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Sample records for earth probe toms

  1. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  2. Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Product User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, A.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Seftor, C.; Jaross, G.; Torres, O.; Moy, L.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two data products from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The EP/ TOMS began taking measurements on July 15, 1996. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement are monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the first year of data. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. Level-3 files containing estimates of LTVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information are also available, Detailed descriptions of both HDF data-files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

  3. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone From Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe Toms: Validation, ENSO Signals and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    1998-01-01

    The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS/TOMS (1996-1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to Atlantic sounding stations, notably Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil, and Brazzaville, Congo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived from the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites.

  4. Contingency maneuver strategies for the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kestler, James; Walls, Donna

    1995-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) is a polar-orbiting spacecraft designed to measure total ozone levels in the Earth's atmosphere. The nominal mission orbit is a 955-kilometer circular Sun-synchronous orbit with an ascending node mean local crossing time (MLT) between 11:02 a.m. and 11:25 a.m. These two mean local ascending node times constitute the boundaries of the MLT box for this mission. The MLT boundaries were chosen to maintain the Sun-to-Earth-to-vehicle orbit-normal (SVN) angle within a preselected set of seasonally independent boundaries. Because the SVN angle is seasonally dependent, but the MLT is not, contingency options for correcting the MLT of orbital states that fall outside of the required MLT range become time dependent. This paper focuses on contingency orbit adjustment strategies developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) during the mission planning phase of TOMS-EP. Time-dependent delta-V strategies are presented for correcting mission orbit states lying outside of the MLT range. Typically, passive control of the MLT drift rate can be used to restore the orbit state to the required MLT before a seasonal violation of SVN angle constraints can occur. Passive control of the MLT drift rate is obtained through adjustment of the semimajor axis and/or the inclination. The time between initial arrival on orbit at an 'out-of-the box' MLT state and violation of the SVN angle constraints is always less than or equal to 1 year. The choice of which parameter(s) to adjust is dictated by the duration of this time period, the desired mission lifetime, the delta-V cost, and operational constraints.

  5. Derivation of tropospheric column ozone from the Earth Probe TOMS/GOES co-located data sets using the cloud slicing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C.; Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-07-01

    A recently developed technique called cloud slicing used for deriving upper tropospheric ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument combined with temperature-humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) is not applicable to the Earth Probe TOMS (EP TOMS) because this satellite platform does not have an instrument to measure cloud-top temperatures. For continuing monitoring of tropospheric ozone between 200 and 500hPa and testing the feasibility of this technique across spacecrafts, EP TOMS data are co-located in time and space with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 infrared data for year 2001 and early 2002, covering most of North and South America (45°S-45°N and 120°W-30°W). Results show that the maximum column amounts for the mid-latitudinal sites of the northern hemisphere are found in the March-May season. For the mid-latitudinal sites in the southern hemisphere, the highest column amounts are found in the September-November season with overall seasonal variability smaller than that in the northern hemisphere. The tropical sites show weaker seasonal variability compared to higher latitudes. The derived results for selected sites are cross-validated qualitatively with the seasonality of ozonesonde observations and the results from THIR analyses over the 1979-1984 time period. These comparisons show a reasonably good agreement among THIR, ozonesonde observations, and cloud slicing-derived column ozone. Cloud slicing measurements from TOMS coincide with large-scale convection events, especially in regions of the tropospheric wind jets (around +/-30° latitude). In these cases they may not be representative of typical conditions in the atmosphere. Two new variant approaches, high-low cloud slicing and ozone profile derivation from cloud slicing are introduced to estimate column ozone amounts using the entire cloud information in the troposphere. A future satellite platform such as the earth observing

  6. TOMS Data Products at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. P.; Johnson, J. E.; Serafino, G. N.; McPeters, R. D.

    2002-05-01

    The current Total Mapping Ozone Spectrometer (TOMS) was launched aboard the NASA Earth Probe (EP) satellite in July1996 to provide global monitoring of total column atmospheric ozone derived from measurements of backscattered solar ultraviolet radiation. TOMS is a second-generation, ozone-sounding instrument based on the Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) Spectrometer flown aboard NASA's Nimbus-4 satellite in 1970. The first TOMS instrument was launched aboard Nimbus-7 in 1978. Nimbus-7 TOMS provided data continuously for more than 14 years until May 1993. From 1991 through 1994, a second TOMS instrument was also flown aboard a Russian Meteor-3 satellite, and the third instrument in the series is the currently operating EP-TOMS. A fourth instrument was flown on the Japanese Advanced Environmental Orbiting Satellite (ADEOS) in August 1996 but prematurely ended 9 months later. The high quality measurements of TOMS played an instrumental role in the detection of a small but steady ozone decline since the early 1980s. In September 1991, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was launched containing a comprehensive suite of instruments designed to collectively determine the impact of chemical, dynamic and energy input processes on ozone creation and destruction. In addition to its primary role of ozone monitoring, TOMS has also provided (1) estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, (2) the effective UV reflectivity due to the combined effects of clouds, aerosols, and the earth's surface, (3) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, and (4) an index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions. Aerosol characteristics including optical depth and single scattering albedo are also being produced as evaluation products at this time. Continuity of ozone, other trace species, and solar UV measurements will be provided with the launch of the Aura spacecraft in

  7. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) Maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe TOMS by the Modified-Residual Method. 1; Validation, Evaluation and Trends based on Atlantic Regional Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone [Shiotani, 1992; Ziemke et al., 1996, 1998] has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete calendar years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from TOMS on the Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS platforms (1996- 1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps, validated with ozonesondes, show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. The maps may be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived by the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes (to within 6-7 DU) and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites (within 8-10 DU). Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to ozonesonde comparisons with Atlantic stations and sites on the adjacent continents (Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil; Brazzaville); for the sounding periods, TTO at all locations agrees with the sonde record to +/-7 DU. TTO time-series and the magnitude of the wave-one pattern show ENSO signals in the strongest El Nifio periods from 1979-1998. From 12degN and 12degS, zonally averaged tropospheric ozone shows no significant trend from 1980-1990. Trends are also not significant during this period in localized regions, e.g. from just west of South America across to southern Africa. This is consistent with the ozonesonde record at Natal, Brazil (the only tropical ozone data publicly available for the 1980's), which shows a not statistically significant increase. The lack of trend in tropospheric ozone agrees with a statistical analysis based on another method for deriving TTO from TOMS, the so-called Convective-Cloud-Differential approach of Ziemke et al. [1998].

  8. Tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth Probe TOMS by the modified-residual method: Evaluation with sondes, ENSO signals, and trends from Atlantic regional time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.

    1999-11-01

    The modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amounts from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is applied to the 14 complete calendar years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992). These are available as digital data at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/˜tropo/14y_data.d The MR method has also been used to produce real-time maps of tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) from TOMS on the Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS platforms (1996-1997). Evaluation of the TTO time series for 1979-1990 and 1997-1998 is presented here; it is limited to the few tropical ozonesonde stations operational during those years (Ascension Island; Natal, Brazil; Brazzaville). The standard deviation of the differences between TTO and the sondes is ±(6-7) Dobson units (DU), depending on location. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived by the modified-residual method, compares favorably with sondes (to within 6-9 DU) and with stratospheric ozone inferred from other satellites (usually 8-15 DU lower than the latter). TTO time series and the magnitude of the tropospheric wave-one pattern show El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals during the period from 1979-1992. During 1997 the ENSO stands out at some stations, but not at others. Between 12°N and 12°S, zonally averaged TTO shows no significant trend from 1980-1990. Trends are also not significant during this period in localized regions, for example, from just west of South America across to southern Africa. This is consistent with the ozonesonde record at Natal, Brazil (the only tropical ozone data publicly available for the 1980s), which shows no significant trend. The lack of trend in tropospheric ozone agrees with a statistical analysis based on another method for deriving TTO from TOMS, the convective-cloud-differential approach of Ziemke et al. [1998].

  9. Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science- An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic S02, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

  10. Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-12-01

    The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic SO2, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

  11. Direct Communication to Earth from Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Scott J.; Folkner, William M.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on outer planetary probe communications to Earth is shown. The topics include: 1) Science Rational for Atmospheric Probes to the Outer Planets; 2) Controlling the Scientific Appetite; 3) Learning more about Jupiter before we send more probes; 4) Sample Microwave Scan From Juno; 5) Jupiter s Deep Interior; 6) The Square Kilometer Array (SKA): A Breakthrough for Radio Astronomy; 7) Deep Space Array-based Network (DSAN); 8) Probe Direct-to-Earth Data Rate Calculations; 9) Summary; and 10) Enabling Ideas.

  12. Small-Scale Tropopause Dynamics and TOMS Total Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, John L.

    2002-01-01

    This project used Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) along-track ozone retrievals, in conjunction with ancillary meteorological fields and modeling studies, for high resolution investigations of upper troposphere and lower stratosphere dynamics. Specifically, high resolution along-track (Level 2) EP TOMS data were used to investigate the beautiful fine-scale structure in constituent and meteorological fields prominent in the evolution of highly non-linear baroclinic storm systems. Comparison was made with high resolution meteorological models. The analyses provide internal consistency checks and validation of the EP TOMS data which are vital for monitoring ozone depletion in both polar and midlatitude regions.

  13. A Comparison of TOMS Version 8 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data have been reprocessed with a new retrieval algorithm, (Version 8) and an updated calibration procedure. These data have been systematically compared to total ozone data from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers for 73 individual ground stations. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. Results show that the accuracy of the TOMS retrieval'is much improved when aerosols are present in the atmosphere, when snow/ice and sea glint are present, and when ozone in the northern hemisphere is extremely low. TOMS overpass data are derived from the single TOMS best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour of local noon. The version 8 Earth Probe TOMS ozone values have decreased by an average of about 1% due to a much better understanding of the calibration of the instrument. The remaining differences between TOMS and ground stations suggest that there are still small errors in the TOMS retrievals. But if TOMS is used as a transfer standard to compare ground stations, the large station-to-station differences suggest the possibility of significant instrument errors at some ground stations.

  14. Twenty five years of TOMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, A.

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was conceived as a satellite instrument to measure the contiguous, daily, global horizontal distribution of the total ozone field. Prior information about spatial variations in total ozone from the Dobson spectrophotometer network was limited by station density and calibration errors. TOMS uses the methods of UV radiative transfer and retrieval pioneered by J.V. Dave and C.L. Mateer and an instrument design patterned after the Nimbus 4 BUV, developed by D.F. Heath. The first TOMS was launched on Nimbus 7 in October 1978 and continued to take data for 14.5 years. The data record was extended to the present with new launches in 1991on Meteor-3, and in 1996 on ADEOS I and Earth Probe spacecraft. The TOMS ozone data precision is comparable to Dobson spectrophotometers. Thus, it became possible to observe the full effect of meteorological processes on total ozone. TOMS is noted for its images of the Antarctic Ozone Hole that when combined with ozone trend data from TOMS, persuaded the public of the damaging effects of CFC's on ozone, thus leading to the Montreal Protocol. The ozone trends from TOMS are accepted as definitive due, in part, to the lack of sampling error in its global coverage. TOMS' contiguous spatial coverage produced unexpected products, namely images of sulfur dioxide clouds from volcanic eruptions and maps of absorbing aerosol clouds. A 25-year inventory of SO2 from all eruption sizes greater than 10 ktons is now available. Aerosols are measured over land and ocean by contrast with Rayleigh scattering. Thus, dust clouds from African and Asian deserts can now be tracked from their sources and smoke from fires identified as it is lofted to the free troposphere. Another important product from TOMS is tropospheric ozone, inferred by subtracting the stratospheric overburden measured by other instruments, such as SBUV or MLS, from the total ozone. This permits ozone from air pollution or from biomass

  15. Tom Finery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    It is always interesting to observe a wide range of creative results when students begin a project with the same subject and materials. The lesson described in this article on stitching challenges students to design a turkey on burlap using colorful yarns and a small variety of materials. Each feathered Tom emerges with a unique personality, which…

  16. Deep drilling; Probing beneath the earth's surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.250

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on boreholes from 4.5 to greater than 10 kilometers deep that are pushing back the boundaries of earth science as they yield information that is used to refine seismic surveys, chart the evolution of sedimentary basins and shield volcanos, and uncover important clues on the origin and migration of mantle-derived water and gas.

  17. Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Andrew B.; Reasoner, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km.

  18. Earth-Based Observations of the Galileo Probe Entry Site

    PubMed

    Orton; Ortiz; Baines; Bjoraker; Carsenty; Colas; Dayal; Deming; Drossart; Frappa; Friedson; Goguen; Golisch; Griep; Hernandez; Hoffmann; Jennings; Kaminski; Kuhn; Laques; Limaye; Lin; Lecacheux; Martin; McCabe; Momary; Parker; Puetter; Ressler; Reyes; Sada; Spencer; Spitale; Stewart; Varsik; Warell; Wild; Yanamandra-Fisher; Fazio; Hora; Deutsch

    1996-05-10

    Earth-based observations of Jupiter indicate that the Galileo probe probably entered Jupiter's atmosphere just inside a region that has less cloud cover and drier conditions than more than 99 percent of the rest of the planet. The visual appearance of the clouds at the site was generally dark at longer wavelengths. The tropospheric and stratospheric temperature fields have a strong longitudinal wave structure that is expected to manifest itself in the vertical temperature profile.

  19. Comparison of TOMS, SBW & SBUV/2 Version 8 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data as well as SBUV and SBUV/2 data have been reprocessed with a new retrieval algorithm (Version 8) and an updated calibration procedure. An overview will be presented systematically comparing ozone values to an ensemble of Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. Results show that the accuracy of the TOMS retrieval has been improved when aerosols are present in the atmosphere, when snow/ice and sea glint are present, and when ozone in the northern hemisphere is extremely low. TOMS overpass data are derived from the single TOMS best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour of local noon. The Version 8 Earth Probe TOMS ozone values have decreased by an average of about 1% due to a much better understanding of the calibration of the instrument. N-7 SBUV as well as the series of NOAA SBUV/2 column ozone values have also been processed with the Version 8 algorithm and have been compared to values from an ensemble of groundstations. Results show that the SBW column ozone values agree well with the groundstations and the datasets are useful for trend studies.

  20. TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A.; Witte, J. C.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/~tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) column depth are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August-November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the http://metosrv2.umd.edu/~tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

  1. TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of tropical tropospheric ozone column depth (TTO) are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

  2. Radiative Transfer in the Lower Atmosphere Based on TOMS/ADEOS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, John E.

    1996-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research is to develop and apply methods to compute the solar ultraviolet (UV) spectral irradiance at the earth's surface using information to be provided by the TOMS/ADEOS data set. The broad philosophy is to view the TOMS measurements as a probe of the radiative transfer properties of the earth's atmosphere. Prior to the launch of ADEOS, we have focused on analysis of the Nimbus 7 TOMS data base as well as the development of numerical models for eventual use with ADEOS measurements. The emphasis of recent work has been on numerical modeling of the radiative effects of cloudy skies in the UV part of the spectrum.

  3. The Tom Core Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ahting, Uwe; Thun, Clemens; Hegerl, Reiner; Typke, Dieter; Nargang, Frank E.; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    Translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It consists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom components, Tom6 and Tom7. This core complex was also purified directly from mitochondria after solubilization with dodecyl maltoside. The TOM core complex has the characteristics of the general insertion pore; it contains high-conductance channels and binds preprotein in a targeting sequence-dependent manner. It forms a double ring structure that, in contrast to the holo complex, lacks the third density seen in the latter particles. Three-dimensional reconstruction by electron tomography exhibits two open pores traversing the complex with a diameter of ∼2.1 nm and a height of ∼7 nm. Tom40 is the key structural element of the TOM core complex. PMID:10579717

  4. TOMS Ozone Anomalies and Ozone Retrieval Errors Over Cloudy Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.; Kim, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Loughman, R.

