satellites with imaging devices in earth orbit to make observations of space-based objects ("target objects") and a ground-based controller that controls the scheduling of the satellites to make the observations of the target objects and refines orbital models of the target objects. The ground-based controller determines when the target objects of interest will be near enough to a satellite for that satellite to collect an image of the target object based on an initial orbital model for the target objects. The ground-based controller directs the schedules to be uploaded to the satellites, and the satellites make observations as scheduled and download the observations to the ground-based controller. The ground-based controller then refines the initial orbital models of the target objects based on the locations of the target objects that are derived from the observations.

  6. Marking Tests to Certify Part Identification Processes for Use in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roxby, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose for the MISSE marking tests was to define Data Matrix symbol marking processes that will remain readable after exposure to Low Earth Orbit environments. A wide range of different Data Matrix symbol marking processes and materials, including some still under development, were evaluated. The samples flown on MISSE 1 and 2 were in orbit for 3 years and 348 days, MISSE 3 and 4 were in orbit for 1 year and 15 days, MISSE 6 was in orbit for 1 year and 130 days, and MISSE 8 was in orbit for 2 years and 55 days. The initial MISSE marking tests clearly reflected that intrusive marking processes can be successfully used for this purpose. All of the intrusive marking processes tested exceeded program expectations and met 100 percent of the principle investigators objectives. However, subsequent tests demonstrated that some additive marking processes will also satisfy the requirements. This was an unexpected result.

  7. Simplified Orbit Determination Algorithm for Low Earth Orbit Satellites Using Spaceborne Gps Navigation Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukaram Aghav, Sandip; Achyut Gangal, Shashikala

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the main work is focused on designing and simplifying the orbit determination algorithm which will be used for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) navigation. The various data processing algorithms, state estimation algorithms and modeling forces were studied in detail, and simplified algorithm is selected to reduce hardware burden and computational cost. This is done by using raw navigation solution provided by GPS Navigation sensor. A fixed step-size Runge-Kutta 4th order numerical integration method is selected for orbit propagation. Both, the least square and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) orbit estimation algorithms are developed and the results of the same are compared with each other. EKF algorithm converges faster than least square algorithm. EKF algorithm satisfies the criterions of low computation burden which is required for autonomous orbit determination. Simple static force models also feasible to reduce the hardware burden and computational cost.

  8. Analysis on high-altitude earth Orbit Satellite Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Hou, Y. W.; Yang, L.

    2016-02-01

    The difference is introduced between approx circular apogee orbit and approx circular perigee one by error transmitting at first. Then the characteristic of secant compensation is analysed when radar tracking object with high elevation. And two kinds of orbit force be pressed to, their perturbation influence and their earth-core angles are explained. And then the series of emulation results are shown including error data emulated with Monte Carlo method, the influence of the velocity increment from the ejecting force of spring while satellite-rocket separating and their perturbation influence and the length of influence of the data arc. Then decision analysis of Wald method and Bayesian statistics rule and the results from the two rule are introduced. So the suitable orbit determination decision is put forward from the decision method. Finally the result is tested reasonable and feasible via the real data. In the end it is useful to reference to make orbit decision in short injection of circular orbit far from the earth for calculating concurrently precise and timely.

  9. Low Earth Orbit Raider (LER) winged air launch vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feaux, Karl; Jordan, William; Killough, Graham; Miller, Robert; Plunk, Vonn

    1989-01-01

    The need to launch small payloads into low earth orbit has increased dramatically during the past several years. The Low Earth orbit Raider (LER) is an answer to this need. The LER is an air-launched, winged vehicle designed to carry a 1500 pound payload into a 250 nautical mile orbit. The LER is launched from the back of a 747-100B at 35,000 feet and a Mach number of 0.8. Three staged solid propellant motors offer safe ground and flight handling, reliable operation, and decreased fabrication cost. The wing provides lift for 747 separation and during the first stage burn. Also, aerodynamic controls are provided to simplify first stage maneuvers. The air-launch concept offers many advantages to the consumer compared to conventional methods. Launching at 35,000 feet lowers atmospheric drag and other loads on the vehicle considerably. Since the 747 is a mobile launch pad, flexibility in orbit selection and launch time is unparalleled. Even polar orbits are accessible with a decreased payload. Most importantly, the LER launch service can come to the customer, satellites and experiments need not be transported to ground based launch facilities. The LER is designed to offer increased consumer freedom at a lower cost over existing launch systems. Simplistic design emphasizing reliability at low cost allows for the light payloads of the LER.

  10. Effects of DeOrbitSail as applied to Lifetime predictions of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afful, Andoh; Opperman, Ben; Steyn, Herman

    2016-07-01

    Orbit lifetime prediction is an important component of satellite mission design and post-launch space operations. Throughout its lifetime in space, a spacecraft is exposed to risk of collision with orbital debris or operational satellites. This risk is especially high within the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) region where the highest density of space debris is accumulated. This paper investigates orbital decay of some LEO micro-satellites and accelerating orbit decay by using a deorbitsail. The Semi-Analytical Liu Theory (SALT) and the Satellite Toolkit was employed to determine the mean elements and expressions for the time rates of change. Test cases of observed decayed satellites (Iridium-85 and Starshine-1) are used to evaluate the predicted theory. Results for the test cases indicated that the theory fitted observational data well within acceptable limits. Orbit decay progress of the SUNSAT micro-satellite was analysed using relevant orbital parameters derived from historic Two Line Element (TLE) sets and comparing with decay and lifetime prediction models. This paper also explored the deorbit date and time for a 1U CubeSat (ZACUBE-01). The use of solar sails as devices to speed up the deorbiting of LEO satellites is considered. In a drag sail mode, the deorbitsail technique significantly increases the effective cross-sectional area of a satellite, subsequently increasing atmospheric drag and accelerating orbit decay. The concept proposed in this study introduced a very useful technique of orbit decay as well as deorbiting of spacecraft.

  11. Earth-orbit mission considerations and Space Tug requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The reusable Space Tug is a major system planned to augment the Space Shuttle's capability to deliver, retrieve, and support automated payloads. The Space Tug will be designed to perform round-trip missions from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Space Tug goals and requirements are discussed together with the characteristics of the full capability Tug. The Tug is to be operated in an unmanned 'teleoperator' fashion. Details of potential teleoperator applications are considered, giving attention to related systems studies, candidate Tug mission applications, Tug 'end-effector' alternatives, technical issues associated with Tug payload retrieval, and Tug/payload accommodations.

  12. Orbit determination and orbit control for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herberg, Joseph R.; Folta, David C.

    1993-01-01

    Future NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Spacecraft will make measurements of the earth's clouds, oceans, atmosphere, land and radiation balance. These EOS Spacecraft will be part of the NASA Mission to Planet Earth. This paper specifically addresses the EOS AM Spacecraft, referred to as 'AM' because it has a sun-synchronous orbit with a 10:30 AM descending node. This paper describes the EOS AM Spacecraft mission orbit requirements, orbit determination, orbit control, and navigation system impact on earth based pointing. The EOS AM Spacecraft will be the first spacecraft to use the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) as the primary means of navigation. TONS flight software will process one-way forward Doppler measurements taken during scheduled TDRSS contacts. An extended Kalman filter will estimate spacecraft position, velocity, drag coefficient correction, and ultrastable master oscillator frequency bias and drift. The TONS baseline algorithms, software, and hardware implementation are described in this paper. TONS integration into the EOS AM Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) System; TONS assisted onboard time maintenance; and the TONS Ground Support System (TGSS) are also addressed.

  13. Low earth orbit environmental effects on the Space Station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, H. K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the low earth orbital environment, its impact on the photovoltaic power systems of the Space Station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low earth orbital environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the photovoltaic power systems of the Space Station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the Space Station with the desired life are also summarized.

  14. Low Earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the Photovoltaic Power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the Photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized.

  15. Mechanical properties of silicate glasses exposed to a low-Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedlocher, David E.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Nichols, Ron; Kinser, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a 5.8 year exposure to low earth orbit environment upon the mechanical properties of commercial optical fused silica, low iron soda-lime-silica, Pyrex 7740, Vycor 7913, BK-7, and the glass ceramic Zerodur were examined. Mechanical testing employed the ASTM-F-394 piston on 3-ball method in a liquid nitrogen environment. Samples were exposed on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in two locations. Impacts were observed on all specimens except Vycor. Weibull analysis as well as a standard statistical evaluation were conducted. The Weibull analysis revealed no differences between control samples and the two exposed samples. We thus concluded that radiation components of the Earth orbital environment did not degrade the mechanical strength of the samples examined within the limits of experimental error. The upper bound of strength degradation for meteorite impacted samples based upon statistical analysis and observation was 50 percent.

  16. Lageos orbit decay due to infrared radiation from earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    1987-01-01

    Infrared radiation from the earth may be the principal reason for the decay of Lageos' orbit. The radiation heats up the laser retroreflectors embedded in Lageos' aluminum surface. This creates a north-south temperature gradient on the satellite. The gradient in turn causes a force to be exerted on Lageos because of recoil from photons leaving its surface. The delayed heating of the retroreflectors due to their thermal inertia gives the force a net along-track component which always acts like drag. A simple thermal model for the retroreflectors indicates that this thermal drag accounts for about half the observed average along-track acceleration of -3.3 x 10 to the -10th power m/sec squared. The contribution from the aluminum surface to this effect is negligible. The infrared effect cannot explain the large observed fluctuations in drag which occur mainly when the orbit intersects the earth's shadow.

  17. Survey of Earth orbital telescopes and their potential for exobiology.

    PubMed

    Tarter, J C

    1986-01-01

    A series of Workshops on Exobiology in Earth Orbit held at NASA Ames Research Center has recently concluded. The draft of the final report from these Workshops contains a prioritized list of telescopic observations (possible only from above the Earth's atmosphere) that relate to the origin and evolution of the biogenic elements and compounds from their nucleosynthetic creation within stars to their inclusion in living systems. These orbital observations and the ground based laboratory and theoretical research necessary to support them have been termed Observational Exobiology. The details available on spacecraft, platforms and instrumentation most likely to be launched in the near future by the U.S. and Europe were considered in the Workshops. The purpose was to determine what observational programs would be tractible and what area of interest to exobiology required hardware and/or mission capabilities not yet envisioned. This paper summarizes the exciting opportunities that exist for Observational Exobiology.

  18. Atomic Oxygen Protection of Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft polymeric materials as well as polymer-matrix carbon-fiber composites can be significantly eroded as a result of exposure to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Several new materials now exist, as well as modifications to conventionally used materials, that provide much more resistance to atomic oxygen attack than conventional hydrocarbon polymers. Protective coatings have also been developed which are resistant to atomic oxygen attack and provide protection of underlying materials. However, in actual spacecraft applications, the configuration, choice of materials, surface characteristics and functional requirements of quasi-durable materials or protective coatings can have great impact on the resulting performance and durability. Atomic oxygen degradation phenomena occurring on past and existing spacecraft will be presented. Issues and considerations involved in providing atomic oxygen protection for materials used on spacecraft in low Earth orbit will be addressed. Analysis of in-space results to determine the causes of successes and failures of atomic oxygen protective coatings is presented.

  19. Lageos orbit decay due to infrared radiation from Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    1987-01-01

    Infrared radiation from the Earth may be the principal reason for the decay of Lageos' orbit. The radiation heats up the laser retroreflectors embedded in Lageos' aluminum surface. This creates a north-south temperature gradient on the satellite. The gradient in turn causes a force to be exerted on Lageos because of recoil from photons leaving its surface. The delayed heating of the retroreflectors due to their thermal inertia gives the force a net along-track component which always acts like drag. A simple thermal model for the retroreflectors indicates that this thermal drag accounts for about half the observed average along-track acceleration of -3.3 x 10 to the -10 power m/sec squared. The contribution from the aluminum surface to this effect is negligible. The infrared effect cannot explain the large observed fluctuations in drag which occur mainly when the orbit intersects the Earth's shadow.

  20. Mechanical failure probability of glasses in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinser, Donald L.; Wiedlocher, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Results of five years of earth-orbital exposure on mechanical properties of glasses indicate that radiation effects on mechanical properties of glasses, for the glasses examined, are less than the probable error of measurement. During the 5 year exposure, seven micrometeorite or space debris impacts occurred on the samples examined. These impacts were located in locations which were not subjected to effective mechanical testing, hence limited information on their influence upon mechanical strength was obtained. Combination of these results with micrometeorite and space debris impact frequency obtained by other experiments permits estimates of the failure probability of glasses exposed to mechanical loading under earth-orbit conditions. This probabilistic failure prediction is described and illustrated with examples.

  1. Polyhedral representation of invariant manifolds applied to orbit transfers in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, manifold dynamics has assumed an increasing relevance for analysis and design of low-energy missions, both in the Earth-Moon system and in alternative multibody environments. This work proposes and describes an intuitive polyhedral interpolative approach for each state component associated with manifold trajectories, both in two and in three dimensions. An adequate grid of data, coming from the numerical propagation of a finite number of manifold trajectories, is employed. Accuracy of this representation is evaluated with reference to the invariant manifolds associated with a two-dimensional Lyapunov orbit and a three-dimensional Halo orbit, and is proven to be satisfactory, with the exclusion of limited regions of the manifolds. As a first, preliminary application, the polyhedral interpolation technique allows identifying the orbits in the proximity of the interior collinear libration point as either asymptotic, transit, or bouncing trajectories. Then, two applications to orbital maneuvering are addressed. First, the globally optimal two-impulse transfer between a specified low Earth orbit and a Lyapunov orbit (through its stable manifold) is determined. Second, the minimum-time low-thrust transfer from the same terminal orbits is found using again the stable manifold. These applications prove the effectiveness of the polyhedral interpolative technique and represent the premise for its application also to different problems involving invariant manifold dynamics.

  2. Earth Orbit, Period, and Temperature - Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leubner, I. H.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth climate, its recent history and near future (+/- 100 years) are under intense scrutiny because of temperature changes ascribed to green house effects. However, long-term temperature changes since the formation of the solar system (-4.5Byr) and for the extended future are not known. The present paper addresses the magnitude and the rate of Earth temperature changes for this time range, and compares the results to present observations. The model is based on the cohesion of the solar system which is determined by mass (solar radiative and solar wind)and gravity loss since the formation of the solar system, and the resulting expansion of planetary orbits.(1) This model has previously successfully predicted the why and when of the transition from water to ice on Mars. (2) After the formation of the solar system (-4.5 Byr) the Earth orbit was at 1.38E08 km (presently 1.50E08 km) and the Earth period was 0.89 years. In the future (+4.5 Byr), they are predicted to be 1.64E08 km and 1.15 yr. At -4.5 Byr, present temperatures of -50, zero, and + 50 C were higher at -40.5, 11.7, and 63.9 C, respectively. It is predicted that in +4.5 Byr these temperatures will have decreased to -60.0, -12.2, and 35.5 C. In the past million years, the present -50, 0, and +50 C temperatures were about 0.03C higher, and will be about 0.03 C lower in another million years. These results indicate that temperature changes due to changes of solar-Earth orbital interactions do not significantly contribute to the observed Earth global warming observations. (1) I. H. Leubner, 'Stability of planetary Orbits', AGU 2006 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Ca, Dec. 11-15, 2006 (2) I. H. Leubner, 'Mars Orbit and Temperature: Why and When an Early wet Mars', AGU 2004 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Ca, Dec. 14, 2004

  3. Thin-Film Solar Array Earth Orbit Mission Applicability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2002-01-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the applicability and spacecraft-level impact of using very lightweight thin-film solar arrays with relatively large deployed areas for representative Earth orbiting missions. The most and least attractive features of thin-film solar arrays are briefly discussed. A simple calculation is then presented illustrating that from a solar array alone mass perspective, larger arrays with less efficient but lighter thin-film solar cells can weigh less than smaller arrays with more efficient but heavier crystalline cells. However, a proper spacecraft-level systems assessment must take into account the additional mass associated with solar array deployed area: the propellant needed to desaturate the momentum accumulated from area-related disturbance torques and to perform aerodynamic drag makeup reboost. The results for such an assessment are presented for a representative low Earth orbit (LEO) mission, as a function of altitude and mission life, and a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) mission. Discussion of the results includes a list of specific mission types most likely to benefit from using thin-film arrays. NASA Glenn's low-temperature approach to depositing thin-film cells on lightweight, flexible plastic substrates is also briefly discussed to provide a perspective on one approach to achieving this enabling technology. The paper concludes with a list of issues to be addressed prior to use of thin-film solar arrays in space and the observation that with their unique characteristics, very lightweight arrays using efficient, thin-film cells on flexible substrates may become the best array option for a subset of Earth orbiting missions.

  4. Low Earth Orbit Rendezvous Strategy for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cates, Grant R.; Cirillo, William M.; Stromgren, Chel

    2006-01-01

    On January 14, 2004 President George W. Bush announced a new Vision for Space Exploration calling for NASA to return humans to the moon. In 2005 NASA decided to use a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) rendezvous strategy for the lunar missions. A Discrete Event Simulation (DES) based model of this strategy was constructed. Results of the model were then used for subsequent analysis to explore the ramifications of the LEO rendezvous strategy.

  5. Radiation protection guidance for activities in low-Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Townsend, L W; Fry, R J M

    2002-01-01

    Scientific Committee 75 (SC 75) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was assembled for the purpose of providing guidance to NASA concerning radiation protection in low-Earth orbit. The report of SC 75 was published in December 2000 as NCRP Report No. 132. In this presentation an overview of the findings and recommendations of the committee report will be presented. PMID:12539765

  6. The Geomagnetic Field and Radiation in Near-Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This report shows, in detail, how the geomagnetic field interacts with the particle flux of the radiation belts to create a hazard to spacecraft and humans in near-Earth orbit. It illustrates the geometry of the geomagnetic field lines, especially around the area where the field strength is anomalously low in the South Atlantic Ocean. It discusses how the field will probably change in the future and the consequences that may have on hazards in near space.

  7. Orbital, rotational, and climatic interactions: Lessons from Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.

    1992-01-01

    Though variations in orbital and rotational parameters of the Earth and Mars are widely recognized as plausible sources of significant climatic variation on 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 8) yr timescales, many aspects of the connection between orbital, rotational, and climatic variations remain poorly understood. In general, the orbital histories are very well known, the rotational histories (especially for Mars) are very poorly known. A brief review is given of recent progress in computing orbital and rotational secular variations, and in connecting them to climatic change. The emphasis is on highlighting those areas that limit the present understanding. It is obvious that mass redistributions associated with climatic change (glaciation) are a source of crustal deformation and geodynamic change on the Earth, and may have played similar roles on Mars. It is much less appreciated, that rates, phases, and amplitudes of deformation of the deep interior of the planet can influence climate. The mantle and core, if decoupled, would precess at different rates, and even with plausible coupling strengths, some degree of differential precession is possible.

  8. Orbital, rotational, and climatic interactions: Lessons from Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, Bruce G.

    Though variations in orbital and rotational parameters of the Earth and Mars are widely recognized as plausible sources of significant climatic variation on 103 to 108 yr timescales, many aspects of the connection between orbital, rotational, and climatic variations remain poorly understood. In general, the orbital histories are very well known, the rotational histories (especially for Mars) are very poorly known. A brief review is given of recent progress in computing orbital and rotational secular variations, and in connecting them to climatic change. The emphasis is on highlighting those areas that limit the present understanding. It is obvious that mass redistributions associated with climatic change (glaciation) are a source of crustal deformation and geodynamic change on the Earth, and may have played similar roles on Mars. It is much less appreciated, that rates, phases, and amplitudes of deformation of the deep interior of the planet can influence climate. The mantle and core, if decoupled, would precess at different rates, and even with plausible coupling strengths, some degree of differential precession is possible.

  9. Orbital and Physical Characteristics of Meter-sized Earth Impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Wiegert, Paul; Clark, David; Tagliaferri, Edward

    2015-11-01

    We have analysed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of more than 60 earth-impacting meteoroids of one meter in diameter or larger. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we find that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in the apparent strength of the population of meter-sized impactors at the Earth. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. We find ~10-15% of our objects have a probable cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, show evidence for the expected weaker than average structure compared to asteroidal bodies. Almost all impactors show peak brightness between 20-40 km altitude. Several events have exceptionally high (relative to the remainder of the population) heights of peak brightness. These are physically most consistent with high microporosity objects, though all were on asteroidal-type orbits. We also find three events, including the Oct 8, 2009 airburst near Sulawesi, Indonesia, which display comparatively low heights of peak brightness, consistent with strong monolithic stones or iron meteoroids. Based on orbital similarity, we find a probable connection among several NEOs in our population with the Taurid meteoroid complex. No other major meteoroid streams show linkages with the pre-atmospheric orbits of our meter-class impactors. Our events cover almost four orders of magnitude in mass, but no trend in height of peak brightness is evident, suggesting no strong trend in strength with size for small NEOs, a finding consistent with the results of Popova et al (2011).

  10. Optical Observations of the Orbital Debris Environment at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Africano, John L.; Stansbery, Eugene G.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the LEO and MEO (low and middle earth orbit) optical orbital debris environments, especially in the important, but difficult to track one to ten centimeter size range, NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has built a zenith-staring Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) near Cloudcroft, NM. The mirror of the LMT consists of a three-meter diameter parabolic dish containing several gallons of mercury that is spun at a rate of ten revolutions per minute. A disadvantage of the LMT is its inability to point in any direction other than the zenith. However, this is not a major limitation for statistical sampling of the LEO and MEO orbital debris population. While the LMT is used for the characterization of the LEO and MEO orbital debris environments, its inability to point off zenith limits its utility for the GEO environment where objects are concentrated over the equator. To gain a better understanding of the GEO debris environment, NASA JSC has built a CCD Debris Telescope (CDT). The CDT is a 12.5-inch aperture Schmidt portable telescope with automated pointing capability. The CDT is presently co-located with the LMT. The CDT can see down to 17.1 magnitude in a 30 second exposure with a 1.5 degree field of view. This corresponds to a ten percent reflective, 0.8-meter diameter object at geosynchronous altitude. Both telescopes are used every clear night. We present results from 3 years of observations from the LMT and preliminary results from the CDT.

  11. Interaction between subdaily Earth rotation parameters and GPS orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panafidina, Natalia; Seitz, Manuela; Hugentobler, Urs

    2013-04-01

    In processing GPS observations the geodetic parameters like station coordinates and ERPs (Earth rotation parameters) are estimated w.r.t. the celestial reference system realized by the satellite orbits. The interactions/correlations between estimated GPS orbis and other parameters may lead to numerical problems with the solution and introduce systematic errors in the computed values: the well known correlations comprise 1) the correlation between the orbital parameters determining the orientation of the orbital plane in inertial space and the nutation and 2) in the case of estimating ERPs with subdaily resolution the correlation between retrograde diurnal polar motion and nutation (and so the respective orbital elements). In this contribution we study the interaction between the GPS orbits and subdaily model for the ERPs. Existing subdaily ERP model recommended by the IERS comprises ~100 terms in polar motion and ~70 terms in Universal Time at diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periods. We use a long time series of daily normal equation systems (NEQ) obtaine from GPS observations from 1994 till 2007 where the ERPs with 1-hour resolution are transformed into tidal terms and the influence of the tidal terms with different frequencies on the estimated orbital parameters is considered. We found that although there is no algebraic correlation in the NEQ between the individual orbital parameters and the tidal terms, the changes in the amplitudes of tidal terms with periods close to 24 hours can be better accmodated by systematic changes in the orbital parameters than for tidal terms with other periods. Since the variation in Earth rotation with the period of siderial day (23.93h, tide K1) in terrestrial frame has in inertial space the same period as the period of revolution of GPS satellites, the K1 tidal term in polar motion is seen by the satellites as a permanent shift. The tidal terms with close periods (from ~24.13h to ~23.80h) are seen as a slow rotation of the

  12. Space life sciences: radiation risk assessment and radiation measurements in low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The volume contains papers presented at COSPAR symposia in October 2002 about radiation risk assessment and radiation measurements in low Earth orbit. The risk assessment symposium brought together multidisciplinary expertise including physicists, biologists, and theoretical modelers. Topics included current knowledge about known and predicted radiation environments, radiation shielding, physics cross section models, improved ion beam transport codes, biological demonstrations of specific shielding materials and applications to a manned mission to Mars, advancements in biological measurement of radiation-induced protein expression profiles, and integration of physical and biological parameters to assess key elements of radiation risk. Papers from the radiation measurements in low Earth orbit symposium included data about dose, linear energy transfer spectra, and charge spectra from recent measurements on the International Space Station (ISS), comparison between calculations and measurements of dose distribution inside a human phantom and the neutron component inside the ISS; and reviews of trapped antiprotons and positrons inside the Earth's magnetosphere. PMID:15880912

  13. Orbit Determination of Spacecraft in Earth-Moon L1 and L2 Libration Point Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, Daniel; Morinelli, Patrick; Marchese, Jeff; Owens, Brandon; Folta, David

    2011-01-01

    The ARTEMIS mission, part of the THEMIS extended mission, is the first to fly spacecraft in the Earth-Moon Lissajous regions. In 2009, two of the five THEMIS spacecraft were redeployed from Earth-centered orbits to arrive in Earth-Moon Lissajous orbits in late 2010. Starting in August 2010, the ARTEMIS P1 spacecraft executed numerous stationkeeping maneuvers, initially maintaining a lunar L2 Lissajous orbit before transitioning into a lunar L1 orbit. The ARTEMIS P2 spacecraft entered a L1 Lissajous orbit in October 2010. In April 2011, both ARTEMIS spacecraft will suspend Lissajous stationkeeping and will be maneuvered into lunar orbits. The success of the ARTEMIS mission has allowed the science team to gather unprecedented magnetospheric measurements in the lunar Lissajous regions. In order to effectively perform lunar Lissajous stationkeeping maneuvers, the ARTEMIS operations team has provided orbit determination solutions with typical accuracies on the order of 0.1 km in position and 0.1 cm/s in velocity. The ARTEMIS team utilizes the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), using a batch least squares method, to process range and Doppler tracking measurements from the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN), Berkeley Ground Station (BGS), Merritt Island (MILA) station, and United Space Network (USN). The team has also investigated processing of the same tracking data measurements using the Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) software, which uses an extended Kalman filter and recursive smoother to estimate the orbit. The orbit determination results from each of these methods will be presented and we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with using each method in the lunar Lissajous regions. Orbit determination accuracy is dependent on both the quality and quantity of tracking measurements, fidelity of the orbit force models, and the estimation techniques used. Prior to Lissajous operations, the team determined the appropriate quantity of tracking

  14. A mixed fleet transportation system to low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Based on a provided mission model, this project considered three different classes of launch vehicles for possible use: (1) modifications to the current Space Transportation System, or replacement by a second-generation vehicle using current technology; (2) a heavy-lift cargo vehicle, designed to minimize the cost of bulk cargo to low earth orbit; and (3) an advanced man-rated system incorporating technology anticipated for the year 1995. The mission model provided included commercial, scientific, and military payloads for the years 1990 through 2010. Use of the current Space Transportation System was also permitted in the final fleet sizing analysis. The near-term shuttle group performed trade studies on a number of modifications and variations before selecting a new vehicle design, incorporating a fly-back reusable first stage and reduced-size orbiter. Orbiter payload was limited to 5000 kg (priority items), with up to 25,000 kg of payload carried in a forward payload bay within the nose shroud of the orbiter external tank. This allowed reduction of orbiter size, without significant loss of reusability.

  15. Earth Trek...Explore Your Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This booklet for children emphasizes the exploration and protection of the environment. An introduction discusses the interaction between humankind and the environment, emphasizing that the earth is a closed system. Chapter 1, "Mission: Protect the Water," addresses human dependence on water, water pollution, and water treatment. Chapter 2,…

  16. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  17. Secular tidal changes in lunar orbit and Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James G.; Boggs, Dale H.

    2016-11-01

    Small tidal forces in the Earth-Moon system cause detectable changes in the orbit. Tidal energy dissipation causes secular rates in the lunar mean motion n, semimajor axis a, and eccentricity e. Terrestrial dissipation causes most of the tidal change in n and a, but lunar dissipation decreases eccentricity rate. Terrestrial tidal dissipation also slows the rotation of the Earth and increases obliquity. A tidal acceleration model is used for integration of the lunar orbit. Analysis of lunar laser ranging (LLR) data provides two or three terrestrial and two lunar dissipation parameters. Additional parameters come from geophysical knowledge of terrestrial tides. When those parameters are converted to secular rates for orbit elements, one obtains d n/d t = -25.97± 0.05 ''/cent2, d a/d t = 38.30 ± 0.08 mm/year, and d i/d t = -0.5 ± 0.1 μas/year. Solving for two terrestrial time delays and an extra d e/d t from unspecified causes gives ˜ 3× 10^{-12}/year for the latter; solving for three LLR tidal time delays without the extra d e/d t gives a larger phase lag of the N2 tide so that total d e/d t = (1.50 ± 0.10)× 10^{-11}/year. For total d n/d t, there is ≤ 1 % difference between geophysical models of average tidal dissipation in oceans and solid Earth and LLR results, and most of that difference comes from diurnal tides. The geophysical model predicts that tidal deceleration of Earth rotation is -1316 ''/cent2 or 87.5 s/cent2 for UT1-AT, a 2.395 ms/cent increase in the length of day, and an obliquity rate of 9 μas/year. For evolution during past times of slow recession, the eccentricity rate can be negative.

  18. Secular tidal changes in lunar orbit and Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James G.; Boggs, Dale H.

    2016-06-01

    Small tidal forces in the Earth-Moon system cause detectable changes in the orbit. Tidal energy dissipation causes secular rates in the lunar mean motion n, semimajor axis a, and eccentricity e. Terrestrial dissipation causes most of the tidal change in n and a, but lunar dissipation decreases eccentricity rate. Terrestrial tidal dissipation also slows the rotation of the Earth and increases obliquity. A tidal acceleration model is used for integration of the lunar orbit. Analysis of lunar laser ranging (LLR) data provides two or three terrestrial and two lunar dissipation parameters. Additional parameters come from geophysical knowledge of terrestrial tides. When those parameters are converted to secular rates for orbit elements, one obtains dn/dt = -25.97± 0.05 ''/ cent2 , da/dt = 38.30 ± 0.08 mm/year, and di/dt = -0.5 ± 0.1 μ as/year. Solving for two terrestrial time delays and an extra de/dt from unspecified causes gives ˜ 3× 10^{-12} /year for the latter; solving for three LLR tidal time delays without the extra de/dt gives a larger phase lag of the N2 tide so that total de/dt = (1.50 ± 0.10)× 10^{-11} /year. For total dn/dt, there is ≤ 1 % difference between geophysical models of average tidal dissipation in oceans and solid Earth and LLR results, and most of that difference comes from diurnal tides. The geophysical model predicts that tidal deceleration of Earth rotation is -1316 '' /cent2 or 87.5 s/cent2 for UT1-AT, a 2.395 ms/cent increase in the length of day, and an obliquity rate of 9 μ as/year. For evolution during past times of slow recession, the eccentricity rate can be negative.

  19. How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. E. A.; Norton, A.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Kretzschmar, M.; Schmidt, G. A.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2012-08-01

    The variability in solar irradiance, the main external energy source of the Earth's system, must be critically studied in order to place the effects of human-driven climate change into perspective and allow plausible predictions of the evolution of climate. Accurate measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) variability by instruments onboard space platforms during the last three solar cycles indicate changes of approximately 0.1% over the sunspot cycle. Physics-based models also suggest variations of the same magnitude on centennial to millennia time-scales. Additionally, long-term changes in Earth's orbit modulate the solar irradiance reaching the top of the atmosphere. Variations of orbital inclination in relation to the Sun's equator could potentially impact incoming solar irradiance as a result of the anisotropy of the distribution of active regions. Due to a lack of quantitative estimates, this effect has never been assessed. Here, we show that although observers with different orbital inclinations experience various levels of irradiance, modulations in TSI are not sufficient to drive observed 100 kyr climate variations. Based on our model we find that, due to orbital inclination alone, the maximum change in the average TSI over timescales of kyrs is ˜0.003 Wm-2, much smaller than the ˜1.5 Wm-2 annually integrated change related to orbital eccentricity variations, or the 1-8 Wm-2 variability due to solar magnetic activity. Here, we stress that out-of-ecliptic measurements are needed in order to constrain models for the long-term evolution of TSI and its impact on climate.

