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Sample records for earth oxide gel

  1. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  2. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  3. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous hafnium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C

    2013-08-06

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide gels contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  4. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  5. Platinum/Tin Oxide/Silica Gel Catalyst Oxidizes CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Davis, Patricia P.; Schryer, David R.; Miller, Irvin M.; Brown, David; Van Norman, John D.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1991-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalyst of platinum, tin oxide, and silica gel combines small concentrations of laser dissociation products, CO and O2, to form CO22 during long times at ambient temperature. Developed as means to prevent accumulation of these products in sealed CO2 lasers. Effective at ambient operating temperatures and installs directly in laser envelope. Formulated to have very high surface area and to chemisorb controlled quantities of moisture: chemisorbed water contained within and upon its structure, makes it highly active and very longlived so only small quantity needed for long times.

  6. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  7. The Oxidation Of Iron In A Gel Using Consumer Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Stephen W.; Folger, Marsha R.; Quinn, Ryan P.; Sauls, Frederick C.; Krone, Diane

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for the oxidation of iron in a gel using consumer chemicals, which is pertinent to the students' understanding of redox chemistry and of the relative oxidation potentials of various metals. The experiment can be carried out with consumer chemicals that might be purchased at a supermarket and commonly found in the home.

  8. Structure of chitosan thermosensitive gels containing graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylman, Michał; Pieklarz, Katarzyna; Owczarz, Piotr; Maniukiewicz, Waldemar; Modrzejewska, Zofia

    2018-06-01

    The supramolecular hydrogels of chitosan and graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared at temperature of the human body, by controlling the concentration of GO and ratio of chitosan to GO. During the preparation of gels the sodium β-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) was used as a neutralizing agent. The structure of obtained gels was determined on the basis of FTIR spectra and XRD diffraction patterns. The results of structural studies have been referenced to gels without graphene oxide. It was found that the gels crystalline structure after the addition of GO does not change. The XRD diffraction patterns are characterized by a number of peaks associated with precipitated NaCl during drying and presence of sodium β-glycerophosphate.

  9. Oxidizer gels for detoxification of chemical and biological agents

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Dennis M.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2002-01-01

    A gel composition containing oxidizing agents and thickening or gelling agents is used to detoxify chemical and biological agents by application directly to a contaminated area. The gelling agent is a colloidal material, such as silica, alumina, or alumino-silicate clays, which forms a viscous gel that does not flow when applied to tilted or contoured surfaces. Aqueous or organic solutions of oxidizing agents can be readily gelled with less than about 30% colloidal material. Gel preparation is simple and suitable for field implementation, as the gels can be prepared at the site of decontamination and applied quickly and uniformly over an area by a sprayer. After decontamination, the residue can be washed away or vacuumed up for disposal.

  10. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    DOEpatents

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  11. Process for fabricating doped zinc oxide microsphere gel

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1991-11-05

    Disclosed are a new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  12. Process for fabricating doped zinc oxide microsphere gel

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  13. Anomalous diffusion of poly(ethylene oxide) in agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Tom; Matsukawa, Shingo

    2016-11-01

    We report on the effect of probe size and diffusion time of poly(ethylene) oxide in agarose gels. Time-dependence of the diffusion coefficient, reflecting anomalous diffusion, was observed for poly(ethylene) oxide chains with hydrodynamic radii exceeding about 20nm at an agarose concentration of 2%. The main conclusion is that the pore distribution includes pores that are only several nm across, in agreement with scattering reports in the literature. Interpretation of the diffusion coefficient dependence on the probe size based on a model of entangled rigid rods yielded a rod length of 72nm. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Iron Oxide Silica Derived from Sol-Gel Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Darmawan, Adi; Smart, Simon; Julbe, Anne; Diniz da Costa, João Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of iron oxide embedded in silica matrices as a function of Fe/Si molar ratio and sol pH. To achieve homogeneous dispersion of iron oxide particles, iron nitrate nonahydrate was dissolved in hydrogen peroxide and was mixed with tetraethyl orthosilicate and ethanol in a sol-gel synthesis method. Increasing the calcination temperature led to a reduction in surface area, although the average pore radius remained almost constant at about 10 Å, independent of the Fe/Si molar ratio or sol pH. Hence, the densification of the matrix was accompanied by similar reduction in pore volume. However, calcination at 700 °C resulted in samples with similar surface area though the iron oxide content increased from 5% to 50% Fe/Si molar ratio. As metal oxide particles have lower surface area than polymeric silica structures, these results strongly suggest that the iron oxides opposed the silica structure collapse. The effect of sol pH was found to be less significant than the Fe/Si molar ratio in the formation of molecular sieve structures derived from iron oxide silica. PMID:28879999

  15. Oxide Ceramic Fibers by the Sol-Gel Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-10

    AFWAL-TR-88-4199 OXIDE CERAMIC FIBERS BY THE SOL-GEL METHOD J . D. Mackenzie If) K. Ono The Regents of the University of California (Los Angeles) V...METHOD 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) J . D. MACKENZIE, K. ONO 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year,Month, Day) 15. PAGE COUNT...to Mary Colby who performed, under the direction of J . D. Mackenzie, the bulk of the experimental studies and contributed extensively to the

  16. Sol-gel based oxidation catalyst and coating system using same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An oxidation catalyst system is formed by particles of an oxidation catalyst dispersed in a porous sol-gel binder. The oxidation catalyst system can be applied by brush or spray painting while the sol-gel binder is in its sol state.

  17. Nanometric study of nickel oxide prepared by sol gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessai, R. Raut; Desa, J. A. E.; Sen, D.; Babu, P. D.

    2018-04-01

    Nickel oxide nanopowder was synthesized by sol gel method using nickel nitrate as the starting material. Nickel oxide nanoparticles with a grain size of 15-90 nm have been studied by; small angle neutron scattering; scanning electron microscopy; and vibrating sample magnetometry. A combination of Ferro and paramagnetic behaviour of the particles after calcination at 800 °C is observed while for powder calcined at 400 °C, soft magnetic character with saturation is seen. The system of nanoparticles ofNiO embedded in a silica matrix is also studied for the structural change. Weak magnetic ordering is observed in this case with the likely-hood of particles being evenly distributed in the silica.

  18. Processing and Characterization of Sol-Gel Cerium Oxide Microspheres

    SciT

    McClure, Zachary D.; Padilla Cintron, Cristina

    Of interest to space exploration and power generation, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) can provide long-term power to remote electronic systems without the need for refueling or replacement. Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) remains one of the more promising materials for thermoelectric power generation due to its high power density, long half-life, and low gamma emissions. Traditional methods for processing Pu-238 include ball milling irregular precipitated powders before pressing and sintering into a dense pellet. The resulting submicron particulates of Pu-238 quickly accumulate and contaminate glove boxes. An alternative and dust-free method for Pu-238 processing is internal gelation via sol-gel techniques. Sol-gel methodology createsmore » monodisperse and uniform microspheres that can be packed and pressed into a pellet. For this study cerium oxide microspheres were produced as a surrogate to Pu-238. The similar electronic orbitals between cerium and plutonium make cerium an ideal choice for non-radioactive work. Before the microspheres can be sintered and pressed they must be washed to remove the processing oil and any unreacted substituents. An investigation was performed on the washing step to find an appropriate wash solution that reduced waste and flammable risk. Cerium oxide microspheres were processed, washed, and characterized to determine the effectiveness of the new wash solution.« less

  19. Effects of oxidative modification on thermal aggregation and gel properties of soy protein by malondialdehyde.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Hua, Yufei; Lin, Qinlu

    2014-03-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) was selected as a representative of lipid peroxidation products to investigate the effects of oxidative modification on thermal aggregation and gel properties of soy protein by lipid peroxidation products. Incubation of soy protein with increasing concentration of MDA resulted in gradual decrease of particle size and content of thermal aggregates during heat denaturation. Oxidative modification by MDA resulted in a decrease in water holding capacity, gel hardness, and gel strength of soy protein gel. An increase in coarseness and interstice of MDA modified protein gel network was accompanied by uneven distribution of interstice as MDA concentration increased. The results showed that degree of thermal aggregation of MDA-modified soy protein gradually decreased as MDA concentration increased, which contributed to a decrease in water holding capacity, gel hardness, and gel strength of MDA-modified soy protein gel.

  20. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, April D.; Modine, Frank A.; Lauf, Robert J.; Alim, Mohammad A.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Bartkowiak, Miroslaw

    1998-01-01

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2-4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5-4.0% Co.sub.3 O.sub.4, 0.05-0.4% K.sub.2 O, 0.05-0.2% Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-0.2% CaO, 0.00005-0.01% Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-2% MnO, 0-0.05% MgO, 0-0.5% TiO.sub.3, 0-0.2% SnO.sub.2, 0-0.02% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, balance ZnO.

  1. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, A.D.; Modine, F.A.; Lauf, R.J.; Alim, M.A.; Mahan, G.D.; Bartkowiak, M.

    1998-12-29

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2--4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5--4.0% Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, 0.05--0.4% K{sub 2}O, 0.05--0.2% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--0.2% CaO, 0.00005--0.01% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--2% MnO, 0--0.05% MgO, 0--0.5% TiO{sub 3}, 0--0.2% SnO{sub 2}, 0--0.02% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, balance ZnO. 4 figs.

  2. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  3. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    DOEpatents

    Collins, J.L.

    1998-10-13

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics. 6 figs.

  4. Preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by sol-gel method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamiya, K.; Yoko, T.; Sakka, S.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is carried out on the types of siloxane polymers produced in the course of the hydrolysis of silicon tetraethoxide, as well as the preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by the sol-gel method.

  5. A Facile Oxidation of Alcohols Using Pyridinium Chlorochromate/Silica Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzzio, Frederick A.; Fitch, Richard W.; Moore, William J.; Mudd, Kelli J.

    1999-07-01

    An efficient and convenient adaptation of the pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) oxidation for an organic chemistry student exercise is based on the employment of reagent-grade silica gel, which simplifies workup and purification of the product. The procedures include the oxidation of 4-tert-butylcyclohexanol to 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone and d,l-menthol to d,l-menthone.

  6. Tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composites prepared by sol-gel synthesis and spark plasma sintering

    SciT

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Gash, Alexander E.; Cervantes, Octavio G.

    2010-08-15

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition-tested and the results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High-Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta-WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g cm{sup -3}more » or 93% relative density. In addition, those samples were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus retaining their stored chemical energy. (author)« less

  7. Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciT

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A

    2009-02-13

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17more » g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.« less

  8. Molecular receptors in metal oxide sol-gel materials prepared via molecular imprinting

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Daitch, Charles E.; Shea, Kenneth J.; Rush, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    A method is provided for molecularly imprinting the surface of a sol-gel material, by forming a solution comprised of a sol-gel material, a solvent, an imprinting molecule, and a functionalizing siloxane monomer of the form Si(OR).sub.3-n X.sub.n, wherein n is an integer between zero and three and X is a functional group capable of reacting with the imprinting molecule, evaporating the solvent, and removing the imprinting molecule to form the molecularly imprinted metal oxide sol-gel material. The use of metal oxide sol-gels allows the material porosity, pore size, density, surface area, hardness, electrostatic charge, polarity, optical density, and surface hydrophobicity to be tailored and be employed as sensors and in catalytic and separations operations.

  9. Switchable vanadium oxide films by a sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partlow, D. P.; Gurkovich, S. R.; Radford, K. C.; Denes, L. J.

    1991-07-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of VO2 and V2O3 were deposited on a variety of substrates using a sol-gel process. The orientation, microstructure, optical constants, and optical and electrical switching behavior are presented. These films exhibited sharp optical switching behavior even on an amorphous substrate such as fused silica. The method yields reproducible results and is amenable to the coating of large substrates and curved surfaces such as mirrors and lenses.

  10. Development of a direct patterning method for functional oxide thin films using ultraviolet irradiation and hybrid-cluster gels and its application to thin-film transistor fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Yuuki; Li, Jinwang; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2018-04-01

    A gel state exists in the solution-solid conversion process. We found that solidification can be promoted by irradiating the gel with ultraviolet (UV) light. In this study, a patterning method without using a vacuum system or employing photoresist materials has been proposed wherein solidification was applied to a gel by UV irradiation. Indium oxide gel, indium gallium oxide gel, lanthanum zirconium oxide gel, and lanthanum ruthenium oxide gels were successfully patterned by using our technique. Moreover, an oxide thin-film transistor was fabricated by our novel patterning method and was successfully operated.

  11. Analysis of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Sol-Gel via Spin Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgamott, Jon Carl

    Transparent conductive oxides are gaining an increasingly important role in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. Doped zinc oxide is a candidate as a low cost and nontoxic alternative to tin doped indium oxide. Lab results have shown that both n-type and p-type zinc oxide can be created on a small scale. This can allow zinc oxide to be used as either an electrode as well as a buffer layer to increase efficiency and protect the active layer in solar cells. Sol-gel synthesis is emerging as a low temperature, low cost, and resource efficient alternative to producing transparent conducting oxides such as zinc oxide. For sol-gel derived zinc oxide thin films to reach their potential, research in this topic must continue to optimize the known processing parameters and expand to new parameters to tighten control and create novel processing techniques that improve performance. The processing parameters of drying and annealing temperatures as well as cooling rate were analyzed to see their effect on the structure of the prepared zinc oxide thin films. There were also preliminary tests done to modify the sol-gel process to include silver as a dopant to produce a p-type thin film. The results from this work show that the pre- and post- heating temperatures as well as the cooling rate all play their own unique role in the crystallization of the film. Results from silver doping show that more work needs to be done to create a sol-gel derived p-type zinc oxide thin film.

  12. Evolution of the Oxidation State of the Earth's Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Keller, L.; Christoffersen, E.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation state of the Earth's mantle during formation remains an unresolved question, whether it was constant throughout planetary accretion, transitioned from reduced to oxidized, or from oxidized to reduced. We investigate the stability of Fe3(+) at depth, in order to constrain processes (water, late accretion, dissociation of FeO) which may reduce or oxidize the Earth's mantle. In our previous experiments on shergottite compositions, variable fO2, T, and P less than 4 GPa, Fe3(+)/sigma Fe decreased slightly with increasing P, similar to terrestrial basalt. For oxidizing experiments less than 7GPa, Fe3(+)/sigma Fe decreased as well, but it's unclear from previous modelling whether the deeper mantle could retain significant Fe3(+). Our current experiments expand our pressure range deeper into the Earth's mantle and focus on compositions and conditions relevant to the early Earth. Preliminary multi-anvil experiments with Knippa basalt as the starting composition were conducted at 5-7 GPa and 1800 C, using a molybdenum capsule to set the fO2 near IW, by buffering with Mo-MoO3. TEM and EELS analyses revealed the run products quenched to polycrystalline phases, with the major phase pyroxene containing approximately equal to Fe3(+)/2(+). Experiments are underway to produce glassy samples that can be measured by EELS and XANES, and are conducted at higher pressures.

  13. A novel low-molecular-mass gelator with a redox active ferrocenyl group: tuning gel formation by oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Yan, Junlin; Yuan, Xuanwei; Liu, Kaiqiang; Peng, Junxia; Fang, Yu

    2008-02-15

    A novel low-molecular-mass gelator containing a redox-active ferrocenyl group, cholesteryl glycinate ferrocenoylamide (CGF), was intentionally designed and prepared. It was demonstrated that the gelator gels 13 out of the 45 solvents tested. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements revealed that the gelator self-assembled into different supramolecular network structures in different gels. Chemical oxidation of the ferrocenyl residue resulted in phase transition of the gel from gel state to solution state. FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy studies revealed that hydrogen bonding between the gelator molecules in the gel was one of the main driving forces for the formation of the gels.

  14. Sol-gel-derived hybrid materials multi-doped with rare-earth metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelazowska, E.; Rysiakiewicz-Pasek, E.; Borczuch-Laczka, M.; Cholewa-Kowalska, K.

    2012-06-01

    Four different hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on TiO2-SiO2 matrices with organic additives and doped with rare-earth metal ions (III) from the group of europium, cerium, terbium, neodymium, dysprosium and samarium, were synthesized by sol-gel method. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, titanium (IV) isopropoxide and organic compounds, such as butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, ethyl acetate, propylene carbonate, organic solvents and certain inorganic salts were used in the synthesis. The inorganic part of the sols, which were used in the synthesis of all the hybrid materials, was prepared separately and then the organic parts were added. The materials obtained were aged for three weeks at room temperature and then heated in an electric oven for three hours at temperatures of 80 °C-150 °C. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (KBr technique); 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance; and fluorescence spectroscopy were used for the examination of morphology, microstructure and luminescence properties, respectively. Photoluminescence properties with relatively intense narrow emission lines of Tb, Eu, Dy, Nd, Sm respectively to the RE-ions doping, were observed for all the hybrid materials.

  15. Hybrid gels assembled from Fmoc-amino acid and graphene oxide with controllable properties.

    PubMed

    Xing, Pengyao; Chu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shangyang; Ma, Mingfang; Hao, Aiyou

    2014-08-04

    A supramolecular gel is obtained from the self-assembly of an ultralow-molecular-weight gelator (N-fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl glutamic acid) in good and poor solvents. The gelators can self-assemble into a lamellar structure, which can further form twisted fibers and nanotubes in the gel phase. Rheological studies show that the gels are robust and rigid, and are able to rapidly self-recover to a gel after being destroyed by shear force. Fluorescence experiments reveal the aggregation-induced emission effects of the gel system; the fluorescence intensity is significantly enhanced by gel formation. Graphene oxide (GO) is introduced into the system efficiently to give a hybrid material, and the interaction between gelators-GO sheets is studied. Rheological and fluorescent studies imply that the mechanical properties and the fluorescent emission of the hybrid materials can be fine-tuned by controlling the addition of GO. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Determination of Insulator-to-Semiconductor Transition in Sol-Gel Oxide Semiconductors Using Derivative Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woobin; Choi, Seungbeom; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jingu; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    We report a derivative spectroscopic method for determining insulator-to-semiconductor transition during sol-gel metal-oxide semiconductor formation. When an as-spun sol-gel precursor film is photochemically activated and changes to semiconducting state, the light absorption characteristics of the metal-oxide film is considerable changed particularly in the ultraviolet region. As a result, a peak is generated in the first-order derivatives of light absorption ( A' ) vs. wavelength (λ) plots, and by tracing the peak center shift and peak intensity, transition from insulating-to-semiconducting state of the film can be monitored. The peak generation and peak center shift are described based on photon-energy-dependent absorption coefficient of metal-oxide films. We discuss detailed analysis method for metal-oxide semiconductor films and its application in thin-film transistor fabrication. We believe this derivative spectroscopy based determination can be beneficial for a non-destructive and a rapid monitoring of the insulator-to-semiconductor transition in sol-gel oxide semiconductor formation.

  17. Fundamental electrochemiluminescence characteristics of fluorine-doped tin oxides synthesized by sol-gel combustion.

    PubMed

    Moon, B H; Chaoumead, A; Sung, Y M

    2013-10-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) materials synthesized by sol-gel combustion method were investigated for electrochemical luminescence (ECL) application. Effects of sol-gel combustion conditions on the structures and morphology of the porous FTO (p-FTO) materials were studied. ECL efficiency of p-FTO-based cell was about 251 cd/m2 at 4 V bias, which is higher than the sell using only FTO electrodes (102.8 cd/m2). The highest intensity of the emitting light was obtained at the wavelength of about 610 nm. The porous FTO layer was effective for increasing ECL intensities.

  18. Aloe vera gel improves behavioral deficits and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza Fatemi; Ghaderi, Shahab; Bahrami-Tapehebur, Mohammad; Farbood, Yaghoob; Rashno, Masome

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress has a major role in progression of diabetes-related behavioral deficits. It has been suggested that Aloe vera has anti-diabetic, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to determine the effects of Aloe vera gel on behavioral functions, oxidative status, and neuronal viability in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fifty five adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including: control (normal saline 8ml/kg/day; P.O.), diabetic (normal saline 8ml/kg/day; P.O.), Aloe vera gel (100mg/kg/day; P.O.), diabetic+Aloe vera gel (100mg/kg/day; P.O.) and diabetic+NPH insulin (10 IU/kg/day; S.C.). All treatments were started immediately following confirmation of diabetes in diabetic groups and were continued for eight weeks. Behavioral functions were evaluated by employing standard behavioral paradigms. Additionally, oxidative status and neuronal viability were assessed in the hippocampus. The results of behavioral tests showed that diabetes enhanced anxiety/depression-like behaviors, reduced exploratory and locomotor activities, decreased memory performance, and increased stress related behaviors. These changes in diabetic rats were accompanied by increasing oxidative stress and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Interestingly, eight weeks of treatment with Aloe vera gel not only alleviated all the mentioned deficits related to diabetes, but in some aspects, it was even more effective than insulin. In conclusion, the results suggest that both interrelated hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties of Aloe vera gel are possible mechanisms that improve behavioral deficits and protect hippocampal neurons in diabetic animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidation of silicon nitride sintered with rare-earth oxide additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mieskowski, D. M.; Sanders, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of rare-earth oxide additions on the oxidation of sintered Si3N4 were examined. Insignificant oxidation occurred at 700 and 1000 C, with no evidence of phase instability. At 1370 C, the oxidation rate was lowest for Y2O3 and increased for additions of La2O3, Sm2O3, and CeO2, in that order. Data obtained from X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, and scanning electron microscopy indicate that oxidation occurs via diffusion of cationic species from Si3N4 grain boundaries.

  20. Synthesis of nanocrystalline rare earth oxides by glycothermal method

    SciT

    Hosokawa, Saburo; Iwamoto, Shinji; Inoue, Masashi

    2008-11-03

    The reaction of yttrium acetate hydrate in 1,2-propanediol at 300 deg. C yielded a product containing acetate groups and glycol moieties. From this product, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was directly crystallized at 400 deg. C without the formation of a carbonate oxide phase. The thus-obtained Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples had a small crystallite size (2.2 nm) and significantly large surface area (280 m{sup 2}/g). Other nanocrystalline rare earth (Gd-Yb) oxides were also obtained by this method.

  1. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.

    PubMed

    Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

    2002-08-05

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants.

  2. Investigation of Annealing Temperature on Copper Oxide Thin Films Using Sol-Gel Spin Coating Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, H.; Samat, S. F. A.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Saad, P. S. M.

    2018-03-01

    Copper (II) Oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is one of the well-known materials studied for thin films applications. This paper was studied on the effect of annealing temperature to CuO thin films using sol-gel method and spin coating technique. The solution was prepared by sol-gel method and the thin films were synthesized at various temperatures from 500°C to 700°C that deposited onto the quartz substrates. After the annealing process, the thin films were uniform and brownish black in colour. The measurements were performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface profiler (SP), two-point probe and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis-NIR) spectrometer. From the optical measurement, the band gap was estimated to be 1.44eV for sample annealed at 550°C.

  3. Two-billion-year-old evaporites capture Earth's great oxidation.

    PubMed

    Blättler, C L; Claire, M W; Prave, A R; Kirsimäe, K; Higgins, J A; Medvedev, P V; Romashkin, A E; Rychanchik, D V; Zerkle, A L; Paiste, K; Kreitsmann, T; Millar, I L; Hayles, J A; Bao, H; Turchyn, A V; Warke, M R; Lepland, A

    2018-04-20

    Major changes in atmospheric and ocean chemistry occurred in the Paleoproterozoic era (2.5 to 1.6 billion years ago). Increasing oxidation dramatically changed Earth's surface, but few quantitative constraints exist on this important transition. This study describes the sedimentology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of a 2-billion-year-old, ~800-meter-thick evaporite succession from the Onega Basin in Russian Karelia. The deposit consists of a basal unit dominated by halite (~100 meters) followed by units dominated by anhydrite-magnesite (~500 meters) and dolomite-magnesite (~200 meters). The evaporite minerals robustly constrain marine sulfate concentrations to at least 10 millimoles per kilogram of water, representing an oxidant reservoir equivalent to more than 20% of the modern ocean-atmosphere oxidizing capacity. These results show that substantial amounts of surface oxidant accumulated during this critical transition in Earth's oxygenation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Production and characterization of europium doped sol-gel yttrium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, J. K.; Hobson, Christopher; Silversmith, Ann

    2004-03-01

    Sol-gel produced materials have recently gained attention for their use in producing nanoscale dielectric materials for confinement studies. Lanthanide impurities in the dielectric enable experimenters to optically probe the structure and dynamic properties of the nanoparticle hosts. We report on an alkoxide sol-gel production method used to produce trivalent europium doped yttrium oxide. Our process follows the standard hydrolysis of an alkoxide precursor with water containing the lanthanide ions. The sol is then aged and calcined at 800 ^oC to produce the powder samples. X-ray diffraction confirms the structure of the powder is that of Y_2O_3. The emission and excitation of the europium impurities is consistent with that of europium doped single crystal yttrium oxide, where it is known that the europium ions substitute for yttrium in the lattice. We therefore conclude that the sol-gel process enables the incorporation of europium ions into the yttrium oxide structure at temperatures far below the melting temperature. The results of preliminary dynamics measurements will also be discussed.

  5. Controlled formation of emulsion gels stabilized by salted myofibrillar protein under malondialdehyde (MDA)-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feibai; Sun, Weizheng; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-04-15

    This study presented the cold-set gelation of emulsions stabilized by salted myofibrillar protein (MP) under oxidative stress originated from malondialdehyde (MDA). Gel properties were compared over a range of MDA/NaCl concentrations including gel viscoelastic properties, strength, water-holding capacity (WHC), amount of protein entrapped, and microstructure. The oxidative stability of emulsion gels as indicated by lipid hydroperoxide was further determined and compared. Results indicated that emulsion stabilized by MP at swollen state under certain ionic strengths (0.2-0.6 M) was the premise of gel formation under MDA. In the presence of intermediate MDA concentrations (2.5-10 mM), the emulsion gels showed an improved elasticity, strength, WHC, and oxidative stability. This improvement should be mainly attributed to the enhanced protein-protein cross-linkings via MDA, which were homogeneously formed among absorbed and/or unabsorbed proteins, entrapping a greater amount and fractions of protein within network. Therefore, the oil droplets were better adherent to the gel matrix. Nevertheless, addition of high MDA concentrations (25-50 mM) led to the formation of excessive covalent bonds, which might break protein-protein bonds and trigger the desorption of protein from the interface. This ultimately caused "oil leak" phenomena as well as the collapse of gel structure and, thus, overall decreased gel properties and oxidative stability.

  6. Novel Materials through Non-Hydrolytic Sol-Gel Processing: Negative Thermal Expansion Oxides and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Cora; Gates, Stacy D.; Pedoussaut, Nathalie M.; Baiz, Tamam I.

    2010-01-01

    Low temperature methods have been applied to the synthesis of many advanced materials. Non-hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) processes offer an elegant route to stable and metastable phases at low temperatures. Excellent atomic level homogeneity gives access to polymorphs that are difficult or impossible to obtain by other methods. The NHSG approach is most commonly applied to the preparation of metal oxides, but can be easily extended to metal sulfides. Exploration of experimental variables allows control over product stoichiometry and crystal structure. This paper reviews the application of NHSG chemistry to the synthesis of negative thermal expansion oxides and selected metal sulfides.

  7. Thermal and oxidative degradation studies of formulated C-ethers by gel-permeation chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Morales, W.

    1982-01-01

    Gel-permeation chromatography was used to analyze C-ether lubricant formulations from high-temperature bearing tests and from micro-oxidation tests. Three mu-styragel columns (one 500 and two 100 A) and a tetrahydrofuran mobile phase were found to adequately separate the C-ether degradation products. The micro-oxidation tests yielded degradation results qualitatively similar to those observed from the bearing tests. Micro-oxidation tests conducted in air yielded more degradation than did tests in nitrogen. No great differences were observed between the thermal-oxidative stabilities of the two C-ether formulations or between the catalytic degradation activities of silver and M-50 steel. C-ether formulation I did yield more degradation than did formulation II in 111- and 25-hour bearing tests, respectively.

  8. Synthesis, Consolidation and Characterization of Sol-gel Derived Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composites

    SciT

    Cervantes, O

    2010-06-01

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel (SG) derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition-tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO3) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g·cm-3more » or 93% relative density. In addition, those samples were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus retaining their stored chemical energy.« less

  9. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; rare-earth oxides

    Jackson, W.D.; Christiansen, Grey

    1993-01-01

    Bastnaesite, monazite, and xenotime are currently the most important rare-earth minerals. Bastnaesite occurs as a primary mineral in carbonatites. Monazite and xenotime also can be found in primary deposits but are recovered principally from heavy-mineral placers that are mined for titanium or tin. Each of these minerals has a different composition of the 15 rare-earth elements. World resources of economically exploitable rare-earth oxides (REO) are estimated at 93.4 million metric tons in place, composed of 93 percent in primary deposits and 7 percent in placers. The average mineral composition is 83 percent bastnaesite, 13 percent monazite, and 4 percent of 10 other minerals. Annual global production is about 67,000 metric tons of which 41 percent is from placers and 59 percent is from primary deposits; mining methods consist of open pits (94 percent) and dredging (6 percent). This output could be doubled if the operations that do not currently recover rare earths would do so. Resources are more than sufficient to meet the demand for the predictable future. About 52 percent of the world's REO resources are located in China. Ranking of other countries is as follows: Namibia (22 percent), the United States (15 percent), Australia (6 percent), and India (3 percent); the remainder is in several other countries. Conversely, 38 percent of the production is in China, 33 percent in the United States, 12 percent in Australia, and 5 percent each in Malaysia and India. Several other countries, including Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, make up the remainder. Markets for rare earths are mainly in the metallurgical, magnet, ceramic, electronic, chemical, and optical industries. Rare earths improve the physical and rolling properties of iron and steel and add corrosion resistance and strength to structural members at high temperatures. Samarium and neodymium are used in lightweight, powerful magnets for electric motors. Cerium and yttrium increase the

  10. A divalent rare earth oxide semiconductor: Yttrium monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminaga, Kenichi; Sei, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hiroo; Oka, Daichi; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    Rare earth sesquioxides like Y2O3 are known as widegap insulators with the highly stable closed shell trivalent rare earth ions. On the other hand, rare earth monoxides such as YO have been recognized as gaseous phase, and only EuO and YbO were thermodynamically stable solid-phase rock salt monoxides. In this study, solid-phase rock salt yttrium monoxide, YO, was synthesized in a form of epitaxial thin film by pulsed laser deposition method. YO possesses unusual valence of Y2+ ([Kr] 4d1) . In contrast with Y2O3, YO was narrow gap semiconductor with dark-brown color. The electrical conductivity was tunable from 10-1 to 103 Ω-1 cm-1 by introducing oxygen vacancies as electron donor. Weak antilocalization behavior was observed indicating significant spin-orbit coupling owing to 4 d electron carrier. The absorption spectral shape implies the Mott-Hubbard insulator character of YO. Rare earth monoixdes will be new platform of functional oxides. This work was supported by JST-CREST, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) with Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Nos. 26105002 and 26105006), and Nanotechnology Platform (Project No.12024046) of MEXT, Japan.

  11. A divalent rare earth oxide semiconductor: Yttrium monoxide

    SciT

    Kaminaga, Kenichi; Sei, Ryosuke; Department of Chemistry, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578

    Rare earth oxides are usually widegap insulators like Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} with closed shell trivalent rare earth ions. In this study, solid phase rock salt structure yttrium monoxide, YO, with unusual valence of Y{sup 2+} (4d{sup 1}) was synthesized in a form of epitaxial thin film by pulsed laser deposition method. YO has been recognized as gaseous phase in previous studies. In contrast with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, YO was dark-brown colored and narrow gap semiconductor. The tunable electrical conductivity ranging from 10{sup −1} to 10{sup 3} Ω{sup −1 }cm{sup −1} was attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies serving as electron donor.more » Weak antilocalization behavior observed in magnetoresistance indicated significant role of spin-orbit coupling as a manifestation of 4d electron carrier.« less

  12. Single-Phase Rare-Earth Oxide/Aluminum Oxide Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. K. Richard; Abadie, John G.; Hixson, April D.; Nordine, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Glasses that comprise rare-earth oxides and aluminum oxide plus, optionally, lesser amounts of other oxides, have been invented. The other oxide(s) can include SiO2, B2O3, GeO2, and/or any of a variety of glass-forming oxides that have been used heretofore in making a variety of common and specialty glasses. The glasses of the invention can be manufactured in bulk single-phase forms to ensure near uniformity in optical and mechanical characteristics, as needed for such devices as optical amplifiers, lasers, and optical waveguides (including optical fibers). These glasses can also be formulated to have high indices of refraction, as needed in some of such devices.

  13. Sol-gel synthesis and adsorption properties of mesoporous manganese oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanets, A. I.; Kuznetsova, T. F.; Prozorovich, V. G.

    2015-03-01

    Sol-gel synthesis of mesoporous xerogels of manganese oxide with different phase compositions has been performed. The manganese oxide sols were obtained by redox reactions of potassium permanganate with hydrogen peroxide or manganese(II) chloride in aqueous solutions. The isotherms of the low-temperature adsorption-desorption of nitrogen with manganese oxide xerogels treated at 80, 200, 400, and 600°C were measured. The samples were studied by electron microscopy and thermal and XRD analysis. The phase transformation and the changes in the adsorption and capillary-condensation properties of manganese oxide were shown to depend on the sol synthesis conditions and the temperature of the thermal treatment of the gel. The X-ray amorphous samples heated at 80°C were shown to have low values of the specific surface; at higher temperatures, the xerogel crystallized into mixed phases with various compositions and its surface area increased at 200-400°C and decreased at 600°C.

  14. Resistive switching memory devices composed of binary transition metal oxides using sol-gel chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanwoo; Kim, Inpyo; Choi, Wonsup; Shin, Hyunjung; Cho, Jinhan

    2009-04-21

    We describe a novel and versatile approach for preparing resistive switching memory devices based on binary transition metal oxides (TMOs). Titanium isopropoxide (TIPP) was spin-coated onto platinum (Pt)-coated silicon substrates using a sol-gel process. The sol-gel-derived layer was converted into a TiO2 film by thermal annealing. A top electrode (Ag electrode) was then coated onto the TiO2 films to complete device fabrication. When an external bias was applied to the devices, a switching phenomenon independent of the voltage polarity (i.e., unipolar switching) was observed at low operating voltages (about 0.6 VRESET and 1.4 VSET). In addition, it was confirmed that the electrical properties (i.e., retention time, cycling test and switching speed) of the sol-gel-derived devices were comparable to those of vacuum deposited devices. This approach can be extended to a variety of binary TMOs such as niobium oxides. The reported approach offers new opportunities for preparing the binary TMO-based resistive switching memory devices allowing a facile solution processing.

  15. Hydrogen permeation through steel coated with erbium oxide by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhenyu; Suzuki, Akihiro; Levchuk, Denis; Chikada, Takumi; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo; Terai, Takayuki

    2009-04-01

    Er 2O 3 coating is formed on austenitic stainless steel 316ss by sol-gel method. The results showed good crystallization of coating by baking in high purity flowing-argon at 973 K, and indicated that a little oxygen in baking atmosphere is necessary to crystallization of coating. The best baking temperature could be thought as 973 K, to get good crystallization of coating and avoid strong oxidation of steel substrate. The deuterium permeation test was performed for coated and bare 316ss, to evaluate the property of Er 2O 3 sol-gel coating as a potential tritium permeation barrier. In this study, the deuterium permeability of coated 316ss is about 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than that of bare 316ss, and is about 2-3 orders of magnitude than the referred data of bare Eurofer97 and F82H martensitic steel.

  16. Study of annealing time on sol-gel indium tin oxide films on glass

    SciT

    De, A.; Biswas, P.K.; Manara, J.

    2007-07-15

    Indium and tin salt-based precursors maintaining In:Sn atomic ratio as 90:10 were utilized for the development of sol-gel dip coated indium tin oxide films (ITO) on SiO{sub 2} coated ({approx} 200 nm thickness) soda lime silica glass substrate. The gel films were initially cured in air at {approx} 450 deg. C to obtain oxide films of physical thickness {approx} 250 nm. These were then annealed in 95% Ar-5% H{sub 2} atmosphere at {approx} 500 deg. C. The annealing time was varied from 0.5 h to 5 h. Variation of annealing time did not show any considerable change of transmittance inmore » the visible region. Thermal emissivity ({epsilon} {sub d}, 0.67-0.79) of the films were evaluated from their hemispherical spectral reflectance. These passed through a minima with increasing annealing time as the reflectivity of the films in the mid-IR passed through a maxima. The microstructure of the films revealed systematic growth of the ITO grains. XRD and XPS studies revealed the presence of both In and Sn metals in addition to the metal oxides. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed little lowering of tin content in the films with increasing annealing time.« less

  17. Au nanoparticle monolayers covered with sol-gel oxide thin films: optical and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Karg, Matthias; Baldauf, Julia; Jasieniak, Jacek; Maggioni, Gianluigi; Martucci, Alessandro

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we provide a detailed study of the influence of thermal annealing on submonolayer Au nanoparticle deposited on functionalized surfaces as standalone films and those that are coated with sol-gel NiO and TiO(2) thin films. The systems are characterized through the use of UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The surface plasmon resonance peak of the Au nanoparticles was found to red-shift and increase in intensity with increasing surface coverage, an observation that is directly correlated to the complex refractive index properties of Au nanoparticle layers. The standalone Au nanoparticles sinter at 200 °C, and a relationship between the optical properties and the annealing temperature is presented. When overcoated with sol-gel metal oxide films (NiO, TiO(2)), the optical properties of the Au nanoparticles are strongly affected by the metal oxide, resulting in an intense red shift and broadening of the plasmon band; moreover, the temperature-driven sintering is strongly limited by the metal oxide layer. Optical sensing tests for ethanol vapor are presented as one possible application, showing reversible sensing dynamics and confirming the effect of Au nanoparticles in increasing the sensitivity and in providing a wavelength dependent response, thus confirming the potential use of such materials as optical probes.

  18. Au Nanoparticle Sub-Monolayers Sandwiched between Sol-Gel Oxide Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Menin, Enrico; Sada, Cinzia

    2018-01-01

    Sub-monolayers of monodisperse Au colloids with different surface coverage have been embedded in between two different metal oxide thin films, combining sol-gel depositions and proper substrates functionalization processes. The synthetized films were TiO2, ZnO, and NiO. X-ray diffraction shows the crystallinity of all the oxides and verifies the nominal surface coverage of Au colloids. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metal nanoparticles is affected by both bottom and top oxides: in fact, the SPR peak of Au that is sandwiched between two different oxides is centered between the SPR frequencies of Au sub-monolayers covered with only one oxide, suggesting that Au colloids effectively lay in between the two oxide layers. The desired organization of Au nanoparticles and the morphological structure of the prepared multi-layered structures has been confirmed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses that show a high quality sandwich structure. The multi-layered structures have been also tested as optical gas sensors. PMID:29538338

  19. The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil, Syazwani Mohd; Hrma, Pavel; Crum, Jarrod; Siong, Khoo Kok; Ngatiman, Mohammad Fadzlee; Said, Riduan Mt

    2014-02-01

    Korean spent nuclear fuel will reach the capacity of the available temporary storage by 2016. Pyroprocessing and direct disposal seems to be an alternative way to manage and reuse spent nuclear fuel while avoiding the wet reprocessing technology. Pyroprocessing produces several wastes streams, including metals, salts, and rare earths, which must be converted into stabilized form. A suitable form for rare earth immobilization is borosilicate glass. The borosilicate glass form exhibits excellent durability, allows a high waste loading, and is easy to process. In this work, we combined the rare earths waste of composition (in wt%) 39.2Nd2O3-22.7CeO2-11.7La2O3-10.9PrO2-1.3Eu2O3-1.3Gd2O3-8.1Sm2O3-4.8Y2O3 with a baseline glass of composition 60.2SiO2-16.0B2O3-12.6Na2O-3.8Al2O3-5.7CaO-1.7ZrO2. Crystallization in waste glasses occurs as the waste loading increases. It may produce complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. To study crystal formation, we initially made glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% of La2O3 and then glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% of the complete rare earth mix. Samples were heat-treated for 24 hours at temperatures 800°C to 1150°C in 50°C increments. Quenched samples were analyzed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Stillwellite (LaBSiO5) and oxyapatite (Ca2La8Si6O26) were found in glasses containing La2O3, while oxyapatite (Ca2La8Si6O26 and NaNd9Si6O26) precipitated in glasses with additions of mixed rare earths. The liquidus temperature (TL) of the glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% La2O3 were 800°C, 959°C and 986°C, respectively; while TL was 825°C, 1059°C and 1267°C for glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% addition of mixed rare earth oxides. The component coefficients TB2O3, TSiO2, TCaO, and TRE2O3 were also evaluated using a recently published study.

  20. Synthesis and Study of Gel Calcined Cd-Sn Oxide Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Arijit; Kundu, Susmita

    2016-07-01

    Cd-Sn oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by sol-gel method from precursor sol containing Cd:Sn = 2:1 and 1:1 mol ratio. Instead of coprecipitation, a simple novel gel calcination route was followed. Cd (NO3)2. 4H2O and SnCl4. 5H2O were used as starting materials. Gel was calcined at 1050 °C for 2 h to obtain nanocomposites. XRD analysis reveals the presence of orthorhombic, cubic Cd2SnO4 along with orthorhombic, hexagonal CdSnO3 phases in both the composites. SEM and TEM studies indicate the development of nanocomposites of different shapes suggesting different degrees of polymerization in precursor sol of different composition. UV-Vis absorption spectra show a blue shift for both the composites compared to bulk values. Decrease of polarization with frequency, dipole contribution to the polarization, and more sensitivity to ethanol vapor were observed for the nanocomposite derived from precursor sol containing Cd:Sn = 2:1 mol ratio.

  1. Synthesis of nanostructured iron oxides and new magnetic ceramics using sol-gel and SPS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papynov, E. K.; Shichalin, O. O.; Belov, A. A.; Portnyagin, A. S.; Mayorov, V. Yu.; Gridasova, E. A.; Golub, A. V.; Nepomnyashii, A. S.; Tananaev, I. G.; Avramenko, V. A.

    2017-02-01

    The original way of synthesis of nanostructured iron oxides and based on them magnetic ceramics via sequential combination of sol-gel and SPS technologies has been suggested. High quality of nanostructured iron oxides is defined by porous structure (Sspec up to 47,3 n2/g) and by phase composition of mixed and individual crystal phases (γ-Fe2O3/Fe3O4 i α-Fe2O3), depending on synthesis conditions. High-temperature SPS consolidation of nanostructured hematite powder, resulting in magnetic ceramics of high mechanical strength (fracture strength 249 MPa) has been investigated. Peculiarities of change of phase composition and composite's microstructure in the range of SPS temperatures from 700 to 900 °C have been revealed. Magnetic properties have been studied and regularities of change of magnetization (Ms) and coercive force (Hc) values of the ceramics with respect to SPS sintering temperature have been described.

  2. DC electrical conductivity measurements for pure and titanium oxide doped KDP Crystals grown by gel medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareeswaran, S.; Asaithambi, T.

    2016-10-01

    Now a day's crystals are the pillars of current technology. Crystals are applied in various fields like fiber optic communications, electronic industry, photonic industry, etc. Crystal growth is an interesting and innovative field in the subject of physics, chemistry, material science, metallurgy, chemical engineering, mineralogy and crystallography. In recent decades optically good quality of pure and metal doped KDP crystals have been grown by gel growth method in room temperature and its characterizations were studied. Gel method is a very simple and one of the easiest methods among the various crystal growth methods. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate KH2PO4 (KDP) continues to be an interesting material both academically and technologically. KDP is a delegate of hydrogen bonded materials which possess very good electrical and nonlinear optical properties in addition to interesting electro-optic properties. We made an attempt to grow pure and titanium oxide doped KDP crystals with various doping concentrations (0.002, 0.004, 0.006, 0.008 and 0.010) using gel method. The grown crystals were collected after 20 days. We get crystals with good quality and shaped crystals. The dc electrical conductivity (resistance, capacitance and dielectric constant) values of the above grown crystals were measured at two different frequencies (1KHz and 100 Hz) with a temperature range of 500C to 1200C using simple two probe setup with Q band digital LCR meter present in our lab. The electrical conductivity increases with the increase of temperature. Dielectric constants value of titanium oxide doped KDP crystal was slightly decreased compared with pure KDP crystals. Results were discussed in details.

  3. Ionic liquid compatibility in polyethylene oxide/siloxane ion gel membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Kusuma, Victor A.; Macala, Megan K.; Liu, Jian; ...

    2018-10-02

    Ion gel films were prepared by incorporating eight commercially available ionic liquids in two different cross-linked polymer matrices to evaluate their phase miscibility, gas permeability and ionic conductivity for potential applications as gas separation membranes and solid electrolyte materials. The ionic liquids cations were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, tributylmethylphosphonium, and butyltrimethylammonium with a common anion (bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide). In addition, ionic liquids with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with acetate, dicyanamide and tetrafluoroborate counterions were evaluated. The two polymers were cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide) and cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide)/siloxane copolymer. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and visual observations were performed to evaluate the ion gels’ miscibility, thermal stabilitymore » and homogeneity. Ionic liquids with the least basic anion (bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and aromatic cations containing acidic proton (e.g. imidazolium and pyridinium) gave the most stable and miscible ion gels. Phase stability was shown to be a function of both ionic liquid content and temperature, with phase separation observed at elevated temperatures. In conclusion, gas permeability testing with carbon dioxide and nitrogen and ionic conductivity measurements confirmed that these ionic liquids increased the gas permeability and ionic conductivity of the polymers.« less

  4. Ionic liquid compatibility in polyethylene oxide/siloxane ion gel membranes

    SciT

    Kusuma, Victor A.; Macala, Megan K.; Liu, Jian

    Ion gel films were prepared by incorporating eight commercially available ionic liquids in two different cross-linked polymer matrices to evaluate their phase miscibility, gas permeability and ionic conductivity for potential applications as gas separation membranes and solid electrolyte materials. The ionic liquids cations were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, tributylmethylphosphonium, and butyltrimethylammonium with a common anion (bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide). In addition, ionic liquids with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with acetate, dicyanamide and tetrafluoroborate counterions were evaluated. The two polymers were cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide) and cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide)/siloxane copolymer. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and visual observations were performed to evaluate the ion gels’ miscibility, thermal stabilitymore » and homogeneity. Ionic liquids with the least basic anion (bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and aromatic cations containing acidic proton (e.g. imidazolium and pyridinium) gave the most stable and miscible ion gels. Phase stability was shown to be a function of both ionic liquid content and temperature, with phase separation observed at elevated temperatures. In conclusion, gas permeability testing with carbon dioxide and nitrogen and ionic conductivity measurements confirmed that these ionic liquids increased the gas permeability and ionic conductivity of the polymers.« less

  5. Synthesis of zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol-gel for specific bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Tijjani; Basri, B.; Dhahi, Th. S.; Mohammed, Mohammed; Hashim, U.; Noriman, N. Z.; Dahham, Omar S.

    2017-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films this device to used for many application like chemical sensor, biosensor, solar energy, etc but my project to use for bioactivity(biosensor). Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown using sol-gel technique. Characterization was done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray(EDX) and Electrical Measurement(I-V). ZnO thin film was successfully synthesized using low cost sol-gel spin coating method. The coupling of DNA probe to ZnO thin film supports modified with carboxylic acid (COOH) is certainly the best practical method to make DNA immobilization and it does not require any coupling agent which could be a source of variability during the spotting with an automatic device. So, selected this coupling procedure for further experiments. The sensor was tested with initial trial with low concentrated DNA and able to detect detection of the disease effectively. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer device with ZnO can detect at different concentration in order to valid the device capabilities for detecting development. The lowest concentration 1 µM HPV DNA probe can detect is 0.1 nM HPV target DNA.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Some Alkaline-Earth-Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jitendra Pal; Lim, Weon Cheol; Won, Sung Ok; Song, Jonghan; Chae, Keun Hwa

    2018-04-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of MgO and CaO nanoparticles by using the sol-gel autocombustion method. The annealing of the precursor at 1200 °C was observed to lead the formation of MgO nanoparticles having average crystallite size of 31 nm. Annealing the precursor at same temperature produced materials having a CaO phase with a minor impure phase of calcium carbonate ( 3%). The crystallite size corresponding to the CaO phase was 38 nm. A change of thermal history in the precursor was observed not to result in an improvement of the CaO phase. The change of thermal history in the precursor gave rise to mixed phases of CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 rather than the phase of CaO. Further, annealing at 1200 °C for 12 h resulted in the formation of the CaO phase along with almost 1 - 5% of calcium hydroxide as an impurity phase. X-ray absorption spectroscopic measurements carried out on these materials revealed that the local electronic/atomic structure of these oxides was not only affected by the impurity phases but also influenced by the carbaneous impurities attached to the crystallites.

  7. Structure and Abundance of Nitrous Oxide Complexes in Earth's Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Steven R; de Lange, Katrina M; Lane, Joseph R

    2016-04-07

    We have investigated the lowest energy structures and binding energies of a series of atmospherically relevant nitrous oxide (N2O) complexes using explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory. Specifically, we have considered complexes with nitrogen (N2-N2O), oxygen (O2-N2O), argon (Ar-N2O), and water (H2O-N2O). We have calculated rotational constants and harmonic vibrational frequencies for the complexes and the constituent monomers. Statistical mechanics was used to determine the thermodynamic parameters for complex formation as a function of temperature and pressure. These results, in combination with relevant atmospheric data, were used to estimate the abundance of N2O complexes in Earth's atmosphere as a function of altitude. We find that the abundance of N2O complexes in Earth's atmosphere is small but non-negligible, and we suggest that N2O complexes may contribute to absorption of terrestrial radiation and be relevant for understanding the atmospheric fate of N2O.

  8. Microstructure, optical, and electrochromic properties of sol-gel nanoporous tungsten oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaoued, Yahia; Ashrit, P. V.; Badilescu, S.; Bruning, R.

    2003-08-01

    Porous tungsten oxide films have been prepared by a nonhydrolitic sol-gel method using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a structure directing agent. The method entails the hydrolysis of an ethanolic solution of tungsten ethoxide (formed by the reaction of WCl6 with ethanol) followed by condensation and polymerization at the PEG-tungsten oxide oligometers interface. A highly porous WO3 framework was obtained after PEG was burned off by calcination at a relativley low temperature. AFM images of the films treated thermally show an ordered material rather than microscopic particulates. Both fibrilar nanostructures and striped phase can be obtained via this approach, depending on the concentration of PEG in the coating solution. XRD data from the fibrils indicate that they are crystalline with very small crystals, whereas the striped phases obtained with 20% PEG correspond to two crystalline phases, one, the stoichiometric WO3 and the other one an oxygen deficient phase, containing larger crystals (~28 nm). The results show that PEG promotes the formation of oxygen deficient phases and delays crystallization. Compared to WO3 with no PEG, the optical and electrochromic properties of the macroporous tungsten oxide films appear to be significantly improved. The formation of organized nanostructures is tentatively accounted for by the strong hydrogen bonding interactions between PEG and the tungsten oxide oligomers.

  9. Osteoblast responses to different oxide coatings produced by the sol-gel process on titanium substrates.

    PubMed

    Ochsenbein, Anne; Chai, Feng; Winter, Stefan; Traisnel, Michel; Breme, Jürgen; Hildebrand, Hartmut F

    2008-09-01

    In order to improve the osseointegration of endosseous implants made from titanium, the structure and composition of the surface were modified. Mirror-polished commercially pure (cp) titanium substrates were coated by the sol-gel process with different oxides: TiO(2), SiO(2), Nb(2)O(5) and SiO(2)-TiO(2). The coatings were physically and biologically characterized. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the absence of organic residues. Ellipsometry determined the thickness of layers to be approximately 100nm. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomice force microscopy revealed a nanoporous structure in the TiO(2) and Nb(2)O(5) layers, whereas the SiO(2) and SiO(2)-TiO(2) layers appeared almost smooth. The R(a) values, as determined by white-light interferometry, ranged from 20 to 50nm. The surface energy determined by the sessile-drop contact angle method revealed the highest polar component for SiO(2) (30.7mJm(-2)) and the lowest for cp-Ti and 316L stainless steel (6.7mJm(-2)). Cytocompatibility of the oxide layers was investigated with MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts in vitro (proliferation, vitality, morphology and cytochemical/immunolabelling of actin and vinculin). Higher cell proliferation rates were found in SiO(2)-TiO(2) and TiO(2), and lower in Nb(2)O(5) and SiO(2); whereas the vitality rates increased for cp-Ti and Nb(2)O(5). Cytochemical assays showed that all substrates induced a normal cytoskeleton and well-developed focal adhesion contacts. SEM revealed good cell attachment for all coating layers. In conclusion, the sol-gel-derived oxide layers were thin, pure and nanostructured; consequent different osteoblast responses to those coatings are explained by the mutual action and coadjustment of different interrelated surface parameters.

  10. The chemical and catalytic properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides prepared through modified sol-gel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes, Corrie Leigh

    The goal of this research was to synthesize, characterize and study the chemical properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides. Nanocrystalline (NC) ZnO, CuO, NiO, Al2O3, and the binary Al2O 3/MgO and ZnO/CuO were prepared through modified sol gel methods. These NC metal oxides were studied in comparison to the commercial (CM) metal oxides. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, FTIR, BET, and TEM. The NC samples were all accompanied by a significant increase in surface area and decrease in crystallite size. Several chemical reactions were studied to compare the NC samples to the CM samples. One of the reactions involved a high temperature reaction between carbon tetrachloride and the oxide to form carbon dioxide and the corresponding metal chloride. A similar high temperature reaction was conducted between the metal oxide and hydrogen sulfide to form water and the corresponding metal sulfide. A room temperature gas phase adsorption was studied where SO2 was adsorbed onto the oxide. A liquid phase adsorption conducted at room temperature was the destructive adsorption of paraoxon (a toxic insecticide). In all reactions the NC samples exhibited greater activity, destroying or adsorbing a larger amount of the toxins compared to the CM samples. To better study surface area effects catalytic reactions were also studied. The catalysis of methanol was studied over the nanocrystalline ZnO, CuO, NiO, and ZnO/CuO samples in comparison to their commercial counterparts. In most cases the NC samples proved to be more active catalysts, having higher percent conversions and turnover numbers. A second catalytic reaction was also studied, this reaction was investigated to look at the support effects. The catalysis of cyclopropane to propane was studied over Pt and Co catalysts. These catalysts were supported onto NC and CM alumina by impregnation. By observing differences in the catalytic behavior, support effects have become apparent.