    2003-12-01

    This study characterizes TOMS Ozone Retrieval Errors (OREs) associated with incorrect Cloud-Top Pressures (CTPs) and with assuming opaque Lambertian clouds, investigates these errors' effects on tropospheric ozone derivation, and analyzes ozone anomalies over TOMS data. Large errors occurring in TOMS assumed CTPs and inaccurate CTP-caused OREs are most significantly from inappropriately added ozone below clouds. Because OREs are usually within the TOMS retrieval precision when Cloud Optical Depth (COD)>20, assuming Lambertian surface is good. Because of In-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large positive OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a 2-12 km water cloud of COD 40 with 20.8 DU ozone inside the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU at nadir. The ICOAEN effect depends strongly on viewing geometry and inter-cloud ozone amount and distribution; it is typically 5-13 DU over the tropical Atlantic and Africa and 1-7 DU over the tropical Pacific for deep convective clouds. The negative errors from using the TOMS Partial Cloud Model (PCM) partly cancel other positive errors. At COD < 5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20-40, negative PCM effect decreases to almost zero, and the overall positive ORE increases and is dominated by ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect can largely underestimate tropospheric ozone derived from cloudy/clear difference techniques. The convective cloud differential and cloud-clear pair methods use minimum ozone above clouds to cancel positive errors. A Positive or Negative Ozone Anomaly (POA/NOA) is defined to occur if the ozone/reflectivity correlation coefficient in a region is >0.5 or <-0.5. Average fractions of OA occurrence are 31.8% and 35.8% in Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data, respectively. Most tropical NOAs result from large cloud-height errors; corrections lead to 50-70% POAs in the tropics because of

  5. Ozone, Aerosols and other Atmospheric Products from Version-8 TOMS Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R. D.; Herman, J. R.; Wellemeyer, C. G.; Torres, O.; Krueger, A. J.; Johnson, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    NASA has provided scientists with high resolution daily global maps of total column ozone obtained from a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer(TOMS) instruments flown on Nimbus-7 in 1978, Meteor-3 in 1991, the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) and Earth Probe (EP) satellites in 1996. EP-TOMS (launched a few months prior to ADEOS-TOMS), is the currently operating TOMS instrument providing the ozone data continuity and key information on ozone trends. TOMS instruments have also been used for monitoring dust plumes, smoke from biomass burning, and ash and sulfur dioxide from volcanoes. The V8 TOMS algorithm is the most recent version of the buv (backscattered ultraviolet) radiance based total ozone retrieval algorithms. The TOMS algorithm has undergone more than two decades of progressive refinement. It enhances the previous version (V7) ozone retrievals by taking care of several small errors that were discovered by extensive error studies using radiative transfer models and by comparison with ground-based instruments. We estimate that the new TOMS algorithm is capable of producing total ozone with rms error of about 2 percent. This algorithm will also be used for retrieval of total column ozone from the buv measurements of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to be flown on the Aura spacecraft (early 2004) that will provide continuity to the long time series of total column ozone retrieved using almost the same algorithm (to be consistent) for the study of ozone trend. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data Active Archive Center(GES DAAC) has been responsible for archiving the high quality ozone and other related products derived from the TOMS UV radiances and making it available to users. Additional products include effective Lambertian surface reflectivity, effective cloud fraction, a sun glint index, aerosol characteristics, an SO2 index, surface spectral UV and erythemal weighted irradiance. This presentation will provide some highlights of the standard

  6. Combined Characterisation of GOME and TOMS Total Ozone Using Ground-Based Observations from the NDSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, J.-C.; VanRoozendael, M.; Simon, P. C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Goutail, F.; Andersen, S. B.; Arlander, D. W.; BuiVan, N. A.; Claude, H.; deLaNoee, J.; DeMaziere, M.; Dorokhov, V.; Eriksen, P.; Gleason, J. F.; Tornkvist, K. Karlsen; Hoiskar, B. A. Kastad; Kyroe, E.; Leveau, J.; Merienne, M.-F.; Milinevsky, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several years of total ozone measured from space by the ERS-2 GOME, the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and the ADEOS TOMS, are compared with high-quality ground-based observations associated with the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), over an extended latitude range and a variety of geophysical conditions. The comparisons with each spaceborne sensor are combined altogether for investigating their respective solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence, dispersion, and difference of sensitivity. The space- and ground-based data are found to agree within a few percent on average. However, the analysis highlights for both Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and TOMS several sources of discrepancies, including a dependence on the SZA at high latitudes and internal inconsistencies.

  7. The Recovery of TOMS-EP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Sabelhaus, Phil; Mendenhall, Todd; Fesq, Lorraine

    1998-01-01

    On December 13th 1998, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer - Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) spacecraft experienced a Single Event Upset which caused the system to reconfigure and enter a Safe Mode. This incident occurred two and a half years after the launch of the spacecraft which was designed for a two year life. A combination of factors, including changes in component behavior due to age and extended use, very unfortunate initial conditions and the safe mode processing logic prevented the spacecraft from entering its nominal long term storage mode. The spacecraft remained in a high fuel consumption mode designed for temporary use. By the time the onboard fuel was exhausted, the spacecraft was Sun pointing in a high rate flat spin. Although the uncontrolled spacecraft was initially in a power and thermal safe orientation, it would not stay in this state indefinitely due to a slow precession of its momentum vector. A recovery team was immediately assembled to determine if there was time to develop a method of despinning the vehicle and return it to normal science data collection. A three stage plan was developed that used the onboard magnetic torque rods as actuators. The first stage was designed to reduce the high spin rate to within the linear range of the gyros. The second stage transitioned the spacecraft from sun pointing to orbit reference pointing. The final stage returned the spacecraft to normal science operation. The entire recovery scenario was simulated with a wide range of initial conditions to establish the expected behavior. The recovery sequence was started on December 28th 1998 and completed by December 31st. TOMS-EP was successfully returned to science operations by the beginning of 1999. This paper describes the TOMS-EP Safe Mode design and the factors which led to the spacecraft anomaly and loss of fuel. The recovery and simulation efforts are described. Flight data are presented which show the performance of the spacecraft during its return to science

  8. Researcher Interview: Tom Hudson

    Cancer.gov

    Tom Hudson, M.D., President and Scientific Director of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, describes the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), which brings together cancer genomic data and research from across the world.

  9. Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM) for High Resolution Probing of Earth's Microstructural Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cambrian explosion; occurrence of landslides in very dry weather conditions; rockslides; dead, shriveled-up and crumbled leaves possessing fossil records with the semblance of well preserved, flat leaves; abundance of trilobite tracks in lower and higher rock layers; and sailing stones are enigmas demanding demystifications. These enigmas could be elucidated when data on soil structure, texture and strength are provided by some device with submicrometre accuracy; for these and other reasons, the design of a Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM), is being proposed; it is expected to deliver soft X-rays, at spatial resolution, ϛ≥600nm and to probe at the depth of 0.5m in 17s. The microprobe is portable compared to a synchrotron radiation facility (Diamond Light Source has land size of 43,300m2); spatial resolution,ϛ , of the DPSXRM surpasses those of the X-ray Fluorescence microanalysis (10µm), electron microprobe (1-3µm) and ion microprobe (5->30µm); the DPSXRM has allowance for multiple targets. Vanadium and Manganese membranes are proposed owing to respective 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 X-rays emitted, which best suits micro-probing of Earth's microstructural samples. Compound systems like the Kirk-Patrick and Baez and Wolter optics, aspheric mirrors like elliptical and parabolic optics, small apertures and Abbe sine condition are employed to reduce or remove astigmatism, obliquity, comatic and spherical aberrations—leading to good image quality. Results show that 5.899KeV MnKα1 and 4.952KeV VKα1 soft X-rays will travel a distance of 2.75mm to form circular patches of radii 2.2mm and 2.95mm respectively. Zone plate with nth zone radius of 1.5mm must be positioned 1.5mm and 2mm from the electron gun if circular patches must be formed from 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 soft X-rays respectively. The focal lengths of 0.25μm≤ƒ≤1.50μm and 0.04μm≤ƒ≤0.2μm covered by 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV Mn Kα1 soft X-Rays, will

  10. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: A Multi-Satellite View From TOMS and Other Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Guo, Hua; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Seybold, Matthew G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument can resolve episodic pollution events in the tropics and interannual and seasonal variability. Modified-residual (MR) Nimbus 7 tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO), two maps/month (1979-1992, 1-deg latitude by 2-deg longitude) within the region in which total ozone displays a tropical wave-one pattern (maximum 20S to 20N), are available in digital form at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Also available are preliminary 1996-1999 MR-TTO maps based on real-time Earth-Probe (EP)/TOMS observations. Examples of applications are given.

  11. Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Magali; Marty, Bernard; Burgess, Ray; Turner, Grenville; Philippot, Pascal

    2013-06-06

    Understanding the growth rate of the continental crust through time is a fundamental issue in Earth sciences. The isotopic signatures of noble gases in the silicate Earth (mantle, crust) and in the atmosphere afford exceptional insight into the evolution through time of these geochemical reservoirs. However, no data for the compositions of these reservoirs exists for the distant past, and temporal exchange rates between Earth's interior and its surface are severely under-constrained owing to a lack of samples preserving the original signature of the atmosphere at the time of their formation. Here, we report the analysis of argon in Archaean (3.5-billion-year-old) hydrothermal quartz. Noble gases are hosted in primary fluid inclusions containing a mixture of Archaean freshwater and hydrothermal fluid. Our analysis reveals Archaean atmospheric argon with a (40)Ar/(36)Ar value of 143 ± 24, lower than the present-day value of 298.6 (for which (40)Ar has been produced by the radioactive decay of the potassium isotope (40)K, with a half-life of 1.25 billion years; (36)Ar is primordial in origin). This ratio is consistent with an early development of the felsic crust, which might have had an important role in climate variability during the first half of Earth's history.

  12. Ozone retrieval errors associated with clouds in total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiong

    This study characterizes TOMS Ozone Retrieval Errors (ORES) associated with incorrect Cloud-Top Pressures (CTPs) and with assuming opaque Lambertian clouds, investigates these errors' effects on tropospheric ozone derivation, and analyzes ozone anomalies over TOMS data. Large errors occurring in TOMS assumed CTPs and inaccurate CTP-caused ORES are most significantly from inappropriately added ozone below clouds. Because OREs are usually within the TOMS retrieval precision when Cloud Optical Depth (COD) ≥ 20, assuming angular-independent cloud reflection is good. Because of In-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large positive OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a 2--12 km water cloud of COD 40 with 20.8 DU ozone homogeneously distributed inside the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU at nadir view. The ICOAEN effect depends strongly on viewing geometry and inter-cloud ozone amount and distribution; it is typically 5--13 DU over the tropical Atlantic and Africa and 1--7 DU over the tropical Pacific for deep convective clouds. The TOMS Partial Cloud Model (PCM) is good because negative PCM effect partly cancels other positive errors. At COD ≤ 5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20--40, negative PCM effect decreases more dramatically than positive effects, so overall positive ORE increases and is dominated by the ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect can largely underestimate tropospheric ozone derived from cloudy/clear difference techniques. The convective cloud differential and cloud-clear pair methods use minimum ozone above clouds to cancel positive errors. A Positive or Negative Ozone Anomaly (POA/NOA) is defined to occur if the ozone/reflectivity correlation coefficient in a region is ≥0.5 or ≤-0.5. Average fractions of OA occurrence are 31.8% and 35.8% in Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data, respectively. Most tropical NOAs

  13. Volcanic Eruption Detection by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Instruments: a 22-Year Record of Sulfur Dioxide and Ash Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Schaefer, S. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Watson, I. M.; Datta, S.

    2002-05-01

    Since their first deployment in November 1978, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have provided a unique, robust and near-continuous record of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash emissions from active volcanoes worldwide. Data from the four TOMS satellites that have flown to date (Nimbus-7, Meteor-3, ADEOS and Earth Probe) have been incorporated into a TOMS volcanic emissions database that presently covers 22 years of SO2 and ash emissions, representing one of the longest satellite-derived records of volcanic activity in existence. At the beginning of 2002, this database comprised 194 individual eruptive events produced during 100 eruptions from 60 volcanoes, resulting in a total of 666 days of volcanic cloud observations by TOMS. Regular eruptions of the African volcano Nyamuragira (DR Congo) since 1978, accompanied by copious SO2 production (Guth et al., 2002), have alone contributed approximately 20% of the days on which clouds were observed. Indonesian volcanoes have produced over 30% of detected eruptive events, due largely to frequent explosive activity at Galunggung, Soputan and Colo during the 1980s. The latest SO2 retrieval results from Earth Probe (EP) TOMS document a period (1996-2001) lacking large explosive eruptions, and also dominated by SO2 emission from 4 eruptions of Nyamuragira. EP TOMS has detected the SO2 and ash produced during 39 eruptive events from 15 volcanoes to date, with volcanic clouds observed on 128 days. Data from EP TOMS have recently begun to degrade, and its erstwhile successor (QuikTOMS) failed to achieve orbit in 2001. New SO2 algorithms are currently being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which will continue the TOMS record of UV remote sensing of volcanic emissions from 2004. OMI will offer SO2 detection limits up to 50 times lower than TOMS and comparable to COSPEC, offering the prospect of regular space-based measurement of passive degassing. Reference: A.L. Guth, G.J.S. Bluth & S.A. Carn

  14. Probing iron at Super-Earth core conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Amadou, N.; Brambrink, E.; Vinci, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Huser, G.; Brygoo, S.; Morard, G.; Guyot, F.; Resseguier, T. de; Mazevet, S.; Miyanishi, K.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Henry, O.; Raffestin, D.; Boehly, T.; and others

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we report on the quasi-isentropic compression of an iron sample using ramp shaped laser irradiation. This technique allows us to quasi-isentropically compress iron up to 700 GPa and 8500 K. To our knowledge, these data are the highest pressures reached on iron in off-Hugoniot conditions and the closest to the thermodynamic states thought to exist in Earth-like planetary cores. The experiment was performed on the Ligne d'Intégration laser facility at CESTA, Bordeaux, France.

  15. Probing the Earth from space - The Aristoteles mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuyer, M.; Silvestrin, P.; Aguirre, M.

    1992-11-01

    The Aristoteles mission has been under study by the Agency since 1987. Its aim is to provide global models of the Earth's gravitational and magnetic fields with high spatial resolution and accuracy. Following earlier discussions, in 1990 NASA confirmed its intention to participate in the mission with the provision of a dedicated launch and of additional instruments. This has made it possible to enhance the scientific and application-orientated value of the mission and to optimize the spacecraft design. This article reviews the new joint ESA-NASA Aristoteles mission, as well as the status of the system definition and of the associated technological pre-development activities.

  16. The iEarth Adaptive Virtual Earth Observatory: Probing the Performance of Spaceborne Climate Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wilson, B. D.; Fetzer, E. J.; Mannucci, A. J.; Ao, C. O.; Braverman, A. J.; Manipon, G. J.; Garay, M. J.; Tang, B.

    2006-12-01

    The iEarth Adaptive Virtual Earth Observatory is built upon JPL's Grid-based GENESIS/SciFlo automated workflow execution system developed under NASA's REASoN program. SciFlo enables ready chaining of data services from multiple providers; iEarth provides a friendly graphical interface for building an automated, end-to-end scientific investigation for execution by SciFlo. At present iEarth is configured to conduct atmospheric, climate, and related instrumental studies that integrate large data sets from premier sensors on NASA's Terra and Aqua platforms. The first release of the SciFlo execution engine is operating at a number of NASA centers and other research facilities across the country. Several scientific studies applying SciFlo are in progress, including EOS instrument validation, atmospheric aerosol studies, and cloud model validation with multiple datasets. The first public version of the iEarth Observatory will be rolled out in early 2007 as part of the ESIP (Earth Science Information Partners) Federation's "Earth Information Exchange," to reside within the government-wide Geospatial One-Stop portal. Our team is conducting comparative studies of atmospheric temperature and moisture retrievals from NASA's AIRS, MODIS, and GPS occultation sensors. The ease and speed of defining and executing complex studies involving large, multi-instrument data sets with iEarth greatly increase the pace of investigations. Our studies have led to unexpected insights into the performance of some of NASA's flagship climate sensors. We will present a live demonstration of iEarth along with the results of our most recent instrumental comparisons.

  17. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    PubMed

    Doughty, Christopher E; Wolf, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993) noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis) as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position) which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  18. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993) noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis) as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position) which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0–20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary. PMID:27973530

  19. Tropospheric ozone at tropical and middle latitudes derived from TOMS/MLS residual: Comparison with a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Martin, R. V.

    2003-05-01

    The tropospheric ozone residual method is used to derive zonal maps of tropospheric column ozone using concurrent measurements of total column ozone from Nimbus 7 and Earth Probe (EP) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and stratospheric column ozone from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Our study shows that the zonal variability in TOMS total column ozone at tropical and subtropical latitudes is mostly of tropospheric origin. The seasonal and zonal variability in tropospheric column ozone (TCO), derived from the TOMS/MLS residual, is consistent with that derived from the convective cloud differential method and ozonesonde measurements in regions where these data overlap. A comparison of TCO derived from the TOMS/MLS residual and a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) for 1996-1997 shows good agreement in the tropics south of the equator. Both the model and observations show similar zonal and seasonal characteristics including an enhancement of TCO in the Indonesian region associated with the 1997 El Niño. Both show the decline of the wave-1 pattern from the tropics to the extratropics as lightning activity and the Walker circulation decline. Both show enhanced ozone in the downwelling branches of the Hadley Circulation near ±30o. Model and observational differences increase with latitude during winter and spring.