  20. Earth observation mission operation of COMS during in-orbit test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2011-11-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service after the In-Orbit Test (IOT) phase. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. During the IOT phase the functionality and the performance of many aspects of the COMS satellite and ground station have been checked through the Earth observation mission operation for the observation of the meteorological phenomenon over several areas of the Earth and the monitoring of marine environments around the Korean peninsula. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS during the IOT phase is introduced in terms of mission operation characteristics, mission planning, and mission operation results for the missions of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively.

  1. A parametric study of space radiation exposures to critical body organs for low earth orbit missions.

    PubMed

    Atwell, W; Beever, E R; Hardy, A C

    1989-01-01

    The geomagnetically-trapped and galactic cosmic radiation environments are two of the major sources of naturally-occurring space radiation exposure to astronauts in low earth orbit. The exposure is dependent primarily on altitude, spacecraft shielding, crew stay-times, and solar cycle effects for a 28.5 deg orbital inclination. Based on Space Shuttle experience, the calculated results of a parametric study are presented for several mission scenarios using a computerized anatomical man model and are compared with the NASA crew exposure limits for several critical body organs. PMID:11537298

  2. Use and Protection of GPS Sidelobe Signals for Enhanced Navigation Performance in High Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Joel J. K.; Valdez, Jennifer E.; Bauer, Frank H.; Moreau, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    GPS (Global Positioning System) Space Service Volume (SSV) signal environment is from 3,000-36,000 kilometers altitude. Current SSV specifications only capture performance provided by signals transmitted within 23.5(L1) or 26(L2-L5) off-nadir angle. Recent on-orbit data lessons learned show significant PNT (Positioning, Navigation and Timing) performance improvements when the full aggregate signal is used. Numerous military civil operational missions in High Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (HEOGEO) utilize the full signal to enhance vehicle PNT performance

  3. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Interference Between Earth Stations and Earth-Orbiting Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of the potential for radio frequency interference between Earth stations and orbiting spacecraft is often desirable. This information can be used to select frequencies for radio systems to avoid interference or it can be used to determine if coordination between radio systems is necessary. Also, it is useful for planning emission standards and filtering requirements for future telecommunications equipment. A model is developed that will determine the statistics of interference between Earth stations and elliptical orbiting spacecraft. The model uses orbital dynamics, detailed antenna patterns, and spectral characteristics to obtain accurate levels of interference at the victim receiver. The model is programmed into a computer simulation to obtain long term statistics of interference.

  5. Development and testing of coatings for orbital space radiation environments.

    PubMed

    Pellicori, Samuel F; Martinez, Carol L; Hausgen, Paul; Wilt, David

    2014-02-01

    Specific coating processes and materials were investigated in the quest to develop multilayer coatings with greater tolerance to space radiation exposure. Ultraviolet reflection (UVR) and wide-band antireflection (AR) multilayer coatings were deposited on solar cell covers and test substrates and subsequently exposed to simulated space environments and also flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment-7 (MISSE-7) to determine their space environment stability. Functional solar cells integrated with these coatings underwent simulated UV and MISSE-7 low earth orbit flight exposure. The effects of UV, proton, and atomic oxygen exposure on coatings and on assembled solar cells as related to the implemented deposition processes and material compositions were small. The UVR/AR coatings protected flexible polymer substrate materials that are intended for future flexible multijunction cell arrays to be deployed from rolls. Progress was made toward developing stable and protective coatings for extended space-mission applications. Test results are presented.

  6. Oxidation-resistant reflective surfaces for solar dynamic power generation in near earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Egger, Robert A.; Banholzer, William F.

    1987-01-01

    Reflective surfaces for Space Station power generation systems are required to withstand the atomic oxygen-dominated environment of near earth orbit. Thin films of platinum and rhodium, which are corrosion resistant reflective metals, have been deposited by ion beam sputter deposition onto various substrate materials. Solar reflectances were then measured as a function of time of exposure to a RF-generated air plasma.

  7. Formation design and relative navigation in high Earth orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Christopher Morgan

    This dissertation focuses on three key elements of precision satellite formation flying: formation design; relative navigation; and sensor and measurement modeling. Formation flying in high Earth orbit (HEO) is complicated by the difficulty of accurately modeling relative dynamics in highly eccentric orbits and the sparse nature of tracking data at high altitudes. This research develops a formation design tool and extended Kalman filter that mitigate these factors by representing the relative motion in Keplerian element space rather than conventional rectangular position and velocity coordinates and presents the measurement models and preliminary data generation techniques necessary for processing reflected GPS and reflected crosslink observations in a relative navigation filter. Geometrical methods for formation design based on simple relative motion models originally intended for rendezvous in low Earth orbit (LEO) have been previously developed and used to specify desired relative motions in near circular orbits. A comparable set of geometrical relationships for formations in eccentric orbits are developed here. This approach offers valuable insight into the relative motion and allows for the rapid design of satellite configurations to achieve mission specific requirements, such as vehicle separation at perigee or apogee, minimum separations, or a particular geometric shape. The expressions formulate the relative motion in terms of a constant set of Keplerian element differences and are valid for arbitrary eccentricities. The use of these relationships to investigate formation designs and their evolution in time is demonstrated. In addition, the long-term effects of unmodeled perturbations on the desired formation geometry are shown in several examples. Formation flying in HEO relies on accurate relative navigation information for precise formation control and accurate interpretation of science data. An extended Kalman filter for relative navigation in HEO is

  8. Spacecraft transfer trajectory design exploiting resonant orbits in multi-body environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero Escribano, Tatiana Mar

    Historically, resonant orbits have been employed in mission design for multiple planetary flyby trajectories and, more recently, as a source of long-term orbital stability. For instance, in support of a mission concept in NASA's Outer Planets Program, the Jupiter Europa Orbiter spacecraft is designed to encounter two different resonances with Europa during the 'endgame' phase, leading to Europa orbit insertion on the final pass. In 2011, the Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft was inserted into a stable out-of-plane lunar-resonant orbit, the first of this type for a spacecraft in a long-term Earth orbit. However, resonant orbits have not yet been significantly explored as transfer mechanisms between non-resonant orbits in multi-body systems. This research effort focuses on incorporating resonant orbits into the design process to potentially enable the construction of more efficient or even novel transfer scenarios. Thus, the goals in this investigation are twofold: i) to expand the orbit architecture in multi-body environments by cataloging families of resonant orbits, and ii) to assess the role of such families in the design of transfer trajectories with specific patterns and itineraries. The benefits and advantages of employing resonant orbits in the design process are demonstrated through a variety of astrodynamics applications in several multi-body systems. In the Earth-Moon system, locally optimal transfer trajectories from low Earth orbit to selected libration point orbits are designed by leveraging conic arcs and invariant manifolds associated with resonant orbits. Resonant manifolds in the Earth-Moon system offer trajectories that tour the entire space within reasonable time intervals, facilitating the design of libration point orbit tours as well as Earth-Moon cyclers. In the Saturnian system, natural transitions between resonant and libration point orbits are sought and the problem of accessing Hyperion from orbits that are resonant with Titan is

  9. Advantages of High vs. Low Earth Orbit for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Werner, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    While the subject of this workshop, which we will refer to as ET (for Enlightenment Telescope), is a dazzling successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, its location is unlikely to be the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) used by HST. Locations suggested for ET include High Earth Orbit (HEO) and the moon. The first space telescope to occupy HEO will be the liquid helium cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The selection of HEO for SIRTF was the outcome of a recent study led by the Ames Research Center which showed significant advantages for SIRTF in HEO vs. LEO. This article summarizes the main results of that study. We begin with a review of SIRTF's rationale and requirements, in part because the IR capabilities and low temperature proposed for ET make it something of a successor to SIRTF as well as to HST. We conclude with some comments about another possible location for both SIRTF and ET, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrangian point.

  10. Trapped Proton Fluxes at Low Earth Orbits Measured by the PAMELA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Mergé, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2015-01-01

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above ~70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350 ÷ 610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra, and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes, placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be used to validate current trapped particle radiation models.

  11. Near Earth Asteroids- Prospection, Orbit Modification and Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandl, W.; Bazso, A.

    2014-04-01

    The number of known Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) has increased continuously during the last decades. Now we understand the role of asteroid impacts for the evolution of life on Earth. To ensure that mankind will survive in the long run, we have to face the "asteroid threat" seriously. On one hand we will have to develop methods of detection and deflection for Hazardous Asteroids, on the other hand we can use these methods to modify their orbits and exploit their resources. Rare-earth elements, rare metals like platinum group elements, etc. may be extracted more easily from NEAs than from terrestrial soil, without environmental pollution or political and social problems. In a first step NEAs, which are expected to contain resources like nickel-iron, platinum group metals or rare-earth elements, will be prospected by robotic probes. Then a number of asteroids with a minimum bulk density of 2 g/cm^3 and a diameter of 150 to 500 m will be selected for mining. Given the long duration of an individual mission time of 10-20 years, the authors propose a "pipeline" concept. While the observation of NEAs can be done in parallel, the precursor missions of the the next phase can be launched in short intervals, giving time for technical corrections and upgrades. In this way a continuous data flow is established and there are no idle times. For our purpose Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) seem to be a favorable choice for the following reasons: They have frequent closeencounters to Earth, their minimum orbit intersection distance is less than 0.05 AU (Astronomic Units) and they have diameters exceeding 150 meters. The necessary velocity change (delta V) for a spaceship is below 12 km/s to reach the PHA. The authors propose to modify the orbits of the chosen PHAs by orbital maneuvers from solar orbits to stable Earth orbits beyond the Moon. To change the orbits of these celestial bodies it is necessary to develop advanced propulsion systems. They must be able to deliver high

  12. Simulation of the low earth orbital atomic oxygen interaction with materials by means of an oxygen ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Steuber, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is the predominant species in low-Earth orbit between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km. These highly reactive atoms are a result of photodissociation of diatomic oxygen molecules from solar photons having a wavelength less than or equal to 2430A. Spacecraft in low-Earth orbit collide with atomic oxygen in the 3P ground state at impact energies of approximately 4.2 to 4.5 eV. As a consequence, organic materials previously used for high altitude geosynchronous spacecraft are severely oxidized in the low-Earth orbital environment. The evaluation of materials durability to atomic oxygen requires ground simulation of this environment to cost effectively screen materials for durability. Directed broad beam oxygen sources are necessary to evaluate potential spacecraft materials performance before and after exposure to the simulated low-Earth orbital environment. This paper presents a description of a low energy, broad oxygen ion beam source used to simulate the low-Earth orbital atomic oxygen environment. The results of materials interaction with this beam and comparison with actual in-space tests of the same meterials will be discussed. Resulting surface morphologies appear to closely replicate those observed in space tests.

  13. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  14. Technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefeli, R. C.; Littler, E. G.; Hurley, J. B.; Winter, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Areas of advanced technology that are either critical or offer significant benefits to the development of future Earth-orbit transportation systems were identified. Technology assessment was based on the application of these technologies to fully reusable, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle concepts with horizontal landing capability. Study guidelines included mission requirements similar to space shuttle, an operational capability begining in 1995, and main propulsion to be advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. Also evaluated was the technical and economic feasibility of this class of SSTO concepts and the comparative features of three operational take-off modes, which were vertical boost, horizontal sled launch, and horizontal take-off with subsequent inflight fueling. Projections of both normal and accelerated technology growth were made. Figures of merit were derived to provide relative rankings of technology areas. The influence of selected accelerated areas on vehicle design and program costs was analyzed by developing near-optimum point designs.

  15. A geostationary Earth orbit satellite model using Easy Java Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Hwee Goh, Giam

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic 3D view and associated learning in the real world; (2) comparative visualization of permanent geostationary satellites; (3) examples of non-geostationary orbits of different rotation senses, periods and planes; and (4) an incorrect physics model for conceptual discourse. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the computer model useful in their own classes.

  16. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  17. Analyses of space environment effects on active fiber optic links orbited aboard the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Monarski, T. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the 'Preliminary Analysis of WL Experiment no. 701, Space Environment Effects on Operating Fiber Optic Systems,' is correlated with space simulated post retrieval terrestrial studies performed on the M0004 experiment. Temperature cycling measurements were performed on the active optical data links for the purpose of assessing link signal to noise ratio and bit error rate performance some 69 months following the experiment deployment in low Earth orbit. The early results indicate a high correlation between pre-orbit, orbit, and post-orbit functionality of the first known and longest space demonstration of operating fiber optic systems.

  18. The solar-flare induced earth's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.; Han, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    A composite numerical simulation model developed from a series of MHD models was used to compute the solar-flare-generated disturbances of physical parameters, such as density, temperature, velocity, and magnetic field from the solar surface (i.e., the photospheric level) to the earth's environment. It is shown that the disturbed earth's environment at high latitudes can be approximated by starting with the knowledge of the occurrence and the strength of a solar flare, then simulating the evolutionary consequences of the solar disturbance through interplanetary space up to and through the magnetosphere.

  19. Low Earth Orbit satellite/terrestrial mobile service compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheriff, Ray E.; Gardiner, John G.

    1993-01-01

    Currently the geostationary type of satellite is the only one used to provide commercial mobile-satellite communication services. Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite systems are now being proposed as a future alternative. By the implementation of LEO satellite systems, predicted at between 5 and 8 years time, mobile space/terrestrial technology will have progressed to the third generation stage of development. This paper considers the system issues that will need to be addressed when developing a dual mode terminal, enabling access to both terrestrial and LEO satellite systems.

  20. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D R; Joosten, B J; Lo, M W; Ford, K M; Hansen, R J

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration.

  1. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D R; Joosten, B J; Lo, M W; Ford, K M; Hansen, R J

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration. PMID:14649260

  2. Solar Effects of Low-Earth Orbit objects in ORDEM 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P.; Kelley, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Variances in atmospheric density are directly related to the variances in solar flux intensity between 11- year solar cycles. The Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0) uses a solar flux table as input for calculating orbital lifetime of intact and debris objects in Low-Earth Orbit. Long term projections in solar flux activity developed by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) extend the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space Environment Center (NOAA/SEC) daily historical flux values with a 5-year projection. For purposes of programmatic scheduling, the Q2 2009 solar flux table was chosen for ORDEM 3.0. Current solar flux activity shows that the current solar cycle has entered a period of lower solar flux intensity than previously forecasted in 2009. This results in a deviation of the true orbital debris environment propagation in ORDEM 3.0. In this paper, we present updated orbital debris populations in LEO using the latest solar flux values. We discuss the effects on recent breakup events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test and the Iridium 33 / Cosmos 2251 accidental collision. Justifications for chosen solar flux tables are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Bulk Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit and Earth Escape Trajectories Using the Numit 1-D Charging Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2007-01-01

    The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.

  4. Two Earth-sized planets orbiting Kepler-20.

    PubMed

    Fressin, Francois; Torres, Guillermo; Rowe, Jason F; Charbonneau, David; Rogers, Leslie A; Ballard, Sarah; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Bryson, Stephen T; Buchhave, Lars A; Ciardi, David R; Désert, Jean-Michel; Dressing, Courtney D; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B; Gautier, Thomas N; Henze, Christopher E; Holman, Matthew J; Howard, Andrew; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Quinn, Samuel N; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Seager, Sara; Barclay, Thomas; Mullally, Fergal; Seader, Shawn E; Still, Martin; Twicken, Joseph D; Thompson, Susan E; Uddin, Kamal

    2012-02-01

    Since the discovery of the first extrasolar giant planets around Sun-like stars, evolving observational capabilities have brought us closer to the detection of true Earth analogues. The size of an exoplanet can be determined when it periodically passes in front of (transits) its parent star, causing a decrease in starlight proportional to its radius. The smallest exoplanet hitherto discovered has a radius 1.42 times that of the Earth's radius (R(⊕)), and hence has 2.9 times its volume. Here we report the discovery of two planets, one Earth-sized (1.03R(⊕)) and the other smaller than the Earth (0.87R(⊕)), orbiting the star Kepler-20, which is already known to host three other, larger, transiting planets. The gravitational pull of the new planets on the parent star is too small to measure with current instrumentation. We apply a statistical method to show that the likelihood of the planetary interpretation of the transit signals is more than three orders of magnitude larger than that of the alternative hypothesis that the signals result from an eclipsing binary star. Theoretical considerations imply that these planets are rocky, with a composition of iron and silicate. The outer planet could have developed a thick water vapour atmosphere. PMID:22186831

  5. Magnetically levitated space elevator to low-earth orbit.

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J. R.; Mulcahy, T. M.

    2001-07-02

    The properties of currently available NbTi superconductor and carbon-fiber structural materials enable the possibility of constructing a magnetically levitated space elevator from the earth's surface up to an altitude of {approx} 200 km. The magnetic part of the elevator consists of a long loop of current-carrying NbTi, composed of one length that is attached to the earth's surface in an east-west direction and a levitated-arch portion. The critical current density of NbTi is sufficiently high that these conductors will stably levitate in the earth's magnetic field. The magnetic self-field from the loop increases the levitational force and for some geometries assists levitational stability. The 200-km maximum height of the levitated arch is limited by the allowable stresses of the structural material. The loop is cryogenically cooled with helium, and the system utilizes intermediate pumping and cooling stations along both the ground and the levitated portion of the loop, similar to other large terrestrial cryogenic systems. Mechanically suspended from the basic loop is an elevator structure, upon which mass can be moved between the earth's surface and the top of the loop by a linear electric motor or other mechanical or electrical means. At the top of the loop, vehicles may be accelerated to orbital velocity or higher by rocket motors, electromagnetic propulsion, or hybrid methods.

  6. Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets Orbiting Other Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, Sarah; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of potentially rocky planets in the habitable zone (HZ) have been detected by Kepler as well as ground-based searches. The type of host star influences our ability to detect atmospheric features with future space- and ground-based telescopes like JWST and E-ELT. We present a complete suit of stellar models as well as model atmospheres for an Earth-analogue planets in their HZ for stellar effective temperature from Teff = 2300K to 7000K, sampling the entire FGKM stellar type range. The UV emission from a planet's host star dominates the photochemistry and thus the resultant observable spectral features of the planet. Using the latest UV spectra obtained by Hubble as well as IUE, we model the effect of activity on Earth-like planets. We focus on the primary detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely: H2O, O3, CH4, N2O and CH3Cl. We model the emergent as well as transit spectra of Earth-analogue planets orbiting our grid of FGKM stars in the VIS/NIR (0.4 - 4 microns) and the IR (5 - 20 microns) range as input for future missions like JWST and concepts like Darwin/TPF.

  7. Two Earth-sized planets orbiting Kepler-20.

    PubMed

    Fressin, Francois; Torres, Guillermo; Rowe, Jason F; Charbonneau, David; Rogers, Leslie A; Ballard, Sarah; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Bryson, Stephen T; Buchhave, Lars A; Ciardi, David R; Désert, Jean-Michel; Dressing, Courtney D; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B; Gautier, Thomas N; Henze, Christopher E; Holman, Matthew J; Howard, Andrew; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Quinn, Samuel N; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Seager, Sara; Barclay, Thomas; Mullally, Fergal; Seader, Shawn E; Still, Martin; Twicken, Joseph D; Thompson, Susan E; Uddin, Kamal

    2011-12-20

    Since the discovery of the first extrasolar giant planets around Sun-like stars, evolving observational capabilities have brought us closer to the detection of true Earth analogues. The size of an exoplanet can be determined when it periodically passes in front of (transits) its parent star, causing a decrease in starlight proportional to its radius. The smallest exoplanet hitherto discovered has a radius 1.42 times that of the Earth's radius (R(⊕)), and hence has 2.9 times its volume. Here we report the discovery of two planets, one Earth-sized (1.03R(⊕)) and the other smaller than the Earth (0.87R(⊕)), orbiting the star Kepler-20, which is already known to host three other, larger, transiting planets. The gravitational pull of the new planets on the parent star is too small to measure with current instrumentation. We apply a statistical method to show that the likelihood of the planetary interpretation of the transit signals is more than three orders of magnitude larger than that of the alternative hypothesis that the signals result from an eclipsing binary star. Theoretical considerations imply that these planets are rocky, with a composition of iron and silicate. The outer planet could have developed a thick water vapour atmosphere.

  8. Impact of Ionosphere on GPS-based Precise Orbit Determination of Low Earth Orbiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, D.; Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Meyer, U.; Schaer, S.

    2015-12-01

    Deficiencies in geodetic products derived from the orbital trajectories of Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites determined by GPS-based Precise Orbit Determination (POD) were identified in recent years. The precise orbits of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission are, e.g., severely affected by an increased position noise level over the geomagnetic poles and spurious signatures along the Earth's geomagnetic equator (see Fig. 1, which shows the carrier phase residuals of a reduced-dynamic orbit determination for GOCE in m). Such degradations may directly map into the gravity fields recovered from the orbits. They are related to a disturbed GPS signal propagation through the Earth's ionosphere and indicate that the GPS observation model and/or the data pre-processing need to be improved. While GOCE was the first mission where severe ionosphere-related problems became obvious, the GPS-based LEO POD of satellites of the more recent missions Swarm and Sentinel-1A turn out to be affected, as well. We characterize the stochastic and systematic behavior of the ionosphere by analyzing GPS data collected by the POD antennas of various LEO satellites covering a broad altitude range (e.g., GRACE, GOCE and Swarm) and for periods covering significant parts of an entire solar cycle, which probe substantially different ionosphere conditions. The information may provide the basis for improvements of data pre-processing to cope with the ionosphere-induced problems of LEO POD. The performance of cycle slip detection can, e.g., be degraded by large changes of ionospheric refraction from one measurement epoch to the next. Geographically resolved information on the stochastic properties of the ionosphere above the LEOs provide more realistic threshold values for cycle slip detection algorithms. Removing GPS data showing large ionospheric variations is a crude method to mitigate the ionosphere-induced artifacts in orbit and gravity field products

  9. PôDET: A Centre for Earth Dynamical Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, D.; Deleflie, F.

    2013-11-01

    The monitoring of the Earth space environment has gained some importance these last decades, in particular at the European level, partly because the phenomenon which origin come from space can have socio-economic consequences; and also because our understanding of those phenomenon - their associated prediction and risks - is still limited. For instance, the Space Situational Awareness programme (SSA) at ESA has set up in 2013 a centre and network for aspects connected to space debris (SST), to space weather (SW), and to near-Earth objects (NEO). At IMCCE, the Pôle sur la dynamique de l'environnement terrestre} (PODET, \\url{podet.imcce.fr}) for the Earth dynamical environment is studying effects and prediction for natural and artificial objects gravitating in the Earth vicinity. These studies englobe near-Earth objects, asteroids, comets, meteoroids, meteorite streams, and space debris. For all object types that are concerned, a general scheme of a functional analysis has been developed. It encompasses data acquisition with dedicated observations--essentially astrometric--or database queries, orbit determination or adjustment, prediction and ephemerides, and eventually impact probability computation and data dissemination. We develop here the general context of this action, the PôDET project, its scientific objectives, interaction with other disciplines, and the development in progress for dedicated tools.

  10. Earth environment and Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K

    1994-07-01

    The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities, CEEF, one of the Environmental Time Machine, is now planning to be constructed in the northern part of Japan with an eye to study the effect of atomic power industries on the local environment. This CEEF can be used not only for investigating the environmental problems related with atomic power industries but also for various environmental problems such as the habitation in lunar & Mars bases and the development of mathematical model to predict the change and change rate of earth parameters. Researches on earth environment and earth system science are discussed with use of CEEF. Preliminary experiments using a small growth chamber showed different results from those estimated by Simple Biosphere Model being used in the climate estimation. PMID:11539517

  11. Structures technology project summary: Earth orbiting platforms program area of the space platforms technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the structures technology for the Earth orbiting platforms program. The objective of the work is to develop component and system level structural concepts and design methods to enable in-space construction and deployment of large platform structures in low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous orbit (GEO) including primary platform structures, reflectors and antenna, and habitat and storage modules.

  12. Earth-to-Orbit Education Program 'Makes Science Cool'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this photograph, Jeff Alden (left) and Justin O'Cornor, two middle school students at Lane Middle School in Portland, Oregon are demonstrating their Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Design Challenge project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Jeff and Justin, who are just a couple of 'typical teens,' have been spending their time tackling some of the same challenges NASA engineers face when designing propulsion systems at MSFC. The ETO Design Challenge is a hands-on educational program, targeted to middle school students, in which students are assigned a project engaging in related design challenges in their classrooms under the supervision of their teachers. The project is valuable because it can be used by any student and any teacher, even those without technical backgrounds. Students in 12 states: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Missouri, Montana, New York, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington, are taking part in the MSFC's Earth-to-Orbit program. NASA uses such programs to support educational excellence while participating in educational outreach programs through centers around the country. The Oregon students' teacher, Joanne Fluvog, commented, 'the biggest change I've seen is in the students' motivation and their belief in their ability to think.' Both Justin and Jeff said being involved in a real engineering project has made them realize that 'science is cool.'

  13. Earth-to-Orbit Education Program 'Makes Science Cool'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this photograph, students from all over the country gathered and discussed their Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Design Challenge project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. These students who are just 'typical teens,' have been spending their time tackling some of the same challenges NASA engineers face when designing propulsion systems at MSFC. The ETO Design Challenge is a hands-on educational program, targeted to middle school students, in which students are assigned a project engaging in related design challenges in their classrooms under the supervision of their teachers. The project is valuable because it can be used by any student, and any teacher, even those without technical backgrounds. Student in 12 states: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Missouri, Montana, New York, Ohio, Ternessee, Virginia, and Washington, are taking part in MSFC's Earth-to-Orbit program. NASA uses such programs to support educational excellence while participating in educational outreach programs through centers around the country. One of the students' teachers, Joanne Fluvog, commented, 'the biggest change I've seen is in the students' motivation and their belief in their ability to think.' Justin O'Connor and Jeff Alden, students of Lane Middle School in Portland, Oregon, participated in the ETO program and said being involved in a real engineering project has made them realize that 'science is cool.'

  14. Radiation measured with passive dosimeters in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Weyland, M.

    begin center Radiation Measured with Passive Dosimeters in Low Earth Orbit end center begin center D Zhou 1 2 E Semones 1 R Gaza 1 2 M Weyland 1 end center begin center 1 Johnson Space Center - NASA 2101 Nasa Road 1 Houston 77058 USA end center begin center 2 Universities Space Research Association 2101 Nasa Parkway Houston 77058 USA end center begin center Abstract end center The linear energy transfer LET of particles in low Earth orbit LEO is extended from sim 0 1 to sim 1000 keV mu m water The best passive dosimeters for the radiation measurement are thermoluminescence dosimeters TLDs or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters OSLDs for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors PNTDs for high LET Radiation quantities fluence absorbed dose dose equivalent and quality factor were measured with the passive dosimeters composed of TLDs OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs for STS-114 mission This paper introduces the operation principles for TLDs OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs describes the method to combine the results measured by TLDs OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs and presents the results measured by different dosimeters for different LET band and that combined for all LET

  15. An Earth Orbiting Satellite Service and Repair Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Andrew; Cardoza, Mike; Chen, John; Daley, Gunter; Frizzell, Andy; Linton, Richard; Rast, Wayne

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design was produced for the Geosynchronous Satellite Servicing Platform (GSSP), an orbital facility capable of repairing and servicing satellites in geosynchronous orbit. The GSSP is a man-tended platform, which consists of a habitation module, operations module, service bay and truss assembly. This design review includes an analysis of life support systems, thermal and power requirements, robotic and automated systems, control methods and navigation, and communications systems. The GSSP will utilize existing technology available at the time of construction, focusing mainly on modifying and integrating existing systems. The entire facility, along with two satellite retrieval vehicles (SRV), will be placed in geosynchronous orbit by the Advanced Launch System. The SRV will be used to ferry satellites to and from the GSSP. Technicians will be transferred from Earth to the GSSP and back in an Apollo-derived Crew Transfer Capsule (CTC). These missions will use advanced telerobotic equipment to inspect and service satellites. Four of these missions are tentatively scheduled per year. At this rate, the GSSP will service over 650 satelites during the projected 25 year lifespan.

  16. Orbital Drivers of Climate Change on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A. P.

    Oscillations of orbital elements and spin axis orientation affect the climate of both Earth and Mars by redistributing solar power both latitudinally and seasonally, often resulting in secondary changes in reflected and emitted radiation (radiative forcing). Multiple feedback loops between different climatic elements operate on both planets, with the result that climate response is generally nonlinear with simple changes in solar energy. Both insolation history and geochemical climate proxies can be treated as time series data, and analyzed in terms of component frequencies. The correspondence between frequencies measured in climate proxies and orbital oscillations is the key to relating orbital cause and climatic effect. Discussions of both Earth and Mars focus on the last 5-10 m.y., because this is the period in which the orbital history and geologic record are best understood. The terrestrial climate is an extraordinarily complex system, and a vast amount of data is available for analysis. While the geologic record strongly supports the role of Milankovitch cycles as the underlying cause of glacial cycles, orbitally driven insolation changes alone cannot explain the observations in detail. Early Pleistocene glacial cycles responded linearly to the 41-k.y. oscillations in obliquity. However, over the last 1 m.y., glacial/interglacial oscillations have become more extreme as the climate has cooled. Long cooling intervals marked by an oscillating buildup of ice sheets are now followed by brief, intense periods of warming. At the same time, glacial/interglacial cycles have shifted from 41 k.y. to ~100 k.y. No such changes occurred in the solar forcing due to orbital oscillations. While orbital oscillations still appear to pace glacial cycles, their subtle interplay with ice-sheet dynamics and shifts in ocean circulation have come to dominate the late Pleistocene climate system. In contrast to Earth, the martian climate is ostensibly a much simpler system about which

  17. The Near-Earth Plasma Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Robert F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the plasma environment near the earth is provided. We describe how the near-earth plasma is formed, including photo-ionization from solar photons and impact ionization at high latitudes from energetic particles. We review the fundamental characteristics of the earth's plasma environment, with emphasis on the ionosphere and its interactions with the extended neutral atmosphere. Important processes that control ionospheric physics at low, middle, and high latitudes are discussed. The general dynamics and morphology of the ionized gas at mid- and low-latitudes are described including electrodynamic contributions from wind-driven dynamos, tides, and planetary-scale waves. The unique properties of the near-earth plasma and its associated currents at high latitudes are shown to depend on precipitating auroral charged particles and strong electric fields which map earthward from the magnetosphere. The upper atmosphere is shown to have profound effects on the transfer of energy and momentum between the high-latitude plasma and the neutral constituents. The article concludes with a discussion of how the near-earth plasma responds to magnetic storms associated with solar disturbances.

  18. Small asteroid fragments in earth-crossing orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duha, J.; Afonso, G. B.

    2014-10-01

    The meteorite that fell in Chelyabinsk, Russia, naturally made many people think it could be a smaller companion of the Asteroid 2012 DA14, which passed close to Earth on that same day. Some asteroid specialists discarded this hypothesis for two main reasons: The meteorite was too far away from the asteroid, because the collision happened sixteen hours before the asteroid passed close to Earth. Moreover, it was not traveling, similarly to asteroid DA14, from south to north. However the possibility of the meteorite being a companion of the Asteroid 2012 DA14 cannot be completely discarded. The Asteroid 2012 DA14, with a diameter of 45 meters, is very small. It can be considered an asteroids fragment, which is usually accompanied by other smaller fragments, scattered in space, practically in the same orbit and possibly being separated from each other by long distances. Assuming that 2012 DA14 is not an isolated asteroid, but the biggest remaining fragment from a previous impact, we developed a model to study the dynamics of an asteroid fragment, similar to DA14, and its companions, the smaller fragments. This dynamically interesting encounter with planet Earth is addressed and the orbital changes that could explain the Chelyabinsk event are discussed. As a result we find that, there could be a collision of a meteorite before, during, or after the Asteroid 2012 DA14 passing by, the same way that happens with meteorite showers, which can last several days. Therefore, it would be very interesting to look for asteroid fragments also, close to the larger fragments, more easily found.