  11. The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides

    SciT

    Fadzil, Syazwani Mohd; Hrma, Pavel; Crum, Jarrod

    glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% addition of mixed rare earth oxides. The component coefficients T{sub B2O3}, T{sub SiO2}, T{sub CaO}, and T{sub RE2O3} were also evaluated using a recently published study.« less

  12. Rare earth element partitioning between hydrous ferric oxides and acid mine water during iron oxidation

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Taylor, Howard E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ferrous iron rapidly oxidizes to Fe (III) and precipitates as hydrous Fe (III) oxides in acid mine waters. This study examines the effect of Fe precipitation on the rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of acid mine waters to determine the pH range over which REEs behave conservatively and the range over which attenuation and fractionation occur. Two field studies were designed to investigate REE attenuation during Fe oxidation in acidic, alpine surface waters. To complement these field studies, a suite of six acid mine waters with a pH range from 1.6 to 6.1 were collected and allowed to oxidize in the laboratory at ambient conditions to determine the partitioning of REEs during Fe oxidation and precipitation. Results from field experiments document that even with substantial Fe oxidation, the REEs remain dissolved in acid, sulfate waters with pH below 5.1. Between pH 5.1 and 6.6 the REEs partitioned to the solid phases in the water column, and heavy REEs were preferentially removed compared to light REEs. Laboratory experiments corroborated field data with the most solid-phase partitioning occurring in the waters with the highest pH. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural characterization of sol-gel derived oxide nanostuctures using synchrotron x-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tao

    Ceramic oxides possess extraordinarily rich functionalities. With the advent of nanofabrication techniques, it is now possible to grow nanostructured oxides with precise control of composition, morphology, and microstructure, which has re-vitalized the research in the field of traditional ceramics. The unexpected behavior and enhanced properties of oxide nanostructures have been extensively reported. However, knowledge about the underlying mechanisms as well as structural implications is still quite limited. Therefore, it is imperative to develop and employ sophisticated characterization tools for unraveling the structure-property relationships for oxide nanostructures. The present thesis work aims at addressing the critical issues associated with fabrication, and more importantly, structural characterization of functional oxide nanostructures. The dissertation starts with introducing the strategy for synthesizing phase-pure and highly controlled oxide nanostructures using sol-gel deposition and an innovative approach called "soft" electron beam lithography. Some specific oxides are chosen for the present study, such as BiFeO3, CoFe2O4, and SnO2, because of their scientific and technological significance. Subsequent to fabrication of tailored oxide nanostructures, advanced synchrotron x-ray scattering techniques have been applied for structural characterization. The nucleation and growth behavior of BiFeO3 thin film was investigated using in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) technique. The results reveal that the kinetics for early-stage nuclei growth are governed by the oriented-attachment model. Moreover, the porous structures of undoped and Pd-doped semiconducting SnOx thin films were quantitatively characterized using GISAXS. By correlating the structural parameters with H2 sensitivity of SnOx films, it is found out that the microstructure of doped film is favorable for gas sensing, but it is not the major reason for the overall

  14. Thiourea incorporated poly(ethylene oxide) as transparent gel polymer electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavithra, Nagaraj; Velayutham, David; Sorrentino, Andrea; Anandan, Sambandam

    2017-06-01

    A new series of transparent gel polymer electrolytes are prepared by adding various weight percent of thiourea coupled with poly(ethylene oxide) for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells. Coupling of thiourea in the presence of iodine undergoes dimerization reaction to produce formamidine disulfide. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy shows that the interactions of thiourea and formamidine disulfide with electronegative ether linkage of poly(ethylene oxide) results in conformational changes of gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry experiments reveal an increment in ionic conductivity and tri-iodide diffusion coefficient, for thiourea modified gel polymer electrolytes. Finally, the prepared electrolytes are used as a redox mediator in dye-sensitized solar cells and the photovoltaic properties were studied. Apart from transparency, the gel polymer electrolytes with thiorurea show higher photovoltaic properties compared to bare gel polymer electrolyte and a maximum photocurrent efficiency of 7.17% is achieved for gel polymer electrolyte containing 1 wt% of thiourea with a short circuit current of 11.79 mA cm-2 and open circuit voltage of 834 mV. Finally, under rear illumination, almost 90% efficiency is retained upon compared to front illumination.

  15. Photoinduced Oxidative DNA Damage Revealed by an Agarose Gel Nicking Assay: A Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafirovich, Vladimir; Singh, Carolyn; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2003-11-01

    Oxidative damage of DNA molecules associated with electron-transfer reactions is an important phenomenon in living cells, which can lead to mutations and contribute to carcinogenesis and the aging processes. This article describes the design of several simple experiments to explore DNA damage initiated by photoinduced electron-transfer reactions sensitized by the acridine derivative, proflavine (PF). A supercoiled DNA agarose gel nicking assay is employed as a sensitive probe of DNA strand cleavage. A low-cost experimental and computer-interfaced imaging apparatus is described allowing for the digital recording and analysis of the gel electrophoresis results. The first experiment describes the formation of direct strand breaks in double-stranded DNA induced by photoexcitation of the intercalated PF molecules. The second experiment demonstrates that the addition of the well-known electron acceptor, methylviologen, gives rise to a significant enhancement of the photochemical DNA strand cleavage effect. This occurs by an electron transfer step to methylviologen that renders the inital photoinduced charge separation between photoexcited PF and DNA irreversible. The third experiment demonstrates that the action spectrum of the DNA photocleavage matches the absorption spectrum of DNA-bound, intercalated PF molecules, which differs from that of free PF molecules. This result demonstrates that the photoinduced DNA strand cleavage is initiated by intercalated rather than free PF molecules.

  16. Cross-linking by protein oxidation in the rapidly setting gel-based glues of slugs

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Andrew; Salt, Michael; Bell, Ashley; Zeitler, Matt; Litra, Noelle; Smith, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The terrestrial slug Arion subfuscus secretes a glue that is a dilute gel with remarkable adhesive and cohesive strength. The function of this glue depends on metals, raising the possibility that metal-catalyzed oxidation plays a role. The extent and time course of protein oxidation was measured by immunoblotting to detect the resulting carbonyl groups. Several proteins, particularly one with a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 165×103, were heavily oxidized. Of the proteins known to distinguish the glue from non-adhesive mucus, only specific size variants were oxidized. The oxidation appears to occur within the first few seconds of secretion. Although carbonyls were detected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) in denatured proteins, they were not easily detected in the native state. The presence of reversible cross-links derived from carbonyls was tested for by treatment with sodium borohydride, which would reduce uncross-linked carbonyls to alcohols, but stabilize imine bonds formed by carbonyls and thus lead to less soluble complexes. Consistent with imine bond formation, sodium borohydride led to a 20–35% decrease in the amount of soluble protein with a Mr of 40–165 (×103) without changing the carbonyl content per protein. In contrast, the nucleophile hydroxylamine, which would competitively disrupt imine bonds, increased protein solubility in the glue. Finally, the primary amine groups on a protein with a Mr of 15×103 were not accessible to acid anhydrides. The results suggest that cross-links between aldehydes and primary amines contribute to the cohesive strength of the glue. PMID:21525316

  17. Cross-linking by protein oxidation in the rapidly setting gel-based glues of slugs.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Andrew; Salt, Michael; Bell, Ashley; Zeitler, Matt; Litra, Noelle; Smith, Andrew M

    2011-05-15

    The terrestrial slug Arion subfuscus secretes a glue that is a dilute gel with remarkable adhesive and cohesive strength. The function of this glue depends on metals, raising the possibility that metal-catalyzed oxidation plays a role. The extent and time course of protein oxidation was measured by immunoblotting to detect the resulting carbonyl groups. Several proteins, particularly one with a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 165 x 10³, were heavily oxidized. Of the proteins known to distinguish the glue from non-adhesive mucus, only specific size variants were oxidized. The oxidation appears to occur within the first few seconds of secretion. Although carbonyls were detected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) in denatured proteins, they were not easily detected in the native state. The presence of reversible cross-links derived from carbonyls was tested for by treatment with sodium borohydride, which would reduce uncross-linked carbonyls to alcohols, but stabilize imine bonds formed by carbonyls and thus lead to less soluble complexes. Consistent with imine bond formation, sodium borohydride led to a 20-35% decrease in the amount of soluble protein with a M(r) of 40-165 (x 10³) without changing the carbonyl content per protein. In contrast, the nucleophile hydroxylamine, which would competitively disrupt imine bonds, increased protein solubility in the glue. Finally, the primary amine groups on a protein with a M(r) of 15 x 10³ were not accessible to acid anhydrides. The results suggest that cross-links between aldehydes and primary amines contribute to the cohesive strength of the glue.

  18. Graphene oxide-enhanced sol-gel transition sensitivity and drug release performance of an amphiphilic copolymer-based nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huawen; Wang, Xiaowen; Lee, Ka I; Ma, Kaikai; Hu, Hong; Xin, John H.

    2016-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a highly sensitive amphiphilic copolymer-based nanocomposite incorporating with graphene oxide (GO), which exhibited a low-intensity UV light-triggered sol-gel transition. Non-cytotoxicity was observed for the composite gels after the GO incorporation. Of particular interest were the microchannels that were formed spontaneously within the GO-incorporated UV-gel, which expedited sustained drug release. Therefore, the present highly UV-sensitive, non-cytotoxic amphiphilic copolymer-based composites is expected to provide enhanced photothermal therapy and chemotherapy by means of GO’s unique photothermal properties, as well as through efficient passive targeting resulting from the sol-gel transition characteristic of the copolymer-based system with improved sensitivity, which thus promises the enhanced treatment of patients with cancer and other diseases. PMID:27539298

  19. Far from the equilibrium crystallization of oxide quantum dots in dried inorganic gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costille, B.; Dumoulin, M.; Ntsame Abagha, A. M.; Thune, E.; Guinebretière, R.

    2018-06-01

    We synthesized, through the sol-gel process, far from the equilibrium amorphous materials in which heterogeneous crystallization allowed the formation of oxide quantum dots. The isothermal evolutions of the mean size of the nanocrystals and the crystallinity of the materials were determined through x-ray diffraction experiments. The heterogeneous crystallization is characterized by a kinetic behavior that is far from that expected, according to the classical nucleation theory. We demonstrate that the evolution of the crystallinity is characterized by an Avrami exponent largely smaller than 1. Finally, nanocrystals exhibiting a size significantly below their Bohr radius are obtained and the number of these nanocrystals increases during isothermal treatment, whereas their mean size remains quasi-constant.

  20. Sol-Gel Deposition of Iridium Oxide for Biomedical Micro-Devices

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cuong M.; Rao, Smitha; Yang, Xuesong; Dubey, Souvik; Mays, Jeffrey; Cao, Hung; Chiao, Jung-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Flexible iridium oxide (IrOx)-based micro-electrodes were fabricated on flexible polyimide substrates using a sol-gel deposition process for utilization as integrated pseudo-reference electrodes for bio-electrochemical sensing applications. The fabrication method yields reliable miniature on-probe IrOx electrodes with long lifetime, high stability and repeatability. Such sensors can be used for long-term measurements. Various dimensions of sol-gel iridium oxide electrodes including 1 mm × 1 mm, 500 μm × 500 μm, and 100 μm × 100 μm were fabricated. Sensor longevity and pH dependence were investigated by immersing the electrodes in hydrochloric acid, fetal bovine serum (FBS), and sodium hydroxide solutions for 30 days. Less pH dependent responses, compared to IrOx electrodes fabricated by electrochemical deposition processes, were measured at 58.8 ± 0.4 mV/pH, 53.8 ± 1.3 mV/pH and 48 ± 0.6 mV/pH, respectively. The on-probe IrOx pseudo-reference electrodes were utilized for dopamine sensing. The baseline responses of the sensors were higher than the one using an external Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Using IrOx reference electrodes integrated on the same probe with working electrodes eliminated the use of cytotoxic Ag/AgCl reference electrode without loss in sensitivity. This enables employing such sensors in long-term recording of concentrations of neurotransmitters in central nervous systems of animals and humans. PMID:25686309

  1. Microstructural and electrical characteristics of rare earth oxides doped ZnO varistor films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lei; Mei, Yunzhu; Xu, Dong; Zhong, Sujuan; Ma, Jia; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Li

    2018-02-01

    ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films doped with two kinds of rare earth element oxides (Lu2O3 and Yb2O3) were prepared by the sol-gel method. The effects of Lu2O3/Yb2O3 doping on the microstructure and electrical characteristics of ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films were investigated. All samples show a homogenized morphology and an improved nonlinear relationship between the electric field (E) and current density (I). Both Yb2O3 and Lu2O3 doping can decrease the grain size of ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films and improve the electrical properties, which have a positive effect on the development of ZnO varistor ceramics. Yb2O3 doping significantly increases the dielectric constant at low frequency. 0.2 mol. % Yb2O3 doped ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films exhibit the highest nonlinear coefficient (2.5) and the lowest leakage current (328 μA) among Lu2O3/Yb2O3 doped ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films. Similarly, 0.1 mol. % Lu2O3 doping increases the nonlinear coefficient to 1.9 and decrease the leakage current to 462 μA.

  2. Thermoelectric Properties of Barium Plumbate Doped by Alkaline Earth Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Andreza; Bhatta, Rudra; Pegg, Ian; Dutta, Biprodas

    Ceramic oxides are now being considered as a new class of thermoelectric materials because of their high stability at elevated temperatures. Such materials are especially suitable for use as prospective thermoelectric power generators because high temperatures are encountered in such operations. The present investigation uses barium plumbate (BaPbO3) as the starting material, the thermoelectric properties of which have been altered by judicious cation substitutions. BaPbO3 is known to exhibit metallic properties which may turn semiconducting as a result of compositional changes without precipitating a separate phase and/or altering the basic perovskite crystal structure. Perovskite structures are noted for their large interstitial spaces which can accommodate a large variety of ``impurity'' ions. As BaPbO3 has high electrical conductivity, σ = 2.43x105Ω-1 m-1 at room temperature, its thermopower, S, is relatively low, 23 μV/K, as expected. With a thermal conductivity, k, of 4.83Wm-1K-1, the figure of merit (ZT =S2 σ Tk-1) of BaPbO3 is only 0.01 at T = 300K. The objective of this investigation is to study the variation of thermoelectric properties of BaPbO3 as Ba and Pb ions are systematically substituted by alkaline earth ions.

  3. Synthesis Mechanism of Low-Voltage Praseodymium Oxide Doped Zinc Oxide Varistor Ceramics Prepared Through Modified Citrate Gel Coating

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Wan Rafizah Wan; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    High demands on low-voltage electronics have increased the need for zinc oxide (ZnO) varistors with fast response, highly non-linear current-voltage characteristics and energy absorption capabilities at low breakdown voltage. However, trade-off between breakdown voltage and grain size poses a critical bottle-neck in the production of low-voltage varistors. The present study highlights the synthesis mechanism for obtaining praseodymium oxide (Pr6O11) based ZnO varistor ceramics having breakdown voltages of 2.8 to 13.3 V/mm through employment of direct modified citrate gel coating technique. Precursor powder and its ceramics were examined by means of TG/DTG, FTIR, XRD and FESEM analyses. The electrical properties as a function of Pr6O11 addition were analyzed on the basis of I-V characteristic measurement. The breakdown voltage could be adjusted from 0.01 to 0.06 V per grain boundary by controlling the amount of Pr6O11 from 0.2 to 0.8 mol%, without alteration of the grain size. The non-linearity coefficient, α, varied from 3.0 to 3.5 and the barrier height ranged from 0.56 to 0.64 eV. Breakdown voltage and α lowering with increasing Pr6O11 content were associated to reduction in the barrier height caused by variation in O vacancies at grain boundary. PMID:22606043

  4. Synthesis mechanism of low-voltage praseodymium oxide doped zinc oxide varistor ceramics prepared through modified citrate gel coating.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Wan Rafizah Wan; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    High demands on low-voltage electronics have increased the need for zinc oxide (ZnO) varistors with fast response, highly non-linear current-voltage characteristics and energy absorption capabilities at low breakdown voltage. However, trade-off between breakdown voltage and grain size poses a critical bottle-neck in the production of low-voltage varistors. The present study highlights the synthesis mechanism for obtaining praseodymium oxide (Pr(6)O(11)) based ZnO varistor ceramics having breakdown voltages of 2.8 to 13.3 V/mm through employment of direct modified citrate gel coating technique. Precursor powder and its ceramics were examined by means of TG/DTG, FTIR, XRD and FESEM analyses. The electrical properties as a function of Pr(6)O(11) addition were analyzed on the basis of I-V characteristic measurement. The breakdown voltage could be adjusted from 0.01 to 0.06 V per grain boundary by controlling the amount of Pr(6)O(11) from 0.2 to 0.8 mol%, without alteration of the grain size. The non-linearity coefficient, α, varied from 3.0 to 3.5 and the barrier height ranged from 0.56 to 0.64 eV. Breakdown voltage and α lowering with increasing Pr(6)O(11) content were associated to reduction in the barrier height caused by variation in O vacancies at grain boundary.

  5. Afterglow luminescence in sol-gel/Pechini grown oxide materials: persistence or phosphorescence process? (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sontakke, Atul; Ferrier, Alban; Viana, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Persistent luminescence and phosphorescence, both yields afterglow luminescence, but are completely different mechanisms. Persistent luminescence involves a slow thermal release of trapped electrons stored in defect states, whereas the phosphorescence is caused due to triplet to singlet transition [1,2]. Many persistent luminescence phosphors are based on oxide inorganic hosts, and exhibit long afterglow luminescence after ceasing the excitation. We observed intense and long afterglow luminescence in sol-gel/pechini grown inorganic oxides, and as a first interpretation thought to be due to persistence mechanism. However, some of these materials do not exhibit defect trap centers, and a detailed investigation suggested it is due to phosphorescence, but not the persistence. Phosphorescence is not common in inorganic solids, and that too at room temperature, and therefore usually misinterpreted as persistence luminescence [3]. Here we present a detailed methodology to distinguish phosphorescence from persistence luminescence in inorganic solids, and the process to harvest highly efficient long phosphorescence afterglow at room temperature. 1. Jian Xu, Setsuhisa Tanabe, Atul D. Sontakke, Jumpei Ueda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 081903 (2015) 2. Sebastian Reineke, Marc A. Baldo, Scientific Reports, 4, 3797 (2014) 3. Pengchong Xue, Panpan Wang, Peng Chen, Boqi Yao, Peng Gong, Jiabao Sun, Zhenqi Zhang, Ran Lu, Chem. Sci. (2016) DOI: 10.1039/C5SC03739E

  6. Catalysts Based on Earth-Abundant Metals for Visible Light-Driven Water Oxidation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junqi; Han, Qing; Ding, Yong

    2018-06-04

    Exploration of water oxidation catalyst (WOC) with excellent performance is the key for the overall water splitting reaction, which is a feasible strategy to convert solar energy to chemical energy. Although some compounds composed of noble metals, mainly Ru and Ir, have been reported to catalyze water oxidation with high efficiency, catalysts based on low-cost and earth-abundant transition metals are essential for realizing economical and large-scale light-driven water splitting. Various WOCs containing earth-abundant metals (mainly Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) have been utilized for visible light-driven water oxidation in recent years. In this Personal Account, we summarize our recent developments in WOCs based on earth-abundant transition metals including polyoxometalates (POMs), metal oxides or bimetal oxides, and metal complexes containing multidentate ligand scaffolds for visible light-driven water oxidation reaction. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Sol-Gel Prepared Niobium Oxide and Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L Stainless Steel for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Dimple

    Medical implants have become an important component in the preventative and reconstructive treatment of patients for a variety of health problems. However, lack of biocompatibility, failure of implant due to corrosion and risk of postoperative infection pose as major challenges for their clinical applications. In order to counteract the above problems sol gel prepared niobium oxide and silicon oxide coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel by spin coating. The preliminary work consisted of morphology, structure and composition analyses of these coatings by FESEM, XPS and GIXRD. Bioactivity was determined through (1) the analysis of calcium phosphate formation at the surface of coatings as a function of simulated body fluid (SBF) reaction time, (2) viability of osteoblast cells using MTT assay (3) osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation using FESEM for coated and uncoated 316L stainless steel. Deposition of calcium phosphate layer was confirmed by EDS and SEM analysis. Corrosion resistances of coated and uncoated stainless steel were evaluated in three different physiological environments such as SBF (pH 7.4), water (pH 7) and SGF (pH 1.2) for different time periods. The reaction of samples was observed in the form of cracking and peeling of coatings, formation of corrosion product, passivation of metallic substrate. The changes in morphology and surface chemistry with time of immersion were evaluated through FESEM along with XPS analysis. Since electrochemical analysis such as open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarization resistance (Rp) strongly depended on the surface condition of the metallic implant these measurements were performed on an externally corroded sample without disturbing the surface. The results obtained by LPR could give information about the influence of corrosive media on the metallic implant and instantaneous corrosion rate with time of immersion. A very large portion of implant related infection is caused by Staphylococcus

  8. STABILIZED RARE EARTH OXIDES FOR A CONTROL ROD AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    McNees, R.A.; Potter, R.A.

    1964-01-14

    A method is given for preparing mixed oxides of the formula MR/sub x/O/ sub 12/ wherein M is tungsten or molybdenum and R is a rare earth in the group consisting of samarium, europium, dysprosium, and gadolinium and x is 4 to 5. Oxides of this formula, and particularly the europiumcontaining species, are useful as control rod material for water-cooled nuclear reactors owing to their stability, favorable nuclear properties, and resistance to hydration. These oxides may be utilized as a dispersion in a stainlesssteel matrix. Preparation of these oxides is effected by blending tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide with a rare earth oxide, compressing the mixture, and firing at an elevated temperature in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. (AEC)

  9. Sol-Gel Synthesis and Antioxidant Properties of Yttrium Oxide Nanocrystallites Incorporating P-123

    PubMed Central

    Mellado-Vázquez, Rebeca; García-Hernández, Margarita; López-Marure, Arturo; López-Camacho, Perla Yolanda; Morales-Ramírez, Ángel de Jesús; Beltrán-Conde, Hiram Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanocrystallites were synthesized by mean of a sol-gel method using two different precursors. Raw materials used were yttrium nitrate and yttrium chloride, in methanol. In order to promote oxygen vacancies, P-123 poloxamer was incorporated. Synthesized systems were heat-treated at temperatures from 700 °C to 900 °C. Systems at 900 °C were prepared in the presence and absence of P-123 using different molar ratios (P-123:Y = 1:1 and 2:1). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results revealed a characteristic absorption band of Y–O vibrations typical of Y2O3 matrix. The structural phase was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), showing the characteristic cubic phase in all systems. The diffraction peak that presented the major intensity corresponded to the sample prepared from yttrium chloride incorporating P-123 in a molar ratio of P-123:Y = 2:1 at 900 °C. Crystallites sizes were determined by Scherrer equation as between 21 nm and 32 nm. Antioxidant properties were estimated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) assays; the results are discussed. PMID:28788211

  10. Sol-Gel Synthesis and Antioxidant Properties of Yttrium Oxide Nanocrystallites Incorporating P-123.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Vázquez, Rebeca; García-Hernández, Margarita; López-Marure, Arturo; López-Camacho, Perla Yolanda; de Jesús Morales-Ramírez, Ángel; Beltrán-Conde, Hiram Isaac

    2014-09-19

    Yttrium oxide (Y₂O₃) nanocrystallites were synthesized by mean of a sol-gel method using two different precursors. Raw materials used were yttrium nitrate and yttrium chloride, in methanol. In order to promote oxygen vacancies, P-123 poloxamer was incorporated. Synthesized systems were heat-treated at temperatures from 700 °C to 900 °C. Systems at 900 °C were prepared in the presence and absence of P-123 using different molar ratios (P-123:Y = 1:1 and 2:1). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results revealed a characteristic absorption band of Y-O vibrations typical of Y₂O₃ matrix. The structural phase was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), showing the characteristic cubic phase in all systems. The diffraction peak that presented the major intensity corresponded to the sample prepared from yttrium chloride incorporating P-123 in a molar ratio of P-123:Y = 2:1 at 900 °C. Crystallites sizes were determined by Scherrer equation as between 21 nm and 32 nm. Antioxidant properties were estimated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) assays; the results are discussed.

  11. Inhibition of interaction between epigallocatechin-3-gallate and myofibrillar protein by cyclodextrin derivatives improves gel quality under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumeng; Chen, Lin; Lv, Yuanqi; Wang, Shuangxi; Suo, Zhiyao; Cheng, Xingguang; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Zhixi; Feng, Xianchao

    2018-06-01

    High levels of polyphenols can interact with myofibrillar proteins (MPs), causing damage to a MP emulsion gel. In this study, β-cyclodextrins were used to reduce covalent and non-covalent interaction between epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and MPs under oxidative stress. The loss of both thiol and free amine groups and the unfolding of MPs caused by EGCG (80 μM/g protein) were significantly prevented by β-cyclodextrins, and the structural stability and solubility were improved. MP emulsion gel treated with EGCG (80 μM/g protein) had the highest cooking loss (68.64%) and gel strength (0.51 N). Addition of β-cyclodextrins significantly reduced cooking loss (26.24-58.20%) and improved gel strength (0.31-0.41 N) of MP emulsion gel jeopardized by EGCG under oxidative stress. Damage to the emulsifying properties of MPs caused by EGCG was significantly prevented by addition of β-cyclodextrins. β-cyclodextrins reduced interaction between EGCG and MPs in the order Methyl-β-cyclodextrin > (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin > β-cyclodextrin. In absence of EGCG, addition of β-cyclodextrins partly protected MPs from oxidative attack and improved its solubility. It is concluded that β-cyclodextrins does not markedly reduce the antioxidant ability of EGCG according to carbonyl analysis, and can effectively increase EGCG loading to potentially provide more durable antioxidant effect for meat products during processing, transportation and storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidation property of SiO2-supported small nickel particle prepared by the sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, S.; Afiza, N.; Katayama, M.; Inada, Y.

    2016-05-01

    The oxidation property of SiO2-supported small Ni particle has been studied by means of the in-situ XAFS method. The Ni particle with the average diameter of 4 nm supported on SiO2 was prepared by the sol-gel method. The XANES spectrum of the small metallic Ni particle was clearly different from that of bulk Ni. The exposure of diluted O2 gas at room temperature promoted the surface oxidation of Ni(0) particle. During the temperature programmed oxidation process, the supported Ni(0) particle was quantitatively oxidized to NiO, and the oxidation temperature was lower by ca. 200 °C than that of the SiO2-supported Ni particle with the larger particle radius of 17 nm prepared by the impregnation method.

  13. Sol-gel synthesis of magnesium oxide-silicon dioxide glass compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1988-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol pct MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol pct MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol pct MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol pct) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  14. Nano rare-earth oxides induced size-dependent vacuolization: an independent pathway from autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Chenguang; Huang, Guanyi; Wang, Changli; Wen, Longping

    2010-09-07

    Four rare earth oxides have been shown to induce autophagy. Interestingly, we often noticed plentiful vacuolization, which was not always involved in this autophagic process. In this study, we investigated three other rare-earth elements, including Yttrium (Y), Ytterbium (Yb), and Lanthanum (La). Autophagic effect could be induced by all of them but only Y(2)O(3) and Yb(2)O(3) could cause massive vacuolization. Y(2)O(3) and Yb(2)O(3) treated by sonication or centrifugation to reduce particle size were used to test vacuolization level in HeLa cell lines. The results showed that rare earth oxides-induced vacuolization is size-dependent and differs from autophagic pathway. To further clarify the characteristics of this autophagic process, we used MEF Atg-5 (autophagy associated gene 5) knockout cell line, and the result showed that the autophagic process induced by rare earth oxides is Atg-5-dependent and the observed vacuolization was independent from autophagy. Similar results could also be observed in our tests on 3-methyladenine(3-MA), a well-known autophagy inhibitor. In conclusion, for the first time, we clarified the relationship between massive vacuolization and autophagic process induced by rare earth oxides and pointed out the size effect of rare earth oxides on the formation of vacuoles, which give clues to further investigation on the mechanisms underlying their biological effects.

  15. Nano rare-earth oxides induced size-dependent vacuolization: an independent pathway from autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Chenguang; Huang, Guanyi; Wang, Changli; Wen, Longping

    2010-01-01

    Four rare earth oxides have been shown to induce autophagy. Interestingly, we often noticed plentiful vacuolization, which was not always involved in this autophagic process. In this study, we investigated three other rare-earth elements, including Yttrium (Y), Ytterbium (Yb), and Lanthanum (La). Autophagic effect could be induced by all of them but only Y2O3 and Yb2O3 could cause massive vacuolization. Y2O3 and Yb2O3 treated by sonication or centrifugation to reduce particle size were used to test vacuolization level in HeLa cell lines. The results showed that rare earth oxides-induced vacuolization is size-dependent and differs from autophagic pathway. To further clarify the characteristics of this autophagic process, we used MEF Atg-5 (autophagy associated gene 5) knockout cell line, and the result showed that the autophagic process induced by rare earth oxides is Atg-5-dependent and the observed vacuolization was independent from autophagy. Similar results could also be observed in our tests on 3-methyladenine(3-MA), a well-known autophagy inhibitor. In conclusion, for the first time, we clarified the relationship between massive vacuolization and autophagic process induced by rare earth oxides and pointed out the size effect of rare earth oxides on the formation of vacuoles, which give clues to further investigation on the mechanisms underlying their biological effects. PMID:20856835

  16. Superconductivity achieved at over liquid nitrogen temperature by (mixed rare earths)-Ba-Cu oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishio, Kohji; Kuwahara, Kazuyuki; Kitazawa, Koichi; Fueki, Kazuo; Nakamura, Osamu

    1987-05-01

    Superconducting oxides were fabricated by reaction of powders of BaCO3, CuO and mixed rare earth (RE) carbonates at compositions expressed as (RE)1Ba2Cu3O(9-y). Two types of incompletely separated raw materials of mixed rare earths, namely, heavy rare earths (HRE) and medium rare earths (MRE), were examined. The zero-resistivity critical temperatures were observed at 92.5 K for the (HRE)-Ba-Cu-O and 85.0 K for the (MRE)-Ba-Cu-O systems, respectively, both of which were well above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen.

  17. Continuous monitoring of enzymatic activity within native electrophoresis gels: Application to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes

    PubMed Central

    Covian, Raul; Chess, David; Balaban, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Native gel electrophoresis allows the separation of very small amounts of protein complexes while retaining aspects of their activity. In-gel enzymatic assays are usually performed by using reaction-dependent deposition of chromophores or light scattering precipitates quantified at fixed time points after gel removal and fixation, limiting the ability to analyze enzyme reaction kinetics. Herein, we describe a custom reaction chamber with reaction media recirculation and filtering and an imaging system that permits the continuous monitoring of in-gel enzymatic activity even in the presence of turbidity. Images were continuously collected using time-lapse high resolution digital imaging, and processing routines were developed to obtain kinetic traces of the in-gel activities and analyze reaction time courses. This system also permitted the evaluation of enzymatic activity topology within the protein bands of the gel. This approach was used to analyze the reaction kinetics of two mitochondrial complexes in native gels. Complex IV kinetics showed a short initial linear phase where catalytic rates could be calculated, whereas Complex V activity revealed a significant lag phase followed by two linear phases. The utility of monitoring the entire kinetic behavior of these reactions in native gels, as well as the general application of this approach, is discussed. PMID:22975200

  18. Continuous monitoring of enzymatic activity within native electrophoresis gels: application to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes.

    PubMed

    Covian, Raul; Chess, David; Balaban, Robert S

    2012-12-01

    Native gel electrophoresis allows the separation of very small amounts of protein complexes while retaining aspects of their activity. In-gel enzymatic assays are usually performed by using reaction-dependent deposition of chromophores or light-scattering precipitates quantified at fixed time points after gel removal and fixation, limiting the ability to analyze the enzyme reaction kinetics. Herein, we describe a custom reaction chamber with reaction medium recirculation and filtering and an imaging system that permits the continuous monitoring of in-gel enzymatic activity even in the presence of turbidity. Images were continuously collected using time-lapse high-resolution digital imaging, and processing routines were developed to obtain kinetic traces of the in-gel activities and analyze reaction time courses. This system also permitted the evaluation of enzymatic activity topology within the protein bands of the gel. This approach was used to analyze the reaction kinetics of two mitochondrial complexes in native gels. Complex IV kinetics showed a short initial linear phase in which catalytic rates could be calculated, whereas Complex V activity revealed a significant lag phase followed by two linear phases. The utility of monitoring the entire kinetic behavior of these reactions in native gels, as well as the general application of this approach, is discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Synthesis of nano-sized lithium cobalt oxide via a sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangfen; Zhang, Jing

    2012-07-01

    In this study, nano-structured LiCoO2 thin film were synthesized by coupling a sol-gel process with a spin-coating method using polyacrylic acid (PAA) as chelating agent. The optimized conditions for obtaining a better gel formulation and subsequent homogenous dense film were investigated by varying the calcination temperature, the molar mass of PAA, and the precursor's molar ratios of PAA, lithium, and cobalt ions. The gel films on the silicon substrate surfaces were deposited by multi-step spin-coating process for either increasing the density of the gel film or adjusting the quantity of PAA in the film. The gel film was calcined by an optimized two-step heating procedure in order to obtain regular nano-structured LiCoO2 materials. Both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to analyze the crystalline and the morphology of the films, respectively.

  20. Production of Monodisperse Cerium Oxide Microspheres with Diameters near 100 µm by Internal Gelation Sol-Gel Methods

    SciT

    Katalenich, Jeffrey A.; Kitchen, Brian B.; Pierson, Bruce

    2018-05-01

    Internal gelation sol-gel methods have used a variety of sphere forming methods in the past to produce metal oxide microspheres, but typically with poor control over the size uniformity at diameters near 100 µm. This work describes efforts to make and measure internal gelation, sol-gel microspheres with very uniform diameters in the 100 – 200 µm size range using a two-fluid nozzle. A custom apparatus was used to form aqueous droplets of sol-gel feed solutions in silicone oil and heat them to cause gelation of the spheres. Gelled spheres were washed, dried, and sintered prior to mounting on glass slidesmore » for optical imaging and analysis. Microsphere diameters and shape factors were determined as a function of silicone oil flow rate in a two-fluid nozzle and the size of a needle dispensing the aqueous sol-gel solution. Nine batches of microspheres were analyzed and had diameters ranging from 65.5 ± 2.4 µm for the smallest needle and fastest silicone oil flow rate to 211 ± 4.7 µm for the largest needle and slowest silicone oil flow rate. Standard deviations for measured diameters were less than 8% for all samples and most were less than 4%. Microspheres had excellent circularity with measured shape factors of 0.9 – 1. However, processing of optical images was complicated by shadow effects in the photoresist layer on glass slides and by overlapping microspheres. Based on calculated flow parameters, microspheres were produced in a simple dripping mode in the two-fluid nozzle. Using flow rates consistent with a simple dripping mode in a two-fluid nozzle configuration allows for very uniform oxide microspheres to be produced using the internal-gelation sol-gel method.« less

  1. Sol-gel zinc oxide humidity sensors integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-10-28

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH.

  2. Sol-Gel Zinc Oxide Humidity Sensors Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit On-a-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-01-01

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90 %RH. PMID:25353984

  3. Fabrication and Anti-Oxidation Ability of SiC-SiO₂ Coated Carbon Fibers Using Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangyuan; Huang, Zhixiong; Wang, Xu; Wang, Bo

    2018-02-27

    The paper proposed a method to improve the anti-oxidation performance of carbon fibers (CF) at high temperature environment by coating silicon dioxide (SiO₂) and silicon carbide (SiC). The modified sol-gel method had been used to ensure the proper interface between fibers and coating. We used polydimethylsiloxane and ethyl orthosilicate to make stable emulsion to uniformly disperse SiC nanoparticles. The modified SiO₂/SiC coating had been coated on CF successfully. Compared with the untreated CF, the coated fibers started to be oxidized around 900 °C and the residual weight was 57% at 1400 °C. The oxidation mechanism had been discussed. The structure of SiC/SiO₂ coated CF had been characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to test the anti-oxidation ability of CF with different coatings.

  4. Large-Scale Precise Printing of Ultrathin Sol-Gel Oxide Dielectrics for Directly Patterned Solution-Processed Metal Oxide Transistor Arrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-June; Park, Won-Tae; Park, Sungjun; Sung, Sujin; Noh, Yong-Young; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2015-09-09

    Ultrathin and dense metal oxide gate di-electric layers are reported by a simple printing of AlOx and HfOx sol-gel precursors. Large-area printed indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistor arrays, which exhibit mobilities >5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and gate leakage current of 10(-9) A cm(-2) at a very low operation voltage of 2 V, are demonstrated by continuous simple bar-coated processes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Strong poly(ethylene oxide) based gel adhesives via oxime cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Smita; Cabral, Jaydee D; Hanton, Lyall R; Moratti, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    There is a demand for materials to replace or augment the use of sutures and staples in surgical procedures. Currently available commercial surgical adhesives provide either high bond strength with biological toxicity or polymer and protein-based products that are biologically acceptable (though with potential sensitizing potential) but have much reduced bond strength. It is desirable to provide novel biocompatible and biodegradable surgical adhesives/sealants capable of high strength with minimal immune or inflammatory response. In this work, we report the end group derivatization of 8-arm star PEOs with aldehyde and amine end groups. Gels were prepared employing the Schiff-base chemistry between the aldehydes and the amines. Gel setting times, swelling behavior and rheological characterization were carried out for these gels. The mechanical-viscoelastic properties were found to be directly proportional to the crosslinking density of the gels, the 10K PEO gel was stiffer in comparison to the 20K PEO gel. The adhesive properties of these gels were tested using porcine skin and showed excellent adhesion properties. Cytotoxicity studies were carried out for the individual gel components using two different methods: (a) Crystal Violet Staining assay (CVS assay) and (b) impedance and cell index measurement by the xCELLigence system at concentrations >5%. Gels prepared by mixing 20% w/w solutions were also tested for cytotoxicity. The results revealed that the individual gel components as well as the prepared gels and their leachables were non-cytotoxic at these concentrations. This work presents a new type of glue that is aimed at surgery applications using a water soluble star shaped polymer. It show excellent adhesion to skin and is tough and easy to use. We show that it is very biocompatible based on tests on live human cells, and could therefore in principle be used for internal surgery. Comparison with other reported and commercial glues shows that it is stronger

  6. Microanalysis of iron oxidation states in earth and planetary materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajt, S.; Sutton, S. R.; Delaney, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    Initial studies have been made on quantifying Fe oxidation states in different iron-bearing minerals using K-edge XANES. The energy of a weak pre-edge peak in the XANES spectrum due to 1s-3d electron transition was used to quantify ferric/ferrous ratios with microprobe spatial resolution. The estimated accuracy of the technique was +/- 10% in terms of Fe3+/((Fe2+ + Fe3+)). The detection limit was ~ 100 ppm with a synchrotron beam of ~ 100 μm in diameter. The pre-edge peak energy in well-characterized samples with known Fe oxidation states was found to be a linear function of the ferric/(ferrous) ratio. The technique was applied to altered magnetics (ideally Fe3O4), and various silicates and oxides from meteorites.

  7. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  8. Evaluation of sol-gel based magnetic 45S5 bioglass and bioglass-ceramics containing iron oxide.

    PubMed

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Srinivasan, A

    2016-05-01

    Multicomponent oxide powders with nominal compositions of (45-x)·SiO2·24.5CaO·24.5Na2O·6P2O5xFe2O3 (in wt.%) were prepared by a modified sol-gel procedure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and high resolution transmission electron microscope images of the sol-gel products show fully amorphous structure for Fe2O3 substitutions up to 2 wt.%. Sol-gel derived 43SiO2·24.5CaO·24.5Na2O·6P2O5·2Fe2O3 glass (or bioglass 45S5 with SiO2 substituted with 2 wt.% Fe2O3), exhibited magnetic behavior with a coercive field of 21 Oe, hysteresis loop area of 33.25 erg/g and saturation magnetization of 0.66 emu/g at an applied field of 15 kOe at room temperature. XRD pattern of this glass annealed at 850 °C for 1h revealed the formation of a glass-ceramic containing sodium calcium silicate and magnetite phases in nanocrystalline form. Temperature dependent magnetization and room temperature electron spin resonance data have been used to obtain information on the magnetic phase and distribution of iron ions in the sol-gel glass and glass-ceramic samples. Sol-gel derived glass and glass-ceramic exhibit in-vitro bioactivity by forming a hydroxyapatite surface layer under simulated physiological conditions and their bio-response is superior to their melt quenched bulk counterparts. This new form of magnetic bioglass and bioglass ceramics opens up new and more effective biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrazines and carbohydrazides produced from oxidized carbon in earth's primitive environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folsome, C. E.; Brittain, A.; Smith, A.; Chang, S.

    1981-01-01

    Whether abiological organic compounds can be formed from the interactions of energy sources with nitrogen, oxidized carbon and water is held to be of importance in geochemical models of the primordial earth atmosphere. It is reported that experiments using quenched spark discharges through molecular nitrogen on aqueous suspensions of CaCO3 and other reactants to simulate the hydrosphere/atmosphere interface yield hydrazine and carbohydrazine in significant but low yields. Such reactions in primitive aquatic environments may have supplied a pathway for chemical evolution and the origin of life, on a primitive earth in which fully oxidized states of carbon were available for the primary synthesis of organic matter.

  10. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0gel or metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  11. Detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms of crude oil-contaminated mangrove sediments.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, A C F; Marques, E L S; Gross, E; Souza, S S; Dias, J C T; Brendel, M; Rezende, R P

    2012-01-27

    Currently, the effect of crude oil on ammonia-oxidizing bacterium communities from mangrove sediments is little understood. We studied the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in mangrove microcosm experiments using mangrove sediments contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% crude oil as well as non-contaminated control and landfarm soil from near an oil refinery in Camamu Bay in Bahia, Brazil. The evolution of CO(2) production in all crude oil-contaminated microcosms showed potential for mineralization. Cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-derived samples generated with primers for gene amoA, which encodes the functional enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, showed differences in the sample contaminated with 5% compared to the other samples. Principal component analysis showed divergence of the non-contaminated samples from the 5% crude oil-contaminated sediment. A Venn diagram generated from the banding pattern of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to look for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in common. Eight OTUs were found in non-contaminated sediments and in samples contaminated with 0.5, 1, or 2% crude oil. A Jaccard similarity index of 50% was found for samples contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2% crude oil. This is the first study that focuses on the impact of crude oil on the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium community in mangrove sediments from Camamu Bay.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of transparent conductive zinc oxide thin films by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarski, David

    Zinc oxide has been given much attention recently as it is promising for various semiconductor device applications. ZnO has a direct band gap of 3.3 eV, high exciton binding energy of 60 meV and can exist in various bulk powder and thin film forms for different applications. ZnO is naturally n-type with various structural defects, which sparks further investigation into the material properties. Although there are many potential applications for this ZnO, an overall lack of understand and control of intrinsic defects has proven difficult to obtain consistent, repeatable results. This work studies both synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide in an effort to produce high quality transparent conductive oxides. The sol-gel spin coating method was used to obtain highly transparent ZnO thin films with high UV absorbance. This research develops a new more consistent method for synthesis of these thin films, providing insight for maintaining quality control for each step in the procedure. A sol-gel spin coating technique is optimized, yielding highly transparent polycrystalline ZnO thin films with tunable electrical properties. Annealing treatment in hydrogen and zinc atmospheres is researched in an effort to increase electrical conductivity and better understand intrinsic properties of the material. These treatment have shown significant effects on the properties of ZnO. Characterization of doped and undoped ZnO synthesized by the sol-gel spin coating method was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, UV-Visible range absorbance, X-ray diffraction, and the Hall Effect. Treatment in hydrogen shows an overall decrease in the number of crystal phases and visible absorbance while zinc seems to have the opposite effect. The Hall Effect has shown that both annealing environments increase the n-type conductivity, yielding a ZnO thin film with a carrier concentration as high as 3.001 x 1021 cm-3.

  13. Sol-gel (template) synthesis of macroporous Mo-based catalysts for hydrothermal oxidation of radionuclide-organic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papynov, E. K.; Palamarchuk, M. S.; Mayorov, V. Yu; Modin, E. B.; Portnyagin, A. S.; Sokol'nitskaya, T. A.; Belov, A. A.; Tananaev, I. G.; Avramenko, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    Molybdenum compounds are industrially demanding as heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of various organic substances. Highly porous structure of molybdenum-containing catalysts avoids surface's colmatation and prevents blocking catalytic sites that makes these materials play a key role in processes of hydrothermal oxidation of radionuclide organic complexes. The study presents an original way of sol-gel synthesis of new macroporous molybdenum compounds using ;core-shell; colloid template (polymer latex) as poreforming agent. We have described three individual routs of template removal via thermal decomposition to obtain porous materials based on molybdenum compounds. Thermal treatment conditions (temperature, gaseous atmosphere) have been studied with respect to their influence on composition, structure and catalytic properties of synthesized molybdenum systems. The optimal way to synthesis of crystal molybdenum (VI) oxide with ordered porous structure (mean pore size 100-160 nm) has been suggested. Catalytic properties of macroporous molybdenum materials have been investigated in the process of liquid phase and hydrothermal oxidation of such organic substances thiazine and stable Co-EDTA complex. It was shown that macroporous molybdenum oxides could be applied as prospective catalysts for hydrothermal oxidation of organic radionuclide complexes during the processing of radioactive waste.

  14. Modified rare earth semiconductor oxide as a new nucleotide probe.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, S; Mills, C E; Lewington, J; Tsang, S C

    2006-12-28

    Recent rapid developments in biological analysis, medical diagnosis, pharmaceutical industry, and environmental control fuel the urgent need for recognition of particular DNA sequences from samples. Currently, DNA detection techniques use radiochemical, enzymatic, fluorescent, or electrochemiluminescent methods; however, these techniques require costly labeled DNA and highly skilled and cumbersome procedure, which prohibit any in-situ monitoring. Here, we report that hybridization of surface-immobilized single-stranded oligonucleotide on praseodymium oxide (evaluated as a biosensor surface for the first time) with complimentary strands in solution provokes a significant shift of electrical impedance curve. This shift is attributed to a change in electrical characteristics through modification of surface charge of the underlying modified praseodymium oxide upon hybridization with the complementary oligonucelotide strand. On the other hand, using a noncomplementary single strand in solution does not create an equivalent change in the impedance value. This result clearly suggests that a new and simple electrochemical technique based on the change in electrical properties of the modified praseodymium oxide semiconductor surface upon recognition and transduction of a biological event without using labeled species is revealed.

  15. Evaluation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) sol-gel coatings, modified with green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles for combating microfouling.

    PubMed

    Krupa, A Nithya Deva; Vimala, R

    2016-04-01

    Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) is gaining importance as an eco-friendly alternative to conventional methods due to its enormous applications. The present work reports the synthesis of ZnO-NPs using the endosperm of Cocos nucifera (coconut water) and the bio-molecules responsible for nanoparticle formation have been identified. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Zeta potential measurement. The results obtained reveal that the synthesized nanoparticles are moderately stable with the size ranging from 20 to 80 nm. The bactericidal effect of the nanoparticles was proved by well diffusion assay and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against marine biofilm forming bacteria. Further the green synthesized ZnO-NPs were doped with TEOS sol-gels (TESGs) in order to assess their antimicrofouling capability. Different volumes of liquid sol-gels were coated on to 96-well microtitre plate and cured under various conditions. The optimum curing conditions were found to be temperature 60 °C, time 72 h and volume 200 μl. Antiadhesion test of the undoped (SG) and ZnO-NP doped TEOS sol-gel (ZNSG) coatings were evaluated using marine biofilm forming bacteria. ZNSG coatings exhibited highest biofilm inhibition (89.2%) represented by lowest OD value against Pseudomonasotitidis strain NV1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrating nanohybrid membranes of reduced graphene oxide: chitosan: silica sol gel with fiber optic SPR for caffeine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, Ravi; Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2017-05-01

    Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive drug consumed in the world for improving alertness and enhancing wakefulness. However, caffeine consumption beyond limits can result in lot of physiological complications in human beings. In this work, we report a novel detection scheme for caffeine integrating nanohybrid membranes of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in chitosan modified silica sol gel (rGO: chitosan: silica sol gel) with fiber optic surface plasmon resonance. The chemically synthesized nanohybrid membrane forming the sensing route has been dip coated over silver coated unclad central portion of an optical fiber. The sensor works on the mechanism of modification of dielectric function of sensing layer on exposure to analyte solution which is manifested in terms of red shift in resonance wavelength. The concentration of rGO in polymer network of chitosan and silica sol gel and dipping time of the silver coated probe in the solution of nanohybrid membrane have been optimized to extricate the supreme performance of the sensor. The optimized sensing probe possesses a reasonably good sensitivity and follows an exponentially declining trend within the entire investigating range of caffeine concentration. The sensor boasts of an unparalleled limit of detection value of 1.994 nM and works well in concentration range of 0-500 nM with a response time of 16 s. The impeccable sensor methodology adopted in this work combining fiber optic SPR with nanotechnology furnishes a novel perspective for caffeine determination in commercial foodstuffs and biological fluids.

  17. A simple enrichment correction factor for improving erosion estimation by rare earth oxide tracers

    Spatially distributed soil erosion data are needed to better understanding soil erosion processes and validating distributed erosion models. Rare earth element (REE) oxides were used to generate spatial erosion data. However, a general concern on the accuracy of the technique arose due to selective ...

  18. Compound formation and melting behavior in the AB compound and rare earth oxide systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z. K.; Yan, D. S.; Yen, T. S.; Tien, T. Y.

    1990-03-01

    Compound formation in the systems of the covalent compounds BeO, AlN, and SiC with R2O 3(rare earth oxides) is described. Tentative phase diagrams of the AlN sbnd Nd 2O 3 and AlN sbnd Eu 2O 3 systems are presented.

  19. Physicochemical properties of manganese oxides obtained via the sol-gel method: The reduction of potassium permanganate by polyvinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanets, A. I.; Prozorovich, V. G.; Krivoshapkina, E. F.; Kuznetsova, T. F.; Krivoshapkin, P. V.; Katsoshvili, L. L.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental data on the sol-gel synthesis of manganese oxides formed during the reduction of potassium permanganate by polyvinyl alcohol in an aqueous medium are presented. The physicochemical properties of the obtained manganese oxide systems that depend on the conditions of the synthesis are studied by means of DTA, XRD, SEM, and the low temperature adsorption-desorption of nitrogen. It is found that the obtained samples have a mesoporous structure and predominantly consist of double potassium-manganese oxide K2Mn4O8 with a tunnel structure and impurities of oxides such as α-MnO2, MnO, α-Mn2O3, and Mn5O8. It is shown that the proposed method of synthesis allows us to regulate the size and volume of mesopores and, to a lesser extent, the texture of the obtained oxides, which can be considered promising sorbents for the selective extraction of strontium and cesium ions from multicomponent aqueous solutions.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye by zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained from precipitation and sol-gel methods.

    PubMed

    Balcha, Abebe; Yadav, Om Prakash; Dey, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods. The aim of this study was to understand how different synthetic methods can affect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles. As-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. XRD patterns of ZnO powders synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite sizes of 30 and 28 nm, respectively. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue, a common water pollutant, under UV radiation. The effects of operational parameters such as photocatalyst load and initial concentration of the dye on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue were investigated. While the degradation of dye decreased over the studied dye concentration range of 20 to 100 mg/L, an optimum photocatalyst load of 250 mg/L was needed to achieve dye degradation as high as 81 and 92.5 % for ZnO prepared by precipitation and sol-gel methods, respectively. Assuming pseudo first-order reaction kinetics, this corresponded to rate constants of 8.4 × 10 -3 and 12.4 × 10 -3  min -1 , respectively. Hence, sol-gel method is preferred over precipitation method in order to achieve higher photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures. Photocatalytic activity is further augmented by better choice of capping ligand for colloidal stabilization, starch being more effective than polyethylene glycol (PEG).

  1. Fabrication of ceramic oxide-coated SWNT composites by sol-gel process with a polymer glue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Lei; Chen, Yongming

    2011-09-01

    The functional copolymer bearing alkoxysilyl and pyrene groups, poly[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate]- co-[(1-pyrene-methyl) methacrylate] (TEPM13- co-PyMMA3), was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization. Attributing the π-π interaction of pyrene units with the walls of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), this polymer could disperse and exfoliate SWNTs in different solvents through physical interaction as demonstrated by TEM, UV/Vis absorption, and FT-IR analysis. The alkoxysilyl groups functionalized SWNTs were reacted with different inorganic precursors via sol-gel reaction, and, as a results, silica, titania, and alumina were coated onto the surface of SWNTs, respectively via copolymers as a molecular glue. The nanocomposites of ceramic oxides/SWNTs were characterized by SEM analysis. Dependent upon the feed, the thickness of inorganic coating can be tuned easily. This study supplies a facile and general way to coat SWNTs with ceramic oxides without deteriorating the properties of pristine SWNTs.

  2. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-01-01

    The use of indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic–inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic–inorganic hybrid devices. PMID:26677773

  3. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mami N; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-12-18

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices.

  4. Structural silicon nitride materials containing rare earth oxides

    DOEpatents

    Andersson, Clarence A.

    1980-01-01

    A ceramic composition suitable for use as a high-temperature structural material, particularly for use in apparatus exposed to oxidizing atmospheres at temperatures of 400 to 1600.degree. C., is found within the triangular area ABCA of the Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 --SiO.sub.2 --M.sub.2 O.sub.3 ternary diagram depicted in FIG. 1. M is selected from the group of Yb, Dy, Er, Sc, and alloys having Yb, Y, Er, or Dy as one component and Sc, Al, Cr, Ti, (Mg +Zr) or (Ni+Zr) as a second component, said alloy having an effective ionic radius less than 0.89 A.