  20. Long-Term Variability of Airborne Asian Dust Observed from TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Hsu, N. C.; Seftor, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Holben, B. N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.

  1. Unravelling the Complexities of the Earth's Radiation Belts: Findings from the Van Allen Probes mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola; Kessel, Ramona; Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shri

    2014-05-01

    Within the first year of Van Allen Probe operations, team members made a series of highly publicized decisive discoveries concerning the structure and evolution of the Earth's radiation belts, the processes that energize particles there, and the locations where they operate. Nevertheless, much more extensive and less publicized findings from the Van Allen Probes suggest that Earth's radiation belts regions remain a highly complex and puzzling place. Although the relation between magnetic storm and radiation belt enhancements and loss has been emphasized, dynamics during non-storm periods has occasionally been shown to be dramatic. While emphasis has been placed on new findings regarding local non-adiabatic energization mechanisms, adiabatic mechanisms have also been shown to be important. Furthermore, the interplay between, and relative importance of, these and other energization processes remain uncertain. The role of seed populations has been highlighted, with some studies pointing to localized mechanisms and others pointing to the role of substorms in transporting and injecting such populations. Here we review some of the less publicized findings and future objectives of the Van Allen Probes mission to get a broader and in-depth view of present understanding of Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  2. The Pilot Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey: Probing the size distribution of the most abundant Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Fuentes, Cesar; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2012-12-01

    We propose a Warm Spitzer search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs), bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. Previous work has measured the properties of larger NEOs, but the physical properties of the smallest and most numerous NEOs are poorly constrained. We will capitalize on Spitzer's unparalleled sensitivity and unique geometry to measure the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters, where completeness from previous surveys is poor. This allows us to probe the dynamical history of near-Earth space and meet the Congressional mandate to determine the impact threat from objects >140 m. This project will also serve as a scientific and technical pathfinder for a future large Spitzer proposal that will increase our knowledge of the small NEO size distribution by another order of magnitude. Both projects will also be sensitive to previously unseen NEO populations. This proposed work significantly surpasses recent results from both our ExploreNEOS program and NEOWISE. Future ground- and space-based missions have been proposed to carry out similar work at costs of $500M or more, but this fundamental work can be done now, with Spitzer, for far less money. Our team has unmatched scientific and technical expertise in observations and modeling of Spitzer-observed NEOs.

  3. The Ozone Hole of 2002 as Measured by TOMS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; McPeters, Richard D.; Newman, Paul A.

    2005-03-01

    Since its discovery in 1985, the ozone hole has been regularly mapped using the data from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments on several satellites. The current TOMS, on the Earth Probe satellite, has been taking measurements since 1996. The ozone hole first appeared during the 1980s. Since 1990, the hole has consistently developed during each Antarctic spring over a broad area with the minimum total ozone value reaching about 100 Dobson units (DU; 1 DU = 2.69 × 1016 molecules cm-2) in late September or early October. The year 2002 was markedly different from the past 12 years. A series of strong wave events weakened the South Polar vortex. In late September, a major stratospheric warming took place, reversing the direction of the polar flow and the latitudinal temperature gradient. This warming resulted in a division of the ozone hole into two pieces, one that migrated to lower latitudes and disappeared and one that reformed over the Pole in a weakened form. The development of this year's unusual ozone hole is shown here and is contrasted to a climatology of the years since 1990. Minimum daily values of total ozone barely reached 150 DU in contrast to values nearer to 100. The area of the ozone hole briefly reached 18 × 106 km2, then dropped rapidly to only 2 × 106 km2, and finally recovered to about 8 × 106 km2 before disappearing in early November. The positive anomaly compared with the last 12 yr near the Pole was accompanied by a smaller negative anomaly north of 45°S.

  4. The magnetospheric disturbance ring current as a source for probing the deep earth electrical conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Two current rings have been observed in the equatorial plane of the earth at times of high geomagnetic activity. An eastward current exists between about 2 and 3.5 earth radii (Re) distant, and a larger, more variable companion current exists between about 4 and 9 Re. These current regions are loaded during geomagnetic substorms. They decay, almost exponentially, after the cessation of the particle influx that attends the solar wind disturbance. This review focuses upon characteristics needed for intelligent use of the ring current as a source for induction probing of the earth's mantle. Considerable difficulties are found with the assumption that Dst is a ring-current index. ?? 1990 Birkha??user Verlag.

  5. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets

  6. The Role of TOMS in Understanding the Fates of Volcanic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Guo, S.; Carn, S. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) has observed over 100 eruption s during the past 25 years, from both explosive and effusive sources. The four TOMS instruments (Nimbus-7, Meteor, ADEOS, and Earth Probe) have gen erated an unprecedented archive of eruption data and allowed us to look at processes, in addition to describing individual events. The TOMS sensors are less affected by atmospheric water vapor and optical thickness than i nfrared techniques, and thus are able to return information on the cloud f rom it's early, most concentrated form, to dilute cloudmasses several days later. From the many observations and advances generated from TOMS data, here we document those which pertain to the first few days following emis sion into the atmosphere. Following discrete eruption events, we have observed that the mass of retr ieved SO2 often increases for 1-2 days, independent of any volcanic contri bution. Combining TOMS with other sensor data suggests that significant S O2 is sequestered by ice in the rising plume. Ablation of the ice slowly re-releases SO2, which results in the apparent increase. After 2-3 days, this process appears to be largely complete, and SO2 removal then follows an exponential decay rate. TOMS-derived removal rates of SO2 have ranged from approximately 25 days (e-folding time) for Pinatubo-sized eruptions, to less than one day for smaller or tropospheric eruptions. Within the sa me eruption this rate may vary, as SO2 removal is strongly affected by ads orption onto co-existing ash and ice particles. The removal processes can also be linked to an eruption height threshold, separating eruptions whic h are emplaced above the tropopause and produce potentially long-lasting a tmospheric impacts from those which are rapidly removed from the atmospher e. We have also observed that many eruptions produce a vertical separatio n of gas-rich and ash-rich phases. However, other events have produced no separation, suggesting that the separation

  7. A video atlas of TOMS ozone data, 1978-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.; Krueger, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), on-board NASA's Nimbus-7 weather satellite, has been observing ozone over the earth once daily for the last 10 yr. A time-lapse atlas of 3440 color-coded images drawn from the TOMS archive from 1978 to 1988 has been visualized on a standard VHS videotape that is now available from NASA. The rapid and complex ozone variations presented demonstrate the difficulty of separating man-induced climate changes from natural variability. This article presents a few images from the atlas and describes interesting features in the animation, such as the correlation between ozone and 'the weather', and the recent deepening of the annual ozone hole over the South Pole. Originally intended as a browsing tool for the TOMS digital database, the videotape is a vivid presentation of the earth's atmospheric dynamics and chemistry that is recommended for scientists, educators, policy makers, and citizens concerned about the global environment.

  8. Ultrafast pump-probe dynamics of iron oxide based earth pigments for applications to ancient pottery manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafana, Tana E.; Brown, William; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate that ultrafast pump-probe microscopy provides unique dynamics for natural iron oxide and iron hydroxide earth pigments, despite their chemical similarity. First, we conducted a pump-probe spectroscopy study on heat-treated hematite (the pure red iron oxide mineral) and found the pump-probe dynamics to be temperature dependent. Second, we investigated pottery fired under known conditions and observed firing dependent pump-probe dynamics. Finally, we imaged a New World potshard from the North Carolina Museum of Art. Our results indicate that pump-probe microscopy could be a useful tool in elucidating pottery manufacture.

  9. 75 FR 69470 - Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom Including Off-Site Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom... Doing Business as Tom Tom, Concord, MA; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Detroit, MI; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Redwood,...

  10. A 27-Year Composite Dataset of Global UV Effective Reflectivity From the TOMS and SBUV(/2) Satellite Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, S. A.; Deland, M.

    2006-05-01

    The series of TOMS and SBUV(/2) satellite instruments provides a 27-year continuous record of direct observations of the Earth's albedo or "UV effective reflectivity" across the globe. A total of eight instrument datasets have been recently re-processed with the version 8 total ozone retrieval algorithm developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, including Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, 1978- 1993), Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV, 1978-1990), NOAA 9 SBUV/2 (1985-98), NOAA 11 SBUV/2 (1988-2001), NOAA 14 SBUV/2 (1995-2004), Earth Probe TOMS (1996-2005), NOAA 16 SBUV/2 (2000-2005) and NOAA 17 SBUV/2 (2004-2005). Additional datasets in preparation include Nimbus-4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV, 1970-75), the European ERS-2 Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (1995- present), ADEOS TOMS (1997), NOAA 18 SBUV/2 (2005-present), and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, 2004-present), as well as continuing measurements by the NOAA 16 and NOAA 17 SBUV/2 instruments. Long-term calibration of TOMS and SBUV(/2) Lambertian Effective Reflectivity (LER) measurements in the UV-A region (331 nm) is maintained to approximately ±1%. While other TOMS and SBUV(/2) data products are somewhat sensitive to the degradation of the instruments' diffuser plates, observations of absolute reflectivity are routinely calibrated by actual geophysical on-orbit calibration to locations of high (fresh snow cover over the Hudson Bay) and low (clear-sky open ocean) reflectivity. This frequent absolute calibration provides a continuous, stable record of global effective reflectivity over the last 27 years. Use of this reflectivity dataset as a surrogate for total cloud cover allows one to investigate correlations between solar cycle and cloud cover, and may shed light on the issue of discontinuity or possible long-term drift in the ISCCP dataset. This dataset also provides insight into the issue of long-term changes in the effective albedo of the Earth (i.e. "global

  11. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kim, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is ≥0.5 or ≥- 0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8+/-7.7% and 35.8+-7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by 200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure ≤ 200 hPa) for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by 150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure ≥750 hPa). Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30-60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more ozone production because of

  12. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kim, J. H.

    2003-08-01

    This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is > 0.5 or < -0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8 ± 7.7% and 35.8 ± 7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by ~200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure < 200 hPa) for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by ~150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure > 750 hPa). Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30--60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more

  13. A TOMS-Based View of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (OTTO) From Large Fires Associated with the 1997-1998 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Guo, H.; Hudson, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Since the launch of Earth-Probe TOMS in July 1 996, we have been producing tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps (10S - 10N), in gridded format, l x 2 degrees, in near-real time. These images, along with images from the full ADEOS-TOMS record of TTO (Sept. 1996 - May 1997) can be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd,edu/-tropo). The TTO maps, based on the modified-residual method of Hudson and Thompson [1998], have been validated using ozonesondes from Ascension (8S, 15W), Nairobi (2S, 36E) and American Samoa (14S, 171W). The fires associated with El Nino-induced dryness are exhibited regionally as high tropospheric ozone column (> 60 Dobson Units) with high absorbing aerosol (smoke) signal in TOMS [J. R. Herman, personal communication, 1998]. Episodes of high TTO in 1997-98 will be shown. Regional TTO over Indonesia during the 1997-98 period will be highlighted and comparisons will be made with TTO in that region taken from the 1979-92 Nimbus/TOMS TTO record.

  14. An Interview with Tom Wessels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Patrick K.; Wessels, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Author and environmental educator Tom Wessels discusses how to infer a landscape's history from plants and other clues found on site. Reading the landscape enables people to develop a stronger connection to place. Understanding historic landscape changes is essential to understanding current environmental issues. He also discusses his teaching…

  15. TOMS ozone data analysis of Indonesian forest fire effect on total ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jianguo; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Nobuo; Ogawa, Toshihio

    1998-08-01

    Biomass burning can result in tropospheric ozone increasing. In 1997, Indonesia big forest fire in dry season as a result of El Nino emitted large amounts of biomass burning plumes into the atmosphere, which produce ozone in troposphere via photochemical reaction. We mapped three day average of Earth Probe TOMS data from July to December 1997 in Latitude of 20 degrees S to 20 degrees N, and Longitude of 30 degrees E to 180 degrees E, which involves the forest fire area. As a composition we got every day ADEOS TOMS maps in the same area and the same period in 1996. From this maps we can find that in October 1997 the largest total amount of ozone was about 30 Dobson unit larger than the average in the same period of 1996. The area of largest amount was twice appeared in September 8 to 13 and October 11 to 19 which lasted about ten days. The location of that was in the west not far from the forest fire area which can be considered as a result of seasonal wind form east to west. Besides that a fairly large amount ozone area form east Indonesia through the west, we can find that ozone amount was largely increased than that of 1996.

  16. Variation of energetic electron flux in Earth's radiation belts based on Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rongxin; Zhong, Zhihong; Yu, Deyin

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's radiation belts have been an important research topic of solar-terrestrial physics from 1958. In 2012, Van Allen Probes (VAP) were launched into near-equatorial orbit and provide very good in-situ observations of energetic particles in inner magnetosphere. Since magnetospheric substorm can cause the severe disturbance of the Earth's megnetospheric environment, here we focus on the characteristics of energetic electron fluxes in the radiation belts during substorm time and non-storm time. Energetic electron data observed by the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT) of VAP during 2012 to 2014 are carefully analyzed. We select portions of energetic electron data from substorm onset phase, growth phase, recovery phase, and quiet time, and make a comparisons with theoretical computations. We find that the electron differential fluxes present E-1 shape at lower energies (<1MeV), and have a sharp transition with steeper slopes at high energies for large L-shells, which are in coincidence with Mauk's model [Mauk et al., 2010].

  17. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  18. ADEOS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Jaross, G.; Seftor, C.; Torres, O.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Moy, L.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (ADEOS/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The ADEOS/ TOMS began taking measurements on September 11, 1996, and ended on June 29, 1997. The instrument measured backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio was used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement were monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the 9-month data record. The Level 2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level 3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level 3 files containing estimates of UVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information will also be available. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CDROM product are provided.

  19. Arabidopsis TOBAMOVIRUS MULTIPLICATION (TOM) 2 locus encodes a transmembrane protein that interacts with TOM1.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Yayoi; Numaga, Takuro; Ohshima, Kiyoshi; Yano, Masa-Aki; Ohsawa, Ryuji; Goto, Derek B; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2003-01-15

    The tom2-1 mutation of Arabidopsis thaliana reduces the efficiency of intracellular multiplication of tobamoviruses. The tom2-1 mutant was derived from fast-neutron-irradiated seeds, and the original mutant line also carries ttm1, a dominant modifier that increases tobamovirus multiplication efficiency in a tobamovirus-strain-specific manner in the tom2-1 genetic background. Here, we show that the tom2-1 mutation involved a deletion of approximately 20 kb in the nuclear genome. The deleted region included two genes named TOM2A and TOM2B that were both associated with the tom2-1 phenotype, whereas ttm1 corresponded to the translocation of part of the deleted region that included intact TOM2B but not TOM2A. TOM2A encodes a 280 amino acid putative four-pass transmembrane protein with a C-terminal farnesylation signal, while TOM2B encodes a 122 amino acid basic protein. The split-ubiquitin assay demonstrated an interaction of TOM2A both with itself and with TOM1, an integral membrane protein of A.thaliana presumed to be an essential constituent of tobamovirus replication complex. The data presented here suggest that TOM2A is also an integral part of the tobamovirus replication complex.

  20. Changes in Aerosols and Cloud Reflectivity (1979-2008) From 30 Years of Radiance Data using Multiple Satellites: N7-TOMS, EP-TOMS, SBUV-2 Series, SeaWiFS, and OMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Labow, G.; Wenhan, Q.; Huang, L.

    2008-12-01

    The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover, and, to a much lesser extent, by aerosols and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O) in their relative bands of absorption. A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the UV (331nm to 400 nm) Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of a scene exceeds the surface reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes. A 30-year reflectivity time series is presented by combining data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus-7 TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter UltraViolet-NOAA N9, N11, N16, N17, N18; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2007, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004 - 2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation by themselves. Values derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series obtained during the overlapping years are compared. Key issues in determining long- term reflectivity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed, as are the problems in re-calibrating all of the TOMS and SBUV satellite data. The preliminary combined 30-year reflectivity data set shows a small global increase in radiation reflected back to space suggestive of global dimming at the surface.