  19. Surface and atmosphere parameter maps from earth-orbiting radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that an earth-orbiting electrically scanned microwave radiometer (ESMR) is capable of inferring the extent, concentration, and age of sea ice; the extent, concentration, and thickness of lake ice; rainfall rates over oceans; surface wind speeds over open water; particle size distribution in the deep snow cover of continental ice sheets; and soil moisture content in unvegetated fields. Most other features of the surface of the earth and its atmosphere require multispectral imaging techniques to unscramble the combined contributions of the atmosphere and the surface. Multispectral extraction of surface parameters is analyzed on the basis of a pertinent equation in terms of the observed brightness temperature, the emissivity of the surface which depends on wavelength and various parameters, the sensible temperature of the surface, and the total atmospheric opacity which is also wavelength dependent. Implementation of the multispectral technique is examined. Properties of the surface of the earth and its atmosphere to be determined from a scanning multichannel microwave radiometer are tabulated.

  20. Hardware in-the-Loop Demonstration of Real-Time Orbit Determination in High Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Leitner, Jesse; Carpenter, J. Russell; Gaylor, Dave

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to assess the real-time orbit determination accuracy of GPS-based navigation in a number of different high Earth orbital regimes. Measurements collected from a GPS receiver (connected to a GPS radio frequency (RF) signal simulator) were processed in a navigation filter in real-time, and resulting errors in the estimated states were assessed. For the most challenging orbit simulated, a 12 hour Molniya orbit with an apogee of approximately 39,000 km, mean total position and velocity errors were approximately 7 meters and 3 mm/s respectively. The study also makes direct comparisons between the results from the above hardware in-the-loop tests and results obtained by processing GPS measurements generated from software simulations. Care was taken to use the same models and assumptions in the generation of both the real-time and software simulated measurements, in order that the real-time data could be used to help validate the assumptions and models used in the software simulations. The study makes use of the unique capabilities of the Formation Flying Test Bed at GSFC, which provides a capability to interface with different GPS receivers and to produce real-time, filtered orbit solutions even when less than four satellites are visible. The result is a powerful tool for assessing onboard navigation performance in a wide range of orbital regimes, and a test-bed for developing software and procedures for use in real spacecraft applications.

  1. Modelling the near-Earth space environment using LDEF data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Dale R.; Coombs, Cassandra R.; Crowell, Lawrence B.; Watts, Alan J.

    1992-01-01

    Near-Earth space is a dynamic environment, that is currently not well understood. In an effort to better characterize the near-Earth space environment, this study compares the results of actual impact crater measurement data and the Space Environment (SPENV) Program developed in-house at POD, to theoretical models established by Kessler (NASA TM-100471, 1987) and Cour-Palais (NASA SP-8013, 1969). With the continuing escalation of debris there will exist a definite hazard to unmanned satellites as well as manned operations. Since the smaller non-trackable debris has the highest impact rate, it is clearly necessary to establish the true debris environment for all particle sizes. Proper comprehension of the near-Earth space environment and its origin will permit improvement in spacecraft design and mission planning, thereby reducing potential disasters and extreme costs. Results of this study directly relate to the survivability of future spacecraft and satellites that are to travel through and/or reside in low Earth orbit (LEO). More specifically, these data are being used to: (1) characterize the effects of the LEO micrometeoroid an debris environment on satellite designs and components; (2) update the current theoretical micrometeoroid and debris models for LEO; (3) help assess the survivability of spacecraft and satellites that must travel through or reside in LEO, and the probability of their collision with already resident debris; and (4) help define and evaluate future debris mitigation and disposal methods. Combined model predictions match relatively well with the LDEF data for impact craters larger than approximately 0.05 cm, diameter; however, for smaller impact craters, the combined predictions diverge and do not reflect the sporadic clouds identified by the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) aboard LDEF. The divergences cannot currently be explained by the authors or model developers. The mean flux of small craters (approximately 0.05 cm diameter) is

  2. Impact of the ionosphere on GPS-based precise orbit determination of Low Earth Orbiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    GPS-derived kinematic precise Swarm orbits are significantly affected by increased position noise over the geomagnetic poles and spurious signatures along the geomagnetic equator. The latter deficiencies were identified for the first time for the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission and are attributed to the distortion of the GPS carrier signal when propagating through portions of the Earth's ionosphere with a large free electron content. Via the GPS-derived kinematic Swarm positions, the spurious signatures along the geomagnetic equator map directly into the derived gravity fields. This was already the case for GOCE and obviously is also true for Swarm. To identify the root cause of the problem, the stochastic and deterministic behavior of the ionosphere is characterized by analyzing data collected by the GPS receivers on various LEO satellites. We compare in particular the performance of the Swarm and the GRACE receivers, because no obvious degradations occur in GRACE orbit and gravity field solutions. Removing GPS data with large ionospheric variations mitigates the ionosphere-induced artifacts in orbits and gravity fields. We illustrate the impact of this measure on the Swarm orbit and gravity field solutions. Making use of the geographically resolved ionosphere characteristics, e.g., to establish better data weighting schemes, results in a better POD performance for LEO satellites.

  3. Technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems: Summary report. [single stage to orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefeli, R. C.; Littler, E. G.; Hurley, J. B.; Winter, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Areas of advanced technology that are either critical or offer significant benefits to the development of future Earth-orbit transportation systems were identified. Technology assessment was based on the application of these technologies to fully reusable, single-state-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle concepts with horizontal landing capability. Study guidelines included mission requirements similar to space shuttle, an operational capability beginning in 1995, and main propulsion to be advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. The technical and economic feasibility of this class of SSTO concepts were evaluated as well as the comparative features of three operational take-off modes, which were vertical boost, horizontal sled launch, and horizontal take-off with subsequent inflight fueling. Projections of both normal and accelerated technology growth were made. Figures of merit were derived to provide relative rankings of technology areas. The influence of selected accelerated areas on vehicle design and program costs was analyzed by developing near-optimum point designs.

  4. A Major Threat of Satellite Radio Systems in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R.

    1999-01-01

    Over the last two years several satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous orbit (GEO) have experienced serious or catastrophic failures including interruption of desired communications due especially to non linear interference.

  5. Application of X-Ray Pulsar Navigation: A Characterization of the Earth Orbit Trade Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne Hong

    2016-01-01

    The potential for pulsars as a navigation source has been studied since their discovery in 1967. X-ray pulsar navigation (XNAV) is a celestial navigation system that uses the consistent timing nature of x-ray photons from millisecond pulsars (MSP) to perform space navigation. By comparing the detected arrival of x-ray photons to a reference database of expected pulsar light-curve timing models, one can infer a range and range rate measurement based on light time delay. Much of the challenge of XNAV comes from the faint signal, availability, and distant nature of pulsars. This is a study of potential pulsar XNAV measurements to measure extended Kalman filter (EKF) tracking performance with a wide trade space of bounded Earth orbits, using a simulation of existing x-ray detector space hardware. An example of an x-ray detector for XNAV is the NASA Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation (SEXTANT) mission, a technology demonstration of XNAV set to perform on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2016early 2017. XNAV hardware implementation is driven by trajectory and environmental influences which add noise to the x-ray pulse signal. In a closed Earth orbit, the radiation environment can exponentially increase the signal noise from x-ray pulsar sources, decreasing the quality and frequency of measurements. The SEXTANT mission in particular improves on the signal to noise ratio by focusing an array of 56 x-ray silicon drift detectors at one pulsar target at a time. This reduces timing glitches and other timing noise contributions from ambient x-ray sources to within a 100 nanosecond resolution. This study also considers the SEXTANT scheduling challenges inherent in a single target observation. Finally, as the navigation sources are now relatively inertial targets, XNAV measurements are also subject to periods of occultation from various celestial bodies. This study focuses on the characterization of these drivers in closed Earth orbits and is not a

  6. Application of X-Ray Pulsar Navigation: A Characterization of the Earth Orbit Trade Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The potential for pulsars as a navigation source has been studied since their discovery in 1967. X-ray pulsar navigation (XNAV) is a celestial navigation system that uses the consistent timing nature of x-ray photons from milli-second pulsars (MSP) to perform space navigation. By comparing the detected arrival of x-ray photons to a reference database of expected pulsar lightcurve timing models, one can infer a range and range rate measurement based on light time delay. Much of the challenge of XNAV comes from the faint signal, availability, and distant nature of pulsars. This is a study of potential pulsar XNAV measurements to measure extended Kalman filter (EKF) tracking performance with a wide trade space of bounded Earth orbits, using a simulation of existing x-ray detector space hardware. An example of an x-ray detector for XNAV is the NASA Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation (SEXTANT) mission, a technology demonstration of XNAV set to perform on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2016early 2017. XNAV hardware implementation is driven by trajectory and environmental influences which add noise to the x-ray pulse signal. In a closed Earth orbit, the radiation environment can exponentially increase the signal noise from x-ray pulsar sources, decreasing the quality and frequency of measurements. The SEXTANT mission in particular improves on the signal to noise ratio by focusing an array of 56 x-ray silicon drift detectors at one pulsar target at a time. This reduces timing glitches and other timing noise contributions from ambient x-ray sources to within a 100 nanosecond resolution. This study also considers the SEXTANT scheduling challenges inherent in a single target observation. Finally, as the navigation sources are now relatively inertial targets, XNAV measurements are also subject to periods of occultation from various celestial bodies. This study focuses on the characterization of these drivers in closed Earth orbits and is not a

  7. Surveying the earth's environment from space - Spectral, areal, temporal coverage trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is given to various areas of satellite applications to monitoring the earth's environment. These trends primarily concern spectral, areal, and temporal coverage. Various environmental monitors are discussed in terms of derived economic benefits. Several types of remote sensors for earth applications are described, noting spectral channels, resolution cell size, swath width, and data rate. A sample environmental monitoring system is presented which includes five geostationary satellites, and three or four low earth orbit spacecraft

  8. Optimization of Return Trajectories for Orbital Transfer Vehicle between Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funase, Ryu; Tsuda, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, optimum trajectories in Earth Transfer Orbit (ETO) for a lunar transportation system are proposed. This paper aims at improving the payload ratio of the reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV), which transports the payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar Low Orbit (LLO) and returns to LEO. In ETO, we discuss ballistic flight using chemical propulsion, multi-impulse flight using electrical propulsion, and aero-assisted flight using aero-brake. The feasibility of the OTV is considered.

  9. Extrasolar Giant Planet in Earth-like Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    companion . iota Hor b has an orbital period of 320 days. From this period, the known mass of the central star (1.03 solar masses) and the amplitude of the velocity changes, a mass of at least 2.26 times that of planet Jupiter is deduced for the planet. It revolves around the host star in a somewhat elongated orbit (the eccentricity is 0.16). If it were located in our own solar system, this orbit would stretch from just outside the orbit of Venus (at 117 million km or 0.78 Astronomical Units from the Sun) to just outside the orbit of the Earth (the point farthest from the Sun, at 162 million km or 1.08 Astronomical Units) The new giant planet is thus moving in an orbit not unlike that of the Earth. In fact, of all the planets discovered so far, the orbit of iota Hor b is the most Earth-like. Also, with a spectral type of G0 V , its host star is quite similar to the Sun (G2 V). iota Hor b is, however, at least 720 times more massive than the Earth and it is probably more similar to planet Jupiter in our own solar system. While the radial velocity technique described above only determines a minimum value for the planet's mass, an analysis of the velocity with which the star turns around its own axis suggests that the true mass of iota Hor b is unlikely to be much higher. A difficult case Natural phenomena with periods near one solar year always present a particular challenge to astronomers. This is one of the reasons why it has been necessary to observe the iota Hor system for such a long time to be absolutely sure about the present result. First, special care must be taken to verify that the radial velocity variations found in the data are not an artefact of the Earth's movement around the Sun. In any case, the effect of this movement on the measurements must be accurately accounted for; it reaches about ± 30 km/sec over one year, i.e. much larger than the effect of the new planet. In the present case of iota Hor , this was thoroughly tested and any residual influence of

  10. Tracking target objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    DOEpatents

    De Vries, Willem H; Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J

    2014-10-14

    A system for tracking objects that are in earth orbit via a constellation or network of satellites having imaging devices is provided. An object tracking system includes a ground controller and, for each satellite in the constellation, an onboard controller. The ground controller receives ephemeris information for a target object and directs that ephemeris information be transmitted to the satellites. Each onboard controller receives ephemeris information for a target object, collects images of the target object based on the expected location of the target object at an expected time, identifies actual locations of the target object from the collected images, and identifies a next expected location at a next expected time based on the identified actual locations of the target object. The onboard controller processes the collected image to identify the actual location of the target object and transmits the actual location information to the ground controller.

  11. Fast oxygen atom studies related to low Earth orbit activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caledonia, G. E.; Krech, R. H.; Holtzclaw, K. W.; Sonnenfroh, D.

    1993-06-01

    The technique of laser induced gas breakdown to develop a high flux pulsed source of fast oxygen atoms (v = 5 to 12 km/s) is considered. The technique is also used to produce high velocity beams of N/N2 mixtures and can be extended to produce beams of other species. The fast oxygen atoms are of particular current interest since this is the dominant atmospheric species encountered by spacecraft operating in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The fast oxygen atom source has proven extremely versatile and is used to study a variety of gas-surface and gas-gas collision phenomena. The fast atom facility has reproducibly provided good comparison with LEO observations. Expanded programs involving material testing and measurement of O atom momentum and energy accommodation coefficients with surfaces are presently underway.

  12. Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

    1991-01-01

    This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

  13. Aneutronic fusion propulsion for earth-to-orbit and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Froning, H. David Jr.; Bussard, Robert W.

    1998-01-15

    Previous work by Bussard has indicated that certain aneutronic fusion rocket propulsion systems could enable establishment of self-supporting space colonies throughout the solar system at transportation costs less than one-tenth current costs to place satellites in orbit around earth. This paper shows that such colonization costs would not significantly increase, even if fusion propulsion performance that is significantly less than that estimated by Bussard would cause increase in the masses and flight times of some of the vehicles. Costs for some colonization missions would significantly increase if colonization vehicles could not be used for other space missions. But even under such circumstances, transportation costs would be extraordinarily low compared to those currently envisioned for solar system exploration.

  14. Medical constraints in spaceflight: Venturing beyond low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fondy, Susan R. E.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has generated a list of thirty-three gaps in medical capability that need to be addressed in order to extend the current model of medical care used in spaceflight in low-earth orbit to a model of medical care that will be conducive to exploration space missions. The intent of this project was to identify organizations that are doing research and development or have established products that will fulfill the closure criteria of these gaps, enabling NASA researchers to focus on those remaining gaps for which no product exists. The research conducted for this capstone identified existing capabilities relevant to the majority of the gaps within the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) portion of the HRP integrated research plan presented in NASA HRP-47065 Rev B.

  15. Precision positioning of earth orbiting remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melbourne, William G.; Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    Decimeter tracking accuracy is sought for a number of precise earth sensing satellites to be flown in the 1990's. This accuracy can be achieved with techniques which use the Global Positioning System (GPS) in a differential mode. A precisely located global network of GPS ground receivers and a receiver aboard the user satellite are needed, and all techniques simultaneously estimate the user and GPS satellite states. Three basic navigation approaches include classical dynamic, wholly nondynamic, and reduced dynamic or hybrid formulations. The first two are simply special cases of the third, which promises to deliver subdecimeter accuracy for dynamically unpredictable vehicles down to the lowest orbit altitudes. The potential of these techniques for tracking and gravity field recovery will be demonstrated on NASA's Topex satellite beginning in 1991. Applications to the Shuttle, Space Station, and dedicated remote sensing platforms are being pursued.

  16. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  17. Optical properties of water released in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, James A., II; Rall, David L.; Trowbridge, Christian A.; Kofsky, Irving L.; Viereck, Rodney A.

    1993-06-01

    Analysis of intensified video photographs of a twilight venting of excess water from the space shuttle showed that the approx. 1 mm diameter stream cavitationally fragments within about 1 m, forming two discrete-particle components and vapor. The images from nearby cameras are dominated by irregular, polydisperse water/ice droplets with sizes comparable with the venting orifice and outward velocity indistinguishable from that of the initially coherent liquid. In contrast the 2 1/2 km-long quasiconical trail imaged from a distant ground station consists of accompanying submicron ice spherules that were produced by partial recondensation of the overexpanded vacuum-evaporated water gas, which are sublimating at rates that we calculated from the measured falloff of axial sunlight-scatter radiance and the energy balance of progressively roughening ice at 329 km altitude; at low latitudes they cool to 180 K in less than 1 s, and their radii transition to the Rayleigh-scattering range in approx. 1 min. The very much larger fragmentation particles come to a slightly higher equilibrium temperature within approx. 2 min, and persist for a few earth orbits. These three components of the vented water (and other high vapor pressure liquids) radiate and scatter earthshine and solar photons, and the orbital-velocity molecules are also excited by collisions with the residual atmospheric gas, overlaying wide-angle contaminating foregrounds on remote optical sensing from onboard.

  18. Controllable ON-OFF adhesion for Earth orbit grappling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parness, Aaron; Hilgendorf, Tyler; Daniel, Phillip; Frost, Matt; White, Victor; Kennedy, Brett

    ON-OFF adhesives can benefit multiple Earth orbit applications by providing the capability to selectively anchor two surfaces together repeatedly and releasably without significant preload. Key to this new capability, targets will not need special preparation; ON-OFF adhesives can be used with cooperative and non-cooperative objects, like defunct satellites or space debris. Using an ON-OFF adhesive gripper allows large surfaces on a target to serve as potential grapple points, reducing the precision needed in the sensing and control throughout the grapple operation. A space-rated adhesive structure is presented that can be turned ON-OFF using a slight sliding motion. This adhesive mimics the geometry and performance characteristics of the adhesive structures found on the feet of gecko lizards. Results from adhesive testing on common orbital surfaces like solar panels, thermal blankets, composites, and painted surfaces are presented. Early environmental testing results from cold temperature and vacuum tests are also presented. Finally, the paper presents the design, fabrication, and preliminary testing of a gripping mechanism enabled by these ON-OFF adhesives in preparation for satellite-servicing applications. Adhesive levels range from near zero on rough surfaces to more than 75 kPa on smooth surfaces like glass.

  19. A Low Earth Orbit satellite marine communication system demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, T. Keith; Butt, Kenneth A.; Asmus, Ken W.

    1995-01-01

    An application of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite communications technology was investigated during a joint Canadian/American scientific expedition to the north pole in the summer of 1994. The Canadian ice breaker involved, was equipped with a store-and-forward LEO satellite terminal which was linked to a ground station in St. John's, Newfoundland, via the near-polar-orbiting satellite, HealthSat-l. The objective was to evaluate the performance of such a system while providing an alternate means of communications in the far north. The system performed well, given its inherent limitations. All 151 attempts to send data files to the ship were successful. Only two (2) of the 35 attempts to send files from the ship were unsuccessful. The files ranged in size from 0.1 to 60 Kbytes. In the high arctic, above 80 deg north, this system often provided the only practical means of data communications. This experiment demonstrated the potential of such a system for not-real-time communications with remote and/or mobile stations, and highlighted the many issues involved. This paper describes the project objectives, system configuration and experimental procedure used, related technical issues, trial results, future work, and conclusions.

  20. Direct Data Distribution From Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Fujikawa, Gene; Kunath, Richard R.; Nguyen, Nam T.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Spence, Rodney L.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is developing the space and ground segment technologies necessary to demonstrate a direct data distribution (1)3) system for use in space-to-ground communication links from spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) to strategically located tracking ground terminals. The key space segment technologies include a K-band (19 GHz) MMIC-based transmit phased array antenna, and a multichannel bandwidth- and power-efficient digital encoder/modulate with an aggregate data rate of 622 Mb/s. Along with small (1.8 meter), low-cost tracking terminals on the ground, the D3 system enables affordable distribution of data to the end user or archive facility through interoperability with commercial terrestrial telecommunications networks. The D3 system is applicable to both government and commercial science and communications spacecraft in LEO. The features and benefits of the D3 system concept are described. Starting with typical orbital characteristics, a set of baseline requirements for representative applications is developed, including requirements for onboard storage and tracking terminals, and sample link budgets are presented. Characteristics of the transmit array antenna and digital encoder/modulator are described. The architecture and components of the tracking terminal are described, including technologies for the next generation terminal. Candidate flights of opportunity for risk mitigation and space demonstration of the D3 features are identified.

  1. Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L.; Kozarev, K.; Dayeh, M. A.; Cucinotta, F.; Desai, M.; Golightly, M.; Hassler, D.; Hatcher, R.; Kim, M.-Y.; Posner, A.; PourArsalan, M.; Spence, H. E.; Squier, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are preparing to return humans to the Moon and setting the stage for exploration to Mars and beyond. However, it is unclear if long missions outside of low-Earth orbit can be accomplished with acceptable risk. The central objective of a new modeling project, the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Exposure Module (EMMREM), is to develop and validate a numerical module for characterizing time-dependent radiation exposure in the Earth-Moon-Mars and interplanetary space environments. EMMREM is being designed for broad use by researchers to predict radiation exposure by integrating over almost any incident particle distribution from interplanetary space. We detail here the overall structure of the EMMREM module and study the dose histories of the 2003 Halloween storm event and a June 2004 event. We show both the event histories measured at 1 AU and the evolution of these events at observer locations beyond 1 AU. The results are compared to observations at Ulysses. The model allows us to predict how the radiation environment evolves with radial distance from the Sun. The model comparison also suggests areas in which our understanding of the physics of particle propagation and energization needs to be improved to better forecast the radiation environment. Thus, we introduce the suite of EMMREM tools, which will be used to improve risk assessment models so that future human exploration missions can be adequately planned for.

  2. UVolution: Compared photochemistry of prebiotic organic compounds in low Earth orbit and in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yuan Yong; Fray, Nicolas; Coll, Patrice; Macari, Frédérique; Chaput, Didier; Raulin, François; Cottin, Hervé

    2010-08-01

    Solar UV radiation is a major source of energy for chemical evolution of organic materials in the Solar System. Therefore studies on the photostability of organic compounds in extraterrestrial environments are of prime importance for the understanding of the extraterrestrial origin of organic materials on Earth. A series of organic samples have been photolysed in Earth orbit during the ESA BIOPAN 6 mission (14-26/09/2007). Their photochemical lifetime has been measured and compared to results recorded in the laboratory using a lamp that simulates the solar radiation in the VUV domain. The half-lives at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun have been measured for glycine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, adenine, guanine, urea, carbon suboxide polymer ((C 3O 2) n) and HCN polymer. They range from a few days to a lower limit of a few tens of days for the most photoresistant (e.g. adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine). Lifetimes measured in terrestrial orbit are very different from those derived with laboratory experiments. These measurements confirm that it is difficult to simulate the solar spectrum below 200 nm in the laboratory. Results are discussed and highlight the necessity to conduct experiments in orbit, and for longer duration. It also appears that the laboratory measurements made in VUV must be extrapolated very cautiously to the different environments they are supposed to simulate.

  3. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  4. PLANECHG: Earth orbit to lunar orbit delta V estimation program. User and technical documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The PLANECNG computer program calculates velocities for Earth-to-Mooon and Moon-to-Earth trajectories. The flight to be analyzed originates in a circular orbit of any inclination and altitude about one of the bodies, and culminates in a circular orbit of any inclination and altitude about the other body. An intermedate delta V and plane change occurs at the Lunar Sphere of Influence (SOI), the region where the vehicle is near its lowest velocity in the trajectory, and therefore where it is able to make the plane change with the lowest delta V. A given flight may penetrate the SOI at a number of points. Each point has associated with it a unique set of delta V's and total velocity. The program displays the velocities, in matrix form, for a representative set of SOI penetration points. An SOI point is identified by projecting Lunar latitude and longitude onto the SOI. The points recorded for a given flight are defined by the user, who provides a starting longitude and latitude, and an increment for each. A matrix is built with 10 longitudes forming the columns and 19 latitudes forming the rows. This matrix is presented in six reports, each containing different velocity or node information in the body of the matrix.

  5. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.; Joosten, B. J.; Lo, M. W.; Ford, K. M.; Hansen, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. From Earth to Orbit: An assessment of transportation options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Blond, Edmund; Brill, Yvonne C.; Budiansky, Bernard; Cooper, Robert S.; Demisch, Wolfgang H.; Hawk, Clark W.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Mager, Artur

    1992-01-01

    The report assesses the requirements, benefits, technological feasibility, and roles of Earth-to-Orbit transportation systems and options that could be developed in support of future national space programs. Transportation requirements, including those for Mission-to-Planet Earth, Space Station Freedom assembly and operation, human exploration of space, space science missions, and other major civil space missions are examined. These requirements are compared with existing, planned, and potential launch capabilities, including expendable launch vehicles (ELV's), the Space Shuttle, the National Launch System (NLS), and new launch options. In addition, the report examines propulsion systems in the context of various launch vehicles. These include the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), the Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU), the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), existing expendable launch vehicle engines, and liquid-oxygen/hydrocarbon engines. Consideration is given to systems that have been proposed to accomplish the national interests in relatively cost effective ways, with the recognition that safety and reliability contribute to cost-effectiveness. Related resources, including technology, propulsion test facilities, and manufacturing capabilities are also discussed.

  7. From Earth to Orbit: An assessment of transportation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Blond, Edmund; Brill, Yvonne C.; Budiansky, Bernard; Cooper, Robert S.; Demisch, Wolfgang H.; Hawk, Clark W.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Mager, Artur

    The report assesses the requirements, benefits, technological feasibility, and roles of Earth-to-Orbit transportation systems and options that could be developed in support of future national space programs. Transportation requirements, including those for Mission-to-Planet Earth, Space Station Freedom assembly and operation, human exploration of space, space science missions, and other major civil space missions are examined. These requirements are compared with existing, planned, and potential launch capabilities, including expendable launch vehicles (ELV's), the Space Shuttle, the National Launch System (NLS), and new launch options. In addition, the report examines propulsion systems in the context of various launch vehicles. These include the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), the Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU), the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), existing expendable launch vehicle engines, and liquid-oxygen/hydrocarbon engines. Consideration is given to systems that have been proposed to accomplish the national interests in relatively cost effective ways, with the recognition that safety and reliability contribute to cost-effectiveness. Related resources, including technology, propulsion test facilities, and manufacturing capabilities are also discussed.

  8. Preparation, analysis, and release of simulated interplanetary grains into low earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.R.; Strong, I.B.; Kunkle, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Astronomical observations which reflect the optical and dynamical properties of interstellar and interplanetary grains are the primary means of identifying the shape, size, and the chemistry of extraterrestrial grain materials and is a major subject of this workshop. Except for recent samplings of extraterrestrial particles in near-Earth orbit and in the stratosphere, observations have been the only method of deducing the properties of extraterrestrial particles. Terrestrial laboratory experiments typically seek not to reproduce astrophysical conditions but to illuminate fundamental dust processes and properties which must be extrapolated to interesting astrophysical conditions. In this report, we discuss the formation and optical characterization of simulated interstellar and interplanetary dust with particular emphasis on studying the properties on irregularly shaped particles. We also discuss efforts to develop the techniques to allow dust experiments to be carried out in low-Earth orbit, thus extending the conditions under which dust experiments may be performed. The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Elucidate the optical properties, including scattering and absorption, of simulated interstellar grains including SiC, silicates, and carbon grains produced in the laboratory. (2) Develop the capabilities to release grains and volatile materials into the near-Earth environment and study their dynamics and optical properties. (3) Study the interaction of released materials with the near-Earth environment to elucidate grain behavior in astrophysical environments. Interaction of grains with their environment may, for example, lead to grain alignment or coagulation, which results in observable phenomena such as polarization of lighter or a change of the scattering properties of the grains.

  9. Orbit determination of highly elliptical Earth orbiters using improved Doppler data-processing modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A navigation error covariance analysis of four highly elliptical Earth orbits is described, with apogee heights ranging from 20,000 to 76,800 km and perigee heights ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 km. This analysis differs from earlier studies in that improved navigation data-processing modes were used to reduce the radio metric data. For this study, X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler data were assumed to be acquired from two Deep Space Network radio antennas and reconstructed orbit errors propagated over a single day. Doppler measurements were formulated as total-count phase measurements and compared to the traditional formulation of differenced-count frequency measurements. In addition, an enhanced data-filtering strategy was used, which treated the principal ground system calibration errors affecting the data as filter parameters. Results suggest that a 40- to 60-percent accuracy improvement may be achievable over traditional data-processing modes in reconstructed orbit errors, with a substantial reduction in reconstructed velocity errors at perigee. Historically, this has been a regime in which stringent navigation requirements have been difficult to meet by conventional methods.

  10. NASA's Program to Monitor Orbital Debris in the GEO Belt and the General Problem of Measuring Near-Earth Object Orbits: Similarities and Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals for NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office has been to accurately characterize the population of debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) environment. Most objects larger than about 1 meter in size are regularly tracked and catalogued by the US Space Surveillance System in the GEO regime. The consequence has been that most large intact GEO objects are tracked, but the vast majority of GEO debris fragments are not. Only in recent years have observations been dedicated to characterize the GEO debris population. NASA s efforts have concentrated on using wide field-of-view telescopes to make complete surveys of the GEO regime to better our statistical understanding of the GEO debris population. These telescopes operate in a staring mode, and only make limited short-arc measurements of the orbits. This information, while limited, allows the possibility of debiasing the observations and constructing statistical distributions of orbits in inclination and ascending node. Recent work suggests that we may be able to use statistical methods to estimate better orbit parameters despite the limited data. Both of these types of studies estimating statistical orbit distributions, and estimating accurate orbits using limited short-arc data have direct analogues in ongoing studies of near-Earth objects (NEO) such as asteroids and comets. This talk will describe the GEO study methods in use and being developed at NASA, and will discuss how such methods may or may not be applicable for NEO studies as well.

  11. Colors of Extreme Exo-Earth Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Siddharth; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has already detected rocky planets and several planetary candidates with minimum masses that are consistent with rocky planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. A low-resolution spectrum in the form of a color-color diagram of an exoplanet is likely to be one of the first post-detection quantities to be measured for the case of direct detection. In this poster, we explore potentially detectable surface features on rocky exoplanets and their connection to, and importance as, a habitat for extremophiles, as known on Earth. Extremophiles provide us with the minimum known envelope of environmental limits for life on our planet. The color of a planet reveals information on its properties, especially for surface features of rocky planets with clear atmospheres. We use filter photometry in the visible as a first step in the characterization of rocky exoplanets to prioritize targets for follow-up spectroscopy. Many surface environments on Earth have characteristic albedos and occupy a different color space in the visible waveband (0.4-0.9 microns) that can be distinguished remotely. These detectable surface features can be linked to the extreme niches that support extremophiles on Earth and provide a link between geomicrobiology and observational astronomy. This poster explores how filter photometry can serve as a first step in characterizing Earth-like exoplanets for an aerobic as well as an anaerobic atmosphere, thereby prioritizing targets to search for atmospheric biosignatures.

  12. Colors of extreme exo-Earth environments.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Siddharth; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has already detected rocky planets and several planetary candidates with minimum masses that are consistent with rocky planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. A low-resolution spectrum in the form of a color-color diagram of an exoplanet is likely to be one of the first post-detection quantities to be measured for the case of direct detection. In this paper, we explore potentially detectable surface features on rocky exoplanets and their connection to, and importance as, a habitat for extremophiles, as known on Earth. Extremophiles provide us with the minimum known envelope of environmental limits for life on our planet. The color of a planet reveals information on its properties, especially for surface features of rocky planets with clear atmospheres. We use filter photometry in the visible as a first step in the characterization of rocky exoplanets to prioritize targets for follow-up spectroscopy. Many surface environments on Earth have characteristic albedos and occupy a different color space in the visible waveband (0.4-0.9 μm) that can be distinguished remotely. These detectable surface features can be linked to the extreme niches that support extremophiles on Earth and provide a link between geomicrobiology and observational astronomy. This paper explores how filter photometry can serve as a first step in characterizing Earth-like exoplanets for an aerobic as well as an anaerobic atmosphere, thereby prioritizing targets to search for atmospheric biosignatures.