  5. Cheap, High-Performance, and Wearable Mn Oxide Supercapacitors with Urea-LiClO4 Based Gel Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming-Jay; Chen, Kai-Wen; Che, Yo-Cheng; Wang, I-Ju; Lin, Chih-Ming; Chen, Jin-Ming; Lu, Kueih-Tzu; Liao, Yen-Fa; Ishii, Hirofumi

    2017-01-11

    Here we report a simple, scalable, and low-cost method to enhance the electrochemical properties of Mn oxide electrodes for highly efficient and flexible symmetrical supercapacitors. The method involving printing on a printer, pencil-drawing, and electrodeposition is established to fabricate Mn oxide/Ni-nanotube/graphite/paper hybrid electrodes operating with a low-cost, novel urea-LiClO 4 /PVA as gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitor (FSSC) devices. The Mn oxide nanofiber/Ni-nanotube/graphite/paper (MNNGP) electrodes in urea-LiClO 4 /PVA gel electrolyte show specific capacitance (C sp ) 960 F/g in voltage region 0.8 V at 5 mV/s and exhibit excellent rates of capacitance retention more than 85% after 5000 cycles. Moreover, the electrochemical behavior of the MNNGP electrodes in urea-LiClO 4 /PVA at operating temperatures 27-110 °C was investigated; the results show that the MNNGP electrodes in urea-LiClO 4 /PVA exhibit outstanding performance (1100 F/g), even at 90 °C. The assembled FSSC devices based on the MNNGP electrodes in urea-LiClO 4 /PVA exhibit great C sp (380 F/g in potential region of 2.0 V at 5 mV/s, exhibiting superior energy density 211.1 W h/kg) and great cycle stability (less than 15% loss after 5000 cycles at 25 mV/s). The oxidation-state change was examined by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. FSSC devices would open new opportunities in developing novel portable, wearable, and roll-up electric devices owing to the cheap, high-performance, wide range of operating temperature, and simple procedures for large-area fabrication.

  6. Adsorption of Salicylhydroxamic Acid on Selected Rare Earth Oxides and Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galt, Greer Elaine

    Adsorption behavior of the anionic collector salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA) on a selected group of rare earth oxides (REOs) and carbonates (RECs) was studied via experimental methods and modelling software. Synthetic oxide and carbonate powders of the rare earth elements cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), europium (Eu), and terbium (Tb) were tested for this research. Studies were conducted at different pH levels to analyze the kinetics of collector adsorption onto the oxide and carbonate surfaces in attempts to optimize recovery parameters for commercial flotation processes using SHA. In addition, thermodynamic software StabCal was implemented to compare theoretical adsorption behavior of collectors SHA and octylhydroxamic acid (OHA) on these four rare earth oxides and carbonates. Theoretical points of zero charge were also estimated via StabCal and compared to experimental values to establish validity. Results for oxides indicate that both the amount and rate of SHA adsorption are highest for lighter REOs, decreasing as ionic diameter increases, a chelation phenomenon common with hydroxamates. However, results for the carbonates exhibit the opposite trend: strongest SHA adsorption was seen in the heavy RECs. This pattern correlates to the increasing stability of the carbonate such that ionic diameter of the REs becomes more amenable to chelation due to differences in bonding chemistry. Overall, adsorption kinetics appear dependent on pH, coordination chemistry, and cation size.

  7. Understanding of the development of in-plane residual stress in sol-gel-derived metal oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Hiromitsu

    2012-01-01

    The in-plane residual stress in thin films greatly affects their properties and functionality as well as the substrate bending, and hence is an important factor to be controlled. In order to obtain general knowledge on the development of residual stress in sol-gel-derived oxide thin films, the in-plane residual stress was measured for yttria stabilized zirconia gel films on Si(100) wafers as a function of firing temperature by measuring the substrate curvature. The films showed a rather complex variation in residual stress, and the mechanism of the residual stress evolution was discussed, referencing the intrinsic stress and the x-ray diffraction data. At low annealing temperatures of 100-200 °C, the residual tensile stress decreased and became compressive partially due to the structural relaxation occurring during cooling. When the firing temperature was increased over 200 °C, the residual stress turned tensile, and increased with increasing annealing temperature, which was attributed to the increase in intrinsic stress due to film densification as well as to the reduced structural relaxation due to the progress of densification. The residual tensile stress slightly decreased at firing temperatures of 500-600 °C, which was attributed to the reduction in intrinsic stress due to thermally activated atomic diffusion as well as to emergence of thermal stress. At firing temperature over 600 °C, the residual tensile stress increased again, which was attributed to the increase in thermal stress generated during cooling due to the increased Young's modulus of the film. Although appearing to be complicated, the whole variation of residual stress with firing temperature could be understood in terms of film densification, structural relaxation, atomic diffusion, progress of crystallization and thermal strain. The illustration presented in the work may provide a clear insight on how the residual stress could be developed in a variety of functional sol-gel

  8. Nanoencapsulation of Rose-Hip Oil Prevents Oil Oxidation and Allows Obtainment of Gel and Film Topical Formulations.

    PubMed

    Contri, Renata V; Kulkamp-Guerreiro, Irene C; da Silva, Sheila Janine; Frank, Luiza A; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2016-08-01

    The rose-hip oil holds skin regenerating properties with applications in the dermatological and cosmetic area. Its nanoencapsulation might favor the oil stability and its incorporation into hydrophilic formulations, besides increasing the contact with the skin and prolonging its effect. The aim of the present investigation was to develop suitable rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules, to verify the nanocapsule effect on the UV-induced oxidation of the oil and to obtain topical formulations by the incorporation of the nanocapsules into chitosan gel and film. The rose-hip oil (500 or 600 μL), polymer (Eudragit RS100®, 100 or 200 mg), and acetone (50 or 100 mL) contents were separately varied aiming to obtain an adequate size distribution. The results led to a combination of the factors acetone and oil. The developed formulation showed average diameter of 158 ± 6 nm with low polydispersity, pH of 5.8 ± 0.9, zeta potential of +9.8 ± 1.5 mV, rose-hip oil content of 54 ± 1 μL/mL and tendency to reversible creaming. No differences were observed in the nanocapsules properties after storage. The nanoencapsulation of rose-hip oil decreased the UVA and UVC oxidation of the oil. The chitosan gel and film containing rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules showed suitable properties for cutaneous use. In conclusion, it was possible to successfully obtain rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules and to confirm the nanocapsules effect in protecting the oil from the UV rays. The chitosan gel and film were considered interesting alternatives for incorporating the nanoencapsulated rose-hip oil, combining the advantages of the nanoparticles to the advantages of chitosan.

  9. Biogenic methane, hydrogen escape, and the irreversible oxidation of early Earth.

    PubMed

    Catling, D C; Zahnle, K J; McKay, C

    2001-08-03

    The low O2 content of the Archean atmosphere implies that methane should have been present at levels approximately 10(2) to 10(3) parts per million volume (ppmv) (compared with 1.7 ppmv today) given a plausible biogenic source. CH4 is favored as the greenhouse gas that countered the lower luminosity of the early Sun. But abundant CH4 implies that hydrogen escapes to space (upward arrow space) orders of magnitude faster than today. Such reductant loss oxidizes the Earth. Photosynthesis splits water into O2 and H, and methanogenesis transfers the H into CH4. Hydrogen escape after CH4 photolysis, therefore, causes a net gain of oxygen [CO2 + 2H2O --> CH4 + 2O2 --> CO2 + O2 + 4H(upward arrow space)]. Expected irreversible oxidation (approximately 10(12) to 10(13) moles oxygen per year) may help explain how Earth's surface environment became irreversibly oxidized.

  10. Comparison of gel properties and biochemical characteristics of myofibrillar protein from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) affected by frozen storage and a hydroxyl radical-generation oxidizing system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Han; Zhang, Longteng; Li, Qingzheng; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-15

    We wanted to clarify whether gel properties can be affected by in vivo or in vitro myofibrillar protein oxidation and, thus, to provide relevant information and a scientific foundation for the processing of gel products. To accomplish this, we measured the changes in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), total disulfide (SS) content, surface hydrophobicity (So-ANS), carbonyl content, and gel texture and water-holding capacity (WHC) of isolated myofibrillar protein from bighead carp fillets during frozen storage and under different H 2 O 2 concentrations, which were used to represent in vivo and in vitro conditions, respectively. The results indicated that a certain range in content of disulfide crosslinks (0.91mol/10 5 g protein) would promote gel hardness. Mild protein oxidation caused by a certain degree of frozen storage and hydroxyl radicals can promote gel texture and WHC. Based on those results, freezing bighead carp for a certain period can be used to produce gel products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of the oxidation state of cerium in sol-gel glasses as a function of thermal treatment via optical spectroscopy and XANES studies.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Zerihun; Haire, R G; Caulder, D L; Shuh, D K

    2004-07-01

    Sol-gel glass matrices containing lanthanides have numerous technological applications and their formation involves several chemical facets. In the case of cerium, its ability to exist in two different oxidation states or in mixed valence state provides additional complexities for the sol-gel process. The oxidation state of cerium present during different facets of preparation of sol-gel glasses, and also as a function of the starting oxidation state of cerium added, were studied both by optical spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES). The findings acquired by each approach were compared. The primary focus was on the redox chemistries associated with sample preparation, gelation, and thermal treatment. When Ce3+ is introduced into the starting sols, the trivalent state normally prevails in the wet and room temperature-dried gels. Heating in air at >100 degrees C can generate a light yellow coloration with partial oxidation to the tetravalent state. Above 200 degrees C and up to approximately 1000 degrees C, cerium is oxidized to its tetravalent state. In contrast, when tetravalent cerium is introduced into the sol, both the wet and room temperature-dried gels lose the yellow-brown color of the initial ceric ammonium nitrate solution. When the sol-gel is heated to 110 degrees C it turns yellowish as the cerium tends to be re-oxidized. The yellow color is believed to represent the effect of oxidation and oligomerization of the cerium-silanol units in the matrix. The luminescence properties are also affected by these changes, the details of which are reported herein.

  12. Oxides for sustainable photovoltaics with earth-abundant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Alexander; Stahl, Mathieu; Ehrhardt, Nikolai; Fahl, Andreas; Ledig, Johannes; Waag, Andreas; Bakin, Andrey

    2014-03-01

    Energy conversion technologies are aiming to extremely high power capacities per year. Nontoxicity and abundance of the materials are the key requirements to a sustainable photovoltaic technology. Oxides are among the key materials to reach these goals. We investigate the influence of thin buffer layers on the performance of an ZnO:Al/buffer/Cu2O solar cells. Introduction of a thin ZnO or Al2O3 buffer layer, grown by thermal ALD, between ZnO:Al and Cu2O resulted in 45% increase of the solar cell efficiency. VPE growth of Cu2O employing elemental copper and pure oxygen as precursor materials is presented. The growth is performed on MgO substrates with the (001) orientation. On- and off- oriented substrates have been employed and the growth results are compared. XRD investigations show the growth of the (110) oriented Cu2O for all temperatures, whereas at a high substrate temperature additional (001) Cu2O growth occurs. An increase of the oxygen partial pressure leads to a more pronounced 2D growth mode, whereby pores between the islands still remain. The implementation of off-axis substrates with 3.5° and 5° does not lead to an improvement of the layer quality. The (110) orientation remains predominant, the grain size decreases and the FWHM of the (220) peak increases. From the AFM images it is concluded, that the (110) surface grows with a tilt angle to the substrate surface.

  13. Processing of non-oxide ceramics from sol-gel methods

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard; Reibold, Robert A.; Satcher, Joe

    2014-12-12

    A general procedure applied to a variety of sol-gel precursors and solvent systems for preparing and controlling homogeneous dispersions of very small particles within each other. Fine homogenous dispersions processed at elevated temperatures and controlled atmospheres make a ceramic powder to be consolidated into a component by standard commercial means: sinter, hot press, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), hot/cold extrusion, spark plasma sinter (SPS), etc.

  14. Data-driven exploration of copper mineralogy and its application to Earth's near-surface oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, S. M.; Eleish, A.; Runyon, S.; Prabhu, A.; Fox, P. A.; Ralph, J.; Golden, J. J.; Downs, R. T.; Liu, C.; Meyer, M.; Hazen, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's atmospheric composition has changed radically throughout geologic history.1,2 The oxidation of our atmosphere, driven by biology, began with the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) 2.5 Ga and has heavily influenced Earth's near surface mineralogy. Therefore, temporal trends in mineral occurrence elucidate large and small scale geologic and biologic processes. Cu, and other first-row transition elements, are of particular interest due to their variation in valance state and sensitivity to ƒO2. Widespread formation of oxidized Cu mineral species (Cu2+) would not have been possible prior to the GOE and we have found that the proportion of oxidized Cu minerals increased steadily with the increase in atmospheric O2 on Earth's surface (see Fig. 1). To better characterize the changes in Cu mineralogy through time, we have employed advanced analytical and visualization methods. These techniques rely on large and growing mineral databases (e.g., rruff.info, mindat.org, earthchem.org, usgs.gov) and allow us to quantify and visualize multi-dimensional trends.5

  15. Evolution of the Oxidation State of the Earth's Mantle: Challenges of High Pressure Quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Keller, L.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation state of the Earth's mantle during formation remains an unresolved question, whether it was constant throughout planetary accretion, transitioned from reduced to oxidized, or from oxidized to reduced. We investigate the stability of Fe3+ at depth, in order to constrain processes (water, late accretion, dissociation of FeO) which may reduce or oxidize the Earth's mantle. Experiments of more mafic compositions and at higher pressures commonly form a polyphase quench intergrowth composed primarily of pyroxenes, with interstitial glass which hosts nearly all of the more volatile minor elements. In our previous experiments on shergottite compositions, variable fO2, T, and P is less than 4 GPa, Fe3+/TotFe decreased slightly with increasing P, similar to terrestrial basalt. For oxidizing experiments less than 7GPa, Fe3+/TotFe decreased as well, but it's unclear from previous modelling whether the deeper mantle could retain significant Fe3+. Our current experiments expand our pressure range deeper into the Earth's mantle and focus on compositions and conditions relevant to the early Earth. Experiments with Knippa basalt as the starting composition were conducted at 1-8 GPa and 1800 C, using a molybdenum capsule to set the fO2 near IW, by buffering with Mo-MoO3. TEM and EELS analyses revealed the run products from 7-8 GPa quenched to polycrystalline phases, with the major phase pyroxene containing approximately equal Fe3+/2+. A number of different approaches have been employed to produce glassy samples that can be measured by EELS and XANES. A more intermediate andesite was used in one experiment, and decompression during quenching was attempted after, but both resulted in a finer grained polyphase texture. Experiments are currently underway to test different capsule materials may affect quench texture. A preliminary experiment using liquid nitrogen to greatly enhance the rate of cooling of the assembly has also been attempted and this technique will be

  16. Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the earth's early atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional photochemical model was used to examine the effect of bolide impacts on the oxidation state of earth's primitive atmosphere. The impact rate should have been high prior to 3.8 Ga before present, based on evidence derived from the moon. Impacts of comets or carbonaceous asteroids should have enhanced the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by bringing in CO ice and/or organic carbon that can be oxidized to CO in the impact plume. Ordinary chondritic impactors would contain elemental iron that could have reacted with ambient CO2 to give CO. Nitric oxide (NO) should also have been produced by reaction between ambient CO2 and N2 in the hot impact plumes. High NO concentrations increase the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by increasing the rainout rate of oxidized gases. According to the model, atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios of unity or greater are possible during the first several hundred million years of earth's history, provided that dissolved CO was not rapidly oxidized to bicarbonate in the ocean.

  17. Giant magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth adatoms and dimers adsorbed by graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Shi, Li-Bin

    2017-05-24

    Nowadays, transition-metal adatoms and dimers with giant magnetic anisotropy have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in data storage, spintronics and quantum computations. Using density-functional calculations, we investigated the magnetic anisotropy of the rare-earth adatoms and dimers adsorbed by graphene oxide. Our calculations reveal that the adatoms of Tm, Er and Sm possess giant magnetic anisotropy, typically larger than 40 meV. When the dimers of (Tm,Er,Sm)-Ir are adsorbed onto graphene oxide, the magnetic anisotropy even exceeds 200 meV. The magnetic anisotropy can be tuned by the external electric field as well as the environment.

  18. Copper oxide thin films anchored on glass substrate by sol gel spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Venu, M. Parvathy; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the excellent optical, thermal, electrical and photocatalytic properties, copper oxide nanoparticles/films have found applications in optoelectronic devices like solar/photovoltaic cells, lithium ion batteries, gas sensors, catalysts, magnetic storage media etc. Copper oxide is a p-type semiconductor material having a band gap energy varying from 1.2 eV-2.1 eV. Syzygium Samarangense fruit extract was used as reducing agent to synthesize copper oxide nanostructures at room temperature from 10 mM copper sulphate pentahydrate solution. The synthesized nanostructures are deposited onto glass substrate by spin coating followed by annealing the film at 200 °C. Both the copper oxide colloid and films are characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Presence of 2 peaks at 500 nm and a broad peak centered around 800 nm in the UV-Vis absorbance spectra of copper oxide colloid/films is indicative of the formation of anisotropic copper oxide nanostructures is confirmed by the FESEM images which showed the presence of triangular shaped and rod shaped particles. The rod shaped particles inside island like structures were found in unannealed films whereas the annealed films contained different shaped particles with reduced sizes. The elemental analysis using EDS spectra of copper oxide nanoparticles/films showed the presence of both copper and oxygen. Electrical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles are affected due to quantum size effect. The electrical studies carried out on both unannealed and annealed copper oxide films revealed an increase in resistivity with annealing of the films.

  19. Timing the oxidation of Earth's crust: Evidence from big data records of manganese mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummer, D. R.; Golden, J. J.; Hystad, G.; Downs, R. T.; Eleish, A.; Liu, C.; Ralph, J.; Morrison, S.; Meyer, M.; Hazen, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    A great deal of work has focused on unravelling the oxygenation of Earth's early atmosphere and oceans, which took place during and after the Great Oxidation Event (1). Recently, field and experimental methods have also been used to examine the timing of mantle oxidation, especially near subduction zones (2). However, very little information is available on the timing of crustal oxidation. To examine the oxidation of Earth's shallow crust, we analyzed records of manganese (Mn) mineral occurrences across geologic time from a database of 2666 mineral-locality data pairs (mindat.org as of 20 Nov. 2015) that had associated geologic ages in the literature. Manganese is a redox-sensitive transition element with oxidation states of +2, +3, and +4, whose average oxidation state in the geologic record can be used as a proxy for the oxygenation of the shallow crust, where Mn mineralization typically occurs. Analysis revealed that Mn mineralization older than 600 Ma contained mostly Mn2+ mineral species, with isolated localities containing Mn3+ and Mn4+ species. During the Phanerozoic, the average oxidation state of Mn follows the same trend as reconstructions of atmospheric oxygen (3), but on a 66+1 Myr delay (as calculated using a least squares fitting procedure). This contrasts with a delay of hundreds of millions of years for the oxidation of molybdenum, which forms much deeper in the crust (4). We interpret these time lags as the time necessary to equilibrate various crustal depths to atmospheric oxygen fugacity through infiltration of oxidizing fluids and tectonic mixing processes. Analysis of other redox-sensitive transition metals (such as Cr, V, and Fe) using big data techniques may reveal a strategy for timing the oxidation of different portions of Earth's crust. (1) T.W. Lyons, C.T. Reinhard, N.J. Planavsky, Nature 506, 307-315 (2014). (2) M. Brounce, et al. Geology 43, 775-778 (2015). (3) N.M. Bergman, T.M. Lenton, A.J. Watson, Am. J. Sci. 304, 397-437 (2004). (4

  20. Oxidation of gas phase trichloroethylene and toluene using composite sol-gel TiO2 photocatalytic coatings.

    PubMed

    Keshmiri, Mehrdad; Troczynski, Tom; Mohseni, Madjid

    2006-02-06

    The previously developed composite sol-gel (CSG) process is proposed for the deposition of thick (10-50 microm) porous films of photocatalytic TiO2. The CSG titania was developed by binding pre-calcined TiO2 particles with TiO2 sol. It had relatively high surface area (15-35 m2/g) and good resistance against mechanical stress and abrasion. Photocatalytic activity tests were carried out on trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene, and compared with those of standard Degussa P-25 titania. The CSG photocatalyst provided good photo-efficiency in removing both pollutants from contaminated air streams. When compared with P-25 titania, the CSG photocatalyst showed a similar photo-efficiency with first-order kinetic rate constants not significantly different from that of P-25. For both photocatalysts the rate of photocatalytic oxidation of TCE was significantly greater than that obtained for toluene. Overall, the combination of better mechanical integrity, resistance against abrasion, and comparable photocatalytic efficiency of the CSG titania versus that of P-25 titania, make the composite sol-gel (CSG) photocatalyst a viable alternative for industrial applications where long term stability, superior mechanical properties, and good photo-efficiency are of critical value.

  1. Zn1-xAlxO:Cu2O transparent metal oxide composite thin films by sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlHammad, M. S.

    2017-05-01

    We have synthesized undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) and Cu2O doped Zn1-XAlXO (AZO; Al/Zn = 1.5 at.%) metal oxide films by sol-gel spin coating method. Atomic force microscopy results indicate that the Zn1-xAlxO:Cu2O is are formed form the fibers. The surface morphology of the films is found to depend on the concentration of Cu2O. The optical constants such as band gap, Urbach energy, refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constants of the films were determined. The transmittance spectra shows that all the films are highly transparent. The study revealed that undoped ZnO film has direct bang gap of 3.29 eV and the optical band gap of films is increased with doping content. The hot probe measurements indicate that Zn1-xAlxO:Cu2O transparent metal oxide composite thin films exhibited p-type electrical conductivity.

  2. Rheological Enhancement of Pork Myofibrillar Protein-Lipid Emulsion Composite Gels via Glucose Oxidase Oxidation/Transglutaminase Cross-Linking Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Xiong, Youling L; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-09-27

    Porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) was modified with glucose oxidase (GluOx)-iron that produces hydroxyl radicals then subjected to microbial transglutaminase (TGase) cross-linking in 0.6 M NaCl at 4 °C. The resulting aggregation and gel formation of MP were examined. The GluOx-mediated oxidation promoted the formation of both soluble and insoluble protein aggregates via disulfide bonds and occlusions of hydrophobic groups. The subsequent TGase treatment converted protein aggregates into highly cross-linked polymers. MP-lipid emulsion composite gels formed with such polymers exhibited markedly enhanced gelling capacity: up to 4.4-fold increases in gel firmness and 3.5-fold increases in gel elasticity over nontreated protein. Microstructural examination showed small oil droplets dispersed in a densely packed gel matrix when MP was oxidatively modified, and the TGase treatment further contributed to such packing. The enzymatic GluOx oxidation/TGase treatment shows promise to improve the textural properties of emulsified meat products.

  3. Trimetallic oxide nanocomposites of transition metals titanium and vanadium by sol-gel technique: synthesis, characterization and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Sachan, Komal; Ali, Md Asif; Soaham Gupta, Sachchidanand; Singh, Rajeev

    2018-04-01

    Novel titanium and vanadium based trimetallic oxide nanocomposites (TMONCs) have been synthesized using metal salts of titanium-vanadium along with three others metals viz. tin, aluminium and zinc as precursors by the sol-gel method. Aqueous ammonia and hydrazine hydrate were used as the reducing agents. The preparations of nanocomposites were monitored by observing the visual changes during each step of synthesis. The synthesized TMONCs were characterized using UV–vis, SEM, EDX, TEM and DLS. Band gap of the synthesized TMONCs ranges from 3–4.5 eV determined using tauc plot. FTIR study revealed the molecular stretching and bending peaks of corresponding M–O/M–O–M bonds thus confirming their formation. Molecular composition and particle size were determined using EDX and DLS respectively. Molecular shape, size and surface morphology have been examined by SEM and TEM.

  4. A facile synthesis of zinc oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite lithium ion battery anodes by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köse, Hilal; Karaal, Şeyma; Aydın, Ali Osman; Akbulut, Hatem

    2015-11-01

    Free standing zinc oxide (ZnO) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite materials are prepared by a sol gel technique giving a new high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries. Free-standing ZnO/MWCNT nanocomposite anodes with two different chelating agent additives, triethanolamine (TEA) and glycerin (GLY), yield different electrochemical performances. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses reveal the produced anode electrodes exhibit a unique structure of ZnO coating on the MWCNT surfaces. Li-ion cell assembly using a ZnO/MWCNT/GLY free-standing anode and Li metal cathode possesses the best discharge capacity, remaining as high as 460 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. This core-shell structured anode can offer increased energy storage and performance over conventional anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  5. Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide as a novel oxygen storage material

    SciT

    Dong, Qiang, E-mail: dong@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Yin, Shu; Yoshida, Mizuki

    2015-09-15

    Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) hollow nanospheres with a diameter of 50 nm have been synthesized successfully via a facial solvothermal route in a very simple system composed of only ethanol, acetic acid, SnCl{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O and A(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·xH{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). The synthesized undoped SnO{sub 2} and A-doped SnO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres were characterized by the oxygen storage capacity (OSC), X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) technique. The OSC values of all samples were measured using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. The incorporation of alkaline earth metal ion into tinmore » oxide greatly enhanced the thermal stability and OSC. Especially, Ba-doped SnO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres calcined at 1000 °C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 61 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 457 μmol-O g{sup −1} and good thermal stability. Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide has the potential to be a novel oxygen storage material.« less

  6. Synergetic effect of alkaline earth metal oxides and iron oxides on the degradation of hexachlorobenzene and its degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Guijin; Liu, Yexuan; Huang, Linyan; Shi, Yali; Zhang, Aiqian; Zhang, Lixia; Liu, Wenbin; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was carried out over physical mixtures of a series of alkaline earth metal oxides (MO: M=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and iron oxides with different crystal types (Fe(x)O(y):Fe(2)O(3) or Fe(3)O(4)) at 300°C. These physical mixtures all showed a synergetic effect toward the degradation of HCB. A range of degradation products were identified by various methods, including tri- to penta-chlorobenzenes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), tri- to penta-chlorophenols, tetrachlorocatechol (TCC) and tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) by GC-MS after derivatization, and formic and acetic acids by ion chromatography. Two degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination and oxidative degradation, appear to occur competitively. However, more sequential chlorinated benzene and phenol congeners were formed over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4) than over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) under the same conditions. The oxidative reaction dominated over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) and was promoted as the major reaction by the synergetic effect, while both the oxidative and hydrodechlorination reactions were important over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4), and both pathways are remarkably promoted by the synergetic effect. The enhanced hydrodechlorination may be attributed to free electrons generated by the transformation of Fe(3)O(4) into Fe(2)O(3), and hydrogen provided by water adsorbed on the MO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural properties and gas sensing behavior of sol-gel grown nanostructured zinc oxide

    SciT

    Rajyaguru, Bhargav; Gadani, Keval; Kansara, S. B.

    2016-05-06

    In this communication, we report the results of the studies on structural properties and gas sensing behavior of nanostructured ZnO grown using acetone precursor based modified sol-gel technique. Final product of ZnO was sintered at different temperatures to vary the crystallite size while their structural properties have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement performed at room temperature. XRD results suggest the single phasic nature of all the samples and crystallite size increases from 11.53 to 20.96 nm with increase in sintering temperature. Gas sensing behavior has been studied for acetone gas which indicates that lower sintered samples are moremore » capable to sense the acetone gas and related mechanism has been discussed in the light of crystallite size, crystal boundary density, defect mechanism and possible chemical reaction between gas traces and various oxygen species.« less

  8. Theoretical study of the diatomic alkali and alkaline-earth oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, S. R.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Partridge, H.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical dissociation energies for the ground states of the alkali and alkaline earth oxides are presented that are believed to be accurate to 0.1 eV. The 2 Pi - 2 Sigma + separations for the alkali oxides are found to be more sensitive to basis set than to electron correlation. Predicted 2 Pi ground states for LiO and NaO and 2 Sigma + ground states for RbO and CsO are found to be in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work. For KO, a 2 Sigma + state is found at both the numerical Hartree-Fock (NHF) level and at the singles plus doubles configuration interaction level using a Slater basis set that is within 0.02 eV of the NHF limit. It is found that an accurate balanced treatment of the two states requires correlating the electrons on both the metal and oxide ion.

  9. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  10. Transparent conducting ZnO-CdO mixed oxide thin films grown by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Trilok K; Rajput, Jeevitesh K; Kumar, Vinod; Purohit, L P; Swart, H C; Kroon, R E

    2017-02-01

    Mixed oxides of zinc and cadmium with different proportions were deposited on ordinary glass substrates using the sol-gel spin coating method under optimized deposition conditions using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursors. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the films. A combination of cubic CdO and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO phases was observed. The oxidation states of Zn, Cd and O in the deposited films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The compositional analysis of the thin films was studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The transmittance of the thin films was measured in the range 300-800nm and the optical bandgap was calculated using Tauc's plot method. The bandgap decreased from 3.15eV to 2.15eV with increasing CdO content. The light emission properties of the ZnO:CdO thin films were studied by photoluminescence spectra recorded at room temperature. The current-voltage characteristics were also assessed and showed ohmic behaviour. The resistance decreased with increasing CdO content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) cross-linked natural polymer-based hybrid gel beads: Controlled nano anti-TB drug delivery application.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, Mookkandi Palsamy; Ayyanaar, Srinivasan; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Dhaveethu Raja, Jeyaraj; Annaraj, Jamespandi; Sakthipandi, Kathiresan; Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban

    2018-04-01

    The nanosized rifampicin (RIF) has been prepared to increase the solubility in aqueous solution, which leads to remarkable enhancement of its bioavailability and their convenient delivery system studied by newly produced nontoxic, biodegradable magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) cross-linked polyethylene glycol hybrid chitosan (mCS-PEG) gel beads. The functionalization of both nano RIF and mCS-PEG gel beads were studied using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The size of prepared nano RIF was found to be 70.20 ± 3.50 nm. The mechanical stability and swelling ratio of the magnetic gel beads increased by the addition of PEG with a maximum swelling ratio of 38.67 ± 0.29 g/g. Interestingly, this magnetic gel bead has dual responsive assets in the nano drug delivery application (pH and the magnetic field). As we expected, magnetic gel beads show higher nano drug releasing efficacy at acidic medium (pH = 5.0) with maximum efficiency of 71.00 ± 0.87%. This efficacy may also be tuned by altering the external magnetic field and the weight percentage (wt%) of PEG. These results suggest that such a dual responsive magnetic gel beads can be used as a potential system in the nano drug delivery applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1039-1050, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory analyses of a nitrate-enriched beetroot gel and its effects on plasmatic nitric oxide and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Davi Vieira Teixeira; Silva, Fabricio de Oliveira; Perrone, Daniel; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Alvares, Thiago da Silveira; Aguila, Eduardo Mere Del; Paschoalin, Vania Margaret Flosi

    2016-01-01

    Background Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is a dietary source of natural antioxidants and inorganic nitrate (NO3-). It is well known that the content of antioxidant compounds and inorganic nitrate in beetroot can reduce blood pressure (BP) and the risk of adverse cardiovascular effects. Objective The aim of the present study was to formulate a beetroot gel to supplement dietary nitrate and antioxidant compounds able to cause beneficial health effects following acute administration. Design and subjects A beetroot juice produced from Beta vulgaris L., without any chemical additives, was used. The juice was evaluated by physicochemical and microbiological parameters. The sample was tested in five healthy subjects (four males and one female), ingesting 100 g of beetroot gel. Results The formulated gel was nitrate enriched and contained carbohydrates, fibers, saponins, and phenolic compounds. The formulated gels possess high total antioxidant activity and showed adequate rheological properties, such as high viscosity and pleasant texture. The consumer acceptance test for flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of beetroot gel flavorized with synthetic orange flavor had a sensory quality score >6.6. The effects of acute inorganic nitrate supplementation on nitric oxide production and BP of five healthy subjects were evaluated. The consumption of beetroot gel increased plasma nitrite threefold after 60 min of ingestion and decreased systolic BP (−6.2 mm Hg), diastolic BP (−5.2 mm Hg), and heart rate (−7 bpm). PMID:26790368

  13. Earth

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  14. Structural and optical properties of chromium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    SciT

    Naqvi, Syed Mohd. Adnan, E-mail: adiaks2004@yahoo.co.in; Irshad, Kashif, E-mail: alig.kashif@gmail.com; Soleimani, Hassan, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noorhana-yahya@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    Nanosized Cr-doped ZnO nano particles were synthesized by facile sol-gel auto combustion method. The structural and optical properties of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been investigated by XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy at room temperature for 0% to 8% concentration. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Cr-doped ZnO crystallizes in a single phase polycrystalline nature with wurtzite lattice. With every % of doping, the peaks are shifting scarcely and doping of Cr is possible up to 7%. After that, the last peak vanishes, that signifies its structure is transmuted from 8% doping. The average crystallite size decreases with increase in Cr concentrationmore » (i.e. 28.9 nm for 0% to 25.8 nm for 8%). The UV-Vis spectra of the nanoparticles betoken an incrementation in the band gap energy from 3.401, 3.415, 3.431, 3.437,3.453, 3.514,3.521, 3.530 and 3.538 eV respectively, for 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 % doping concentration.« less

  15. Effects of rare earth doping on multi-core iron oxide nanoparticles properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petran, Anca; Radu, Teodora; Borodi, Gheorghe; Nan, Alexandrina; Suciu, Maria; Turcu, Rodica

    2018-01-01

    New multi-core iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles doped with rare earth metals (Gd, Eu) were obtained by a one step synthesis procedure using a solvothermal method for potential biomedical applications. The obtained clusters were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and magnetization measurements. They possess high colloidal stability, a saturation magnetization of up to 52 emu/g, and nearly spherical shape. The presence of rare earth ions in the obtained samples was confirmed by EDX and XPS. XRD analysis proved the homogeneous distribution of the trivalent rare earth ions in the inverse-spinel structure of magnetite and the increase of crystal strain upon doping the samples. XPS study reveals the valence state and the cation distribution on the octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the analysed samples. The observed shift of the XPS valence band spectra maximum in the direction of higher binding energies after rare earth doping, as well as theoretical valence band calculations prove the presence of Gd and Eu ions in octahedral sites. The blood protein adsorption ability of the obtained samples surface, the most important factor of the interaction between biomaterials and body fluids, was assessed by interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The rare earth doped clusters surface show higher afinity for binding BSA. In vitro cytotoxicity test results for the studied samples showed no cytotoxicity in low and medium doses, establishing a potential perspective for rare earth doped MNC to facilitate multiple therapies in a single formulation for cancer theranostics.

  16. Synthesis and properties of nanostructured sol-gel sorbents for simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buelna Quijada, Genoveva

    2001-07-01

    Regenerative, alumina-supported, copper-based sorbent/catalysts provide a promising technique for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO x from flue gas. These sorbents can remove over 90% of SO2 and 70+% of NOx while generating no wastes, reducing energy consumption, and producing valuable by-products. The lack of a cost-effective sorbent with low attrition rate and good reactivity has been the main hurdle to commercialization of this copper oxide process. Developing such a sorbent is the focus of this dissertation. This work examines using sol-gel techniques rather than traditional processes to produce gamma-alumina and copper coated 7-alumina granular sorbents. Important modifications to the established sol-gel synthesis process were made, which minimized generated wastes and reduced preparation time and sorbent cost. A laboratory scale semi-continuous process providing a basis for large-scale synthesis was developed. The effect of the copper content on the surface area and dispersion of the active species on sol-gel-derived sorbents coated by the one step and wet-impregnation methods was studied. The sol-gel-derived sorbents showed superior sulfation and regeneration properties than the existing commercial sorbents used in the copper oxide process in terms of sulfation capacity, fast regeneration, recovery of sorption capacity, and SO2 concentration in the regenerated effluent. The optimum temperature for NO reduction by NH3 over sol-gel-derived CuO/gamma-Al2O3 was found to be 350°C for both fresh and sulfated catalysts. This was also the optimum operating temperature for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx from simulated flue gas. At 350°C, the adsorption capacity of the sol-gel sorbent/catalyst was higher than UOP's sorbent, and very close to the capacity of ALCOA's sorbent, while the catalytic activity for NO reduction of the sol-gel-derived CuO/gamma-Al 2O3 sorbent fell between the commercial sorbents. The new mesoporous sol-gel-derived materials showed

  17. Rare-earth metal oxide doped transparent mesoporous silica plates under non-aqueous condition as a potential UV sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Hyun; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    Transparent mesoporous silica plates doped with rare-earth metal oxide were prepared using solvent-evaporation method based on the self-organization between structure-directing agent and silicate in a non-aqueous solvent. A triblock copolymer, Pluronic (F127 or P123), was used as the structure-directing agent, while tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a silica source. The pore diameter and the surface area of the mesoporous silica plate prepared with the optimized conditions were ca 40 A and 600 m2 g(-1), respectively, for both structure-directing agent. Rare-earth metal oxides (Eu, Tb, Tm oxide) in mesochannel were formed via one-step synthetic route based on the preparation method of a silica plate. Optical properties of rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates were investigated by UV irradiation and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Under the exitation wavelength of 254 nm, the doped mesoporous silica plates emitted red, green and blue for Eu, Tb and Tm oxides, respectively. Rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates showed enhanced PL intensity compared to that of the bulk rare-earth metal oxide.

  18. Charge transfer in rare earth oxide hybrid solar cells revealed through ultrafast spectroscopic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Bill; Fernando, Kasun; Alphenaar, Bruce; Liu, Jinjun

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells typically combine a transition metal oxide (such as TiO2) and organic dye or polymer absorber to form the donor acceptor pair. Here, Oxidized neodymium (Nd2O3) particles are combined with [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to form the active layer of a bulk heterojunction solar cell. The addition of the Nd2O3 results in an enhancement in the short circuit current and open circuit voltage compared to pure PCBM. We also studied the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcitation in pristine PCBM film, and their blends with the rare earth oxide neodymium particles using the pump-probe photomodulation (PM) spectroscopy with ~30 fs time resolution. Our transient PM spectrum covers spectral range of 430 nm to 730 nm. Although the spectra of Nd2O3/PCBM are very similar with pristine PCBM, the recombination kinetics of photogenerated excitons decay rate increases with the addition of Nd2O3, and ground state photobleaching is also observed. Taken together this provides evidence for the charge transfer between the organic and rare earth inorganic components. Supported by the DOE-EPSCoR fund DOE BES (DE-FG02-07ER46375) at University of Louisville.

  19. Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the Earth's early atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional photochemical model was used to examine the effect of bolide impacts on the oxidation state of Earth's primitive atmosphere. The impact rate should have been high prior to 3.8 Ga before present, based on evidence derived from the Moon. Impacts of comets or carbonaceous asteroids should have enhanced the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by bringing in CO ice and/or organic carbon that can be oxidized to CO in the impact plume. Ordinary chondritic impactors would contain elemental iron that could have reacted with ambient CO2 to give CO. Nitric oxide (NO) should also have been produced by reaction between ambient CO2 and N2 in the hot impact plumes. High NO concentrations increase the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by increasing the rainout rate of oxidized gases. According to the model, atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios of unity or greater are possible during the first several hundred million years of Earth's history, provided that dissolved CO was not rapidly oxidized to bicarbonate in the ocean. Specifically, high atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios are possible if either: (1) the climate was cool (like today's climate), so that hydration of dissolved CO to formate was slow, or (2) the formate formed from CO was efficiently converted into volatile, reduced carbon compounds, such as methane. A high atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio may have helped to facilitate prebiotic synthesis by enhancing the production rates of hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde may have been produced even more efficiently by photochemical reduction of bicarbonate and formate in Fe(++)-rich surface waters.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of metal oxide by non-aqueous sol-gel chemistry =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marichy, Catherine

    O trabalho apresentado neste manuscrito foi desenvolvido no ambito do programa doutoral intitulado “Deposicao de Camadas Atomicas (ALD) de oxido de metais por sol-gel nao-aquoso”. O objectivo deste trabalho foi a preparacao de hetero-estruturas funcionais por ALD e a sua caracterizacao. Foi desenvolvido um novo processo de deposicao de oxido de estanho a temperatura baixa-moderada, utilizando um metodo ALD nao-aquoso, o qual foi aplicado com sucesso ao revestimento controlado das paredes internas e externas de nanotubos de carbono. Uma vez que a preparacao de nanomateriais funcionais requer uma elevada exatidao do processo de deposicao, foi demonstrada a deposicao precisa de filmes que se adaptem a forma do substrato ou de filmes nano-estruturados constituidos por particulas em varios substratos. Alem disso, foram depositados com grande exatidao varios oxidos de metal em nanotubos de carbono e demonstrou-se a possibilidade de ajustar o revestimento feito por ALD atraves do controlo da funcionalizacao da superficie do substrato nano-estruturado de carbono. As hetero-estruturas obtidas foram posteriormente aplicadas como sensores de gases. O melhoramento verificado na sensibilidade foi atribuido a formacao de heterojuncoes p-n entre o filme de oxido de metais e o suporte. O trabalho desenvolvido tendo como objetivo o controlo do revestimento por ALD atraves da funcionalizacao da superficie do suporte e certamente de interesse para o design de hetero-estruturas funcionais baseadas em substratos de carbono. De facto, durante o ultimo periodo do programa de doutoramento, este conceito foi alargado a funcionalizacao e revestimento com oxidos de metal de fibras de carbono preparadas por “electrospinning”, de forma a melhorar a estabilidade e a atividade eletrocatalitica de catalisadores a base de Pt. Este trabalho foi realizado maioritariamente na Universidade de Aveiro mas tambem na Universidade Nacional de Seul e beneficiou de varias colaboracoes internacionais

  1. Surface chemistry of rare-earth oxide surfaces at ambient conditions: reactions with water and hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Külah, Elçin; Marot, Laurent; Steiner, Roland; Romanyuk, Andriy; Jung, Thomas A.; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Meyer, Ernst

    2017-03-01

    Rare-earth (RE) oxide surfaces are of significant importance for catalysis and were recently reported to possess intrinsic hydrophobicity. The surface chemistry of these oxides in the low temperature regime, however, remains to a large extent unexplored. The reactions occurring at RE surfaces at room temperature (RT) in real air environment, in particular, in presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were not addressed until now. Discovering these reactions would shed light onto intermediate steps occurring in automotive exhaust catalysts before reaching the final high operational temperature and full conversion of organics. Here we first address physical properties of the RE oxide, nitride and fluoride surfaces modified by exposure to ambient air and then we report a room temperature reaction between PAH and RE oxide surfaces, exemplified by tetracene (C18H12) on a Gd2O3. Our study evidences a novel effect - oxidation of higher hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures (~300 K) than previously reported (>500 K). The evolution of the surface chemical composition of RE compounds in ambient air is investigated and correlated with the surface wetting. Our surprising results reveal the complex behavior of RE surfaces and motivate follow-up studies of reactions between PAH and catalytic surfaces at the single molecule level.

  2. Polyoxometalate electrocatalysts based on earth-abundant metals for efficient water oxidation in acidic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco-Ahicart, Marta; Soriano-López, Joaquín; Carbó, Jorge J.; Poblet, Josep M.; Galan-Mascaros, J. R.

    2018-01-01

    Water splitting is a promising approach to the efficient and cost-effective production of renewable fuels, but water oxidation remains a bottleneck in its technological development because it largely relies on noble-metal catalysts. Although inexpensive transition-metal oxides are competitive water oxidation catalysts in alkaline media, they cannot compete with noble metals in acidic media, in which hydrogen production is easier and faster. Here, we report a water oxidation catalyst based on earth-abundant metals that performs well in acidic conditions. Specifically, we report the enhanced catalytic activity of insoluble salts of polyoxometalates with caesium or barium counter-cations for oxygen evolution. In particular, the barium salt of a cobalt-phosphotungstate polyanion outperforms the state-of-the-art IrO2 catalyst even at pH < 1, with an overpotential of 189 mV at 1 mA cm-2. In addition, we find that a carbon-paste conducting support with a hydrocarbon binder can improve the stability of metal-oxide catalysts in acidic media by providing a hydrophobic environment.

  3. Ab initio calculations on the positive ions of the alkaline-earth oxides, fluorides, and hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, H.; Langhoff, S. R.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical dissociation energies are presented for the alkaline-earth fluoride, hydroxide, and oxide positive ions that are considered to be accurate to 0.1-0.2 eV. The r(e) for the positive ions are found to be consistently shorter than the corresponding neutrals by 0.07 + or -0.02 A. The bonding in the ground states is demonstrated to be of predominantly M + 2 X - character. The a 3 Pi and A 1 Pi are found to lie considerably above the X 1 Sigma + ground states of the alkaline-earth fluoride and hydroxide positive ions. The overall agreement of the theoretical ionization potentials with the available experimental appearance potentials is satisfactory; these values should represent the most accurate and consistent set available.

  4. Oxidative Weathering of Earth's Surface 3.7 Billion Years ago? - A Chromium Isotope Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, R.; Crowe, S.; Bau, M.; Polat, A.; Fowle, D. A.; Døssing, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Oxidation Event signals the first large-scale oxygenation of the atmosphere roughly 2.4 Gyr ago. Geochemical signals diagnostic of oxidative weathering, however, extend as far back as 3.3-2.9 Gyr ago. 3.8-3.7 Gyr old rocks from Isua, Greenland stand as a deep time outpost, recording information on Earth's earliest surface chemistry and the low oxygen primordial biosphere. We find positive Cr isotope values (average δ53Cr = +0.05 +/- 0.10 permil; δ53Cr = (53Cr/52Cr)sample/(53Cr/52Cr)SRM 979 - 1) x 1000, where SRM 979 denotes Standard Reference Material 979 in both the Fe and Si-rich mesobands of 7 compositionally distinct quartz-magnetite and magnesian banded iron formation (BIF) samples collected from the eastern portion of the Isua BIF (Western Greenland). These postively fractioned Cr isotopes, relative to the igneous silicate Earth reservoir, in metamorphosed BIFs from Isua indicate oxidative Cr cycling 3.8-3.7 Gyr ago. We also examined the distribution of U, which is immobile in its reduced state but mobile when it is oxidized. Elevated U/Th ratios (mean U/Th ratio of 0.70 ± 0.29) in these BIFs relative to the contemporary crust, also signal oxidative mobilization of U. We suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated in Earth's surface environment inducing the oxidative weathering of rocks during the deposition of the Isua BIFs. The precise threshold atmospheric O2 concentrations for the induction of Cr isotope fractionation remain uncertain, but we argue that our data are consistent with the very low levels of oxygen or other ROS indicated by other proxies. Importantly, any trace of Cr that cycled through redox reactions on land would tend both to be heavy, and to mobilize into the contemporaneous run-off more readily than Cr weathered directly as Cr(III). Once having reached the oceans, this fractionated Cr would have been stripped from seawater by Fe (oxy)hydroxides formed during the deposition of BIFs from low oxygen oceans. The

  5. Understanding microstrain anisotropy in yttrium oxide synthesized by sol-gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugesan, S.; Thirumurugesan, R.; Parameswaran, P.

    2018-04-01

    Yttrium oxide was synthesized by wet chemical route and calcined at various temperatures. On x-ray diffraction analysis of the material using Williamson-Hall analysis followed by Rietveld analysis indicates that the powder exists in nano crystallite size with lattice strain. The spherical harmonics analysis model of microstrain indicates the presence of strain anisotropy. The change in crystal structure lattice parameter, atomic coordinates of Y, O in yttria and the bond length analysis of the calcined powder reveals the presence of oxygen vacancies in the system.

  6. The oxidation state of Hadean magmas and implications for early Earth's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Trail, Dustin; Watson, E Bruce; Tailby, Nicholas D

    2011-11-30

    Magmatic outgassing of volatiles from Earth's interior probably played a critical part in determining the composition of the earliest atmosphere, more than 4,000 million years (Myr) ago. Given an elemental inventory of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, the identity of molecular species in gaseous volcanic emanations depends critically on the pressure (fugacity) of oxygen. Reduced melts having oxygen fugacities close to that defined by the iron-wüstite buffer would yield volatile species such as CH(4), H(2), H(2)S, NH(3) and CO, whereas melts close to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer would be similar to present-day conditions and would be dominated by H(2)O, CO(2), SO(2) and N(2) (refs 1-4). Direct constraints on the oxidation state of terrestrial magmas before 3,850 Myr before present (that is, the Hadean eon) are tenuous because the rock record is sparse or absent. Samples from this earliest period of Earth's history are limited to igneous detrital zircons that pre-date the known rock record, with ages approaching ∼4,400 Myr (refs 5-8). Here we report a redox-sensitive calibration to determine the oxidation state of Hadean magmatic melts that is based on the incorporation of cerium into zircon crystals. We find that the melts have average oxygen fugacities that are consistent with an oxidation state defined by the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer, similar to present-day conditions. Moreover, selected Hadean zircons (having chemical characteristics consistent with crystallization specifically from mantle-derived melts) suggest oxygen fugacities similar to those of Archaean and present-day mantle-derived lavas as early as ∼4,350 Myr before present. These results suggest that outgassing of Earth's interior later than ∼200 Myr into the history of Solar System formation would not have resulted in a reducing atmosphere.

  7. Wide-band-gap, alkaline-earth-oxide semiconductor and devices utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Marvin M.; Chen, Yok; Kernohan, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel and comparatively inexpensive semiconductor devices utilizing semiconducting alkaline-earth-oxide crystals doped with alkali metal. The semiconducting crystals are produced by a simple and relatively inexpensive process. As a specific example, a high-purity lithium-doped MgO crystal is grown by conventional techniques. The crystal then is heated in an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form many [Li].degree. defects therein, and the resulting defect-rich hot crystal is promptly quenched to render the defects stable at room temperature and temperatures well above the same. Quenching can be effected conveniently by contacting the hot crystal with room-temperature air.

  8. Sol–gel synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of doped bismuth tungsten oxide composite

    SciT

    Xu, Xuetang; Ge, Yuanxing; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Co dopant results in the phase change from Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} to Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/Bi{sub 14}W{sub 2}O{sub 27} heterostructure. • Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/Bi{sub 14}W{sub 2}O{sub 27} heterostructure. • Synergistic effects coming from the interactions between Bi{sub 14}W{sub 2}O{sub 27} and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} - Abstract: Pristine Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/Bi{sub 14}W{sub 2}O{sub 27} photocatalysts were synthesized by sol–gel method using Co(II) cation as dopant. The influence of Co dopant to the formation of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/Bi{sub 14}W{sub 2}O{sub 27} heterostructure composite was discussed. The photocatalytic activities of as-prepared samples were evaluatedmore » sufficiently by using rhodamine B as target organic pollutants under visible light. The as-prepared Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/Bi{sub 14}W{sub 2}O{sub 27} heterostructure achieved enhanced optical absorption in the visible-light region, and exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities than that of pristine Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The optimum Bi/Co molar ratio and calcining temperature were also explored. The enhanced activities were attributed to the formation of heterostructure in suppressing the recombination of photo-generated carriers. The Co dopant species would participate to reduce the charge carrier recombination by acting as trapping sites for photogenerated charges. A possible photocatalytic mechanism over Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/Bi{sub 14}W{sub 2}O{sub 27} heterostructure was proposed.« less

  9. Rare-Earth Oxide (Yb2O3) Selective Emitter Fabrication and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennette, Bryan; Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth; Tucker, Dennis; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This investigation involved the fabrication and evaluation of rare-earth oxide selective emitters. The first goal of this study was to successfully fabricate the selective emitter samples using paper and ceramic materials processing techniques. The resulting microstructure was also analyzed using a Scanning Electron Microscope. All selective emitter samples fabricated for this study were made with ytterbium oxide (Yb2O3). The second goal of this study involved the measurement of the spectral emission and the radiated power of all the selective emitter samples. The final goal of this study involved the direct comparison of the radiated power emitted by the selective emitter samples to that of a standard blackbody at the same temperature and within the same wavelength range.

  10. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  11. Multifunctional rare-Earth vanadate nanoparticles: luminescent labels, oxidant sensors, and MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Abdesselem, Mouna; Schoeffel, Markus; Maurin, Isabelle; Ramodiharilafy, Rivo; Autret, Gwennhael; Clément, Olivier; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Gacoin, Thierry; Bouzigues, Cedric; Alexandrou, Antigoni

    2014-11-25

    Collecting information on multiple pathophysiological parameters is essential for understanding complex pathologies, especially given the large interindividual variability. We report here multifunctional nanoparticles which are luminescent probes, oxidant sensors, and contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eu(3+) ions in an yttrium vanadate matrix have been demonstrated to emit strong, nonblinking, and stable luminescence. Time- and space-resolved optical oxidant detection is feasible after reversible photoreduction of Eu(3+) to Eu(2+) and reoxidation by oxidants, such as H2O2, leading to a modulation of the luminescence emission. The incorporation of paramagnetic Gd(3+) confers in addition proton relaxation enhancing properties to the system. We synthesized and characterized nanoparticles of either 5 or 30 nm diameter with compositions of GdVO4 and Gd0.6Eu0.4VO4. These particles retain the luminescence and oxidant detection properties of YVO4:Eu. Moreover, the proton relaxivity of GdVO4 and Gd0.6Eu0.4VO4 nanoparticles of 5 nm diameter is higher than that of the commercial Gd(3+) chelate compound Dotarem at 20 MHz. Nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion spectroscopy showed a relaxivity increase above 10 MHz. Complexometric titration indicated that rare-earth leaching is negligible. The 5 nm nanoparticles injected in mice were observed with MRI to concentrate in the liver and the bladder after 30 min. Thus, these multifunctional rare-earth vanadate nanoparticles pave the way for simultaneous optical and magnetic resonance detection, in particular, for in vivo localization evolution and reactive oxygen species detection in a broad range of physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  12. Rare-earth gate oxides for GaAs MOSFET application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Yang, Jun-Kyu; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Jongdae; Roh, Tae Moon

    2006-08-01

    Rare-earth oxide films for gate dielectric on n-GaAs have been investigated. The oxide films were e-beam evaporated on S-passivated GaAs, considering interfacial chemical bonding state and energy band structure. Rare-earth oxides such as Gd 2O 3, (Gd xLa 1- x) 2O 3, and Gd-silicate were employed due to high resistivity and no chemical reaction with GaAs. Structural and bonding properties were characterized by X-ray photoemission, absorption, and diffraction. The electrical characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diodes were correlated with material properties and energy band structures to guarantee the feasibility for MOS field effect transistor (FET) application. Gd 2O 3 films were grown epitaxially on S-passivated GaAs (0 0 1) at 400 °C. The passivation induced a lowering of crystallization temperature with an epitaxial relationship of Gd 2O 3 (4 4 0) and GaAs (0 0 1). A better lattice matching relation between Gd 2O 3 and GaAs substrate was accomplished by the substitution of Gd with La, which has larger ionic radius. The in-plane relationship of (Gd xLa 1- x) 2O 3 (4 4 0) with GaAs (0 0 1) was found and the epitaxial films showed an improved crystalline quality. Amorphous Gd-silicate film was synthesized by the incorporation of SiO 2 into Gd 2O 3. These amorphous Gd-silicate films excluded defect traps or current flow path due to grain boundaries and showed a relatively larger energy band gap dependent on the contents of SiO 2. Energy band parameters such as Δ EC, Δ EV, and Eg were effectively controlled by the film composition.