  1. On the Transfer and Control of Space Probes Around the L1 Point of the Sun-Earth+Moon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xi-Yun; Liu, Lin

    2008-01-01

    The motion around the collinear libration points in the restricted three body problem is unstable. But there exist conditionally stable periodic orbits around these points. Special-purpose space probes located in the vicinity of these points (e.g., ISEE-3, SOHO) can benefit from this dynamical property, in regard to maintaining the orbit in position and the energy required of placing the probe in position. As an example, we study in this paper the launch and orbital control of a space probe around the L1 libration point in the system consisting of the Sun and the Earth-Moon. We present some theoretical and numerical simulations' results, which may serve as a basis for the realization of such a space probe in future.

  2. Understanding Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics: Van Allen Probes observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Thorne, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob; Zhang, Xiaojia

    2016-10-01

    Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical processes during geomagnetic storms using a 3D diffusion simulation. By quantitatively comparing the electron evolution observed by Van Allen Probes and simulation, we found that whistler-mode chorus waves play a critical role in accelerating electrons up to several MeV through efficient energy diffusion. By only including radial diffusion driven by ultra-low-frequency waves, the simulation underestimates the observed electron acceleration, while radial diffusion plays an important role in redistributing electrons. Although an additional loss process is required to fully explain the overestimated electron fluxes at multi-MeV, the combined physical processes of radial diffusion and scattering by whistler-mode waves reproduce the observed electron dynamics remarkably well, suggesting that quasi-linear diffusion theory is reasonable to evaluate radiation belt electron dynamics, and the importance of nonlinear wave-particle interaction may still remain as an open question. We would like to acknowledge AFOSR Award FA9550-15-1-0158, NASA Grants NNX15AI96G, NNX15AF61G, and the NSF Grant AGS 1564510 for supporting this research.

  3. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

    2013-12-01

    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of

  4. In Their Own Words: Tom Simon

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tom Simon, a contracting officer's representative for NASA's Commercial Crew Program, discusses the importance of certifying commercial transportation systems are safe to carry NASA astronauts to t...

  5. Tom Ford Construction, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tom Ford Construction, LLC (the Company) is located in Brentwood, Tennessee. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Nashville, Tennessee.

  6. Impact of atmospheric refraction: how deeply can we probe exo-earth's atmospheres during primary eclipse observations?

    SciTech Connect

    Bétrémieux, Yan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2014-08-10

    Most models used to predict or fit exoplanet transmission spectra do not include all the effects of atmospheric refraction. Namely, the angular size of the star with respect to the planet can limit the lowest altitude, or highest density and pressure, probed during primary eclipses as no rays passing below this critical altitude can reach the observer. We discuss this geometrical effect of refraction for all exoplanets and tabulate the critical altitude, density, and pressure for an exoplanet identical to Earth with a 1 bar N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere as a function of both the incident stellar flux (Venus, Earth, and Mars-like) at the top of the atmosphere and the spectral type (O5-M9) of the host star. We show that such a habitable exo-Earth can be probed to a surface pressure of 1 bar only around the coolest stars. We present 0.4-5.0 μm model transmission spectra of Earth's atmosphere viewed as a transiting exoplanet, and show how atmospheric refraction modifies the transmission spectrum depending on the spectral type of the host star. We demonstrate that refraction is another phenomenon that can potentially explain flat transmission spectra over some spectral regions.

  7. Trends in Southern Hemisphere Albedo using a 27-yr Composite TOMS/SBUV(/2)/OMI Dataset of UV Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Moorthi, S.; Pan, H.; Kumar, A.

    2005-05-01

    This study uses eight NASA and NOAA satellite datasets of ultraviolet Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER): Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV), NOAA-11, -14, -16 and -17 SBUV/2, Earth Probe TOMS and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The principal data product presented here is monthly mean LER, zonally averaged over 5-degree latitude bands over the period 1978-2005. All datasets have been processed with the common TOMS/SBUV/OMI version 8 retrieval algorithm, resulting in a 27-yr composite dataset of reflectivity (albedo) with a reliable, geophysically validated, long-term calibration. Linear trends in zonal monthly mean LER are calculated over the entire 27-year period using a standard least squares fit method. A significant increase in LER is found for the Southern Hemisphere, increasing linearly from the Equator to 60°S. The increase in LER at high Southern latitudes is attributed to an increase in cloud reflectivity. It is further found that the increase in LER is inversely proportional to the GISS Surface Temperature Anomaly trend over the same 27-yr period (R2=0.98 over 10°S-60°S). This statistically significant correlation between LER and surface temperatures has implications for global warming and global dimming studies.

  8. Trends in Southern Hemisphere Albedo using a 27-yr Composite TOMS/SBUV(/2)/OMI Dataset of UV Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    This study uses eight NASA and NOAA satellite datasets of ultraviolet Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER): Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV), NOAA-11, -14, -16 and -17 SBUV/2, Earth Probe TOMS and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The principal data product presented here is monthly mean LER, zonally averaged over 5-degree latitude bands over the period 1978-2005. All datasets have been processed with the common TOMS/SBUV/OMI version 8 retrieval algorithm, resulting in a 27-yr composite dataset of reflectivity (albedo) with a reliable, geophysically validated, long-term calibration. Linear trends in zonal monthly mean LER are calculated over the entire 27-year period using a standard least squares fit method. A significant increase in LER is found for the Southern Hemisphere, increasing linearly from the Equator to 60°S. The increase in LER at high Southern latitudes is attributed to an increase in cloud reflectivity. It is further found that the increase in LER is inversely proportional to the GISS Surface Temperature Anomaly trend over the same 27-yr period (R2=0.98 over 10°S-60°S). This statistically significant correlation between LER and surface temperatures has implications for global warming and global dimming studies.

  9. A Comparison of SBUV and TOMS Version 8.6 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labow, G. J.; Haffner, D.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Taylor, S.

    2010-12-01

    Data from the Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers(TOMS) as well as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been newly reprocessed with Version 8.6 of the TOMS column ozone retrieval algorithm. The ozone absorption cross-sections of Brion, Daumont, & Malicet have replaced those of Bass & Paur in the new algorithm, a new cloud height climatology derived from OMI measurements of UV rotational raman filling is now used instead of the previous thermal IR-based cloud data, and instrument calibration has been re-examined and updated in cases that were appropriate. These algorithm changes are also made to the SBUV (Solar Backscatter UltraViolet) ozone profile algorithm, advancing it Version 8.6 as well. Data from seven NOAA SBUV/2 instruments as well as the SBUV on Nimbus-7 have been reprocessed with the new profile algorithm. The newest versions of all these data have been systematically compared to total ozone data from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers for many individual ground stations as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone amount.

  10. Nimbus/TOMS Science Data Operations Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    1. Participate in and provide analysis of laboratory and in-flight calibration of UV sensors used for space observations of backscattered UV radiation. 2. Provide support to the TOMS Science Operations Center, including generating instrument command lists and analysis of TOMS health and safety data. 3. Develop and maintain software and algorithms designed to capture and process raw spacecraft and instrument data, convert the instrument output into measured radiance and irradiances, and produce scientifically valid products. 4. Process the TOMS data into Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 data products. 5. Provide analysis of the science data products in support of NASA GSFC Code 916's research.

  11. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Level-3 Data Products User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Byerly, William; Celarier, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from the TOMS series of instruments span the time period from November 1978, through the present with about a one and a-half year gap from January 1994 through July 1996. A set of four parameters derived from the TOMS measurements have been archived in the form of daily global maps or Level-3 data products. These products are total column ozone, effective surface reflectivity, aerosol index, and erythermal ultraviolet estimated at the Earth surface. A common fixed grid of I degree latitude by 1.25 degree longitude cells over the entire globe is provided daily for each parameter. These data are archived at the Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAQ in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). They are also available in a character format through the TOMS web site at http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. The derivations of the parameters, the mapping algorithm, and the data formats are described. The trend uncertainty for individual TOMS instruments is about 1% decade, but additional uncertainty exists in the combined data record due to uncertainty in the relative calibrations of the various TOMS.

  12. TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

  13. The Mutual Impedance Probe Technique for Plasma Parameters Measurements: the ROSETTA RPC/MIP Results during the Earth's Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotignon, J.; Lebreton, J.; Rauch, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Mutual Impedance Probe technique, used in geophysical prospection to measure the ground permittivity since the early 1900, has been successfully transposed to measure space plasma properties in the 70s. This technique has been used in space for many years on sounding rockets and spacecraft: GEOS-1, GEOS-2, VIKING, MARS-96, ARCAD/AUREOL-3, and Huygens. The basic principle of the technique is to measure the self impedance of a single electric antenna or the mutual impedance between two sets of E-field dipoles. Since the impedance of the probe depends on the dielectric properties of the medium in which the probe is immersed, some characteristics of the medium can be determined. Space plasma parameters such as the density and temperature of thermal electrons may thus be reliably and accurately deduced. As a bonus, using only the receiving part of the probe, natural waves can also be investigated in a large frequency range. An E-field impedance probe is currently flying onboard ESA’s comet Chaser ROSETTA and one such probe is in development for BepiColombo. The most common configuration of a mutual impedance probe uses a dipole for transmitting a frequency-controlled signal and a second dipole for receiving the induced signal. Transmitting electrodes are fed with a signal generator, in series with a current meter if necessary, while the receiving electrodes are connected to a voltmeter with a very high input impedance. The transmitted current I and the received voltage V being known, the mutual impedance Z is by definition Z = V/I. Both the imaginary and the real parts of Z may then be interpreted to deduce plasma properties. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated with in-flight calibration results obtained by the Mutual Impedance Probe, MIP, which is one instrument of the ROSETTA plasma package. MIP and the four other instruments of the ROSETTA Plasma Consortium, RPC, were switched on during the three Earth swingbys (March 2005, November 2007, and

  14. Huygens probe mission simulation in Earth's atmosphere: a stratospheric balloon experiment for the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombatti, G.; Gaborit, V.; Ferri, F.; Bettanini, C.; Bastianello, S.; Flamini, E.; Antonello, M.; Aboudan, A.; Lion Stoppano, P. F.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2003-04-01

    On May, 30th 2002, a balloon experiment was successfully performed from the ASI stratospheric balloons launch base of Trapani-Milo in Sicily, in order to simulate the descent of the Huygens probe into Titan's atmosphere. This test consisted of the release in the Earth's atmosphere of a 1:1 scale mockup of the Huygens probe, lifted up to the altitude of 32.5 km by means of a stratospheric balloon and decelerated by a parachute. The on-board payload consisted of the HASI instrumentation (pressure, temperature sensors and accelerometers), Huygens SSP tilt sensor, Beagle2 UV sensor and an add-on package of complementary sensors. The descent lasted about 54 minutes and was a unique opportunity to investigate the behaviour of the HASI sensors and to get a real data set for trajectory reconstruction. Other added sensors such as a three axial magnetometer, sun sensors and the tilt sensor were used to investigate the attitude of the probe along the descent. During the flight, all the instrumentation was nominally functioning providing data for the determination of the atmospheric vertical pressure and temperature profiles and the acceleration descent profile of the mockup. The whole data set has been used for the determination of the mockup descent and attitude, and to test the algorithms developed for the Huygens trajectory reconstruction. In the same way, the data analysis improved our understanding of the probe motion (mainly pendulum) and how this motion affects accelerometer measurements. From a scientific point of view, this flight was a success and a new balloon experiment is foreseen in summer 2003 in order to integrate other instruments of the real Huygens probe and to improve and complete the existing results.

  15. Comparison of Galileo Probe and Earth-Based Translation Rates of Jupiter's Equatorial Clouds

    PubMed

    Beebe; Simon; Huber

    1996-05-10

    The Doppler wind speeds derived from Galileo probe data are comparable with the maximum translation speeds observed in the equatorial zone by Voyager 1 and the Hubble Space Telescope. Slower published values of east-west winds are based on measurements of larger features and should be interpreted as translation rates of large weather systems interacting with the wind. The nature of the hot-spot region that the Galileo probe entered is compatible with a high-speed jet at 6 degrees north. The hot spot is associated with an equatorial weather system that spans 5 degrees of latitude and translates at 103 meters per second.

  16. Global Surface Ultraviolet Radiation Climatology from TOMS and ERBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Dan

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop a method for calculating the distribution of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) over most of the earth's surface using NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data, and to use this method to develop a UVR climatology that is useful in the context of the global ozone depletion issue. The research carried out with this support has resulted the following accomplishments: (1) a radioactive transfer method. based on the delta-Eddington approximation, was successfully developed; (2) the method was applied to the five years of overlapping TOMS and ERBE Monthly-Hourly data to examine the impact of global variability in cloud cover on trends in surface UVR; (3) a presentation was made on effects of stratospheric ozone depletion; (4) the radioactive transfer model was finally applied to all daylight hours to make a through study of the global effect of cloud cover;and (6) a five-year global climatology of surface UVR based on all of the research has been prepared for general distribution.

  17. Changes in cloud and aerosol cover (1980-2006) from reflectivity time series using SeaWiFS, N7-TOMS, EP-TOMS, SBUV-2, and OMI radiance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Labow, G.; Hsu, N. C.; Larko, D.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover and, to a much lesser extent, by Rayleigh scattering, aerosols, and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O). A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the 331 nm Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of a scene exceeds the surface reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes after Rayleigh scattering has been removed. Twenty-eight years of reflectivity data are available by overlapping data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus 7, TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, NOAA; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe, TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2006, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004-2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record, Sun-synchronous orbits, and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation. Reflectivity data derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series are compared during the overlapping years. Key issues in determining long-term reflectivity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed. The largest reflectivity changes in the 412 nm SW LER and 331 nm EP LER are found to occur near the equator and are associated with a large El Nino-Southern Oscillation event. Most other changes that have occurred are regional, such as the apparent cloud decrease over northern Europe since 1998. The fractional occurrence (fraction of days) of high reflectivity values over Hudson Bay, Canada (snow/ice and clouds) appears to have decreased when comparing reflectivity data from 1980 to 1992 to 1997-2006, suggesting shorter duration of ice in Hudson Bay since 1980.

  18. Changes in Cloud and Aerosol Cover (1980-2006) from Reflectivity Time Series Using SeaWiFS, N7-TOMS, EP-TOMS, SBUV-2, and OMI Radiance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Labow, G.; Hsu, N. C.; Larko, D.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover and, to a much lesser extent, by Rayleigh scatteri ng, aerosols, and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O). A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the 331 run Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) ofa scene exceeds the surfuce reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes after Rayleigh scattering has been removed. Twenty-eight years of reflectivity data are available by overlapping data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus 7, TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, NOAA; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe, TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2006, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004-2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record, Sun-synchronous orbits, and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation. Reflectivity data derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series are compared during the overlapping years. Key issues in determining long-term reflecti vity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed. The largest reflectivity changes in the 412 nm SW LER and 331 nm EP LER are found to occur near the equator and are associated with a large EI Nino-Southern Oscillation event. Most other changes that have occurred are regional, such as the apparent cloud decrease over northern Europe since 1998. The fractional occurrence (fraction of days) of high reflectivity values over Hudson Bay, Canada (snow/ice and clouds) appears to have decreased when comparing reflectivity data from 1980 to 1992 to 1997-2006, suggesting shorter duration of ice in Hudson Bay since 1980.

  19. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive (60)Fe.

    PubMed

    Wallner, A; Feige, J; Kinoshita, N; Paul, M; Fifield, L K; Golser, R; Honda, M; Linnemann, U; Matsuzaki, H; Merchel, S; Rugel, G; Tims, S G; Steier, P; Yamagata, T; Winkler, S R

    2016-04-07

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth's vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is (60)Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the (60)Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for (60)Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal (60)Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh (60)Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs.

  20. Transient Weakening of Earth's Magnetic Shield Probed by a Cosmic Ray Burst.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, P K; Arunbabu, K P; Aziz, T; Dugad, S R; Gupta, S K; Hariharan, B; Jagadeesan, P; Jain, A; Morris, S D; Rao, B S; Hayashi, Y; Kawakami, S; Oshima, A; Shibata, S; Raha, S; Subramanian, P; Kojima, H

    2016-10-21

    The GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope in Ooty, India measures muon intensity at high cutoff rigidities (15-24 GV) along nine independent directions covering 2.3 sr. The arrival of a coronal mass ejection on 22 June 2015 18:40 UT had triggered a severe G4-class geomagnetic storm (storm). Starting 19:00 UT, the GRAPES-3 muon telescope recorded a 2 h high-energy (∼20  GeV) burst of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) that was strongly correlated with a 40 nT surge in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Simulations have shown that a large (17×) compression of the IMF to 680 nT, followed by reconnection with the geomagnetic field (GMF) leading to lower cutoff rigidities could generate this burst. Here, 680 nT represents a short-term change in GMF around Earth, averaged over 7 times its volume. The GCRs, due to lowering of cutoff rigidities, were deflected from Earth's day side by ∼210° in longitude, offering a natural explanation of its night-time detection by the GRAPES-3. The simultaneous occurrence of the burst in all nine directions suggests its origin close to Earth. It also indicates a transient weakening of Earth's magnetic shield, and may hold clues for a better understanding of future superstorms that could cripple modern technological infrastructure on Earth, and endanger the lives of the astronauts in space.