  13. Colors of extreme exo-Earth environments.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Siddharth; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has already detected rocky planets and several planetary candidates with minimum masses that are consistent with rocky planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. A low-resolution spectrum in the form of a color-color diagram of an exoplanet is likely to be one of the first post-detection quantities to be measured for the case of direct detection. In this paper, we explore potentially detectable surface features on rocky exoplanets and their connection to, and importance as, a habitat for extremophiles, as known on Earth. Extremophiles provide us with the minimum known envelope of environmental limits for life on our planet. The color of a planet reveals information on its properties, especially for surface features of rocky planets with clear atmospheres. We use filter photometry in the visible as a first step in the characterization of rocky exoplanets to prioritize targets for follow-up spectroscopy. Many surface environments on Earth have characteristic albedos and occupy a different color space in the visible waveband (0.4-0.9 μm) that can be distinguished remotely. These detectable surface features can be linked to the extreme niches that support extremophiles on Earth and provide a link between geomicrobiology and observational astronomy. This paper explores how filter photometry can serve as a first step in characterizing Earth-like exoplanets for an aerobic as well as an anaerobic atmosphere, thereby prioritizing targets to search for atmospheric biosignatures. PMID:23252379

  14. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 5: Earth storable design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis and parametric design effort was conducted under the earth-storable phase of the program. Passive Acquisition/expulsion system concepts were evaluated for a reusable Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) application. The passive surface tension technique for providing gas free liquid on demand was superior to other propellant acquisition methods. Systems using fine mesh screens can provide the requisite stability and satisfy OMS mission requirements. Both fine mesh screen liner and trap systems were given detailed consideration in the parametric design, and trap systems were selected for this particular application. These systems are compatible with the 100- to 500-manned mission reuse requirements.

  15. Mass driver retrievals of earth-approaching asteroids. [earth orbit capture for mining purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleary, B.

    1977-01-01

    Mass driver tugs can be designed to move Apollo and Amor asteroids at opportunities of low velocity increment to the vicinity of the earth. The cost of transferring asteroids through a velocity interval of 3 km/sec by mass driver is about 16 cents per kilogram amortized over 10 years, about ten times less than that required to retrieve lunar resources during the early phases of a program of space manufacturing. About 22 per cent of a 200-meter diameter asteroid could be transferred to high earth orbit by an automated 100 megawatt solar-powered mass driver in a period of five years for a cost of approximately $1 billion. Estimates of the total investment of a space manufacturing program could be reduced twofold by using asteroidal instead of lunar resources; such a program could begin several years sooner with minimal concurrent development if asteroidal search programs and mass driver development are immediately accelerated.

  16. Ballistic design of transfer trajectories from artificial-satellite earth orbit to halo orbit in the neighborhood of the L 2 point of the Sun-Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'in, I. S.; Zaslavsky, G. S.; Lavrenov, S. M.; Sazonov, V. V.; Stepanyantz, V. A.; Tuchin, A. G.; Tuchin, D. A.; Yaroshevsky, V. S.

    2014-11-01

    The paper considers the ballistic design of spacecraft (SC) transfer to the neighborhood of the L 2 point and subsequent entry of the SC into the halo orbit. Trajectory calculations of one-impulse Earth-halo orbit transfers with and without using a lunar gravitational maneuver are presented. For the calculation of one-impulse trajectories of Earth-halo-orbit transfers, an algorithm for constructing initial approximations is applied. These approximations are constructed by calculating and analyzing the isolines as a function of two variables. This function is represented by the pericenter height of the outgoing orbit over the Earth's surface. The arguments of the function are special parameters that characterize the halo orbit. The mentioned algorithm allows one to obtain halo orbits with specified geometrical characteristics both in the ecliptic plane, and in the plane orthogonal to it. The estimates of the characteristic velocity expenses for maintaining SC in the selected halo orbit are obtained. The described technique was used to search for working orbits of the Spectr-RG and Millimetron spacecraft. Examples of orbits obtained are presented.

  17. Infrared near-Earth-object survey modeling for observatories interior to the Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, M.

    2014-07-01

    The search for and dynamical characterization of the near-Earth population of objects (NEOs) has been a busy topic for surveys for many years. Most of the work thus far has been from ground-based optical surveys such as the Catalina Sky Survey and LINEAR. These surveys have essentially reached a complete inventory of objects down to 1 km diameter and have shown that the known objects do not pose any significant impact threat. Smaller objects are correspondingly smaller threats but there are more of them and fewer of them have so far been discovered. The next generation of surveys is looking to extend their reach down to much smaller sizes. From an impact risk perspective, those objects as small as 30--40 m are still of interest (similar in size to the Tunguska bolide). Smaller objects than this are largely of interest from a space resource or in-situ analysis efforts. A recent mission concept promoted by the B612 Foundation and Ball Aerospace calls for an infrared survey telescope in a Venus-like orbit, known as the Sentinel Mission. This wide-field facility has been designed to complete the inventory down to a 140 m diameter while also providing substantial constraints on the NEO population down to a Tunguska-sized object. I have been working to develop a suite of tools to provide survey modeling for this class of survey telescope. The purpose of the tool is to uncover hidden complexities that govern mission design and operation while also working to quantitatively understand the orbit quality provided on its catalog of objects without additional followup assets. The baseline mission design calls for a 6.5 year survey lifetime. This survey model is a statistically based tool for establishing completeness as a function of object size and survey duration. Effects modeled include the ability to adjust the field-of-regard (includes all pointing restrictions), field-of-view, focal plane array fill factor, and the observatory orbit. Consequences tracked include time

  18. EURECA orbits above the Earth's surface prior to STS-57 OV-105 RMS capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against open ocean waters, the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) spacecraft, with solar array (SA) panels folded flat against its sides, approaches Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, on flight day five. Later, the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector was used to 'capture' the spacecraft. After ten days in Earth orbit, the crew returned to Earth, bringing EURECA home.

  19. The plasma environment at geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deforest, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    A two-fold objective is considered: (1) to present a picture of the magnetosphere about geosynchronous orbit to the nonspecialist, and (2) to introduce a preliminary model. Particle anisotropies from ATS 6 are included. Omnidirectional electron fluxes are also considered.

  20. Astronaut radiation exposure in low-earth orbit. Part 1. Galactic cosmic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Letaw, J.R.

    1988-03-31

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the radiation doses that will be suffered by astronauts on present-day and future space missions. In order to characterize radiation exposure risks on space missions one requires models of space-radiation environments, codes for transporting the components of ionizing radiation, and procedures for assessing radiation risks of a given exposure. To verify their accuracy, predictions based on these transport results must then be compared with existing dosimetry data. Linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic radiation and its fragments are presented for four, representative low-earth orbit configurations. The orbits include a high (STS-5IJ) and low (STS-61C) altitude, low-inclination (28.5 degs) flight; a high inclination (49.5 degs) flight (STS-51F); and a polar flight. Results are compared with computations for an exo-magnetospheric flight.

  1. A Free-Return Earth-Moon Cycler Orbit for an Interplanetary Cruise Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Aldrin, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    A periodic circumlunar orbit is presented that can be used by an interplanetary cruise ship for regular travel between Earth and the Moon. This Earth-Moon cycler orbit was revealed by introducing solar gravity and modest phasing maneuvers (average of 39 m/s per month) which yields close-Earth encounters every 7 or 10 days. Lunar encounters occur every 26 days and offer the chance for a smaller craft to depart the cycler and enter lunar orbit, or head for a Lagrange point (e.g., EM-L2 halo orbit), distant retrograde orbit (DRO), or interplanetary destination such as a near-Earth object (NEO) or Mars. Additionally, return-to-Earth abort options are available from many points along the cycling trajectory.

  2. Circumlunar Free-Return Cycler Orbits for a Manned Earth-Moon Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Aldrin, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple free-return circumlunar cycler orbits were designed to allow regular travel between the Earth and Moon by a manned space station. The presented cycler orbits contain circumlunar free-return "figure-8" segments and yield lunar encounters every month. Smaller space "taxi" vehicles can rendezvous with (and depart from) the cycling Earth-Moon space station to enter lunar orbit (and/or land on the lunar surface), return to Earth, or reach destinations including Earth-Moon L1 and L2 halo orbits, near-Earth objects (NEOs), Venus, and Mars. To assess the practicality of the selected orbits, relevant cycler characteristics (including (Delta)V maintenance requirements) are presented and compared.

  3. Probable Rotation States of Rocket Bodies in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojakangas, Gregory W.; Anz-Meador, P.; Cowardin, H.

    2012-01-01

    In order for Active Debris Removal to be accomplished, it is critically important to understand the probable rotation states of orbiting, spent rocket bodies. As compared to the question of characterizing small unresolved debris, in this problem there are several advantages: (1) objects are of known size, mass, shape and color, (2) they have typically been in orbit for a known period of time, (3) they are large enough that resolved images may be obtainable for verification of predicted orientation, and (4) the dynamical problem is simplified to first order by largely cylindrical symmetry. It is also nearly certain for realistic rocket bodies that internal friction is appreciable in the case where residual liquid or, to a lesser degree, unconsolidated solid fuels exist. Equations of motion have been developed for this problem in which internal friction as well as torques due to solar radiation, magnetic induction, and gravitational gradient are included. In the case of pure cylindrical symmetry, the results are compared to analytical predictions patterned after the standard approach for analysis of symmetrical tops. This is possible because solar radiation and gravitational torques may be treated as conservative. Agreement between results of both methods ensures their mutual validity. For monotone symmetric cylinders, solar radiation torque vanishes if the center of mass resides at the geometric center of the object. Results indicate that in the absence of solar radiation effects, rotation states tend toward an equilibrium configuration in which rotation is about the axis of maximum inertia, with the axis of minimum inertia directed toward the center of the earth. Solar radiation torque introduces a modification to this orientation. The equilibrium state is asymptotically approached within a characteristic timescale given by a simple ratio of relevant characterizing parameters for the body in question. Light curves are simulated for the expected asymptotic final

  4. A low earth orbit dynamic model for the proton anisotropy validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2011-11-01

    Ionizing radiation measurements at low earth orbit (LEO) form the ideal tool for the experimental validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport code algorithms and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) have provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code development by requiring dynamic models of the LEO environment. Previous studies using computer aided design (CAD) models of the international space station (ISS) have demonstrated that the dosimetric prediction for a spacecraft at LEO requires the description of an environmental model with accurate anisotropic as well as dynamic behavior. This paper describes such a model for the trapped proton. The described model is a component of a suite of codes collectively named GEORAD (GEOmagnetic RADiation) which computes cutoff rigidity, trapped proton and trapped electron environments. The web version of GEORAD is named OLTARIS (On-line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space). GEORAD suite is applicable to radiation environment prediction at LEO, medium earth orbit (MEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) at quiet solar periods. GEORAD interest is in the study of long term effect of the trapped environment and therefore it does not account for any short term external field contribution due to solar activity. With the concentration of the paper on the LEO protons only, the paper presents the validation of the trapped proton model within GEORAD with reported measurements from the compact environment anomaly sensor (CEASE) science instrument package, flown onboard the tri-service experiment-5 (TSX-5) satellite during the period of June 2000 to July 2006. The spin stabilized satellite was flown in a 410 × 1710 km, 69° inclination elliptical orbit, allowing it to be exposed to a broad range of the LEO regime. The paper puts particular emphasize on the validation of the

  5. An Analysis of Recent Major Breakups in he Low Earth Orbit Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Of the 190 known satellite breakups between 1961 and 2006, only one generated more than 500 cataloged fragments. The event was the explosion of the Pegasus Hydrazine Auxiliary Propulsion System in 1996, adding 713 fragments to the U.S. Satellite Catalog. Since the beginning of 2007; however, the near-Earth environment has been subjected to several major breakups, including the Fengyun-1C anti-satellite test and the explosion of Briz-M in 2007, the unusual breakup of Cosmos 2421 in 2008, and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009. Combined, these events added more than 5000 large (> or equal 10 cm) fragments to the environment. Detailed analysis of the radar cross section measurements and orbit histories of the fragments from these major events reveals several unusual characteristics in their size and area-to-mass ratio distributions. The characteristics could be related to the material composition of the parent vehicles, the nature of the breakup, and the composition and physical property of the fragments. In addition, the majority of these fragments are expected to remain in orbit for at least decades. Their long-term impact to the environment is analyzed using the NASA orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND. Descriptions of these analyses and a summary are included in this paper.

  6. Preliminary Design Considerations for Access and Operations in Earth-Moon L1/L2 Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Pavlak, Thomas A.; Haapala, Amanda F.; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of manned spaceflight activities, Earth-Moon libration point orbits could support lunar surface operations and serve as staging areas for future missions to near-Earth asteroids and Mars. This investigation examines preliminary design considerations including Earth-Moon L1/L2 libration point orbit selection, transfers, and stationkeeping costs associated with maintaining a spacecraft in the vicinity of L1 or L2 for a specified duration. Existing tools in multi-body trajectory design, dynamical systems theory, and orbit maintenance are leveraged in this analysis to explore end-to-end concepts for manned missions to Earth-Moon libration points.

  7. Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James

    2014-01-01

    the number of links looking above and below GEO; the detailed design of a GEO SSBS spacecraft bus and its accommodation of the communication payload, and a summary of the trade study that resulted in the selection of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle to deploy the SSBS and its impact on cost reductions per satellite. ======================================================================== Several initiatives have taken place within NASA1 and international space agencies2 to create a human exploration strategy for expanding human presence into the solar system; these initiatives have been driven by multiple factors to benefit Earth. Of the many elements in the strategy one stands out: to send robotic and human missions to destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), including cis-lunar space, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), the Moon, and Mars and its moons.3, 4 The time frame for human exploration to various destinations, based on the public information available,1,4 is shown in Figure 1. Advance planning is needed to define how future space communications services will be provided in the new budget environment to meet future space communications needs. The spacecraft for these missions can be dispersed anywhere from below LEO to beyond GEO, and to various destinations within the solar system. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program office provides communication and tracking services to space missions during launch, in-orbit testing, and operation phases. Currently, SCaN's space networking relay satellites mainly provide services to users below GEO, at Near Earth Orbit (NEO), below LEO, and in deep space. The potential exists for using a space-based relay satellite, located in the vicinity of various solar system destinations, to provide communication space links to missions both below and above its orbit. Such relays can meet the needs of human exploration missions for maximum connectivity to Earth locations and for reduced latency. In the past, several studies

  8. NASA/DOD earth orbit shuttle traffic models based on end to end loading of payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincade, R. E.; Donahoo, M. E.; Pruett, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of the spacecraft configurations and space missions for the Earth Orbit Shuttle traffic model based on an end-to-end loading of payloads is presented. Two possible reusable tugs are considered. The space missions are described with respect to the following: (1) number of earth orbit shuttle flights by inclination, (2) total payloads to orbit, (3) energy stages required, and (4) characteristics of reusable tug.

  9. Cosmic-ray neutron albedo dose in low-earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Farhat, H.

    1989-01-01

    An earth albedo neutron environmental model is proposed which provides a way to estimate neutron exposure in low-earth orbit. It is shown that, in the predominantly low inclination orbits (i=28.5 deg) used in the U.S. space program, the neutron exposures are relatively low (0.7 cSv/y). The neutron exposures are more significant for polar orbital missions and even high inclination missions, such as Skylab (i=57 deg).

  10. Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.

  11. The international environment UNISPACE '82 and the ITU: A relationship between orbit-spectrum resource allocation and orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmstead, D.

    1985-01-01

    The 1985 Space WARC will examine and potentially modify the current geostationary orbit spectrum resource allocation methodology. Discussions in this international political environment could likely associate the geostationary orbital debris issue with the politicized issue of orbit spectrum allocation.

  12. Laboratory simulation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.; Oakes, David B.

    1994-01-01

    A pulsed fast oxygen atom source has been used extensively over the last 7 years to investigate the effects of ambient oxygen atoms impacting materials placed in low Earth orbit. In this period, we irradiated well over 2000 material samples with 8 km/s oxygen atoms generated in our source. Typical irradiance level is 3 x 10(exp 20) O atoms/sq cm although some materials have been irradiated to fluence levels as high as 6 x 10(exp 21) O atoms/sq cm. The operating principles and characteristics of our source are reviewed along with diagnostic and handling procedures appropriate to material testing. Representative data is presented on the velocity dependence of oxygen atom erosion rates (the PSI source provides oxygen atoms tunable over the velocity range of 5 to 12 km/s) as well as the dependence on material temperature. Specific examples of non-linear oxidative effects related to surface contamination and test duration are also be provided.

  13. Thermodynamic Vent System Test in a Low Earth Orbit Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    A thermodynamic vent system for a cryogenic nitrogen tank was tested in a vacuum chamber simulating oxygen storage in low earth orbit. The nitrogen tank was surrounded by a cryo-shroud at -40 F. The tank was insulated with two layers of multi-layer insulation. Heat transfer into cryogenic tanks causes phase change and increases tank pressure which must be controlled. A thermodynamic vent system was used to control pressure as the location of vapor is unknown in low gravity and direct venting would be wasteful. The thermodynamic vent system consists of a Joule-Thomson valve and heat exchanger installed on the inlet side of the tank mixer-pump. The combination is used to extract thermal energy from the tank fluid, reducing temperature and ullage pressure. The system was sized so that the tank mixer-pump operated a small fraction of the time to limit motor heating. Initially the mixer used sub-cooled liquid to cool the liquid-vapor interface inducing condensation and pressure reduction. Later, the thermodynamic vent system was used. Pressure cycles were performed until steady-state operation was demonstrated. Three test runs were conducted at tank fills of 97, 80, and 63 percent. Each test was begun with a boil-off test to determine heat transfer into the tank. The lower tank fills had time averaged vent rates very close to steady-state boil-off rates showing the thermodynamic vent system was nearly as efficient as direct venting in normal gravity.

  14. Physical Limitations of Nuclear Propulsion for Earth to Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, John A.; Patton, Bruce; Rhys, Noah O.; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An assessment of current nuclear propulsion technology for application in Earth to Orbit (ETO) missions has been performed. It can be shown that current nuclear thermal rocket motors are not sufficient to provide single stage performance as has been stated by previous studies. Further, when taking a systems level approach, it can be shown that NTRs do not compete well with chemical engines where thrust to weight ratios of greater than I are necessary, except possibly for the hybrid chemical/nuclear LANTR (LOX Augmented Nuclear Thermal Rocket) engine. Also, the ETO mission requires high power reactors and consequently large shielding weights compared to NTR space missions where shadow shielding can be used. In the assessment, a quick look at the conceptual ASPEN vehicle proposed in 1962 in provided. Optimistic NTR designs are considered in the assessment as well as discussion on other conceptual nuclear propulsion systems that have been proposed for ETO. Also, a quick look at the turbulent, convective heat transfer relationships that restrict the exchange of nuclear energy to thermal energy in the working fluid and consequently drive the reactor mass is included.

  15. The meaning of desert color in earth orbital photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    The color of desert surfaces as seen in earth orbital photographs is indicative of soil composition. Apollo-Soyuz photographs of the Sturt and Simpson Deserts of Australia confirm that sand grains become redder as the distance from the source increases. Reddening is caused by a thin iron-oxide coating on individual sand grains and can be used, in some cases, to map relative-age zones. Photographs of the Western (Libyan) Desert of Egypt indicate three distinct and nearly parallel color zones that have been correlated in the field with: (1) arable soil composed of quartz, clay, and calcium carbonate particles; (2) relatively active sand with or without sparse vegetation; and (3) relatively inactive sand mixed with dark (desert-varnished) pebbles. The youngest sands are in the form of longitudinal dunes, which are migrating to the south-southeast along the prevailing wind direction. Some of the young dune fields are encroaching on the western boundary of the fertile Nile Valley.

  16. EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yoshikawa, I.; Ueno, M.; Uemizu, K.; Yamazaki, A.

    2010-01-01

    An Earth-orbiting small satellite “EXtreme ultraviolet spectrosCope for ExosphEric Dynamics” (EXCEED) which will be launched in 2012 is under development. The mission will carry out spectroscopic and imaging observation of EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet: 60-145 nm) emissions from tenuous plasmas around the planets (Venus, Mars, Mercury, and Jupiter). It is essential for EUV observation to put on an observing site outside the Earth’s atmosphere to avoid the absorption. It is also essential that the detection efficiency must be very high in order to catch the faint signals from those targets. In this mission, we employ cesium iodide coated microchannel plate as a 2 dimensional photon counting devise which shows 1.5-50 times higher quantum detection efficiency comparing with the bared one. We coat the surface of the grating and entrance mirror with silicon carbides by the chemical vapor deposition method in order to archive the high diffraction efficiency and reflectivity. The whole spectrometer is shielded by the 2 mm thick stainless steel to prevent the contamination caused by the high energy electrons from the inner radiation belt. In this paper, we will introduce the mission overview, its instrument, and their performance.

  17. Neutron measurements in near-Earth orbit with COMPTEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, D. J.; Aarts, H.; Bennett, K.; Lockwood, J. A.; Mcconnell, M. L.; Ryan, J. M.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Peng, X.

    1995-01-01

    The fast neutron flux in near-Earth orbit has been measured with the COMPTEL instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). For this measurement one of COMPTEL's seven liquid scintillator modules was used as an uncollimated neutron detector with threshold of 12.8 MeV. The measurements cover a range of 4.8 to 15.5 GV in vertical cutoff rigidity and 3 deg to 177 deg in spacecraft geocenter zenith angle. One of the measurements occurred near the minimum of the deepest Forbush decrease ever observed by ground-level neutron monitors. After correction for solar modulation, the total flux is well fitted by separable functions in rigidity and zenith angle. With the spacecraft pointed near the nadir the flux is consistent with balloon measurements of the atmospheric neutron albedo. The flux varies by about a factor of 4 between the extremes of rigidity and a factor of 2 between the extremes of zenith angle. The effect of the spacecraft mass in shielding the detector from the atmospheric neutron albedo is much more important than its role as a source of additional secondary neutrons. The neutron spectral hardness varies little with rigidity or zenith angle and lies in the range spanned by earlier atmospheric neutron albedo measurements.

  18. The Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission is shown. The contents include: 1) Why CO2?; 2) What Processes Control CO2 Sinks?; 3) OCO Science Team; 4) Space-Based Measurements of CO2; 5) Driving Requirement: Precise, Bias-Free Global Measurements; 6) Making Precise CO2 Measurements from Space; 7) OCO Spatial Sampling Strategy; 8) OCO Observing Modes; 9) Implementation Approach; 10) The OCO Instrument; 11) The OCO Spacecraft; 12) OCO Will Fly in the A-Train; 13) Validation Program Ensures Accuracy and Minimizes Spatially Coherent Biases; 14) Can OCO Provide the Required Precision?; 15) O2 Column Retrievals with Ground-based FTS; 16) X(sub CO2) Retrieval Simulations; 17) Impact of Albedo and Aerosol Uncertainty on X(sub CO2) Retrievals; 18) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Seasonal Cycle; 19) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: The North-South Gradient in CO2; 20) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Effect of Diurnal Biases; 21) Project Status and Schedule; and 22) Summary.

  19. TRAPPED PROTON FLUXES AT LOW EARTH ORBITS MEASURED BY THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Carbone, R.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bottai, S.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Felice, V. Di; Castellini, G.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above ∼70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350 ÷ 610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra, and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes, placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be used to validate current trapped particle radiation models.

  20. Lessons Learned from Natural Space Debris in Heliocentric Orbit: An Analogue for Hazardous Debris in Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Wei, Hanying; Connors, Martin; Lai, Hairong; Delzanno, Gian Luca

    Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs) were discovered almost 30 years ago in the PVO magnetic-field records. Our current understanding is that IFEs result from interactions between solar wind and clouds of nanometer-scale charged dust released in interplanetary collisions. These charged dust clouds are then accelerated by the solar wind and moving away from the Sun at near solar wind speed and detected by spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. The dynamics of the debris in heliocentric orbit is analogous to that mankind has placed into Earth orbit. There are lessons here that are worth exploring. The IFE formation hypothesis was supported by the discovery of co-orbiting materials associated with asteroid 2201 Oljato: IFE rate peaked when Oljato was close and IFE occurrence clustered in the longitudes near which the orbit of Oljato intersects the orbital plane of Venus. A followed up study with Venus Express observations suggested that the co-orbiting materials dissipated in 30 years. An important aspect of this evolution is that at collisional speeds of 20 km/s, a small body can destroy one 106 times more massive. This destruction of large debris by small debris could also be important in the evolution of the terrestrial debris. At 1AU, based on ACE and Wind observations, IFEs have a significant cluster in the longitude range between 195° and 225°. Thus we use the same IFE technique to identify the ‘parent’ Near-Earth Objects of co-orbiting materials which should be responsible for those IFEs. There are more than 5000 JPL documented NEOs whose ecliptic plane crossings are near to or inside the Earth’s orbit and whose orbital periods are less than five years. By comparing their trajectories, we find that the asteroid 138175 is a good candidate for the ‘parent’ body. This asteroid orbits the Sun in a 5.24° inclined elliptical orbit with a period of 367.96 days. Its descending node is at about 206°, where the IFE occurrence rate peaks. We also find that

  1. Current and Near-Term Future Measurements of the Orbital Debris Environment at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Gene; Liou, J.-C.; Mulrooney, M.; Horstman, M

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office places great emphasis on obtaining and understanding direct measurements of the orbital debris environment. The Orbital Debris Program Office's environmental models are all based on these measurements. Because OD measurements must cover a very wide range of sizes and altitudes, one technique realistically cannot be used for all measurements. In general, radar measurements have been used for lower altitudes and optical measurements for higher altitude orbits. For very small debris, in situ measurements such as returned spacecraft surfaces are utilized. In addition to receiving information from large debris (> 5-10 cm diameter) from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, NASA conducts statistical measurements of the debris population for smaller sizes. NASA collects data from the Haystack and Goldstone radars for debris in low Earth orbit as small as 2- 4 mm diameter and from the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope for debris near geosynchronous orbit altitude for sizes as small as 30-60 cm diameter. NASA is also currently examining the radiator panel of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 which was exposed to space for 16 years and was recently returned to Earth during the STS- 125 Space Shuttle mission. This paper will give an overview of these on-going measurement programs at NASA as well as discuss progress and plans for new instruments and techniques in the near future.

  2. Around 1500 near-Earth-asteroid orbits improved via EURONEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Hudin, L.; Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; Tudorica, A.; Toma, R.

    2014-07-01

    Born in 2006 in Paris, the European Near Earth Asteroids Research project (EURONEAR, euronear.imcce.fr) aims ''to study NEAs and PHAs using existing telescopes available to its network and hopefully in the future some automated dedicated 1--2 m facilities''. Although we believe the first aim is fulfilled, the second was not achieved yet, requiring serious commitment from the European NEA researchers and funding agencies. Mainly using free labor by about 30 students and amateur astronomers (from Romania, Chile, UK, France, etc), the PI backed up by his associates M. Birlan (IMCCE Paris) and J. Licandro (IAC Tenerife) and a few other astronomers of the EURONEAR network having access to a few telescopes are approaching around 1,500 observed NEAs whose orbits were improved based on our astrometric contributions. To achive this milestone, we used two main resources and a total of 15 facilities: i) Observing time obtained at 11 professional 1--4 m class telescopes (Chile, La Palma, France, Germany) plus 3 smaller 30--50 cm educational/public outreach telescopes (Romania and Germany) adding about 1,000 observed NEAs; and ii) astrometry obtained from data mining of 4 major image archives (ESO/MPG WFI, INT WFC, CFHTLS Megacam and Subaru SuprimeCam) adding about 500 NEAs recovered in archival images. Among the highlights, about 100 NEAs, PHAs and VIs were observed, recovered or precovered in archives at their second opposition (up to about 15 years away from discovery) or have their orbital arc much extended, and a few VIs and PHAs were eliminated. Incidentally, about 15,000 positions of almost 2,000 known MBAs were reported (mostly in the INT, ESO/MPG and Blanco large fields). About 40 new (one night) NEO candidates and more than 2,000 (one night) unknown MBAs were reported, including about 150 MBAs credited as EURONEAR discoveries. Based on the INT and Blanco data we derived some statistics about the MBA and NEA population observable with 2m and 4m telescopes, proposing a

  3. Effects of Low Earth Orbit on Docking Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imka, Emily C.; Asmar, Olivia C.; deGroh, Henry C., III; Banks, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft docking seals are typically made of silicone elastomers. When such seals are exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions, they can suffer damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO, or monoatomic oxygen, the predominant oxygen species in LEO). An experiment flew on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure the effects of LEO on seal materials S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 and various mating counterface materials which included anodized aluminum. Samples flown in different orientations received different amounts of UV and AO. The hypotheses were that most of the damage would be from UV, and 10 days or more of exposure in LEO would badly damage the seals. Eighteen seals were exposed for 543 days in ram (windward), zenith (away from Earth), or wake (leeward) orientations, and 15 control samples (not flown) provided undamaged baseline leakage. To determine post-flight leak rates, each of the 33 seals were placed in an O-ring groove of a leak test fixture and pressure tested over time. Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), pressure transducers, and LabVIEW (National Instruments) programs were used to measure and analyze the temperature and pressure and calculate leakage. Average leakage of control samples was 2.6 x 10(exp -7) lbs/day. LEO exposure did not considerably damage ELA-SA-401. The S0383-70 flight samples leaked at least 10 times more than ELA-SA-401 in all cases except one, demonstrating that ELA-SA-401 may be a more suitable sealing material in LEO. AO caused greater damage than UV; samples in ram orientation (receiving an AO fluence of 4.3 x 10(exp 21) atoms/(sq cm) and in wake (2.9x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)) leaked more than those in zenith orientation (1.58 x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)), whereas variations in UV exposure did not seem to affect the samples. Exposure to LEO did less damage to the seals than hypothesized, and the data did not support the conjecture that UV causes more damage than AO.

  4. Habitation Concepts for Human Missions Beyond Low-Earth-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been engaged for several years in a variety of study activities to help define various options for deep space habitation. This work includes study activities supporting asteroid, lunar and Mars mission activities for the Human spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT), the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project, and the Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project through the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program. The missions under consideration required human habitation beyond low-Earth-orbit (LEO) including deep space habitation in the lunar vicinity to support asteroid retrieval missions, human and robotic lunar surface missions, deep space research facilities, Mars vehicle servicing, and Mars transit missions. Additional considerations included international interest and near term capabilities through the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. A variety of habitat layouts have been considered, including those derived from the existing ISS systems, those that could be fabricated from SLS components, and other approaches. This paper presents an overview of several leading designs explored in late fiscal year (FY) 2015 for asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission habitats and identifies some of the known advantages and disadvantages inherent in each. Key findings indicate that module diameters larger than those used for ISS can offer lighter structures per unit volume, and sufficient volume to accommodate consumables for long-duration missions in deep space. The information provided with the findings includes mass and volume data that should be helpful to future exploration mission planning and deep space habitat design efforts.

  5. Conceptual radiometer design studies for Earth observations from low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual radiometer design study was performed to determine the optimum design approach for spaceborne radiometers in low Earth orbit. Radiometric system configurations which included total power radiometers, unbalanced Dicke radiometers, and balanced Dicke, or as known as noise injection, radiometers were studied. Radiometer receiver configurations which were analyzed included the direct detection radiometer receiver, the double sideband homodyne radiometer receiver, and the single sideband heterodyne radiometer receiver. Radiometer system performance was also studied. This included radiometric sensitivity analysis of the three different radiometer system configurations studied. Both external and internal calibration techniques were analyzed. An accuracy analysis with and without mismatch losses was performed. It was determined that the balanced Dicke radiometer system configuration with direct detection receivers and external calibrations was optimum where frequent calibration such as once per minute were not feasible.

  6. Assessment of the consequences of the Fengyun-1C breakup in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen

    On 11 January 2007, the 880 kg (958 kg at launch) weather spacecraft Fengyun-1C, launched on 10 May 1999 into a sun-synchronous orbit with a CZ-4B booster from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, was destroyed over central China as a result of the first successful Chinese anti-satellite weapon test. It was carried out with a direct ascent interception with a kinetic energy kill vehicle launched by an SC-19 missile, fired from a mobile ground platform close to the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. While the technical details of the test, probably the third attempt, and the characteristics of the weapon used remain shrouded in secrecy, the intentional breakup of the aging weather spacecraft, fully functional until 2005, produced a huge amount of debris in one of the orbital regimes already most affected by past fragmentation events. At present, the US Space Surveillance Network has identified about 2600 objects, typically larger than 10 cm, but the fragments larger than 1 cm may be more than 100,000. After two decades of substantial international progress in the field of orbital debris mitigation, in order to preserve the low Earth and geosynchronous environments for future space missions, the Fengyun-1C destruction represented a serious turnabout. In fact, it abruptly increased by approximately 20% the number of cataloged debris in orbit. To give a rough idea of the impact of this single event on the circumterrestrial environment, it is sufficient to realize that about 15 years of global space activity - including failures and accidental breakups - had been needed to increase, by a comparable amount, the number of cataloged debris in orbit to the level observed before the Chinese anti-satellite test. The purpose of this presentation is to assess the impact of the debris cloud generated by the Fengyun-1C breakup on the low Earth environment. The anti-satellite test was carried out at an altitude of about 863 km, spreading the cataloged fragments between 200 and 4000

  7. G-38, 39 and 40: An artist's exploration of space. [using the space environment to create orbiting sphere configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcshane, J. W.; Coursen, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three experiments are described which use space processing technology in the formation of and coating of bubbles and spheres to be orbited as sculptures visible from Earth. In one experiment, a 22,000 m1 sphere is to ride into orbit containing a 15 psi Earth atmosphere. Once in orbit, a controller directs a valve to open, linking the sphere to a vacuum of space. Technologies used in the fabrication of these art forms include vacuum film deposition and large bubble formation in the space environment.