  13. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Loaded Lipid Nanocarriers Incorporated in Thermosensitive In Situ Gel for Magnetic Brain Targeting of Clonazepam.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Haidy; Refai, Hanan; El Sayed, Nesrine

    2018-04-14

    The objective of the study was to target clonazepam to the brain through the intranasal olfactory mucosa using nanolipid carriers loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to allow nanocarrier guidance and retention with an external magnetic field. For improved delivery, the nanolipid carriers were incorporated in a thermosensitive mucoadhesive in situ gel. Different nanolipid carriers including solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were prepared and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release. The NLC composed of 3 solid lipids (Compritol ® 888, stearic acid, and glyceryl monostearate) and 2 liquid oils (oleic acid and glyceryl monooleate) showed the most satisfactory characteristics and was loaded with SPION (NLC/SPION). Both formulae (NLC and NLC/SPION) were incorporated in an optimized thermosensitive mucoadhesive in situ system composed of 15% pluronic 127 and 0.75% sodium alginate and evaluated for the anticonvulsant action in chemically induced convulsive Swiss Albino mice. The treatment of animals with NLC/SPION significantly prolonged the onset times for convulsion and considerably protected the animals from death. One can thus hope for the emergence of a new intranasal treatment of epilepsy with consequent decrease in peripheral side effects of clonazepam. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of reaction temperature on the room temperature ferromagnetic property of sol-gel derived tin oxide nanocrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthiraj, K.; Hema, M.; Balachandra Kumar, K.

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, nanocrystalline tin oxide materials were prepared using sol-gel method with different reaction temperatures (25 °C, 50 °C, 75 °C & 90 °C) and the relation between the room temperature ferromagnetic property of the sample with processing temperature has been analysed. The X-ray diffraction pattern and infrared absorption spectra of the as-prepared samples confirm the purity of the samples. Transmission electron microscopy images visualize the particle size variation with respect to reaction temperature. The photoluminescence spectra of the samples demonstrate that luminescence process in materials is originated due to the electron transition mediated by defect centres. The room temperature ferromagnetic property is observed in all the samples with different amount, which was confirmed using vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. The saturation magnetization value of the as-prepared samples is increased with increasing the reaction temperature. From the photoluminescence & magnetic measurements we accomplished that, more amount of surface defects like oxygen vacancy and tin interstitial are created due to the increase in reaction temperature and it controls the ferromagnetic property of the samples.

  15. Zinc-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles: Sol-gel synthesis, characterization, and investigation of their in vitro cytotoxicity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Alireza; Khammar, Mansoureh; Taherzadeh, Danial; Rajabian, Arezoo; Khorsand Zak, Ali; Darroudi, Majid

    2017-12-01

    Zinc-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (Zn-doped CeO2-NPs) with Ce1-xZnxO2 composition, where x equals to 0.0, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 are synthesized through a green based sol-gel method from nitrate precursors and gelatin at the fixed calcination temperature of 600 °C maintained for 2 h. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns displayed the single-crystalline structure of these particular samples, which seemed to be completely indexed with the cubic fluorite phase. The evolution of crystalline phases in Ce1-xZnxO2 are assured by the observed broadening in PXRD peaks, while the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed that the spherical-shaped single-crystalline NPs do exist and confirmed the size estimations that were obtained from the Scherrer's equation. A dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effects of concentrations up to 31.25 μg/ml is illustrated through the In vitro cytotoxicity studies regarding Neuro2A cells.

  16. Effect of zinc oxide on the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of poloxamer 407-based mucoadhesive thermosensitive gel.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Jeong-Sook; Choi, Han-Gon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Chong-Kook

    2010-12-01

    To improve the therapeutic efficacy of drugs for hemorrhoid, mucoadhesive thermosensitive gel (MTG) system was developed. The MTG was prepared using poloxamer 407 (P407, 13% and 14%), polycarbophil (PC, 0.2% w/v), phenylephrine hydrochloride (0.25% w/v), lidocaine hydrochloride (1.88% w/v), and prednisolone acetate (0.05% w/v). Then, zinc oxide (ZnO) was added as an astringent as well as mucoadhesiveness-enhancing agent. Two kinds of poloxamer-based MTGs were compared in aspects of rheology, mucoadhesiveness, syringeability, and in vitro release study. Both the two MTGs (13% and 14% P407) showed Newtonian behavior at 20°C whereas pseudoplastic flow at 37°C. The addition of ZnO into MTGs enhanced the mucoadhesiveness and syringeability and led the drug components to be released in accordance with Fickian mechanism. Taken together, the MTG-containing ZnO can be a more effective and convenient delivery system for the treatment of hemorrhoid with a reduced dosage interval.

  17. Sol–gel synthesized zinc oxide nanorods and their structural and optical investigation for optoelectronic application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with hexagonal wurtzite structures were synthesized using an easy and low-cost bottom-up hydrothermal growth technique. ZnO thin films were prepared with the use of four different solvents, namely, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and 2-methoxyethanol, and then used as seed layer templates for the subsequent growth of the ZnO NRs. The influences of the different solvents on the structural and optical properties were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The obtained X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the synthesized ZnO NRs were single crystals and exhibited a preferred orientation along the (002) plane. In addition, the calculated results from the specific models of the refractive index are consistent with the experimental data. The ZnO NRs that grew from the 2-methoxyethanol seeded layer exhibited the smallest grain size (39.18 nm), largest diffracted intensities on the (002) plane, and highest bandgap (3.21 eV). PMID:25221458

  18. The Effect of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (1 X 1019 atoms/cm2). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, these materials do not exhibit linear erosion rates which is in contrast with most organic polymers. Qualitatively, the results obtained from these analyses compare favorably with those obtained from samples exposed to atomic oxygen and or oxygen plasma in ground based exposure experiments. The results of the low Earth orbit atomic oxygen exposure on these materials will be compared with those of ground based exposure to AO.

  19. Synergistic effect of sunlight induced photothermal conversion and H2O2 release based on hybridized tungsten oxide gel for cancer inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Gao, Yibo; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Hua; Tian, Jingxuan; Wang, Li; Zhou, Bingpu; Ye, Ziran; Wan, Jun; Wen, Weijia

    2016-10-01

    A highly efficient photochromic hydrogel was successfully fabricated via casting precursor, which is based on amorphous tungsten oxide and poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (propylene oxide)-block-poly (ethylene oxide). Under simulated solar illumination, the hydrogel has a rapid and controlled temperature increasing ratio as its coloration degree. Localized electrons in the amorphous tungsten oxide play a vital role in absorption over a broad range of wavelengths from 400 nm to 1100 nm, encompassing the entire visible light and infrared regions in the solar spectrum. More importantly, the material exhibits sustainable released H2O2 induced by localized electrons, which has a synergistic effect with the rapid surface temperature increase. The amount of H2O2 released by each film can be tuned by the light irradiation, and the film coloration can indicate the degree of oxidative stress. The ability of the H2O2-releasing gels in vitro study was investigated to induce apoptosis in melanoma tumor cells and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. The in vivo experimental results indicate that these gels have a greater healing effect than the control in the early stages of tumor formation.

  20. Synergistic effect of sunlight induced photothermal conversion and H2O2 release based on hybridized tungsten oxide gel for cancer inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Gao, Yibo; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Hua; Tian, Jingxuan; Wang, Li; Zhou, Bingpu; Ye, Ziran; Wan, Jun; Wen, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient photochromic hydrogel was successfully fabricated via casting precursor, which is based on amorphous tungsten oxide and poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (propylene oxide)-block-poly (ethylene oxide). Under simulated solar illumination, the hydrogel has a rapid and controlled temperature increasing ratio as its coloration degree. Localized electrons in the amorphous tungsten oxide play a vital role in absorption over a broad range of wavelengths from 400 nm to 1100 nm, encompassing the entire visible light and infrared regions in the solar spectrum. More importantly, the material exhibits sustainable released H2O2 induced by localized electrons, which has a synergistic effect with the rapid surface temperature increase. The amount of H2O2 released by each film can be tuned by the light irradiation, and the film coloration can indicate the degree of oxidative stress. The ability of the H2O2-releasing gels in vitro study was investigated to induce apoptosis in melanoma tumor cells and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. The in vivo experimental results indicate that these gels have a greater healing effect than the control in the early stages of tumor formation. PMID:27775086

  1. Could titanium oxide coating from a sol-gel process make stone baskets more resistant to laser radiation at 2.1 μm?

    PubMed

    Cordes, Jens; Nguyen, Felix; Heidenau, Frank; Jocham, Dieter

    2012-10-19

    Stone baskets could be easily destroyed by Holmium:YAG-laser at an endourologic treatment, with respect to this, we try to improve the resistance by coating them with a titanium oxide layer. The layer was established by a sol-gel-process. Six new baskets (Equadus, Opi Med, Ettlingen, Germany) were used: 1.8 Ch. with 4 wires (diameter 0.127 mm). Three baskets were coated with a layer of titanium oxide established by a sol-gel process at the BioCerEntwicklungs GmbH in Bayreuth (~100 nanometres thickness). The lithotripter was a Holmium:YAG laser (Auriga XL, Starmedtec, Starnberg, Germany). 10 uncoated and 10 coated wires were tested with 610 mJ (the minimal clinical setting) and 2 uncoated and 2 coated wires were tested with 110 mJ. The wires were locked in a special holding instrument under water and the laser incident angle was 90°. The endpoint was gross visible damage to the wire and loss of electric conduction. Only two coated wires resisted two pulses (one in the 610 mJ and one in the 110 mJ setting). All other wires were destroyed after one pulse. This was the first attempt at making stone baskets more resistant to a Holmium:YAG laser beam. Titanium oxide deposited by a sol-gel-process on a titanium-nickel alloy did not result in better resistance to laser injuries.

  2. Computational Studies of Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Metal Oxides in Li-Ion Batteries and Earth's Lower Mantle Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shenzhen

    Metal oxide materials are ubiquitous in nature and in our daily lives. For example, the Earth's mantle layer that makes up about 80% of our Earth's volume is composed of metal oxide materials, the cathode materials in the lithium-ion batteries that provide power for most of our mobile electronic devices are composed of metal oxides, the chemical components of the passivation layers on many kinds of metal materials that protect the metal from further corrosion are metal oxides. This thesis is composed of two major topics about the metal oxide materials in nature. The first topic is about our computational study of the iron chemistry in the Earth's lower mantle metal oxide materials, i.e. the bridgmanite (Fe-bearing MgSiO3 where iron is the substitution impurity element) and the ferropericlase (Fe-bearing MgO where iron is the substitution impurity element). The second topic is about our multiscale modeling works for understanding the nanoscale kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the metal oxide cathode interfaces in Li-ion batteries, including the intrinsic cathode interfaces (intergrowth of multiple types of cathode materials, compositional gradient cathode materials, etc.), the cathode/coating interface systems and the cathode/electrolyte interface systems. This thesis uses models based on density functional theory quantum mechanical calculations to explore the underlying physics behind several types of metal oxide materials existing in the interior of the Earth or used in the applications of lithium-ion batteries. The exploration of this physics can help us better understand the geochemical and seismic properties of our Earth and inspire us to engineer the next generation of electrochemical technologies.

  3. Production of monodisperse cerium oxide microspheres with diameters near 100 μm by internal-gelation sol–gel methods

    SciT

    Katalenich, Jeffrey A.; Kitchen, Brian B.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    Internal gelation sol-gel methods have used a variety of sphere forming methods in the past to produce metal oxide microspheres, but typically with poor control over the size uniformity at diameters near 100 µm. This work describes efforts to make and measure internal gelation, sol-gel microspheres with very uniform diameters in the 100 – 200 µm size range using a two-fluid nozzle. A custom apparatus was used to form aqueous droplets of sol-gel feed solutions in silicone oil and heat them to cause gelation of the spheres. Gelled spheres were washed, dried, and sintered prior to mounting on glass slidesmore » for optical imaging and analysis. Microsphere diameters and shape factors were determined as a function of silicone oil flow rate in a two-fluid nozzle and the size of a needle dispensing the aqueous sol-gel solution. Nine batches of microspheres were analyzed and had diameters ranging from 65.5 ± 2.4 µm for the smallest needle and fastest silicone oil flow rate to 211 ± 4.7 µm for the largest needle and slowest silicone oil flow rate. Standard deviations for measured diameters were less than 8% for all samples and most were less than 4%. Microspheres had excellent circularity with measured shape factors of 0.9 – 1. However, processing of optical images was complicated by shadow effects in the photoresist layer on glass slides and by overlapping microspheres. Based on calculated flow parameters, microspheres were produced in a simple dripping mode in the two-fluid nozzle. Using flow rates consistent with a simple dripping mode in a two-fluid nozzle configuration allows for very uniform oxide microspheres to be produced using the internal-gelation sol-gel method.« less

  4. Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured cobalt (Co) intercalated vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}): Peroxovanadate sol gel synthesis and structural study

    SciT

    Langie da Silva, Douglas, E-mail: douglas.langie@ufpel.edu.br; Moreira, Eduardo Ceretta; Dias, Fábio Teixeira

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructured cobalt vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) xerogels spread onto crystalline Si substrates were synthesized via peroxovanadate sol gel route. The resulting products were characterized by distinct experimental techniques. The surface morphology and the nanostructure of xerogels correlate with Co concentration. The decrease of the structural coherence length is followed by the formation of a loose network of nanopores when the concentration of intercalated species was greater than 4 at% of Co. The efficiency of the synthesis route also drops with the increase of Co concentration. The interaction between the Co(OH{sub 2}){sub 6}{sup 2+} cations and the (H{sub 2}V{sub 10}O{submore » 28}){sup 4−} anions during the synthesis was suggested as a possible explanation for the incomplete condensation of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel. Finally the experimental results points for the intercalation of Co between the bilayers of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. In this scenario two possible preferential occupation sites for the metallic atoms in the framework of the xerogel were proposed. - Graphical abstract: Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured cobalt (Co) intercalated vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanoribbons synthesized by peroxovanadate sol gel route. - Highlights: • Nanostructured cobalt V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel spread onto c{sub S}i were synthesized via peroxovanadate sol gel route. • The micro and nanostructure correlates with the cobalt content. • The efficiency of the synthesis route shows to be also dependent of Co content. • The experimental results points for the intercalation of Co between the bilayers of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel.« less

  5. Formation of ferric oxides from aqueous solutions: A polyhedral approach by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. I. Hydrolysis and formation of ferric gels

    SciT

    Combes, J.M.; Manceau, A.; Calas, G.

    1989-03-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to follow the evolution of local structural environments around ferric ions during the formation of ferric hydrous oxide gels from 1 M chloride and 0.1 M nitrate solutions. Fe K-XANES and EXAFS confirm that ferric ions remain 6-fold coordinated during this evolution. With increasing OH availability in the solution, Cl{sup {minus}} anions tend gradually to be exchanged for (O, OH, OH{sub 2}) ligands. Below OH/Fe = 1, no structural order is detected beyond the first coordination sphere. Above this ratio, two Fe-Fe distances at 3.05 {angstrom} and 3.44 {angstrom} are observed and correspond tomore » the presence of edge- and vertex-sharing Fe-octahedra. XAS results show that ferric gels and highly polymerized aqueous species are short-range ordered. The main contribution to disorder in the gels arises from the small size of coherently scattering domains also responsible for their X-ray amorphous character. From the initial to the final stage of hydrolysis, particles possess a nearly spherical shape with a minimum average diameter ranging from 10-30 {angstrom} for polymers formed from chloride and nitrate solutions. As polymerization proceeds, the local order extends to several tens of angstroms and the particle structures becomes progressively closer to that of akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH) or goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH). This local structure is distinct from that of the lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH)-like structure of ferric gels precipitated after oxidation of divalent Fe solutions. The growth of the crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides from gels takes place by the progressive long-range ordering in the ferric polymers without modifying the short-range order around Fe.« less

  6. Fabrication and Anti-Oxidation Ability of SiC-SiO2 Coated Carbon Fibers Using Sol-Gel Method

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guangyuan; Huang, Zhixiong; Wang, Xu; Wang, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The paper proposed a method to improve the anti-oxidation performance of carbon fibers (CF) at high temperature environment by coating silicon dioxide (SiO2) and silicon carbide (SiC). The modified sol-gel method had been used to ensure the proper interface between fibers and coating. We used polydimethylsiloxane and ethyl orthosilicate to make stable emulsion to uniformly disperse SiC nanoparticles. The modified SiO2/SiC coating had been coated on CF successfully. Compared with the untreated CF, the coated fibers started to be oxidized around 900 °C and the residual weight was 57% at 1400 °C. The oxidation mechanism had been discussed. The structure of SiC/SiO2 coated CF had been characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to test the anti-oxidation ability of CF with different coatings. PMID:29495499

  7. [Effect of three kinds of rare earth oxides on chromaticity and mechanical properties of zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the colouration of zirconia ceramic by adding three kinds of rare earth oxides. The influence of the pigments concentration on the mechanical properties and the microstructure was also analyzed. Added different concentrations of CeO(2), Er(2)O(3) and Pr(6)O(11) in tetragonal zirconia poly crystals stabilized with 3 mol% yttria (3Y-T2P) powder, compacted at 200 MPa using cold isostatic pressure, and sintered to 1 400 degrees C. The heating rate was 150 degrees C/h and the dwelling time was 2 hours. The chromaticity of sintered bodies was measured with chroma meter. The relative density, hardness, flexure strength and fracture toughness were investigated as well. The phase stability of the colorized and pure zirconia was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using an automated diffractometer. The microstructures of the specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Several kinds of color achieved by the different pigments praseodym oxide, cerium oxide and erbium oxide were presented in the CIELab system. The a* value increased with the added amount of Er(2)O(3), while b* value rose with the increasing amount of CeO(2) and Pr(6)O(11). However, three pigments failed to decrease L* value and the sintered body appeared too bright. Adding three pigments influenced flexure strength of zirconia ceramic significantly, but had little influence on the hardness and fracture toughness. Microscopy revealed the relationship between the porosity and shapes of grains was correlated to strength of the diphase ceramics. No additional phase could be detected by XRD, except t-ZrO(2) in all colorized samples after sintering at 1 400 degrees C for 120 min. Zirconia ceramic can be colorized by CeO(2), Er(2)O(3), and Pr(6)O(11). Pigments even in a small amount influence the mechanical properties of the colorized zirconia material, which necessitates further investigation.

  8. Strength and microstructure of sintered Si3N4 with rare-earth-oxide additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. A.; Mieskowski, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Room temperature, 700-, 1000-, 1200-, and 1370-C examinations of the effect of 1.7-2.6 mol pct rare earth oxide additions to sintered Si3N4 are conducted. While the room temperature-1000 C bend strengths were higher for this material with Y2O3 additions than with CeO2, La2O3, or Sm2O3, the reverse was true at 1200-1370 C. This phenomenon is explained on the basis of microstructural differences, since quantitative microscopy of SEM replicas showed the Si3N4-Y2O3 composition to contain both a higher percentage of elongated grains and a coarser microstructure than the other three alternatives. The elongated grains appear to increase this composition's low temperature strength irrespective of microstructural coarseness; this coarseness, however, decreases strength relative to the other compositions at higher temperatures.

  9. Anomalous positive flatband voltage shifts in metal gate stacks containing rare-earth oxide capping layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Hedhili, M. N.; Wang, H.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2012-03-01

    It is shown that the well-known negative flatband voltage (VFB) shift, induced by rare-earth oxide capping in metal gate stacks, can be completely reversed in the absence of the silicon overlayer. Using TaN metal gates and Gd2O3-doped dielectric, we measure a ˜350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ˜110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which originates from an interfacial dipole. The dipole is created by the replacement of interfacial oxygen atoms in the HfO2 lattice with nitrogen atoms from TaN.

  10. Graphene oxide based sol-gel stainless steel fiber for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of organophosphate ester flame retardants in water samples.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tingting; Cheng, Jing; Cai, Cuicui; Cheng, Min; Wu, Shiju; Zhou, Hongbin

    2016-07-29

    In this paper, graphene oxide was coated onto a stainless steel wire through sol-gel technique and it was used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The prepared fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which displayed that the fiber had crinkled surface and porous structure The application of the fiber was evaluated through the headspace SPME of nine organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs) with different characteristics in water samples followed by gas chromatography and nitrogen-phosphorous detector (GC/NPD). The major factors influencing the extraction efficiency, including the extraction and desorption conditions, were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method was evaluated, and applied to the analysis of organophosphate ester flame retardants in real environmental water samples. The results demonstrated the HS-SPME method based on GO sol-gel fiber had good linearity (R>0.9928), and limits of detection (1.4-135.6ngL(-1)), high repeatability (RSD<9.8%) and good recovery (76.4-112.4%). The GO based sol-gel fiber displayed bigger extraction capability than the commercial PDMS fiber and the pure sol-gel fiber for both polar and apolar organophosphate esters, especially for the OPFRs containing benzene rings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of rare earth oxide nanoparticles on root elongation of plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhui; Kuang, Linglin; He, Xiao; Bai, Wei; Ding, Yayun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2010-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of four rare earth oxide nanoparticles, nano-CeO(2), nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3) and nano-Yb(2)O(3) on seven higher plant species (radish, rape, tomato, lettuce, wheat, cabbage, and cucumber) were investigated in the present study by means of root elongation experiments. Their effects on root growth varied greatly between different nanoparticles and plant species. A suspension of 2000 mg L(-1) nano-CeO(2) had no effect on the root elongation of six plants, except lettuce. On the contrary, 2000 mg L(-1) suspensions of nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3) and nano-Yb(2)O(3) severely inhibited the root elongation of all the seven species. Inhibitory effects of nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3), and nano-Yb(2)O(3) also differed in the different growth process of plants. For wheat, the inhibition mainly took place during the seed incubation process, while lettuce and rape were inhibited on both seed soaking and incubation process. The fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) for rape were about 40 mg L(-1) of nano-La(2)O(3), 20mg L(-1) of nano-Gd(2)O(3), and 70 mg L(-1) of nano-Yb(2)O(3), respectively. In the concentration ranges used in this study, the RE(3+) ion released from the nanoparticles had negligible effects on the root elongation. These results are helpful in understanding phytotoxicity of rare earth oxide nanoparticles. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The oxidation state of the mantle and the extraction of carbon from Earth's interior.

    PubMed

    Stagno, Vincenzo; Ojwang, Dickson O; McCammon, Catherine A; Frost, Daniel J

    2013-01-03

    Determining the oxygen fugacity of Earth's silicate mantle is of prime importance because it affects the speciation and mobility of volatile elements in the interior and has controlled the character of degassing species from the Earth since the planet's formation. Oxygen fugacities recorded by garnet-bearing peridotite xenoliths from Archaean lithosphere are of particular interest, because they provide constraints on the nature of volatile-bearing metasomatic fluids and melts active in the oldest mantle samples, including those in which diamonds are found. Here we report the results of experiments to test garnet oxythermobarometry equilibria under high-pressure conditions relevant to the deepest mantle xenoliths. We present a formulation for the most successful equilibrium and use it to determine an accurate picture of the oxygen fugacity through cratonic lithosphere. The oxygen fugacity of the deepest rocks is found to be at least one order of magnitude more oxidized than previously estimated. At depths where diamonds can form, the oxygen fugacity is not compatible with the stability of either carbonate- or methane-rich liquid but is instead compatible with a metasomatic liquid poor in carbonate and dominated by either water or silicate melt. The equilibrium also indicates that the relative oxygen fugacity of garnet-bearing rocks will increase with decreasing depth during adiabatic decompression. This implies that carbon in the asthenospheric mantle will be hosted as graphite or diamond but will be oxidized to produce carbonate melt through the reduction of Fe(3+) in silicate minerals during upwelling. The depth of carbonate melt formation will depend on the ratio of Fe(3+) to total iron in the bulk rock. This 'redox melting' relationship has important implications for the onset of geophysically detectable incipient melting and for the extraction of carbon dioxide from the mantle through decompressive melting.

  13. Luminescence studies of rare earth doped yttrium gadolinium mixed oxide phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, S.; Choubey, A.; Sharma, S. K.

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of gamma ray induced rare earth doped yttrium gadolinium mixed oxide phosphor. The europium (Eu3+) was used as rare earth dopant. The phosphor was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method according to the formula (Y2-x-yGdx) O3: Euy3+ (x=0.5; y=0.05). The photoluminescence emission spectrum of the prepared phosphor shows intense peaks in the red region at 615 nm for 5D0→7F2 transitions and the photoluminescence excitation spectra show a broad band located around 220-270 nm for the emission wavelength fixed at 615 nm. The thermoluminescence studies were carried out after irradiating the phosphor by gamma rays in the dose range from 100 Gy to 1 KGy. In the thermoluminescence glow curves, one single peak was observed at about 300 °C of which the intensity increases linearly in the studied dose range of gamma rays. The glow peak was deconvoluted by GlowFit program and the kinetic parameters associated with the deconvoluted peaks were calculated. The kinetic parameters were also calculated by various glow curve shape and heating rate methods.

  14. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    SciT

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani Binti; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    Pyroprocessing is a reprocessing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs inmore » waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.« less

  15. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani; Hrma, Pavel; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2015-10-01

    Pyroprocessing is are processing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the glass matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs in waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.

  16. Trivalent Rare-Earth-Metal Bis(trimethylsilyl)amide Halide Complexes by Targeted Oxidations.

    PubMed

    Bienfait, André M; Wolf, Benjamin M; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2018-05-07

    In contrast to previously applied salt metathesis protocols the targeted rare-earth-metal compounds Ln[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 2 (halogenido) were accessed by oxidation of Ln(II) silylamide precursors. Treatment of Sm[N(SiMe 3 ) 3 ] 2 (thf) 2 with 0.5 equiv of C 2 Cl 6 or 0.25 equiv of TeBr 4 in thf and crystallization thereof gave [Sm{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 } 2 (μ-X)(thf)] 2 (X = Cl, Br). A similar reaction/crystallization procedure performed with 0.5 equiv of 1,2-diiodoethane gave monomeric Sm[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 2 I(thf) 2 . Switching to Yb[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 2 (thf) 2 , the aforementioned oxidants generated monomeric five-coordinate complexes Yb[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 2 X(thf) 2 (X = Cl, Br, I). The reaction of Eu[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 2 (thf) 2 with 0.5 equiv of C 2 Cl 6 in thf yielded the separated ion pair [Eu{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 } 3 Cl][(thf) 5 Eu(μ-Cl) 2 Eu(thf) 5 ]. Performing the chlorination in n-hexane led to oxidation followed by rapid disproportionation into EuCl 3 (thf) x and Eu[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 3 . The bromination reaction did not afford crystalline material, while the iodination gave crystals of divalent EuI 2 (thf) 5 . Use of trityl chloride (Ph 3 CCl) as the oxidant in thf accomplished the Eu(III) species [Eu{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 } 2 (μ-Cl)(thf)] 2 . In situ oxidation of putative [Tm{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 } 2 (thf) x ] using 0.5 equiv of C 2 Cl 6 in thf followed by crystallization from n-hexane led to the formation of a mixture of [Tm{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 } 2 (μ-Cl)(thf)] 2 and Tm[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 3 . Switching the oxidant to 0.5 equiv of 1,2-diiodoethane and crystallizing from thf repeatedly afforded the bis-halogenated complex Tm[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ]I 2 (thf) 3 .

  17. Enhanced magneto-optical Kerr effect in rare earth substituted nanostructured cobalt ferrite thin film prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazpour, L.; Toroghinejad, M. R.; Shokrollahi, H.

    2016-11-01

    A series of rare-earth (RE)-doped nanocrystalline Cox RE(1-x) Fe2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and RE: Nd, Eu) thin films were prepared on silicon substrates by a sol-gel process, and the influences of different RE3+ ions on the microstructure, magnetism and polar magneto-optical Kerr effect of the deposited films were investigated. Also this research presents the optimization process of cobalt ferrite thin films deposited via spin coating, by studying their structural and morphological properties at different thicknesses (200, 350 nm) and various heat treatment temperatures 300-850 °C. Nanoparticulate polycrystalline thin film were formed with heat treatment above 400 °C but proper magnetic properties due to well crystallization of the film were achieved at about 650 °C. AFM results indicated that the deposited thin films were crack-free exhibiting a dense nanogranular structure. The root-mean square (RMS) roughness of the thin films was in the range of 0.2-3.2 nm. The results revealed that both of the magnetism and magneto optical Kerr (MOKE) spectra of Cox RE(1-x) Fe2O4 films could be mediated by doping with various RE ions. The Curie temperature of substituted samples was lower than pristine cobalt ferrite thin films. In MOKE spectra both dominant peaks were blue shifted with addition of RE ions. For low concentration dopant the inter-valence charge transfer related rotation was enhanced and for higher concentration dopant the crystal field rotation peak was enhanced. The MOKE enhancement for Eu3+ substituted samples was more than Nd3+ doped cobalt ferrite films. The enhanced MOKEs in nanocrystalline thin films might promise their applications for magneto-optical sensors in adopted wavelengths.

  18. Preliminary reconnaissance survey for thorium, uranium, and rare-earth oxides, Bear Lodge Mountains, Crook County, Wyoming

    Wilmarth, V.R.; Johnson, D.H.

    1953-01-01

    An area about 6 miles north of Sundance, in the Bear Lodge Mountains, in Crook County, Wyo., was examined during August 1950 for thorium, uranium, and rare-earth oxides and samples were collected. Uranium is known to occur in fluorite veins and iron-manganese veins and in the igneous rocks of Tertiary age that compose the core of the Bear Lodge Mountains. The uranium content of the samples ranges from 0.001 to 0.015 percent in those from the fluorite veins, from 0.005 to 0.018 percent in those from the iron-manganese veins, and from 0.001 to 0.017 percent in those from the igneous rocks. The radioactivity of the samples is more than that expected from the uranium content. Thorium accounts for most of this discrepancy. The thorium oxide content of samples ranges from 0.07 to 0.25 percent in those from the iron-manganese veins and from 0.07 to 0.39 percent in those from the sedimentary rocks, and from0.04 to 0.30 in those from the igneous rocks. Rare-earth oxides occur in iron-manganese veins and in zones of altered igneous rocks. The veins contain from 0.16 to 12.99 percent rare-earth oxides, and the igneous rocks, except for two localities, contain from 0.01 to 0.42 percent rare-earth oxides. Inclusions of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks in the intrusive rocks contain from 0.07 to 2.01 percent rare-earth oxides.

  19. Nitrogen Oxides in Early Earth's Atmosphere as Electron Acceptors for Life's Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael L.; Charnay, Benjamin D.; Gao, Peter; Yung, Yuk L.; Russell, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    We quantify the amount of nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced through lightning and photochemical processes in the Hadean atmosphere to be available in the Hadean ocean for the emergence of life. Atmospherically generated nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) are the most attractive high-potential electron acceptors for pulling and enabling crucial redox reactions of autotrophic metabolic pathways at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents. The Hadean atmosphere, dominated by CO2 and N2, will produce nitric oxide (NO) when shocked by lightning. Photochemical reactions involving NO and H2O vapor will then produce acids such as HNO, HNO2, HNO3, and HO2NO2 that rain into the ocean. There, they dissociate into or react to form nitrate and nitrite. We present new calculations based on a novel combination of early-Earth global climate model and photochemical modeling, and we predict the flux of NOx to the Hadean ocean. In our 0.1-, 1-, and 10-bar pCO2 models, we calculate the NOx delivery to be 2.4 × 105, 6.5 × 108, and 1.9 × 108 molecules cm-2 s-1. After only tens of thousands to tens of millions of years, these NOx fluxes are expected to produce sufficient (micromolar) ocean concentrations of high-potential electron acceptors for the emergence of life.

  20. Mobility of rare earth elements in mine drainage: Influence of iron oxides, carbonates, and phosphates.

    PubMed

    Edahbi, Mohamed; Plante, Benoît; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Ward, Matthew; Pelletier, Mia

    2018-05-01

    The geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REE) was investigated using weathering cells. The influence of sorption and precipitation on dissolved REE mobility and fractionation is evaluated using synthetic iron-oxides, carbonates, and phosphates. Sorption cell tests are conducted on the main lithologies of the expected waste rocks from the Montviel deposit. The sorbed materials are characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a microanalysis system (energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS) (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) in order to understand the effect of the synthetic minerals on REE mobility. The results confirm that sorption and precipitation control the mobility and fractionation of REE. The main sorbent phases are the carbonates, phosphates (present as accessory minerals in the Montviel waste rocks), and iron oxides (main secondary minerals generated upon weathering of the Montviel lithologies). The XANES results show that REE are present as trivalent species after weathering. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations results using Visual Minteq suggest that REE could precipitate as secondary phosphates (REEPO 4 ). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thin film transistor performance of amorphous indium–zinc oxide semiconductor thin film prepared by ultraviolet photoassisted sol–gel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodzasa, Takehito; Nobeshima, Taiki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Yoshida, Manabu

    2018-05-01

    We have fabricated an amorphous indium–zinc oxide (IZO, In/Zn = 3/1) semiconductor thin-film transistor (AOS-TFT) by the sol–gel technique using ultraviolet (UV) photoirradiation and post-treatment in high-pressure O2 at 200 °C. The obtained TFT showed a hole carrier mobility of 0.02 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and an on/off current ratio of 106. UV photoirradiation leads to the decomposition of the organic agents and hydroxide group in the IZO gel film. Furthermore, the post-treatment annealing at a high O2 pressure of more than 0.6 MPa leads to the filling of the oxygen vacancies in a poor metal–oxygen network in the IZO film.

  2. Fibrin-polyethylene oxide interpenetrating polymer networks: new self-supported biomaterials combining the properties of both protein gel and synthetic polymer.

    PubMed

    Akpalo, E; Bidault, L; Boissière, M; Vancaeyzeele, C; Fichet, O; Larreta-Garde, V

    2011-06-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architectures were conceived to improve the mechanical properties of a fibrin gel. Conditions allowing an enzymatic reaction to create one of the two networks in IPN architecture were included in the synthesis pathway. Two IPN series were carried out, starting from two polyethylene oxide (PEO) network precursors leading to different cross-linking densities of the PEO phase. The fibrin concentration varied from 5 to 20 wt.% in each series. The behavior of these materials during dehydration/hydration cycles was also studied. The mechanical properties of the resulting IPN were characterized in the wet and dry states. These self-supported biomaterials combine the properties of both a protein gel and a synthetic polymer. Finally, cells were grown on PEO/fibrin IPN, indicating that they are non-cytotoxic. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitrogen Oxides in Early Earth's Atmosphere as Electron Acceptors for Life's Emergence.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael L; Charnay, Benjamin D; Gao, Peter; Yung, Yuk L; Russell, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    We quantify the amount of nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced through lightning and photochemical processes in the Hadean atmosphere to be available in the Hadean ocean for the emergence of life. Atmospherically generated nitrate (NO 3 - ) and nitrite (NO 2 - ) are the most attractive high-potential electron acceptors for pulling and enabling crucial redox reactions of autotrophic metabolic pathways at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents. The Hadean atmosphere, dominated by CO 2 and N 2 , will produce nitric oxide (NO) when shocked by lightning. Photochemical reactions involving NO and H 2 O vapor will then produce acids such as HNO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , and HO 2 NO 2 that rain into the ocean. There, they dissociate into or react to form nitrate and nitrite. We present new calculations based on a novel combination of early-Earth global climate model and photochemical modeling, and we predict the flux of NOx to the Hadean ocean. In our 0.1-, 1-, and 10-bar pCO 2 models, we calculate the NOx delivery to be 2.4 × 10 5 , 6.5 × 10 8 , and 1.9 × 10 8 molecules cm -2 s -1 . After only tens of thousands to tens of millions of years, these NOx fluxes are expected to produce sufficient (micromolar) ocean concentrations of high-potential electron acceptors for the emergence of life. Key Words: Nitrogen oxides-Nitrate-Nitrite-Photochemistry-Lightning-Emergence of life. Astrobiology 17, 975-983.

  4. Evaluation of the optical characteristics of c-axis oriented zinc oxide thin films grown by sol gel spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisakh, K.; Behera, S.; Pati, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we have systematically studied the optical characteristics of synthesized wurzite zinc oxide thin films exhibiting (002) orientation. Using sol gel spin coating technique zinc oxide thin films are grown on pre cleaned fused quartz substrates. Structural properties of the films are studied using X-ray diffraction analysis. Micro structural analysis and thickness of the grown samples are analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. With an aim to investigate the optical characteristics of the grown zinc oxide thin films the transmission and reflection spectra are evaluated in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) range. Using envelope method, the refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, band gap energy and the thickness of the synthesized films are estimated from the recorded UV-VIS spectra. An attempt has also been made to study the influence of crystallographic orientation on the optical characteristics of the grown films.

  5. Titanium modified with layer-by-layer sol-gel tantalum oxide and an organodiphosphonic acid: a coating for hydroxyapatite growth.

    PubMed

    Arnould, C; Volcke, C; Lamarque, C; Thiry, P A; Delhalle, J; Mekhalif, Z

    2009-08-15

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used in surgical implants due to their appropriate properties like corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and load bearing. Unfortunately when metals are used for orthopedic and dental implants there is the possibility of loosening over a long period of time. Surface modification is a good way to counter this problem. A thin tantalum oxide layer obtained by layer-by-layer (LBL) sol-gel deposition on top of a titanium surface is expected to improve biocorrosion resistance in the body fluid, biocompatibility, and radio-opacity. This elaboration step is followed by a modification of the tantalum oxide surface with an organodiphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer, capable of chemically binding to the oxide surface, and also improving hydroxyapatite growth. The different steps of this proposed process are characterized by surfaces techniques like contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  6. Poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(propylene oxide)-based gel electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and mechanical integrity for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hong; Hou, Sheng-Shu; Kuo, Ping-Lin; Teng, Hsisheng

    2013-09-11

    Using gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) for lithium-ion batteries usually encounters the drawback of poor mechanical integrity of the GPEs. This study demonstrates the outstanding performance of a GPE consisting of a commercial membrane (Celgard) incorporated with a poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(propylene oxide) copolymer (P(EO-co-PO)) swelled by a liquid electrolyte (LE) of 1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvents. The proposed GPE stably holds LE with an amount that is three times that of the Celgard-P(EO-co-PO) composite. This GPE has a higher ionic conductivity (2.8×10(-3) and 5.1×10(-4) S cm(-1) at 30 and -20 °C, respectively) and a wider electrochemical voltage range (5.1 V) than the LE-swelled Celgard because of the strong ion-solvation power of P(EO-co-PO). The active ion-solvation role of P(EO-co-PO) also suppresses the formation of the solid-electrolyte interphase layer. When assembling the GPE in a Li/LiFePO4 battery, the P(EO-co-PO) network hinders anionic transport, producing a high Li+ transference number of 0.5 and decreased the polarization overpotential. The Li/GPE/LiFePO4 battery delivers a discharge capacity of 156-135 mAh g(-1) between 0.1 and 1 C-rates, which is approximately 5% higher than that of the Li/LE/LiFePO4 battery. The IR drop of the Li/GPE/LiFePO4 battery was 44% smaller than that of the Li/LE/LiFePO4. The Li/GPE/LiFePO4 battery is more stable, with only a 1.2% capacity decay for 150 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The advantages of the proposed GPE are its high stability, conductivity, Li+ transference number, and mechanical integrity, which allow for the assembly of GPE-based batteries readily scalable to industrial levels.

  7. Viscoelastic Properties, Ionic Conductivity, and Materials Design Considerations for Poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene)-Based Ion Gel Electrolytes

    SciT

    Zhang, Sipei; Lee, Keun Hyung; Sun, Jingru

    2013-03-07

    The viscoelastic properties and ionic conductivity of ion gels based on the self-assembly of a poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene) (SOS) triblock copolymer (M{sub n,S} = 3 kDa, M{sub n,O} = 35 kDa) in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([EMI][TFSA]) were investigated over the composition range of 10-50 wt % SOS and the temperature range of 25-160 C. The poly(styrene) (PS) end-blocks associate into micelles, whereas the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) midblocks are well-solvated by this ionic liquid. The ion gel with 10 wt % SOS melts at 54 C, with the longest relaxation time exhibiting a similar temperature dependence to that of themore » viscosity of bulk PS. However, the actual values of the gel relaxation time are more than 4 orders of magnitude larger than the relaxation time of bulk PS. This is attributed to the thermodynamic penalty of pulling PS end-blocks through the PEO/[EMI][TFSA] matrix. Ion gels with 20-50 wt % SOS do not melt and show two plateaus in the storage modulus over the temperature and frequency ranges measured. The one at higher frequencies is that of an entangled network of PEO strands with PS cross-links; the modulus displays a quadratic dependence on polymer weight fraction and agrees with the prediction of linear viscoelastic theory assuming half of the PEO chains are elastically effective. The frequency that separates the two plateaus, {omega}{sub c}, reflects the time scale of PS end-block pull-out. The other plateau at lower frequencies is that of a congested micelle solution with PS cores and PEO coronas, which has a power law dependence on domain spacing similar to diblock melts. The ionic conductivity of the ion gels is compared to PEO homopolymer solutions at similar polymer concentrations; the conductivity is reduced by a factor of 2.1 or less, decreases with increasing PS volume fraction, and follows predictions based on a simple obstruction model. Our collective results allow the

  8. Insights into Metal Oxide and Zero-Valent Metal Nanocrystal Formation on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Surfaces during Sol-Gel Process.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipesh; Sabaraya, Indu V; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Saleh, Navid B

    2018-06-05

    Carbon nanotubes are hybridized with metal crystals to impart multifunctionality into the nanohybrids (NHs). Simple but effective synthesis techniques are desired to form both zero-valent and oxides of different metal species on carbon nanotube surfaces. Sol-gel technique brings in significant advantages and is a viable technique for such synthesis. This study probes the efficacy of sol-gel process and aims to identify underlying mechanisms of crystal formation. Standard electron potential (SEP) is used as a guiding parameter to choose the metal species; i.e., highly negative SEP (e.g., Zn) with oxide crystal tendency, highly positive SEP (e.g., Ag) with zero-valent crystal-tendency, and intermediate range SEP (e.g., Cu) to probe the oxidation tendency in crystal formation are chosen. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to evaluate the synthesized NHs. Results indicate that SEP can be a reliable guide for the resulting crystalline phase of a certain metal species, particularly when the magnitude of this parameter is relatively high. However, for intermediate range SEP-metals, mix phase crystals can be expected. For example, Cu will form Cu₂O and zero-valent Cu crystals, unless the synthesis is performed in a reducing environment.

  9. Comparative analysis of nitrifying bacteria in full-scale oxidation ditch and aerated nitrification biofilter by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

    PubMed

    Mertoglu, Bulent; Calli, Baris; Girgin, Emine; Inanc, Bulent; Ozturk, Izzet

    2005-01-01

    In this study, nitrification performances and composition of nitrifying populations in a full-scale oxidation ditch and a high-rate submerged media nitrification biofilter were comparatively analyzed. In addition to different reactor configurations, effects of differing operational conditions on the nitrification efficiency and bacterial diversity were also explored and evaluated thoroughly. In microbial analysis of sludge samples fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques were used complementary to each other. The extended aeration oxidation ditch subjected to the study is operated as a nitrogen and phosphorus removal system consisting of anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic zones. The high-rate submerged media aerated filter is operated as nitrification step following the conventional activated sludge unit and the nitrified wastewater is discharged to the sea without complete nitrogen removal. In situ hybridization results have indicated that Nitrosomonas-like ammonia oxidizing and Nitrospira-related nitrite oxidizing bacteria were intensively present in vigorous flocs in nitrification biofilter while carbonaceous bacteria belong to beta subclass of Proteobacteria were considerably dominant in oxidation ditch. Low quantities of nitrifiers in oxidation ditch were also confirmed by the dissimilarity in intensive bands between two systems obtained with DGGE analysis.

  10. Tissue deposition and toxicological effects of commercially significant rare earth oxide nanomaterials: Material and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Das, Soumen; Reed McDonagh, Philip; Selvan Sakthivel, Tamil; Barkam, Swetha; Killion, Kelsey; Ortiz, Julian; Saraf, Shashank; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Ankur; Zweit, Jamal; Seal, Sudipta

    2017-03-01

    Rare earth oxide (REO) materials are found naturally in earth's crust and at the nanoscale these REO nanoparticles exhibit unique thermal, electrical, and physicochemical properties. REO nanoparticles are widely used in different industrial sectors for ceramics, glass polishing, metallurgy, lasers, and magnets. Recently, some of these REO nanoparticles have been identified for their potential application in medicine, including therapy, imaging, and diagnostics. Concurrent research into the REO nanomaterials' toxicities has also raised concern for their environmental impacts. The correlation of REO nanoparticles mediated toxicity with their physiochemical properties can help to design nanoparticles with minimal effect on the environment and living organisms. In vitro assay revealed toxicity toward Human squamous epithelial cell line (CCL30) and Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) at a concentration of 100 µM and higher. In vivo results showed, with the exception of CeO 2 and Gd 2 O 3 , most of the naoparticles did not clear or had minimum clearance (10-20%) from the system. Elevated levels of alanine transferase were seen for animals given each different nanoparticle, however the increases were not significant for CeO 2 and Dy 2 O 3 . Nephrotoxicity was only seen in case of Dy 2 O 3 and Gd 2 O 3 . Lastly, histological examination revealed presence of swollen hepatocytes which further confirms toxicity of the commercial REO nanomaterials. The in vivo toxicity is mainly due to excessive tissue deposition (70-90%) due to the commercial REO nanoparticles' poor physical properties (shape, stability, and extent of agglomeration). Therefore, optimization of nanoparticles physical properties is very important. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 904-917, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ionic liquids in a poly ethylene oxide cross-linked gel polymer as an electrolyte for electrical double layer capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudoy, V.; Tran Van, F.; Deschamps, M.; Ghamouss, F.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we developed a gel polymer electrolyte via the incorporation of a room temperature ionic liquid into a cross-linked polymer matrix. The cross-linked gel electrolyte was prepared using a free radical polymerization of methacrylate and dimethacrylate oligomers dissolved in 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide. Combining the advantages of the ionic liquids and of conventional polymers, the cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte was used both as a separator and as an electrolyte for a leakage-free and non-flammable EDLC supercapacitor. The quasi-all solid-state supercapacitors showed rather good capacitance, power and energy densities by comparison to a liquid electrolyte-based EDLC.

  12. Magnetic interactions in new fluorite-related rare earth oxides LnLn’{sub 2}RuO{sub 7} (Ln, Ln’=rare earths)

    SciT

    Hinatsu, Yukio, E-mail: hinatsu@sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-15

    New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} and La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} have been prepared. They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space group Cmcm. Through magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 27 K, which is considerably lowered compared with that for Pr{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}. Analysis of the magnetic specific heat indicates that the magnetic behavior observed at 27 K for Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} is predominantly due to the magnetic interactions between Ru ions, and that the interactions between the Pr{sup 3+} and Ru{sup 5+} ions are alsomore » important. La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} shows magnetic ordering at 9.0 K, which is ascribed to the magnetic ordering between Ru{sup 5+} ions from the analysis of the magnetic specific heat data. - Graphical abstract: New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} and La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} have been prepared. Through magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} and La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} show an antiferromagnetic transition at 27 and 9.0 K, respectively. Display Omitted - Highlights: • New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnLn’{sub 2}RuO{sub 7} have been prepared. • Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 27 K. • La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} shows magnetic ordering at 9.0 K. • Their magnetic exchange mechanism has been elucidated by the magnetic entropy change.« less

  13. [Mechanical property of tooth-like yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal by adding rare earth oxide].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Fuqiang; Gao, Jianhua

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of mechanical property of tooth-like yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) by adding rare earth oxide as colorants. Six kinds of tooth-like Y-TZP were made by introducing internal coloration technology. The colorants included rare earth oxide (Pr6O11, CeO2, Er2O3) and transition element oxide (MnO2). Mechanical properties (flexural strength, vickers hardness and fracture toughness) were tested. Microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscope(SEM), and the fracture model was analyzed. The range of flexural strength of the six kinds of tooth-like Y-TZP were (792 +/- 20)-(960 +/- 17) MPa, the fracture toughness were (4.72 +/- 0.31)-(5.64 +/- 0.38) MPam(1/2), and the vickers hardness were (1332 +/- 19)-(1380 +/- 17) MPa. SEM observation on the cross section of the six kinds of sintered composites showed a relatively dense polycrystal structure, and the fracture models was mixed type. Tooth-like Y-TZP is acquired with better mechanical properties (fracture toughness and vickers hardness) by adding rare earth oxide as colorants. It is available for clinical application.

  14. Extraction of rare earth oxides using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with Tri- n-butyl phosphate–nitric acid adducts

    DOE PAGES

    Baek, Donna L.; Fox, Robert V.; Case, Mary E.; ...

    2016-06-14

    A new tri- n-butylphosphate–nitric acid (TBP–HNO 3) adduct was prepared by combining TBP and fuming (90%) HNO 3. The adduct was characterized, and its phase-equilibrium behavior in supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO 2) was modified with this new adduct [TBP(HNO 3) 5.2(H 2O) 1.7], and the extraction efficacies of selected rare earth oxides (Y, Ce, Eu, Tb, and Dy) at 338 K and 34.5 MPa were compared with those obtained using an adduct formed from concentrated (70%) HNO 3 and TBP [TBP(HNO 3) 1.7(H 2O) 0.6]. All rare earth oxides tested with both adduct species couldmore » be extracted with the exception of cerium oxide. Furthermore, the water and acid concentrations in the different adducts were found to play a significant role in rare earth oxide extraction efficiency.« less

  15. Extraction of rare earth oxides using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with Tri- n-butyl phosphate–nitric acid adducts

    SciT

    Baek, Donna L.; Fox, Robert V.; Case, Mary E.

    A new tri- n-butylphosphate–nitric acid (TBP–HNO 3) adduct was prepared by combining TBP and fuming (90%) HNO 3. The adduct was characterized, and its phase-equilibrium behavior in supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO 2) was modified with this new adduct [TBP(HNO 3) 5.2(H 2O) 1.7], and the extraction efficacies of selected rare earth oxides (Y, Ce, Eu, Tb, and Dy) at 338 K and 34.5 MPa were compared with those obtained using an adduct formed from concentrated (70%) HNO 3 and TBP [TBP(HNO 3) 1.7(H 2O) 0.6]. All rare earth oxides tested with both adduct species couldmore » be extracted with the exception of cerium oxide. Furthermore, the water and acid concentrations in the different adducts were found to play a significant role in rare earth oxide extraction efficiency.« less

  16. Structure-property-composition relationships in doped zinc oxides: enhanced photocatalytic activity with rare earth dopants.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Josephine B M; Illsley, Derek; Lines, Robert; Makwana, Neel M; Darr, Jawwad A

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) technology to rapidly produce a library of 56 crystalline (doped) zinc oxide nanopowders and two undoped samples, each with different particle properties. Each sample was produced in series from the mixing of an aqueous stream of basic zinc nitrate (and dopant ion or modifier) solution with a flow of superheated water (at 450 °C and 24.1 MPa), whereupon a crystalline nanoparticle slurry was rapidly formed. Each composition was collected in series, cleaned, freeze-dried, and then characterized using analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Photocatalytic activity of the samples toward the decolorization of methylene blue dye was assessed, and the results revealed that transition metal dopants tended to reduce the photoactivity while rare earth ions, in general, increased the photocatalytic activity. In general, low dopant concentrations were more beneficial to having greater photodecolorization in all cases.

  17. Robust Hydrophobic Surfaces from Suspension HVOF Thermal Sprayed Rare-Earth Oxide Ceramics Coatings.

    PubMed

    Bai, M; Kazi, H; Zhang, X; Liu, J; Hussain, T

    2018-05-03

    This study has presented an efficient coating method, namely suspension high velocity oxy-fuel (SHVOF) thermal spraying, to produce large super-hydrophobic ceramic surfaces with a unique micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structures to mimic natural super-hydrophobic surfaces. CeO 2 was selected as coatings material, one of a group of rare-earth oxide (REO) ceramics that have recently been found to exhibit intrinsic hydrophobicity, even after exposure to high temperatures and abrasive wear. Robust hydrophobic REO ceramic surfaces were obtained from the deposition of thin CeO 2 coatings (3-5 μm) using an aqueous suspension with a solid concentration of 30 wt.% sub-micron CeO 2 particles (50-200 nm) on a selection of metallic substrates. It was found that the coatings' hydrophobicity, microstructure, surface morphology, and deposition efficiency were all determined by the metallic substrates underneath. More importantly, it was demonstrated that the near super-hydrophobicity of SHVOF sprayed CeO 2 coatings was achieved not only by the intrinsic hydrophobicity of REO but also their unique hierarchically structure. In addition, the coatings' surface hydrophobicity was sensitive to the O/Ce ratio, which could explain the 'delayed' hydrophobicity of REO coatings.

  18. Mixed alkali effect on the spectroscopic properties of alkali-alkaline earth oxide borate glasses

    SciT

    Srinivas, G., E-mail: srinu123g@gmail.com; Ramesh, B.; Shareefuddin, Md.

    2016-05-06

    The mixed alkali and alkaline earth oxide borate glass with the composition xK{sub 2}O - (25-x) Li{sub 2}O-12.5BaO-12.5MgO-50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25mol %) and doped with 1mol% CuO were prepared by the melt quenching technique. From the optical absorption spectra the optical band gap, electronic polarizability(α{sub 0}2-), interaction parameter (A), theoretical and experimental optical basicity (Λ) values were evaluated. From the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectral data the number of spins (N) and susceptibility (χ) were evaluated. The values of (α{sub 0}2-), and (Λ) increases with increasing of K{sub 2}O content and electronicmore » polarizability and interaction parameter show opposite behaviuor which may be due to the creation of non-bridging oxygens and expansion of borate network. The reciprocal of susceptibility (1/χ) and spin concentration (N) as a function of K{sub 2}O content, varied nonlinearly which may be due to creation of non-bridging oxygens in the present glass system. This may be attributed to mixed alkali effect (MAE).« less

  19. Effects of rare earth oxide additive on surface and tribological properties of polyimide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zihe; Wang, Tianchang; Chen, Li; Idziak, Stefan; Huang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Boxin

    2017-09-01

    Rare earth oxide La2O3 microparticles-reinforced polyimide (PI) composites (La-PI-Cs) were fabricated, aiming to improve the tribological property of PI. Surface roughness, surface composition, bulk structure, friction force (Ff) and coefficient of friction (COF) at macro/micro preload, and anti-wear performances of La-PI-Cs were studied and compared with neat PI. With La2O3 microparticles, La-PI-Cs showed larger surface roughness, lower surface energy, and higher hydrophobicity than neat PI, and displayed beneficial layered structure different from the compact structure of PI. Owing to these advantages, La-PI-Cs were found to show a 70% reduction in Ff and COF, and a 30% reduction in wear rate, indicating significantly lowered friction and enhanced anti-wear properties after adding La2O3 microparticles. Our research findings demonstrated an easy and low cost method to fabricate polymer composites with low friction and high wear resistance, and help meet the demanding of polymer composites with high tribological performances in broaden applications.