  1. Ion probe determinations of the rare earth concentrations of individual meteoritic phosphate grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.; Zinner, E.

    1985-01-01

    A new ion probe method for quantitative measurements of the concentrations of all the REE down to the ppm level in 5-20 micron spots is presented. The first application of the method is the determination of REE abundances in meteoritic phosphates. Results are shown to be in good agreement with previous INAA and ion probe determinations. The merrillites in the St. Severin amphoterite are richer in REE than the apatites (the enrichment factors, for various REE, range from 2.3 to 14.2) in contradiction with the results of Ebihara and Honda (1983). Provided good standards for other mineral phases are found or implanted marker ion techniques are used, the method should find a wide range of applications for the study of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial crystals at the microscopic level.

  2. A simple method for verifying the deployment of the TOMS-EP solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppersmith, James R.; Ketchum, Eleanor

    1995-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) mission relies upon a successful deployment of the spacecraft's solar arrays. Several methods of verification are being employed to ascertain the solar array deployment status, with each requiring differing amounts of data. This paper describes a robust attitude-independent verification method that utilizes telemetry from the coarse Sun sensors (CSS's) and the three-axis magnetometers (TAM's) to determine the solar array deployment status - and it can do so with only a few, not necessarily contiguous, points of data. The method developed assumes that the solar arrays are deployed. Telemetry data from the CSS and TAM are converted to the Sun and magnetic field vectors in spacecraft body coordinates, and the angle between them is calculated. Deployment is indicated if this angle is within a certain error tolerance of the angle between the reference Sun and magnetic field vectors. Although several other methods can indicate a non-deployed state, with this method there is a 70% confidence level in confirming deployment as well as a nearly 100% certainty in confirming a non-deployed state. In addition, the spacecraft attitude (which is not known during the first orbit after launch) is not needed for this algorithm because the angle between the Sun and magnetic field vectors is independent of the spacecraft attitude. This technique can be applied to any spacecraft with a TAM and with CSS's mounted on the solar array(s).

  3. Ozone probe: UV whiskbroom scanning spectroradiometer for earth albedo measurements from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talmor, Eli T.

    1993-08-01

    An UV spectro-radiometer operating in the 0.24 - 0.30 micrometers spectral region is being devised for Earth albedo measurements from space aboard the TECHSAT-1 satellite. The sensor incorporates a four-element, wide FOV (14 degree(s)) optic with an interference wedge as a spectral dispersive element. The spatial and spectral scanning is accomplished using a single CsTe cathode photomultiplier operating in the photon-counting mode. The sensor is capable of a 2 mrad spatial and 0.01 micrometers spectral resolution. The sensor is intended to measure the Earth backscattering albedo. The spectral profile of the albedo is a function of the ozone vertical distribution. The scientific goal of this project is to investigate the long-term impact of Kuwaiti oil fires on the stratosphere above the Middle East region. An additional goal is to find out the extent of global ozone depletion over the Middle East.

  4. Antiferromagnetic Spin Coupling between Rare Earth Adatoms and Iron Islands Probed by Spin-Polarized Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, David; Diez-Ferrer, José Luis; Serrate, David; Ciria, Miguel; Fuente, César de la; Arnaudas, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    High-density magnetic storage or quantum computing could be achieved using small magnets with large magnetic anisotropy, a requirement that rare-earth iron alloys fulfill in bulk. This compelling property demands a thorough investigation of the magnetism in low dimensional rare-earth iron structures. Here, we report on the magnetic coupling between 4f single atoms and a 3d magnetic nanoisland. Thulium and lutetium adatoms deposited on iron monolayer islands pseudomorphically grown on W(110) have been investigated at low temperature with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin-polarized current indicates that both kind of adatoms have in-plane magnetic moments, which couple antiferromagnetically with their underlying iron islands. Our first-principles calculations explain the observed behavior, predicting an antiparallel coupling of the induced 5d electrons magnetic moment of the lanthanides with the 3d magnetic moment of iron, as well as their in-plane orientation, and pointing to a non-contribution of 4f electrons to the spin-polarized tunneling processes in rare earths. PMID:26333417

  5. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, A.; Feige, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Paul, M.; Fifield, L. K.; Golser, R.; Honda, M.; Linnemann, U.; Matsuzaki, H.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Tims, S. G.; Steier, P.; Yamagata, T.; Winkler, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth’s vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is 60Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for 60Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs.

  6. Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7 Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Jaross, G.; DeLand, M. T.; Seftor, C. J.; Labow, G.; Swissler, T. J.; Cebula, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an improved instrument characterization used for the Version 7 processing of the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data record. An improved internal calibration technique referred to as spectral discrimination is used to provide long-term calibration precision of +/- 1%/decade in total column ozone amount. A revised wavelength scale results in a day one calibration that agrees with other satellite and ground-based measurements of total ozone, while a wavelength independent adjustment of the initial radiometric calibration constants provides good agreement with surface reflectivity measured by other satellite-borne ultraviolet measurements. The impact of other aspects of the Nimbus-7 TOMS instrument performance are also discussed. The Version 7 data should be used in all future studies involving the Nimbus-7 TOMS measurements of ozone. The data are available through the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Distributive Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. Nimbus/TOMS Science Data Operations Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Projected goals include the following: (1) Participate in and provide analysis of laboratory and in-flight calibration of LTV sensors used for space observations of backscattered LTV radiation; (2) Provide support to the TOMS Science Operations Center, including generating instrument command lists and analysis of TOMS health and safety data; (3) Develop and maintain software and algorithms designed to capture and process raw spacecraft and instrument data, convert the instrument output into measured radiance and irradiances, and produce scientifically valid products; (4) Process the TOMS data into Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 data products; (5) Provide analysis of the science data products in support of NASA GSFC Code 916's research.

  8. Scientific and Operational Requirements for TOMS Data

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, A.J.

    1987-12-01

    Global total ozone and sulfur dioxide data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have applications in a broad range of disciplines. The presentations of 29 speakers who are using the data in research or who have operational needs for the data are summarized. Five sessions addressed topics in stratospheric processes, tropospheric dynamics and chemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, and future instrument requirements. Stratospheric and some volcanology requirements can be met by a continuation of polar orbit satellites using a slightly modified TOMS but weather related research, tropospheric sulfur budget studies, and most operational needs require the time resolution of a geostationary instrument.

  9. Scientific and Operational Requirements for TOMS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Global total ozone and sulfur dioxide data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have applications in a broad range of disciplines. The presentations of 29 speakers who are using the data in research or who have operational needs for the data are summarized. Five sessions addressed topics in stratospheric processes, tropospheric dynamics and chemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, and future instrument requirements. Stratospheric and some volcanology requirements can be met by a continuation of polar orbit satellites using a slightly modified TOMS but weather related research, tropospheric sulfur budget studies, and most operational needs require the time resolution of a geostationary instrument.

  10. A New Long Term Data Set Of SO2 Column Amount From Volcanic Eruptions Using TOMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B. L.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Haffner, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic SO2 is an important trace gas in the atmosphere that affects air quality and which is also a precursor to the production of sulfate aerosols. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was the first NASA UV instrument to measure daily maps of ozone and volcanic sulfur dioxide globally. It has been flown on four different satellites since its first launch aboard Nimbus 7 in 1978. The instrument provides a unique global long-term record of volcanic SO2, which have been invaluable to study the response of earth's climate system to volcanic eruptions. However, complete TOMS SO2 L2 data has not yet been previously processed and properly archived. As part of the NASA MEaSUREs SO2 Program we updated heritage TOMS SO2 algorithm in preparation to re-processing and archiving TOMS data. We have also applied our TOMS algorithm to the L1B measurements of the hyperspectral UV Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that has been flown on NASA Aura EOS spacecraft since 2004. Due to its hyperspectral capability and smaller field of view OMI SO2 sensitivity is more than hundred times larger than TOMS. The unique challenge is combining TOMS and OMI SO2 records to create a continuous long-term Climate Data record (CDR) to be released to the research community. This data set will provide researchers with continuous Level 2 estimates of SO2 and will help to validate and expand the current catalog of volcanic activity.

  11. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, A.; Feige, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Paul, M.; Fifield, L.K.; Golser, R.; Honda, M.; Linnemann, U.; Matsuzaki, H.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Tims, S.G.; Steier, P.; Yamagata, T.; Winkler, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of supernovae (SNe) in our local galactic neighborhood within a distance of ~100 parsec from Earth (1 parsec (pc)=3.26 light years) is estimated at 1 SN every 2-4 million years (Myr), based on the total SN-rate in the Milky Way (2.0±0.7 per century1,2). Recent massive-star and SN activity in Earth’s vicinity may be evidenced by traces of radionuclides with half-lives t1/2 ≤100 Myr3-6, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System (SS). One such radionuclide is 60Fe (t1/2=2.6 Myr)7,8 which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars1,2,9. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts10,11, is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. Deep-sea archives from all major oceans were analyzed for 60Fe deposition via accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results, based on 60Fe atom-counting at state-of-the-art sensitivity8, reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth 1.7–3.2 Myr and 6.5–8.7 Myr ago. The measured signal implies that a few percent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ~10 Myr at nearby distances ≤100 pc. PMID:27078565

  12. Infrasound as a Geophysical Probe Using Earth as a Venus Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjathy, Attila; Cutts, James; Pauken, Michael; Kedar, Sharon; Smrekar, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    JPL is in a process of developing an instrument to measure seismic activity on Venus by detecting infrasonic waves in the atmosphere. The overall objective of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sensitive barometers to detect infrasonic signals from seismic and explosive activity on Venus from a balloon platform. Because of Venus' dense atmosphere, seismic signatures from even small quakes (magnitude ~3) are effectively coupled into the atmosphere. The seismic signals are known to couple about 60 times more efficiently into the atmosphere on Venus than on Earth. It was found that almost no attenuation below 80 km on Venus for frequency less than 1Hz. Whereas wind noise is a major source of background noise for terrestrial infrasonic arrays, it is expected that a balloon platform, which drifts with winds will be capable of very sensitive measurements with low noise.In our research we will demonstrate and apply techniques for discriminating upward propagating waves from a seismic event by making measurements with two or more infrasonic sensors using very sensitive barometers on a tether deployed from the balloon in a series of earth-based tests. We will first demonstrate and validate the technique using an artificial infrasound source in a deployment from a hot air balloon on Earth and then extend it with longer duration flights in the troposphere and stratosphere.We will report results on the first flight experiment that will focus on using the barometer instruments on a tethered helium-filled balloon. The balloon flight will be conducted in the vicinity of a known seismic source generated by a seismic hammer. Earlier tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratory demonstrated that this is a highly reproducible source of seismic and acoustic energy using infrasound sensors. The results of the experiments are intended to validate the two-barometer signal processing approach using a well-characterized point signal source.

  13. Probing Core Processes in the Earth and Small Bodies Using Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Weiss, B. P.; Lima, E. A.; Glenn, D. R.; Kehayias, P.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Convective motion in the cores of differentiated metal-silicate bodies may sustain a global dynamo magnetic field. Progressive crystallization in a dynamo-generating core is expected to play a central role in determining the observable properties of the hosted magnetic field. Importantly, the release of light elements and latent heat during core crystallization is a key source of entropy for sustaining core convection. Therefore, the persistence and intensity of a dynamo magnetic field depend directly on the extent and style of core crystallization. We present and discuss paleomagnetic data from the Earth and asteroid-sized bodies to characterize internally generated magnetic fields during the early histories of these objects. In the case of the Earth, recent and ongoing paleomagnetic experiments of zircons from the Jack Hills of Australia can potentially constrain the existence and intensity of the geodynamo before 3.5 Ga. If robust, such measurements hold strong implications for the energy budget of the Earth's early core and the dynamics of the early mantle. We will discuss both recently published and preliminary results and assess carefully the challenges and uncertainties of paleomagnetic experimentation on ancient zircon samples. In the case of small bodies, several classes of meteorites record ancient magnetic fields likely produced by core dynamos on their parent bodies. Data from the CV carbonaceous chondrites and pallasites indicate that dynamos in planetesimal-sized bodies persisted for a broad range of timescales between ~10 My and >100 My. Meanwhile, measurements of the angrite group of achondrites show that their earliest-forming members crystallized in an almost non-magnetic environment, suggesting a delayed onset of the planetesimal dynamo until several My after initial differentiation. We will discuss the possible causes for this observed diversity of small body dynamo properties, including the role of core crystallization and the distribution of

  14. Trajectory and atmospheric structure from entry probes: Demonstration of a real-time reconstruction technique using a simple direct-to-Earth radio link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Paul

    2010-12-01

    The reconstruction of the trajectory and atmospheric structure associated with an entry probe has traditionally relied upon onboard accelerometer measurements. Here we outline an equivalent reconstruction technique that uses Doppler-shifted direct-to-Earth transmissions instead. A critical assumption is that the entry probe's angle of attack is zero. The technique is successfully demonstrated on the atmospheric entry of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, terminating at parachute deployment. This technique can be applied in real-time, which supports mission operations and public engagement. It can also be applied to entry probes that fail during their high-risk atmospheric entry.

  15. Trajectory And Atmospheric Structure From Entry Probes: Demonstration Of A Real-time Reconstruction Technique Using A Simple Direct-to-earth Radio Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Paul

    2010-10-01

    The reconstruction of the trajectory and atmospheric structure associated with an entry probe has traditionally relied upon onboard accelerometer measurements. Here we outline an equivalent reconstruction technique that uses Doppler-shifted direct-to-Earth transmissions instead. A critical assumption is that the entry probe's angle of attack is zero. The technique is successfully demonstrated on the atmospheric entry of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, terminating at parachute deployment. This technique can be applied in real-time, which supports mission operations and public engagement. It can also be applied to entry probes that fail during their high-risk atmospheric entry.

  16. Tom Molineaux: America's First Black Sports Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furer, Howard B.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that the story of blacks in U.S. sports supports the theory that sports often mirror the larger society. Describes the life story of Tom Molineaux, a black boxer who achieved international recognition. Concludes that Molineaux should be regarded as the first U.S. black sports hero. (CFR)

  17. Tom Wolfe and the Uses of Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallan, Richard A.

    Tom Wolfe is widely regarded as the leading theorist and practitioner of New Journalism, the journalistic genre that combines the stylistic features of fiction and the reportorial obligations of journalism to produce a "novelistic sounding" but nonetheless factual literature. The saliency of Wolfe's stylistic boldness has prompted many…

  18. 05-NIF Dedication: Tom D'Agostino

    SciTech Connect

    Tom D'Agostino,

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Tom D'Agostino, the administrator of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

  19. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  20. Origin and cycle of water on Earth as determined by Ion probe H and D/H measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloule, E.