  8. Oxidation-resistant reflective surfaces for solar dynamic power generation in near Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.; Mgf2, Sio2, Al2o3, and si3n4, we

    1986-01-01

    Reflective surfaces for space station power generation systems are required to withstand the atomic oxygen-dominated environment of near Earth orbit. Thin films of platinum and rhodium, which are corrosion resistant reflective metals, have been deposited by ion beam sputter deposition onto various substrate materials. Solar reflectances were then measured as a function of time of exposure to a RF-generated air plasma. Similarly, various protective coating materials, including MgF2, SiO2, Al2O3, and Si3N4, were deposited onto silver-coated substrates and then exposed to the plasma. Analysis of the films both before and after exposure by both ESCA and Auger spectroscopy was also performed. The results indicate that Pt and Rh do not suffer any loss in reflectance over the duration of the tests. Also, each of the coating materials survived the plasma environment. The ESCA and Auger analyses are discussed as well.

  9. Investigation of Teflon FEP Embrittlement on Spacecraft in Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1997-01-01

    Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) (DuPont) is commonly used on exterior spacecraft surfaces for thermal control in the low-Earth orbit environment. Silverized or aluminized Teflon FEP is used for the outer layers of the thermal control blanket because of its high reflectance, low solar absorptance, and high thermal emittance. Teflon FEP is also desirable because, compared with other spacecraft polymers (such as Kapton), it has relatively high resistance to atomic oxygen erosion. Because of its comparably low atomic oxygen erosion yield, Teflon FEP has been used unprotected in the space environment. Samples of Teflon FEP from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the Hubble Space Telescope (retrieved during its first servicing mission) were evaluated for solar-induced embrittlement and for synergistic effects of solar degradation and atomic oxygen.

  10. Manned Earth Observatory - Possible contributions towards enhanced understanding of the marine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerding, R. B.; Johnson, G. F.; Weidner, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    The Manned Earth Observatory (MEO) study being conducted by TRW under the management of NASA/MSFC will establish the conceptual design of and the mission requirements for an Earth Observation Laboratory that will be flown on Shuttle missions beginning in 1980. MEO offers a variety of unique inroads to improving our understanding of the marine environment. The Shuttle-MEO is a valuable addition to a multi-level multi-disciplinary remote sensing program. The unique attributes of MEO are its experimental flexibility due to man-instrument interaction, its complimentary orbit (intermediate between nonorbital and high-orbital platforms), its high weight and volume capacity, and short duration missions.

  11. Extension of Earth-Moon libration point orbits with solar sail propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiligers, Jeannette; Macdonald, Malcolm; Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents families of libration point orbits in the Earth-Moon system that originate from complementing the classical circular restricted three-body problem with a solar sail. Through the use of a differential correction scheme in combination with a continuation on the solar sail induced acceleration, families of Lyapunov, halo, vertical Lyapunov, Earth-centred, and distant retrograde orbits are created. As the solar sail circular restricted three-body problem is non-autonomous, a constraint defined within the differential correction scheme ensures that all orbits are periodic with the Sun's motion around the Earth-Moon system. The continuation method then starts from a classical libration point orbit with a suitable period and increases the solar sail acceleration magnitude to obtain families of orbits that are parametrised by this acceleration. Furthermore, different solar sail steering laws are considered (both in-plane and out-of-plane, and either fixed in the synodic frame or fixed with respect to the direction of Sunlight), adding to the wealth of families of solar sail enabled libration point orbits presented. Finally, the linear stability properties of the generated orbits are investigated to assess the need for active orbital control. It is shown that the solar sail induced acceleration can have a positive effect on the stability of some orbit families, especially those at the L2 point, but that it most often (further) destabilises the orbit. Active control will therefore be needed to ensure long-term survivability of these orbits.

  12. Low-gravity Orbiting Research Laboratory Environment Potential Impact on Space Biology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol

    2006-01-01

    One of the major objectives of any orbital space research platform is to provide a quiescent low gravity, preferably a zero gravity environment, to perform fundamental as well as applied research. However, small disturbances exist onboard any low earth orbital research platform. The impact of these disturbances must be taken into account by space research scientists during their research planning, design and data analysis in order to avoid confounding factors in their science results. The reduced gravity environment of an orbiting research platform in low earth orbit is a complex phenomenon. Many factors, among others, such as experiment operations, equipment operation, life support systems and crew activity (if it is a crewed platform), aerodynamic drag, gravity gradient, rotational effects as well as the vehicle structural resonance frequencies (structural modes) contribute to form the overall reduced gravity environment in which space research is performed. The contribution of these small disturbances or accelerations is precisely why the environment is NOT a zero gravity environment, but a reduced acceleration environment. This paper does not discuss other factors such as radiation, electromagnetic interference, thermal and pressure gradient changes, acoustic and CO2 build-up to name a few that affect the space research environment as well, but it focuses solely on the magnitude of the acceleration level found on orbiting research laboratory used by research scientists to conduct space research. For ease of analysis this paper divides the frequency spectrum relevant to most of the space research disciplines into three regimes: a) quasi-steady, b) vibratory and c) transient. The International Space Station is used as an example to illustrate the point. The paper discusses the impact of these three regimes on space biology research and results from space flown experiments are used to illustrate the potential negative impact of these disturbances (accelerations

  13. High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Coverage of Earth from Commercial AVSTAR Systems in Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Heaps, J. F.; Williams, F. H.

    Imaging the earth from Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) allows frequent updates of environmental conditions within an observable hemisphere at time and spatial scales appropriate to the most transient observable terrestrial phenomena. Coverage provided by current GEO Meteorological Satellites (METSATS) fails to fully exploit this advantage due primarily to obsolescent technology and also institutional inertia. With the full benefit of GEO based imaging unrealized, rapidly evolving phenomena, occurring at the smallest spatial and temporal scales that frequently have significant environmental impact remain unobserved. These phenomena may be precursors for the most destructive natural processes that adversely effect society. Timely distribution of information derived from "real-time" observations thus may provide opportunities to mitigate much of the damage to life and property that would otherwise occur. AstroVision International's AVStar Earth monitoring system is designed to overcome the current limitations if GEO Earth coverage and to provide real time monitoring of changes to the Earth's complete atmospheric, land and marine surface environments including fires, volcanic events, lightning and meteoritic events on a "live," true color, and multispectral basis. The understanding of severe storm dynamics and its coupling to the earth's electro-sphere will be greatly enhanced by observations at unprecedented sampling frequencies and spatial resolution. Better understanding of these natural phenomena and AVStar operational real-time coverage may also benefit society through improvements in severe weather prediction and warning. AstroVision's AVStar system, designed to provide this capability with the first of a constellation of GEO- based commercial environmental monitoring satellites to be launched in late 2003 will be discussed, including spatial and temporal resolution, spectral coverage with applications and an inventory of the potential benefits to society

  14. Laser propulsion to earth orbit. Has its time come?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantrowitz, Arthur

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in high energy lasers, adaptive optics, and atmospheric transmission bring laser propulsion much closer to realization. Proposed here is a reference vehicle for study which consists of payload and solid propellant (e.g. ice). A suitable laser pulse is proposed for using a Laser Supported Detonation wave to produce thrust efficiently. It seems likely that a minimum system (10 Mw CO2 laser and 10 m dia. mirror) could be constructed for about $150 M. This minimum system could launch payloads of about 13 kg to a 400 km orbit every 10 minutes. The annual launch capability would be about 683 tons times the duty factor. Laser propulsion would be an order of magnitude cheaper than chemical rockets if the duty factor was 20 percent (10,000 launches/yr). Launches beyond that would be even cheaper. The chief problem which needs to be addressed before these possibilities could be realized is the design of a propellant to turn laser energy into thrust efficiently and to withstand the launch environment.

  15. Exobiology experiments for Earth-orbital platforms. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, J. L.; Stratton, D. M.; Scattergood, T. W.; Marshall, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Low-gravity (microgravity) studies relevant to prebiotic evolution and the history of the biogenic elements (C, H, N, O, P, S) are particularly suited to orbital platforms. Relevant to these topics are phenomena such as gas-particle interactions (e.g., formation of organic aerosols via photolytic reactions) including nucleation, condensation, evaporation, adsorption, and catalytic reactions on surfaces; and, small-particle or grain interactions (e.g., growth of interstellar dust particles and planetesimals) including processes such as aggregation (or coagulation), scavenging, and collisions. Both gas-particle and grain (i.e., dust, crystals, organic aerosols, etc.) interactions studies can benefit from microgravity and are pertinent to studies in the areas of chemical evolution in the solar nebula, the interstellar medium, and planetary atmospheres; growth of planetesimals; and prebiotic evolution. In general, the microgravity environment allows for long duration and controlled simulations of processes occurring in exobiologically significant systems such as Titan's atmosphere, interstellar dust clouds, and the solar nebula in which gas-particle or particle-particle interactions play a significant role.

  16. Strategies for plane change of Earth orbits using lunar gravity and derived trajectories of family G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, C. F.; Macau, E. E. N.; Winter, O. C.

    2009-04-01

    The dynamics of the circular restricted three-body Earth-Moon-particle problem predicts the existence of the retrograde periodic orbits around the Lagrangian equilibrium point L1. Such orbits belong to the so-called family G (Broucke, Periodic orbits in the restricted three-body problem with Earth-Moon masses, JPL Technical Report 32-1168, 1968) and starting from them it is possible to define a set of trajectories that form round trip links between the Earth and the Moon. These links occur even with more complex dynamical systems as the complete Sun-Earth-Moon-particle problem. One of the most remarkable properties of these trajectories, observed for the four-body problem, is a meaningful inclination gain when they penetrate into the lunar sphere of influence and accomplish a swing-by with the Moon. This way, when one of these trajectories returns to the proximities of the Earth, it will be in a different orbital plane from its initial Earth orbit. In this work, we present studies that show the possibility of using this property mainly to accomplish transfer maneuvers between two Earth orbits with different altitudes and inclinations, with low cost, taking into account the dynamics of the four-body problem and of the swing-by as well. The results show that it is possible to design a set of nominal transfer trajectories that require Δ V Total less than conventional methods like Hohmann, bi-elliptic and bi-parabolic transfer with plane change.

  17. The Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Orbital debris scientists from major international space agencies, including JAXA and NASA, have worked together to predict the trend of the future environment. A summary presentation was given to the United Nations in February 2013. The orbital debris population in LEO will continue to increase. Catastrophic collisions will continue to occur every 5 to 9 years center dot To limit the growth of the future debris population and to better protect future spacecraft, active debris removal, should be considered.

  18. Essentials for Team Based Rehearsals and the Differences Between Earth Orbiting and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez-Rosa, Carlos; Cifuentes, Juan; Wasiak, Francis; Alfonzo, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    The mission readiness environment is where spacecraft and ground systems converge to form the entire as built flight system for the final phase of operationally-themed testing. For most space missions, this phase starts between nine to twelve months prior to the planned launch. In the mission readiness environment, the goal is to perform sufficient testing to exercise the flight teams and systems through all mission phases in order to demonstrate that all elements are ready to support. As part of the maturation process, a mission rehearsal program is introduced to focus on team processes within the final flight system, in a more realistic operational environment. The overall goal for a mission rehearsal program is to: 1) ensure all flight system elements are able to meet mission objectives as a cohesive team; 2) reduce the risk in space based operations due to deficiencies in people, processes, procedures, or systems; and 3) instill confidence in the teams that will execute these first time flight activities. A good rehearsal program ensures critical events are exercised, discovers team or flight system nuances whose impact were previously unknown, and provides a real-time environment in which to interact with the various teams and systems. For flight team members, the rehearsal program provides experience and training in the event of planned (or unplanned) flight contingencies. To preserve the essence for team based rehearsals, this paper will explore the important elements necessary for a successful rehearsal program, document differences driven by Earth Orbiting (Aqua, Aura, Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP)) and Deep Space missions (New Horizons, Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN)) and discuss common challenges to both mission types. In addition, large scale program considerations and enhancements or additional steps for developing a rehearsal program will also be considered. For NASA missions, the mission rehearsal phase is a key

  19. The O/OREOS mission—Astrobiology in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Squires, D.; Kitts, C.; Agasid, E.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.; Cook, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Mattioda, A.; Nicholson, W.; Quinn, R.; Santos, O.; Tahu, G.; Voytek, M.; Beasley, C.; Bica, L.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Friedericks, C.; Henschke, M.; Landis, D.; Luzzi, E.; Ly, D.; Mai, N.; Minelli, G.; McIntyre, M.; Neumann, M.; Parra, M.; Piccini, M.; Rasay, R.; Ricks, R.; Schooley, A.; Stackpole, E.; Timucin, L.; Yost, B.; Young, A.

    2014-01-01

    The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small-Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72°), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cm3) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA's scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.

  20. Effect of the orbital debris environment on the high-energy van allen proton belt.

    PubMed

    Konradi, A

    1988-12-01

    Orbital debris in the near-Earth environment has reached a number density sufficient for a significant collisional interaction with some of the long-lived high-energy protons in the radiation belt. As a result of a continuing buildup of a shell of man-made debris, the lifetimes of high-energy protons whose trajectories remain below 1500 kilometers will decrease to the point where in the next decades we can expect a noticeable reduction in their fluxes.

  1. The Effect of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (1 X 1019 atoms/cm2). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, these materials do not exhibit linear erosion rates which is in contrast with most organic polymers. Qualitatively, the results obtained from these analyses compare favorably with those obtained from samples exposed to atomic oxygen and or oxygen plasma in ground based exposure experiments. The results of the low Earth orbit atomic oxygen exposure on these materials will be compared with those of ground based exposure to AO.

  2. A Survey of Radiation Measurements Made Aboard Russian Spacecraft in Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate prediction of ionizing radiation exposure in low-Earth orbit is necessary in order to minimize risks to astronauts, spacecraft and instrumentation. To this end, models of the radiation environment, the AP-8 trapped proton model and the AE-8 trapped electron model, have been developed for use by spacecraft designers and mission planners. It has been widely acknowledged for some time now by the space radiation community that these models possess some major shortcomings. Both models cover only a limited trapped particle energy region and predictions at low altitudes are extrapolated from higher altitude data. With the launch of the first components of the International Space Station with numerous constellations of low-Earth orbit communications satellites now being planned and deployed, the inadequacies of these trapped particle models need to be addressed. Efforts are now underway both in the U.S. and in Europe to refine the AP-8 and AE-8 trapped particle models. This report is an attempt to collect a significant fraction of data for use in validation of trapped radiation models at low altitudes.

  3. Effects of Solar Radiation Pressure on Earth Satellite Orbits.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, R W; Jones, H M; Shapiro, I I

    1960-03-25

    Calculations show that, at a mean altitude of 1000 miles, radiation pressure can displace the orbit of the 100-foot Echo balloon at rates up to 3.7 miles per day, the orbit of the 12-foot Beacon satellite at 0.7 mile per day. For certain resonant conditions this effect accumulates, drastically affecting the satellite's lifetime.

  4. A model to compare performance of space and ground network support of low-Earth orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.

    1992-01-01

    This article compares the downlink performance in a gross average sense between space and ground network support of low-Earth orbiters. The purpose is to assess what the demand for DSN support of future small, low-cost missions might be, if data storage for spacecraft becomes reliable enough and small enough to support the storage requirements needed to enable support only a fraction of the time. It is shown that the link advantage of the DSN over space reception in an average sense is enormous for low-Earth orbiters. The much shorter distances needed to communicate with the ground network more than make up for the speedup in data rate needed to compensate for the short contact times with the DSN that low-Earth orbiters have. The result is that more and more requests for DSN-only support of low-Earth orbiters can be expected.

  5. Dust particles from comets and asteroids collected at the Earth's orbit: Parent-daughter relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. A.; Zook, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relative contributions of comets and asteroids to the reservoir of dust in the interplanetary medium is not well known. There are direct observations of dust released from comets and there is evidence to associate the IRAS dust bands with possible collisions of Asteroids in the main belt. It is believed that one may combine lab analysis of the physics and chemistry of captured particles with orbital data in order to identify comet and asteroid parent bodies. It is possible to use the collected orbits of the dust to connect with its source in two ways. One is to consider the long time orbit evolution of the dust under Poynting-Robertson drag. The other is to look at the prompt orbit change of dust from comets onto trajectories that intersect the earth's orbit. In order to characterize the orbits of dust particles evolved over a long period of time, a study of its orbital evolution was undertaken. Various parameters associated with these dust orbits as they cross the Earth's orbit were considered in order to see if one may discriminate between particles evolved from comets and asteroids. The method was to calculate by a numerical procedure the orbits of dust particles after they left their parent bodies. It appears that as the particles pass the Earth's orbit, asteroidal grains and cometary grains can be differentiated on the basis of their measured orbital eccentricities even after much planetary perturbation. Broad parent daughter associations can be made on this basis from measurement of their trajectories intercepted in earth orbit.

  6. Rings of Earth detected by orbital debris radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R.; Randolph, L.

    1990-01-01

    Small particles moving at an orbital velocity of 7.6 kilometers per second can present a considerable hazard to human activity in space. For astronauts outside of the protective shielding of their space vehicles, such particles can be lethal. The powerful radar at NASA's Goldstone Deep Communications Complex was used to monitor such orbital debris. This radar can detect metallic objects as small as 1.8 mm in diameter at 600 km altitude. The results of the preliminary survey show a flux (at 600 km altitude) of 6.4 objects per square kilometer per day of equivalent size of 1.8 mm or larger. Forty percent of the observed particles appear to be concentrated into two orbits. An orbital ring with the same inclination as the radar (35.1 degrees) is suggested. However, an orbital band with a much higher inclination (66 degrees) is also a possibility.

  7. Results from the GPS Flight Experiment on the High Earth Orbit AMSAT OSCAR-40 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor); Moreau, Michael C.; Davis, Edward P.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Kelbel, David; Davis, George W.; Axelrad, Penina

    2002-01-01

    A GPS receiver flying on the High Earth Orbit (HEO) AMSAT-OSCAR 40 (AO-40) spacecraft has been returning GPS observations from high above the altitude of the GPS constellation. AO-40, an amateur radio satellite launched November 16, 2000, is currently in a low inclination, 1000 by 59000 lan altitude orbit. This low-cost experiment utilizes a mid 1990's era, 6-channel, CIA code receiver configured with high gain receiving antennas for tracking above the GPS constellation. The receiver has performed well, despite operating significantly outside of its original design environment. It has regularly returned GPS observations from points all around the orbit, with over ten weeks of GPS tracking data collected to date. Signal to noise levels as high as 48 B-Hz have been recorded near apogee, when the spacecraft was at an altitude of close to 60000 km. GPS side lobe signals have been tracked on several occasions, primarily from Block IIR GPS satellites. Although the receiver has not computed a solution in real-time, point solutions have been computed on the ground using simultaneous measurements from four satellites. This experiment has provided important experience dealing with the many challenges inherent to GPS tracking at high altitudes, and the measurements returned are providing valuable information about the characteristics of GPS signals available for future HE0 users.

  8. Probable Spin–Orbit Aligned Super-Earth Planet Candidate KOI2138

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Ahlers, Johnathon P.; Seubert, Shayne A.; Relles, Howard M.

    2015-08-01

    We use rotational gravity darkening in the disk of Kepler star KOI-2138 to show that the orbit of 2.1-{R}\\oplus transiting planet candidate KOI-2138.01 has a low projected spin–orbit alignment of λ =1^\\circ +/- 13^\\circ . KOI-2138.01 is just the second super-Earth with a measured spin–orbit alignment after 55 Cancri e, and the first to be aligned. With a 23.55 days orbital period, KOI-2138.01 may represent the tip of a future iceberg of solar-system-like terrestrial planets having intermediate periods and low-inclination circular orbits.

  9. Tests of general relativity in earth orbit using a superconducting gravity gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    Interesting new tests of general relativity could be performed in earth orbit using a sensitive superconducting gravity gradiometer under development. Two such experiments are discussed here: a null test of the tracelessness of the Riemann tensor and detection of the Lense-Thirring term in the earth's gravity field. The gravity gradient signals in various spacecraft orientations are derived, and dominant error sources in each experimental setting are discussed. The instrument, spacecraft, and orbit requirements imposed by the experiments are derived.

  10. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology information, dissemination and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    In this period of performance a conference (The 1994 Conference on Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology) was organized and implemented by the University of Alabama in Huntsville and held May 15-17 to assemble and disseminate the current information on Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology. The results were assembled for publication as NASA-CP-3282, Volume 1 and 2 and NASA-CP-3287.

  11. Testbed for development of a DSP-based signal processing subsystem for an Earth-orbiting radar scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J.; Lux, James P.; Shirbacheh, Mike

    2002-01-01

    A testbed for evaluation of general-purpose digital signal processors in earth-orbiting radar scatterometers is discussed. Because general purpose DSP represents a departure from previous radar signal processing techniques used on scatterometers, there was a need to demonstrate key elements of the system to verify feasibility for potential future scatterometer instruments. Construction of the testbed also facilitated identification of an appropriate software development environment and the skills mix necessary to perform the work.

  12. Approximate analytic method for high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashkovyaka, M. A.; Zaslavskii, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an approach to the study of the evolution of high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites. We describe parameters of the motion model used for the artificial Earth's satellite such that the principal gravitational perturbations of the Moon and Sun, nonsphericity of the Earth, and perturbations from the light pressure force are approximately taken into account. To solve the system of averaged equations describing the evolution of the orbit parameters of an artificial satellite, we use both numeric and analytic methods. To select initial parameters of the twelve-hour orbit, we assume that the path of the satellite along the surface of the Earth is stable. Results obtained by the analytic method and by the numerical integration of the evolving system are compared. For intervals of several years, we obtain estimates of oscillation periods and amplitudes for orbital elements. To verify the results and estimate the precision of the method, we use the numerical integration of rigorous (not averaged) equations of motion of the artificial satellite: they take into account forces acting on the satellite substantially more completely and precisely. The described method can be applied not only to the investigation of orbit evolutions of artificial satellites of the Earth; it can be applied to the investigation of the orbit evolution for other planets of the Solar system provided that the corresponding research problem will arise in the future and the considered special class of resonance orbits of satellites will be used for that purpose.

  13. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Loucks, Michael; Carrico, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this extended abstract is to present results from a failed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver contingency analysis for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The LADEE spacecrafts nominal trajectory implemented multiple sub-lunar phasing orbits centered at Earth before eventually reaching the Moon (Fig. 1) where a critical LOI maneuver was to be performed [1,2,3]. If this LOI was missed, the LADEE spacecraft would be on an Earth-escape trajectory, bound for heliocentric space. Although a partial mission recovery is possible from a heliocentric orbit (to be discussed in the full paper), it was found that an escape-prevention maneuver could be performed several days after a hypothetical LOI-miss, allowing a return to the desired science orbit around the Moon without leaving the Earths sphere-of-influence (SOI).

  14. Performance and Comparison of Lithium-Ion Batteries Under Low-Earth-Orbit Mission Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Gitzendanner, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The performance of two 28 V, 25 Ah lithium-ion batteries is being evaluated under low-Earth-orbit mission profiles for satellite and orbiter applications. The batteries are undergoing life testing and have achieved over 12,000 cycles to 40 percent depth-of-discharge.

  15. Large deployable reflector thermal characteristics in low earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Miyake, R. N.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from the development of a thermal analytical tool capable of analyzing the orbital thermal characteristics of a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) spaceborne astronomical instrument for observations in the 30-micron to 1-mm range. This LDR thermal analytical tool is a 9X6-node reflector thermal model to be used in conjunction with the thermal analyzer program SINDA, as well as the orbital heat flux program TRASYS for the computation of solar and IR radiation and orbit-related input data.

  16. Optical Orbit Determination of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Satellite Effected by Baseline Distances between Various Ground-based Tracking Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ju Young; Jo, Jung Hyun; Choi, Jin; Kim, Bang-Yeop; Yoon, Joh-Na; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Park, Sun-Youp; Bae, Young Ho; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye

    2015-09-01

    We estimated the orbit of the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite, through data from actual optical observations using telescopes at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Optical Wide field Patrol (OWL) at KASI, and the Chungbuk National University Observatory (CNUO) from August 1, 2014, to January 13, 2015. The astrometric data of the satellite were extracted from the World Coordinate System (WCS) in the obtained images, and geometrically distorted errors were corrected. To handle the optically observed data, corrections were made for the observation time, light-travel time delay, shutter speed delay, and aberration. For final product, the sequential filter within the Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) was used for orbit estimation based on the results of optical observation. In addition, a comparative analysis was conducted between the precise orbit from the ephemeris of the COMS maintained by the satellite operator and the results of orbit estimation using optical observation. The orbits estimated in simulation agree with those estimated with actual optical observation data. The error in the results using optical observation data decreased with increasing number of observatories. Our results are useful for optimizing observation data for orbit estimation.

  17. A Wide Field Auroral Imager (WFAI) for low Earth orbit missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, N. P.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fairbend, R.; Fraser, G. W.; Hamilton, F. J.; Lapington, J. S.; Lees, J. E.; Lester, M.; Milan, S. E.; Pearson, J. F.; Price, G. J.; Willingale, R.

    2007-03-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the solar wind interaction with Earth's coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system requires an ability to observe the charged particle environment and auroral activity from the same platform, generating particle and photon image data which are matched in time and location. While unambiguous identification of the particles giving rise to the aurora requires a Low Earth Orbit satellite, obtaining adequate spatial coverage of aurorae with the relatively limited field of view of current space bourne auroral imaging systems requires much higher orbits. A goal for future satellite missions, therefore, is the development of compact, wide field-of-view optics permitting high spatial and temporal resolution ultraviolet imaging of the aurora from small spacecraft in low polar orbit. Microchannel plate optics offer a method of achieving the required performance. We describe a new, compact instrument design which can observe a wide field-of-view with the required spatial resolution. We report the focusing of 121.6 nm radiation using a spherically-slumped, square-pore microchannel plate with a focal length of 32 mm and an F number of 0.7. Measurements are compared with detailed ray-trace simulations of imaging performance. The angular resolution is 2.7±0.2° for the prototype, corresponding to a footprint ~33 km in diameter for an aurora altitude of 110 km and a spacecraft altitude of 800 km. In preliminary analysis, a more recent optic has demonstrated a full width at half maximum of 5.0±0.3 arcminutes, corresponding to a footprint of ~1 km from the same spacecraft altitude. We further report the imaging properties of a convex microchannel plate detector with planar resistive anode readout; this detector, whose active surface has a radius of curvature of only 100 mm, is shown to meet the spatial resolution and sensitivity requirements of the new wide field auroral imager (WFAI).

  18. The distributions of positions of Minimal Orbit Intersection Distances among Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčeta, Dušan; Šegan, Stevo

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the distributions of the positions of the Minimal Orbit Intersection Distances (MOID) among three subgroups of the Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs). This includes 683 Atens, 4185 Apollos and 3538 Amors which makes over 15 millions combinations of the pairs of orbits. The results which are obtained in this analysis show very interesting distributions of positions of the MOIDs and circumstances of close approaches of the asteroids and emphasize influence of different orbital elements on these distributions.

  19. Low Earth Orbit Environmental Durability of Recently Developed Thermal Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment provided a means to expose materials and devices to the low Earth orbit environment on the exterior of the International Space Station. By returning the specimens to Earth after flight, the specimens could be evaluated by comparison with pre-flight measurements. One area of continuing interest is thermal control paints and coatings that are applied to exterior surfaces of spacecraft. Though traditional radiator coatings have been available for decades, recent work has focused on new coatings that offer custom deposition or custom optical properties. The custom deposition of interest is plasma spraying and one type of coating recently developed as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort was designed to be plasma sprayed onto radiator surfaces. The custom optical properties of interest are opposite to those of a typical radiator coating, having a combination of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance for solar absorber applications, and achieved in practice via a cermet coating. Selected specimens of the plasma sprayed coatings and the solar absorber coating were flown on Materials International Space Station Experiment 7, and were recently returned to Earth for post-flight analyses. For the plasma sprayed coatings in the ram direction, one specimen increased in solar absorptance and one specimen decreased in solar absorptance, while the plasma sprayed coatings in the wake direction changed very little in solar absorptance. For the cermet coating deployed in both the ram and wake directions, the solar absorptance increased. Interestingly, all coatings showed little change in infrared emittance.

  20. Information services platforms at geosynchronous earth orbit: A requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The potential user requirements for Information Services Platforms at geosynchronous orbits were investigated. A rationale for identifying the corollary system requirements and supporting research and technology needs was provided.

  1. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  2. Measuring the Eccentricity of the Earth's Orbit with a Nail and a Piece of Plywood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahaye, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    I describe how to obtain a rather good experimental determination of the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit, as well as the obliquity of the Earth's rotation axis, by measuring, over the course of a year, the elevation of the Sun as a function of time during a day. With a very simple "instrument" consisting of an elementary sundial, first-year…

  3. Low-Thrust Transfers from Distant Retrograde Orbits to L2 Halo Orbits in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Nathan L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Hughes, Steven P.; Heiligers, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of transfers between distant retrograde orbits (DROs) and L2 halo orbits in the Earth-Moon system that could be flown by a spacecraft with solar electric propulsion (SEP). Two collocation-based optimal control methods are used to optimize these highly-nonlinear transfers: Legendre pseudospectral and Hermite-Simpson. Transfers between DROs and halo orbits using low-thrust propulsion have not been studied previously. This paper offers a study of several families of trajectories, parameterized by the number of orbital revolutions in a synodic frame. Even with a poor initial guess, a method is described to reliably generate families of solutions. The circular restricted 3-body problem (CRTBP) is used throughout the paper so that the results are autonomous and simpler to understand.

  4. The effect of atomic oxygen on polysiloxane-polyimide for spacecraft applications in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Cooper, Jill M.; Olle, Raymond M.

    1991-01-01

    Polysiloxane-polyimide films are of interest as a replacement for polyimide Kapton in the Space Station Freedom solar array blanket. The blanket provides the structural support for the solar cells as well as providing transport of heat away from the back of the cells. Polyimide Kapton would be an ideal material to use; however, its high rate of degradation due to attack by atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit, at the altitudes Space Station Freedom will fly, is of such magnitude that if left unprotected, the blanket will undergo structural failure in much less than the desired 15 year operating life. Polysiloxane-polyimide is of interest as a replacement material because it should from its own protective silicon dioxide coating upon exposure to atomic oxygen. Mass, optical, and photomicrographic data obtained in the evaluation of the durability of polysiloxane-polyimide to an atomic oxygen environment are presented.

  5. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Because atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation present in the low earth orbital (LEO) environment can alter the chemistry of polymers resulting in degradation, their effects and mechanisms of degradation must be determined in order to determine the long term durability of polymeric surfaces to be exposed on missions such as Space Station Freedom. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymers which contain protective coatings must also be explored, since unique damage mechanisms can occur in areas where the protective coatings has failed. Mechanisms can be determined by utilizing results from previous LEO missions, by performing ground based LEO simulation tests and analysis, and by carrying out focussed space experiments. A survey is presented of the interactions and possible damage mechanisms for environmental atomic oxygen and UV radiation exposure of polymers commonly used in LEO.