  20. Emulsifying Properties of Oxidatively Stressed Myofibrillar Protein Emulsion Gels Prepared with (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and NaCl.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xianchao; Chen, Lin; Lei, Na; Wang, Shuangxi; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Zhixi

    2017-04-05

    The dose-dependent effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG; 0, 100, or 1000 ppm) on the textural properties and stability of a myofibrillar protein (MP) emulsion gel were investigated. Addition of EGCG significantly inhibited formation of carbonyl but promoted the loss of both thiol and free amine groups. Addition of EGCG, particularly at 1000 ppm, initiated irreversible protein modifications, as evidenced by surface hydrophobicity changes, patterns in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and differential scanning calorimetry. These results indicated that MP was modified by additive reactions between the quinone of EGCG and thiols and free amines of proteins. These adducts increased cooking loss and destabilized the texture, especially with a large EGCG dose. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images clearly indicated the damage to the emulsifying properties and the collapse of the internal structure when the MP emulsion gel was treated with a large EGCG dose. A high concentration of NaCl (0.6 M) improved modification of MP and increased the rate of deterioration of the internal structure, especially with the large EGCG dose (1000 ppm), resulting in an MP emulsion gel with extremely unstable emulsifying properties.

  1. Fe-oxide mineralogy of the Jiujiang red earth sediments and implications for Quaternary climate change, southern China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Hong, Hanlie; Algeo, Thomas J; Churchman, Gordon Jock; Li, Zhaohui; Zhu, Zongmin; Fang, Qian; Zhao, Lulu; Wang, Chaowen; Ji, Kaipeng; Lei, Weidong; Duan, Zhenggang

    2018-02-26

    Diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry (DRS) is a new, fast, and reliable method to characterize Fe-oxides in soils. The Fe-oxide mineralogy of the Jiujiang red earth sediments was investigated using DRS to investigate the climate evolution of southern China since the mid-Pleistocene. The DRS results show that hematite/(hematite + goethite) ratios [Hm/(Hm + Gt)] exhibit an upward decreasing trend within the Jiujiang section, suggesting a gradual climate change from warm and humid in the middle Pleistocene to cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene. Upsection trends toward higher (orthoclase + plagioclase)/quartz ratios [(Or + Pl)/Q] and magnetic susceptibility values (χ lf ) support this inference, which accords with global climate trends at that time. However, higher-frequency climatic subcycles observed in loess sections of northern China are not evident in the Jiujiang records, indicating a relatively lower climate sensitivity of the red earth sediments in southern China.

  2. Fish proteins as targets of ferrous-catalyzed oxidation: identification of protein carbonyls by fluorescent labeling on two-dimensional gels and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Manuel; da Rocha, Angela Pereira; Roepstorff, Peter; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2011-07-27

    Protein oxidation in fish meat is considered to affect negatively the muscle texture. An important source of free radicals taking part in this process is Fenton's reaction dependent on ferrous ions present in the tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of cod muscle proteins in sarcoplasmic and myofibril fractions to in vitro metal-catalyzed oxidation and to point out protein candidates that might play a major role in the deterioration of fish quality. Extracted control proteins and proteins subjected to free radicals generated by Fe(II)/ascorbate mixture were labeled with fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide (FTSC) to tag carbonyl groups and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Consecutive visualization of protein carbonyl levels by capturing the FTSC signal and total protein levels by capturing the SyproRuby staining signal allowed us to quantify the relative change in protein carbonyl levels corrected for changes in protein content. Proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and homology-based searches. The results show that freshly extracted cod muscle proteins exhibit a detectable carbonylation background and that the incubation with Fe(II)/ascorbate triggers a further oxidation of both sarcoplasmic and myofibril proteins. Different proteins exhibited various degrees of sensitivity to oxidation processes. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDK), triosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate mutase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and enolase were the sarcoplasmic proteins most vulnerable to ferrous-catalyzed oxidation. Moreover, NDK, phosphoglycerate mutase, and GAPDH were identified in several spots differing by their pI, and those forms showed different susceptibilities to metal-catalyzed oxidation, indicating that post-translational modifications may change the resistance of proteins to oxidative damage. The Fe(II)/ascorbate treatment significantly

  3. Characterization of Novel Gel Casting System to Make Complex Shaped Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) Parts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    investigated including systems based on starch , gelatin, protein, and agarose. Generally, all systems are too expensive for high-volume casting.13 While gel...was determined by measuring the resistance force in uniaxial compression. Therefore, the specimen was considered gelled when the resistance force was...used to lower the indenter tip at a rate of 30 mm/min by a distance of 6 mm while measuring the maximum resistance force during the indentation. At the

  4. Production of monodisperse cerium oxide microspheres with diameters near 100 µm by internal-gelation sol–gel methods

    SciT

    Katalenich, Jeffrey A.; Kitchen, Brian B.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    Cerium dioxide microspheres with uniform diameters between 65 – 211 µm were fabricated using internal gelation sol-gel methods. Although uniform microspheres are produced for nuclear fuel applications with diameters above 300 µm, sol-gel microspheres with diameters of 50 - 200 µm have historically been made by emulsion techniques and had poor size uniformity [1, 2]. An internal gelation, sol-gel apparatus was designed and constructed to accommodate the production of small, uniform microspheres whereby cerium-containing solutions were dispersed into flowing silicone oil and heated in a gelation column to initiate solidification [3, 4]. Problems with premature feed gelation and microsphere coalescencemore » were overcome by equipment modifications unique among known internal gelation setups. Microspheres were fabricated and sized in batches as a function of dispersing needle diameter and silicone oil flow rate in the two-fluid nozzle in order to determine the range of sizes possible and corresponding degree of monodispersity. Initial experiments with poor size uniformity were linked to microsphere coalescence in the gelation column prior to solidification as well as excessive flow rates for the cerium feed solution. Average diameter standard deviations as low as 2.23% were observed after optimization of flow rates and minimization of coalescence reactions.« less

  5. Production of Monodisperse Cerium Oxide Microspheres with Diameters near 100 µm by Internal-Gelation Sol-Gel Methods

    SciT

    Katalenich, Jeffrey A.; Kitchen, Brian B.; Pierson, Bruce

    Cerium dioxide microspheres with uniform diameters between 65 – 211 µm were fabricated using internal gelation sol-gel methods. Although uniform microspheres are produced for nuclear fuel applications with diameters above 300 µm, sol-gel microspheres with diameters of 50 - 200 µm have historically been made by emulsion techniques and had poor size uniformity [1, 2]. An internal gelation, sol-gel apparatus was designed and constructed to accommodate the production of small, uniform microspheres whereby cerium-containing solutions were dispersed into flowing silicone oil and heated in a gelation column to initiate solidification [3, 4]. Problems with premature feed gelation and microsphere coalescencemore » were overcome by equipment modifications unique among known internal gelation setups. Microspheres were fabricated and sized in batches as a function of dispersing needle diameter and silicone oil flow rate in the two-fluid nozzle in order to determine the range of sizes possible and corresponding degree of monodispersity. Initial experiments with poor size uniformity were linked to microsphere coalescence in the gelation column prior to solidification as well as excessive flow rates for the cerium feed solution. Average diameter standard deviations as low as 2.23% were observed after optimization of flow rates and minimization of coalescence reactions.« less

  6. Evaluation of imazethapyr-induced DNA oxidative damage by alkaline Endo III- and Fpg-modified single-cell gel electrophoresis assay in Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Ruiz de Arcaute, Celeste; Natale, Guillermo S; Soloneski, S; Larramendy, Marcelo L

    2017-08-01

    Imazethapyr (IMZT) is a selective postemergent herbicide with residual action. Available data analyzing its effects in aquatic vertebrates are scarce. In previous studies, we demonstrated that IMZT induces lesions into the DNA of Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay as a biomarker for genotoxicity. Currently, this assay can be modified by including incubation with lesion-specific endonucleases, e.g., endonuclease III (Endo III) and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which detect oxidized pyrimidine and purine bases, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the genotoxic damage in circulating blood cells of H. pulchellus tadpoles exposed to the IMZT-based Pivot H ® formulation (10.59% IMZT) at a concentration equivalent to 25% of the LC 50 (96h) value (0.39mg/L IMZT) during 48 and 96h. Our results demonstrate that the herbicide induces oxidative DNA damage on H. pulchellus tadpoles at purines bases but not at pyrimidines. Our findings represent the first evidence of oxidative damage caused by IMZT on anuran DNA using the alkaline restriction enzyme-modified SCGE assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-Temperature Oxidation Reactions and Cool Flames at Earth and Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Non-isothermal studies of cool flames and low temperature oxidation reactions in unstirred closed vessels are complicated by the perturbing effects of natural convection at earth gravity. Buoyant convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus specie concentration fields due to the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the reaction rates. Such complexities have never been quantitatively modeled and were the primary impetus for the development of CSTR's (continuously stirred tank reactors) 30 years ago. While CSTR's have been widely adopted since they offer the advantage of spatial uniformity in temperature and concentration, all gradients are necessarily destroyed along with any structure that may otherwise develop. Microgravity offers a unique environment where buoyant convection can be effectively minimized and the need for stirring eliminated. Moreover, eliminating buoyancy and the need for stirring eliminates complications associated with the induced hydrodynamic field whose influence on heat transport and hot spot formation, hence explosion limits, is not fully realized. The objective of this research is to quantitatively determine and understand the fundamental mechanisms that control the onset and evolution of low temperature reactions and cool flames in both static and flow reactors. Microgravity experiments will be conducted to obtain benchmark data on the structure (spatio-temporal temperature, concentration, flow fields), the dynamics of the chemical fronts, and the ignition diagrams (pressure vs. temperature). Ground-based experiments will be conducted to ascertain the role of buoyancy. Numerical simulations including detailed kinetics will be conducted and compared to experiment.

  8. High inflammogenic potential of rare earth oxide nanoparticles: the New Hazardous Entity.

    PubMed

    Han, Youngju; Lee, Dong-Keon; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Seonghan; Jeon, Soyeon; Cho, Wan-Seob

    2018-05-30

    Due to the exponential increase in the development and utilization of rare earth oxide nanoparticles (REO NPs) in various fields, the possibility of exposure in humans by inhalation has increased. However, there are little information about hazards of REO NPs and its mechanisms of toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the acute pulmonary inflammation using 10 REO NPs (Dy 2 O 3 , Er 2 O 3 , Eu 2 O 3 , Gd 2 O 3 La 2 O 3 , Nd 2 O 3 , Pr 6 O 11 , Sm 2 O 3 , Tb 4 O 7 , and Y 2 O 3 ) and four well-known toxic particles (CuO, NiO, ZnO, and DQ12). Minimum three doses per NP were instilled into the lungs of female Wistar rats at surface area dose metric and lung inflammation was evaluated at 24 h post-instillation by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis and histopathological observation. All types of REO NPs showed common pathological changes including mild to moderate infiltration of neutrophils and activated macrophages in the alveoli, peribronchial, and perivascular region. The inflammogenic potential evaluated by the number of granulocytes divided by the treated surface area dose showed all types of REO NPs has much higher inflammogenic potential than DQ12, ZnO, and NiO NPs. The correlation plot between the number of granulocytes and the potential for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation showed a good correlation with exception of Pr 6 O 11 . The higher inflammogenic potential of REO NPs than that of well-known highly toxic particles imply that REO NPs need special attention for inhalation exposure and more studies are needed. In addition, the potential of ROS generation is one of the key factors producing lung inflammation by REO NPs.

  9. Sol-gel processed thin-layer ruthenium oxide/carbon black supercapacitors: A revelation of the energy storage issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panić, V. V.; Dekanski, A. B.; Stevanović, R. M.

    Hydrous ruthenium oxide/carbon black nanocomposites were prepared by impregnation of the carbon blacks by differently aged inorganic RuO 2 sols, i.e. of different particle size. Commercial Black Pearls 2000 ® (BP) and Vulcan ® XC-72 R (XC) carbon blacks were used. Capacitive properties of BP/RuO 2 and XC/RuO 2 composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in H 2SO 4 solution. Capacitance values and capacitance distribution through the composite porous layer were found different if high- (BP) and low- (XC) surface-area carbons are used as supports. The aging time (particle size) of Ru oxide sol as well as the concentration of the oxide solid phase in the impregnating medium influenced the capacitive performance of prepared composites. While the capacitance of BP-supported oxide decreases with the aging time, the capacitive ability of XC-supported oxide is promoted with increasing oxide particle size. The increase in concentration of the oxide solid phase in the impregnating medium caused an improvement of charging/discharging characteristics due to pronounced pseudocapacitance contribution of the increasing amount of inserted oxide. The effects of these variables in the impregnation process on the energy storage capabilities of prepared nanocomposites are envisaged as a result of intrinsic way of population of the pores of carbon material by hydrous Ru oxide particle.

  10. Oxidation state of the Earth's upper mantle during the last 3800 million years: Implications for the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    A popular, as well as scientifically rigorous, scenario for the origin of life on Earth involves the production of organic molecules by interaction of lightning (or other forms of energy) with a chemically reducing atmosphere in the early history of Earth. Experiments since the 1950's have convincingly demonstrated that the yield of organic molecules is high when the atmosphere contains molecular hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water vapor. Additional work has also shown that such a highly reducing atmosphere might not, however, have been sufficiently long-lived in the presence of intense solar ultraviolet radiation for life to have formed from it. One way of maintaining such an atmosphere would be to have a continual replenishment of the reduced gases by prolonged volcanic outgassing from a reducing of Earth's interior. The length of time that this replenishment might need to continue is in part constrained by the flux of asteroids onto the Earth's surface containing sufficient energy to destroy most, if not all, life that had developed up to that point in time. If a reducing atmosphere is a key ingredient for the origin of life on Earth, the time of the last environmental sterilization due to large impacts would be an important constraint. In a deep marine setting (e.g., hydrothermal vent), the last global sterilization might have occurred at 4200-4000 Ma. On the Earth's surface, the last global sterilization event might have occurred at 4000-3700 Ma. If these are meaningful constraints, how likely is it that a reducing atmosphere could have survived on the Earth until about 3800 Ma ago? Due to the importance of replenishing this atmosphere with reducing components by volcanic outgassing from the mantle, geochemical information on the history of the mantle's oxidation state would be useful for addressing this question. Geochemical and experimental data discussed in this abstract suggest that extrusive mafic volcanics derived from the upper mantle have had

  11. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    SciT

    Abdullah, M. A. R., E-mail: ameerridhwan89@gmail.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com; Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com

    2016-07-06

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  12. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; ...

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn 2O 3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn 2O 3 andmore » BaSn 2O 3, which can be stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO 3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn 2O 3) to 3.15 (SrSn 2O 3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn 2O 3) to above 6.0 (SrSn 2O 3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.« less

  13. Effect of the introduction of oxide ion vacancies into cubic fluorite-type rare earth oxides on the NO decomposition catalysis

    SciT

    Masui, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Ryosuke; Imanaka, Nobuhito, E-mail: imanaka@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2014-12-15

    Cubic fluorite-type solid solutions based on Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} and CeO{sub 2} were synthesized and oxide anion vacancies were intentionally introduced into the cubic fluorite-type lattice through the charge compensating mechanism by Mg{sup 2+} and/or Ca{sup 2+} doping into their lattices. The oxide anion vacancies bring about positive effect on NO decomposition catalysis. The reason for the increase in the catalytic activity was attributed to defect fluorite-type structures close to the C-type cubic one, because C-type cubic rare earth oxides, in which one-quarter of the oxygen atoms in the fluorite-type structure are removed, show high NO decomposition activity. In particular,more » the positive effect of the formation of oxide anion vacancies was significant for Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} and its solid solutions, because the molar volume of Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} is larger than that of CeO{sub 2}, and Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} contains Pr{sup 3+} as well as Pr{sup 4+} and thereby a small amount of oxide anion vacancies exist inherently in the lattice. - Graphical abstract: Oxide anion vacancies intentionally introduced into the cubic fluorite-type lattice bring about positive effect on NO decomposition catalysis. - Highlights: • Cubic fluorite-type solid solutions were synthesized. • Oxide anion vacancies were intentionally introduced into the cubic fluorite-type lattice. • The oxide anion vacancies bring about positive effect on NO decomposition catalysis. • The activity was enhanced by making the structure close to the C-type cubic one.« less

  14. Direct imprinting of indium-tin-oxide precursor gel and simultaneous formation of channel and source/drain in thin-film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Ken-ichi; Kamiya, Yuusuke; Tokumitsu, Eisuke

    2018-02-01

    We report on a new fabrication process for thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a new structure and a new operation principle. In this process, both the channel and electrode (source/drain) are formed simultaneously, using the same oxide material, using a single nano-rheology printing (n-RP) process, without any conventional lithography process. N-RP is a direct thermal imprint technique and deforms oxide precursor gel. To reduce the source/drain resistance, the material common to the channel and electrode is conductive indium-tin-oxide (ITO). The gate insulator is made of a ferroelectric material, whose high charge density can deplete the channel of the thin ITO film, which realizes the proposed operation principle. First, we have examined the n-RP conditions required for the channel and source/drain patterning, and found that the patterning properties are strongly affected by the cooling rate before separating the mold. Second, we have fabricated the TFTs as proposed and confirmed their TFT operation.

  15. Microstructure and transport properties of sol-gel derived highly (100)-oriented lanthanum nickel oxide thin films on SiO 2 /Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M. W.; Wang, Z. J.; Chen, Y. N.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2011-12-01

    In the present work, lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method and different thermal treatments were adopted by adjusting the preheating treatment. The microstructure, crystal orientation, chemical composition and electrical properties of LNO films were analyzed to elucidate the relationship between the microstructure and the transport properties of the films. The results show that equiaxed grains predominate the microstructure of the films with pyrolysis step. Without the pyrolysis step, columnar grains are formed in the films, accompanied with an improvement in crystallinity and strengthening of the (100)-orientation. Furthermore, the metal-insulator transition temperature decreases for the films without the pyrolysis step. The effect of film microstructure on its electrical properties was discussed in terms of the existence of internal stress and the improved crystallinity.

  16. The role of cobalt doping on magnetic and optical properties of indium oxide nanostructured thin film prepared by sol–gel method

    SciT

    Baqiah, H.; Ibrahim, N.B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.my; Halim, S.A.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Cobalt doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared by a sol–gel method. • The films have a thickness less than 100 nm and grain size less than 10 nm. • The lattice parameters and grain size of films decrease as Co content increase. • The optical band gap of films increases as the grain size decrease. • The films' magnetic behaviour is sensitive to ratio of oxygen defects per Co ions. - Abstract: The effect of Co doping concentration, (x = 0.025–0.2), in In{sub 2−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} thin film was investigated by X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electronmore » microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). All films were prepared by sol–gel technique followed by spin coating process. The XRD and XPS measurements indicate that Co{sup +2} has been successfully substituted in In{sup +3} site. The TEM measurement shows nanostructure morphology of the films. The doping of Co in indium oxide resulted in a decrease in the lattice parameters and grain size while the band gap increased with increasing Co concentration. Further, by comparing VSM and XPS results, the magnetic behaviour of the films were found to be sensitive to Co concentrations, oxygen vacancies and ratio of oxygen defects to Co concentrations. The magnetic behaviour of the prepared films was explained using bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model.« less

  17. Synthesis by sol-gel process, structural and optical properties of nanoparticles of zinc oxide doped vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghoul, J.; Barthou, C.; El Mir, L.

    2012-06-01

    We report the elaboration of vanadium-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by a sol-gel processing technique. In our approach, the water for hydrolysis was slowly released by esterification reaction followed by a supercritical drying in ethyl alcohol. Vanadium doping concentration of 10 at.% has been investigated. After treatment in air at different temperatures, the obtained nanopowder was characterised by various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). Analysis by scanning electron microscopy at high resolution shows that the grain size increases with increasing temperature. Thus, in the case of thermal treatment at 500 °C in air, the powder with an average particle size of 25 nm shows a strong luminescence band in the visible range. The intensity and energy position of the obtained PL band depends on the temperature measurement increase. The mechanism of this emission band is discussed.

  18. Effect of simulated Earth reentry exposure on mechanical properties of several oxide dispersion strengthened and superalloy sheet materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of simulated multiple reentry into the earth's atmosphere on the mechanical properties of several high temperature metallic sheet materials were evaluated. The materials included five tin-gage (nominally 0.025- or 0.037-cm) oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys and two thin-gage (nominally 0.037-cm) superalloys. Multiple reentry conditions were simulated through cyclic Plasma Arc Tunnel (PAT) exposure. PAT exposure generally consisted of 100 cycles of 600 second duration at 1255, 1366, or 1477 K in a Mach 4.6 airstream with an impact pressure of nominally 800 N/m2. PAT exposure generally produced a uniform oxide scale, oxide pits or intergranular oxidation, Kirkendall porosity, and alloy depletion zones except for the aluminum-containing ODS alloys. Only a uniform oxide scale was formed on the aluminum-containing ODS alloys. PAT exposure did not significantly affect the mechanical properties of the thin-gage (nominally 0.025- or 0.037-cm) alloys evaluated. Thus it appears that the microstructural changes produced by Plasma Arc Tunnel exposure has little influence on mechanical properties.

  19. Synthesis of the missing oxide of xenon, XeO2, and its implications for Earth's missing xenon.

    PubMed

    Brock, David S; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2011-04-27

    The missing Xe(IV) oxide, XeO(2), has been synthesized at 0 °C by hydrolysis of XeF(4) in water and 2.00 M H(2)SO(4(aq)). Raman spectroscopy and (16/18)O isotopic enrichment studies indicate that XeO(2) possesses an extended structure in which Xe(IV) is oxygen bridged to four neighboring oxygen atoms to give a local square-planar XeO(4) geometry based on an AX(4)E(2) valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) arrangement. The vibrational spectra of Xe(16)O(2) and Xe(18)O(2) amend prior vibrational assignments of xenon doped SiO(2) and are in accordance with prior speculation that xenon depletion from the Earth's atmosphere may occur by xenon insertion at high temperatures and high pressures into SiO(2) in the Earth's crust.

  20. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2003-12-23

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  1. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF DNA REPAIR BY SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE (SCE) ANALYSIS AND THE ALKALINE SINGLE CELL GEL ASSAY (SCG) IN MAMMALIAN GO-LYMPHOCYTES AFTER IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO ETHYLENE OXIDE (EO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation ofDNA Repair by Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) Analysis and the Alkaline Single Cell Gel Assay (SCG) in Mammalian Go-Lymphocytes after In Vitro Exposure to Ethylene Oxide (EO).

    EO is a large volume chemical used primarily as an intermediate in manufacturing...

  3. Molybdenum isotopes reveal oxidation of Earth's continental crust during the 2.4 Ga Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaney, A. T.; Rudnick, R. L.; Romaniello, S. J.; Johnson, A.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Concentrations of redox sensitive metals in ocean sediments have been used to infer the onset of oxidative weathering at the time of the GOE, however little is known about the complimentary continental reservoir from which these metals were sourced. Gaschnig et al. (2014) demonstrated that glacial diamictites, which are mixtures of weathered regolith and unweathered upper continental crust (UCC), are systematically depleted in Mo following the GOE. This depletion is attributed to the onset of oxidative weathering, which removed soluble oxidized Mo6+ from the UCC. To determine if Mo isotope fractionation supports this hypothesis, we measured Mo isotopes in twenty-four composites of glacial diamictites spanning depositional ages of 2.9 Ga to 300 Ma. The diamictites fall into three age groups: pre-GOE (2.43 - 2.90 Ga), syn-GOE (2.20 - 2.39 Ga), and syn/post-NOE (0.33 - 0.75 Ga). Pre-GOE composites have an average δ98MoNIST of +0.03‰, syn-GOE composites average -0.29‰, and syn/post-NOE composites average -0.45‰; these groups are statistically different at p=0.01. These data imply that the onset of oxidative weathering, which removed Mo from the UCC, also caused isotopic fractionation of Mo. We speculate that this fractionation is due to isotopically light Mo being adsorbed onto Fe-Mn oxides that formed in soils under an oxic atmosphere, leaving heavy Mo to be transported in solution to rivers. Rayleigh fractionation and mixing models support the incorporation of Fe-Mn oxides into soils that were sampled by the diamictites after the GOE. As these phases are not stable under an anoxic atmosphere, the pre-GOE diamictites are isotopically indistinguishable from igneous UCC (0.0 to +0.15‰, Liang et al., 2017; Willbold et al., 2017). The 2.39 Ga Duitschland diamictite is exceptionally light (-0.80‰), suggesting oxidative weathering was extreme in some locations at the onset of the GOE. We conclude that Mo isotopes have been fractionated upon removal from the UCC

  4. Template-free magnesium oxide hollow sphere inclusion in organic-inorganic hybrid films via sol-gel reaction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun-Seok; Takahashi, Masahide; Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2006-06-06

    Magnesium oxide hollow spheres without a template core were conveniently prepared by stabilized bubble formation in a hybrid solution containing a magnesium acetate precursor, thus avoiding the complicated preparation process using a template. The hollow sphere could be aligned along the radial striation by spin coating, and its diameter from a micrometer to submicrometer dimension could be easily modified by the solution composition. It was also possible to control the open or closed hollow sphere by changing the solvent. Thus, the produced magnesium oxide hollow sphere is envisioned to have applications in many areas such as medicine, analysis, optics, and so on.

  5. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide development in microgravity by the sol-gel process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Containerless melting of glasses in space for the preparation of ultrapure homogeneous glass for optical waveguides is discussed. The homogenization of the glass using conventional raw materials is normally achieved on Earth either by the gravity induced convection currents or by the mechanical stirring of the melt. Because of the absence of gravity induced convection currents, the homogenization of glass using convectional raw materials is difficult in the space environment. Multicomponent, homogeneous, noncrystalline oxide gels can be prepared by the sol-gel process and these gels are promising starting materials for melting glasses in the space environment. The sol-gel process is based on the polymerization reaction of alkoxysilane with other metal alkoxy compounds or suitable metal salts. Many of the alkoxysilanes or other metal alkoxides are liquids and thus can be purified by distillation.

  6. Preparation of TiO(2) layers on cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V by thermal and anodic oxidation and by sol-gel coating techniques and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Velten, D; Biehl, V; Aubertin, F; Valeske, B; Possart, W; Breme, J

    2002-01-01

    The excellent biocompatibility of titanium and its alloys used, for example, for medical devices, is associated with the properties of their surface oxide. For a better understanding of the tissue reaction in contact with the oxide layer, knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of this layer is of increasing interest. In this study, titania films were produced on cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V substrates by thermal oxidation, anodic oxidation, and by the sol-gel process. The thickness and structure of the films produced under different conditions were determined by ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. The corrosion properties of these layers were investigated by current density-potential curves under physiological conditions. The oxide layers produced on cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V by thermal oxidation consist of TiO(2) in the rutile structure. For the anodized samples the structure of TiO(2) is a mixture of amorphous phase and anatase. The structure of the coatings produced by the sol-gel process for a constant annealing time depends on the annealing temperature, and with increasing temperature successively amorphous, anatase, and rutile structure is observed. Compared to the uncoated, polished substrate with a natural oxide layer, the corrosion resistance of cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V is increased for the samples with an oxide layer thickness of about 100 nm, independent of the oxidation procedure. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Rare-Earth Oxide Ion (Tm3+, Ho3+, and U3+) Doped Glasses and Fibres for 1.8 to 4 Micrometer Coherent and Broadband Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-24

    oxide ( TeO2 ) , fluorine- containing silicate (SiOF2) and germanate (GeOF2) glass hosts for each dopant by characterising the spectroscopic properties...Earth Oxide Ion (Tm3+, Ho3+, And U3+) Doped Glasses And Fibres For 1.8 To 4 Micrometer Coherent And Broadband Sources 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d...Rare-earth oxide ion (Tm3+, Ho3+, and U3+) doped glasses and fibres for 1.8 to 4 micrometer coherent and broadband sources Report prepared

  8. Easy and General Synthesis of Large-Sized Mesoporous Rare-Earth Oxide Thin Films by 'Micelle Assembly'.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Dai, Pengcheng; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    Large-sized (ca. 40 nm) mesoporous Er2O3 thin films are synthesized by using a triblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) as a pore directing agent. Each block makes different contributions and the molar ratio of PVP/Er(3+) is crucial to guide the resultant mesoporous structure. An easy and general method is proposed and used to prepare a series of mesoporous rare-earth oxide (Sm2O3, Dy2O3, Tb2O3, Ho2O3, Yb2O3, and Lu2O3) thin films with potential uses in electronics and optical devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Investigation of stability, consistency, and oil oxidation of emulsion filled gel prepared by inulin and rice bran oil using ultrasonic radiation.

    PubMed

    Nourbehesht, Newsha; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh

    2018-04-01

    Inulin, rice bran oil and rosemary essential oil were used to produce high quality emulsion filled gel (EFG) using ultrasonic radiation. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of oil content, inulin content and power of ultrasound on the stability and consistency of prepared EFG. The process conditions were optimized by conducting experiments at five different levels. Second order polynomial response surface equations were developed indicating the effect of variables on EFG stability and consistency. The oil content of 18%; inulin content of 44.6%; and power of ultrasound of 256 W were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the best EFG stability and consistency. Microstructure and rheological properties of prepared EFG were investigated. Oil oxidation as a result of using ultrasonic radiation was also investigated. The increase of oxidation products and the decrease of total phenolic compounds as well as radical scavenging activity of antioxidant compounds showed the damaging effect of ultrasound on the oil quality of EFG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High quality nitrogen-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on ITO by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Purohit, L. P.

    2015-11-01

    Highly transparent N-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on ITO coated corning glass substrate by sol-gel method. Ammonium nitrate was used as a dopant source of N with varying the doping concentration 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 at%. The DSC analysis of prepared NZO sols is observed a phase transition at 150 °C. X-ray diffraction pattern showed the preferred (002) peak of ZnO, which was deteriorated with increased N concentrations. The transmittance of NZO thin films was observed to be ~88%. The bandgap of NZO thin films increased from 3.28 to 3.70 eV with increased N concentration from 0 to 3 at%. The maximum carrier concentration 8.36×1017 cm-3 and minimum resistivity 1.64 Ω cm was observed for 3 at% N doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrate. These highly transparent ZnO thin films can be used as a window layer in solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Sol-gel derived Al-Ga co-doped transparent conducting oxide ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Serrao, Felcy Jyothi, E-mail: jyothiserrao@gmail.com; Department of Physics, Karnataka Government Research centre SCEM, Mangalore, 575007; Sandeep, K. M.

    2016-05-23

    Transparent conducting ZnO doped with Al, Ga and co-doped Al and Ga (1:1) (AGZO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by cost effective sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD results showed that all the films are polycrystalline in nature and highly textured along the (002) plane. Enhanced grain size was observed in the case of AGZO thin films. The transmittance of all the films was more than 83% in the visible region of light. The electrical properties such as carrier concentration and mobility values are increased in case of AGZO compared to that of Al and Ga doped ZnOmore » thin films. The minimum resistivity of 2.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm was observed in AGZO thin film. The co-doped AGZO thin films exhibited minimum resistivity and high optical transmittance, indicate that co-doped ZnO thin films could be used in transparent electronics mainly in display applications.« less

  12. One Electron-Initiated Two-Electron Oxidation of Water by Aluminum Porphyrins with Earth's Most Abundant Metal.

    PubMed

    Kuttassery, Fazalurahman; Mathew, Siby; Sagawa, Shogo; Remello, Sebastian Nybin; Thomas, Arun; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Onuki, Satomi; Nabetani, Yu; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Inoue, Haruo

    2017-05-09

    We report herein a new molecular catalyst for efficient water splitting, aluminum porphyrins (tetra-methylpyridiniumylporphyrinatealuminum: AlTMPyP), containing earth's most abundant metal as the central ion. One-electron oxidation of the aluminum porphyrin initiates the two-electron oxidation of water to form hydrogen peroxide as the primary reaction product with the lowest known overpotential (97 mV). The aluminum-peroxo complex was detected by a cold-spray ionization mass-spectrometry in high-resolution MS (HRMS) mode and the structure of the intermediate species was further confirmed using laser Raman spectroscopy, indicating the hydroperoxy complex of AlTMPyP to be the key intermediate in the reaction. The two-electron oxidation of water to form hydrogen peroxide was essentially quantitative, with a Faradaic efficiency of 99 %. The catalytic reaction was found to be highly efficient, with a turnover frequency up to ∼2×10 4  s -1 . A reaction mechanism is proposed involving oxygen-oxygen bond formation by the attack of a hydroxide ion on the oxyl-radical-like axial ligand oxygen atom in the one-electron-oxidized form of AlTMPyP(O - ) 2 , followed by a second electron transfer to the electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hydrogen adsorption on two catalysts for the ortho- to parahydrogen conversion: Cr-doped silica and ferric oxide gel.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Monika; Gillis, Robert Chad; Daemen, Luke; Olds, Daniel P; Page, Katherine; Carlson, Stefan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Hügle, Thomas; Iverson, Erik B; Ramirez-Cuesta, A J; Lee, Yongjoong; Muhrer, Günter

    2016-06-29

    Molecular hydrogen exists in two spin-rotation coupled states: parahydrogen and orthohydrogen. Due to the variation of energy with rotational level, the occupation of ortho- and parahydrogen states is temperature dependent, with parahydrogen being the dominant species at low temperatures. The equilibrium at 20 K (99.8% parahydrogen) can be reached by natural conversion only after a lengthy process. With the use of a suitable catalyst, this process can be shortened significantly. Two types of commercial catalysts currently being used for ortho- to parahydrogen conversion are: iron(iii) oxide (Fe2O3, IONEX®), and chromium(ii) oxide doped silica catalyst (CrO·SiO2, OXISORB®). We investigate the interaction of ortho- and parahydrogen with the surfaces of these ortho-para conversion catalysts using neutron vibrational spectroscopy. The catalytic surfaces have been characterized using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and X-ray/neutron pair distribution function measurements.

  14. Molecular electrocatalysts for oxidation of hydrogen using earth-abundant metals: shoving protons around with proton relays.

    PubMed

    Bullock, R Morris; Helm, Monte L

    2015-07-21

    Sustainable, carbon-neutral energy is needed to supplant the worldwide reliance on fossil fuels in order to address the persistent problem of increasing emissions of CO2. Solar and wind energy are intermittent, highlighting the need to develop energy storage on a huge scale. Electrocatalysts provide a way to convert between electrical energy generated by renewable energy sources and chemical energy in the form of chemical bonds. Oxidation of hydrogen to give two electrons and two protons is carried out in fuel cells, but the typical catalyst is platinum, a precious metal of low earth abundance and high cost. In nature, hydrogenases based on iron or iron/nickel reversibly oxidize hydrogen with remarkable efficiencies and rates. Functional models of these enzymes have been synthesized with the goal of achieving electrocatalytic H2 oxidation using inexpensive, earth-abundant metals along with a key feature identified in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase: an amine base positioned near the metal. The diphosphine ligands P(R)2N(R')2 (1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane with alkyl or aryl groups on the P and N atoms) are used as ligands in Ni, Fe, and Mn complexes. The pendant amines facilitate binding and heterolytic cleavage of H2, placing the hydride on the metal and the proton on the amine. The pendant amines also serve as proton relays, accelerating intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfers. Electrochemical oxidations and deprotonations by an exogeneous amine base lead to catalytic cycles for oxidation of H2 (1 atm) at room temperature for catalysts derived from [Ni(P(Cy)2N(R')2)2](2+), Cp(C6F5)Fe(P(tBu)2N(Bn)2)H, and MnH(P(Ph)2N(Bn)2)(bppm)(CO) [bppm = (PAr(F)2)2CH2]. In the oxidation of H2 catalyzed by [Ni(P(Cy)2N(R')2)2](2+), the initial product observed experimentally is a Ni(0) complex in which two of the pendant amines are protonated. Two different pathways can occur from this intermediate; deprotonation followed by oxidation occurs with a lower overpotential than

  15. Photochemically deposited nano-Ag/sol-gel TiO2-In2O3 mixed oxide mesoporous-assembled nanocrystals for photocatalytic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Sreethawong, Thammanoon; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2014-05-01

    This work focused on the improvement of the photocatalytic activity for Congo Red (CR) azo dye degradation of mesoporous-assembled 0.95 TiO2-0.05 In2O3 mixed oxide photocatalyst (with a TiO2-to-In2O3 molar ratio of 0.95:0.05) by loading with Ag nanoparticles. The mesoporous-assembled 0.95TiO2-0.05In2O3 mixed oxide photocatalyst was synthesized by a hydrolytic sol-gel method with the aid of a structure-directing surfactant, prior to loading with various Ag contents (0.5-2 wt.%) by a photochemical deposition method. The optimum Ag loading content was found to be 1.5 wt.%, exhibiting a great increase in photocatalytic CR dye degradation activity. The 1.5 wt.% Ag-loaded 0.95TiO2-0.05In2O3 mixed oxide photocatalyst was further applied for the CR dye degradation in the presence of water hardness. Different types (Ca2+ and Ca2+ -Mg2+ mixture) and concentrations (200 and 500 mg/l) of water hardness were investigated. The results showed that the water hardness reduced the photocatalytic CR dye degradation activity, particularly for the extremely hard water with 500 mg/l of Ca2+ -Mg2+ mixture. The adjustment of initial solution pH of the CR dye-containing hard water to an appropriate value was found to improve the photocatalytic CR dye degradation activity under the identical reaction conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mesoporous α-Fe2O3 thin films synthesized via the sol-gel process for light-driven water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hamd, Wael; Cobo, Saioa; Fize, Jennifer; Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Schwartz, Wilfrid; Reymermier, Maryse; Pereira, Alexandre; Fontecave, Marc; Artero, Vincent; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Sanchez, Clement

    2012-10-14

    This work reports a facile and cost-effective method for synthesizing photoactive α-Fe(2)O(3) films as well as their performances when used as photoanodes for water oxidation. Transparent α-Fe(2)O(3) mesoporous films were fabricated by template-directed sol-gel chemistry coupled with the dip-coating approach, followed by annealing at various temperatures from 350 °C to 750 °C in air. α-Fe(2)O(3) films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, XPS, FE-SEM and electrochemical measurements. The photoelectrochemical performance of α-Fe(2)O(3) photoanodes was characterized and optimized through the deposition of Co-based co-catalysts via different methods (impregnation, electro-deposition and photo-electro-deposition). Interestingly, the resulting hematite films heat-treated at relatively low temperature (500 °C), and therefore devoid of any extrinsic dopant, achieve light-driven water oxidation under near-to-neutral (pH = 8) aqueous conditions after decoration with a Co catalyst. The onset potential is 0.75 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), thus corresponding to 450 mV light-induced underpotential, although modest photocurrent density values (40 μA cm(-2)) are obtained below 1.23 V vs. RHE. These new materials with a very large interfacial area in contact with the electrolyte and allowing for a high loading of water oxidation catalysts open new avenues for the optimization of photo-electrochemical water splitting.

  17. [The effect of firing times on the chroma of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal by adding rare-earth oxides].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Huang, Hui; Gui, Lin-hua

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the firing times affect the chroma of zirconia by adding rare-earth oxides. Six kinds (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6) of tooth-like yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) were available by introducing internal colorating technology, the color were gauged with ShadeEye NCC chromatometry instrument, and one-way ANOVA was used to analysis the color of each kind of tooth-like zirconia after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 times firing individually. After 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 times firing respectively, the chromatic aberration ranged between 0.10-1.47 merely. The luminosity of three kinds (S1, S2, S6) of tooth-like zirconia were decreased (P < 0.05), the luminosity of the other three kinds (S3, S4, S5) of tooth-like zirconia were not obviously changed (P > 0.05), as for the hue and chroma, no significant differences were found (P > 0.05). There are no significant influence on the color of tooth-like Y-TZP after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 times firing respectively, the chroma of yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal by adding rare-earth oxides are with high stability.

  18. Intrinsic hydrophilic nature of epitaxial thin-film of rare-earth oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Saurav; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Patra, Abhijeet; Annamalai, Meenakshi; Motapothula, Mallikarjuna Rao; Sarkar, Soumya; Tan, Sherman J R; Zhunan, Jia; Loh, Kian Ping; Venkatesan, T

    2018-02-15

    Herein, we report a systematic study of water contact angle (WCA) of rare-earth oxide thin-films. These ultra-smooth and epitaxial thin-films were grown using pulsed laser deposition and then characterized using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Through both the traditional sessile drop and the novel f-d method, we found that the films were intrinsically hydrophilic (WCA < 10°) just after being removed from the growth chamber, but their WCAs evolved with an exposure to the atmosphere with time to reach their eventual saturation values near 90° (but always stay 'technically' hydrophilic). X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was used to further investigate qualitatively the nature of hydrocarbon contamination on the freshly prepared as well as the environmentally exposed REO thin-film samples as a function of the exposure time after they were removed from the deposition chamber. A clear correlation between the carbon coverage of the surface and the increase in WCA was observed for all of the rare-earth films, indicating the extrinsic nature of the surface wetting properties of these films and having no relation to the electronic configuration of the rare-earth atoms as proposed by Azimi et al.

  19. Homogeneity of gels and gel-derived glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    The significance and implications of gel preparation procedures in controlling the homogeneity of multicomponent oxide gels are discussed. The role of physicochemical factors such as the structure and chemical reactivities of alkoxides, the formation of double-metal alkoxides, and the nature of solvent(s) are critically analyzed in the context of homogeneity of gels during gelation. Three procedures for preparing gels in the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O system are examined in the context of cation distribution. Light scattering results for glasses in the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O system prepared by both the gel technique and the conventional technique are examined.

  20. Thermochemistry of rare earth doped uranium oxides LnxU1-xO2-0.5x+y (Ln = La, Y, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    Lanthanum, yttrium, and neodymium doped uranium dioxide samples in the fluorite structure have been synthesized, characterized in terms of metal ratio and oxygen content, and their enthalpies of formation measured by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. For oxides doped with 10-50 mol % rare earth (Ln) cations, the formation enthalpies from constituent oxides (LnO1.5, UO2 and UO3 in a reaction not involving oxidation or reduction) become increasingly exothermic with increasing rare earth content, while showing no significant dependence on the varying uranium oxidation state. The oxidation enthalpy of LnxU1-xO2-0.5x+y is similar to that of UO2 to UO3 for all three rare earth doped systems. Though this may suggest that the oxidized uranium in these systems is energetically similar to that in the hexavalent state, thermochemical data alone can not constrain whether the uranium is present as U5+, U6+, or a mixture of oxidation states. The formation enthalpies from elements calculated from the calorimetric data are generally consistent with those from free energy measurements.

  1. New stable ternary alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides: Ca / Sr / BaPb 2 O 3 and BaPbO 2

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Singh, David J.

    2017-10-16

    The different but related chemical behaviors of Pb(II) oxides compared to Sn(II) oxides, and the existence of known alkali/alkali-earth metal Sn(II) ternary phases, suggest that there should be additional ternary Pb(II) oxide phases. Here, we report structure searches on the ternary alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides leading to four new phases. These are two ternary Pb(II) oxides, SrPb 2O 3 and BaPb 2O 3, which have larger chemical potential stability ranges compared with the corresponding Sn(II) oxides, and additionally two other ternary Pb(II) oxides, CaPb 2O 3 and BaPbO 2, for which there are no corresponding Sn(II) oxides. Those Pb(II) oxidesmore » are stabilized by Pb-rich conditions. These structures follow the Zintl behavior and consist of basic structural motifs of (PbO 3) 4- anionic units separated and stabilized by the alkaline-earth metal ions. They show wide band gaps ranging from 2.86 to 3.12 eV, and two compounds (CaPb 2O 3 and SrPb 2O 3) show rather light hole effective masses (around 2m 0). The valence band maxima of these compounds have a Pb-6s/O-2p antibonding character, which may lead to p-type defect (or doping) tolerant behavior. This then suggests alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides may be potential p-type transparent conducting oxides.« less

  2. New stable ternary alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides: Ca / Sr / BaPb 2 O 3 and BaPbO 2

    SciT

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Singh, David J.

    The different but related chemical behaviors of Pb(II) oxides compared to Sn(II) oxides, and the existence of known alkali/alkali-earth metal Sn(II) ternary phases, suggest that there should be additional ternary Pb(II) oxide phases. Here, we report structure searches on the ternary alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides leading to four new phases. These are two ternary Pb(II) oxides, SrPb 2O 3 and BaPb 2O 3, which have larger chemical potential stability ranges compared with the corresponding Sn(II) oxides, and additionally two other ternary Pb(II) oxides, CaPb 2O 3 and BaPbO 2, for which there are no corresponding Sn(II) oxides. Those Pb(II) oxidesmore » are stabilized by Pb-rich conditions. These structures follow the Zintl behavior and consist of basic structural motifs of (PbO 3) 4- anionic units separated and stabilized by the alkaline-earth metal ions. They show wide band gaps ranging from 2.86 to 3.12 eV, and two compounds (CaPb 2O 3 and SrPb 2O 3) show rather light hole effective masses (around 2m 0). The valence band maxima of these compounds have a Pb-6s/O-2p antibonding character, which may lead to p-type defect (or doping) tolerant behavior. This then suggests alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides may be potential p-type transparent conducting oxides.« less

  3. Protective effect of rare earth against oxidative stress under ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2009-04-01

    The effects of lanthanum (III) (La(III)) in protecting soybean leaves against oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation were investigated. The increase in contents of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide (O2*-) due to UV-B radiation suggested oxidative stress. The increase in the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the decrease in the index of unsaturated fatty acid (IUFA) indicated oxidative damage on cell membrane induced by UV-B radiation. La(III) partially reversed UV-B-radiation-induced damage of plant growth. The reduction in the contents of H(2)O(2), O2*-, and MDA and increase in the content of IUFA, compared with UV-B treatment, also indicated that La(III) alleviated the oxidative damage induced by UV-B radiation. The increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase and the contents of ascorbate, carotenoids, and flavonoids were observed in soybean leaves with La(III) + UV-B treatment, compared with UV-B treatment. Our data suggested that La(III) could protect soybean plants from UV-B-radiation-induced oxidative stress by reacting with reactive oxygen species directly or by improving the defense system of plants.

  4. A family of rare earth molybdenum bronzes: Oxides consisting of periodic arrays of interacting magnetic units

    DOE PAGES

    Schneemeyer, L. F.; Siegrist, T.; Besara, T.; ...

    2015-04-06

    The family of rare earth molybdenum bronzes, reduced ternary molybdates of composition LnMo 16O 44, was synthesized and a detailed structural study carried out. Bond valence sum (BVS) calculations clearly show that the molybdenum ions in tetrahedral coordination are hexavalent while the electron count in the primitive unit cell is odd. Yet, measurements show that the phases are semiconductors. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of samples containing several different rare earth elements was measured. These measurements verified the presence of a 6.5 K magnetic phase transition not arising from the rare earth constituent, but likely associated with themore » unique isolated ReO 3-type Mo 8O 36 structural subunits in this phase. To better understand the behavior of these materials, electronic structure calculations were performed within density functional theory. Results suggest a magnetic state in which these structural moieties have an internal ferromagnetic arrangement, with small ~1/8 μ B moments on each Mo. We suggest that the Mo 8O 36 units behave like pseudoatoms with spin ½ derived from a single hole distributed over the eight Mo atoms that are strongly hybridized with the O atoms of the subunit. As a result, while the compound is antiferromagnetic, our calculations suggest that a field-stabilized ferromagnetic state, if achievable, will be a narrow band half-metal.« less

  5. X-ray Diffraction Studies of the Structure and Thermochemistry of Alkaline-Earth Oxide-Coated Thermionic Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karikari, E. K.; Bassey, E.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    1998-01-01

    NASA LeRC has a broad, active cathode technology development program in which both experimental and theoretical studies are being employed to further development of thermionic cathodes for use as electron sources in vacuum devices for communications and other space applications. One important type of thermionic cathode under development is the alkaline-earth oxide-coated (BaO, SrO, CaO) cathode. Significant improvements in the emission characteristics of this cathode have been obtained through modification of the chemical composition and morphology of the oxide coating, with the best result thus far coming from the addition of In2O3 and Sc2O3. Whereas the In2O3 produces a finer, more uniform particle structure, the exact chemical state and role of the Sc2O3 in the emission enhancement is unknown. The purpose of this cooperative agreement is to combine the studies of the surface chemistry and electron emission at NASA LeRC of chemically modified oxide coatings with a study of the thermochemistry and crystal structure using X-ray diffraction equipment and expertise at Clark Atlanta University (CAU). The study at CAU is intended to provide the description and understanding of the structure and thermochemistry needed for further improvement and optimization of the modified coatings. A description of the experimental procedure, preliminary X-ray diffraction test results, together with the design of an ultrahigh vacuum chamber necessary for high temperature thermochemistry studies will be presented.

  6. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    SciT

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping, E-mail: dpc31@cam.ac.uk; Neeves, Matthew

    2014-11-10

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO{sub x} thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm{sup 2}, exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively.

  7. Oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linqiang; Gao, Bingying; Deng, Ning; Liu, Lu; Cui, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during the thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2) was investigated. The amounts of Cr(III) oxidized at various temperatures and heating times were determined, and the Cr-containing species in the residues were characterized. During the transformation of chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3 at 300 °C approximately 5% of the Cr(III) was oxidized to form intermediate compounds containing Cr(VI) (i.e., CrO3), but these intermediates were reduced to Cr2O3 when the temperature was above 400 °C. Alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly promoted the oxidation of Cr(III) during the thermal drying process. Two pathways were involved in the influences the alkali and alkaline earth metals had on the formation of Cr(VI). In pathway I, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to act as electron transfer agents and to interfere with the dehydration process, causing more intermediate Cr(VI)-containing compounds (which were identified as being CrO3 and Cr5O12) to be formed. The reduction of intermediate compounds to Cr2O3 was also found to be hindered in pathway I. In pathway II, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to contribute to the oxidation of Cr(III) to form chromates. The results showed that the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly increases the degree to which Cr(III) is oxidized during the thermal drying of chromium-containing sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solvent-Directed Sol-Gel Assembly of 3-Dimensional Graphene-Tented Metal Oxides and Strong Synergistic Disparities in Lithium Storage

    SciT

    Ye, Jianchao; An, Yonghao; Montalvo, Elizabeth

    Graphene/metal oxide (GMO) nanocomposites promise a broad range of utilities for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), pseudocapacitors, catalysts, and sensors. When applied as anodes for LIBs, GMOs often exhibit high capacity, improved rate capability and cycling performance. Numerous studies have attributed these favorable properties to a passive role played by the exceptional electronic and mechanical properties of graphene in enabling metal oxides (MOs) to achieve near-theoretical capacities. In contrast, the effects of MOs on the active lithium storage mechanisms of graphene remain enigmatic. Via a unique two-step solvent-directed sol-gel process, we have synthesized and directly compared the electrochemical performance of severalmore » representative GMOs, namely Fe2O3/graphene, SnO2/graphene, and TiO2/graphene. We observe that MOs can play an equally important role in empowering graphene to achieve large reversible lithium storage capacity. The magnitude of capacity improvement is found to scale roughly with the surface coverage of MOs, and depend sensitively on the type of MOs. We define a synergistic factor based on the capacity contributions. Our quantitative assessments indicate that the synergistic effect is most achievable in conversion-reaction GMOs (Fe2O3/graphene and SnO2/graphene) but not in intercalation-based TiO2/graphene. However, a long cycle stability up to 2000 cycles was observed in TiO2/graphene nanocomposites. We propose a surface coverage model to qualitatively rationalize the beneficial roles of MOs to graphene. Our first-principles calculations further suggest that the extra lithium storage sites could result from the formation of Li2O at the interface with graphene during the conversion-reaction. These results suggest an effective pathway for reversible lithium storage in graphene and shift design paradigms for graphene-based electrodes.« less

  9. Highly improved photo-induced bias stability of sandwiched triple layer structure in sol-gel processed fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongha; Park, Hyungjin; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the reliability of TFT, an Al2O3 insulating layer is inserted between active fluorine doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin films to form a sandwiched triple layer. All the thin films were fabricated via low-cost sol-gel process. Due to its large energy bandgap and high bonding energy with oxygen atoms, the Al2O3 layer acts as a photo-induced positive charge blocking layer that effectively blocks the migration of both holes and V o2+ toward the interface between the gate insulator and the semiconductor. The inserted Al2O3 triple layer exhibits a noticeably low turn on voltage shift of -0.7 V under NBIS as well as the good TFT performance with a mobility of 10.9 cm2/V ṡ s. We anticipate that this approach can be used to solve the stability issues such as NBIS, which is caused by inescapable oxygen vacancies.

  10. Identification of Rosmarinic Acid-Adducted Sites in Meat Proteins in a Gel Model under Oxidative Stress by Triple TOF MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chang-Bo; Zhang, Wan-Gang; Wang, Yao-Song; Xing, Lu-Juan; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2016-08-24

    Triple TOF MS/MS was used to identify adducts between rosmarinic acid (RosA)-derived quinones and meat proteins in a gel model under oxidative stress. Seventy-five RosA-modified peptides responded to 67 proteins with adduction of RosA. RosA conjugated with different amino acids in proteins, and His, Arg, and Lys adducts with RosA were identified for the first time in meat. A total of 8 peptides containing Cys, 14 peptides containing His, 48 peptides containing Arg, 64 peptides containing Lys, and 5 peptides containing N-termini that which participated in adduction reaction with RosA were identified, respectively. Seventy-seven adduction sites were subdivided into all adducted proteins including 2 N-terminal adduction sites, 3 Cys adduction sites, 4 His adduction sites, 29 Arg adduction sites, and 39 Lys adduction sites. Site occupancy analyses showed that approximately 80.597% of the proteins carried a single RosA-modified site, 14.925% retained two sites, 1.492% contained three sites, and the rest 2.985% had four or more sites. Large-scale triple TOF MS/MS mapping of RosA-adducted sites reveals the adduction regulations of quinone and different amino acids as well as the adduction ratios, which clarify phenol-protein adductions and pave the way for industrial meat processing and preservation.