    2009-12-01

    The question of the origin of water on Earth, and of its abundance has been the object of numerous debates, as well as for the other terrestrial planets. Furthermore the presence and amount of water, or more commonly fluids, in the mantle and continental crust are crucial issues for determining their nature and evolution. Ion probe have been a major tool during the last 3 decades to measure in situ water content, D/H ratio and other elements in various terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples of both hydrous and nominally anhydrous minerals. In a first step, the set up of D/H ratio measurements by ion probe on hydrous minerals [1], often to scarce in peridotite samples to be measurable by conventional mass spectrometry, pointed out variations of δD values in mantle peridotite [2,3] larger than expected (from 0 to -140), both at the mineral grain or regional scales. Such variations point out surface water recycling in the mantle, water exchange during metasomatic reaction and D-H fractionation during mantle processes, and a possible evolution of the Earth mantle D/H ratio through geological time. The determination of D/H ratio in the silicate phases of the matrix and chondrules of primitive meteorites provides new evidences for the source of water in the solar system: the high dD values recorded, up to 3500, implies the uptake of water ice formed in the interstellar media, during the protosolar nebula accretion [3-4]. The D-H budget suggests that up to 10% of Earth and meteorite water originated from interstellar media. The measurements of Martian meteorites [5-6] show contrasted results, with D enriched values associated to the interaction with the Martian surface water and D poor values interpreted as initial values. The development of in situ water content measurements in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) [7-8] allows a more comprehensive study of the water behavior in the depth Earth. The characterization of its distribution in between the

  1. Probing Earth's conductivity structure beneath oceans by scalar geomagnetic data: autonomous surface vehicle solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, Alexey; Matzka, Jürgen; Poedjono, Benny; Samrock, Friedemann; Olsen, Nils; Pai, Sudhir

    2016-11-01

    The electric conductivity distribution of the Earth's crust and upper mantle provides a key to unraveling its structure. Information can be obtained from vector data time series of the natural variations of the magnetic and electric field in a directional stable reference frame. Applying this method, known as magnetotellurics, to oceanic regions is challenging since only vector instruments placed at the sea bottom can provide such data. Here, we discuss a concept of marine induction surveying which is based on sea-surface scalar magnetic field measurements from a modern position-keeping platform. The concept exploits scalar magnetic responses that relate variations of the scalar magnetic field at the survey sites with variations of the horizontal magnetic field at a reference site. A 3-D model study offshore Oahu Island (Hawaii) demonstrates that these responses are sensitive to the conductivity structure beneath the ocean. We conclude that the sensitivity, depending on the bathymetry gradient, is typically largest near the coast offshore. We show that such sea-surface marine induction surveys can be performed with the Wave Glider, an easy-to-deploy, autonomous, energy-harvesting floating platform with position-keeping capability.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Probing structural distortions in rare earth chromites using Indian synchrotron radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Late, R.; Rai, H. M.; Saxena, S. K.; Kumar, R.; Sagdeo, A.; Sagdeo, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Effect of R site ionic radius on the structural distortions in RCrO3 (R: La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Y) rare earth perovskite chromites is investigated through synchrotron based X-ray diffraction technique. The said structural distortions are measured in the terms of CrO bond lengths, CrO6 octahedral tilt, tolerance factor ( t) and RO12 polyhedral distortion. It is observed that the lattice parameters (b and c), RO bond length, tolerance factor and Cr-O-Cr bond angle increases with increase in the radius of R site ion; whereas octahedral tilts (along [010] and [101]) and RO12 polyhedral distortion decreases with increase in the radius of R site ion. Further it is observed that the radius of R site cation does not have significant effect on lattice parameter `a' and CrO bond length (hence on the distortion of CrO6 octahedra). A comparison of the crystal structure parameters obtained using refinement of synchrotron powder X-ray data and that estimated theoretically using modern bond valence parameters (SPuDS) has been carried out. A one to one correlation between the experimental and theoretical results has been observed.

  3. Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R.P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D. ||

    1995-02-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument`s wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

  4. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Johnson, Bryan J.; VöMel, Holger; Labow, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower to midstratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; and Natal, Brazil. The archived data are available at: . In this paper, uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and ground-based instruments; and (3) possible biases from station to station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are the following: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%. (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are usually to within 5% of independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in ground-based-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  5. The application of GNSS in the near-Earth navigation of China’s lunar probe CE-5T1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Fan, Min; Hu, Xiaogong; Li, Peijia

    2015-08-01

    After CE-1, CE-2 and CE-3, China’s fourth lunar probe CE-5T1 was launched on 23 Oct., 2014, which goal is to test the returning capability of the lunar probe. On 31 Oct., the landing portion of CE-5T1 successfully landed in the North China. CE-5T1 is a high eccentricity orbit with apogee of about 413 thousand km. A GNSS receiver was installed in CE-5T1 to test the ability of GNSS navigation for a High Earth Orbit (HEO) spacecraft. The receiver performed well and GPS side lobe signals have been tracked when the probe was at an altitude from 10000 to 60000 km during about two 3-hours periods, and most of time it is above the altitude of the GPS constellation. In these two periods, the average GPS satellites tracked is about 8-9, and the GDOP is from 1 to 30. We processed these GNSS data after the mission, and the noise level of the differenced pseudo-range is less than 10 m. We used the GNSS data to determine the orbit of CE-5T1, compared with the use of ground based tracking data including range, Doppler and VLBI. The results are encouraging, and the position difference between orbit determination (OD) with GNSS data and ground based data is less than 100 m. In CE-5T1 mission, the separation point is about 5000 km altitude, where the lander will separate from the orbiter then return to the ground. The separation point prediction accuracy directly affects the landing position. As plan there is a maneuver about 5 hours before the separation (canceled in fact), so there is only 3-4 hours tracking data to be used to predict the separation point. Analysis shows that combination of two types of data can improve the orbit accuracy as well as the accuracy of the predicted orbit. CE-5T1 made a successful test of the GNSS using for HEO spacecraft. Obviously, GNSS can be used as a low-cost OD sensor and the use of GNSS technique can reduce the observing pressure of the ground antenna in the lunar and deep space exploration.

  6. Possible changes in reflectivity of the Earth at 360 nm: 1980-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2003-06-01

    The new Version 8 TOMS 360 nm reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2001 have been combined to estimate changes that have occurred over a 21-year period. The observed changes are mostly related to changes in cloud cover and aerosols, since the Earthy appears dark (2 to 6% reflectivity) at 360 nm. The relative radiance calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been adjusted using the measured minimum reflectivity over mid-latitude ocean and land locations (+/-50°). The result is that the previously published N7 minimum reflectivity decreased by 0.02 and now matches the better-calibrated Earth-Probe/TOMS. Most of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The correlation of cloud cover with solar activity (measured by the 10.7 cm solar radiation) that was present during the Nimbus-7 period (1980 to 1992) is no longer evident for the period 1980 to 2001. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near Antarctica.

  7. Tom Cruise is dangerous and irresponsible

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Ushma S.

    2005-01-01

    Yes, even the JCI can weigh in on celebrity gossip, but hopefully without becoming a tabloid. Rather, we want to shine a light on the reckless comments actor Tom Cruise has recently made that psychiatry is a “quack” field and his belief that postpartum depression cannot be treated pharmacologically. We can only hope that his influence as a celebrity does not hold back those in need of psychiatric treatment. PMID:16075033

  8. Dr. Tom Lawrence: a life in chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2005-01-01

    He dwelt within the chiropractic orbit from the cradle to the grave. Second-generation chiropractor Tom Lawrence was a successful professional and family man who followed in his father’s footsteps and fought the good fight to improve chiropractic within his state and nation. His passing closes a chapter of living memory of the middle years of the first chiropractic century. PMID:17549212

  9. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    DOE PAGES

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  10. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  11. Participation in the TOMS Science Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Hilsenrath, Ernest (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Because of the nominal funding provided by this grant, some of the relevant research is partially funded by other sources. Research performed for this funding period included the following items: We have investigated errors in TOMS ozone measurements caused by the uncertainty in wavelength calibration, coupled with the ozone cross sections in the Huggins bands and their temperature dependence. Preliminary results show that 0.1 nm uncertainty in TOMS wavelength calibration at the ozone active wavelengths corresponds to approx. 1% systematic error in O3, and thus potential 1% biases among ozone trends from the various TOMS instruments. This conclusion will be revised for absolute O3 Measurements as cross sections are further investigated for inclusion in the HITRAN database at the SAO, but the potential for relative errors remains. In order to aid further comparisons among TOMS and GOME ozone measurements, we have implemented our method of direct fitting of GOME radiances (BOAS) for O3, and now obtain the best fitting precision to date for GOME O3 Columns. This will aid in future comparisons of the actual quantities measured and fitted for the two instrument types. We have made comparisons between GOME ICFA cloud fraction and cloud fraction determined from GOME data using the Ring effect in the Ca II lines. There is a strong correlation, as expected, but there are substantial systematic biases between the determinations. This study will be refined in the near future using the recently-developed GOME Cloud Retrieval Algorithm (GOMECAT). We have improved the SAO Ring effect determination to include better convolution with instrument transfer functions and inclusion of interferences by atmospheric absorbers (e.g., O3). This has been made available to the general community.

  12. TOMS as a monitor of the ultraviolet radiation environment: Applications to photobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, John E.

    1987-01-01

    The flux of biologically relevant ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth varies with the ozone amount, surface reflectivity, and cloudcover. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) provides information relevant to all three items. A recent application of satellite-based ozone measurements has been to develop climatologies of the biologically significant UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface. A growing body of research suggests that UV-B radiation tends to suppress the immune system of laboratory mice. At tropical latitudes, it is likely that parasitical diseases develop most readily in people who have experienced immune system suppression from UV-B exposure. The computed distribution of surface radiation combined with information on disease incidence may clarify the role of UV-B as a suppressor of the human immune system. TOMS used in conjunction with radiative transfer calculations can provide information of relevance in photobiology.

  13. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  14. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, Richard D.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, Jay R.; Oaks, Arnold; Ahmad, Ziuddin; Cebula, Richard P.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Swissler, Tom; Taylor, Steven L.

    1993-01-01

    Two tape products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus-7 have been archived at the National Space Science Data Center. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio -- the albedo -- is used in ozone retrievals. In-flight measurements are used to monitor changes in the instrument sensitivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares the observed ratios of albedos at pairs of wavelengths with pair ratios calculated for different ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard-deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is +/- 1.5 percent over 14.5 years. The High Density TOMS (HDTOMS) tape contains the measured albedos, the derived total ozone amount, reflectivity, and cloud-height information for each scan position. It also contains an index of SO2 contamination for each position. The Gridded TOMS (GRIDTOMS) tape contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in roughly equal area grids (110 km in latitude by about 100-150 km in longitude). Detailed descriptions of the tape structure and record formats are provided.

  15. Groundwater–surface-water exchange and the geologic setting of northern Minnesota's lakes, wetlands, and streams—Modern-day relevance of Tom Winter's legacy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Melchior, Robert C.; Jones, Perry M.; Strietz, Andrew; Barr, Kelton D.; Lee, David R.; Piegat, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Tom Winter spent nearly 50 years conducting research in earth science, and he specialized in the exchange between groundwater and surface water. Tom's highly productive career began in Minnesota. This fi eld trip revisits many of the places where Tom conducted his early research and demonstrates the continuing relevance of that research. Stops and topics include the groundwater infl uence on the record low stage of White Bear Lake, the contribution of groundwater to continually rising water levels in an abandoned open-pit iron mine, hydrogeology of the Shingobee headwaters aquatic ecosystem research site, hydrogeology of Lake Sallie, geology associated with the Pillager water gap, and the hydrogeology of Little Rock Lake.

  16. Hydrodynamic Aspects of the Toms Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strel‧nikova, S. A.; Tkachenko, G. V.; Uryukov, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    The physicomathematical model of migration of polymers in a liquid turbulent flow in a pipe is based on a comparison of forces transverse to the motion of the mainstream flow: the Saffman, Magnus, and turbophoresis forces. It has been shown that the polymer particles are grouped near a certain boundary within the limits of the boundary layer. On this basis, the authors have made assumptions on the mechanism of suppression of turbulent pulsations and decrease in the viscous friction near the wall, which makes up the Toms effect. The proposed model satisfies, at least, qualitatively, various actually observed manifestations of the effect.

  17. Preliminary Results from an Assimilation of TOMS Aerosol Observations Into the GOCART Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Arlindo; Weaver, Clark J.; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    At NASA Goddard we are developing a global aerosol data assimilation system that combines advances in remote sensing and modeling of atmospheric aerosols. The goal is to provide high resolution, 3-D aerosol distributions to the research community. Our first step is to develop a simple assimilation system for Saharan mineral aerosol. The Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation model (GOCART) provides accurate 3-D mineral aerosol size distributions that compare well with TOMS satellite observations. Surface, mobilization, wet and dry deposition, convective and long-range transport are all driven by assimilated fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, GEOS-DAS. Our version of GOCART transports sizes from.08-10 microns and only simulates Saharan dust. TOMS radiance observations in the ultra violet provide information on the mineral and carbonaceous aerosol fields. We use two main observables in this study: the TOMS aerosol index (AI) which is directly related to the ratio of the 340 and 380 radiances and the 380 radiance. These are sensitive to the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the height of the aerosol layer. The Goddard Aerosol Assimilation System (GAAS) uses the Data Assimilation Office's Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) to combine TOMS observations and GOCART model first guess fields. At this initial phase we only assimilate observations into the the GOCART model over regions of Africa and the Atlantic where mineral aerosols dominant and carbonaceous aerosols are minimal, Our preliminary results during summer show that the assimilation with TOMS data modifies both the aerosol mass loading and the single scattering albedo. Assimilated aerosol fields will be compared with assimilated aerosol fields from GOCART and AERONET observations over Cape Verde.

  18. Solar UV irradiance measured at ground and compared with satellite TOMS/NASA derived data at different locations in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, W.; Quel, E.; Paladini, A.; Orce, V.; Piacentini, R. D.

    The solar UV radiation incident on different and distant places of Argentina (Ushuaia, Puerto Madryn, Buenos Aires and Jujuy) obtained at 305, 320, 340 and 380 nm with a GUV-511/Biospherical narrowband radiometer of the CONICET Latitudinal UV-PAR radiation monitoring network, were compared with TUV model calculations in order to derive the effective aerosol optical depths in the locations indicated above. The adjusted spectral curve is employed in order to determine, -with the inclusion of the erythemal action spectrum, the corresponding integrated dose for each day. This value, usually called exposure, is compared with the data derived at noon from those taken by the satellite instrument TOMS/NASA on board of Earth Probe. Other biological UV irradiances like carcinogenesis and ADN and plant damages are also analyzed. In particular, the signals produced by the ozone hole and minihole events (with values lowers or equal to 220 DU) are clearly distinguished in the biological actions that depend strongly on the most energetic UVB radiations.

  19. Probes to the inferior planets—A new dawn for NEO and IEO detection technology demonstration from heliocentric orbits interior to the earth's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Mottola, Stefano; Drentschew, Maximilian; Drobczyk, Martin; Kahle, Ralph; Maiwald, Volker; Quantius, Dominik; Zabel, Paul; van Zoest, Tim

    2013-09-01

    Recent years have seen a renewed interest in exploration of the interior of the solar system. A number of missions are currently under way, in planning as well as in space, with the primary goal to expand our knowledge on the planets Mercury and Venus. Chemical propulsion missions to Mercury in particular require an extended cruise phase prior to arrival at their destination, usually involving multiple planetary fly-by manoeuvres and many revolutions in heliocentric orbit. The difficulties in discovering and tracking small objects interior to Earth's orbit, mainly due to unfavourable viewing geometry as well as atmospheric interference, have long been noted by the solar system science and planetary defence communities. Space probes in the interior of the solar system are in a position to observe objects near or interior to Earth's orbit in favourable opposition geometry. They are also usually free from planet-related interference, at least while in cruise, and often can be while in planetary eclipse. Dedicated search and survey missions to look for Near and Inner Earth Objects (NEO, IEO) from the vicinity of Earth or low Earth orbit are being planned. In this article, the ad-hoc available as well as near-term planned in-situ capabilities of the optical instrument payloads of space probes to Venus and Mercury are compiled from publications by the respective instrument teams. The small-object detection capabilities of cameras and spectrographs in opposition geometry are estimated by a common method, using data from comparable instruments to supplement missing information where necessary. The on-board cameras are classified according to their small-object detection potential in a technology demonstration of asteroid detection from a heliocentric orbit substantially interior to Earth's.

  20. Tropical easterly jet located using TOMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolhofer, William C.

    1987-01-01

    The formative stages of the onset of the 1979 southwest monsoon was marked by a WNW-ESE oriented band of marine convection over the South Arabian Sea. This convection was first observed on June 10, 1979 using satellite cloud imagery. The marine convection appeared during a major acceleration of the upper troposphere easterly wind field. A composite vertical meridional cross-section of upper level winds for June 11, revealed the core of the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) at 115 mb, 9.5 deg N. Time analysis of the upper level wind field over the Tropical Wind Observing Ship (TWOS) polygon show a lowering of both the pressure level of maximum wind and tropopause level with acceleration of the upper level easterlies. The tropopause was as much as 20 mb lower on the equatorial side of the TEJ. Streamline analysis of the maximum observed easterly winds over India did not reveal the horizontal position of the TEJ. Careful analysis of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for June 11, 1979 showed relatively high values of ozone south of India. It was observed that the latitudinal position of the TEJ on June 11, at approximately 70 deg E coincided with the northern edge of relatively high ozone values. Using this as a reference, the TEJ core was identified as far as NE Bay of Bengal (the limits of the available TOMS data).

  1. Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

    2011-11-01

    With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the

  2. 78 FR 12307 - Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 14, 2013, G. Tom Taylor filed an application to hold interlocking positions pursuant to section 305(b) of...