  6. A Dynamic/Anisotropic Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Ionizing Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; West, Katie J.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Abrahms, Briana L.; Luetke, Nathan J.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides the proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the experimental validation of ionizing radiation environmental models, nuclear transport code algorithms, and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the Space Transportation System (STS; Shuttle) have provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code development by requiring dynamic models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Previous studies using Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of the evolving ISS configurations with Thermo Luminescent Detector (TLD) area monitors, demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate non-isotropic as well as dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate 6 degree of freedom (DOF) description of ISS trajectory and orientation.

  7. Handover aspects for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) CDMA Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, P.; Beach, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of handoff in a land mobile satellite (LMS) system between adjacent satellites in a low earth orbit (LEO) constellation. In particular, emphasis is placed on the application of soft handoff in a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) LMS system. Soft handoff is explained in terms of terrestrial macroscopic diversity, in which signals transmitted via several independent fading paths are combined to enhance the link quality. This concept is then reconsidered in the context of a LEO LMS system. A two-state Markov channel model is used to simulate the effects of shadowing on the communications path from the mobile to each satellite during handoff. The results of the channel simulation form a platform for discussion regarding soft handoff, highlighting the potential merits of the scheme when applied in a LEO LMS environment.

  8. The effects of low earth orbit atomic oxygen on the properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshangi, Zhila; Hossein Feghhi, Seyed Amir; Saeedzadeh, Rezgar

    2016-02-01

    Polymers are widely used in space systems as the structural materials. The low earth orbit (LEO) space environment includes hazards such as atomic oxygen. Exposure of polymeric materials to atomic oxygen results in destructive effects on the chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface degradation. In the present work, the effects of atomic oxygen on the mechanical, thermal, and optical properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene film have been investigated. The atomic oxygen density was calculated by SPENVIS tool. After the atomic oxygen exposure by using radio-frequency (RF) plasma source, the appearance of the samples changed, and the mass of the samples reduced because of outgassing. The results of thermal analysis showed that atomic oxygen flux does not affect thermal degradation of samples regarding TGA diagrams. By increasing the atomic oxygen flux, the amount of absorbance increased showing that atomic oxygen had damaged the surface of Polytetrafluoroethylene, and it had oxidized the surface of the polymer.

  9. Free-falling Crystals: Biological Macromolecular Crystal Growth Studies in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, E. H.; Pusey, M. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft orbiting the earth experience a reduced acceleration environment due to being in a state of continuous free-fall. This state colloquially termed microgravity, has produced improved X-ray diffraction quality crystals of biological macromolecules. Improvements in X-ray diffraction resolution (detail) or signal to noise, provide greater detail in the three-dimensional molecular structure providing information about the molecule, how it works, how to improve its function or how to impede it. Greater molecular detail obtained by crystallization in microgravity, has important implications for structural biology. In this article we examine the theories behind macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity using results obtained from studies with the model protein, chicken egg white lysozyme.

  10. Sheath effects observed on a 10 meter high voltage panel in simulated low earth orbit plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccox, J. E.; Konradi, A.

    1979-01-01

    A large (1m x 10m) flat surface of conductive material was biased to high voltage (+ or - 3000 V) to simulate the behavior of a large solar array in low earth orbit. The model array was operated in a plasma environment of 1,000 to 1,000,000/cu cm, with sufficient free space around it for the resulting plasma sheaths to develop unimpeded for 5-10 meters into the surrounding plasma. Measurements of the resulting sheath thickness were obtained. The observed thickness varied approximately as V to the 3/4 power and N to the 1/2 power. This effect appears to limit total current leakage from the test array until sheath dimensions exceed about 1 meter. Total leakage current was also measured with the array.

  11. Stationkeeping of the First Earth-Moon Libration Orbiters: The ARTEMIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, D.

    2011-01-01

    Libration point orbits near collinear locations are inherently unstable and must be controlled. For Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) Earth-Moon Lissajous orbit operations, stationkeeping is challenging because of short time scales, large orbital eccentricity of the secondary, and solar gravitational and radiation pressure perturbations. ARTEMIS is the first NASA mission continuously controlled at both Earth-Moon L1 and L2 locations and uses a balance of optimization, spacecraft implementation and constraints, and multi-body dynamics. Stationkeeping results are compared to pre-mission research including mode directions.

  12. Scheme of rendezvous mission to lunar orbital station by spacecraft launched from Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtazin, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great experience has been accumulated in manned flight astronautics for rendezvous in near-Earth orbit. During flights of Apollo spacecraft with crews that landed on the surface of the Moon, the problem of docking a landing module launched from the Moon's surface with the Apollo spacecraft's command module in a circumlunar orbit was successfully solved. A return to the Moon declared by leading space agencies requires a scheme for rendezvous of a spacecraft launched from an earth-based cosmodromee with a lunar orbital station. This paper considers some ballistic schemes making it possible to solve this problem with minimum fuel expenditures.

  13. Exobiology in Earth orbit: The results of science workshops held at NASA, Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, D. (Editor); Brownlee, D. (Editor); Tarter, J. (Editor); Usher, D. (Editor); Irvine, W. (Editor); Klein, H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Workshops on Exobiology in Earth Orbit were held to explore concepts for orbital experiments of exobiological interest and make recommendations on which classes of experiments should be carried out. Various observational and experimental opportunities in Earth orbit are described including those associated with the Space Shuttle laboratories, spacecraft deployed from the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles, the Space Station, and lunar bases. Specific science issues and technology needs are summarized. Finally, a list of recommended experiments in the areas of observational exobiology, cosmic dust collection, and in situ experiments is presented.

  14. Lessons Learned From Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Spacecraft Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    There have been five Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) passive experiment carriers (PECs) (MISSE 1-5) to date that have been launched, exposed in space on the exterior of International Space Station (ISS) and then returned to Earth for analysis. An additional four MISSE PECs (MISSE 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B) are in various stages of completion. The PECs are two-sided suitcase to size sample carriers that are intended to provide information on the effects of the low Earth orbital environment on a wide variety of materials and components. As a result of post retrieval analyses of the retrieved MISSE 2 experiments and numerous prior space experiments, there have been valuable lessons learned and needs identified that are worthy of being documented so that planning, design, and analysis of future space environment experiments can benefit from the experience in order to maximize the knowledge gained. Some of the lessons learned involve the techniques, concepts, and issues associated with measuring atomic oxygen erosion yields. These are presented along with several issues to be considered when designing experiments, such as the uncertainty in mission duration, scattering and contamination effects on results, and the accuracy of measuring atomic oxygen erosion.

  15. Integrated magnetometer-horizon sensor low-earth orbit determination using UKF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahanifar, Mohammad; Assadian, Nima

    2015-01-01

    The estimation of the satellite orbital elements using the integrated magnetometer and horizon sensors data has been investigated in this study. These sensors are generally employed for attitude estimation. The magnetometer and the horizon sensor measure the Earth's magnetic field as well as the Earth's center direction in the body frame, respectively. The magnitude of the magnetic field and the angle between two vectors have been used for orbit estimation purpose. This excludes the knowledge of the attitude in the orbit determination. The Gaussian variation of parameters equations is used for the orbital motion dynamical model to have the orbital elements as the states of the system. Since the dynamics of the system and the measurement model are nonlinear, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is utilized. Moreover, the magnetometer is subjected to scale factor and bias errors and these parameters are also estimated together with the orbital elements. It has been revealed that the UKF-based orbit determination algorithm can determine the sensor error parameters as well as the Keplerian orbital elements. The sensitivity analysis results show that this approach is insensitive to inclination and eccentricity for most orbits and can be adopted for near equatorial as well as near circular orbits.

  16. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 1: Analytical manual for earth orbital MAPSEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An introduction to the MAPSEP organization and a detailed analytical description of all models and algorithms are given. These include trajectory and error covariance propagation methods, orbit determination processes, thrust modeling, and trajectory correction (guidance) schemes. Earth orbital MAPSEP contains the capability of analyzing almost any currently projected low thrust mission from low earth orbit to super synchronous altitudes. Furthermore, MAPSEP is sufficiently flexible to incorporate extended dynamic models, alternate mission strategies, and almost any other system requirement imposed by the user. As in the interplanetary version, earth orbital MAPSEP represents a trade-off between precision modeling and computational speed consistent with defining necessary system requirements. It can be used in feasibility studies as well as in flight operational support. Pertinent operational constraints are available both implicitly and explicitly. However, the reader should be warned that because of program complexity, MAPSEP is only as good as the user and will quickly succumb to faulty user inputs.

  17. Doubly-periodic orbits in the Sun-Earth-Moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farohar, R.; Muhonen, D.; Dunham, D.

    1980-01-01

    A series of periodic orbits in the Earth-Moon circular restricted problem of three bodies was found which is ideally suited for exploring the Earth's geomagnetic tail. The mean apsidal motion of the basic highly elliptical Earth orbit was maintained at about one degree per day by a sequence of lunar swingbys, keeping the apogees in the anti-Sun direction. The orbits were periodic in reference frames rotating at both lunar and solar rates. Apogee distances were alternately raised and lowered by the lunar swingby maneuvers. Several categories of these Sun-synchronous double lunar swingby orbits were identified. The strength and flexibility of this trajectory concept was demonstrated with real world simulations.

  18. Pulsed Plasma Propulsion - Making CubeSat Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit Possible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northway, P.

    2015-12-01

    As CubeSat missions become more and more popular means of scientific exploration of space, the current direction of interest is to utilize them in areas beyond low earth orbit. The University of Washington CubeSat program focuses on examining possible mission scenarios in addition to technology development and integration. Specifically, we are developing an inert CubeSat propulsion system in the form of a pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) capable of orbit maneuvers. Such a system would allow for missions at the Earth beyond LEO, extended missions at the Moon, and even missions at Europa, when assisted to the Jovian system. We will discuss how starting with a CubeSat design using PPTs for orbital maneuvers, other developing compact technology can be adapted to create a full suite of systems that would meet the requirements for a mission traveling outside low earth orbit.

  19. Access to Mars from Earth-Moon Libration Point Orbits:. [Manifold and Direct Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakoi, Masaki; Howell, Kathleen C.; Folta, David

    2014-01-01

    This investigation is focused specifically on transfers from Earth-Moon L(sub 1)/L(sub 2) libration point orbits to Mars. Initially, the analysis is based in the circular restricted three-body problem to utilize the framework of the invariant manifolds. Various departure scenarios are compared, including arcs that leverage manifolds associated with the Sun-Earth L(sub 2) orbits as well as non-manifold trajectories. For the manifold options, ballistic transfers from Earth-Moon L(sub 2) libration point orbits to Sun-Earth L(sub 1)/L(sub 2) halo orbits are first computed. This autonomous procedure applies to both departure and arrival between the Earth-Moon and Sun-Earth systems. Departure times in the lunar cycle, amplitudes and types of libration point orbits, manifold selection, and the orientation/location of the surface of section all contribute to produce a variety of options. As the destination planet, the ephemeris position for Mars is employed throughout the analysis. The complete transfer is transitioned to the ephemeris model after the initial design phase. Results for multiple departure/arrival scenarios are compared.

  20. Access to Mars from Earth-Moon libration point orbits: Manifold and direct options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakoi, Masaki; Howell, Kathleen C.; Folta, David

    2014-09-01

    This investigation is focused specifically on transfers from Earth-Moon L1/L2 libration point orbits to Mars. Initially, the analysis is based on the circular restricted three-body problem to utilize the framework of the invariant manifolds. Various departure scenarios are compared, including arcs that leverage manifolds associated with the Sun-Earth L2 orbits as well as non-manifold trajectories. For the manifold options, ballistic transfers from Earth-Moon L2 libration point orbits to Sun-Earth L1/L2 halo orbits are first computed. This autonomous procedure applies to both departure and arrival between the Earth-Moon and Sun-Earth systems. Departure times in the lunar cycle, amplitudes and types of libration point orbits, manifold selection, and the orientation/location of the surface of section all contribute to produce a variety of options. As the destination planet, the ephemeris position for Mars is employed throughout the analysis. The complete transfer is transitioned to the ephemeris model after the initial design phase. Results for multiple departure/arrival scenarios are compared.

  1. Distant Retrograde Orbits for space-based Near Earth Objects detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramacchia, Michele; Colombo, Camilla; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco

    2016-09-01

    We analyse a concept for the detection of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) from a space-based network of telescopes on retrograde Distant Periodic Orbits. Planar periodic orbits are designed in the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem, starting from initial conditions in the Hill's problem available from the literature. A family of retrograde orbits centred at the Earth is selected as baseline, based on their maximum distance from Earth, larger than the Earth-L2 distance. Indeed, spacecraft on such orbits can detect PHAs incoming from the Sun direction, which could not otherwise be monitored from current Earth-based systems. A trade-off on the orbit amplitude, asteroid diameter to be detected, and the constellation size is performed considering current visible sensor telescope technology. The Chelyabinsk meteor scenario is studied and the potential warning time that could be gained with a space-based survey system with respect to an Earth based-survey system is shown.

  2. Attitude control requirements for an earth-orbital solar electric propulsion stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Andrews, P. D.; Jasper, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) application in earth orbit requires considerably more maneuvering for thrust vector steering and solar array pointing than planetary missions. Attitude maneuver requirements for geosynchronous and low earth-orbital missions are presented. Situations which result in optimum steering torque requirements exceeding the capability of current SEPS configurations are defined. Sub-optimal steering techniques are defined which reduce the geosynchronous mission torque requirements to acceptable levels with negligible performance penalties. Some low earth-orbital flight regimes with earth shadowing are found to result in much larger torque requirements and impose significant mechanization penalties if serious performance losses are to be avoided. Alternative attitude control mechanization techniques are defined for these cases.

  3. Solar Sail Halo Orbits at the Sun Earth Artificial L1 Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoyin, Hexi; McInnes, Colin R.

    2006-02-01

    Halo orbits for solar sails at artificial Sun Earth L1 points are investigated by a third order approximate solution. Two families of halo orbits are explored as defined by the sail attitude. Case I: the sail normal is directed along the Sun-sail line. Case II: the sail normal is directed along the Sun Earth line. In both cases the minimum amplitude of a halo orbit increases as the lightness number of the solar sail increases. The effect of the z-direction amplitude on x- or y-direction amplitude is also investigated and the results show that the effect is relatively small. In case I, the orbit period increases as the sail lightness number increases, while in case II, as the lightness number increases, the orbit period increases first and then decreases after the lightness number exceeds ~0.01.

  4. Low-cost Alternative Orbits In The Earth-Moon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    The moon has been the target of innumerous space missions throughout the last decades, and everything indicates that many others will occur. This is especially true due to the fact that lunar bases play a fundamental role in supporting future manned interplanetary missions. Thus, knowledge about low-cost alternative orbits in the Earth-Moon system can be extremely advantageous. In this paper, we presented two regions of alternative orbits in the Earth-Moon system. They are stable orbits around the Moon, whose distance from the lunar surface varies between 400 and 20,000 kilometers. In our studies, we determined the location and size of these regions based on the restricted circular planar problem of 3-body, Earth-Moon-spacecraft. In this system, the regions of stability correspond to quasi-periodic orbits around known periodic orbits (Broucke, 1968). Then, we considered a more realistic model. We adopted the restricted problem of 4-body Sun-Earth-Moon-spacecraft, taking into account the Earth's oblateness, the eccentricities of the Earth and the Moon, the inclination of the Moon, the obliquity of the Earth and the solar radiation pressure on the spacecraft. The results show that even so, a significant portion of the regions of stability remains. These orbits are stable in the practical sense that the energy of the problem of 2-body Moon-spacecraft remains negative for a period greater than 1000 days. The maintenance cost of orbits in these regions is low, keeping in mind that they are stable regions.

  5. Dynamics of Orbits near 3:1 Resonance in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dichmann, Donald J.; Lebois, Ryan; Carrico, John P., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft is currently in a highly elliptical orbit around Earth with a period near 3:1 resonance with the Moon. Its orbit is oriented so that apogee does not approach the Moon. Simulations show this orbit to be remarkably stable over the next twenty years. This article examines the dynamics of such orbits in the Circular Restricted 3-Body Problem (CR3BP). We look at three types of periodic orbits, each exhibiting a type of symmetry of the CR3BP. For each of the orbit types, we assess the local stability using Floquet analysis. Although not all of the periodic solutions are stable in the mathematical sense, any divergence is so slow as to produce practical stability over several decades. We use Poincare maps with twenty-year propagations to assess the nonlinear stability of the orbits, where the perturbation magnitudes are related to the orbit uncertainty for the IBEX mission. Finally we show that these orbits belong to a family of orbits connected in a bifurcation diagram that exhibits exchange of stability. The analysis of these families of period orbits provides a valuable starting point for a mission orbit trade study.

  6. Antenna servo design for tracking low-earth-orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawronski, W.; Mellstrom, J. A.

    1994-11-01

    The upcoming NASA missions will require tracking of low-orbit satellites. As a consequence, NASA antennas will be required to track satellites at higher rates than for the current deep-space missions. This paper investigates servo design issues for the 34-m beam-waveguide antennas that track low-orbit satellites. This includes upgrading the servo with a feedforward loop, monopulse controller design, and tracking error reduction either through proper choice of elevation pinion location or through application of a notch filter or adjustment of the elevation drive amplifier gain. Finally, improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio through averaging of the oversampled monopulse signal is described.

  7. Low Earth orbit atomic oxygen simulation for durability evaluation of solar reflector surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the performance and durability of solar reflector surfaces in the atomic oxygen environment typical of low Earth orbit (LEO), one must expose the reflector surface either directly to LEO or to ground-laboratory atomic oxygen environments. Although actual LEO exposures are most desired, such opportunities are typically scarce, expensive, and of limited duration. As a result, ground-laboratory exposures must be relied upon as the most practical long-term durability evaluation technique. Plasma ashers are widely used as LEO simulation facilities by producing atomic oxygen environments for durability evaluation of potential spacecraft materials. Atomic oxygen arrival differs between ground and space exposure in that plasma asher exposure produces isotropic arrival and space solar tracking produces sweeping arrival. Differences in initial impact reaction probability occur, dependent upon the energy and species existing in these environments. Due to the variations in ground-laboratory and space atomic oxygen, quantification of in-space performance based on plasma asher testing is not straightforward. The various atomic oxygen interactions that can occur with reflector surfaces, such as undercutting in organic substrates at protective coating defect sites, ground-laboratory techniques recommended for evaluating the atomic oxygen durability of reflectors based on asher exposures, and computational techniques which make use of ground-laboratory atomic oxygen exposure to predict in-space LEO durability are addressed.

  8. Mission Preparation Program for Exobiological Experiments in Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Guenther; Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra

    The ESA facilities EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-E on board of the the International Space Station ISS provide the technology for exposing chemical and biological samples in a controlled manner to outer space parameters, such as high vacuum, intense radiation of galactic and solar origin and microgravity. EXPOSE-E has been attached to the outer balcony of the European Columbus module of the ISS in Febraury 2008 and will stay for about 1 year in space, EXPOSE-R will be attached to the Russian Svezda module of the ISS in fall 2008. The EXPOSE facilities are a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to Space Environment (ROSE concortium). The results from the EXPOSE missions will give new insights into the survivability of terrestrial organisms in space and will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.To test the compatibility of the different biological and chemical systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. It resulted in several experiment verification tests EVTs and an experiment sequence test EST that were conducted in the carefully equipped and monitored planetary and space simulation facilities PSI of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at DLR in Cologne, Germany. These ground based pre-flight studies allow the investigation of a much wider variety of samples and the selection of the most promising organisms for the flight experiment. The procedure and results of these EVT tests and EST will be presented. These results are an essential prerequisite for the success of the EXPOSE missions and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results gained during the simulation experiments demonstrated mission

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of attitude and orbit estimation using real earth magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    A single, augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit was developed and tested with simulated and real magnetometer and rate data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is accurately known, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft's orbit, are a function of orbit and attitude errors. These differences can be used to estimate the orbit and attitude. The test results of the EKF with magnetometer and gyro data from three NASA satellites are presented and evaluated.

  10. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 2: Analysis of hazardous payloads, docking, on-board survivability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detailed and supporting analyses are presented of the hazardous payloads, docking, and on-board survivability aspects connected with earth orbital operations of the space shuttle program. The hazards resulting from delivery, deployment, and retrieval of hazardous payloads, and from handling and transport of cargo between orbiter, sortie modules, and space station are identified and analyzed. The safety aspects of shuttle orbiter to modular space station docking includes docking for assembly of space station, normal resupply docking, and emergency docking. Personnel traffic patterns, escape routes, and on-board survivability are analyzed for orbiter with crew and passenger, sortie modules, and modular space station, under normal, emergency, and EVA and IVA operations.

  11. Cost-effective and robust mitigation of space debris in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R.; Martin, C.

    It is predicted that the space debris population in low Earth orbit (LEO) will continue to grow and in an exponential manner in the long-term due to an increasing rate of collisions between large objects, unless internationally-accepted space debris mitigation measures are adopted soon. Such measures are aimed at avoiding the future generation of space debris objects and primarily need to be effective in preventing significant long-term growth in the debris population, even in the potential scenario of an increase in future space activity. It is also important that mitigation measures can limit future debris population levels, and therefore the underlying collision risk to space missions, to the lowest extent possible. However, for their wide acceptance, the cost of implementation associated with mitigation measures needs to be minimised as far as possible. Generally, a lower collision risk will cost more to achieve and vice versa, so it is necessary to strike a balance between cost and risk in order to find a cost-effective set of mitigation measures. In this paper, clear criteria are established in order to assess the cost-effectiveness of space debris mitigation measures. A full cost-risk-benefit trade-off analysis of numerous mitigation scenarios is presented. These scenarios consider explosion prevention and post-mission disposal of space systems, including de-orbiting to limited lifetime orbits and re-orbiting above the LEO region. The ESA DELTA model is used to provide long-term debris environment projections for these scenarios as input to the benefit and risk parts of the trade-off analysis. Manoeuvre requirements for the different post-mission disposal scenarios were also calculated in order to define the cost-related element. A 25-year post-mission lifetime de-orbit policy, combined with explosion prevention and mission-related object limitation, was found to be the most cost-effective solution to the space debris problem in LEO. This package would also

  12. Low-Thrust Transfers from Distant Retrograde Orbits to L2 Halo Orbits in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Nathan L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Hughes, Steven P.; Heiligers, Jennette

    2016-01-01

    Enable future missions Any mission to a DRO or halo orbit could benefit from the capability to transfer between these orbits Chemical propulsion could be used for these transfers, but at high propellant cost Fill gaps in knowledge A variety of transfers using SEP or solar sails have been studied for the Earth-Moon system Most results in literature study a single transfer This is a step toward understanding the wide array of types of transfers available in an N-body force model.

  13. Biofilms On Orbit and On Earth: Current Methods, Future Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vega, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms have played a significant role on the effectiveness of life support hardware on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). This presentation will discuss how biofilms impact flight hardware, how on orbit biofilms are analyzed from an engineering and research perspective, and future needs to analyze and utilize biofilms for long duration, deep space missions.

  14. Space Shuttle Orbiter logistics - Managing in a dynamic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renfroe, Michael B.; Bradshaw, Kimberly

    1990-01-01

    The importance and methods of monitoring logistics vital signs, logistics data sources and acquisition, and converting data into useful management information are presented. With the launch and landing site for the Shuttle Orbiter project at the Kennedy Space Center now totally responsible for its own supportability posture, it is imperative that logistics resource requirements and management be continually monitored and reassessed. Detailed graphs and data concerning various aspects of logistics activities including objectives, inventory operating levels, customer environment, and data sources are provided. Finally, some lessons learned from the Shuttle Orbiter project and logistics options which should be considered by other space programs are discussed.

  15. Investigation of vehicle reusability for human exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids using Sun-Earth Libration point orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, A. K.

    2013-09-01

    Current plans for human exploration of the solar system envision several missions to Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) as stepping stones towards missions to Mars. This research investigates the feasibility of stationing reusable cargo spacecraft, such as habitats, in halo orbits at Sun-Earth Libration points 1 and 2 (L1 and L2) between NEA missions in an effort to reduce mission cost and thus overall campaign cost by lowering the mass required to be launched and the amount of new hardware to be built for each mission. Four example missions to the two currently most promising targets of the known NEA population in the 2025-2030 time frame are chosen. In the mission architecture proposed in this study, the crew vehicle directly commutes between Earth and the asteroid in order to keep mission durations for the crew short. The cargo vehicle departs from a halo orbit, rendezvous with the crew vehicle on the outbound trajectory, and returns to a halo orbit after the mission. Manifold trajectories of halo orbits in the northern and southern halo orbit family at L1 and L2 are considered for the transfer of the cargo vehicle to and from the interplanetary trajectory and the total Δv required for this transfer is minimized. This Δv is found to range from a few meters per second to hundreds of meters per second, depending on the specific energy and inclination of the interplanetary trajectory. These results show the great potential of the utilization of Sun-Earth Libration point orbits for enabling vehicle reusability, thus lowering the cost of human exploration missions.

  16. Cosmic Influence on the Sun-Earth Environment

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Saumitra

    2008-01-01

    SOHO satellite data reveals geophysical changes before sudden changes in the Earth's Sun-Earth environment. The influence of extragalactic changes on the Sun as well as the Sun-Earth environment seems to be both periodic and episodic. The periodic changes in terms of solar maxima and minima occur every 11 years, whereas the episodic changes can happen at any time. Episodic changes can be monitored by cosmic ray detectors as a sudden increase or decrease of activity. During these solar and cosmic anomaly periods the environment of the Earth is affected. The Star-Sun-Earth connection has the potential to influence the thermosphere, atmosphere, ionosphere and lithosphere. Initial correlation of the cosmic and Sun-Earth connection has shown the possibility of predicting earthquakes, sudden changes in atmospheric temperatures and erratic rainfall/snowfall patterns.

  17. Analysis of Static Spacecraft Floating Potential at Low Earth Orbit (LEO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, Joel L.; Hwang, K. S.; Wu, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    Spacecraft floating potential is the charge on the external surfaces of orbiting spacecraft relative to the space. Charging is caused by unequal negative and positive currents to spacecraft surfaces. The charging process continues until the accelerated particles can be collected rapidly enough to balance the currents at which point the spacecraft has reached its equilibrium or floating potential. In low inclination. Low Earth Orbit (LEO), the collection of positive ion and negative electrons. in a particular direction. are typically not equal. The level of charging required for equilibrium to be established is influenced by the characteristics of the ambient plasma environment. by the spacecraft motion, and by the geometry of the spacecraft. Using the kinetic theory, a statistical approach for studying the interaction is developed. The approach used to study the spacecraft floating potential depends on which phenomena are being applied. and on the properties of the plasma. especially the density and temperature. The results from kinetic theory derivation are applied to determine the charging level and the electric potential distribution at an infinite flat plate perpendicular to a streaming plasma using finite-difference scheme.

  18. Study on Orbital Decay of Near Earth Satellites with KS Orthogonal Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ps, Sandeep

    STUDY ON ORBITAL DECAY OF NEAR EARTH SATELLITES WITH KS ORTHOGONAL ELEMENTS SANDEEP P S The knowledge of satellite orbit decay and its expected life prior to launch is necessary for mission planning purpose. Several sets of data for various parametric studies is sought quite often, it is necessary to minimize computational time involved for generating decay predictions, keeping the prediction accuracy normally good. A number of factors play dominant role in perturbation modelling for near earth satellites such as oblateness of the Earth, presence of the atmosphere, luni-solar attraction and solar radiation pressure. This paper concerns with the study of orbital decay of near earth satellites with KS orthogonal elements, which provide accurate orbit predictions at low computational time. Perturbations considered are due to oblateness of the Earth and the atmospheric drag. The Earth’s zonal harmonic terms J2 to J6 are included and the drag is modeled with an analytical diurnally oblate atmosphere. Effect of Earth’s geomagnetic and solar activity is included in density and density scale height computations. JACCHIA77 atmospheric model is utilized. The developed software is validated with the orbital data of decayed objects taken from www.space-track.org.

  19. Dynamical Sequestration of the Moon-Forming Impactor in Co-Orbital Resonance with Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Hartmann, William J.

    2015-11-01

    Recent concerns about the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon, and an associated “isotope crisis” are assuaged if the impactor was a local object that formed near Earth and the impact occurred relatively late. We investigated a scenario that may meet these criteria, with the moon-forming impactor originating in 1:1 co-orbital resonance with Earth. Using N-body numerical simulations we explored the dynamical consequences of placing Mars-mass companions in various co-orbital configurations with a proto-Earth having 90% of its current mass. We modeled configurations that include the four terrestrial planets as well as configurations that also include the four giant planets. In both the 4- and 8-planet models we found that a single additional Mars-mass companion typically remains a stable co-orbital of Earth for the entire 250 million year (Myr) duration of our simulations (33 of 34 simulations). In an effort to destabilize such a system we carried out an additional 45 simulations that included a second Mars-mass co-orbital companion. Even with two Mars-mass companions sharing Earth’s orbit most of these models (28) also remained stable for the entire 250 Myr duration of the simulations. Of the 17 two-companion models that eventually became unstable 12 impacts were observed between Earth and an escaping co-orbital companion. The average delay we observed for an impact of a Mars-mass companion with Earth was 101 Myr, and the longest delay was 221 Myr. Several of the stable simulations involved unusual 3-planet co-orbital configurations that could exhibit interesting observational signatures in plantetary transit surveys.

  20. Jupiter-family comets in near-Earth orbits: Dynamical histories and potential source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J.; Sosa, A.

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the dynamical histories of a sample of 58 Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) coming close to the Earth, namely with perihelion distances q < 1.3 au at the time of their discovery. We carry out orbit integrations for these objects for 10^4 yr in the past and in the future, considering the orbital elements provided by the NASA/JPL Small Body Database, and 50 clones of each comet whose orbital elements were taken randomly within their error bars. We find that most orbits are chaotic, where comets are subject to frequent close encounters with Jupiter. Therefore, it is difficult to follow accurately the trajectory of a given comet beyond a few hundred years. We then define a likely dynamical path, which is computed as the average of the orbits of a given comet and the set of 50 clones. In particular we measure the degree of instability of a comet orbit by the time it takes the average perihelion distance q of a comet and its 50 clones to decrease by 1 au previous to the discovery time. We define this time scale as the capture time within the near-Earth region. We find that most JFCs have short capture times, of a few hundred to a couple of thousands of years, suggesting a recent incorporation to the near-Earth region. This is what one should expect for bodies whose typical lifetimes as active comets should not exceed a few 10^3 yr. This behavior is in sharp contrast with near-Earth asteroids that show more stable orbits with much longer residence times in the near-Earth region. The most likely source region of most JFCs is the transneptunian region. On the other hand, we find that a few JFCs move on stable orbits over the studied period with capture times > 10^4 yr. These objects might have a different source region, probably the outer asteroid belt or the Jupiter Trojans.

  1. Medium Earth Orbits: Is There a Need for a Third Protected Region?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2010-01-01

    The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and the United Nations have adopted the concept of near-Earth regions which should be afforded protection from the accumulation of orbital debris. These regions are low Earth orbit (LEO), which extends up to 2000 km altitude, and geosynchronous orbit (GEO), which includes the volume of space encompassed by 35,786 km +/- 200 km in altitude and +/- 15 degrees in inclination. The region between LEO and GEO is commonly referred to as Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). Although historically a small minority of spacecraft have operated in MEO, the number of such satellites residing in or routinely transiting the zone is increasing. The question thus arises: should MEO be considered an orbital debris protected region? This paper first reviews the characteristics of space systems now utilizing MEO, as well as those anticipated to join them in the near future. MEO is then contrasted with LEO and GEO, both physically and pragmatically. Recommended orbital debris mitigation guidelines for MEO space vehicles are highlighted, and the challenges of spacecraft and launch vehicle stage disposal are recognized. Note is also made of the principal tenets of the United Nations Outer Space Treaty and of recent trends toward de facto partitioning of MEO. Finally, the efficacy and practicality of establishing MEO as a new protected region with regard to orbital debris is addressed.

  2. Dynamical sequestration of the Moon-forming impactor in co-orbital resonance with Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Hartmann, William K.