  11. Highly improved photo-induced bias stability of sandwiched triple layer structure in sol-gel processed fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistor

    SciT

    Kim, Dongha; Park, Hyungjin; Bae, Byeong-Soo, E-mail: bsbae@kaist.ac.kr

    In order to improve the reliability of TFT, an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} insulating layer is inserted between active fluorine doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin films to form a sandwiched triple layer. All the thin films were fabricated via low-cost sol-gel process. Due to its large energy bandgap and high bonding energy with oxygen atoms, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer acts as a photo-induced positive charge blocking layer that effectively blocks the migration of both holes and V {sub o}{sup 2+} toward the interface between the gate insulator and the semiconductor. The inserted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} triple layer exhibits amore » noticeably low turn on voltage shift of −0.7 V under NBIS as well as the good TFT performance with a mobility of 10.9 cm{sup 2}/V ⋅ s. We anticipate that this approach can be used to solve the stability issues such as NBIS, which is caused by inescapable oxygen vacancies.« less

  12. Au/MxOy/TiO2 catalysts for CO oxidation: promotional effect of main-group, transition, and rare-earth metal oxide additives.

    SciT

    Ma, Zhen; Overbury, Steven; Dai, Sheng

    Au/TiO2 catalysts are active for CO oxidation, but they suffer from high-temperature sintering of the gold particles, and few attempts have been made to promote or stabilize Au/TiO2. Our recent communication addressed these issues by loading gold onto Al2O3/TiO2 prepared via surface-sol-gel processing of Al(sec-OC4H9)3 on TiO2. In our current full paper, Au/Al2O3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared alternatively by thermal decomposition of Al(NO3)3 on TiO2 followed by loading gold, and the influences of the decomposition temperature and Al2O3 content were systematically surveyed. This facile method was subsequently extended to the preparation of a battery of metal oxide-modified Au/TiO2 catalysts virtually notmore » reported. It was found that Au/TiO2 modified by CaO, NiO, ZnO, Ga2O3, Y2O3, ZrO2, La2O3, Pr2O3, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, Er2O3, or Yb2O3 could retain significant activity at ambient temperature even after aging in O2-He at 500 C, whereas unmodified Au/TiO2 lost its activity. Moreover, some 200 C-calcined promoted catalysts showed high activity even at about -100 C. The deactivation and regeneration of some of these new catalysts were studied. This work furnished novel catalysts for further fundamental and applied research.« less

  13. Muddy marine sediments are gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorgan, K. M.; Clemo, W. C.; Barry, M. A.; Johnson, B.

    2016-02-01

    Marine sediments cover 70% of the earth's surface, are important sites of carbon burial and nutrient regeneration, and provide habitat for diverse and abundant infaunal communities. The majority of these sediments are muds, in which bioturbation affects sediment structure and geochemical gradients. How infaunal activites result in particle mixing depends on the mechanical properties of muddy sediments. At the scale of burrowing animals, muds are elastic solids. Animals move through these elastic muds by extending crack-shaped burrows by fracture. The underlying mechanism driving this elasticity, however, has not been explicitly illustrated. Here, we test the hypothesis that the elastic behavior of muddy sediments is disrupted by removal of organic material by measuring fracture toughness and stiffness of manipulated and control sediments. Our results indicate that the mechanical responses of sediments to forces are governed by the muco-polymeric matrix of organic material. Similar effects of organic material oxidation were not observed in sands, indicating a clear mechanical distinction between fine- and coarse-grained sediments. Muddy sediments are gels, not fluids or granular materials, and models of how sediments respond to forces imposed by, e.g., organisms, gases, and ambient water should explicitly consider the role of organic material.

  14. Porous silicon - rare earth doped xerogel and glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, S.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.; Perova, T. S.; Rafferty, A.; Astrova, E. V.; Moore, R. A.

    2005-06-01

    The development of components for photonics applications is growing exponentially. The sol-gel method is now recognised as a convenient and flexible way to deposit oxide or glass films on a variety of hosts, including porous silicon. In the present work we incorporated erbium and europium doped xerogel into porous silicon and developed new porous silicon - rare earth doped glass composites. Various characteris-ation techniques including FTIR, Raman Spectroscopy, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy were employed in this work.

  15. Forming-free colossal resistive switching effect in rare-earth-oxide Gd2O3 films for memristor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xun; Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiangdong; Yu, Weidong; Liu, Xinjun; Zhang, Yiwen; Chen, Lidong; Cheng, Xinhong

    2009-10-01

    The reproducible forming-free resistive switching (RS) behavior in rare-earth-oxide Gd2O3 polycrystalline thin film was demonstrated. The characteristic of this forming-free RS was similar to that of other forming-necessary binary RS materials except that its initial resistance starts from not the high resistance state (HRS) but the low resistance state (LRS). An ultrahigh resistance switching ratio from HRS to LRS of about six to seven orders of magnitude was achieved at a bias voltage of 0.6 V. Mechanism analysis indicated that the existence of metallic Gd in the Gd2O3 films plays an important role in the forming-free RS performance. Our work provides a novel material with interesting RS behavior, which is beneficial to deepen our understanding of the origin of RS phenomenon.

  16. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and luminescent properties of ytterbium doped rare earth (Y, Sc, Lu) oxides nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permin, D. A.; Novikova, A. V.; Balabanov, S. S.; Gavrishchuk, E. M.; Kurashkin, S. V.; Savikin, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of structural and luminescent properties of 5%Yb-doped yttrium, scandium, and lutetium oxides (Yb:RE2O3) powders and ceramics fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. According to X-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy the chosen method ensures preparation of low-agglomerated cubic Ctype crystal structured powders at one step. No crucial differences in luminescence spectra were found the Yb:RE2O3 powders and ceramics. It was shown that the emission lifetimes of the Yb:RE2O3 powders are lowered by crystal structure defects, while its values for ceramics samples are compared to that of monocrystals and more influenced by rare earth impurities.

  17. Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic based salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Son, S. M.; Lee, T. K.; Yang, H. C.; Kim, I. T.; Lee, H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was studied to recover renewable salts from the salt wastes and to minimize the radioactive wastes by using a vacuum distillation method. Vaporization of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was effective above 900 °C and at 5 Torr. The condensations of the vaporized salt were largely dependent on temperature gradient. Based on these results, a recycling system of the salt wastes as a closed loop type was developed to obtain a high efficiency of the salt recovery condition. In this system, it was confirmed that renewable salt was recovered at more than 99 wt.% from the salt wastes, and the changes in temperature and pressure in the system could be utilized to understand the present condition of the system operation.

  18. Enhancement of the red emission in CaTiO 3:Pr 3+ by addition of rare earth oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianmin; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhang, Xia; Chen, Li; Luo, Yongshi; Wang, Xiao-jun

    2007-02-01

    Enhancement of the 1D 2- 3H 4 red emission of CaTiO 3:Pr 3+ with addition of rare earth oxides Ln 2O 3 (Ln = Lu, La, Gd) is reported. Ca 2+ and Ti 4+ in CaTiO 3 can be substituted by Ln 3+ ions as donors and acceptors, respectively. Ca 2+ and Ti 4+ vacancies, as quenching centers in the host, are effectively suppressed by the self-compensation, leading to the increase of lifetimes and then the emission efficiency of 1D 2. The red fluorescence intensity for CaTiO 3:Pr 3+ phosphor co-doped with 5 mol% Lu 2O 3 is nearly 3 times greater than that of the Lu-free samples.

  19. Oxidation and protection of fiberglass-epoxy composite masts for photovoltaic arrays in the low earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Ciancone, Michael L.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Brady, Joyce A.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of degradation of fiberglass-epoxy composite masts of the Space Station solar array panel, when these are exposed to atomic oxygen environment of the low-earth orbit, was investigated in ground testing of fiberglass-epoxy composites in an RF plasma asher. In addition, several methods of protecting the composite structures were evaluated, including an aluminum braid covering, an In-Sn eutectic, and a silicone based paint. It was found that, during exposure, the epoxy at the surface of the composite was oxidized, exposing individual glass fibers which could easily be removed. The results of mass measurements and SEM examination carried out after thermal cycling and flexing of exposed composite samples indicated that coatings such as In-Sn eutectic may provide adequate protection by containing the glass fibers, even though mass loss still occurs.

  20. Development, characterization and dissolution behavior of calcium-aluminoborate glass wasteforms to immobilize rare-earth oxides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miae; Corkhill, Claire L; Hyatt, Neil C; Heo, Jong

    2018-03-28

    Calcium-aluminoborate (CAB) glasses were developed to sequester new waste compositions made of several rare-earth oxides generated from the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Several important wasteform properties such as waste loading, processability and chemical durability were evaluated. The maximum waste loading of the CAB compositions was determined to be ~56.8 wt%. Viscosity and the electrical conductivity of the CAB melt at 1300 °C were 7.817 Pa·s and 0.4603 S/cm, respectively, which satisfies the conditions for commercial cold-crucible induction melting (CCIM) process. Addition of rare-earth oxides to CAB glasses resulted in dramatic decreases in the elemental releases of B and Ca in aqueous dissolution experiments. Normalized elemental releases from product consistency standard chemical durability test were <3.62·10 -5  g·m -2 for Nd, 0.009 g·m -2 for Al, 0.067 g·m -2 for B and 0.073 g·m -2 for Ca (at 90, after 7 days, for SA/V = 2000m -1 ); all meet European and US regulation limits. After 20 d of dissolution, a hydrated alteration layer of ~ 200-nm-thick, Ca-depleted and Nd-rich, was formed at the surface of CAB glasses with 20 mol% Nd 2 O 3 whereas boehmite [AlO(OH)] secondary crystalline phases were formed in pure CAB glass that contained no Nd 2 O 3 .

  1. Folate receptor targeted, rare-earth oxide nanocrystals for bi-modal fluorescence and magnetic imaging of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Asok, Adersh; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2010-02-01

    Targeted cancer imaging using rare-earth oxide nanocrystals, free from heavy metals (Cd, Se, Te, Hg and Pb), showing bright red-fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presented. Y(2)O(3) nanocrystals (YO NC) doped in situ with fluorescent (Eu(3+)) and paramagnetic (Gd(3+)) impurities and conjugated with a potential cancer targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), were prepared using an all-aqueous wet-chemical process. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of these multifunctional nanocrystals were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, photoluminescence and magnetization studies. Highly monodisperse nanocrystals of size approximately 20 nm with cubic bixbyite crystal structure showed bright red-fluorescence when doped with Eu(3+). Co-doping with Gd(3+) and mild air drying resulted significantly enhanced fluorescence quantum efficiency of approximately 60% together with paramagnetic functionality, enabling T(1)-weighted MR contrast with approximately 5 times higher spin-lattice relaxivity compared to the clinically used Gd(3+) contrast agent. Cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen stress studies show no toxicity by YO NC in both normal and cancer cells up to higher doses of 500 microm and longer incubation time, 48h. Cancer targeting capability of FA conjugated NCs was demonstrated on folate receptor positive (FR+) human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (KB) with FR depressed KB (FRd) and FR negative (FR-) lung cancer cells A549 as controls. Fluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometry data show highly specific binding and cellular uptake of large concentration of FA conjugated NCs on FR+ve cells compared to the controls. Thus, the present study reveals, unique bi-modal contrast imaging capability, non-toxicity and cancer targeting capability of multiple impurities doped rare-earth oxide nanocrystals that can find promising application in molecular imaging.

  2. Low temperature synthesis of LnOF rare-earth oxyfluorides through reaction of the oxides with PTFE

    SciT

    Dutton, S.E., E-mail: sdutton@princeton.edu; Hirai, D.; Cava, R.J.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low temperature synthesis of LnOF rare-earth oxyfluorides from Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} and PTFE (CF{sub 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhombohedral LnOF is the major phase and forms as nanocrystals, 29-103 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expected lanthanide contraction observed in lattice parameters and bond lengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TbOF orders antiferromagnetically at 10 K and has a metamagnetic transition at 1.8 T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GdOF orders antiferromagnetically at 5 K, other LnOF are paramagnetic. -- Abstract: A low temperature solid-state synthesis route, employing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and the rare-earth oxides, for the formation of the LnOF rare-earth oxyfluorides (Ln = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb,more » Dy, Ho, Er), is reported. With the exception of LaOF, which forms in a tetragonal variant, rhomobohedral LnOF is found to be the major product of the reaction. In the case of PrOF, a transition from the rhombohedral to the cubic fluorite phase is observed on heating in air to 500 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction shows the expected lanthanide contraction in the lattice parameters and bond lengths. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show antiferromagnetic-like ordering in TbOF, T{sub m} = 10 K, with a metamagnetic transition at a field {mu}{sub 0}H{sub t} = 1.8 T at 2 K. An antiferromagnetic transition, T{sub N} = 4 K, is observed in GdOF. Paramagnetic behavior is observed above 2 K in PrOF, NdOF, DyOF, HoOF and ErOF. The magnetic susceptibility of EuOF is characteristic of Van Vleck paramagnetism.« less

  3. Biological consilience of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in plants: Gases of primordial earth linking plant, microbial and animal physiologies.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hideo; Cohen, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in the mammalian body through the enzymatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). A growing number of studies have revealed that biogenic H2S produced in tissues is involved in a variety of physiological responses in mammals including vasorelaxation and neurotransmission. It is now evident that mammals utilize H2S to regulate multiple signaling systems, echoing the research history of the gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) that had previously only been recognized for their cytotoxicity. In the human diet, meats (mammals, birds and fishes) and vegetables (plants) containing cysteine and other sulfur compounds are the major dietary sources for endogenous production of H2S. Plants are primary producers in ecosystems on the earth and they synthesize organic sulfur compounds through the activity of sulfur assimilation. Although plant H2S-producing activities have been known for a long time, our knowledge of H2S biology in plant systems has not been updated to the extent of mammalian studies. Here we review recent progress on H2S studies, highlighting plants and bacteria. Scoping the future integration of H2S, NO and O2 biology, we discuss a possible linkage between physiology, ecology and evolutional biology of gas metabolisms that may reflect the historical changes of the Earth's atmospheric composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy Transfer between Post-Transition Elements & Rare Earths in Oxide & Chalcogenide Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-27

    Caird [13]. A calculation of reduced matrix elements of Pr3 in 20 Na O • 80 TeO2 glass [14] showed that they differ slightly from data of ref. [121... glasses Transition (lass 35 ZnO 65 TeO2 20 Na2 O 80 TeO 2 fX 106 fX 106 l.,eas 3a, a) Ia’l. faI f.me.s f al f+ I fal 3 H4 - 3 H6 1.56 1.65 1.12...Rare-Earth Doped Glasses 20. jIST HAEV CCnFn~m ,i cn,on ra e sideit If c."*Ar’ -- ~ 14-r by t?-h.c .: r Intensity parameters, radiative transition

  5. Oxidation-resistant reflective surfaces for solar dynamic power generation in near Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.; Mgf2, Sio2, Al2o3, and si3n4, we

    1986-01-01

    Reflective surfaces for space station power generation systems are required to withstand the atomic oxygen-dominated environment of near Earth orbit. Thin films of platinum and rhodium, which are corrosion resistant reflective metals, have been deposited by ion beam sputter deposition onto various substrate materials. Solar reflectances were then measured as a function of time of exposure to a RF-generated air plasma. Similarly, various protective coating materials, including MgF2, SiO2, Al2O3, and Si3N4, were deposited onto silver-coated substrates and then exposed to the plasma. Analysis of the films both before and after exposure by both ESCA and Auger spectroscopy was also performed. The results indicate that Pt and Rh do not suffer any loss in reflectance over the duration of the tests. Also, each of the coating materials survived the plasma environment. The ESCA and Auger analyses are discussed as well.

  6. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  7. New rare earth hafnium oxynitride perovskites with photocatalytic activity in water oxidation and reduction.

    PubMed

    Black, Ashley P; Suzuki, Hajime; Higashi, Masanobu; Frontera, Carlos; Ritter, Clemens; De, Chandan; Sundaresan, A; Abe, Ryu; Fuertes, Amparo

    2018-02-06

    RHfO 2 N perovskites with R = La, Nd and Sm show a GdFeO 3 -type structure and are semiconductors with band gaps of 3.35, 3.40 and 2.85 eV and relative dielectric constants of 30, 16 and 28 respectively. These compounds have adequate reduction and oxidation potentials to conduct the overall water splitting reaction, and the analogous perovskite LaZrO 2 N with a band gap of 2.8 eV shows photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation for O 2 evolution.

  8. Analysis of β-Subgroup Proteobacterial Ammonia Oxidizer Populations in Soil by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis and Hierarchical Phylogenetic Probing

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, John R.; Kowalchuk, George A.; Bruns, Mary-Ann V.; McCaig, Allison E.; Phillips, Carol J.; Embley, T. Martin; Prosser, James I.

    1998-01-01

    A combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and oligonucleotide probing was used to investigate the influence of soil pH on the compositions of natural populations of autotrophic β-subgroup proteobacterial ammonia oxidizers. PCR primers specific to this group were used to amplify 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from soils maintained for 36 years at a range of pH values, and PCR products were analyzed by DGGE. Genus- and cluster-specific probes were designed to bind to sequences within the region amplified by these primers. A sequence specific to all β-subgroup ammonia oxidizers could not be identified, but probes specific for Nitrosospira clusters 1 to 4 and Nitrosomonas clusters 6 and 7 (J. R. Stephen, A. E. McCaig, Z. Smith, J. I. Prosser, and T. M. Embley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:4147–4154, 1996) were designed. Elution profiles of probes against target sequences and closely related nontarget sequences indicated a requirement for high-stringency hybridization conditions to distinguish between different clusters. DGGE banding patterns suggested the presence of Nitrosomonas cluster 6a and Nitrosospira clusters 2, 3, and 4 in all soil plots, but results were ambiguous because of overlapping banding patterns. Unambiguous band identification of the same clusters was achieved by combined DGGE and probing of blots with the cluster-specific radiolabelled probes. The relative intensities of hybridization signals provided information on the apparent selection of different Nitrosospira genotypes in samples of soil of different pHs. The signal from the Nitrosospira cluster 3 probe decreased significantly, relative to an internal control probe, with decreasing soil pH in the range of 6.6 to 3.9, while Nitrosospira cluster 2 hybridization signals increased with increasing soil acidity. Signals from Nitrosospira cluster 4 were greatest at pH 5.5, decreasing at lower and higher values, while Nitrosomonas cluster 6a signals did not vary significantly with p

  9. Triple oxygen isotope data characterize oxidation processes that produce sulfate on Earth (and Mars?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J.; Kohl, I.; Coleman, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Rio Tinto, a river in southwest Spain, has a long history of acid, iron and sulfate rich water resulting primarily from the oxidation of pyrite (ferrous iron sulfide). Its geochemistry and extremophile microbiology make it an exciting and ideal mars-analogue research site, as relatively recent discoveries have shown Mars to be rich in sulfates believed to have formed in an acidic environment. Current models for the oxidation pathways of pyrite sulfur to sulfate, and the microbial influences on those pathways are incomplete. Traditionally, studies have only focused on d18O as a tracer for the oxygen sources in sulfate and determination of the oxidation pathways. The d18O method has always been fraught with uncertainty due to isotope fractionation during oxygen incorporation from the two dominant sources, atmospheric oxygen and water. A relatively new method utilizing 17O measures the relationship between d17O/d18O. The average relationship has been defined as the Terrestrial Fractionation Line, with a slope of 0.52. Deviations from this relationship are represented as Cap delta 17O, the difference of delta 17O from the expected value. Cap17O values are useful because they depend only on the relationship between d17O/d18O, which remains constant during mass dependent fractionation. During O2 generation from solid BaSO4, some fractionation can occur due to incomplete oxygen yield. This can produce uncertainties in d17O and d18O, but Cap17O is dependent only on the d17O/d18O ratio and is therefore not affected. The relationship mentioned above between d17O/d18O (slope=0.52) is an average for terrestrial materials and it is becoming increasingly clear that process specific slopes can be defined. This offers an exciting opportunity to characterize potential biomarkers on Mars. If a biologically specific slope could be determined, then its signature will be preserved through subsequent mass dependent fractionation processes. Our approach is to use Río Tinto field and

  10. Sol-gel derived (La 0.8M 0.2)CrO 3 (M dbnd Ca, Sr) coating layer on stainless-steel substrate for use as a separator in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Lee, E.; Lee, S.; Hwang, H. J.; Moon, J.-W.

    A ceramic coating technique is applied to reduce the voltage drop caused by oxidation of the metallic separator (SUS444) in intermediate-temperature (IT) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFCs) systems. Precursor solutions for (La, Ca)CrO 3 (LCC) and (La, Sr)CrO 3 (LSC) coatings are prepared by adding nitric acid and ethylene glycol into an aqueous solution of lanthanum, strontium (or calcium) and chromium nitrates. Dried LCC and LSC gel films are heat-treated at 400-800 °C after dip-coating on the SUS444 substrate. XRD and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis is used to examine the crystallization behaviour and chemical structure of the precursor solution. The oxidation behaviour of the coated SUS444 substrate is compared with an uncoated SUS444 substrate. The oxidation of the SUS444 is inhibited by the LCC and LSC thin film layers.

  11. Advanced electron microscopy characterization of tri-layer rare-earth oxide superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Patrick; Disa, Ankit; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Klie, Robert; University of Illinois-Chicago Team; Yale University Team

    2015-03-01

    Rare-earth nickelates are known to display complex electronic and magnetic behaviors owed to a very localized and sensitive Ni-site atomic and electronic structure. Toward realizing the goal of manipulating of the energetic ordering of Ni d orbitals and 2D conduction, the present work focuses on the experimental characterization of thin film superlattice structures consisting of alternating layers of LaTiO3 and LaNiO3 sandwiched between a dull insulator, LaAlO3. Using advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-based methods, properties such as interfacial sharpness, electron transfer, O presence, and local electronic structure can be probed at the atomic scale, and will be discussed at length. By combining both energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and electronic energy loss (EEL) spectroscopies in an aberration-corrected STEM, it is possible to attain energy and spatial resolutions of 0.35 eV and 100 pm, respectively. Focus of the talk will remain not only on the aforementioned properties, but will also include details and parameters of the acquisitions to facilitate future characterization at this level.

  12. Dosimetry Evolution in Teletherapy: Polimer Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, J. H.; Peixoto, J. G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Polymer gels evolution and chemical composition used in dosimetry. Type Composition First gels Folin’s Phenol or Gallic Acid Polymer Gel Agarose and N,N’-methylene-bis-acrylamide BANANA Bis, acrylamide, nitrous oxide and agarose BANG-1TM Bis, acrylamide, nitrogen and gelatin BANG-2TM Bis, acrylic acid, sodium hydroxide, nitrogen and gelatin BANG-3TM Bis, methacrylate acid, sodium hydroxide, nitrogen and gelatin MAGIC Methacrylate acid, ascorbic acid, gelatin and copper sulphate

  13. Application of melanin-free ink as a new antioxidative gel enhancer in sardine surimi gel.

    PubMed

    Vate, Naveen Kumar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Agustini, Tri Winarni

    2015-08-30

    The squid ink that is discarded as waste during processing can be effectively utilised as a gel enhancer in surimi gels, especially those prepared from dark-fleshed fish which have poor gel properties. It also acts as an antioxidant, inhibiting lipid oxidation. This investigation aimed to study the effect of melanin-free ink (MFI) from splendid squid (Loligo formosana) on properties and oxidative stability of surimi gel from sardine (Sardinella albella). MFI (0-0.1 g kg(-1) surimi) increased the breaking force and deformation of sardine surimi gel in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The addition of MFI had no effect on whiteness of surimi gels (P > 0.05). The expressible moisture content of gels decreased as the levels of MFI increased (P < 0.05). Based on a microstructure study, gel added with MFI at a level of 0.08 g kg(-1) surimi was denser and finer than that of the control (without MFI). Surimi gels with MFI had lower peroxide values, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nonanal and 2-decenal. MFI could improve the properties of sardine surimi gel. Additionally, it was able to prevent lipid oxidation in surimi gels during refrigerated storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Defect Clustering and Nano-Phase Structure Characterization of Multi-Component Rare Earth Oxide Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Chen, Yuan L.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced oxide thermal barrier coatings have been developed by incorporating multi-component rare earth oxide dopants into zirconia-yttria to effectively promote the creation of the thermodynamically stable, immobile oxide defect clusters and/or nano-scale phases within the coating systems. The presence of these nano-sized defect clusters has found to significantly reduce the coating intrinsic thermal conductivity, improve sintering resistance, and maintain long-term high temperature stability. In this paper, the defect clusters and nano-structured phases, which were created by the addition of multi-component rare earth dopants to the plasma-sprayed and electron-beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings, were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The defect cluster size, distribution, crystallographic and compositional information were investigated using high-resolution TEM lattice imaging, selected area diffraction (SAD), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis techniques. The results showed that substantial defect clusters were formed in the advanced multi-component rare earth oxide doped zirconia- yttria systems. The size of the oxide defect clusters and the cluster dopant segregation was typically ranging from 5 to 50 nm. These multi-component dopant induced defect clusters are an important factor for the coating long-term high temperature stability and excellent performance.

  15. Defect Clustering and Nano-Phase Structure Characterization of Multi-Component Rare Earth Oxide Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Chen, Yuan L.; Miller, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced oxide thermal barrier coatings have been developed by incorporating multi- component rare earth oxide dopants into zirconia-yttria to effectively promote the creation of the thermodynamically stable, immobile oxide defect clusters and/or nano-scale phases within the coating systems. The presence of these nano-sized defect clusters has found to significantly reduce the coating intrinsic thermal conductivity, improve sintering resistance, and maintain long-term high temperature stability. In this paper, the defect clusters and nano-structured phases, which were created by the addition of multi-component rare earth dopants to the plasma- sprayed and electron-beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings, were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The defect cluster size, distribution, crystallographic and compositional information were investigated using high-resolution TEM lattice imaging, selected area diffraction (SAD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis techniques. The results showed that substantial defect clusters were formed in the advanced multi-component rare earth oxide doped zirconia-yttria systems. The size of the oxide defect clusters and the cluster dopant segregation was typically ranging fiom 5 to 50 nm. These multi-component dopant induced defect clusters are an important factor for the coating long-term high temperature stability and excellent performance.

  16. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte based on poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene), carbon nanotubes, and metal oxides nanocomposites for electrical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeidat, Amr M.

    Clean and renewable energy systems have emerged as an important area of research having diverse and significant new applications. These systems utilize different energy storage methods such as the batteries and supercapacitors. Supercapacitors are electrochemical energy storage devices that are designed to bridge the gap between batteries and conventional capacitors. Supercapacitors which store electrical energy by electrical double layer capacitance are based on large surface area structured carbons. The materials systems in which the Faradaic reversible redox reactions store electrical energy are the transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers. Among the different types of conducting polymers, poly (3, 4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is extensively investigated owing to its chemical and mechanical stability. Due to instability of aqueous electrolytes at high voltages and toxicity of organic electrolytes, potential of supercapacitors has not been fully exploited. A novel aspect of this work is in utilizing the ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte to design solid-state supercapacitors for energy storage. Various electrochemical systems were investigated including graphene, PEDOT, PEDOT-carbon nanotubes, PEDOT-manganese oxide, and PEDOT-iron oxide nanocomposites. The electrochemical performance of solid-state supercapacitor devices was evaluated based on cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge (CD), prolonged cyclic tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Raman spectroscopy technique was also utilized to analyze the bonding structure of the electrode materials. The graphene solid-state supercapacitor system displayed areal capacitance density of 141.83 mF cm-2 based on high potential window up to 4V. The PEDOT solid-state supercapacitor system was synthesized in acetonitrile and aqueous mediums achieving areal capacitance density of 219.17 mF cm-2. The hybrid structure of solid-state supercapacitors was also

  17. Tutorial on the Role of Cyclopentadienyl Ligands in the Discovery of Molecular Complexes of the Rare-Earth and Actinide Metals in New Oxidation States

    DOE PAGES

    Evans, William J.

    2016-09-15

    A fundamental aspect of any element is the range of oxidation states accessible for useful chemistry. This tutorial describes the recent expansion of the number of oxidation states available to the rare-earth and actinide metals in molecular complexes that has resulted through organometallic chemistry involving the cyclopentadienyl ligand. These discoveries demonstrate that the cyclopentadienyl ligand, which has been a key component in the development of organometallic chemistry since the seminal discovery of ferrocene in the 1950s, continues to contribute to the advancement of science. Lastly, we present background information on the rare-earth and actinide elements, as well as the sequencemore » of events that led to these unexpected developments in the oxidation state chemistry of these metals.« less

  18. Tutorial on the Role of Cyclopentadienyl Ligands in the Discovery of Molecular Complexes of the Rare-Earth and Actinide Metals in New Oxidation States

    SciT

    Evans, William J.

    A fundamental aspect of any element is the range of oxidation states accessible for useful chemistry. This tutorial describes the recent expansion of the number of oxidation states available to the rare-earth and actinide metals in molecular complexes that has resulted through organometallic chemistry involving the cyclopentadienyl ligand. These discoveries demonstrate that the cyclopentadienyl ligand, which has been a key component in the development of organometallic chemistry since the seminal discovery of ferrocene in the 1950s, continues to contribute to the advancement of science. Lastly, we present background information on the rare-earth and actinide elements, as well as the sequencemore » of events that led to these unexpected developments in the oxidation state chemistry of these metals.« less

  19. Environmental life cycle assessment on the separation of rare earth oxides through solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Vahidi, Ehsan; Zhao, Fu

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, Rare Earth Elements (REEs) have gained special interests due to their significance in many industrial applications, especially those related to clean energy. While REEs production is known to cause damage to the ecosystem, only a handful of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) investigations have been conducted in recent years, mainly due to lack of data and information. This is especially true for the solvent extraction separation of REEs from aqueous solution which is a challenging step in the REEs production route. In the current investigation, an LCA is carried out on a typical REE solvent extraction process using P204/kerosene and the energy/material flows and emissions data were collected from two different solvent extraction facilities in Inner Mongolia and Fujian provinces in China. In order to develop life cycle inventories, Ecoinvent 3 and SimaPro 8 software together with energy/mass stoichiometry and balance were utilized. TRACI and ILCD were applied as impact assessment tools and LCA outcomes were employed to examine and determine ecological burdens of the REEs solvent extraction operation. Based on the results, in comparison with the production of generic organic solvent in the Ecoinvent dataset, P204 production has greater burdens on all TRACI impact categories. However, due to the small amount of consumption, the contribution of P204 remains minimal. Additionally, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid are the two impactful chemicals on most environmental categories used in the solvent extraction operation. On average, the solvent extraction step accounts for 30% of the total environmental impacts associated with individual REOs. Finally, opportunities and challenges for an enhanced environmental performance of the REEs solvent extraction operation were investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  1. Increase and seasonal cycles of nitrous oxide in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is determined that nitrous oxide (N2O) is increasing at about 0.9 ppb/yr in the northern hemisphere and at about 0.7 ppb/yr in the southern hemisphere, based on about 9000 ground-level measurements at Cape Meares, Oregon (45 deg N), and Cape Grim, Tasmania (42 deg S), spanning a three-year period. It is also shown that the N2O concentrations vary with season in the northern hemisphere, where the concentrations are 0.8 ppbv higher during April, May, and June compared to the rest of the year, and in the southern hemisphere where the concentrations are about 0.5 ppbv lower during March, April, and May compared to the rest of the year. An explanation of this increase as a sizeable anthropogenically-controlled land-based source is presented, based on an examination of the existing estimates of natural and anthropogenic sources of N2O. Mass-balance calculations are also presented which suggest that a natural land-based source, peaking in spring, would explain the main features of the observed seasonal cycle. A growth model is employed to extrapolate the observed increase of N2O into the future and the results are compared with exponential extrapolations.

  2. Neodymium isotopic study of rare earth element sources and mobility in hydrothermal Fe-oxide (Fe-P-REE) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, James D.; Marikos, Mark A.; Barton, Mark D.; Johnson, David A.

    2000-03-01

    Rare earth element (REE)-enriched, igneous-related hydrothermal Fe-oxide hosted (Fe-P-REE) systems from four areas in North America have been analyzed for their neodymium isotopic composition to constrain REE sources and mobility in these systems. The Nd isotopic results evidence a common pattern of REE concentration from igneous sources despite large differences in age (Proterozoic to Tertiary), tectonic setting (subduction vs. intraplate), and magmatic style (mafic vs. felsic). In the Middle Proterozoic St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeastern Missouri, ɛ Nd for Fe-P-REE (apatite, monazite, xenotime) deposits ranges from +3.5 to +5.1, similar to associated felsic to intermediate igneous rocks of the same age (ɛ Nd = +2.6 to +6.2). At the mid-Jurassic Humboldt mafic complex in western Nevada, ɛ Nd for Fe-P-REE (apatite) mineralization varies between +1.1 and +2.4, similar to associated mafic igneous rocks (-1.0 to +3.5). In the nearby Cortez Mountains in central Nevada, mid-Jurassic felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks (ɛ Nd = -2.0 to -4.4) are associated with Fe-P-REE (apatite-monazite) mineralization having similar ɛ Nd (-1.7 to -2.4). At Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico, all assemblages analyzed in this Tertiary rhyolite-hosted Fe oxide deposit have identical isotopic compositions with ɛ Nd = -2.5. These data are consistent with coeval igneous host rocks being the primary source of REE in all four regions, and are inconsistent with a significant contribution of REE from other sources. Interpretations of the origin of these hydrothermal systems and their concomitant REE mobility must account for nonspecialized igneous sources and varied tectonic settings.

  3. Neodymium isotopic study of rare earth element sources and mobility in hydrothermal Fe oxide (Fe-P-REE) systems

    SciT

    Gleason, J.D.; Marikos, M.A.; Barton, M.D.

    2000-03-01

    Rare earth element (REE)-enriched, igneous-related hydrothermal Fe-oxide hosted (Fe-P-REE) systems from four areas in North America have been analyzed for their neodymium iosotopic composition to constrain REE sources and mobility in these systems. The Nd isotopic results evidence a common pattern of REE concentration from igneous sources despite large differences in age (Proterozoic to Tertiary), tectonic setting (subduction vs. intraplate), and magmatic style (mafic vs. felsic). In the Middle Proterozoic St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeastern Missouri, {epsilon}{sub Nd} for Fe-P-REE (apatite, monazite, xenotime) deposits ranges from +3.5 to +5.1, similar to associated felsic to intermediate igneous rocks of themore » same age ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = +2.6 to +6.2). At the mid-Jurassic Humboldt mafic complex in western Nevada, {epsilon}{sub Nd} for Fe-P-REE (apatite) mineralization varies between +1.1 and +2.4, similar to associated mafic igneous rocks ({minus}1.0 to +3.5). In the nearby Cortez Mountains in central Nevada, mid-Jurassic felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}2.0 to {minus}4.4) are associated with Fe-P-REE (apatite-monazite) mineralization having similar {epsilon}{sub Nd}({minus}1.7 to {minus}2.4). At Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico, all assemblages analyzed in this Tertiary rhyolite-hosted Fe oxide deposit have identical isotopic compositions with {epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}2.5. These data are consistent with coeval igneous host rocks being the primary source of REE in all four regions, and are inconsistent with a significant contribution of REE from other sources. Interpretations of the origin of these hydrothermal systems and their concomitant REE mobility must account for nonspecialized igneous sources and varied tectonic settings.« less

  4. Chiromagnetic nanoparticles and gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Jihyeon; Santos, Uallisson S.; Chekini, Mahshid; Cha, Minjeong; de Moura, André F.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2018-01-01

    Chiral inorganic nanostructures have high circular dichroism, but real-time control of their optical activity has so far been achieved only by irreversible chemical changes. Field modulation is a far more desirable path to chiroptical devices. We hypothesized that magnetic field modulation can be attained for chiral nanostructures with large contributions of the magnetic transition dipole moments to polarization rotation. We found that dispersions and gels of paramagnetic Co3O4 nanoparticles with chiral distortions of the crystal lattices exhibited chiroptical activity in the visible range that was 10 times as strong as that of nonparamagnetic nanoparticles of comparable size. Transparency of the nanoparticle gels to circularly polarized light beams in the ultraviolet range was reversibly modulated by magnetic fields. These phenomena were also observed for other nanoscale metal oxides with lattice distortions from imprinted amino acids and other chiral ligands. The large family of chiral ceramic nanostructures and gels can be pivotal for new technologies and knowledge at the nexus of chirality and magnetism.

  5. Development of a critically evaluated thermodynamic database for the systems containing alkaline-earth oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Adarsh

    In a thermodynamic system which contains several elements, the phase relationships among the components are usually very complex. Especially, systems containing oxides are generally very difficult to investigate owing to the very high experimental temperatures and corrosive action of slags. Due to such difficulties, large inconsistencies are often observed among the available experimental data. In order to investigate and understand the complex phase relationships effectively, it is very useful to develop thermodynamic databases containing optimized model parameters giving the thermodynamic properties of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. In a thermodynamic optimization, adjustable model parameters are calculated using, simultaneously, all available thermodynamic and phase-equilibrium data in order to obtain one set of model equations as functions of temperature and composition. Thermodynamic data, such as activities, can aid in the evaluation of the phase diagrams, and information on phase equilibria can be used to deduce thermodynamic properties. Thus, it is frequently possible to resolve discrepancies in the available data. From the model equations, all the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams can be back-calculated, and interpolations and extrapolations can be made in a thermodynamically correct manner. The data are thereby rendered self-consistent and consistent with thermodynamic principles, and the available data are distilled into a small set of model parameters, ideal for computer storage. As part of a broader research project at the Centre de Recherche en Calcul Thermochimique (CRCT), Ecole Polytechnique to develop a thermodynamic database for multicomponent oxide systems, this thesis deals with the addition of components SrO and BaO to the existing multicomponent database of the SiO2-B2O3-Al2O 3-CaO-MgO system. Over the years, in collaboration with many industrial companies, a thermodynamic database for the SiO2-B2O 3-Al2O3-Ca

  6. Thermal properties of rare earth cobalt oxides and of La1- x Gd x CoO3 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yu. S.; Dudnikov, V. A.; Gorev, M. V.; Vereshchagin, S. N.; Solov'ev, L. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction data for the crystal structure, phase composition, and molar specific heat for La1‒ x Gd x CoO3 cobaltites in the temperature range of 300-1000 K have been analyzed. The behavior of the volume thermal expansion coefficient in cobaltites with isovalent doping in the temperature range of 100-1000 K is studied. It is found that the β( T) curve exhibits two peaks at some doping levels. The rate of the change in the occupation number for the high-spin state of cobalt ions is calculated for the compounds under study taking into account the spin-orbit interaction. With the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, it is demonstrated that the low-temperature peak in the thermal expansion shifts with the growth of the pressure toward higher temperatures and at pressure P ˜ 7 GPa coincides with the second peak. The similarity in the behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient in the La1- x Gd x CoO3 compounds with the isovalent substitution and the undoped LnCoO3 compound (Ln is a lanthanide) is considered. For the whole series of rare earth cobalt oxides, the nature of two specific features in the temperature dependence of the specific heat and thermal expansion is revealed and their relation to the occupation number for the high-spin state of cobalt ions and to the insulator-metal transition is established.

  7. Oxidation and protection of fiberglass-epoxy composite masts for photovoltaic arrays in the low Earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Brady, Joyce A.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Fiberglass-epoxy composites are considered for use as structural members for the mast of the space station solar array panel. The low Earth orbital environment in which space station is to operate is composed mainly of atomic oxygen, which has been shown to cause erosion of many organic materials and some metals. Ground based testing in a plasma asher was performed to determine the extent of degradation of fiberglass-epoxy composites when exposed to a simulated atomic oxygen environment. During exposure, the epoxy at the surface of the composite was oxidized, exposing individual glass fibers which could easily be removed. Several methods of protecting the composite were evaluated in an atomic oxygen environment and with thermal cycling and flexing. The protection techniques evaluated to date include an aluminum braid covering, an indium-tin eutectic and a silicone based paint. The open aluminum braid offered little protection while the CV-1144 coating offered some initial protection against atomic oxygen, but appears to develop cracks which accelerate degradation when flexed. Coatings such as the In-Sn eutectic may provide adequate protection by containing the glass fibers even though mass loss still occurs.

  8. An evaluation of the efficacy of a topical gel with Triester Glycerol Oxide (TGO) in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis in a Turkish cohort: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Sertan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Namdar-Pekiner, Filiz; Tanyeri, Hakkı

    2017-01-01

    Background Triester glycerol oxide gel (Protefix® Queisser Pharma, Germany) is a new topical agent that has the property of adherence to the oral mucosa by forming a lipid film which protects against mechanical trauma and may help to reduce oral tissue moisture loss and inflammation. The aim of this clinical trial was to determine the efficacy of a topical TGO gel and to also compare it with triamcinolone acetonide pomade in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Material and Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial and 180 patients with the complaint of minor aphthous ulcers were enrolled in this study. The sociodemographic data and clinical characteristics of the ulcer were collected by questionnaire. Ulcer size and pain level measurements were performed and the efficacy indices for ulcer pain and size were calculated at day 0,2,4,6 by the same investigator. Results Significant differences were not detected among the demographics and ulcer histories including age, gender, onset of ulcer, mean healing time, family RAS history and ulcer localization between three groups. The pain score in TGO group was found statistically lower at day 2,4, and 6. Efficacy index and improvement rate of TGO group, regarding pain score, was higher than the other two groups at day 2 and 4. The reduction in ulcer size was statistically higher in TGO group than the other two groups at day 4 and 6. Conclusions Topical application of TGO gel could decrease pain intensity, accelerate ulcer healing without any side effects, utilizing an easy appliable and accessible procedure. Therefore TGO gel could be a well-tolerated, safe, topical therapeutic agent in the clinical practice of RAS treatment. Key words:Topical therapy, triester glycerol oxide, triamcinolone acetonide, minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. PMID:28160585

  9. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    SciT

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite materialmore » can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.« less

  10. Regional framework and geology of iron oxide-apatite-rare earth element and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Mesoproterozoic St. Francois Mountains Terrane, southeast Missouri

    Day, Warren C.; Slack, John F.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Seeger, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the genesis of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and associated iron oxide ± apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element, iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), and iron-rich sedimentary deposits in the St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeast Missouri, USA. The St. Francois Mountains terrane lies along the southeastern margin of Laurentia as part of the eastern granite-rhyolite province. The province formed during two major pulses of igneous activity: (1) an older early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.50–1.44 Ga) episode of volcanism and granite plutonism, and (2) a younger middle Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.33–1.30 Ga) episode of bimodal gabbro and granite plutonism. The volcanic rocks are predominantly high-silica rhyolite pyroclastic flows, volcanogenic breccias, and associated volcanogenic sediments with lesser amounts of basaltic to andesitic volcanic and associated subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The iron oxide deposits are all hosted in the early Mesoproterozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences. Previous studies have characterized the St. Francois Mountains terrane as a classic, A-type within-plate granitic terrane. However, our new whole-rock geochemical data indicate that the felsic volcanic rocks are effusive derivatives from multicomponent source types, having compositional similarities to A-type within-plate granites as well as to S- and I-type granites generated in an arc setting. In addition, the volcanic-hosted IOA and IOCG deposits occur within bimodal volcanic sequences, some of which have volcanic arc geochemical affinities, suggesting an extensional tectonic setting during volcanism prior to emplacement of the ore-forming systems.The Missouri iron orebodies are magmatic-related hydrothermal deposits that, when considered in aggregate, display a vertical zonation from high-temperature, magmatic ± hydrothermal IOA deposits emplaced at moderate depths (~1–2 km), to magnetite-dominant IOA veins and IOCG deposits emplaced at shallow

  11. The effect of rare earth ions on structural, morphological and thermoelectric properties of nanostructured tin oxide based perovskite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekaran, P.; Alagar Nedunchezhian, A. S.; Yalini Devi, N.; Sidharth, D.; Arivanandhan, M.; Jayavel, R.

    2017-11-01

    Metal oxide based materials are promising for thermoelectric applications especially at elevated temperature due to their high thermal stability. Recently, perovskite based oxide materials have been focused as a novel thermoelectric material due to their tunable electrical conductivity. Thermoelectric properties of BaSnO3 has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of various rare earth doping on the thermoelectric properties of BaSnO3 is not studied in detail. In the present work, Ba1-x RE x SnO3 (RE  =  La and Sr) materials with x  =  0.05 were prepared by polymerization complex (PC) method in order to study the effect of RE incorporation on the structural, morphological and thermoelectric characteristics of BaSnO3. The structural and morphological properties of the synthesized materials were studied by XRD and TEM analysis. XRD analysis confirmed the mixed phases of the synthesized samples. The TEM images of Ba1-x Sr x SnO3 shows hexagonal and cubic morphology while, Ba1-x La x SnO3 exhibit rod like morphology. Various functional groups of the perovskite material were identified using FTIR analysis. Formation of the perovskite material was further confirmed by XPS analysis. The Seebeck coefficient of Ba0.95La0.05SnO3 was relatively higher than that of Ba0.95Sr0.05SnO3, especially at high temperature. The rod like morphology of Ba0.95La0.05SnO3 may facilitate fast electron transport which results high thermal power compared to Ba0.95Sr0.05SnO3 despite of its poor crystalline nature. The substitution of La3+ on the Ba2+ site could vary the carrier density which results high Seebeck coefficient of Ba0.95La0.05SnO3 compared to Ba0.95Sr0.05SnO3. From the experimental results, it is obvious that Ba0.95La0.05SnO3 could be a promising thermoelectric material for high temperature application.

  12. Sol-Gel Synthesis of La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3-x) and Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3-x) Cathode Nanopowders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Wise, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Nanopowders of La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3-x) (LSC) and Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3-x) (SSC) compositions, which are being investigated as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC) with La(Sr)Ga(Mg)O(3-x) (LSGM) as the electrolyte, were synthesized by low-temperature sol-gel method using metal nitrates and citric acid. Thermal decomposition of the citrate gels was followed by simultaneous DSC/TGA methods. Development of phases in the gels, on heat treatments at various temperatures, was monitored by x-ray diffraction. Solgel powders calcined at 550 to 1000 C consisted of a number of phases. Single perovskite phase La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3-x) or Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3-x) powders were obtained at 1200 and 1300 C, respectively. Morphological analysis of the powders calcined at various temperatures was done by scanning electron microscopy. The average particle size of the powders was approx.15 nm after 700 C calcinations and slowly increased to 70 to 100 nm after heat treatments at 1300 to 1400 C.

  13. Development of an optical thermal history coating sensor based on the oxidation of a divalent rare earth ion phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez-González, Álvaro; Ruiz-Trejo, Enrique; van Wachem, Berend; Skinner, Stephen; Beyrau, Frank; Heyes, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of temperatures in gas turbines, boilers, heat exchangers and other components exposed to hot gases is essential to design energy efficient systems and improve maintenance procedures. When on-line measurements, such as those performed with thermocouples and pyrometers, are not possible or inconvenient, the maximum temperatures of operation can be recorded and measured off-line after operation. Although thermal paints have been used for many years for this purpose, a novel technique based on irreversible changes in the optical properties of thermographic phosphors, can overcome some of the disadvantages of previous methods. In particular, oxidation of the divalent rare earth ion phosphor BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM:Eu) has shown great potential for temperature sensing between 700 °C and 1200 °C. The emission spectra of this phosphor change with temperature, which permits to define an intensity ratio between different lines in the spectra that can be used as a measurand of the temperature. In this paper, the study of the sensing capabilities of a sensor coating based on BAM:Eu phosphor material is addressed for the first time. The sensitivity of the intensity ratio is investigated in the temperature range from 800 °C to 1100 °C, and is proved to be affected by ionic diffusion of transition metals from the substrate. The use of an interlayer made of zirconia proves efficient in reducing ionic diffusion and coatings with this diffusion barrier present sensitivity comparable to that of the powder material.

  14. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-25

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400°C and 500°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm(-1) can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm(-1) are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of the efficacy of a topical gel with Triester Glycerol Oxide (TGO) in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis in a Turkish cohort: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ofluoglu, D; Ergun, S; Warnakulasuriya, S; Namdar-Pekiner, F; Tanyeri, H

    2017-03-01

    Triester glycerol oxide gel (Protefix® Queisser Pharma, Germany) is a new topical agent that has the property of adherence to the oral mucosa by forming a lipid film which protects against mechanical trauma and may help to reduce oral tissue moisture loss and inflammation. The aim of this clinical trial was to determine the efficacy of a topical TGO gel and to also compare it with triamcinolone acetonide pomade in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial and 180 patients with the complaint of minor aphthous ulcers were enrolled in this study. The sociodemographic data and clinical characteristics of the ulcer were collected by questionnaire. Ulcer size and pain level measurements were performed and the efficacy indices for ulcer pain and size were calculated at day 0,2,4,6 by the same investigator. Significant differences were not detected among the demographics and ulcer histories including age, gender, onset of ulcer, mean healing time, family RAS history and ulcer localization between three groups. The pain score in TGO group was found statistically lower at day 2,4, and 6. Efficacy index and improvement rate of TGO group, regarding pain score, was higher than the other two groups at day 2 and 4. The reduction in ulcer size was statistically higher in TGO group than the other two groups at day 4 and 6. Topical application of TGO gel could decrease pain intensity, accelerate ulcer healing without any side effects, utilizing an easy appliable and accessible procedure. Therefore TGO gel could be a well-tolerated, safe, topical therapeutic agent in the clinical practice of RAS treatment.

  16. The Janus face of iron on anoxic worlds: iron oxides are both protective and destructive to life on the early Earth and present-day Mars.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jennifer; Cockell, Charles S

    2017-05-01

    The surface of the early Earth was probably subjected to a higher flux of ultraviolet (UV) radiation than today. UV radiation is known to severely damage DNA and other key molecules of life. Using a liquid culture and a rock analogue system, we investigated the interplay of protective and deleterious effects of iron oxides under UV radiation on the viability of the model organism, Bacillus subtilis. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, there exists a fine balance between iron oxide's protective effects against this radiation and its deleterious effects caused by Photo-Fenton reactions. The maximum damage was caused by a concentration of hematite of ∼1 mg/mL. Concentrations above this confer increasing protection by physical blockage of the UV radiation, concentrations below this cause less effective UV radiation blockage, but also a correspondingly less effective Photo-Fenton reaction, providing an overall advantage. These results show that on anoxic worlds, surface habitability under a high UV flux leaves life precariously poised between the beneficial and deleterious effects of iron oxides. These results have relevance to the Archean Earth, but also the habitability of the Martian surface, where high levels of UV radiation in combination with iron oxides and hydrogen peroxide can be found. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Synthesis and performance evaluation of Al/Fe oxide coated diatomaceous earth in groundwater defluoridation: Towards fluorosis mitigation.

    PubMed

    Izuagie, Anthony A; Gitari, Wilson M; Gumbo, Jabulani R

    2016-08-23

    The quest to reduce fluoride in groundwater to WHO acceptable limit of 1.5 mg/L to prevent diseases such as teeth mottling and skeletal fluorosis was the motivation for this study. Al/Fe oxide-modified diatomaceous earth was prepared and its defluoridation potential evaluated by batch method. The sorbent with pHpzc 6.0 ± 0.2 is very reactive. The maximum 82.3% fluoride removal attained in 50 min using a dosage of 0.3 g/100 mL in 10 mg/L fluoride was almost attained within 5 min contact time; 81.3% being the percent fluoride removal at 5 min contact time. The sorbent has a usage advantage of not requiring solution pH adjustment before it can exhibit its fluoride removal potential. A substantial amount of fluoride (93.1%) was removed from solution when a sorbent dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL was contacted with 10 mg/L fluoride solution for 50 min at a mixing rate of 200 rpm. The optimum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 7.633 mg/g using a solution containing initially 100 mg/L fluoride. The equilibrium pH of the suspensions ranged between 6.77 and 8.26 for 10 and 100 mg/L fluoride solutions respectively. Contacting the sorbent at a dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL with field water containing 5.53 mg/L at 200 rpm for 50 min reduced the fluoride content to 0.928 mg/L-a value below the upper limit of WHO guideline of 1.5 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. The sorption data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms but better with the former. The sorption data obeyed only the pseudo-second-order kinetic, which implies that fluoride was chemisorbed.

  18. Defect Clustering and Nano-phase Structure Characterization of Multicomponent Rare Earth-Oxide-Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Chen, Yuan L.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been developed by incorporating multicomponent rare earth oxide dopants into zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings to promote the creation of the thermodynamically stable, immobile oxide defect clusters and/or nanophases within the coating systems. In this paper, the defect clusters, induced by Nd, Gd, and Yb rare earth dopants in the zirconia-yttria thermal barrier coatings, were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM lattice imaging, selected area diffraction (SAD), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses demonstrated that the extensive nanoscale rare earth dopant segregation exists in the plasma-sprayed and electron-physical-vapor-deposited (EB PVD) thermal barrier coatings. The nanoscale concentration heterogeneity and the resulting large lattice distortion promoted the formation of parallel and rotational defective lattice clusters in the coating systems. The presence of the 5-to 100-nm-sized defect clusters and nanophases is believed to be responsible for the significant reduction of thermal conductivity, improved sintering resistance, and long-term high temperature stability of the advanced thermal barrier coating systems.

  19. Tuning charge transfer in the LaTiO3/RO/LaNiO3 (R = rare-earth) superlattices by the rare-earth oxides interfaces from a first-principles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Fen; Zhang, Lifang; Meng, Junling; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Wenwen; Meng, Jian; Zhang, Hongjie

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the internal charge transfer at the isopolar interfaces in LaTiO3/RO/LaNiO3 (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu) superlattices by means of density functional theory calculations. The charge transfer from Ti sites to Ni sites in all superlattices is induced by the electronegativity difference between the elements Ti and Ni, and the lanthanide oxides interfaces can modulate the amount of charge transfer. Comparison of the perovskite heterostructures with the different rare-earth interfaces shows that increasing the deviations of bond angles from 180.0° and the oxygen motions near the interfaces enhance charge transfer. The 4f electrons themselves of rare-earth elements have faint influences on charge transfer. In addition, the reasons why our calculated 4f states of Sm and Tm elements disagree with the experimental systems have been provided. It is hoped that all the calculated results could be used to design new functional nanoelectronic devices in perovskite oxides.