  3. Test, Construction, and Calibration of a Fast Valve Driver Unit (FVDU) and an Earth-isolated High Voltage Probe (HV probe) for a pulsed plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamikawa, Yu; von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2013-10-01

    A fast valve driver unit (FVDU) and an optically isolated high voltage probe (HV probe) were built for an experiment to generate laboratory astrophysical jets with a triple electrode plasma gun. The FVDU controls fast pulse gas valves (Parker P/N: 9S4-A1-P2-9B13, 090-0270-090) by converting an optical trigger input into a square 6 V pulse output of a desired duration (100 μs to 1ms) with an initial 250 V shot pulse. A potentiometer controls the duration of the square pulse, corresponding to the open time of the valve. The solar cell powered HV probe measures, once triggered by an optical pulse, the voltage across the electrodes without exposing sensitive data acquisition instruments to high voltage. A custom made capacitive voltage divider couples the signal to a solar powered LED, which optically transmit the signal to a receiver circuit. The voltage across the electrodes controls the current driven across the jet and the azimuthal rotation of the jet. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  4. BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. A novel interplanetary optical navigation algorithm based on Earth-Moon group photos by Chang'e-5T1 probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Yanlong; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, Chibiao; Tang, Geshi; Wang, Hang; Qiu, Rujin; Liang, Libo; Yin, Hejun

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an interplanetary optical navigation algorithm based on two spherical celestial bodies. The remarkable characteristic of the method is that key navigation parameters can be estimated depending entirely on known sizes and ephemerides of two celestial bodies, especially positioning is realized through a single image and does not rely on traditional terrestrial radio tracking any more. Actual Earth-Moon group photos captured by China's Chang'e-5T1 probe were used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. From 430,000 km away from the Earth, the camera pointing accuracy reaches 0.01° (one sigma) and the inertial positioning error is less than 200 km, respectively; meanwhile, the cost of the ground control and human resources are greatly reduced. The algorithm is flexible, easy to implement, and can provide reference to interplanetary autonomous navigation in the solar system.

  6. Feasibility study of a swept frequency electromagnetic probe (SWEEP) using inductive coupling for the determination of subsurface conductivity of the earth and water prospecting in arid regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorraca, G. A.; Bannister, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques developed for electromagnetic probing of the lunar interior, and techniques developed for the generation of high power audio frequencies were combined to make practical a magnetic inductive coupling system for the rapid measurement of ground conductivity profiles which are helpful when prospecting for the presence and quality of subsurface water. A system which involves the measurement of the direction, intensity, and time phase of the magnetic field observed near the surface of the earth at a distance from a horizontal coil energized so as to create a field that penetrates the earth was designed and studied to deduce the conductivity and stratification of the subsurface. Theoretical studies and a rudimentary experiment in an arid region showed that the approach is conceptually valid and that this geophysical prospecting technique can be developed for the economical exploration of subterranean water resources.

  7. Synergic use of TOMS and Aeronet Observations for Characterization of Aerosol Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Siniuk, A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

  8. Two new methods for deriving tropospheric column ozone from TOMS measurements: Assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE and convective-cloud differential techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.

    1998-09-01

    This study introduces two new approaches for determining tropospheric column ozone from satellite data. In the first method, stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) halogen occultation experiment (HALOE) and microwave limb sounder (MLS) ozone measurements. Tropospheric column ozone is then obtained by subtracting these stratospheric amounts from the total column. Total column ozone in this study include retrievals from Nimbus 7 (November 1978 to May 1993) and Earth probe (July 1996 to present) total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS). Data from HALOE are used in this first method to extend the vertical span of MLS (highest pressure level 46 hPa) using simple regression. This assimilation enables high-resolution daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone which is not possible from solar occultation measurements alone, such as from HALOE or Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment (SAGE). We also examine another new and promising technique that yields tropospheric column ozone directly from TOMS high-density footprint measurements in regions of high convective clouds. We define this method as the convective cloud differential (CCD) technique. The CCD method is shown to provide long time series (essentially late 1978 to the present) of tropospheric ozone in regions dominated by persistent high tropopause-level clouds, such as the maritime tropical Pacific and within or near midlatitude continental landmasses. In this our first study of the CCD and MLS/HALOE methods we limit analyses to tropical latitudes. Separation of stratospheric from tropospheric column ozone in the eastern Pacific tropics for January 1979 to December 1997 shows that the dominant interannual variability of stratospheric ozone is the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), whereas for tropospheric ozone it is driven by El Niño events. For validation purposes, both the CCD and assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE results are compared with ozonesonde

  9. Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone using TOMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Robert D.; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    1994-01-01

    Fishman and Larsen have proposed a new algorithm, called 'tropospheric residual method,' which retrieves the climatological tropospheric ozone by using SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data. In this paper, we will examine the feasibility of detection for tropospheric ozone using only TOMS data. From a case study over the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of west Africa, it has been found that total ozone in the archived TOMS data has been overestimated over a region of marine-stratocumulus clouds.

  10. Astronauts Susan J. Helms, payload commander, and Terence T. (Tom) Henricks, mission commander,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronauts Susan J. Helms, payload commander, and Terence T. (Tom) Henricks, mission commander, prepare a sample cartridge containing semiconductor crystals for Spacelab research. The crystals were later placed in the Advanced Gradient Heating Furnace (AGHF) in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) Science Module. The AGHF is designed for directional solidification of the crystals in the sample cartridges. The microgravity of space allows the crystals to grow in a perfect state that can not be accomplished in Earths gravity.

  11. U.S. Congressmen from Florida Tom Feeney and Dave Weldon at the STS-113 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - U.S. Congressmen from Florida Tom Feeney (left) and Dave Weldon wait in the VIP viewing site for the STS-113 launch. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  12. Annual Quality Assurance Conference Files by Tom Mancuso

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    25th Annual Quality Assurance Conference. Abstract: Learn about the NEW EPA Method 325b for Refinery Fence Line Monitoring and TO-17 Extended for Soil Gas by Tom Mancuso and Abstract: Success Using Alternate Carrier Gases for Volatile Methods

  13. ISS Update: Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead Tom Walker

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Tom Walker, Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead, about how the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is being used to train rescue and recovery personnel f...

  14. ISS Update: Progress 50 Launch and Docking with Tom Erkenswick

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias conducts an interview with Visiting Vehicle Officer Tom Erkenswick about the launch of the ISS Progress 50 resupply ship and its docking to the International ...

  15. Monitoring of photoluminescence decay by alkali and alkaline earth metal cations using a photoluminescent bolaamphiphile self-assembly as an optical probe.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunhyung; Kwak, Jinyoung; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2014-05-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) decay induced by the displacement of an ionic fluorescence component, Tb(3+), with alkali and alkaline earth metal cations was investigated using photoluminescent spherical self-assemblies as optical probes. The photoluminescent spherical self-assembly was prepared by the self-organization of a tyrosine-containing bolaamphiphile molecule with a photosensitizer and Tb(3+) ion. The lanthanide ion, Tb(3+), electrically bound to the carboxyl group of the bolaamphiphile molecule, was displaced by alkali and alkaline earth metal cations that had stronger electrophilicity. The PL of the self-assembly decayed remarkably due to the substitution of lanthanide ions with alkali and alkaline earth metal cations. The PL decay showed a positive correlation with cation concentration and was sensitive to the cation valency. Generally, the PL decay was enhanced by the electrophilicity of the cations. However, Ca(2+) showed greater PL decay than Mg(2+) because Ca(2+) could create various complexes with the carboxyl groups of the bolaamphiphile molecule. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigations were conducted to study the photon energy transfer and displacement of Tb(3+) by the cation exchange. This study demonstrated that the PL decay by the displacement of the ionic fluorescent compound was applied to the detection of various cations in aqueous media and is applicable to the development of future optical sensors.

  16. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique during SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.

    2002-05-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS. The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column. We used the modified-residual method [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5S, 28E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  17. What on Earth is D”?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnero, Ed; Wysession, Michael

    Studied in earnest for 50 years time Is Earth's deep layer called Dee Double Prime. Exotic hypotheses new papers chime, But evasive big pictures halt reason or rhyme.Even before the first nuclear bomb, People like Gutenberg, Bullen, and Dahm And probably others: Dick, Harry, and Tom Proposed this new layer to address a qualm.

  18. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Jaross, Glen; Taylor, Steven L.; Swissler, Tom; Torres, Omar; Labow, Gordon; Byerly, William; Cebula, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard Nimbus-7 have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the instrument sensitivity are monitored by a spectral discrimination technique using measurements of the intrinsically stable wavelength dependence of derived surface reflectivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and drift is less than 1.0 percent per decade. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone amount and reflectivity in a I - degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level-3 product also is available on CD-ROM. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

  19. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User`s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mcpeters, R.D.; Bhartia, P.K.; Krueger, A.J.; Herman, J.R.; Schlesinger, B.M.; Wellemeyer, C.G.; Seftor, C.J.; Jaross, G.; Taylor, S.L.; Swissler, T.

    1996-04-01

    Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard Nimbus-7 have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the instrument sensitivity are monitored by a spectral discrimination technique using measurements of the intrinsically stable wavelength dependence of derived surface reflectivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and drift is less than 1.0 percent per decade. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone amount and reflectivity in a 1 - degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level-3 product also is available on CD-ROM. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

  20. Pump-probe measurement of short and long-range exchange interactions in a rare-earth magnet using resonant x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Matthew; Roy, Sujoy; Chuang, Yi-De; Versteeg, Rolf; Zhu, Yi; Hertlein, Marcus; Glover, Thornton; Dumesnil, Karine; Schoenlein, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The combined effects of spin-orbit interactions, magnetostriction, and long-range exchange coupling lead to a wide variety of magnetic phases in the rare earth magnets. In dysprosium, core level spins develop a spiral phase as a result of competition between short and long-range RKKY exchange interactions mediated by the conducting electrons. We use time-resolved resonant x-ray diffraction to directly probe the spiral order parameter of the core level magnetism in response to optical pumping of the conduction electrons that mediate the exchange interaction. The dynamics of the diffraction intensity and spiral turn angle occur on different time scales, and through free-energy analysis, we associate these dynamics with changes in the short and long-range exchange coupling.

  1. Near-earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    DOE PAGES

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; ...

    2015-08-10

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L~5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ~40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ~3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front.more » Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.« less

  2. Near-earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R.; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, J. Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew L.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Spence, Harlan E.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei

    2015-08-10

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L~5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ~40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ~3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.

  3. Near-Earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R; Cattell, Cynthia A; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, J Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew L; Reeves, Geoffrey D; Funsten, Herbert O; Spence, Harlan E; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei

    2015-08-16

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeVelectron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L ∼ 5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ∼40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ∼3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.

  4. Involvement of THH1, an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of the TOM1 gene, in tobamovirus multiplication.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Koki; Ravelo, Gerald B; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2006-08-01

    The TOM1 and TOM3 genes of Arabidopsis thaliana encode homologous proteins that are required for tobamovirus multiplication. Although the A. thaliana genome encodes another TOM1-like gene, THH1, the tobamovirus coat protein (CP) does not accumulate to a detectable level in the tom1 tom3 double mutant. Here, double and triple mutants of tom1, tom3 and thh1 were generated to investigate whether THH1 functions to support tobamovirus multiplication. In the tom1 thh1 double mutant, the tobamovirus CP accumulated to a level that was detectable, but lower than that in the tom1 single mutant. In tom1 tom3 double-mutant lines overexpressing THH1, the tobamovirus CP accumulated to a level similar to that observed in wild-type plants. These results suggest that THH1 supports tobamovirus multiplication, but to a lesser extent than TOM1 and TOM3. The expression level of THH1 is lower than that of TOM1 and TOM3, which might explain the smaller contribution of THH1 to tobamovirus multiplication.

  5. MIDL: A Demonstration of Multi-Mission Analysis of Charged Particle Data From Van Allen Probes and the Juno Earth Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. E.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Mauk, B.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    At the present time, a fleet of heliosphere spacecraft is producing an unprecedented number of measurements of charged particles and magnetic fields throughout the solar system - from Mercury to the local interstellar medium. It is vital to have a flexible and efficient data browsing, discovery, and analysis environment to navigate this wealth of information. We present a multi-mission tool for quick look data viewing and analysis. In addition to a rich tool and feature set, MIDL3 (Mission Independent Data Layer - 3rd version) provides environments to cater to different user classes from instrument team engineers, to team scientists, to the general science community. Furthermore, MIDL3 adds a new, highly interactive, end-user visualization environment for rapid browsing and exploration of science and engineering data. Like AMDA and MAPSVIEW, MIDL has functioned for Cassini plasma and particle data as a highly successful platform for inter-comparing different instruments/sensors with minimal preparation work on the part of the user. We present a demonstration of simultaneous analysis of the JUNO Earth flyby (October 9, 2013) data from the JEDI instruments and Van Allen Probes data from the RBSPICE instruments. Since these two instrument sets share a very similar design (see presentations by C Paranicas, et al. and J Manwiler, et al. at this conference for details) we anticipate important results from this unique opportunity to compare measurements of energetic electrons and ions made by six telescopes each for the five similar instruments on three spacecraft within Earth's magnetosphere.

  6. Detection of biomass burning smoke from TOMS measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, N.C.; Seftor, C.J.; Torres, O.; Eck, T.F.

    1996-04-01

    A 14.5 year gridded data set of tropospheric absorbing aerosol index was derived from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectivity difference between 340 and 380 nm channels. Based upon radiative transfer calculations, the reflectivity anomaly between these two UV wavelength channels is very sensitive to smoke and soot aerosols from biomass burning and forest fires, volcanic ash clouds as well as desert mineral dust. The authors demonstrate the ability of the TOMS instrument to detect and track smoke and soot aerosols generated by biomass burning in South America. TOMS data can clearly distinguish between absorbing particles (smoke and dust) and non-absorbing aerosols (clouds and haze). For South American fires, comparisons of TOMS data are consistent with the limited amount of ground-based observations (Porto Nacional, Brazil) and show generally good agreement with other satellite imagery. TOMS data shows large-scale transport of smoke particulates generated by the burning fires in the South America, which subsequentially advects smoke aerosols as far as the Atlantic Ocean east of Uruguay. 15 refs., 4 fig.

  7. Analysis of error in TOMS total ozone as a function of orbit and attitude parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, W. W.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Braun, W. C.; Vallette, B. J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ray, S. N.

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulations of orbital scenarios were performed to examine the effects of orbital altitude, equator crossing time, attitude uncertainty, and orbital eccentricity on ozone observations by future satellites. These effects were assessed by determining changes in solar and viewing geometry and earth daytime coverage loss. The importance of these changes on ozone retrieval was determined by simulating uncertainties in the TOMS ozone retrieval algorithm. The major findings are as follows: (1) Drift of equator crossing time from local noon would have the largest effect on the quality of ozone derived from TOMS. The most significant effect of this drift is the loss of earth daytime coverage in the winter hemisphere. The loss in coverage increases from 1 degree latitude for + or - 1 hour from noon, 6 degrees for + or - 3 hours from noon, to 53 degrees for + or - 6 hours from noon. An additional effect is the increase in ozone retrieval errors due to high solar zenith angles. (2) To maintain contiguous earth coverage, the maximum scan angle of the sensor must be increased with decreasing orbital altitude. The maximum scan angle required for full coverage at the equator varies from 60 degrees at 600 km altitude to 45 degrees at 1200 km. This produces an increase in spacecraft zenith angle, theta, which decreases the ozone retrieval accuracy. The range in theta was approximately 72 degrees for 600 km to approximately 57 degrees at 1200 km. (3) The effect of elliptical orbits is to create gaps in coverage along the subsatellite track. An elliptical orbit with a 200 km perigee and 1200 km apogee produced a maximum earth coverage gap of about 45 km at the perigee at nadir. (4) An attitude uncertainty of 0.1 degree in each axis (pitch, roll, yaw) produced a maximum scan angle to view the pole, and maximum solar zenith angle).

  8. Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone from TOMS data. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    In the past year, we have made measurements of the tropospheric total column of ozone during the biomass burning season in Africa (August to October). Fishman et. al. had reported previously that by taking a time average of the low spatial resolution data from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) on Nimbus-7 (referred to as the Grid-T data set), during the biomass burning season in Africa, a plume of ozone extends from the East coast of Africa into the Atlantic. In this report, we present an analysis that we have made using the measured TOMS radiances taken from the High Density TOMS data set (referred as the HDT data set), which examines this plume in more detail.

  9. Application of TOMS data to weather analysis models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, Gregory D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of the errors of analysis reflected by numerical weather analysis models are reviewed. Despite the improvements in data coverage and data ingestion methods in the past decade, it is found that significant errors of analysis persist. A case study comparison of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data and aircraft data with the NMC analysis over the North Atlantic is used to illustrate the size of local errors encountered. The possibility of using TOMS images to locate meteorologically significant features such as troughs and ridges near the tropopause is discussed.