    2016-09-01

    Recent concerns about the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon, and an associated "isotope crisis" may be assuaged if the impactor was a local object that formed near Earth. We investigated a scenario that may meet this criterion, with protoplanets assumed to originate in 1:1 co-orbital resonance with Earth. Using N-body numerical simulations we explored the dynamical consequences of placing Mars-mass companions in various co-orbital configurations with a proto-Earth of 0.9 Earth-masses (M⊕). We modeled 162 different configurations, some with just the four terrestrial planets and others that included the four giant planets. In both the 4- and 8-planet models we found that a single Mars-mass companion typically remained a stable co-orbital of Earth for the entire 250 million year (Myr) duration of our simulations (59 of 68 unique simulations). In an effort to destabilize such a system we carried out an additional 94 simulations that included a second Mars-mass co-orbital companion. Even with two Mars-mass companions sharing Earth's orbit about two-thirds of these models (66) also remained stable for the entire 250 Myr duration of the simulations. Of the 28 2-companion models that eventually became unstable 24 impacts were observed between Earth and an escaping co-orbital companion. The average delay we observed for an impact of a Mars-mass companion with Earth was 102 Myr, and the longest delay was 221 Myr. In 40% of the 8-planet models that became unstable (10 out of 25) Earth collided with the nearly equal mass Venus to form a super-Earth (loosely defined here as mass ≥1.7 M⊕). These impacts were typically the final giant impact in the system and often occurred after Earth and/or Venus has accreted one or more of the other large objects. Several of the stable configurations involved unusual 3-planet hierarchical co-orbital systems.

  3. Ideas for a future earth observing system from geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, William E.; Hall, Forrest; Esaias, Wayne; Maxwell, Marvin; Suomi, Verner E.; Von Bun, Fritz

    1986-01-01

    Uses for the proposed geosynchronous platform are described. The geosynchronous satellite could provide good spatial and temporal resolution, a large field-of-view, easier calibration, stereography, and data relay. The limitations of the platform are discussed. The applications of the geosynchronous platform to meteorology, earth surveying, and oceanography are examined.

  4. In-Orbit Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Battery Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Anisa; Enciso, Marlon; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) power system and battery history. ERBS spacecraft and battery cell failures are listed with the reasons for failure. The battery management decision and stabilization of the batteries is discussed. Present battery operations are shown to be successful.

  5. Consequences of Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Silicone and Silicone Contamination on Surfaces in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Haytas, Christy A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of silicones to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit causes oxidation of the surface, resulting in conversion of silicone to silica. This chemical conversion increases the elastic modulus of the surface and initiates the development of a tensile strain. Ultimately, with sufficient exposure, tensile strain leads to cracking of the surface enabling the underlying unexposed silicone to be converted to silica resulting in additional depth and extent of cracking. The use of silicone coatings for the protection of materials from atomic oxygen attack is limited because of the eventual exposure of underlying unprotected polymeric material due to deep tensile stress cracking of the oxidized silicone. The use of moderate to high volatility silicones in low Earth orbit has resulted in a silicone contamination arrival at surfaces which are simultaneously being bombarded with atomic oxygen, thus leading to conversion of the silicone contaminant to silica. As a result of these processes, a gradual accumulation of contamination occurs leading to deposits which at times have been up to several microns thick (as in the case of a Mir solar array after 10 years in space). The contamination species typically consist of silicon, oxygen and carbon. which in the synergistic environment of atomic oxygen and UV radiation leads to increased solar absorptance and reduced solar transmittance. A comparison of the results of atomic oxygen interaction with silicones and silicone contamination will be presented based on the LDEF, EOIM-111, Offeq-3 spacecraft and Mir solar array in-space results. The design of a contamination pin-hole camera space experiment which uses atomic oxygen to produce an image of the sources of silicone contamination will also be presented.

  6. Viscoelastic characterization of thin-film polymers exposed to low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letton, Alan; Farrow, Allan; Strganac, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The materials made available through the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite provide a set of specimens that can be well characterized and have a known exposure history with reference to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation exposure. Mechanical characteristics measured from control samples and exposed samples provide a data base for predicting the behavior of polymers in low earth orbit. Samples of 1.0 mil thick low density polyethylene were exposed to the low earth orbit environment for a period of six years. These materials were not directly exposed to ram atomic oxygen and offer a unique opportunity for measuring the effect of atomic oxygen and UV radiation on mechanical properties with little concern to the effect of erosion. The viscoelastic characteristics of these materials were measured and compared to the viscoelastic characteristics of control samples. To aid in differentiating the effects of changes in crystallinity resulting from thermal cycling, from the effects of changes in chemical structure resulting from atomic oxygen/UV attack to the polymer, a second set of control specimens, annealed to increase crystallinity, were measured as well. The resulting characterization of these materials will offer insight into the impact of atomic oxygen/UV on the mechanical properties of polymeric materials. The viscoelastic properties measured for the control, annealed, and exposed specimens were the storage and loss modulus as a function of frequency and temperature. From these datum is calculated the viscoelastic master curve derived using the principle of time/temperature superposition. Using the master curve, the relaxation modulus is calculated using the method of Ninomiya and Ferry. The viscoelastic master curve and the stress relaxation modulus provide a direct measure of the changes in the chemical or morphological structure. In addition, the effect of these changes on long-term and short-term mechanical properties is known directly. It

  7. Manned Mars mission Earth-To-Orbit (ETO) delivery and orbit assembly of the manned Mars vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barisa, B.; Solmon, G.

    1986-01-01

    The initial concepts developed for the in-orbit assembly of a Manned Mars Vehicle and for the Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) delivery of the required hardware and propellant are presented. Two (2) Mars vehicle concepts (all-propulsive and all-aerobrake) and two (2) ETO Vehicle concepts were investigated. Both Mars Vehicle concepts are described in Reference 1, and both ETO Vehicle concepts are described in Reference 2. The all-aerobrake configuration reduces the number of launches and time required to deliver the necessary hardware/propellent to orbit. Use of the larger of the 2 ETO Vehicles (HLLV) further reduces the number of launches and delivery time; however, this option requires a completely new vehicle and supporting facilities.

  8. Analysis of GaAs and Si solar cell arrays for earth orbital and orbit transfer missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, K. S.

    1980-01-01

    Solar array systems have been studied and compared for earth orbital and orbit transfer missions with the principal objective of quantifying the cost tradeoffs between gallium arsenide and silicon array for specific classes of missions and system characteristics. For the missions considered, it is found that the purchase cost advantage of Si arrays is not overcome by the greater radiation resistance of GaAs arrays. The use of reflectors for concentration may significantly reduce the power system cost. However, GaAs arrays benefit considerably more from solar concentration than Si arrays in terms of mission cost because of their higher allowable temperature. In the case of orbit transfer missions, a cover glass thickness of at least 0.05 cm is recommended to reduce total mission cost.

  9. The Expose-R2 mission: astrobiology and astrochemistry in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, René

    EXPOSE is an exposure platform developed by ESA which permits scientists to install test samples for 1 to 2 years at the outer surface of the ISS. In that way, the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical sample materials can be explored. This environment, featuring full-spectrum solar light, near-vacuum, cosmic radiation, wide temperature variations and near-weightlessness, is impossible to reproduce in its entirety in the lab. As such, EXPOSE offers astrochemists and astrobiologists a chance to acquire novel scientific data. Astrochemists are interested in Low Earth Orbit conditions due to the fact that photochemistry in space is quite different from photochemistry on Earth, where the high-energy UV compounds of the solar spectrum are filtered away by our atmosphere. As for the astro biologists, EXPOSE offers an attractive opportunity to expand earlier results obtained during short-duration LEO flights, which have shown that particular microbes and, amazingly, even some multi-cellular macroscopic organisms were able to cope with a two-week exposure to space. The open space environment, often described as harsh and hostile, can apparently be tolerated by some robust inhabitants of our Earth - unprotected, in the absence of a space suit! The first mission of EXPOSE, as an external payload on the European Columbus module, happened during 2008-2009 with the test samples provided by five separate research teams. Three additional teams were involved in the monitoring of space environment. The results were published collectively in 2012 in a special issue of the monthly journal Astrobiology. Several organisms survived, having spent 1.5 years in space. The second mission was called EXPOSE-R, the R referring to ‘Russian segment’, the location where the EXPOSE instrument was installed this time. The EXPOSE-R mission took place in 2009-2011, ten science teams were involved. The publication of the results, again as a collection, is currently in

  10. Computer modeling of high-voltage solar array experiment using the NASCAP/LEO (NASA Charging Analyzer Program/Low Earth Orbit) computer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Karl O., Jr.

    1987-06-01

    The relationship between the Interactions Measurement Payload for Shuttle (IMPS) flight experiment and the low Earth orbit plasma environment is discussed. Two interactions (parasitic current loss and electrostatic discharge on the array) may be detrimental to mission effectiveness. They result from the spacecraft's electrical potentials floating relative to plasma ground to achieve a charge flow equilibrium into the spacecraft. The floating potentials were driven by external biases applied to a solar array module of the Photovoltaic Array Space Power (PASP) experiment aboard the IMPS test pallet. The modeling was performed using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program/Low Earth Orbit (NASCAP/LEO) computer code which calculates the potentials and current collection of high-voltage objects in low Earth orbit. Models are developed by specifying the spacecraft, environment, and orbital parameters. Eight IMPS models were developed by varying the array's bias voltage and altering its orientation relative to its motion. The code modeled a typical low Earth equatorial orbit. NASCAP/LEO calculated a wide variety of possible floating potential and current collection scenarios. These varied directly with both the array bias voltage and with the vehicle's orbital orientation.

  11. Space environmental effects on LDEF low Earth orbit exposed graphite reinforced polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Pete

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was deployed on April 7, 1984 in low earth orbit (LEO) at an altitude of 482 kilometers. On board experiments experienced the harsh LEO environment including atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet radiation (UV), and thermal cycling. During the 5.8 year mission, the LDEF orbit decayed to 340 kilometers where significantly higher AO concentrations exist. LDEF was retrieved on January 12, 1990 from this orbit. One experiment on board LDEF was M0003, Space Effects on Spacecraft Materials. As a subset of M0003 nearly 500 samples of polymer, metal, and glass matrix composites were flown as the Advanced Composites Experiment M0003-10. The Advanced Composites Experiment is a joint effort between government and industry with the Aerospace Corporation serving as the experiment integrator. A portion of the graphite reinforced polymer matrix composites were furnished by the Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, Washington. Test results and discussions for the Boeing portion of M0003-10 are presented. Experiment and specimen location on the LDEF are presented along with a quantitative summary of the pertinent exposure conditions. Matrix materials selected for the test were epoxy, polysulfone, and polyimide. These composite materials were selected due to their suitability for high performance structural capability in spacecraft applications. Graphite reinforced polymer matrix composites offer higher strength to weight ratios along with excellent dimensional stability. The Boeing space exposed and corresponding ground control composite specimens were subjected to post flight mechanical, chemical, and physical testing in order to determine any changes in critical properties and performance characteristics. Among the more significant findings are the erosive effect of atomic oxygen on leading edge exposed specimens and microcracking in non-unidirectionally reinforced flight specimens.

  12. Cost-effective and robust mitigation of space debris in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R.; Martin, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    For the wide acceptance of space debris mitigation measures throughout government agencies and industry, their cost-effectiveness must be demonstrated. The selected measures must not only be effective at controlling the future growth of the debris population, but they should also aim to minimise the collision risk to spacecraft at a minimal cost of implementation. Furthermore, the selected measures must be sufficiently robust to retain their effectiveness if unexpected increases in space activity were to occur. In this paper, clear criteria are established in order to assess numerous different Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris mitigation scenarios for their cost-effectiveness and robustness. The ESA DELTA debris model is used to provide long-term debris environment projections for these scenarios as an input to the effectiveness/robustness element. Manoeuvre requirements for the different post-mission disposal scenarios are calculated in order to define the cost-related element. A 25-year post-mission lifetime de-orbit policy, combined with explosion prevention and mission-related object limitation, was found to be the most cost-effective solution to the space debris problem in LEO. This package would also be robust enough to retain its effectiveness even after a significant increase in future launch traffic. It was found that the re-orbiting of space systems above the LEO region would not lead to significant collision activity there over the next century. However, above-LEO disposal should be used sparingly because the disposal region could become unstable after a limited number of localised explosion or collision-induced breakup events due to a lack of air drag to remove the resulting fragments.

  13. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  14. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  15. Studies of neutron and proton nuclear activation in low-Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The expected induced radioactivity of experimental material in low Earth orbit was studied for characteristics of activating particles such as cosmic rays, high energy Earth albedo neutrons, trapped protons, and secondary protons and neutrons. The activation cross sections for the production of long lived radioisotopes and other existing nuclear data appropriate to the study of these reactions were compiled. Computer codes which are required to calculate the expected activation of orbited materials were developed. The decreased computer code used to predict the activation of trapped protons of materials placed in the expected orbits of LDEF and Spacelab II. Techniques for unfolding the fluxes of activating particles from the measured activation of orbited materials are examined.

  16. Precise orbit determination for NASA's earth observing system using GPS (Global Positioning System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a precision orbit determination technique for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. This technique allows the geometric information from measurements of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudo-range to be exploited while minimizing requirements for precision dynamical modeling. The method combines geometric and dynamic information to determine the spacecraft trajectory; the weight on the dynamic information is controlled by adjusting fictitious spacecraft accelerations in three dimensions which are treated as first order exponentially time correlated stochastic processes. By varying the time correlation and uncertainty of the stochastic accelerations, the technique can range from purely geometric to purely dynamic. Performance estimates for this technique as applied to the orbit geometry planned for the EOS platforms indicate that decimeter accuracies for EOS orbit position may be obtainable. The sensitivity of the predicted orbit uncertainties to model errors for station locations, nongravitational platform accelerations, and Earth gravity is also presented.

  17. Servicing and Deployment of National Resources in Sun-Earth Libration Point Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Beckman, Mark; Mar, Greg C.; Mesarch, Michael; Cooley, Steven; Leete, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft travel between the Sun-Earth system, the Earth-Moon system, and beyond has received extensive attention recently. The existence of a connection between unstable regions enables mission designers to envision scenarios of multiple spacecraft traveling cheaply from system to system, rendezvousing, servicing, and refueling along the way. This paper presents examples of transfers between the Sun-Earth and Earth-Moon systems using a true ephemeris and perturbation model. It shows the (Delta)V costs associated with these transfers, including the costs to reach the staging region from the Earth. It explores both impulsive and low thrust transfer trajectories. Additionally, analysis that looks specifically at the use of nuclear power in libration point orbits and the issues associated with them such as inadvertent Earth return is addressed. Statistical analysis of Earth returns and the design of biased orbits to prevent any possible return are discussed. Lastly, the idea of rendezvous between spacecraft in libration point orbits using impulsive maneuvers is addressed.

  18. Remote Sensing of Earth and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertler, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…

  19. Investigating the Earth and Its Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Cheryl; Spear, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Along with the need to make their curriculum more comprehensive and reflective of the national and state standards, one school district also searched for ways to make students more passionate about learning science. As a result, they developed a new integrated science course that is centered around the environmental and Earth sciences with an…

  20. ISS Update: From Orbiting Earth to Living Underwater

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews astronaut and NEEMO (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) 16 Commander Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger. Three NASA astronauts, a NASA research...

  1. KOI2138 -- a Spin-Orbit Aligned Intermediate Period Super-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.

    2015-11-01

    A planet's formation and evolution are encoded in spin-orbit alignment -- the planet's inclination relative to its star's equatorial plane. While the solar system's spin-orbit aligned planets indicate our own relatively quiescent history, many close-in giant planets show significant misalignment. Some planets even orbit retrograde! Hot Jupiters, then, have experienced fundamentally different histories than we experienced here in the solar system. In this presentation, I will show a new determination of the spin-orbit alignment of 2.1 REarth exoplanet candidate KOI2138. KOI2138 shows a gravity-darkened transit lightcurve that is consistent with spin-orbit alignment. This measurement is important because the only other super-Earth with an alignment determination (55 Cnc e, orbit period 0.74 days) is misaligned. With an orbital period of 23.55 days, KOI2138 is far enough from its star to avoid tidal orbit evolution. Therefore its orbit is likely primordial, and hence it may represent the tip of an iceberg of terrestrial, spin-orbit aligned planets that have histories that more closely resemble that of the solar system's terrestrial planets.

  2. Solar dynamic heat receiver thermal characteristics in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Roschke, E. J.; Birur, G. C.

    1988-01-01

    A simplified system model is under development for evaluating the thermal characteristics and thermal performance of a solar dynamic spacecraft energy system's heat receiver. Results based on baseline orbit, power system configuration, and operational conditions, are generated for three basic receiver concepts and three concentrator surface slope errors. Receiver thermal characteristics and thermal behavior in LEO conditions are presented. The configuration in which heat is directly transferred to the working fluid is noted to generate the best system and thermal characteristics. as well as the lowest performance degradation with increasing slope error.

  3. Earth-to-Moon low energy transfers targeting L1 hyperbolic transit orbits.

    PubMed

    Topputo, Francesco; Vasile, Massimiliano; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the lunar exploration, numerous future space missions will require maximization of payload mass, and simultaneously achieving reasonable transfer times. To fulfill this request, low energy non-Keplerian orbits could be used to reach the Moon instead of high energetic transfers. The low energy solutions can be separated into two main categories depending on the nature of the trajectory approaching the Moon: low energy transit orbits that approach the Moon from the interior equilibrium point L(1) and weak stability boundary transfers that reach the Moon after passing through L(2). This paper proposes an alternative way to exploit the opportunities offered by L(1) transit orbits for the design of Earth-Moon transfers. First, in a neighborhood of the L(1) point, the three-body dynamics is linearized and written in normal form; then the entire family of nonlinear transit orbits is obtained by selecting the appropriate nontrivial amplitudes associated with the hyperbolic part. The L(1)-Earth arc is close to a 5:2 resonant orbit with the Moon, whose perturbations cause the apogee to rise. In a second step, two selected low altitude parking orbits around the Earth and the Moon are linked with the transit orbit by means of two three-body Lambert arcs, solutions of two two-point boundary value problems. The resulting Earth-to-Moon trajectories prove to be very efficient in the Moon captured arc and save approximately 100 m/sec in Deltav cost when compared to the Hohmann transfer. Furthermore, such solutions demonstrate that Moon capture could be obtained in the frame of the Earth-Moon R3BP neglecting the presence of the Sun.

  4. MEMO: Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter: a Cosmic Vision proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Langlais, B.; Fouchet, T.; Chassefière, E.; Sotin, C.; Barabash, S.; Dehant, V.; Lammer, H.; Mandea, M.; Vennerstrom, S.; Coates, A.; D, Breuer; Paetzold, M.; Forget, F.; Tarits, P.; Menvielle, M.; Read, P.; Lopez-Valverde, M.; S., Lewis; Pais, A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent observations by the ESA spacecraft Mars Express, the two NASA Rovers Opportunity and Spirit, as well as by the NASA probe Mars Global Surveyor, have changed our view on the evolution of Mars. The most dramatic results are the limited amount of visible minerals related to the action of water at its surface, the very intense lithospheric magnetic fields, and the current weak ion escape driven by the solar wind. These observations suggest that the period of a "wet Mars" was short and that Mars lost its water before 3.5 Gyr ago, when the magnetic field of Mars died out. Among the different questions that are raised by existing results, the role of the superficial magnetic field shielding Mars' surface and lower atmosphere from the high-energy ions and the dependency of the escape rate on solar conditions are first order questions that cannot be addressed without new measurements by a dedicated mission. However, these questions cannot be fully solved without understanding how carbon dioxide, water and chemical species are cycled through atmosphere, clouds, polar caps and other reservoirs. An integrated view of Martian matter and energy cycles, from the surface up to solar wind interaction regions and beyond, is the next step toward deciphering past climate. The Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter mission (MEMO) is devoted: (1) to measure temperature, wind and chemical composition in order to characterize processes coupling low, middle and high atmospheric layers, (2) to describe atmospheric oxidation processes and to search for organic chemical compounds, (3) to measure water isotopic fractionation in the low atmosphere in order to characterize water sources, sinks and transport, with a focus on polar processes, (4) to investigate the dependency of atmospheric and neutral and ion escape dynamics on short and long timescales versus solar wind and radiation variabilities, (5) to map the crustal magnetic field with an unprecedented spatial resolution that would

  5. Computer subroutines for estimation of human exposure to radiation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computer subroutines to calculate human exposure to trapped radiations in low Earth orbit (LEO) on the basis of a simple approximation of the human geometry by spherical shell shields of varying thickness are presented and detailed. The subroutines calculate the dose to critical body organs and the fraction of exposure limit reached as a function of altitude of orbit, degree of inclination, shield thickness, and days in mission. Exposure rates are compared with current exposure limits.

  6. Two-stage earth-to-orbit transport with translating oblique wings for booster recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacConochie, Ian O. (Inventor); Briener, Charles A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A two-stage earth-to-orbit transport includes an orbiter vehicle and a pair of boosters, each having a depolyable oblique wing located along a longitudinal axis of the booster. The wing is deployed in an oblique disposition in supersonic and hypersonic speeds, and disposed at 90.degree. for subsonic speeds encountered during entry. The oblique wing is driven axially and rotated by means of a turret mounted on rails.

  7. Space shuttle: Program overview. [low-cost transportation to and from earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The primary design and operations goal for the space shuttle program to provide low-cost transportation to and from earth orbits for the purpose of conducting investigations in space via spacelabs and free flying or automated satellites is reviewed. The space shuttle system and mission profile is described along with the space shuttle orbiter system and payloads accommodations, attachments, and handling. The implications the space shuttle program has for international cooperation in space are mentioned.

  8. The MicroSTAR accelerometer, a key payload for low Earth orbit aeronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophe, Bruno; Foulon, Bernard; Perrot, Eddy; Liorzou, Françoise; Boulanger, Damien; Lebat, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    With its mature technology inherited from the still in-orbit electrostatic accelerometers of the GRACE and GOCE geodesy missions, the MicroSTAR accelerometer is well suited for low Earth orbit aeronomy missions. Weighting 1 kg inside less than 1 litre and with a power consumption of a little bit more than 1 W, MicroSTAR can be integrated both as auxiliary passenger payload on board any Earth observation satellite either can be the main payload of a micro satellite dedicated to aeronomy and space weather survey. Positioned in the vicinity of the spacecraft centre of gravity, the accelerometer provides the measurements of the satellite non gravitational surface forces. Associated with a precise orbit determination, the accelerometer measurement permits to distinguish the position or velocity fluctuations of the satellite due to the drag fluctuations from those due to the Earth gravity anomalies and so to deduce the atmospheric density after removal of radiation pressures (direct solar, Earth albedo and infrared radiation) assuming a well known mass and wetted surface of the satellite. MicroSTAR shall achieve a resolution performance up to 1.5E-11 m/s2/sqrt(Hz) in the measurement bandwidth from 0.2 mHz to 100 mHz. If integrated at the centre of a nearly spherical micro-satellite, taking advantage of a GPS receiver for precise orbit determination and with a simple mechanical devices for accurate in-orbit centring at the satellite centre of gravity, such a satellite launched on a 300km-1300km orbit with inclination as close as possible to a polar orbit, can provide a global coverage of the upper atmospheric density and of its spatial and temporal variations. After a description of the MicroSTAR instrument, the paper will presents its detailed performance budget and it will be concluded by a short trade off between the possible orbits and the expected scientific performance return pending on the potential LEO satellite missions.

  9. Materials selection for long life in low earth orbit - A critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Albyn, K.; Leger, L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined in thermal atom environments are compared with those observed in LEO and in high-quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies (cu cm/atom) measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-thousandth to one ten-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of eight in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain speciic thermal atom test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools.

  10. Lissajous Orbit Control for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sarah; Reagoso, John

    2015-01-01

    DSCOVR Lissajous Orbit sized such that orbit track never extends beyond 15 degrees from Earth-Sun line (as seen from Earth). Requiring delta-V maneuvers, control orbit to obey a Solar Exclusion Zone (SEZ) cone of half-angle 4 degrees about the Earth-Sun line. Spacecraft should never be less than 4 degrees from solar center as seen from Earth. Following Lissajous Orbit Insertion (LOI), DSCOVR should be in an opening phase that just skirts the 4-degree SEZ. Maximizes time to the point where a closing Lissajous will require avoidance maneuvers to keep it out of the SEZ. Station keeping maneuvers should take no more than 15 minutes.

  11. Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles: A comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A representative set of space systems, functions, and missions for NASA and DoD from which launch vehicle requirements and characteristics was established as well as a set of air-breathing launch vehicles based on graduated technology capabilities corresponding to increasingly higher staging Mach numbers. The utility of the air-breathing launch vehicle candidates based on lift-off weight, performance, technology needs, and risk was assessed and costs were compared to alternative concepts. The results indicate that a fully reusable launch vehicle, whether two stage or one stage, could potentially reduce the cost per flight 60-80% compared to that for a partially reusable vehicle but would require advances in thermal protection system technology. A two-stage-to-orbit, parallel-lift vehicle with an air-breathing booster would cost approximately the same as a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, but the former would have greater flexibility and a significantly reduced developmental risk. A twin-booster, subsonic-staged, parallel-lift vehicle represents the lowest system cost and developmental risk. However, if a large supersonic turbojet engine in the 350,000-N thrust class were available, supersonic staging would be preferred, and the investment in development would be returned in reduced program cost.

  12. The orbit of 2010 TK7: possible regions of stability for other Earth Trojan asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, R.; Lhotka, C.; Zhou, L.

    2012-05-01

    The first Earth Trojan has been observed and found to be on an interesting orbit close to the Lagrange point L4. In the present study, we therefore perform a detailed investigation of the stability of its orbit and moreover extend the study to give an idea of the probability of finding additional Earth Trojans. Our results are derived using three different approaches. In the first, we derive an analytical mapping in the spatial elliptic restricted three-body problem to find the phase space structure of the dynamical problem. We then explore the stability of the asteroid in the context of the phase space geometry, including the indirect influence of the additional planets of our Solar system. In the second approach, we use precise numerical methods to integrate the orbit forward and backward in time in different dynamical models. On the basis of a set of 400 clone orbits, we derive the probability of capture and escape of the Earth Trojan asteroid 2010 TK7. To this end, in the third approach we perform an extensive numerical investigation of the stability region of the Earth's Lagrangian points. We present a detailed parameter study of possible stable tadpole and horseshoe orbits of additional Earth Trojans, i.e. with respect to the semi-major axes and inclinations of thousands of fictitious Trojans. All three approaches lead to the conclusion that the Earth Trojan asteroid 2010 TK7 finds itself in an unstable region on the edge of a stable zone; additional Earth Trojan asteroids may be found in this regime of stability.

  13. Kepler's Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kepler does not orbit the Earth, rather it orbits the Sun in concert with the Earth, slowly drifting away from Earth. Every 61 Earth years, Kepler and Earth will pass by each other. Throughout the ...

  14. Study of multi-kW solar arrays for Earth orbit application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Low cost low Earth orbit (LOW) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) Solar Array concepts in the 300 to 1000 kW range which could be reduced to hardware in the mid 1980's, are identified. Size scaling factors and longer life demands are recognized as the prime drivers for the designs if low life cycle costs for energy are to be achieved. Technology is identified which requires further development in order to assure component readiness and availability. Use of the low concentration ratio (CR) concentrator, which uses gallium arsenide solar cells for both LEO and GEO applications, is recommended.

  15. Instrumentation for near-Earth measurement of orbital debris and cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuzzolino, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    Dust instrumentation based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust sensor arrays is described which will measure the masses, fluxes, velocities, and trajectories of orbital debris particles and natural micrometeoroids. Orbital debris particles are distinguished from natural particles (cosmic dust) by means of the velocity/trajectory information. The instrumentation will measure particle trajectory with a mean error of approximately 7 degrees (for isotropic flux) and is designed for measurements over the particle diameter range of approximately 2 to 200 micro-m. For future missions having Earth-return capabilities, arrays of capture cell devices positioned behind the PVDF trajectory system would provide for Earth-based chemical and isotopic analysis of captured dust.

  16. The Orbit and Future Motion of Earth Quasi-Satellite 2016 HO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The newly discovered small asteroid 2016 HO3 is not only co-orbital with the Earth, it is currently trapped as a quasi-satellite, and it will remain a constant companion of our planet for centuries to come. Although it orbits the Sun, not the Earth, in a frame rotating with the Earth the asteroid appears to make yearly loops around our planet, and also bobs up and down through the ecliptic due to its 8-degree orbital inclination. What makes this asteroid a quasi-satellite is the fact that the Earth's gravity influences its motion so that it never wanders farther away than about 100 lunar distances. In the rotating frame, the asteroid's yearly cycles librate back and forth along the Earth's orbit, with a period of about 45 years. One other asteroid, 2003 YN107, followed a similar librational pattern from 1997 to 2006, but has since departed our vicinity. 2016 HO3, on the other hand, will continue to librate about our planet for centuries to come, making it the best and most stable example of a quasi-satellite to date.

  17. Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases of Earth's environment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Siva Sai; Ferry, James G

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. Five independently evolved classes have been described for which one or more are found in nearly every cell type underscoring the general importance of this ubiquitous enzyme in Nature. The bulk of research to date has centered on the enzymes from mammals and plants with less emphasis on prokaryotes. Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases play important roles in the ecology of Earth's biosphere including acquisition of CO2 for photosynthesis and the physiology of aerobic and anaerobic prokaryotes decomposing the photosynthate back to CO2 thereby closing the global carbon cycle. This review focuses on the physiology and biochemistry of carbonic anhydrases from prokaryotes belonging to the domains Bacteria and Archaea that play key roles in the ecology of Earth's biosphere.

  18. In-Orbit Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Battery Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Anisa; Enciso, Marlon; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the history of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the problems which were experienced with the batteries. After two cells shorted on the first Battery, the decision was made to take battery 1 of line in late 1992. This left the second battery supporting all loads. The second battery began to experience problems in 1998 into 1999. The decision was made to bring the first battery on line and take the second battery off line. The steps to switching the batteries are reviewed, and the results are discussed.

  19. Free Space Laser Communication Experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Zellar, Ronald S.; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  20. ADCS controllers comparison for small satellitess in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Daniel; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Lapuerta, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    Fuzzy logic controllers are flexible and simple, suitable for small satellites Attitude Determination and Control Subsystems (ADCS). In a previous work, a tailored Fuzzy controller was designed for a nanosatellite. Its performance and efficiency were compared with a traditional Proportional Integrative Derivative (PID) controller within the same specific mission. The orbit height varied along the mission from injection at around 380 km down to 200 km height, and the mission required pointing accuracy over the whole time. Due to both, the requirements imposed by such a low orbit, and the limitations in the power available for the attitude control, an efficient ADCS is required. Both methodologies, fuzzy and PID, were fine-tuned using an automated procedure to grant maximum efficiency with fixed performances. The simulations showed that the Fuzzy controller is much more efficient (up to 65% less power required) in single manoeuvres, achieving similar, or even better, precision than the PID. The accuracy and efficiency improvement of the Fuzzy controller increase with orbit height because the environmental disturbances decrease, approaching the ideal scenario. However, the controllers are meant to be used in a vast range of situations and configurations which exceed those used in the calibration process carried out in the previous work. To assess the suitability and performance of both controllers in a wider framework, parametric and statistical methods have been applied using the Monte Carlo technique. Several parameters have been modified randomly at the beginning of each simulation: the moments of inertia of the whole satellite and of the momentum wheel, the residual magnetic dipole and the initial conditions of the test. These parameters have been chosen because they are the main source of uncertainty during the design phase. The variables used for the analysis are the error (critical for science) and the operation cost (which impacts the mission lifetime and

  1. Simplified model for solar cosmic ray exposure in manned Earth orbital flights

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Khandelwal, G.S.; Shinn, J.L.; Nealy, J.E.; Townsend, L.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1990-05-01

    A simple calculational model is derived for use in estimating solar cosmic ray exposure to critical body organs in low-Earth orbit at the center of a large spherical shield of fixed thickness. The effects of the Earth's geomagnetic field, including storm conditions and the astronauts' self-shielding, are evaluated explicitly. The magnetic storm model is keyed to the planetary index K(sub p).

  2. Simplified model for solar cosmic ray exposure in manned Earth orbital flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Khandelwal, Govind S.; Shinn, Judy L.; Nealy, John E.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1990-01-01

    A simple calculational model is derived for use in estimating solar cosmic ray exposure to critical body organs in low-Earth orbit at the center of a large spherical shield of fixed thickness. The effects of the Earth's geomagnetic field, including storm conditions and the astronauts' self-shielding, are evaluated explicitly. The magnetic storm model is keyed to the planetary index K(sub p).