  20. Rainfall simulation experiments to study sediment redistribution using rare earth element oxides as tracers under conventional and conservation agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Adrienn; Jakab, Gergely; Sipos, Péter; Karlik, Máté; Madarász, Balázs; Zacháry, Dóra; Szabó, Judit; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have very favourable characteristics for being ideal sediment tracers as they are characterised by strong binding to soil particles, low mobility, low background concentration in soils, environmental benignity, high analytical sensitivity and they can be detected relatively easily and inexpensively in soils. The group of REEs consist of 16 elements with similar chemical properties, but at the same time, they are clearly distinguishable enabling multiple tracking of sediment deriving from different parts of the studied area, as well as mapping redistribution processes by appropriate designing of subareas marked by different REEs. In this study, rainfall simulation experiments were carried out to compare the loss and redistribution of soil sediments in two plots under conventional and conservation agricultural practices. Five different rainfall intensities (up to 80 mm/h) were applied to both plots. Sources and pathways of sediments within the two plots were studied using REE-oxides as tracers. Approximately 1,000 mg/kg of Er2O3, Ho2O3 and Sm2O3 (calculated to the upper 1 cm of the soil) were dispersed to the soil surface with banded distribution; each transversal band covered the third of the surface are of the plots. Concentration of the REE-oxides in the sediment leaving the plots, and that of the surface soil before and after the experiment were analysed by X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Significant sediment losses were found for both plots after the experiments, with slightly different characteristics between the conventional and conservation ones. Highest difference in loss of added REEs was found in the upper third of the plots with 81 ± 19% in the conventional and 71 ± 21% in the conservation ones. These values have been equalized downwards with almost complete losses in the lower third of the plots (99 ± 2% and 97 ± 4%, respectively). Only very small part of the removed sediment has been accumulated in the lower parts of the

  1. Creation of high-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide thin films from low-fractal-dimension polymeric precursors synthesized by a sol-gel technique with a hydrazine monohydrochloride catalyst.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Wataru; Nakamura, Satoshi; Sato, Takaaki; Murakami, Yasushi

    2012-08-21

    Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) thin films exhibiting high refractive indices (n ≈ 2.1) and high transparency were fabricated by spin-coating titanium oxide liquid precursors having a weakly branched polymeric structure. The precursor solution was prepared from titanium tetra-n-butoxide (TTBO) via the catalytic sol-gel process with hydrazine monohydrochloride used as a salt catalyst, which serves as a conjugate acid-base pair catalyst. Our unique catalytic sol-gel technique accelerated the overall polycondensation reaction of partially hydrolyzed alkoxides, which facilitated the formation of liner polymer-like titanium oxide aggregates having a low fractal dimension of ca. (5)/(3), known as a characteristic of the so-called "expanded polymer chain". Such linear polymeric features are essential to the production of highly dense amorphous TiO(2) thin films; mutual interpenetration of the linear polymeric aggregates avoided the creation of void space that is often generated by the densification of high-fractal-dimension (particle-like) aggregates produced in a conventional sol-gel process. The mesh size of the titanium oxide polymers can be tuned either by water concentration or the reaction time, and the smaller mesh size in the liquid precursor led to a higher n value of the solid thin film, thanks to its higher local electron density. The reaction that required no addition of organic ligand to stabilize titanium alkoxides was advantageous to overcoming issues from organic residues such as coloration. The dense amorphous film structure suppressed light scattering loss owing to its extremely smooth surface and the absence of inhomogeneous grains or particles. Furthermore, the fabrication can be accomplished at a low heating temperature of <80 °C. Indeed, we successfully obtained a transparent film with a high refractive index of n = 2.064 (at λ = 633 nm) on a low-heat-resistance plastic, poly(methyl methacrylate), at 60 °C. The result offers an efficient

  2. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2006-04-04

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  3. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2004-07-13

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  4. Determining hillslope-channel connectivity in an agricultural catchment using rare-earth oxide tracers and random forests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masselink, Rens; Temme, Arnaud; Giménez, Rafael; Casalí, Javier; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion from agricultural areas is a large problem, because of off-site effects like the rapid filling of reservoirs. To mitigate the problem of sediments from agricultural areas reaching the channel, reservoirs and other surface waters, it is important to understand hillslope-channel connectivity and catchment connectivity. To determine the functioning of hillslope-channel connectivity and the continuation of transport of these sediments in the channel, it is necessary to obtain data on sediment transport from the hillslopes to the channels. Simultaneously, the factors that influence sediment export out of the catchment need to be studied. For measuring hillslope-channel sediment connectivity, Rare-Earth Oxide (REO) tracers were applied to a hillslope in an agricultural catchment in Navarre, Spain, preceding the winter of 2014-2015. The results showed that during the winter there was no sediment transport from the hillslope to the channel. Analysis of precipitation data showed that total precipitation quantities did not differ much from the mean. However, precipitation intensities were low, causing little sediment mobilisation. To test the implication of the REO results at the catchment scale, two conceptual models for sediment connectivity were assessed using a Random Forest (RF) machine learning method. One model proposes that small events provide sediment for large events, while the other proposes that only large events cause sediment detachment and small events subsequently remove these sediments from near and in the channel. The RF method was applied to a daily dataset of sediment yield from the catchment (N=2451 days), and two subsets of the whole dataset: small events (N=2319) and large events (N=132). For sediment yield prediction of small events, variables related to large preceding events were the most important. The model for large events underperformed and, therefore, we could not draw any immediate conclusions whether small events influence the

  5. Procedure to prepare transparent silica gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Patrick G. (Inventor); Simpson, Norman R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of silica gels and in particular to a process for the preparation of silica gels which can be used as a crystal growth medium that simulates the convectionless environment of space to produce structurally perfect crystals. Modern utilizations of substances in electronics, such as radio transmitters and high frequency microphones, often require single crystals with controlled purity and structural perfection. The near convectionless environment of silica gel suppresses nucleation, thereby reducing the competitive nature of crystal growth. This competition limits the size and perfection of the crystal; and it is obviously desirable to suppress nucleation until, ideally, only one crystal grows in a predetermined location. A silica gel is not a completely convectionless environment like outer space, but is the closest known environment to that of outer space that can be created on Earth.

  6. Communication—Sol-Gel Synthesized Magnesium Vanadium Oxide, Mg x V 2 O 5 · nH 2 O: The Role of Structural Mg 2+ on Battery Performance

    DOE PAGES

    Yin, Jiefu; Pelliccione, Christopher J.; Lee, Shu Han; ...

    2016-07-12

    Magnesium intercalated vanadium oxide xerogels, Mg 0.1V 2O 5 · 2.35H 2O and Mg 0.2V 2O 5 · 2.46H 2O were synthesized using an ion removal sol gel strategy. X-ray diffraction indicated lamellar ordering with turbostratic character. X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated greater distortion of the vanadium-oxygen coordination environment in Mg 0.2V 2O 5 · 2.46H 2O. Elemental analysis after cycling in Li + or Mg 2+ based electrolytes revealed that the magnesium content was unchanged, indicating structural Mg 2+ are retained. Furthermore, the Mg 0.1V 2O 5 · 2.35H 2O material displayed high voltage, energy density, and discharge/charge efficiency, indicatingmore » promise as a cathode material for future magnesium based batteries.« less

  7. Influence of precursor concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of indium oxide thin film prepared by a sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, L. N.; Ibrahim, N. B.; Baqiah, H.

    2015-08-01

    This research was carried out to study the effect of different precursor concentrations on the physical properties of indium oxide (In2O3) thin film. In2O3 is a promising n-type semiconductor material that has been used in optoelectronic applications because of its highly transparent properties. It is a transparent conducting oxide with a wide band gap (∼3.7 eV). The experiment was started by preparing different precursor concentrations of indium nitrate hydrate (In (NO3)·H2O) solution and followed by the spin coating technique prior to an annealing process at 500 °C. Indium oxide thin films were characterized using an X-ray diffractometer, an ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, a field emission scanning electron microscope and a Hall Effect Measurement System in order to determine the influence caused by the different molarities of indium oxide. The result showed that the film thickness increased with the indium oxide molarity. Film thicknesses were in the range of 0.3-135.1 nm and optical transparency of films was over 94%. Lowest resistivity of 2.52 Ω cm with a mobility of 26.60 cm2 V-1 S-1 and carrier concentration of 4.27 × 1017 cm-3 was observed for the indium oxide thin film prepared at 0.30 M.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of sodium vanadium oxide gels: the effects of water (n) and sodium (x) content on the electrochemistry of Na(x)V2O5·nH2O.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Marschilok, Amy C; Subramanian, Aditya; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2011-10-28

    Sodium vanadium oxide gels, Na(x)V(2)O(5)·nH(2)O, of varying sodium content (0.12 < x < 0.32) were prepared by careful control of an ion exchange process. The water content (0.23 > n > 0.01) and interlayer spacing were found to be inversely proportional to the sodium level (x), thus control of sodium (x) content provided a direct, chimie douce approach for control of hydration level (n) and interlayer spacing, without the need for high temperature treatment to affect dehydration. Notably, the use of high temperatures to modify hydration levels can result in crystallization and collapse of the interlayer structure, highlighting the distinct advantage of our novel chimie douce synthesis strategy. Subsequent to synthesis and characterization, results from an electrochemical study of a series of Na(x)V(2)O(5)·nH(2)O samples highlight the significant impact of interlayer water on delivered capacity of the layered materials. Specifically, the sodium vanadium oxide gels with higher sodium content and lower water content provided higher capacities in lithium based cells, where capacity delivered to 2.0 V under C/20 discharge ranged from 170 mAh/g for Na(0.12)V(2)O(5)·0.23H(2)O to 300 mAh/g for Na(0.32)V(2)O(5)·0.01H(2)O. The capacity differences were maintained as the cells were cycled. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  9. [Interface compatibility between tooth-like yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal by adding rare-earth oxide and Vita VM9 veneering porcelain].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Fu-qiang; He, Fan

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the interface compatibility between tooth-like yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal(Y-TZP) by adding rare-earth oxide and Vita VM9 veneering porcelain. Six kinds(S1,S2,S3,S4,S5,S6) of tooth-like yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal were made by introducing internal colorating technology to detect the thermal shock resistance and interface bonding strength with Vita VM9 Bsaedentin. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS6.12 software package. There was no gap between the layers via hot shocking test.The shear bonding strength between Y-TZP and VitaVM9 was higher and the value was (36.03±3.82) to (37.98±4.89) MPa. By adding rare-earth oxide to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal ,better compatibility between the layer (TZP and Vita VM9) can be formed which is of better interface integrate and available for clinical applications.

  10. Organic Aerosols in the Presence of CO{sub 2} in the Early Earth and Exoplanets: UV–Vis Refractive Indices of Oxidized Tholins

    SciT

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Carrasco, Nathalie; Vettier, Ludovic

    In this experimental study we investigate the role of atmospheric CO{sub 2} on the optical properties of organic photochemical aerosols. To this end, we add CO{sub 2} to a N{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} gas mixture used in a plasma typically used for Titan studies. We produce organic thin films (tholins) in plasmas where the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio is increased from 0 to 4. We measure these films via spectrometric ellipsometry and apply a Tauc–Lorentz model, used for optically transparent materials, to obtain the thickness of the thin film, its optical band gap, and the refractive indices in the UV–visible (270–600more » nm). All samples present a significant absorption band in the UV. According to the Tauc–Lorentz model, as the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio is quadrupled, the position of the UV band is shifted from ∼177 nm to 264 nm while its strength is quadrupled. Consequently, we infer that oxidized organic aerosols absorb more efficiently at longer UV wavelengths than reduced aerosols. Our laboratory wavelength-tabulated UV–vis refractive indices provide new constraints to atmospheric models of the early Earth and Earth-like exoplanets including photochemical hazes formed under increasingly oxidizing conditions.« less

  11. Organic Aerosols in the Presence of CO2 in the Early Earth and Exoplanets: UV-Vis Refractive Indices of Oxidized Tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Broch, Laurent; Carrasco, Nathalie; Fleury, Benjamin; Vettier, Ludovic

    2017-10-01

    In this experimental study we investigate the role of atmospheric CO2 on the optical properties of organic photochemical aerosols. To this end, we add CO2 to a N2:CH4 gas mixture used in a plasma typically used for Titan studies. We produce organic thin films (tholins) in plasmas where the CO2/CH4 ratio is increased from 0 to 4. We measure these films via spectrometric ellipsometry and apply a Tauc-Lorentz model, used for optically transparent materials, to obtain the thickness of the thin film, its optical band gap, and the refractive indices in the UV-visible (270-600 nm). All samples present a significant absorption band in the UV. According to the Tauc-Lorentz model, as the CO2/CH4 ratio is quadrupled, the position of the UV band is shifted from ˜177 nm to 264 nm while its strength is quadrupled. Consequently, we infer that oxidized organic aerosols absorb more efficiently at longer UV wavelengths than reduced aerosols. Our laboratory wavelength-tabulated UV-vis refractive indices provide new constraints to atmospheric models of the early Earth and Earth-like exoplanets including photochemical hazes formed under increasingly oxidizing conditions.

  12. Effect of H2O on metal-silicate partitioning of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe: Implications for the oxidation state of the Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clesi, V.; Bouhifd, M. A.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Manthilake, G.; Fabbrizio, A.; Andrault, D.

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the metal-silicate partitioning of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe during core mantle differentiation of terrestrial planets under hydrous conditions. For this, we equilibrated a molten hydrous CI chondrite model composition with various Fe-rich alloys in the system Fe-C-Ni-Co-Si-S in a multi-anvil over a range of P, T, fO2 and water content (5-20 GPa, 2073-2500 K, from 1 to 5 log units below the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer and for XH2O varying from 500 ppm to 1.5 wt%). By comparing the present experiments with the available data sets on dry systems, we observes that the effect of water on the partition coefficients of moderately siderophile elements is only moderate. For example, for iron we observed a decrease in the partition coefficient of Fe (Dmet/silFe) from 9.5 to 4.3, with increasing water content of the silicate melt, from 0 to 1.44 wt%, respectively. The evolution of metal-silicate partition coefficients of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe are modelled based on sets of empirical parameters. These empirical models are then used to refine the process of core segregation during accretion of Mars and the Earth. It appears that the likely presence of 3.5 wt% water on Mars during the core-mantle segregation could account for ∼74% of the FeO content of the Martian mantle. In contrast, water does not play such an important role for the Earth; only 4-6% of the FeO content of its mantle could be due to the water-induced Fe-oxidation, for a likely initial water concentration of 1.8 wt%. Thus, in order to reproduce the present-day FeO content of 8 wt% in the mantle, the Earth could initially have been accreted from a large fraction (between 85% and 90%) of reducing bodies (similar to EH chondrites), with 10-15% of the Earth's mass likely made of more oxidized components that introduced the major part of water and FeO to the Earth. This high proportion of enstatite chondrites in the original constitution of the Earth is consistent with the 17O,48Ca,50Ti,62Ni

  13. Proterozoic low-Ti iron-oxide deposits in New York and New Jersey: relation to Fe-oxide (Cu-U-Au-rare earth element) deposits and tectonic implications

    Foose, M.P.; McLelland, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Low-Ti iron-oxide deposits in exposed Grenville-age rocks of New York and New Jersey belong to a distinct class of iron-oxide (Cu-U-Au-rare earth element [REE]) deposits that includes similar iron deposits in southeastern Missouri and the Kiruna district of Sweden, the giant Olympic Dam U-Cu-Au-Ag deposit (Australia), and the Bayan Obo REE-Nb deposit (China). Most of the New York-New Jersey deposits exhibit features consistent with a hydrothermal origin and define a regionally significant metallogenic event that provides important clues to the evolution of this part of the Grenville orogen. In the Adirondacks, the tectonic setting of these deposits is consistent with postorogenic uplift and extensive crustal melting at 1070-1050 Ma that was accompanied by late tectonic to posttectonic deposition of iron. -Authors

  14. Iron and oxygen isotope fractionation during iron UV photo-oxidation: Implications for early Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Nicole X.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Greenwood, Richard C.

    2017-01-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) contain appreciable amounts of ferric iron (Fe3+). The mechanism by which ferrous iron (Fe2+) was oxidized into Fe3+ in an atmosphere that was globally anoxic is highly debated. Of the three scenarios that have been proposed to explain BIF formation, photo-oxidation by UV photons is the only one that does not involve life (the other two are oxidation by O2 produced by photosynthesis, and anoxygenic photosynthesis whereby Fe2+ is directly used as electron donor in place of water). We experimentally investigated iron and oxygen isotope fractionation imparted by iron photo-oxidation at a pH of 7.3. The iron isotope fractionation between precipitated Fe3+-bearing lepidocrocite and dissolved Fe2+ follows a Rayleigh distillation with an instantaneous 56Fe/54Fe fractionation factor of + 1.2 ‰. Such enrichment in the heavy isotopes of iron is consistent with the values measured in BIFs. We also investigated the nature of the mass-fractionation law that governs iron isotope fractionation in the photo-oxidation experiments (i.e., the slope of the δ56Fe-δ57Fe relationship). The experimental run products follow a mass-dependent law corresponding to the high-T equilibrium limit. The fact that a ∼3.8 Gyr old BIF sample (IF-G) from Isua (Greenland) falls on the same fractionation line confirms that iron photo-oxidation in the surface layers of the oceans was a viable pathway to BIF formation in the Archean, when the atmosphere was largely transparent to UV photons. Our experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield of the photo-oxidation process (∼0.07 iron atom oxidized per photon absorbed). This yield is used to model iron oxidation on early Mars. As the photo-oxidation proceeds, the aqueous medium becomes more acidic, which slows down the reaction by changing the speciation of iron to species that are less efficient at absorbing UV-photons. Iron photo-oxidation in centimeter to meter-deep water ponds would take months to years to

  15. Band alignment investigations of heterostructure NiO/TiO2 nanomaterials used as efficient heterojunction earth-abundant metal oxide photocatalysts for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md T; Nicolas, Y; Olivier, C; Jaegermann, W; Rockstroh, N; Junge, H; Toupance, T

    2017-07-26

    Earth-abundant NiO/anatase TiO 2 heteronanostructures were prepared by a straightforward one-pot sol-gel synthetic route followed by a suitable thermal post-treatment. The resulting 0.1-4 wt% NiO-decorated anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy and N 2 sorption analysis, and showed both nanocrystallinity and mesoporosity. The careful determination of the energy band alignment diagram by a suitable combination of XPS/UPS and absorption spectroscopy data revealed significant band bending at the interface of the p-n NiO/anatase TiO 2 heterojunction nanoparticles. Furthermore, these heterojunction photocatalysts exhibited an improved photocatalytic activity in H 2 production by methanol photoreforming compared to pure anatase TiO 2 and commercial P25. Thus, an average H 2 production rate of 2693 μmol h -1 g -1 was obtained for the heterojunction of a 1 wt% NiO/anatase photocatalyst, which is one of the most efficient NiO/anatase TiO 2 systems ever reported. An enhanced dissociation efficiency of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs resulting from an internal electric field developed at the interface of the NiO/anatase TiO 2 p-n heterojunctions is suggested to be the reason of this enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  16. Imprinted Oxide and MIP/Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors †.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Adeel; Dickert, Franz L

    2018-04-20

    The oxides of transition, post-transition and rare-earth metals have a long history of robust and fast responsive recognition elements for electronic, optical, and gravimetric devices. A wide range of applications successfully utilized pristine or doped metal oxides and polymer-oxide hybrids as nanostructured recognition elements for the detection of biologically relevant molecules, harmful organic substances, and drugs as well as for the investigative process control applications. An overview of the selected recognition applications of molecularly imprinted sol-gel phases, metal oxides and hybrid nanomaterials composed of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) and metal oxides is presented herein. The formation and fabrication processes for imprinted sol-gel layers, metal oxides, MIP-coated oxide nanoparticles and other MIP/oxide nanohybrids are discussed along with their applications in monitoring bioorganic analytes and processes. The sensor characteristics such as dynamic detection range and limit of detection are compared as the performance criterion and the miniaturization and commercialization possibilities are critically discussed.

  17. Imprinted Oxide and MIP/Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors †

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The oxides of transition, post-transition and rare-earth metals have a long history of robust and fast responsive recognition elements for electronic, optical, and gravimetric devices. A wide range of applications successfully utilized pristine or doped metal oxides and polymer-oxide hybrids as nanostructured recognition elements for the detection of biologically relevant molecules, harmful organic substances, and drugs as well as for the investigative process control applications. An overview of the selected recognition applications of molecularly imprinted sol-gel phases, metal oxides and hybrid nanomaterials composed of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) and metal oxides is presented herein. The formation and fabrication processes for imprinted sol-gel layers, metal oxides, MIP-coated oxide nanoparticles and other MIP/oxide nanohybrids are discussed along with their applications in monitoring bioorganic analytes and processes. The sensor characteristics such as dynamic detection range and limit of detection are compared as the performance criterion and the miniaturization and commercialization possibilities are critically discussed. PMID:29677107

  18. Chlorination of UO 2, PuO 2 and rare earth oxides using ZrCl 4 in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamura, Yoshiharu; Inoue, Tadashi; Iwai, Takashi; Moriyama, Hirotake

    2005-04-01

    A new chlorination method using ZrCl 4 in a molten salt bath has been investigated for the pyrometallurgical reprocessing of nuclear fuels. ZrCl 4 has a high reactivity with oxygen but is not corrosive to refractory metals such as steel. Rare earth oxides (La 2O 3, CeO 2, Nd 2O 3 and Y 2O 3) and actinide oxides (UO 2 and PuO 2) were allowed to react with ZrCl 4 in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at 773 K to give a metal chloride solution and a precipitate of ZrO 2. An addition of zirconium metal as a reductant was effective in chlorinating the dioxides. When the oxides were in powder form, the reaction was observed to progress rapidly. Cyclic voltammetry provided a convenient way of establishing when the reaction was completed. It was demonstrated that the ZrCl 4 chlorination method, free from corrosive gas, was very simple and useful.

  19. Sol-Gel Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  20. The impact of thermal treatment conditions on the formation of crystalline structure of Ce-Zr-oxide composite obtained by a modified sol-gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusova, E. A.; Khrushcheva, A. A.; Shvorneva, L. I.

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of the modified sol-gel synthesis of ultrafine ceria-doped zirconia powder for medical ceramics (implants) and catalytic purposes (environmental catalysis and petrochemistry). Special attention has been paid to study the influence of thermal treatment on crystallite size and crystal lattice parameters of zirconia doped by ceria. Zirconyl chloride and cerium nitrate were used as metal sources, and tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) was used as a sol stabilizer at molar ratio TEAH/Σ (Ce + Zr) equal to 0.5. It was proved that zirconium and cerium practically completely were included in the obtained solid solutions, since their phase compositions fully correspond to initial quantities of cerium and zirconium in reaction mixture. It was shown that average crystallite size of the obtained powders did not exceed 75Å, and the powders were resistant to thermal treatment. It was established that stabilization of the crystal lattice of ZrO2 occurs through formation of a cubic ceria sublattice.

  1. Local order structure and surface acidity properties of a Nb 2O 5/SiO 2 mixed oxide prepared by the sol-gel processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Maria Suzana P.; Landers, Richard; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

    2004-07-01

    The sol-gel processing method was used as an alternative route to obtain Nb 2O 5 phase homogenously dispersed in the SiO 2 matrix, improving the thermal stability of the Brønsted acid sites, Nb-OH and Nb-OH-Si groups. The local niobium structure and the influence of the amount of niobia on the surface of the Nb 2O 5/SiO 2 system were studied by XAS and XPS, respectively. For the samples calcined at 423 and 873 K, the 3 d5/2 BE values are at ca. 208.2 eV, indicating an ionic character for Nb(V) species in the SiO 2 matrix, probably associated to Si-O-Nb linkages. The features of Nb K-edge XANES spectra of samples show the absence of NbO species. The Nb K-edge EXAFS oscillations exhibit a shoulder at ca. 5.6 Å -1, which probably arises from Nb-O-Si. This fact corroborates the EXAFS simulation data of the second coordination shell, whose best fitting is achieved with three distances, two Nb-Nb lengths and one Nb-Si.

  2. Microstructure evolution of zinc oxide films derived from dip-coating sol-gel technique: formation of nanorods through orientation attachment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nan; Sun, Chao; Zhu, Mingwei; Zhang, Bin; Gong, Jun; Jiang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    ZnO:Al thin films with Al incorporation of 0-20 at.% were deposited through the sol-gel technique. Such a film undergoes a significant microstructure development, from columnar to granular structures and then nanorod arrays with increasing Al content. The important role of Al incorporation level in the microstructure evolution was determined using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. At low Al level, the transition from columnar to granular grains can be attributed to the coarsening barrier resulting from the introduction of Al into the matrix. However, oriented structures of ZnO nanorod arrays are formed at a high Al level. TEM investigation reveals that a nanorod with smooth morphology at the top and rough morphology at the bottom has a single-crystalline wurtzite structure, which is the aggregation of nanoparticles of a few nanometers in size formed through the orientation attachment mechanism followed by epitaxial growth on the aggregated particles. Finally, the physical properties of the ZnO films with different degrees of Al concentration are discussed. Such detailed microstructure studies may aid the understanding of the doping effect process on the growth of a film, which is essential to altering its physical or chemical properties.

  3. Study of low-temperature active rare-earth oxide catalysts for automotive exhaust clean-up.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-02-01

    We report a facile onepot synthesis of CexZr1-xO2 (0x1) solid solution nanocrystals using hydrothermal reactions. A direct formation of oxide solid solutions in aqueous solution under pressure at low temperatures was clearly revealed by X-ra...

  4. Electroluminescence color tuning between green and red from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices fabricated by spin-coating of rare-earth (terbium + europium) organic compounds on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Toshihiro; Hattori, Fumihiro; Iwata, Hideyuki; Ohzone, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Color tunable electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with the rare-earth elements Tb and Eu is reported. Organic compound liquid sources of (Tb + Ba) and Eu with various Eu/Tb ratios from 0.001 to 0.4 were spin-coated on an n+-Si substrate and annealed to form an oxide insulator layer. The EL spectra had only peaks corresponding to the intrashell Tb3+/Eu3+ transitions in the spectral range from green to red, and the intensity ratio of the peaks was appropriately tuned using the appropriate Eu/Tb ratios in liquid sources. Consequently, the EL emission colors linearly changed from yellowish green to yellowish orange and eventually to reddish orange on the CIE chromaticity diagram. The gate current +I G current also affected the EL colors for the medium-Eu/Tb-ratio device. The structure of the surface insulator films analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has four layers, namely, (Tb4O7 + Eu2O3), [Tb4O7 + Eu2O3 + (Tb/Eu/Ba)SiO x ], (Tb/Eu/Ba)SiO x , and SiO x -rich oxide. The EL mechanism proposed is that electrons injected from the Si substrate into the SiO x -rich oxide and Tb/Eu/Ba-silicate layers become hot electrons accelerated in a high electric field, and then these hot electrons excite Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in the Tb4O7/Eu2O3 layers resulting in EL emission from Tb3+ and Eu3+ intrashell transitions.

  5. Nanocrystalline semiconductor doped rare earth oxide for the photocatalytic degradation studies on Acid Blue 113: A di-azo compound under UV slurry photoreactor.

    PubMed

    Suganya Josephine, G A; Mary Nisha, U; Meenakshi, G; Sivasamy, A

    2015-11-01

    Preventive measures for the control of environmental pollution and its remediation has received much interest in recent years due to the world-wide increase in the contamination of water bodies. Contributions of these harmful effluents are caused by the leather processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile, agricultural and other chemical industries. Nowadays, advanced oxidation processes considered to be better option for the complete destruction of organic contaminants in water and wastewater. Acid Blue 113 is a most widely used di-azo compound in leather, textile, dying and food industry as a color rending compound. In the present study, we have reported the photo catalytic degradation of Acid Blue 113 using a nanocrystalline semiconductor doped rare earth oxide as a photo catalyst under UV light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by a simple precipitation technique and were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-DRS and FE-SEM analysis. The experimental results proved that the prepared photo catalyst was nanocrystalline and highly active in the UV region. The UV-DRS results showed the band gap energy was 3.15eV for the prepared photo catalyst. The photodegradation efficiency was analyzed by various experimental parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, variation of substrate concentration and effect of electrolyte addition. The photo degradation process followed a pseudo first order kinetics and was continuously monitored by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The experimental results proved the efficacy of the nanocrystalline zinc oxide doped dysprosium oxide which are highly active under UV light irradiations. It is also suggested that the prepared material would find wider applications in environmental remediation technologies to remove the carcinogenic and toxic moieties present in the industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Abiotic production of nitrous oxide by lightning. Implications for a false positive identification of life on Earth-Like Planets around quiescent M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P.

    Nitrous oxide (N _{2}O) is uniformly mixed in the troposphere with a concentration of about 310 ppb but disappears in the stratosphere (Prinn et al., 1990); N _{2}O is mostly emitted at a rate of 1x10 (13) g yr (-1) as a byproduct of microbial activity in soils and in the ocean by two processes: a) denitrification (reduction of nitrate and nitrite), and b) nitrification (oxidation of ammonia) (Maag and Vinther, 1996). The abiotic emission of N _{2}O in the contemporaneous Earth is small, mostly arising from lightning activity (2x10 (9) g yr (-1) , Hill et al., 1984) and by reduction of nitrite by Fe(II)-minerals in soils in Antarctica (Samarkin et al., 2010). Since N _{2}O has absorption bands in the mid-IR (7.8, 8.5, and 17 mumm) that makes it detectable by remote sensing (Topfer et al., 1997; Des Marais et al., 2002), it has been suggested as a potential biosignature in the search for life in extrasolar planets (Churchill and Kasting, 2000). However, the minimum required concentration for positive identification is 10,000 ppb with missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin (Churchill and Kasting, 2000). Therefore, it is not a suitable biomarker for extrasolar Earth-like planets orbiting stars similar to the Sun. Because N _{2}O is protected in the troposphere from UV photolysis by the stratospheric ozone layer, its concentration would decrease with decreasing oxygen (O _{2}) concentrations, if the biological source strength remains constant (Kasting and Donahue, 1980). For a primitive Earth-like (Hadean) atmosphere dominated by CO _{2}, and no free O _{2}, the expected N _{2}O concentration would be about 3 ppb with the current microbial N _{2}O flux (Churchill and Kasting, 2000). The resulting N _{2}O spectral signature of this atmosphere would be undetectable unless the N _{2}O microbial flux would be 10 (4) greater than its present value (Churchill and Kasting, 2000). Since this flux is unlikely, it is impossible to use it as a biomarker in anoxic CO

  7. Cathodoluminescent characteristics and light technical parameters of thin-film screens based on oxides and oxysulfides of rare-earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, Vyacheslav D.; Grytsiv, Myroslav; Groodzinsky, Arkady; Vasyliv, Mykhailo

    1995-11-01

    Results on creation of thin-film single-crystal high-resolution screens with energy control of luminescence color are presented. In order to create phosphor films ion-plasma technology for deposition of yttrium and lanthanum oxides and oxysulfides activated by rare earth elements has been developed. The screen consists of phosphor film on phosphor substrate with different colors of luminescence (e.g. Y2O3-Eu film with red color on Y3Al5O12- Tb, Ce substrate with green color of luminescence). Electron irradiation causes luminescence with color that depends on energy of the electron beam. The physical reason for color change is that electron beam energy defines electron penetration depth. If the energy is weak, only the film is excited. More powerful beam penetrates into the substrate and thus changes the color of luminescence.

  8. An electrically conductive thermal control surface for spacecraft encountering Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen indium tin oxide-coated thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    An organic black thermal blanket material was coated with indium tin oxide (ITO) to prevent blanket degradation in the low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen environment. The blankets were designed for the Galileo spacecraft. Galileo was initially intended for space shuttle launch and would, therefore, have been exposed to atomic oxygen in LEO for between 10 and 25 hours. Two processes for depositing ITO are described. Thermooptical, electrical, and chemical properties of the ITO film are presented as a function of the deposition process. Results of exposure of the ITO film to atomic oxygen (from a shuttle flight) and radiation exposure (simulated Jovian environment) are also presented. It is shown that the ITO-protected thermal blankets would resist the anticipated LEO oxygen and Jovian radiation yet provide adequate thermooptical and electrical resistance. Reference is made to the ESA Ulysses spacecraft, which also used ITO protection on thermal control surfaces.

  9. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciT

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysismore » suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity

  10. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  11. The synthesis of higher oxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals in an electric discharge: Theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, A. T.; Sadhukhan, P.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium hydroxide was subjected to the products of an electrical discharge sustained in oxygen and produced both potassium peroxide and superoxide. The conversion to higher oxides was shown to strongly depend upon the particle size of KOH, the position of KOH in the discharge zone, and the operating conditions of the discharge. Similar experiments were performed with hydroxides of lithium and calcium which do not form superoxides, but are converted to peroxides. The yields of peroxides were shown to strongly depend upon the operating conditions of the discharge. The absence of superoxides and the presence of peroxides of lithium and calcium was explained from the consideration of relative thermodynamic stability of the oxides of lithium and calcium. Thermogravimetric analysis was shown to provide a more accurate means for determining the amount of KO2 than previous methods.

  12. Rare earth element geochemistry of feldspars: examples from Fe-oxide Cu-Au systems in the Olympic Cu-Au Province, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ehrig, Kathy; Krneta, Sasha; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.

    2018-04-01

    Rare earth element (REE) fractionation trends in feldspars are reported from Olympic Dam (including Wirrda Well and Phillip's Ridge) and Cape Donington (Port Lincoln), for comparison with two other igneous-hydrothermal terranes within the eastern Gawler Craton: Moonta-Wallaroo and Hillside. The case studies were selected as they represent 1590 Ma Hiltaba Suite and/or 1845 - 1810 Ma Donington Suite granites, and, aside from Cape Donington, are associated with Mesoproterozoic iron-oxide copper gold (IOCG)-type mineralization. Both plagioclase and alkali feldspar were analyzed within selected samples with the purpose of constraining and linking changes in REE concentrations and fractionation trends in feldspars to local and whole-rock textures and geochemistry. Two unique, reproducible fractionation trends were obtained for igneous plagioclase and alkali feldspars, distinguished from one another by light rare earth element enrichment, Eu-anomalies and degrees of fractionation (e.g. La/Lu slopes). Results for hydrothermal albite and K-feldspar indicate that REE concentrations and fractionation trends are generally inherited from igneous predecessors, however in some instances, significant amounts of REE appear to have been lost to the fluid. These results may have critical implications for the formation of world-class IOCG systems, in which widespread alkali metasomatism plays a key role by altering the physical and chemical properties of the host rocks during early stages of IOCG formation, as well as trapping trace elements (including REE).

  13. Low-temperature sol-gel oxide TFT with a fluoropolymer dielectric to enhance the effective mobility at low operation voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shang-Yu; Wang, Kuan-Hsun; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Soppera, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we propose a solution-processed high-performance amorphous indium-zinc oxide (a-IZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) gated with a fluoropolymer dielectric. Compared with a conventional IZO TFT with a silicon nitride dielectric, a fluoropolymer dielectric effectively reduces the operation voltage to less than 3 V and greatly increases the effective mobility 40-fold. We suggest that the dipole layer formed at the dielectric surface facilitates electron accumulation and induces the electric double-layer effect. The dipole-induced hysteresis effect is also investigated.

  14. Uniform surface modification of diatomaceous earth with amorphous manganese oxide and its adsorption characteristics for lead ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; Li, Duanyang; Su, Fei; Ren, Yuping; Qin, Gaowu

    2014-10-01

    A novel method to produce composite sorbent material compromising porous diatomaceous earth (DE) and surface functionalized amorphous MnO2 is reported. Via a simple in situ redox reaction over the carbonized DE powders, a uniform layer of amorphous MnO2 was anchored onto the DE surface. The hybrid adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The batch method has been employed to investigate the effects of surface coating on adsorption performance of DE. According to the equilibrium studies, the adsorption capacity of DE for adsorbing lead ions after MnO2 modification increased more than six times. And the adsorption of Pb2+ on the MnO2 surface is based on ion-exchange mechanism. The developed strategy presents a novel opportunity to prepare composite adsorbent materials by integrating nanocrystals with porous matrix.

  15. Furnace Cyclic Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia-Yttria and Multi-Component Rare Earth Oxide Doped Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Nesbitt, James A.; McCue, Terry R.; Barrett, Charles A.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to enable further increases in engine temperatures. However, the coating performance and durability become a major concern under the increasingly harsh thermal cycling conditions. Advanced zirconia- and hafnia-based cluster oxide thermal barrier coatings with lower thermal conductivity and improved thermal stability are being developed using a high-heat-flux laser-rig based test approach. Although the new composition coatings were not yet optimized for cyclic durability, an initial durability screening of numerous candidate coating materials was carried out using conventional furnace cyclic tests. In this paper, furnace thermal cyclic behavior of the advanced plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria-based thermal barrier coatings that were co-doped with multi-component rare earth oxides was investigated at 1163 C using 45 min hot cycles. The ceramic coating failure mechanisms were studied by using scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray diffraction phase analysis after the furnace tests. The coating cyclic lifetime will be discussed in relation to coating phase structures, total dopant concentrations, and other properties.

  16. Study of the use of Metal-Oxide-Silicon (MOS) devices for particulate detection and monitoring in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, A. D.; Monteith, L. K.; Wortman, J. J.; Mulligan, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type particulate sensor was evaluated for use in atmospheric measurements. An accelerator system was designed and tested for the purpose of providing the necessary energy to trigger the MOS-type sensor. The accelerator system and the MOS sensor were characterized as a function of particle size and velocity. Diamond particles were used as particulate sources in laboratory tests. Preliminary tests were performed in which the detector was mounted on an aircraft and flown in the vicinity of coal-fired electric generating plants.

  17. Actuator device utilizing a conductive polymer gel

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Douglas A.; Irvin, David J.

    2004-02-03

    A valve actuator based on a conductive polymer gel is disclosed. A nonconductive housing is provided having two separate chambers separated by a porous frit. The conductive polymer is held in one chamber and an electrolyte solution, used as a source of charged ions, is held in the second chamber. The ends of the housing a sealed with a flexible elastomer. The polymer gel is further provide with electrodes with which to apply an electrical potential across the gel in order to initiate an oxidation reaction which in turn drives anions across the porous frit and into the polymer gel, swelling the volume of the gel and simultaneously contracting the volume of the electrolyte solution. Because the two end chambers are sealed the flexible elastomer expands or contracts with the chamber volume change. By manipulating the potential across the gel the motion of the elastomer can be controlled to act as a "gate" to open or close a fluid channel and thereby control flow through that channel.

  18. Effects of high CO2 levels on surface temperature and atmospheric oxidation state of the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pollack, J. B.; Crisp, D.

    1984-01-01

    One-dimensional radiative and photochemical models are used to determine how much CO2 must have been present to maintain a temperate early climate and to examine the consequences that are implied for the controls on atmospheric oxidation state. It is shown that CO2 concentrations of the order of 1000 PAL are required to keep the average surface temperature close to the present value, if albedo changes and heating by reduced greenhouse gases were relatively unimportant. The oxidation state of such a high-CO2, prebiotic atmosphere should have been largely determined by the balance between the H2O2 rainout rate and the rate at which hydrogen escaped to space, with only a weak dependence on the volcanic outgassing rate or on other speculative sources of H2. The implied upper limit on the ground-level O2 mixing ratio is approximately 10 to the -11th and is subject to less uncertainty than the results of previous models.

  19. Effects of oxidization and deoxidization on charge-propagation dynamics in rare-earth-doped titanium dioxide with room-temperature luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Masashi; Towlson, Brian; Poolton, Nigel; Harako, Susumu; Zhao, Xinwei; Komuro, Shuji; Hamilton, Bruce

    2012-03-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide (A-TiO2) with a wide band-gap energy of 3.2 eV can be used as a host semiconductor of rare-earth dopants for optical devices. However, the chemical activity of A-TiO2 strongly affects the luminescence properties of the devices. In this study, we analyzed oxidized and deoxidized samarium (Sm)-doped A-TiO2 (TiO2:Sm) by impedance spectroscopy and microscopic photoluminescence. Charge propagation analyses using dielectric relaxation (DR) revealed that different kinds of charge-trapping centers were formed by the oxidization and deoxidization. For oxidization, Sm-oxygen complexes incorporated in the A-TiO2 formed a trapping level that contributed to Sm excitation, while defective complexes at the A-TiO2 boundary formed other levels that dissipated the charges. For deoxidization using thermal treatment in a hydrogen (H) atmosphere, the number of profitable trapping centers in A-TiO2 was reduced but the remainder maintained the property of Sm excitation. It was also found that H adsorption on the A-TiO2 boundary delocalized the electrons. Photoexcited dielectric relaxation (PEDR) studies confirmed the charge recombination at the profitable traps, and the peak height of the spectra corresponded to the luminescence intensity. Microscopic photoluminescence studies provided results consistent with DR and PEDR measurements and also revealed another quenching factor, i.e., Ti2O3 microcrystal formation on the TiO2:Sm surface.

  20. Corrosion protection and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating applied on the steel substrate pre-treated by a sol-gel based silane coating filled with amino and isocyanate silane functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parhizkar, Nafise; Ramezanzadeh, Bahram; Shahrabi, Taghi

    2018-05-01

    This research has focused on the effect of graphene oxide (GO) nano-fillers embedded in the sol-gel based silane coating on the corrosion protection and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating applied on the steel substrate pre-treated by silane coatings. For this purpose, a mixture of Methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) and Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) silane precursors was used for preparation of composite matrix and the GO nanosheets, which are covalently functionalized with 3-(Triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate (TEPI, IGO nano-fillers) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES, AGO nano-fillers), were used as filler. The GO, AGO and IGO nanosheets were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Visible analysis and field emission-scanning electron microscopy techniques. The performance of the silane/epoxy coatings was investigated by pull-off adhesion, cathodic delamination, salt spray and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Results revealed that AGO and IGO nano-fillers significantly improved the corrosion resistance and adhesion properties of the top epoxy coating due to better compatibility with silane matrix, excellent barrier properties and the formation of covalent bonds with the top epoxy coating.

  1. The morphology, proliferation rate, and population doubling time factor of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on to non-aqueous SiO2, TiO2, and hybrid sol-gel-derived oxide coatings.

    PubMed

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Krzak-Roś, Justyna; Donesz-Sikorska, Anna; Śmieszek, Agnieszka

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, especially when stem cells of various sources are concerned. In addition to the interest in mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow, recently more consideration has been given to stem cells isolated from adipose tissue (AdMSCs), due to their less invasive method of collection as well as their ease of isolation and culture. However, the development of regenerative medicine requires both the application of biocompatible material and the stem cells to accelerate the regeneration. In this study, we investigated the morphology, proliferation rate index (PRi), and population doubling time factor of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on non-aqueous sol-gel-derived SiO2, TiO2, and SiO2/TiO2 oxide coatings. The results indicated an increase in PRi of AdMSCs when cultured on to titanium dioxide, suggesting its high attractiveness for AdMSCs. In addition, the proper morphology and the shortest doubling time of AdMSCs were observed when cultured on titanium dioxide coating. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of sol-gel synthesis on 5Fe-15Mn-40Zn-40Ti-O mixed oxide structure and its H2S removal efficiency from industrial gas streams.

    PubMed

    Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Efstathiou, Angelos M

    2009-06-15

    A novel Fe-Mn-Zn-Ti-O mixed metal oxide has been developed for efficient low-temperature (25-50 degrees C) removal of H2S from a gas mixture containing 600 ppm H2S, 25 vol% H2, 7.5 vol % CO2, and 1-3 vol% H2O that simulates typical conditions experienced at the outlet of a bioreactor loaded with sulfate metal reducing bacteria (SMRB) that converts toxic Cr6+ and As5+ present in ground and surface waters and soils into nontoxic elements. During the latter conversion H2S gas is produced and has to be treated. In the present work it is demonstrated for the first time that by using the sol-gel synthesis route at given experimental conditions (e.g., metal precursor salts, solvent system, and solution pH), optimum structural properties for the Fe-Mn-Zn-Ti-O solid can be obtained for maximization of H2S uptake. In particular, at 25 degrees C an H2S uptake (0.085 g H2S/g solid) larger by at least a factor of 3 compared to a commercial Ni-based H2S absorbent material was obtained.

  3. Gel Fabrication of Molybdenum “Beads”

    SciT

    Lowden, Richard Andrew; Armstrong, Beth L.; Cooley, Kevin M.

    2016-11-01

    Spherical molybdenum particles or “beads” of various diameters are of interest as feedstock materials for the additive manufacture of targets and assemblies used in the production of 99Mo medical isotopes using accelerator technology. Small metallic beads or ball bearings are typically fabricated from wire; however, small molybdenum spheres cannot readily be produced in this manner. Sol-gel processes are often employed to produce small dense microspheres of metal oxides across a broad diameter range that in the case of molybdenum could be reduced and sintered to produce metallic spheres. These Sol-gel type processes were examined for forming molybdenum oxide beads; however,more » the molybdenum trioxide was chemically incompatible with commonly used gelation materials. As an alternative, an aqueous alginate process being assessed for the fabrication of oxide spheres for catalyst applications was employed to form molybdenum trioxide beads that were successfully reduced and sintered to produce small molybdenum spheres.« less

  4. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    SciT

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    group of fiber optic sensors uses sol-gel derived porous silica materials doped with nanometer particles of noble metals in the form of fiber or coating for sensing trace H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and HCl in gas samples at for applications ambient temperature. The third classes of fiber optic sensors use sol-gel derived semiconductor metal oxide coating on the surface of silica optical fiber as transducers for selectively sensing H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO at high temperature. In addition, optical fiber temperature sensors use the fluorescence signal of rare-earth metal ions doped porous silica optical fiber or the optical absorption signal of thermochromic metal oxide materials coated on the surface of silica optical fibers have also been developed for monitoring gas temperature of corrosive gas. Based on the results obtained from this project, the principle of fiber optic sensor techniques for monitoring matrix gas components as well as trace components of coal gasification derived syngas has been established. Prototype sensors for sensing trace ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in gasification derived syngas have been built up in our laboratory and have been tested using gas samples with matrix gas composition similar to that of gasification derived fuel gas. Test results illustrated the feasibility of these sensors for applications in IGCC processes.« less

  5. Large single domain 123 material produced by seeding with single crystal rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, Volker; Miller, Dean J.; Shi, Donglu; Sengupta, Suvankar

    1998-01-01

    A method of fabricating bulk YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x where compressed powder oxides and/or carbonates of Y and Ba and Cu present in mole ratios to form YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x are heated in the presence of a Nd.sub.1+x Ba.sub.2-x Cu.sub.3 O.sub.y seed crystal to a temperature sufficient to form a liquid phase in the YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x while maintaining the seed crystal solid. The materials are slowly cooled to provide a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x material having a predetermined number of domains between 1 and 5. Crack-free single domain materials can be formed using either plate shaped seed crystals or cube shaped seed crystals with a pedestal of preferential orientation material.

  6. Sol-gel synthesis of Bi2WO6/graphene thin films with enhanced photocatalytic performance for nitric monoxide oxidation under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chufeng; Wang, Yanbin; Su, Qiong

    2018-06-01

    Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6/graphene thin films were fabricated by spin coating and post annealing at 600 °C for 2 h. In four different thin film samples, the graphene concentration was controlled as 0, 2, 4 and 6 wt%, respectively. The morphology, grain size and elemental distribution of the thin films were characterized by SEM and TEM. The crystallization and crystal phases were determined by XRD patterns, and the existence of graphene in Bi2WO6/graphene composite thin films were confirmed by Raman spectra. The photocatalytic performance of Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6/graphene thin films was investigated by oxidizing NO under visible light irradiation. The results showed that Bi2WO6/graphene with 4 wt% of graphene showed the highest photocatalytic performance among all samples. This could be attributed to the increased electron conductivity with the presence of graphene. However, a further increased graphene concentration resulted in a decreased photocatalytic performance.

  7. Formation of a vitreous phase at the surface of some commercial diatomaceous earth prevents the onset of oxidative stress effects.

    PubMed

    Ghiazza, Mara; Gazzano, Elena; Bonelli, Barbara; Fenoglio, Ivana; Polimeni, Manuela; Ghigo, Dario; Garrone, Edoardo; Fubini, Bice

    2009-01-01

    To understand the effect of the commercial processing of diatomaceous earths (DEs) on their ultimate surface structure and potential toxicity, we investigated the influence of the industrial processing and the nature of the deposit. Two flux calcined specimens from different deposits, DE/1-FC and DE/2-FC, and the simply calcined sample DE/1-C, from the same deposit as DE/1-FC, were compared in both their bulk and their surface properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis in a heating chamber revealed the presence of cristobalite in all samples, more abundant on the flux calcined ones. The crystal lattice is probably imperfect, as the alpha-beta transition, visible by XRD in DE/1-FC and DE/2-FC, is not detected by differential scanning calorimetry. Progressive etching with HF solutions suggests that most of the crystalline phase is at the core and not at the outer region of the samples. The combined use of spectroscopic (UV-vis and IR) and calorimetric techniques (heat of adsorption of water as a measure of hydrophilicity) reveals that DE/1-FC and DE/2-FC particles have an external layer of glass, absent in DE/1-C, where iron impurities act as network-forming and sodium ions as modifier species, with few patches of a hydrophobic phase, the latter relatable to a heated pure silica phase. When tested on a macrophage cell line (MH-S) in comparison with appropriate positive and negative controls (an active and an inactive quartz dust, respectively), only DE/1-C exhibited a cell damage and activation similar to that of active quartz (measured by lactate dehydrogenase release, peroxidation of membrane lipids and synthesis of NO). It is likely that the presence of a vitreous phase mitigates or even eliminates the cellular responses of silica in DE.

  8. Novel organic–inorganic amorphous photoactive hybrid films with rare earth (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) covalently embedded into silicon–oxygen network via sol–gel process

    SciT

    Zhang, Qiang; Sheng, Ye; Zheng, Keyan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hybrids are prepared through the hydrolysis and condensation process. • The hybrids are amorphous and heat stabilized. • The hybrids containing Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} show the typical red and green emissions. - Abstract: Novel organic–inorganic hybrid amorphous thin films were synthesized by linking lanthanide (Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}) complexes through 3,4-bis(3-(triethoxysilyl)propylcarbamoyloxy)benzoic acid using sol–gel method. These inorganic–organic hybrids were characterized in detail by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray diffraction, themogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope, and fluorescence spectra. The above research results indicate that the hybrids possess high thermal-stability, amorphous structure features and especiallymore » favorable luminescent performances, such as long luminescent decay lifetime, high quantum yield etc.« less

  9. MnFe2O4-graphene oxide magnetic nanoparticles as a high-performance adsorbent for rare earth elements: Synthesis, isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi, Misagh; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Abdollahi, Hadi; Boroumand, Zohreh; Moradian, Marzieh

    2018-06-05

    In recent decades, considerable amounts of rare earth elements have been used and then released into industrial wastewater, which caused serious environmental problems. In this work, in order to recycle rare earth cations (La 3+ and Ce 3+ ) from aqueous solutions, MnFe 2 O 4 -Graphene oxide magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and after characterization studies, their adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption were comprehensively investigated. Characterized was performed using XRD, FE-SEM, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, VSM, BET and DLS. REE adsorption on MnFe 2 O 4 -GO was studied for the first time in the present work and the maximum adsorption capacity at the optimum condition (room temperature and pH = 7) for La 3+ and Ce 3+ were 1001 and 982 mg/g respectively, and the reactions were completed within 20 min. In addition, the adsorption data were well matched with the Langmuir model and the adsorption kinetics were fitted with the pseudo-second order model. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the reactions were found to be endothermic and spontaneous. Moreover, the Dubinin-Radushkevich model predicted chemical ion-exchange adsorption. Desorption studies also demonstrated that MnFe 2 O 4 -GO can be regenerated for multiple reuses. Overall, high adsorption capacity, chemical stability, reusability, fast kinetics, easy magnetic separation, and simple synthesis method indicated that MnFe 2 O 4 -GO is a high-performance adsorbent for REE. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Soft chemistry routes for synthesis of rare earth oxide nanoparticles with well defined morphological and structural characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancic, L.; Marinkovic, B. A.; Marinkovic, K.; Dramicanin, M.; Milosevic, O.

    2011-11-01

    Phosphors of (Y0.75Gd0.25)2O3:Eu3+ (5 at.%) have been prepared through soft chemistry routes. Conversion of the starting nitrates mixture into oxide is performed through two approaches: (a) hydrothermal treatment (HT) at 200 °C/3 h of an ammonium hydrogen carbonate precipitated mixture and (b) by thermally decomposition of pure nitrate precursor solution at 900 °C in dispersed phase (aerosol) within a tubular flow reactor by spray pyrolysis process (SP). The powders are additionally thermally treated at different temperatures: 600, 1000, and 1100 °C for either 3 or 12 h. HT—derived particles present exclusively one-dimensional morphology (nanorods) up to the temperatures of 600 °C, while the leaf-like particles start to grow afterward. SP—derived particles maintain their spherical shape up to the temperatures of 1100 °C. These submicron sized spheres were actually composed of randomly aggregated nanoparticles. All powders exhibits cubic Ia- 3 structure (Y0.75Gd0.25)2O3:Eu and have improved optical characteristics due to their nanocrystalline nature. The detailed study of the influence of structural and morphological powder characteristics on their emission properties is performed based on the results of X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence measurements.

  11. Large single domain 123 material produced by seeding with single crystal rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, V.; Miller, D.J.; Shi, D.; Sengupta, S.

    1998-07-07

    A method of fabricating bulk YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} where compressed powder oxides and/or carbonates of Y and Ba and Cu present in mole ratios to form YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are heated in the presence of a Nd{sub 1+x}Ba{sub 2{minus}x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} seed crystal to a temperature sufficient to form a liquid phase in the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} while maintaining the seed crystal solid. The materials are slowly cooled to provide a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} material having a predetermined number of domains between 1 and 5. Crack-free single domain materials can be formed using either plate shaped seed crystals or cube shaped seed crystals with a pedestal of preferential orientation material. 7 figs.

  12. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  13. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  14. Active DNA gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Omar A.; Fygenson, Deborah K.; Bertrand, Olivier J. N.; Park, Chang Young

    2013-02-01

    Research into the mechanics and fluctuations of living cells has revealed the key role played by the cytoskeleton, a gel of stiff filaments driven out of equilibrium by force-generating motor proteins. Inspired by the extraordinary mechanical functions that the cytoskeleton imparts to the cell, we sought to create an artificial gel with similar characteristics. We identified DNA, and DNA-based motor proteins, as functional counterparts to the constituents of the cytoskeleton. We used DNA selfassembly to create a gel, and characterized its fluctuations and mechanics both before and after activation by the motor. We found that certain aspects of the DNA gel quantitatively match those of cytoskeletal networks, indicating the universal features of motor-driven, non-equilibrium networks.

  15. Gel filtration of sialoglycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Alhadeff, J A

    1978-01-01

    The role of sialic acid in the gel-filtration behaviour of sialoglycoproteins was investigated by using the separated isoenzymes of purified human liver alpha-L-fucosidase and several other well-known sialic acid-containing glycoproteins (fetuin, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, thyroglobulin and bovine submaxillary mucin). For each glycoprotein studied, gel filtration of its desialylated derivative gave an apparent molecular weights much less than that expected just from removal of sialic acid. For the lower-molecular-weight glycoproteins (fetuin and alpha1-acid glyocprotein), gel filtration of the sialylated molecules led to apparent molecular weights much larger than the known values. The data indicate that gel filtration cannot be used for accurately determining the molecular weights of at least some sialoglycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. PMID:356853

  16. [Polymer Gel Dosimeter].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    With rapid advances being made in radiotherapy treatment, three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement techniques of great precision are required more than ever before. It is expected that 3D polymer gel dosimeters will satisfy clinical needs for an effective detector that can measure the complex 3D dose distributions. Polymer gel dosimeters are devices that utilize the radiation-induced polymerization reactions of vinyl monomers in a gel to store information about radiation dose. The 3D absorbed dose distribution can be deduced from the resulting polymer distribution using several imaging modalities, such as MRI, X-ray and optical CTs. In this article, the fundamental characteristics of polymer gel dosimeter are reviewed and some challenging keys are also suggested for the widely spread in clinical use.

  17. Making MgO/SiO2 Glasses By The Sol-Gel Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1989-01-01

    Silicon dioxide glasses containing 15 mole percent magnesium oxide prepared by sol-gel process. Not made by conventional melting because ingredients immiscible liquids. Synthesis of MgO/SiO2 glass starts with mixing of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate with silicon tetraethoxide, both in alcohol. Water added, and transparent gel forms. Subsequent processing converts gel into glass. Besides producing glasses of new composition at lower processing temperatures, sol-gel method leads to improved homogeneity and higher purity.

  18. Crystallization from Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  19. Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2013-10-01

    Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

  20. Use of Molecular Fossils for the Interpretation of Paleoenvironments on Early Earth: The Synthesis of Lipid Biomarkers by Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Summons, Roger E.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Over the course of Earth's history, the most important biological influence has come from the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and the development of an oxygen-rich biosphere. Although the availability of free oxygen had profound effects on subsequent biological and planetary evolution, clear paleobiological evidence of the timing of this transition is lacking. Recent technical advances in the microanalysis of organic matter has made it possible to detect residual molecules (biomarkers) in proterozoic (2.5 to 0.6 billion years) sedimentary rock characteristic of specific groups of microorganisms. When coupled with the carbon isotopic fractionations characteristic of biological systems and the new field of compound specific isotope analysis, biomarkers could prove to be a powerful tool for decoding ancient biochemistry from the geological record. We have been studying the carbon isotope fractionations associated with the synthesis of organic biomarker molecules in several types of methane-oxidizing bacteria that should have been key to carbon cycling in paleoenvironments after the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  1. CO(2) capture properties of alkaline earth metal oxides and hydroxides: A combined density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan C

    2010-08-21

    By combining density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, the thermodynamic properties of CO(2) absorption/desorption reactions with alkaline earth metal oxides MO and hydroxides M(OH)(2) (where M=Be,Mg,Ca,Sr,Ba) are analyzed. The heats of reaction and the chemical potential changes of these solids upon CO(2) capture reactions have been calculated and used to evaluate the energy costs. Relative to CaO, a widely used system in practical applications, MgO and Mg(OH)(2) systems were found to be better candidates for CO(2) sorbent applications due to their lower operating temperatures (600-700 K). In the presence of H(2)O, MgCO(3) can be regenerated into Mg(OH)(2) at low temperatures or into MgO at high temperatures. This transition temperature depends not only on the CO(2) pressure but also on the H(2)O pressure. Based on our calculated results and by comparing with available experimental data, we propose a general computational search methodology which can be used as a general scheme for screening a large number of solids for use as CO(2) sorbents.

  2. Photoelectrochemical enhancement of ZnO/BiVO4/ZnFe2O4/rare earth oxide hetero-nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Xuefeng; Zhang, Zhuo; Baek, Minki; Yong, Kijung

    2018-01-01

    Over the decades, researchers have made great efforts to turn the world into a cleaner place through efficient recycling of industrial waste and developing of green energy. Here we demonstrate a prototype heterostructure photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell fabricated using recycled industrial waste. ZnFe2O4 (ZFO) nanorod (NR) clusters were synthesized on the BiVO4@ZnO hetero-nanostructures using recycled rare earth oxide (REO) slags as Fe source. The NR-based PEC cell exhibited a significantly enhanced photon to hydrogen conversion efficiency over the entire UV and visible spectrum. Further study demonstrates that the photo-carrier separation and migration processes can be facilitated by the cascade band alignment of the heterostructure and the clustered nanostructure network. In addition, the life-time of the photo-carriers can be enhanced by the REO passivation layer, leading to a further increased PEC performance. Our results present a novel approach for high efficiency PEC cells, and offer great promises to the efficient recycling of industrial waste for clean renewable energy applications.

  3. Practical limitations of single particle ICP-MS in the determination of nanoparticle size distributions and dissolution: case of rare earth oxides.

    PubMed

    Fréchette-Viens, Laurie; Hadioui, Madjid; Wilkinson, Kevin J

    2017-01-15

    The applicability of single particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS) for the analysis of nanoparticle size distributions and the determination of particle numbers was evaluated using the rare earth oxide, La 2 O 3 , as a model particle. The composition of the storage containers, as well as the ICP-MS sample introduction system were found to significantly impact SP-ICP-MS analysis. While La 2 O 3 nanoparticles (La 2 O 3 NP) did not appear to interact strongly with sample containers, adsorptive losses of La 3+ (over 24h) were substantial (>72%) for fluorinated ethylene propylene bottles as opposed to polypropylene (<10%). Furthermore, each part of the sample introduction system (nebulizers made of perfluoroalkoxy alkane (PFA) or glass, PFA capillary tubing, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) peristaltic pump tubing) contributed to La 3+ adsorptive losses. On the other hand, the presence of natural organic matter in the nanoparticle suspensions led to a decreased adsorptive loss in both the sample containers and the introduction system, suggesting that SP-ICP-MS may nonetheless be appropriate for NP analysis in environmental matrices. Coupling of an ion-exchange resin to the SP-ICP-MS led to more accurate determinations of the La 2 O 3 NP size distributions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on the Origins and Nature of Critical Current Variations in Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xinbo

    REBCO (REBa2Cu3O7-delta, RE=rare earth elements) coated conductor (CC) is one of the best candidates for building high-field magnets and it has been improved greatly in recent years. CC overcome the grain boundary problem by using either a rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) or ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of a template for the REBCO. Artificial pinning centers were also introduced to increase critical current density. Despite all these improvements, one significant residual problem is lengthwise critical current (Ic) variations of the CCs. Characterizations of CCs can not only identify the variations, but also provide insight that can help improve the manufacturing process. This study focuses on cross-sectional and vortex pinning variations in CCs. With the reel-to-reel Ic and magnetization measurement system (YateStar), a systematic study has been carried out for CCs made in the last 5-6 years as this technology has rapidly developed. We found that cross-section variations exist for almost all conductors because of width variations. But this contribution to the total Ic variation is small. Vortex pinning variations are found to be the main reason for Ic variations, especially for conductors from different production runs. Even for conductors from the same run, pinning variations are often present. Microscopy studies show that the density and length of BaZrO3 (BZO) nanorods vary between different conductors even though they have nominally the same specifications. Pinning variations in one single tape are mostly attributed to the size variations of BZO nanorods and the configurations of RE2O3 precipitates. Deconstruction of magnet coils and cables were carried out to understand the reasons for in-service degradation. The prototype coil for the 32 T project was safely quenched more than 100 times but it degraded in 3 spontaneous quenches (conducted in an accelerated fatigue testing campaign at ramp rates much larger than service

  5. Effects of Zr/Ce molar ratio and water content on thermal stability and structure of ZrO{sub 2}–CeO{sub 2} mixed oxides prepared via sol–gel process

    SciT

    Huang, Wenzhi; Yang, Jili; Wang, Chunjie

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Tetragonal t″ phase was stabilized in Zr{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} solid solution at temperature as high as 1000 °C. ► Specific surface area of powders decreased with the increase of water addition and the Ce content. ► The single stable phase was controlled by adjusting the volume ratio of water and ethanol. ► Tetragonal (t″) phase dissociated into cubic and tetragonal (t′) phases at 1200 °C. -- Abstract: ZrO{sub 2}–CeO{sub 2} mixed oxides were synthesized via sol–gel process. Thermal stability, structure and morphology of samples were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanningmore » electron microscopy. In this approach, the solvent composition and Zr/Ce molar ratio have great influences on the structure and morphology of final products. With decreasing water content in the mixed solvent, specific surface area of powders increased and the single tetragonal phase was obtained. Only when the volume ratio of water and ethanol and the Zr/Ce molar ratio were 1:1, tetragonal t″-Zr{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} could be stabilized in powders at temperature as high as 1000 °C. Meanwhile, tetragonal (t′) and (t″) phases coexisted in Zr{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} solid solution without peak splitting after calcination at 1100 °C, further transforming into cubic and tetragonal (t′) phases at 1200 °C. The effective activation energy for Zr{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} nanocrystallite growth during annealing is about 5.24 ± 0.15 kJ/mol.« less

  6. Mass transfer in the Earth's interior: fluid-melt interaction in aluminosilicate-C-O-H-N systems at high pressure and temperature under oxidizing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2018-12-01

    Understanding what governs the speciation in the C-O-H-N system aids our knowledge of how volatiles affect mass transfer processes in the Earth's interior. Experiments with aluminosilicate melt + C-O-H-N volatiles were, therefore, carried out with Raman and infrared spectroscopy to 800 °C and near 700 MPa in situ in hydrothermal diamond anvil cells. The measurements were conducted in situ with the samples at the desired temperatures and pressures in order to avoid possible structural and compositional changes resulting from quenching to ambient conditions prior to analysis. Experiments were conducted without any reducing agent and with volatiles added as H2O, CO2, and N2 because both carbon and nitrogen can occur in different oxidation states. Volatiles dissolved in melt comprise H2O, CO3 2-, HCO3 -, and molecular N2, whereas in the coexisting fluid, the species are H2O, CO2, CO3 2-, and N2. The HCO3 -/CO3 2- equilibrium in melts shift toward CO3 2- groups with increasing temperature with ΔH = 114 ± 22 kJ/mol. In fluids, the CO2 abundance is essentially invariant with temperature and pressure. For fluid/melt partitioning, those of H2O and N2 are greater than 1 with temperature-dependence that yields ΔH values of - 6.5 ± 1.5 and - 19.6 ± 3.7 kJ/mol, respectively. Carbonate groups, CO3 2- are favored by melt over fluid. Where redox conditions in the Earth's interior exceed that near the QFM oxygen buffer (between NNO and MW buffers), N2 is the stable nitrogen species and as such acts as a diluent of both fluids and melts. For fluids, this lower silicate solubility, in turn, enhances alkalinity. This means that in such environments, the transport of components such as high field strength cations, will be enhanced. Effects of dissolved N2 on melt structure are considerably less than on fluid structure.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    SciT

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least onemore » polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.« less

  8. Patterns in shrinking gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Eriko Sato; Tanaka, Toyoichi

    1992-08-01

    POLYMER gels can undergo a volume phase transition (either continuous or discontinuous) when an external condition, such as temperature or solvent composition, is altered1-3. During this transition, the volume may change by a factor of several thousand, and various patterns develop in the gel. The patterns arising from swelling and shrinking differ in both their appearance and their physical mechanisms. The mechanism for the formation and evolution of patterns on swelling gels has been established as being due to a single kind of mechanical instability4-7 in contrast, the shrinking patterns seem to be sensitive to both the initial and final states of the transition. Here we classify the various shrinking patterns in the form of a phase diagram, and explain the poly-morphism in terms of macroscopic phase separation.

  9. Spatially resolved multicomponent gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Emily R.; Eden, Edward G. B.; McDonald, Tom O.; Adams, Dave J.

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent supramolecular systems could be used to prepare exciting new functional materials, but it is often challenging to control the assembly across multiple length scales. Here we report a simple approach to forming patterned, spatially resolved multicomponent supramolecular hydrogels. A multicomponent gel is first formed from two low-molecular-weight gelators and consists of two types of fibre, each formed by only one gelator. One type of fibre in this ‘self-sorted network’ is then removed selectively by a light-triggered gel-to-sol transition. We show that the remaining network has the same mechanical properties as it would have done if it initially formed alone. The selective irradiation of sections of the gel through a mask leads to the formation of patterned multicomponent networks, in which either one or two networks can be present at a particular position with a high degree of spatial control.

  10. Gel-based methods in redox proteomics.

    PubMed

    Charles, Rebecca; Jayawardhana, Tamani; Eaton, Philip

    2014-02-01

    The key to understanding the full significance of oxidants in health and disease is the development of tools and methods that allow the study of proteins that sense and transduce changes in cellular redox. Oxidant-reactive deprotonated thiols commonly operate as redox sensors in proteins and a variety of methods have been developed that allow us to monitor their oxidative modification. This outline review specifically focuses on gel-based methods used to detect, quantify and identify protein thiol oxidative modifications. The techniques we discuss fall into one of two broad categories. Firstly, methods that allow oxidation of thiols in specific proteins or the global cellular pool to be monitored are discussed. These typically utilise thiol-labelling reagents that add a reporter moiety (e.g. affinity tag, fluorophore, chromophore), in which loss of labelling signifies oxidation. Secondly, we outline methods that allow specific thiol oxidation states of proteins (e.g. S-sulfenylation, S-nitrosylation, S-thionylation and interprotein disulfide bond formation) to be investigated. A variety of different gel-based methods for identifying thiol proteins that are sensitive to oxidative modifications have been developed. These methods can aid the detection and quantification of thiol redox state, as well as identifying the sensor protein. By understanding how cellular redox is sensed and transduced to a functional effect by protein thiol redox sensors, this will help us better appreciate the role of oxidants in health and disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Current methods to study reactive oxygen species - pros and cons and biophysics of membrane proteins. Guest Editor: Christine Winterbourn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electroblotting from Polyacrylamide Gels.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Aaron; Ursitti, Jeanine A; Mozdzanowski, Jacek; Speicher, David W

    2015-11-02

    Transferring proteins from polyacrylamide gels onto retentive membranes is now primarily used for immunoblotting. A second application that was quite common up to about a decade ago was electroblotting of proteins for N-terminal and internal sequencing using Edman chemistry. This unit contains procedures for electroblotting proteins from polyacrylamide gels onto a variety of membranes, including polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and nitrocellulose. In addition to the commonly used tank or wet transfer system, protocols are provided for electroblotting using semidry and dry systems. This unit also describes procedures for eluting proteins from membranes using detergents or acidic extraction with organic solvents for specialized applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Transdermal delivery of paeonol using cubic gel and microemulsion gel

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Maofu; Shen, Qi; Chen, Jinjin

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to develop new systems for transdermal delivery of paeonol, in particular microemulsion gel and cubic gel formulations. Methods Various microemulsion vehicles were prepared using isopropyl myristate as an oil phase, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor® EL) as a surfactant, and polyethylene glycol 400 as a cosurfactant. In the optimum microemulsion gel formulation, carbomer 940 was selected as the gel matrix, and consisted of 1% paeonol, 4% isopropyl myristate, 28% Cremophor EL/polyethylene glycol 400 (1:1), and 67% water. The cubic gel was prepared containing 3% paeonol, 30% water, and 67% glyceryl monooleate. Results A skin permeability test using excised rat skins indicated that both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations had higher permeability than did the paeonol solution. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study done in rats showed that the relative bioavailability of the cubic gel and microemulsion gel was enhanced by about 1.51-fold and 1.28-fold, respectively, compared with orally administered paeonol suspension. Conclusion Both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations are promising delivery systems to enhance the skin permeability of paeonol, in particular the cubic gel. PMID:21904450

  13. Earth Observation

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  14. Large deformation of self-oscillating polymer gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Shingo; Kato, Terukazu; Otsuka, Yuji; Hosoya, Naoki; Cianchetti, Matteo; Laschi, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    A self-oscillating gel is a system that generates an autonomous volume oscillation. This oscillation is powered by the chemical energy of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, which demonstrates metal ion redox oscillation. A self-oscillating gel is composed of Poly-N -isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm) with a metal ion. In this study, we found that the displacement of the volume oscillation in a self-oscillating gel could be controlled by its being subjected to a prestraining process. We also revealed the driving mechanism of the self-oscillating gel from the point of view of thermodynamics. We observed that the polymer-solvent interaction parameter χ is altered by the redox changes to the metal ion incorporated in the self-oscillating gel. The prestraining process leads to changes in χ and changes in enthalpy and entropy when the self-oscillating gel is in a reduced and oxidized state. We found that nonprestrained gel samples oscillate in a poor solution (χ >0.5 ) and prestrained gel samples oscillate in a good solution (χ <0.5 ).

  15. Transfer printing of thermoreversible ion gels for flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Hyung; Zhang, Sipei; Gu, Yuanyan; Lodge, Timothy P; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2013-10-09

    Thermally assisted transfer printing was employed to pattern thin films of high capacitance ion gels on polyimide, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and SiO2 substrates. The ion gels consisted of 20 wt % block copolymer poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene and 80 wt % ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)amide. Patterning resolution was on the order of 10 μm. Importantly, ion gels containing the block polymer with short PS end blocks (3.4 kg/mol) could be transfer-printed because of thermoreversible gelation that enabled intimate gel-substrate contact at 100 °C, while gels with long PS blocks (11 kg/mol) were not printable at the same temperature due to poor wetting contact between the gel and substrates. By using printed ion gels as high-capacitance gate insulators, electrolyte-gated thin-film transistors were fabricated that operated at low voltages (<1 V) with high on/off current ratios (∼10(5)). Statistical analysis of carrier mobility, turn-on voltage, and on/off ratio for an array of printed transistors demonstrated the excellent reproducibility of the printing technique. The results show that transfer printing is an attractive route to pattern high-capacitance ion gels for flexible thin-film devices.

  16. Direct Quantification of Rare Earth Elements Concentrations in Urine of Workers Manufacturing Cerium, Lanthanum Oxide Ultrafine and Nanoparticles by a Developed and Validated ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yu, Hua; Zheng, Siqian; Miao, Yang; Yin, Shi; Li, Peng; Bian, Ying

    2016-03-22

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial, agriculture and medical applications. With the aim of exploring a sensitive and reliable indicator of estimating exposure level to REEs, a simple, accurate and specific ICP-MS method for simultaneous direct quantification of 15 REEs ((89)Y, (139)La, (140)Ce, (141)Pr, (146)Nd, (147)Sm, (153)Eu, (157)Gd, (159)Tb, (163)Dy, (165)Ho, (166)Er, (169)Tm, (172)Yb and (175)Lu) in human urine has been developed and validated. The method showed good linearity for all REEs in human urine in the concentrations ranging from 0.001-1.000 μg ∙ L(-1) with r² > 0.997. The limits of detection and quantification for this method were in the range of 0.009-0.010 μg ∙ L(-1) and 0.029-0.037 μg ∙ L(-1), the recoveries on spiked samples of the 15 REEs ranged from 93.3% to 103.0% and the relative percentage differences were less than 6.2% in duplicate samples, and the intra- and inter-day variations of the analysis were less than 1.28% and less than 0.85% for all REEs, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of 15 REEs in 31 urine samples obtained from the control subjects and the workers engaged in work with manufacturing of ultrafine and nanoparticles containing cerium and lanthanum oxide. The results suggested that only the urinary levels of La (1.234 ± 0.626 μg ∙ L(-1)), Ce (1.492 ± 0.995 μg ∙ L(-1)), Nd (0.014 ± 0.009 μg ∙ L(-1)) and Gd (0.023 ± 0.010 μg ∙ L(-1)) among the exposed workers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels measured in the control subjects. From these, La and Ce were the primary components, and accounted for 88% of the total REEs. Lanthanum comprised 27% of the total REEs while Ce made up the majority of REE content at 61%. The remaining elements only made up 1% each, with the exception of Dy which was not detected. Comparison with the previously published data, the levels of urinary La and Ce in workers and

  17. Characterization of Surface and Bulk Nitrates of γ-Al2O3-Supported Alkaline Earth Oxides using Density Functional Theory

    SciT

    Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2009-05-14

    “Surface" and "bulk" nitrates formed on a series of alkaline earth oxides (AEOs), AE(NO3)2, were investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. The formation of these surface and bulk nitrates was modeled by the adsorption of NO2+NO3 pairs on gamma-Al2O3-supported monomeric AEOs (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO) and on the extended AEO(001) surfaces, respectively. The calculated vibrational frequencies of the surface and bulk nitrates based on our proposed models are in good agreement with experimental measurements of AEO/gamma-Al2O3 materials after prolonged NO2 exposure. This indicates that experimentally observed "surface" nitrates are most likely formed with isolated two dimensional (including monomeric)more » AEO clusters on the gamma-Al2O3 substrate, while the "bulk" nitrates are formed on exposed (including (001)) surfaces (and likely in the bulk as well) of large three dimensional AEO particles supported on the gamma-Al2O3 substrate. Also in line with the experiments, our calculations show that the low and high frequency components of the vibrations for both surface and bulk nitrates are systematically red shifted with the increasing basicity and cationic size of the AEOs. The adsorption strengths of NO2+NO3 pairs are nearly the same for the series of alumina-supported monomeric AEOs, while the adsorption strengths of NO2+NO3 pairs on the AEO surfaces increase in the order of MgO < CaO < SrO ~ BaO. Compared to the NO2+NO3 pair that only interacts with monomeric AEOs, the stability of NO2+NO3 pairs that interact with both the monomeric AEO and the gamma-Al2O3 substrate is enhanced by about 0.5 eV. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.« less

  18. Direct Quantification of Rare Earth Elements Concentrations in Urine of Workers Manufacturing Cerium, Lanthanum Oxide Ultrafine and Nanoparticles by a Developed and Validated ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Yu, Hua; Zheng, Siqian; Miao, Yang; Yin, Shi; Li, Peng; Bian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial, agriculture and medical applications. With the aim of exploring a sensitive and reliable indicator of estimating exposure level to REEs, a simple, accurate and specific ICP-MS method for simultaneous direct quantification of 15 REEs (89Y, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 146Nd, 147Sm, 153Eu, 157Gd, 159Tb, 163Dy, 165Ho, 166Er, 169Tm, 172Yb and 175Lu) in human urine has been developed and validated. The method showed good linearity for all REEs in human urine in the concentrations ranging from 0.001–1.000 μg∙L−1 with r2 > 0.997. The limits of detection and quantification for this method were in the range of 0.009–0.010 μg∙L−1 and 0.029–0.037 μg∙L−1, the recoveries on spiked samples of the 15 REEs ranged from 93.3% to 103.0% and the relative percentage differences were less than 6.2% in duplicate samples, and the intra- and inter-day variations of the analysis were less than 1.28% and less than 0.85% for all REEs, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of 15 REEs in 31 urine samples obtained from the control subjects and the workers engaged in work with manufacturing of ultrafine and nanoparticles containing cerium and lanthanum oxide. The results suggested that only the urinary levels of La (1.234 ± 0.626 μg∙L−1), Ce (1.492 ± 0.995 μg∙L−1), Nd (0.014 ± 0.009 μg∙L−1) and Gd (0.023 ± 0.010 μg∙L−1) among the exposed workers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels measured in the control subjects. From these, La and Ce were the primary components, and accounted for 88% of the total REEs. Lanthanum comprised 27% of the total REEs while Ce made up the majority of REE content at 61%. The remaining elements only made up 1% each, with the exception of Dy which was not detected. Comparison with the previously published data, the levels of urinary La and Ce in workers and the control subjects show a higher trend

  19. Caffeine-catalyzed gels.

    PubMed

    DiCiccio, Angela M; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Glettig, Dean L; Walton, Elizabeth S E; de la Serna, Eva L; Montgomery, Veronica A; Grant, Tyler M; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2018-07-01

    Covalently cross-linked gels are utilized in a broad range of biomedical applications though their synthesis often compromises easy implementation. Cross-linking reactions commonly utilize catalysts or conditions that can damage biologics and sensitive compounds, producing materials that require extensive post processing to achieve acceptable biocompatibility. As an alternative, we report a batch synthesis platform to produce covalently cross-linked materials appropriate for direct biomedical application enabled by green chemistry and commonly available food grade ingredients. Using caffeine, a mild base, to catalyze anhydrous carboxylate ring-opening of diglycidyl-ether functionalized monomers with citric acid as a tri-functional crosslinking agent we introduce a novel poly(ester-ether) gel synthesis platform. We demonstrate that biocompatible Caffeine Catalyzed Gels (CCGs) exhibit dynamic physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, which can be tailored in shape, surface texture, solvent response, cargo release, shear and tensile strength, among other potential attributes. The demonstrated versatility, low cost and facile synthesis of these CCGs renders them appropriate for a broad range of customized engineering applications including drug delivery constructs, tissue engineering scaffolds, and medical devices. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  1. Carbon cycling and snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Goddéris, Yves; Donnadieu, Yannick

    2008-12-18

    The possibility that Earth witnessed episodes of global glaciation during the latest Precambrian challenges our understanding of the physical processes controlling the Earth's climate. Peltier et al. suggest that a 'hard snowball Earth' state may have been prevented owing to the release of CO(2) from the oxidation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the ocean as the temperature decreased. Here we show that the model of Peltier et al. is not self-consistent as it implies large fluctuations of the ocean alkalinity content without providing any processes to account for it. Our findings suggest that the hard snowball Earth hypothesis is still valid.

  2. Optical detection of parasitic protozoa in sol-gel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livage, Jacques; Barreau, J. Y.; Da Costa, J. M.; Desportes, I.

    1994-10-01

    Whole cell parasitic protozoa have been entrapped within sol-gel porous silica matrices. Stationary phase promastigote cells of Leishmania donovani infantum are mixed with a silica sol before gelation occurs. They remain trapped within the growing oxide network and their cellular organization appears to be well preserved. Moreover protozoa retain their antigenic properties in the porous gel. They are still able to detect parasite specific antibodies in serum samples from infected patients via an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigen- antibody associations occurring in the gel are optically detected via the reactions of a peroxidase conjugate with ortho-phenylenediamine leading to the formation of a yellow coloration. A clear-cut difference in optical density is measured between positive and negative sera. Such an entrapment of antigenic species into porous sol-gel matrices avoids the main problems due to non specific binding and could be advantageously used in diagnostic kits.

  3. High transparent shape memory gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jin; Arai, Masanori; Kabir, M. H.; Makino, Masato; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-03-01

    Gels are a new material having three-dimensional network structures of macromolecules. They possess excellent properties as swellability, high permeability and biocompatibility, and have been applied in various fields of daily life, food, medicine, architecture, and chemistry. In this study, we tried to prepare new multi-functional and high-strength gels by using Meso-Decoration (Meso-Deco), one new method of structure design at intermediate mesoscale. High-performance rigid-rod aromatic polymorphic crystals, and the functional groups of thermoreversible Diels-Alder reaction were introduced into soft gels as crosslinkable pendent chains. The functionalization and strengthening of gels can be realized by meso-decorating the gels' structure using high-performance polymorphic crystals and thermoreversible pendent chains. New gels with good mechanical properties, novel optical properties and thermal properties are expected to be developed.

  4. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  5. Earth Science

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  6. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  7. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, Douglas B.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Segalman, Daniel J.; Witkowski, Walter R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  8. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  9. Sol-Gel Matrices For Direct Colorimetric Detection Of Analytes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah H.; Sasaki, Darryl; Yamanaka, Stacey

    2002-11-26

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes using color changes that occur in immobilized biopolymeric material in response to selective binding of analytes to their surface. In particular, the present invention provides methods and compositions related to the encapsulation of biopolymeric material into metal oxide glass using the sol-gel method.

  10. Sol-gel matrices for direct colorimetric detection of analytes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah H.; Sasaki, Darryl; Yamanaka, Stacey

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes using color changes that occur in immobilized biopolymeric material in response to selective binding of analytes to their surface. In particular, the present invention provides methods and compositions related to the encapsulation of biopolymeric material into metal oxide glass using the sol-gel method.

  11. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  12. Geochemistry, Nd-Pb Isotopes, and Pb-Pb Ages of the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge Iron Oxide-Apatite–Rare Earth Element Deposit, Southeast Missouri

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Slack, John F.; Day, Warren C.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits occur within ~1.48 to 1.47 Ga volcanic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains terrane near a regional boundary separating crustal blocks having contrasting depleted-mantle Sm-Nd model ages (TDM). Major and trace element analyses and Nd and Pb isotope data were obtained to characterize the Pea Ridge deposit, improve identification of exploration targets, and better understand the regional distribution of mineralization with respect to crustal blocks. The Pea Ridge deposit is spatially associated with felsic volcanic rocks and plutons. Mafic to intermediate-composition rocks are volumetrically minor. Data for major element variations are commonly scattered and strongly suggest element mobility. Ratios of relatively immobile elements indicate that the felsic rocks are evolved subalkaline dacite and rhyolite; the mafic rocks are basalt to basaltic andesite. Granites and rhyolites display geochemical features typical of rocks produced by subduction. Rare earth element (REE) variations for the rhyolites are diagnostic of rocks affected by hydrothermal alteration and associated REE mineralization. The magnetite-rich rocks and REE-rich breccias show similar REE and mantle-normalized trace element patterns.Nd isotope compositions (age corrected) show that: (1) host rhyolites have ɛNd from 3.44 to 4.25 and TDM from 1.51 to 1.59 Ga; (2) magnetite ore and specular hematite rocks display ɛNd from 3.04 to 4.21 and TDM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga, and ɛNd from 2.23 to 2.81, respectively; (3) REE-rich breccias have ɛNd from 3.04 to 4.11 and TDM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga; and (4) mafic to intermediate-composition rocks range in ɛNd from 2.35 to 3.66 and in TDM from 1.66 to 1.56. The ɛNd values of the magnetite and specular hematite samples show that the REE mineralization is magmatic; no evidence exists for major overprinting by younger, crustal meteoric fluids, or by externally derived Nd. Host rocks, breccias, and

  13. Novel royal jelly proteins identified by gel-based and gel-free proteomics.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Li, Chenxi; Zhang, Lan; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

    2011-09-28

    Royal jelly (RJ) plays an important role in caste determination of the honeybee; the genetically same female egg develops into either a queen or worker bee depending on the time and amount of RJ fed to the larvae. RJ also has numerous health-promoting properties for humans. Gel-based and gel-free proteomics approaches and high-performance liquid chromatography-chip quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry were applied to comprehensively investigate the protein components of RJ. Overall, 37 and 22 nonredundant proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and gel-free analysis, respectively, and 19 new proteins were found by these two proteomics approaches. Major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) were identified as the principal protein components of RJ, and proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism such as glucose oxidase, α-glucosidase precursor, and glucose dehydrogenase were also successfully identified. Importantly, the 19 newly identified proteins were mainly classified into three functional categories: oxidation-reduction (ergic53 CG6822-PA isoform A isoform 1, Sec61 CG9539-PA, and ADP/ATP translocase), protein binding (regucalcin and translationally controlled tumor protein CG4800-PA isoform 1), and lipid transport (apolipophorin-III-like protein). These new findings not only significantly increase the RJ proteome coverage but also help to provide new knowledge of RJ for honeybee biology and potential use for human health promotion.

  14. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Panelists pose for a group photo at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  15. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide: Development in microgravity by the sol gel process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Debsikdar, J. C.; Beam, T.

    1983-01-01

    The sol-gel process for the preparation of homogeneous gels in three binary oxide systems was investigated. The glass forming ability of certain compositions in the selected oxide systems (SiO-GeO2, GeO2-PbO, and SiO2-TiO2) were studied based on their potential importance in the design of optical waveguide at longer wavelengths.

  16. Effect of thermally growth oxides (TGO) on adhesion strength for high purity yitria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and rare - Earth lanthanum zirconates (LZ) multilayer thermal barrier coating before and after isothermal heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, Salmi Mohd; Johari, Azril Dahari; Husin, Shuib

    2017-12-01

    Investigation on the effect of Thermally Growth Oxides (TGO) on the adhesion strength for thermal barrier coating (TBC) was carried out. The TBC under studied was the multilayer systems which consist of NiCrAlY bond coat and YSZ/LZ ceramic coating deposited on Ni-based superalloy substrates. The development of thermally growth oxides (TGO) for both TBC systems after isothermal heat treatment was measured. Isothermal heat treatment was carried out at 1100 ˚C for 100 hours to age the samples. ASTM D4541: Standard Test Method for Pull-off Strength of Coatings using Portable Adhesion Tester was used to measure the adhesion strength of both TBC systems before and after heat treatment. The effect of the developed TGO on the measured adhesion strength was examined and correlation between them was established individually for both TBC systems. The failure mechanism of the both system was also identified; either cohesive or adhesive or the combination of both. The results showed that TGO has more than 50% from the bond coat layer for rare-earth LZ system compared to the typical YSZ system, which was less than 10 % from the bond coat layer. This leads to the lower adhesion strength of rare-earth LZ coating system compared to typical YSZ system. Failure mechanism during the pull-off test also was found to be different for both TBC systems. The typical YSZ system experienced cohesive failure whereas the rare-earth LZ system experienced the combination of cohesive and adhesive failure.

  17. Earth Observation

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  18. Earth Observation

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. On crewmember's Flickr page - Look straight down into an aurora.

  19. Earth Observation

    2014-06-07

    ISS040-E-008174 (7 June 2014) --- Layers of Earth's atmosphere, brightly colored as the sun rises, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  20. Earth Observation

    2014-06-02

    ISS040-E-006817 (2 June 2014) --- Intersecting the thin line of Earth's atmosphere, International Space Station solar array wings are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  1. Earth Science

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  2. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  3. Earth Observation

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  4. Earth Observation

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  5. Earth Observation

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  6. Earth Science

    1990-10-24

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  7. Earth Observation

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  8. Earth Observation

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  9. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Petruska, Melissa A [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor L [Los Alamos, NM

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  10. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Petruska, Melissa A [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor L [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-06-12

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites

  11. Crystallization of steroids in gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, β-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica gel medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica gel medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.

  12. Earth Observations

    2010-06-16

    ISS024-E-006136 (16 June 2010) --- Polar mesospheric clouds, illuminated by an orbital sunrise, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric, or noctilucent (?night shining?), clouds are observed from both Earth?s surface and in orbit by crew members aboard the space station. They are called night-shining clouds as they are usually seen at twilight. Following the setting of the sun below the horizon and darkening of Earth?s surface, these high clouds are still briefly illuminated by sunlight. Occasionally the ISS orbital track becomes nearly parallel to Earth?s day/night terminator for a time, allowing polar mesospheric clouds to be visible to the crew at times other than the usual twilight due to the space station altitude. This unusual photograph shows polar mesospheric clouds illuminated by the rising, rather than setting, sun at center right. Low clouds on the horizon appear yellow and orange, while higher clouds and aerosols are illuminated a brilliant white. Polar mesospheric clouds appear as light blue ribbons extending across the top of the image. These clouds typically occur at high latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and at fairly high altitudes of 76?85 kilometers (near the boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere atmospheric layers). The ISS was located over the Greek island of Kos in the Aegean Sea (near the southwestern coastline of Turkey) when the image was taken at approximately midnight local time. The orbital complex was tracking northeastward, nearly parallel to the terminator, making it possible to observe an apparent ?sunrise? located almost due north. A similar unusual alignment of the ISS orbit track, terminator position, and seasonal position of Earth?s orbit around the sun allowed for striking imagery of polar mesospheric clouds over the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

  13. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  14. Living bacteria in silica gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassif, Nadine; Bouvet, Odile; Noelle Rager, Marie; Roux, Cécile; Coradin, Thibaud; Livage, Jacques

    2002-09-01

    The encapsulation of enzymes within silica gels has been extensively studied during the past decade for the design of biosensors and bioreactors. Yeast spores and bacteria have also been recently immobilized within silica gels where they retain their enzymatic activity, but the problem of the long-term viability of whole cells in an inorganic matrix has never been fully addressed. It is a real challenge for the development of sol-gel processes. Generic tests have been performed to check the viability of Escherichia coli bacteria in silica gels. Surprisingly, more bacteria remain culturable in the gel than in an aqueous suspension. The metabolic activity of the bacteria towards glycolysis decreases slowly, but half of the bacteria are still viable after one month. When confined within a mineral environment, bacteria do not form colonies. The exchange of chemical signals between isolated bacteria rather than aggregates can then be studied, a point that could be very important for 'quorum sensing'.

  15. Sol-gel precursors and products thereof

    DOEpatents

    Warren, Scott C.; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Weisner, Ulrich B.

    2017-02-14

    The present invention provides a generalizable single-source sol-gel precursor capable of introducing a wide range of functionalities to metal oxides such as silica. The sol-gel precursor facilitates a one-molecule, one-step approach to the synthesis of metal-silica hybrids with combinations of biological, catalytic, magnetic, and optical functionalities. The single-source precursor also provides a flexible route for simultaneously incorporating functional species of many different types. The ligands employed for functionalizing the metal oxides are derived from a library of amino acids, hydroxy acids, or peptides and a silicon alkoxide, allowing many biological functionalities to be built into silica hybrids. The ligands can coordinate with a wide range of metals via a carboxylic acid, thereby allowing direct incorporation of inorganic functionalities from across the periodic table. Using the single-source precursor a wide range of functionalized nanostructures such as monolith structures, mesostructures, multiple metal gradient mesostructures and Stober-type nanoparticles can be synthesized. ##STR00001##

  16. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  17. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Panelists discuss how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist, Planetary Science Institute, moderates a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  19. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    An audience member asks the panelists a question at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. Growth of lead tin telluride crystals in gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Patrick G.

    1986-01-01

    Improved gels and several geometries were investigated for use in growing crystals. The use of lead sulfide test crystals proved workable, but it was impossible to obtain and maintain a sufficiently concentrated telluride ion solution to successfully grow lead telluride crystals. It appears that oxygen in the solution is capable of oxidizing the telluride ion up to tellurium metal. The method may still be successful, but only if precautions are taken to eliminate dissolved oxygen from the gels and aqueous solutions and to maintain a suitable concentration of telluride, Te(2)-(aq.).

  1. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide development in microgravity by the sol-gel process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Holman, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Multicomponent, homogeneous, noncrystalline oxide gels can be prepared by the sol-gel process and these gels are promising starting materials for melting glasses in the space environment. The sol-gel process referred to here is based on the polymerization reaction of alkoxysilane with other metal alkoxy compounds or suitable metal salts. Many of the alkoxysilanes or other metal alkoxides are liquids and thus can be purified by distillation. The use of gels offers several advantages such as high purity and lower melting times and temperatures. The sol-gel process is studied for utilization in the preparation of multicomponent ultrapure glass batches for subsequent containerless melting of the batches in space to prepare glass blanks for optical waveguides.

  2. Mechanical Failure in Colloidal Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodger, Thomas Edward

    When colloidal particles in a dispersion are made attractive, they aggregate into fractal clusters which grow to form a space-spanning network, or gel, even at low volume fractions. These gels are crucial to the rheological behavior of many personal care, food products and dispersion-based paints. The mechanical stability of these products relies on the stability of the colloidal gel network which acts as a scaffold to provide these products with desired mechanical properties and to prevent gravitational sedimentation of the dispersed components. Understanding the mechanical stability of such colloidal gels is thus of crucial importance to predict and control the properties of many soft solids. Once a colloidal gel forms, the heterogeneous structure bonded through weak physical interactions, is immediately subject to body forces, such as gravity, surface forces, such as adhesion to a container walls and shear forces; the interplay of these forces acting on the gel determines its stability. Even in the absence of external stresses, colloidal gels undergo internal rearrangements within the network that may cause the network structure to evolve gradually, in processes known as aging or coarsening or fail catastrophically, in a mechanical instability known as syneresis. Studying gel stability in the laboratory requires model colloidal system which may be tuned to eliminate these body or endogenous forces systematically. Using existing chemistry, I developed several systems to study delayed yielding by eliminating gravitational stresses through density matching and cyclic heating to induce attraction; and to study syneresis by eliminating adhesion to the container walls, altering the contact forces between colloids, and again, inducing gelation through heating. These results elucidate the varied yet concomitant mechanisms by which colloidal gels may locally or globally yield, but then reform due to the nature of the physical, or non-covalent, interactions which form

  3. Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO32−), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks. PMID:18195373

  4. Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Matthew A

    2008-01-22

    Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO(3)(2-)), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks.

  5. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, David Glenn; Pollard, John Randolph; Brooks, Robert Aubrey

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  6. Polyoxometalate-based Supramolecular Gel

    PubMed Central

    He, Peilei; Xu, Biao; Liu, Huiling; He, Su; Saleem, Faisal; Wang, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Self-assemblyings of surfactant-encapsulated Wells-Dawson polyoxometalates (SEPs) nanobuilding blocks in butanone and esters yielded supramolecular gels showing thermo and photo responsive properties. The gels can be further polymerized if unsaturated esters were used and subsequently electrospinned into nanowires and non-woven mats. The as-prepared non-woven mats have a Young's modulus as high as 542.55 MPa. It is believed that this supramolecular gel is a good platform for polyoxometalates processing. PMID:23666013

  7. Earth Science

    1994-03-08

    Workers at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville prepared for a news media showing of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-1 (GOES-1). GOES-1 was the first in a new generation of weather satellites deployed above Earth. It was the first 3-axis, body-stabilized meteorological satellite to be used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA. These features allowed GOES-1 to continuously monitor the Earth, rather than viewing it just five percent of the time as was the case with spin-stabilized meteorological satellites. GOES-1 also has independent imaging and sounding instruments which can operate simultaneously yet independently. As a result, observations provided by each instrument will not be interrupted. The imager produces visual and infrared images of the Earth's surface, oceans, cloud cover and severe storm development, while the prime sounding products include vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and layer mean moisture.

  8. Earth Science

    1994-09-02

    This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.

  9. Earth Observation

    2010-08-23

    ISS024-E-016042 (23 Aug. 2010) --- This night time view captured by one of the Expedition 24 crew members aboard the International Space Station some 220 miles above Earth is looking southward from central Romania over the Aegean Sea toward Greece and it includes Thessaloniki (near center), the larger bright mass of Athens (left center), and the Macedonian capital of Skopje (lower right). Center point coordinates of the area pictured are 46.4 degrees north latitude and 25.5 degrees east longitude. The picture was taken in August and was physically brought back to Earth on a disk with the return of the Expedition 25 crew in November 2010.

  10. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070412 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 panorama featuring wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. (Note: south is at the top of the frame). The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Parts of Oregon and Washington are included in the scene. Mt. Jefferson, Three Sisters and Mt. St. Helens are all snow-capped and visible in the photo, and the Columbia River can also be delineated.

  11. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070424 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Lightning has been given as the cause of the Ochoco Complex fires in the Ochoco National Forest in central Oregon. The complex has gotten larger since this photo was taken.

  12. Earth observation

    2014-09-04

    ISS040-E-129950 (4 Sept. 2014) --- In this photograph. taken by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, the orange spot located in the very center is the sun, which appears to be sitting on Earth's limb. At far right, a small bright spot is believed to be a reflection from somewhere in the camera system or something on the orbital outpost. When the photographed was exposed, the orbital outpost was flying at an altutude of 226 nautical miles above a point near French Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean.

  13. Earth Science

    2004-08-13

    This panoramic view of Hurricane Charley was photographed by the Expedition 9 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on August 13, 2004, at a vantage point just north of Tampa, Florida. The small eye was not visible in this view, but the raised cloud tops near the center coincide roughly with the time that the storm began to rapidly strengthen. The category 2 hurricane was moving north-northwest at 18 mph packing winds of 105 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  14. Earth Science

    2004-09-11

    This image hosts a look at the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm topped the western Caribbean Sea on Saturday, September 11, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, the category 5 storm sustained winds in the eye of the wall that were reported at about 160 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  15. Earth Science

    2004-09-15

    Except for a small portion of the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, fills this image over the northern Gulf of Mexico. As the downgraded category 4 storm approached landfall on the Alabama coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the ISS at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  16. Earth Science

    2004-09-15

    This image hosts a look into the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm approached landfall on the central Gulf coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph as the downgraded category 4 storm approached the Alabama coast. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  17. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  18. Dynamics of a DNA Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Aniket; Dogariu, Aristide

    We study in silico the properties of a gel consisting of DNA strands (modeled as semi-flexible chains) and linkers of varying flexibility, length, and topology. These linkers are envisioned and modeled as active components with additional attributes so as to mimic properties of a synthetic DNA gel containing motor proteins. We use Brownian dynamics to directly obtain frequency dependent complex shear moduli of the gel. We further carry out force spectroscopy on these computer generated gels and study the relaxation properties as a function of the important parameters of the model, e.g., densities and relative ratios of the DNAs and the linkers, the average life time of a link, etc. Our studies are relevant for designing synthetic bio-materials for both materials and medical applications.

  19. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Ellis, Timothy W.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Hofer, Robert J.; Branagan, Daniel J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  20. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  1. Earth Observation

    2014-08-10

    ISS040-E-091158 (10 Aug. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members 225 nautical miles above Earth onboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to record this image of Hawke's Bay, New Zealand on Aug. 10, 2014. Napier and the bay area's most populous area are at bottom center of the frame.

  2. Earth Observation

    2013-06-13

    ISS036-E-007619 (13 June 2013) --- To a crew member aboard the International Space Station, the home planet is seen from many different angles and perspectives, as evdenced by this Expedition 36 image of Earth's atmophere partially obscured by one of the orbital outpost's solar panels.

  3. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  4. Earth Observation

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. Docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft are visible. On crewmember's Flickr page - The Moon, about to dive into a glowing ocean of green᥿9.

  5. Earth Observation

    2013-07-21

    Earth observation taken during night pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message this is labeled as : Tehran, Iran. Lights along the coast of the Caspian Sea visible through clouds. July 21.

  6. Earth Observation

    2013-05-19

    ISS036-E-002224 (21 May 2013) --- The sun is captured in a "starburst" mode over Earth's horizon by one of the Expedition 36 crew members as the orbital outpost was above a point in southwestern Minnesota on May 21, 2013.

  7. Earth Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy

    Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…

  8. Earth Science

    1993-03-29

    Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is a tethered date collecting satellite and is intended to demonstrate a versatile and economical way of delivering smaller payloads to higher orbits or downward toward Earth's atmosphere. 19th Navstar Global Positioning System Satellite mission joined with previously launched satellites used for navigational purposes and geodite studies. These satellites are used commercially as well as by the military.

  9. Earth Observation

    2014-06-14

    ISS040-E-011868 (14 June 2014) --- The dark waters of the Salton Sea stand out against neighboring cultivation and desert sands in the middle of the Southern California desert, as photographed by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station on June 14, 2014.

  10. Earth Observation

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: From southernmost point of orbit over the South Pacific- all clouds seemed to be leading to the South Pole.

  11. Earth Sky

    1965-12-16

    S65-63282 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Area of Indian Ocean, just east of the island of Madagascar, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 15th revolution of Earth. Land mass at top of picture is the Malagasy Republic (Madagascar). Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  12. Rare earths

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  13. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015354 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at lower left) were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  14. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015355 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at bottom center) were recorded in a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  15. Earth Observation

    2013-07-03

    ISS036-E-015292 (3 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 3-4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station. This image was recorded on July 3.

  16. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015342 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  17. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015335 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  18. Earth Observation

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of the U.S. Lab and PMM are also visible.

  19. Earth Observation

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038117 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.2 degrees west longitude.

  20. Earth Observation

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038114 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.3 degrees west longitude.

  1. Earth Observations

    2014-11-18

    ISS042E006751 (11/08/2014) --- Earth observation taken from the International Space Station of the coastline of the United Arab Emirates. The large wheel along the coast center left is "Jumeirah" Palm Island, with a conference center, hotels, recreation areas and a large marine zoo.

  2. Earth Moon

    1998-06-08

    NASA Galileo spacecraft took this image of Earth moon on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the image is the Tycho impact basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00405

  3. Earth's horizon

    2005-07-30

    S114-E-6076 (30 July 2005) --- The blackness of space and Earth’s horizon form the backdrop for this view of the extended Space Shuttle Discovery’s remote manipulator system (RMS) robotic arm while docked to the International Space Station during the STS-114 mission.

  4. Effect of alkaline earth oxides on the physical and spectroscopic properties of Dy3+- doped Li2O-B2O3 glasses for white emitting material application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshad, L.; Rooh, G.; Kirdsiri, K.; Srisittipokakun, N.; Damdee, B.; Kim, H. J.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2017-02-01

    Li2O-MO-B2O3:0.5Dy2O3 glasses mixed with four different alkaline earth modifier oxides MgO, CaO, SrO and BaO were synthesized by melt quench technique. Their physical properties like density, molar volume and refractive index were measured at room temperature and the effect of alkaline earth modifier oxides were studied. Also, optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of these glasses have been acquired at room temperature. The Judd-Ofelt theory was effectively used to characterize these spectra and spectral intensities (ƒcal), Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6) and certain radiative properties have been determined. Radiative life-times (τR), branching ratios (βcal), and emission cross-sections (σp) and optical gain parameters (σp × τR) were calculated from the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and the variation in these parameters with the variation of glass matrix are discussed. Yellow/Blue (Y/B) ratio and chromacity color coordinates (x,y) are calculated from the emission spectra which indicates the white light generation from all the investigated samples. The correlated color temperature (CCT) for the studied glasses is found to be 4418 K. The fluorescence decay time (τexp) of the 4F9/2 level of Dy3+ has been measured from the decay profiles and compared with calculated lifetimes (τcal). Among all the studied glass matrices, the glass containing BaO exhibits high value of branching ratio, large emission cross-section and high optical gain parameter for 6F9/2 → 6H13 at 575 nm. The results indicates the suitability of all the studied glasses for laser action and white light generation.

  5. Summary of GPC/DV results for space exposed poly(arylene ether phosphine oxide)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, Emilie

    1995-01-01

    Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) was used to analyze poly(arylene ether phosphine oxide)s whose backbones were identical except for the ketone content and placement. These samples were exposed to low Earth orbit environment (predominantly atomic oxygen) on space shuttle flights. The materials and their unexposed controls were then characterized by GPC to investigate the effect of atomic oxygen on the molecular weight distributions. Analysis of the soluble portion of the samples revealed that there was significant loss of high molecular weight species. The presence of insoluble material also suggested that crosslinking was induced by the atomic oxygen exposure and that this very likely occurred at the high molecular weight portion of the molecular weight distribution.

  6. Adhesive Properties of Polyacrylate Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanigan, Cynthia; Shull, Kenneth

    1998-03-01

    Soft, low-modulus gels provide an interesting opportunity to examine small adhesive interactions between two bodies in contact. As shown through dynamic rheological studies, our materials undergo a rapid gelation as they are cooled from a viscous liquid at elevated temperatures to a soft, elastic solid at room temperature. At low temperatures, the gels exhibit a linearly elastic response and display moduli close to 100Pa, thereby forming materials with great potential for quantifying weak adhesive interactions with a variety of bodies ranging from polymer surfaces to biological entities. Our current studies focus on investigating interfacial effects by performing axisymmetric adhesion tests with a model polyacrylate gel formed by diluting the copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) to a 5-15 percent solution in 2-ethyl hexanol, a selective solvent for the midblock. We have explored two different experimental geometries including a hemispherical rigid indenter of glass pressed into a gel layer of varying thicknesses, and a soft, gel cap in contact with a rigid polymer surface. By simultaneously measuring the applied load, displacement between the two bodies, and contact area during loading cycles, we are able to employ a linearly elastic fracture mechanics analysis to obtain estimates of the gel's modulus over a range of polymer concentrations, and G, the energy release rate.

  7. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  8. Earth Observations

    2010-09-09

    ISS024-E-014071 (9 Sept. 2010) --- This striking panoramic view of the southwestern USA and Pacific Ocean is an oblique image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member looking outwards at an angle from the International Space Station (ISS). While most unmanned orbital satellites view Earth from a nadir perspective?in other words, collecting data with a ?straight down? viewing geometry?crew members onboard the space station can acquire imagery at a wide range of viewing angles using handheld digital cameras. The ISS nadir point (the point on Earth?s surface directly below the spacecraft) was located in northwestern Arizona, approximately 260 kilometers to the east-southeast, when this image was taken. The image includes parts of the States of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California together with a small segment of the Baja California, Mexico coastline at center left. Several landmarks and physiographic features are readily visible. The Las Vegas, NV metropolitan area appears as a gray region adjacent to the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range (both covered by white clouds). The Grand Canyon, located on the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, is visible (lower left) to the east of Las Vegas with the blue waters of Lake Mead in between. The image also includes the Mojave Desert, stretching north from the Salton Sea (left) to the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The Sierra Nevada range is roughly 640 kilometers long (north-south) and forms the boundary between the Central Valley of California and the adjacent Basin and Range. The Basin and Range is so called due to the pattern of long linear valleys separated by parallel linear mountain ranges ? this landscape, formed by extension and thinning of Earth?s crust, is particularly visible at right.

  9. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Shawn Domagal-Goldman, Research Space Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  10. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Phoebe Cohen, Professor of Geosciences, Williams College, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  11. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Christopher House, Professor of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Dawn Sumner, Professor of Geology, UC Davis, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  13. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Timothy Lyons, Professor of Biogeochemistry, UC Riverside, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  14. Recent progress on elaboration of undoped and doped Y2O3, Gd2O3 rare-earth nano-oxide.

    PubMed

    Lebbou, K; Perriat, P; Tillement, O

    2005-09-01

    Some selected materials with small sizes in the nanometer region are reviewed. Different methods for synthesis of nanoscale materials are classified and discussed. Basic prerequisites for successful use of the materials for nanotechnology application are their synthesis with specific and homogeneous composition and geometry. This review summarizes recent results on nanoscale materials containing optically active lanthanide ion especially focused on Y2O3 and Gd2O3 oxide.

  15. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  16. China's rare-earth industry

    Tse, Pui-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  17. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070439 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above a point on Earth located at 48.0 degrees north latitude and 116.9 degrees west longitude when the image was exposed. The state of Washington is especially affected by the fires, many of which have been blamed on lightning. This particular fire was part of the Carlton Complex Fire, located near the city of Brewster in north central Washington. The reservoir visible near the center of the image is Banks Lake.

  18. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOEpatents

    Riha, Brian D.

    2012-07-03

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  19. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOEpatents

    Rhia, Brian D [Augusta, GA

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  20. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOEpatents

    Riha, Brian D.; Looney, Brian B.

    2015-10-27

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.