  3. Spacecraft orbit/earth scan derivations, associated APL program, and application to IMP-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    The derivation of a time shared, remote site, demand processed computer program is discussed. The computer program analyzes the effects of selected orbit, attitude, and spacecraft parameters on earth sensor detections of earth. For prelaunch analysis, the program may be used to simulate effects in nominal parameters which are used in preparing attitude data processing programs. After launch, comparison of results from a simulation and from satellite data will produce deviations helpful in isolating problems.

  4. Earth-to-Geostationary Orbit Transportation for Space Solar Power System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Schuyler C.; McClanahan, James A.; Carrington, Connie K. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space solar power satellites have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electricity for use on Earth. One concept, the Sun Tower, can be assembled in geostationary orbit from pieces transferred from Earth. The cost of transportation is one of the major hurdles to space solar power. This study found that autonomous solar-electric transfer is a good choice for the transportation from LEO to GEO.

  5. Targeting Ballistic Lunar Capture Trajectories Using Periodic Orbits in the Sun-Earth CRTBP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, D.S.; Griesemer, Paul Ricord; Ocampo, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    A particular periodic orbit in the Earth-Sun circular restricted three body problem is shown to have the characteristics needed for a ballistic lunar capture transfer. An injection from a circular parking orbit into the periodic orbit serves as an initial guess for a targeting algorithm. By targeting appropriate parameters incrementally in increasingly complicated force models and using precise derivatives calculated from the state transition matrix, a reliable algorithm is produced. Ballistic lunar capture trajectories in restricted four body systems are shown to be able to be produced in a systematic way.

  6. Uranian ring orbits from earth-based and Voyager occultation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. G.; Elliot, J. L.; French, L. M.; Kangas, J. A.; Meech, K. J.; Ressler, M. E.; Buie, M. W.; Frogel, J. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Fuensalida, J. J.; Joy, M.

    1988-02-01

    The authors have combined an enhanced Earth-based occultation data set and Voyager occultation observations to determine a new solution for the ring orbital elements and the direction of the planetary pole. They describe the new ground-based observations and the Voyager data used for this analysis. They discuss the new orbit solution and a search for resonances associated with the γ and δ rings, which are not well matched by simple elliptical orbits. Then the authors discuss the new solution and investigate the suspected association of resonances between satellites 1986U7 and 1986U8 and some of the rings.

  7. The Near-Earth Space Radiation for Electronics Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; LaBel, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of: a) charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics, b) the nature and distribution of trapped and transiting radiation, and c) their effect on electronic components.

  8. Early Mission Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for Low-Earth Orbiting Missions using TDRSS Differenced One-way Doppler Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    Differencing multiple, simultaneous Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) one-way Doppler passes can yield metric tracking data usable for orbit determination for (low-cost) spacecraft which do not have TDRSS transponders or local oscillators stable enough to allow the one-way TDRSS Doppler tracking data to be used for early mission orbit determination. Orbit determination error analysis results are provided for low Earth orbiting spacecraft for various early mission tracking scenarios.

  9. Relative Attitude Determination of Earth Orbiting Formations Using GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, E. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Satellite formation missions require the precise determination of both the position and attitude of multiple vehicles to achieve the desired objectives. In order to support the mission requirements for these applications, it is necessary to develop techniques for representing and controlling the attitude of formations of vehicles. A generalized method for representing the attitude of a formation of vehicles has been developed. The representation may be applied to both absolute and relative formation attitude control problems. The technique is able to accommodate formations of arbitrarily large number of vehicles. To demonstrate the formation attitude problem, the method is applied to the attitude determination of a simple leader-follower along-track orbit formation. A multiplicative extended Kalman filter is employed to estimate vehicle attitude. In a simulation study using GPS receivers as the attitude sensors, the relative attitude between vehicles in the formation is determined 3 times more accurately than the absolute attitude.

  10. Differential neutron energy spectra measured on spacecraft low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Dudkin, E. V.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.

    1995-01-01

    Two methods for measuring neutrons in the range from thermal energies to dozens of MeV were used. In the first method, alpha-particles emitted from the (sup 6) Li(n.x)T reaction are detected with the help of plastic nuclear track detectors, yielding results on thermal and resonance neutrons. Also, fission foils are used to detect fast neutrons. In the second method, fast neutrons are recorded by nuclear photographic emulsions (NPE). The results of measurements on board various satellites are presented. The neutron flux density does not appear to correlate clearly with orbital parameters. Up to 50% of neutrons are due to albedo neutrons from the atmosphere while the fluxes inside the satellites are 15-20% higher than those on the outside. Estimates show that the neutron contribution to the total equivalent radiation dose reaches 20-30%.

  11. Extrasolar Giant Planet in Earth-like Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    Discovery from a Long-term Project at La Silla A new extrasolar planet has been found at the ESO La Silla Observatory as a companion to iota Horologii (iota Hor) . This 5.4-mag solar-type star is located at a distance of 56 light-years and is just visible to the unaided eye in the southern constellation Horologium (The Pendulum Clock). The discovery is the result of a long-term survey of forty solar-type stars that was begun in November 1992. It is based on highly accurate measurements of stellar radial velocities, i.e. the speed with which a star moves along the line of sight. The presence of a planet in orbit around a star is inferred from observed, regular changes of this velocity, as the host star and its planet revolve around a common center of gravity. Since in all cases the star is much heavier than the planet, the resulting velocity variations of the star are always quite small. The team that found the new planet, now designated iota Hor b , consists of Martin Kürster , Michael Endl and Sebastian Els (ESO-Chile), Artie P. Hatzes and William D. Cochran (University of Texas, Austin, USA), and Stefan Döbereiner and Konrad Dennerl (Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany). Iodine cell provides very accurate velocity measurements iota Hor b represents the first discovery of an extrasolar planet with an ESO instrument [1]. The finding is based on data obtained with ESO's highest-resolution spectrograph, the Coudé Echelle Spectrometer (CES) at the 1.4-m Coudé Auxiliary Telescope (CAT). While this telescope has recently been decommissioned, the CES instrument is now coupled via an optical fiber link to the larger ESO 3.6-m telescope, thus permitting the continuation of this survey. The high precision radial velocity measurements that are necessary for a study of this type were achieved by means of a special calibration technique. It incorporates an iodine gas absorption cell and sophisticated data modelling. The cell is used like

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of Attitude and Orbit Estimation Using Actual Earth Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie K.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2000-01-01

    A single, augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit has been developed and successfully tested with real magnetometer and gyro data only. Because the earth magnetic field is a function of time and position, and because time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both orbit and attitude errors. Thus, conceivably these differences could be used to estimate both orbit and attitude; an observability study validated this assumption. The results of testing the EKF with actual magnetometer and gyro data, from four satellites supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center, are presented and evaluated. They confirm the assumption that a single EKF can estimate both attitude and orbit when using gyros and magnetometers only.

  13. Technology requirements for future Earth-to-geosynchronous orbit transportation systems. Volume 2: Technical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caluori, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    Technologies either critical to performance of offering cost advantages compared to the investment required to bring them to usable confidence levels are identified. A total transportation system is used as an evaluation yardstick. Vehicles included in the system are a single stage to orbit launch vehicle used in a priority cargo role, a matching orbit transfer vehicle, a heavy lift launch vehicle with a low Earth orbit delivery capability of 226, 575 kg, and a matching solar electric cargo orbit transfer vehicle. The system and its reference technology level are consistent with an initial operational capability in 1990. The 15 year mission scenario is based on early space industrialization leading to the deployment of large systems such as power satellites. Life cycle cost benefits in discounted and undiscounted dollars for each vehicle, technology advancement, and the integrated transportation system are calculated. A preliminary functional analysis was made of the operational support requirements for ground based and space based chemical propulsion orbit transfer vehicles.

  14. Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars.

    PubMed

    Petigura, Erik A; Howard, Andrew W; Marcy, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-26

    Determining whether Earth-like planets are common or rare looms as a touchstone in the question of life in the universe. We searched for Earth-size planets that cross in front of their host stars by examining the brightness measurements of 42,000 stars from National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kepler mission. We found 603 planets, including 10 that are Earth size ( ) and receive comparable levels of stellar energy to that of Earth (1 - 2 R[Symbol: see text] ). We account for Kepler's imperfect detectability of such planets by injecting synthetic planet-caused dimmings into the Kepler brightness measurements and recording the fraction detected. We find that 11 ± 4% of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet receiving between one and four times the stellar intensity as Earth. We also find that the occurrence of Earth-size planets is constant with increasing orbital period (P), within equal intervals of logP up to ~200 d. Extrapolating, one finds 5.7(-2.2)(+1.7)% of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet with orbital periods of 200-400 d. PMID:24191033

  15. Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars.

    PubMed

    Petigura, Erik A; Howard, Andrew W; Marcy, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-26

    Determining whether Earth-like planets are common or rare looms as a touchstone in the question of life in the universe. We searched for Earth-size planets that cross in front of their host stars by examining the brightness measurements of 42,000 stars from National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kepler mission. We found 603 planets, including 10 that are Earth size ( ) and receive comparable levels of stellar energy to that of Earth (1 - 2 R[Symbol: see text] ). We account for Kepler's imperfect detectability of such planets by injecting synthetic planet-caused dimmings into the Kepler brightness measurements and recording the fraction detected. We find that 11 ± 4% of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet receiving between one and four times the stellar intensity as Earth. We also find that the occurrence of Earth-size planets is constant with increasing orbital period (P), within equal intervals of logP up to ~200 d. Extrapolating, one finds 5.7(-2.2)(+1.7)% of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet with orbital periods of 200-400 d.

  16. Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars

    PubMed Central

    Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Determining whether Earth-like planets are common or rare looms as a touchstone in the question of life in the universe. We searched for Earth-size planets that cross in front of their host stars by examining the brightness measurements of 42,000 stars from National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Kepler mission. We found 603 planets, including 10 that are Earth size () and receive comparable levels of stellar energy to that of Earth (). We account for Kepler’s imperfect detectability of such planets by injecting synthetic planet–caused dimmings into the Kepler brightness measurements and recording the fraction detected. We find that 11 ± 4% of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet receiving between one and four times the stellar intensity as Earth. We also find that the occurrence of Earth-size planets is constant with increasing orbital period (P), within equal intervals of logP up to ∼200 d. Extrapolating, one finds % of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet with orbital periods of 200–400 d. PMID:24191033

  17. Environmental durability issues for solar power systems in low earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, K.K. de; Banks, B.A.; Smith, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Space solar power systems for use in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment experience a variety of harsh environmental conditions. Materials used for solar power generation in LEO need to be durable to environmental threats such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and debris impact. Another threat to LEO solar power performance is due to contamination from other spacecraft components. This paper gives an overview of these LEO environmental issues as they relate to space solar power system materials. Issues addressed include atomic oxygen erosion of organic materials, atomic oxygen undercutting of protective coatings, UV darkening of ceramics, UV embrittlement of Teflon, effects of thermal cycling on organic composites, and contamination due to silicone and organic materials. Specific examples of samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and materials returned from the first servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. Issues concerning ground laboratory facilities which simulate the LEO environment are discussed along with ground-to-space correlation issues.

  18. Environmental Durability Issues for Solar Power Systems in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Smith, Daniela C.

    1994-01-01

    Space solar power systems for use in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment experience a variety of harsh environmental conditions. Materials used for solar power generation in LEO need to be durable to environmental threats such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and debris impact. Another threat to LEO solar power performance is due to contamination from other spacecraft components. This paper gives an overview of these LEO environmental issues as they relate to space solar power system materials. Issues addressed include atomic oxygen erosion of organic materials, atomic oxygen undercutting of protective coatings, UV darkening of ceramics, UV embrittlement of Teflon, effects of thermal cycling on organic composites, and contamination due to silicone and organic materials. Specific examples of samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and materials returned from the first servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. Issues concerning ground laboratory facilities which simulate the LEO environment are discussed along with ground-to-space correlation issues.

  19. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, Jeffery C; Scott, Graham B I; Sutton, Jeffrey P

    2014-09-11

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other "omics" areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  20. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, Jeffery C; Scott, Graham B I; Sutton, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other "omics" areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:25370382

  1. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Chancellor, Jeffery C.; Scott, Graham B. I.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:25370382

  2. NEAR-EARTH BINARIES AND TRIPLES: ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPIN-ORBITAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-15

    In the near-Earth asteroid population, binary and triple systems have been discovered with mutual orbits that have significant eccentricities as well as large semimajor axes. All known systems with eccentric orbits and all widely separated primary-satellite pairs have rapidly rotating satellites. Here, we study processes that can elucidate the origin of these spin-orbital properties. Binary formation models based on rotational fissioning can reproduce asynchronous satellites on orbits with high eccentricities and a wide range of separations, but do not match observed properties. We explore whether any evolutionary mechanisms can link the spin and orbital parameters expected from post-fission dynamics to those observed today. We investigate four processes: tidal torques, radiative perturbations (BYORP), close planetary encounters, and Kozai oscillations. We find that a combination of post-fission dynamics and tidal evolution can explain nearly all the spin-orbit properties in a sample of nine well-characterized near-Earth binaries and triples. The other mechanisms may act as well but are not required to explain the observed data. Lastly, we describe evolutionary pathways between observed spin-orbital states including synchronous and circular, asynchronous and circular, and asynchronous and eccentric configurations.

  3. High Earth orbit design for lunar assisted small Explorer class missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, M.; Hametz, M.; Cooley, J.; Skillman, D.

    1994-05-01

    Small Expendable launch vehicles are capable of injecting modest payloads into high Earth orbits having apogee near the lunar distance. However, lunar and solar perturbations can quickly lower perigee and cause premature reentry. Costly perigee raising maneuvers by the spacecraft are required to maintain the orbit. In addition, the range of inclinations achievable is limited to those of launch sites unless costly spacecraft maneuvers are performed. This study investigates the use of a lunar swingby in a near-Hohmann transfer trajectory to raise perigee into the 8 to 25 solar radius range and reach a wide variety of inclinations without spacecraft maneuvers. It is found that extremely stable orbits can be obtained if the postencounter spacecraft orbital period is one-half of a lunar sidereal revolution and the Earth-vehicle-Moon geometry is within a specified range. Criteria for achieving stable orbits with various perigee heights and ecliptic inclinations are developed, and the sensitivity of the resulting mission orbits to transfer trajectory injection (TTI) errors is examined. It is shown that carefully designed orbits yield lifetimes of several years, with excellent ground station coverage characteristics and minimal eclipses. A phasing loop error correction strategy is considered with the spacecraft propulsion system delta V demand for TTI error correction and a postlunar encounter apogee trim maneuver typically in the 30 to 120 meters per second range.

  4. Technology Development to Support Human Health and Performance in Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, C.E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Charles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of defining the level of risks and mitigating the risks for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit, NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) has identified the need for technology development in several areas. Long duration missions increase the risk of serious medical conditions due to limited options for return to Earth; no resupply; highly limited mass, power, volume; and communication delays. New space flight compatible medical capabilities required include: diagnostic imaging, oxygen concentrator, ventilator, laboratory analysis (saliva, blood, urine), kidney stone diagnosis & treatment, IV solution preparation and delivery. Maintenance of behavioral health in such an isolated, confined and extreme environment requires new sensory stimulation (e.g., virtual reality) technology. Unobtrusive monitoring of behavioral health and treatment methods are also required. Prolonged exposure to weightlessness deconditions bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. Novel exercise equipment or artificial gravity are necessary to prevent deconditioning. Monitoring of the degree of deconditioning is required to ensure that countermeasures are effective. New technologies are required in all the habitable volumes (e.g., suit, capsule, habitat, exploration vehicle, lander) to provide an adequate food system, and to meet human environmental standards for air, water, and surface contamination. Communication delays require the crew to be more autonomous. Onboard decision support tools that assist crew with real-time detection and diagnosis of vehicle and habitat operational anomalies will enable greater autonomy. Multi-use shield systems are required to provide shielding from solar particle events. The HRP is pursuing the development of these technologies in laboratories, flight analog environments and the ISS so that the human health and performance risks will be acceptable with the available resources.

  5. The long term behaviour of Earth orbits and the implications for debris control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    GEO orbits with inclinations which remain less than 45 degrees are very stable. Although the inclination of the orbital plane may vary as much as 15 degrees over a period of about 50 years, the orbit altitude will always remain within a few hundred kilometers of geosynchronous altitude, GEO orbits with inclinations greater than 45 degrees exhibit remarkable instabilities ir the eccentricity due to gravitational resonance. Over a period of a century the eccentricity can reach such a large value that reentry is a possibility. The combined effects of the Sun, Moon, and oblate Earth play a significant role in determining the lifetime of a GEO transfer orbit. Depending on the initial orientation of the orbital plane with respect to the Sun and Moon, lifetimes may vary from under 6 months to over several hundred years. Transfer orbits with inclinations over 45 degrees show strong instabilities in the perigee altitude resulting in generally short lifetimes of less than a few years. All transfer orbits can be designed to decay within one year if the initial perigee altitude is less than 231 km. However, there are restrictions on orbit plane placement and time of year of launch.

  6. The Martian Radiation Environment from Orbit and on the Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Howe, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    A good knowledge of the Martian radiation environment and its interactions with Mars is needed for many reasons. It is needed to help unfold the results of the Mars-2001 orbiter's gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) and neutron spectrometers (NS) to determine elemental abundances on the Martian surface. It is needed to interpret the measurements of the Martian Radiation Environment Experiments (MARIE) on both the Mars 2001 orbiter and lander. It is needed to calculate production rates of cosmogenic nuclides that will be measured in samples returned from Mars. It is needed to determine the doses that astronauts would receive in Martian orbit and especially on the surface of Mars. We discuss the two types of energetic particles in the vicinity of Mars and the nature of their interactions. Solar energetic particles (SEPs) occur very rarely but can have high fluxes that are dangerous in space. However, their energies are low enough that few solar energetic particles reach the surface of Mars. Their interactions can be fairly easily modeled because SEPs create few secondary particles. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) have high energies and are the dominant source of energetic particles on the Martian surface, mainly secondary neutrons. Modeling their interactions is complicated because of the range of nuclei in the GCR and their high energies. Work at Los Alamos on GCR interactions will be presented.

  7. The Impact of New Trends in Satellite Launches on Orbital Debris Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; Stupl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to examine the impact of new trends in satellite launch activities on the orbital debris environment and collision risk. Starting from the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, space borne technology has become an indispensable part of our lives. More than 6,000 satellites have been launched into Earth orbit. Though the annual number of satellites launched stayed flat for many decades, the trend has recently changed. The satellite market has been undergoing a major evolution with new space companies replacing the traditional approach of deploying a few large, complex and costly satellites with an approach to use a multitude of smaller, less complex and cheaper satellites. This new approach creates a sharp increase in the number of satellites and so the historic trends are no longer representative. As a foundation for this study, a scenario for satellite deployments based on the publicly announced future satellite missions has been developed. These constellation-deploying companies include, but are not limited to, Blacksky, CICERO, EROS, Landmapper, Leosat, Northstar, O3b, OmniEarth, OneWeb, Orbcomm, OuterNet, PlanetIQ, Planet Labs, Radarsat, RapidEye Next Generation, Sentinel, Skybox, SpaceX, and Spire. Information such as the annual number of launches, the number of orbital planes to be used by the constellation, as well as apogee, perigee, inclination, spacecraft mass and area were included or approximated. Besides the production of satellites, a widespread ongoing effort to enhance orbital injection capabilities will allow delivery of more spacecraft more accurately into Earth orbits. A long list of companies such as Microcosm, Rocket Lab, Firefly Space Systems, Sierra Nevada Corporation and Arca Space Corporation are developing new launch vehicles dedicated for small satellites. There are other projects which intend to develop interstages with propulsive capabilities which will allow the deployment of satellites into

  8. Earth anisotropic reflection and the orbit of LAGEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Knocke, Philip; Taylor, V. Ray; Blackwell, Sue

    1987-01-01

    Radiation pressure due to sunlight anisotropically reflected from the oceans apparently cannot explain the fluctuations in the anomalous along-track deceleration of the LAGEOS satellite. It fails by about a factor of 2 to account for the major peaks in the acceleration. This result is based on an extreme model: a cloudless earth whose northern hemisphere consists of continent, and whose southern hemisphere consists of ocean. The continent is assumed to reflect sunlight according to Lambert's law, while the ocean reflects anisotropically according to a simple analytical law which mimics Nimbus 7 observations. The inclusion of clouds into the model would reduce the acceleration to perhaps an order of magnitude below those observed. Some other explanation for the fluctuations, which have magnitude about 2 x 10 to the -12th m/sec sq, must be sought.

  9. Overview of International Space Station orbital environments exposure flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Schmidl, Danny; Finckenor, Miria; Neish, Michael; Imagawa, Kichiro; Dinguirard, Magdeleine; van Eesbeek, Marc; Naumov, S. F.; Krylov, A. N.; Mishina, L. V.; Gerasimov, Y. I.; Sokolova, S. P.; Kurilyonok, A. O.; Alexandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of International Space Station (ISS) on-orbit environments exposure flight experiments. International teams are flying, or preparing to fly, externally mounted materials exposure trays and sensor packages. The samples in these trays are exposed to a combination of induced molecular contamination, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, micrometeoroids and orbital debris. Exposed materials samples are analyzed upon return. Typical analyses performed on these samples include optical property measurements, X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles, scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface morphology and materials properties measurements. The objective of these studies is to characterize the long-term effects of the natural and induced environments on spacecraft materials. Ongoing flight experiments include the U.S. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) program, the Japanese Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (SM/MPAC&SEED) experiment, the Russian SKK and Kromka experiments from RSC-Energia, and the Komplast flight experiment. Flight experiments being prepared for flight, or in development stage, include the Japanese Space Environment Data Acquisition Attached Payload (SEDA-AP), the Russian BKDO monitoring package from RSC-Energia, and the European Materials Exposure and Degradation Experiment (MEDET). Results from these ISS flight experiments will be crucial to extending the performance and life of long-duration space systems such as Space Station, Space Transportation System, and other missions for Moon and Mars exploration.

  10. Probable Rotation States of Rocket Bodies in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojakangas, G.; Anz-Meador, P.; Cowardin, H.

    2012-09-01

    In order for Active Debris Removal to be accomplished, it is critically important to understand the probable rotation states of orbiting, spent rocket bodies (RBs). However, rotational dynamics is non-intuitive and misconceptions are common. Determinations of rotation and precession rates from light curves have been published that are inconsistent with the theory presented here. In a state of free precession, the total angular momentum of the object is constant, while kinetic energy decreases due to internal friction, approaching rotation about the axis of maximum inertia. For solid internal friction the timescale is hundreds to thousands of years for quality factors of ~100 and assuming metallic rigidities, but for friction in partially-filled liquid fuel tanks we predict that the preferred rotational state is approached rapidly, within days to months. However, history has shown that theoretical predictions of the timescale have been notoriously inaccurate. In free precession, the 3-1-3 Euler angle rates dphi/dt (precession rate of long axis about fixed angular momentum with cone angle theta) and dpsi/dt (roll rate around long axis) have comparable magnitudes until very close to theta=pi/2, so that otherwise the true rotation period is not simply twice the primary light curve period. Furthermore dtheta/dt, nonzero due to friction, becomes asymptotically smaller as theta=pi/2 is approached, so that theta can linger within several degrees of flat spin for a relatively long time. Such a condition is likely common, and cannot be distinguished from the wobble of a cylinder with a skewed inertia tensor unless the RB has non-axisymmetric reflectivity characteristics. For an RB of known dimensions, a given value of theta fixes the relative values of dpsi/dt and dphi/dt. In forced precession, the angular momentum precesses about a symmetry axis defined by the relevant torque. However, in LEO, only gravity gradient and magnetic eddy current torques are dominant, and these

  11. Guide to Modeling Earth's Trapped Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, H.

    1999-01-01

    The report will close with a detailed discussion of the current status of modeling of the radiation environment and recommend a long range plan for enhancing capabilities in this important environmental area.

  12. Tidal Heating of Earth-like Exoplanets around M Stars: Thermal, Magnetic, and Orbital Evolutions.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, P E; Barnes, R

    2015-09-01

    The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low-mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the "tidal zone," where tidal dissipation is expected to be a significant heat source in the interior. We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a viscoelastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within 0.07 AU circularize before 10 Gyr, independent of initial eccentricity. Once circular, these planets cool monotonically and maintain dynamos similar to that of Earth. Planets forced into eccentric orbits can experience a super-cooling of the core and rapid core solidification, inhibiting dynamo action for planets in the habitable zone. We find that tidal heating is insignificant in the habitable zone around 0.45 (or larger) solar-mass stars because tidal dissipation is a stronger function of orbital distance than stellar mass, and the habitable zone is farther from larger stars. Suppression of the planetary magnetic field exposes the atmosphere to stellar wind erosion and the surface to harmful radiation. In addition to weak magnetic fields, massive melt eruption rates and prolonged magma oceans may render eccentric planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars inhospitable for life. PMID:26393398

  13. Tidal Heating of Earth-like Exoplanets around M Stars: Thermal, Magnetic, and Orbital Evolutions.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, P E; Barnes, R

    2015-09-01

    The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low-mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the "tidal zone," where tidal dissipation is expected to be a significant heat source in the interior. We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a viscoelastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within 0.07 AU circularize before 10 Gyr, independent of initial eccentricity. Once circular, these planets cool monotonically and maintain dynamos similar to that of Earth. Planets forced into eccentric orbits can experience a super-cooling of the core and rapid core solidification, inhibiting dynamo action for planets in the habitable zone. We find that tidal heating is insignificant in the habitable zone around 0.45 (or larger) solar-mass stars because tidal dissipation is a stronger function of orbital distance than stellar mass, and the habitable zone is farther from larger stars. Suppression of the planetary magnetic field exposes the atmosphere to stellar wind erosion and the surface to harmful radiation. In addition to weak magnetic fields, massive melt eruption rates and prolonged magma oceans may render eccentric planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars inhospitable for life.

  14. Redox State of the Neoarchean Earth Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Claire, Mark W.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Farquhar, James; Poulton, Simon W.

    2011-01-01

    A Titan-like organic haze has been hypothesized for Earth's atmosphere prior to widespread surface oxygenation approx.2.45 billion years ago (Ga). We present a high-resolution record of quadruple sulfur isotopes, carbon isotopes, and Fe speciation from the approx.2.65-2.5 Ga Ghaap Group, South Africa, which suggest a linkage between organic haze and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, sulfur, oxygen, and iron on the Archean Earth. These sediments provide evidence for oxygen production in microbial mats and localized oxygenation of surface waters. However, this oxygen production occurred under a reduced atmosphere which existed in multiple distinct redox states that correlate to changes in carbon and sulfur isotopes. The data are corroborated by photochemical model results that suggest bi-stable transitions between organic haze and haze-free atmospheric conditions in the Archean. These geochemical correlations also extend to other datasets, indicating that variations in the character of anomalous sulfur fractionation could provide insight into the role of carbon-bearing species in the reducing Archean atmosphere.

  15. Near-earth orbital guidance and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The curriculum of a short course in remote sensing and parameter optimization is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) basics of remote sensing and the user community, (2) multivariant spectral analysis, (3) advanced mathematics and physics of remote sensing, (4) the atmospheric environment, (5) imaging sensing, and (6)nonimaging sensing. Mathematical models of optimization techniques are developed.

  16. Is Mars a habitable environment for extremophilic microorganisms from Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, Petra; Reitz, Guenther; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Bauermeister, Anja

    In the last decades several sucessful space missions to our neighboring planet Mars have deepened our knowledge about its environmental conditions substantially. Orbiters with intruments for remote sensing and landers with sophisticated intruments for in situ investigations resulted in a better understanding of Mars’ radiation climate, atmospheric composition, geology, and mineralogy. Extensive regions of the surface of Mars are covered with sulfate- and ferric oxide-rich layered deposits. These sediments indicate the possible existence of aqueous, acidic environments on early Mars. Similar environments on Earth harbour a specialised community of microorganisms which are adapted to the local stress factors, e.g. low pH, high concentrations of heavy metal ions, oligotrophic conditions. Acidophilic iron-sulfur bacteria isolated from such habitats on Earth could be considered as model organisms for an important part of a potential extinct Martian ecosystem or an ecosystem which might even exist today in protected subsurface niches. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was chosen as a model organism to study the ability of these bacteria to survive or grow under conditions resembling those on Mars. Stress conditions tested included desiccation, radiation, low temperatures, and high salinity. It was found that resistance to desiccation strongly depends on the mode of drying. Biofilms grown on membrane filters can tolerate longer periods of desiccation than planktonic cells dried without any added protectants, and drying under anaerobic conditions is more favourable to survival than drying in the presence of oxygen. Organic compounds such as trehalose and glycine betaine had a positive influence on survival after drying and freezing. A. ferrooxidans was shown to be sensitive to high salt concentrations, ionizing radiation, and UV radiation. However, the bacteria were able to utilize the iron minerals in Mars regolith mixtures as sole energy source. The survival and growth of

  17. Study of an evolutionary interim earth orbit program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Alton, L. R.; Arno, R. D.; Deerwester, J. M.; Edsinger, L. E.; Sinclair, K. F.; Tindle, E. L.; Wood, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    An evolutionary, gradual, and step-wise spacecraft systems technology development from those used on the Apollos and Skylab 1 to that required for the space station was considered. The four mission spacecraft were dry workshop versions of the Saturn 4-B stage, and each individually configured, outfitted and launched by INT-21 vehicles. These spacecraft were evaluated for crews of three, six and nine men and for mission lifetimes of one year. Two versions of the Apollo CSM, a three man and a four man crew, were considered as the logistic vehicle. The solar cell electrical power system of the first mission evolves into a light weight panel system supplemented by an operating isotope-Brayton system on the later missions. The open life support system of the first mission evolves to a system which recovers both water and oxygen on the last mission. The data handling, communications, radiation shielding, micrometeoroid protection, and orbit keeping systems were determined. The program costs were estimated and, excluding operational costs, the cost for each mission would average about $2 billion of which one-sixth would be for development, one-fourth for experiments, and the balance for vehicle acquisition.

  18. Medium Earth Orbit Scatterometer (MEOScat) Concept Phase Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    In this report, advanced scatterometer concept options to operate in the post-SeaWinds era are examined. In order to meet the future requirements of scientific and operational users, a variety of scatterometer systems capable of producing improved wind vector products are evaluated. Special emphasis is placed on addressing concept options that operate at higher altitudes in order to improve the temporal revisit time. A preliminary set of generalized wind measurement goals designed to meet the future needs of both scientific and operational communities is put forth. Geophysically based measurement constraints (such as allowable carrier frequencies and measurement incidence angles) are identified. It was found that a potential key constraint at higher satellite altitudes is the longer time required to make all of the azimuth measurements. The revisit and coverage characteristics of a variety of platform orbits throughout the MEO range is studied in detail, and a discussion of the associated increase in radiation is presented. The "trade space" of scatterometer architectures and design options, along with associated advantages and disadvantages, is described for mission options in the MEO range. Finally, key technology studies that will enable further development of a MEO scatterometer mission are identified.

  19. Accuracy Assessment of Geostationary-Earth-Orbit with Simplified Perturbations Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lihua; Xu, Xiaojun; Pang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    A two-line element set (TLE) is a data format encoding orbital elements of an Earth-orbiting object for a given epoch. Using suitable prediction formula, the motion state of the object can be obtained at any time. The TLE data representation is specific to the simplified perturbations models, so any algorithm using a TLE as a data source must implement one of these models to correctly compute the state at a specific time. Accurately adjustment of antenna direction on the earth station is the key to satellite communications. With the TLE set topocentric elevation and azimuth direction angles can be calculated. The accuracy of perturbations models directly affect communication signal quality. Therefore, finding the error variations of the satellite orbits is really meaningful. In this present paper, the authors investigate the accuracy of the Geostationary-Earth-Orbit (GEO) with simplified perturbations models. The coordinate residuals of the simplified perturbations models in this paper can give references for engineers to predict the satellite orbits with TLE.

  20. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 2: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of efforts to identify the technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems are reported. Topics discussed include: (1) design and definition of performance potential of vehicle systems, (2) advanced technology assessment, and (3) extended performance. It is concluded that the horizontal take-off concept is the most feasible system considered.