  10. TOMS total ozone trends in potential vorticity coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.; Wu, Fei

    1995-01-01

    Global total ozone measurements from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) are analyzed using potential vorticity (PV) as an approximate vortex-following coordinate. We analyze the time period November 1978-May 1991, prior to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The TOMS data are remapped into PV coordinates and trends are calculated, thereby characterizing ozone losses inside and outside the winter polar vortices. These analyses show large regions of ozone loss outside of the vortex in both hemispheres. Furthermore, these data suggest that midlatitude losses in the NH during winter-spring do not result solely from the transport of ozone depleted air from inside to outside the vortex.

  11. Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

  12. Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: dust in Earth's atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellog, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA's Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Se-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils through Earth's atmosphere and the magnitude of many of these events. While various research projects have been undertaken to understand this normal planetary process, little has been done to address its impact on ocean and human health. This review will address the ability of dust storms to influence marine microbial population densities and transport of soil-associated toxins and pathogenic microorganisms to marine environments. The implications of dust on ocean and human health in this emerging scientific field will be discussed.

  13. Modeling Loss and Rebuilding of the Earth's Outer Zone Electrons and Comparison with Van Allen Probes Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kress, B. T.; Li, Z.; Paral, J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the competition between radiation belt electron energization due to radial transport and loss to the magnetopause and to the atmosphere is critical to understanding the dynamic changes in outer zone radiation belt electron flux response to solar wind drivers. Plasmasheet electron injection, both due to enhanced convection and substorm dipolarization, provides a source population for generation of whistler mode chorus and seed population for local acceleration. We now have available ~22 months of unprecedented measurements in energy and pitch angle resolution of electrons spanning the energy range from injected plasmasheet to multi-MeV electrons from the twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft in near-equatorial plane elliptical orbits, with apogee at 5.8 Re; and two Balloon Array for Relativistic Radiation Belt Electron Losses (BARREL) campaigns during January-February 2013 and 2014, each establishing a longitudinal array of precipitation measurements extending to relativistic energies via measured Bremsstrahlung x-rays. In addition to this arsenal of data, a set of modeling tools has been developed to examine dynamics of electrons in the magnetosphere. These tools calculate electron trajectories in time-dependent magnetohydrodyanmic (MHD) fields using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD model coupled with the Rice Convection Model to determine the E and B field response to solar wind drivers. With these tools we can follow electron dynamics including response to Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves which cause radial transport and energization for inward radial gradient as well as enhanced loss to the magnetopause for outward gradient. These tools have been applied to date to the large equinoctial storms of fall 2012, spring and fall 2013, in addition to moderate storms during BARREL balloon campaigns in both winters 2013 and 2014. Isolated substorm response can clearly be identified for the latter, while plasmasheet injection of electrons during periods of strong

  14. Rare Earth Elemental Signatures in Fungal Fruiting Bodies as Probes into Mineral Breakdown Reactions in Post-glacial Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, J. G.; Hobbie, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    The application of rare earth element (REE) abundances in low temperature geochemistry and biogeochemistry has improved our understanding of the cycling of various micro- and macronutrients from the bedrock into terrestrial ecosystems. In many continental rocks, REEs are concentrated in accessory phases such as apatite and monazite. These phosphate mineral phases break down readily and may be especially important nutrient sources, particularly for P and Ca, in recently glaciated terrains. Several studies (e.g., 1-3) have suggested that the presence of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, due to the organic acids they secrete, may play an especially important role in this weathering process. A field-based experiment implementing mesh bags doped with specific mineral compositions confirmed that ECM fungal tissues do record the REE signatures of the minerals they break down (4). In an effort to understand the relative role different ECM fungi may play in mineral breakdown reactions, we have measured REE abundances in tissues of several ECM fruiting bodies. Our preliminary data include Russula, Suillus Americana, Leccinum and Lactarius ECM fungi from three postglacial landscapes. At a given site, the relative abundance of REEs varies between the different ECM fungi. Interestingly, we found distinctions in tissue La/Ce values at two of the sites. Leccinum, a deep rooter, shows much lower La/Ce than the companion Russula and Lactarius samples from the same site. Similarly Suillus tissues demonstrated lower La/Ce when compared to Russula growing nearby. Lower La/Ce is consistent with enhanced dissolution of the mineral apatite, a common accessory phase. While the influence of symbiotic host (beech vs. oak vs. pine) may play some role in the distinctive REE signatures recorded by the fruiting bodies, we attribute the observed differences to organic acid production and tendency to colonize in different horizons of the soil profile. (1) Wallander, Plant and Soil, 2000; (2) Blum et

  15. Team Leader: Tom Peters--TAP Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Tom Peters packs 36 hours of work into the confines of a 24-hour day. Without breaking a sweat, he juggles multiple collaborative projects, which currently include an Illinois academic library shared storage facility; a multistate virtual reference and instruction service for blind and visually impaired individuals (InfoEyes); a virtual meeting…

  16. Challenge without Threat: An Interview with Tom Dewell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tom Dewell, a professional physical educator with 28 years of experience and a fixture in Dallas physical education. Dewell has melded a background in movement education and adapted physical education with early childhood theory, including Montessori. The bulk of his experience has been in private, parochial…

  17. Tom Green County Library Literacy Project. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavricka, D. Karen

    The final report of the Tom Green Country Library System (Texas) literacy project details progress toward achievement of 11 objectives. Objectives of the literacy outreach program were to: (1) increase Hispanic enrollment; (2) increase Black enrollment; (3) provide free child care for 4 students to attend 50 tutoring sessions; (4) provide…

  18. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Tom Walsh & Co.

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-02-01

    Tom Walsh & Company’s homes in an urban infill project in Portland achieved meets 2012 IECC insulation requirements in the marine climate with R-21 fiberglass batt walls, R-25 slab insulation and R-49 spray foam and cellulose attic floors.

  19. The Gravity Probe B `Niobium bird' experiment: Verifying the data reduction scheme for estimating the relativistic precession of Earth-orbiting gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uemaatsu, Hirohiko; Parkinson, Bradford W.; Lockhart, James M.; Muhlfelder, Barry

    1993-01-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a relatively gyroscope experiment begun at Stanford University in 1960 and supported by NASA since 1963. This experiment will check, for the first time, the relativistic precession of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope that was predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond per year or better. A drag-free satellite will carry four gyroscopes in a polar orbit to observe their relativistic precession. The primary sensor for measuring the direction of gyroscope spin axis is the SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. The data reduction scheme designed for the GP-B program processes the signal from the SQUID magnetometer and estimates the relativistic precession rates. We formulated the data reduction scheme and designed the Niobium bird experiment to verify the performance of the data reduction scheme experimentally with an actual SQUID magnetometer within the test loop. This paper reports the results from the first phase of the Niobium bird experiment, which used a commercially available SQUID magnetometer as its primary sensor, and adresses the issues they raised. The first phase resulted in a large, temperature-dependent bias drift in the insensitive design and a temperature regulation scheme.

  20. Interactions of TOM1L1 with the multivesicular body sorting machinery.

    PubMed

    Puertollano, Rosa

    2005-03-11

    Tom1L1 (Tom1-like1) and related proteins Tom1 (Target of Myb1) and Tom1L2 (Tom1-like2) constitute a new protein family characterized by the presence of a VHS (Vps27p/Hrs/Stam) domain in the N-terminal portion followed by a GAT (GGA and Tom) domain. Recently it was demonstrated that the GAT domain of both Tom1 and Tom1L1 binds ubiquitin, suggesting that these proteins might participate in the sorting of ubiquitinated proteins into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Here we report a novel interaction between Tom1L1 and members of the MVB sorting machinery. Specifically, we found that the VHS domain of Tom1L1 interacts with Hrs (Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate), whereas a PTAP motif, located between the VHS and GAT domain of Tom1L1, is responsible for binding to TSG101 (tumor susceptibility gene 101). Myc epitope-tagged Tom1L1 showed a cytosolic distribution but was recruited to endosomes following Hrs expression. In addition, Tom1L1 possesses several tyrosine motifs at the C-terminal region that mediate interactions with members of the Src family kinases and other signaling proteins such as Grb2 and p85. We showed that a fraction of Fyn kinase localizes at endosomes and that this distribution becomes more evident after epidermal growth factor internalization. Moreover, expression of a constitutive active form of Fyn also promoted the recruitment of Tom1L1 to enlarged endosomes. Taken together, we propose that Tom1L1 could act as an intermediary between signaling and degradative pathways.

  1. TOMS total ozone trends in potential vorticity coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Randel, W.J.; Wu, F.

    1995-03-15

    Global total ozone measurements from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) are analyzed using potential vorticity (PV) as an approximate vortex-following coordinate. We analyze the time period November 1978-May 1991, prior to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The TOMS data are remapped into PV coordinates and trends are calculated, thereby characterizing ozone losses inside and outside the winter polar vortices. These analyses show large regions of ozone loss outside of the vortex in both hemispheres. Furthermore, these data suggest that midlatitude losses in the NH during winter-spring do not result solely from the transport of ozone depleted air from inside to outside the vortex. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Nimbus-7 TOMS Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at the Antarctic and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1989 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1989. The 1989 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of 1987, reaching a comparable depth in early October. This was in sharp contrast to the much weaker hole of 1988. The 1989 ozone hole remained at polar latitudes as it filled in November, in contrast to other recent years when the hole drifted to mid-latitudes before disappearing. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1989 ozone distribution to that of other years.

  3. Inverse modeling of biomass smoke emissions using the TOMS AI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Penner, J. E.; Torres, O.

    2003-12-01

    Results of inverse modeling of biomass smoke emissions using the TOMS AI and a three-dimensional transport model are presented. The IMPACT model with DAO meteorology data in 1997 are utilized to obtain aerosol spatial and temporal distributions. Two absorbing aerosol types are considered, including biomass smoke and mineral dust. First, a radiative transfer model is applied to generate the modeled AI. Then a Bayesian inverse technique is applied to optimize the difference between the modeled AI and the EP TOMS AI in the same period by regulating monthly a priori biomass smoke emissions, while the dust emissions are fixed. The modeled AI with a posteriori emissions generally is in better agreement with the EP TOMS AI. The annual global a posteriori source increases by about 13% for the year 1997 (6.31 Tg/yr BC) in the base scenario, with a larger adjustment of monthly regional emissions. Five sensitivity scenarios are carried out, including sensitivity to the a priori uncertainties, the height of the smoke layer, the cloud screening criteria of the daily EP TOMS AI, the adjustment of emissions in a lumped region outside of the major biomass burning regions, and the covariances between observations. Results suggest that a posteriori annual global emissions in the sensitivity scenarios are within 15% of that of the base scenario. However, the difference of annual a posteriori emissions between the sensitivity scenarios and the base scenario can be as large as 50% on regional scale. We are also applying the inverse model technique to the year 2000 to compare with biomass emissions deduced from an analysis based on burned areas.

  4. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of yeast mitochondrial protein Tom70p

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yunkun; McCombs, Debbie; Nagy, Lisa; DeLucas, Lawrence; Sha, Bingdong

    2006-03-01

    Tom70p is an important translocase of the outer membrane complex member and a major surface receptor of the protein-translocation machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane. To investigate the mechanism by which Tom70p functions to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the cytosolic fragment of yeast Tom70p (cTom70p) has been crystallized. Protein translocations across mitochondrial membranes play critical roles in mitochondrion biogenesis. Protein transport from the cell cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix is carried out by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex and the translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complexes. Tom70p is an important TOM-complex member and a major surface receptor of the protein-translocation machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane. To investigate the mechanism by which Tom70p functions to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the cytosolic fragment of yeast Tom70p (cTom70p) was crystallized. The crystals diffract to 3.2 Å using a synchrotron X-ray source and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.89, b = 168.78, c = 83.41 Å, α = 90.00, β = 102.74, γ = 90.00°. There are two Tom70p molecules in one asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 51%. Structure determination by MAD methods is under way.

  5. Mitochondrial protein import - Functional analysis of the highly diverged Tom22 orthologue of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Jan; Rout, Samuel; Desy, Silvia; Schneider, André

    2017-01-01

    The β-barrel protein Tom40 and the α-helically anchored membrane protein Tom22 are the only universally conserved subunits of the protein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM). Tom22 has an N-terminal cytosolic and a C-terminal intermembrane space domain. It occurs in two variants: one typified by the yeast protein which has a cytosolic domain containing a cluster of acidic residues, and a shorter variant typified by the plant protein that lacks this domain. Yeast-type Tom22 functions as a secondary protein import receptor and is also required for the stability of the TOM complex. Much less is known about the more widespread short variant of Tom22, which is also found in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. Here we show that the intermembrane space domain of trypanosomal Tom22 binds mitochondrial precursor proteins and that it is essential for normal growth and mitochondrial protein import. Moreover, complementation experiments indicate that the intermembrane space domain cannot be replaced by the corresponding regions of the yeast or plant Tom22 orthologues. Lack or replacement of the short cytosolic domain, however, does not interfere with protein function. Finally, we show that only the membrane-spanning domain of trypanosomal Tom22 is essential for assembly of the trypanosomal TOM complex analogue. PMID:28094338

  6. Total ozone trends deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Mcpeters, Richard D.; Herman, Jay R.; Bloomfield, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 11 years. Recent improvements in the data analysis have led to a technique for determining and removing drift in the calibration such that the data at the end of the record are precise to + or - 1.3 percent (2-sigma) relative to the data at the beginning of the record. A statistical model, including terms for seasonal variation, linear trend, quasi-biennial oscillation, solar cycle and second-order autoregressive noise has been fit to the TOMS time series of total ozone data. The linear trend obtained when this statistical model is fit to the TOMS data averaged between 65 N and 65 S latitudes is -0.26 + or - 0.14 percent/year or -3 percent over the 11.6 year time period from November 1978 to May 1990. The trend is near zero (0.0002 + or - 0.2 percent/year) at the equator and increases toward both poles.

  7. Total ozone trends deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS data

    SciTech Connect

    Stolarski, R.S.; McPeters, R.D.; Herman, J.R. ); Bloomfield, P. )

    1991-06-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 11 years. Recent improvements in the data analysis have led to a technique for determining and removing drift in the calibration such that the data at the end of the record are precise to {plus minus} 1.3% (2{sigma}) relative to the data at the beginning of the record. A statistical model, including terms for seasonal variation, linear trend, quasi-biennial oscillation, solar cycle and second-order autoregressive noise has been fit to the TOMS time series of total ozone data. The linear trend obtained when this statistical model is fit to the TOMS data averaged between 65N and 65S latitudes is {minus}0.26 {plus minus} 0.14%/year or {minus}3% over the 11.6 year time period from November, 1978 through May, 1990. The trend is near zero (0.0002 {plus minus} 0.2%/year) at the equator and increases towards both poles. At 50N the annually averaged trend is {minus}0.5 {plus minus} .21%/year. The 50N trend over the 11.6 year time period shows a strong seasonal variation from more than {minus}0.8%/year in winter and early spring (February and March) to about {minus}0.2%/year in summer (July and August).

  8. Tom40 protein import channel binds to non-native proteins and prevents their aggregation.

    PubMed

    Esaki, Masatoshi; Kanamori, Takashi; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Shin, Injae; Schultz, Peter G; Endo, Toshiya

    2003-12-01

    Mitochondria contain the translocator of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) for protein entry into the organelle, and its subunit Tom40 forms a protein-conducting channel. Here we report the role of Tom40 in protein translocation across the membrane. The site-specific photocrosslinking experiment revealed that translocating unfolded or loosely folded precursor segments of up to 90 residues can be associated with Tom40. Purified Tom40 bound to non-native proteins and suppressed their aggregation when they are prone to aggregate. A denatured protein bound to the Tom40 channel blocked the protein import into mitochondria. These results indicate that, in contrast to the nonstick tunnel of the ribosome for polypeptide exit, the Tom40 channel offers an optimized environment to translocating non-native precursor proteins by preventing their aggregation.

  9. Dual role of the receptor Tom20 in specificity and efficiency of protein import into mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hayashi; Itoh, Nobuka; Kawano, Shin; Yatsukawa, Yoh-ichi; Momose, Takaki; Makio, Tadashi; Matsunaga, Mayumi; Yokota, Mihoko; Esaki, Masatoshi; Shodai, Toshihiro; Kohda, Daisuke; Aiken Hobbs, Alyson E.; Jensen, Robert E.; Endo, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria import most of their resident proteins from the cytosol, and the import receptor Tom20 of the outer-membrane translocator TOM40 complex plays an essential role in specificity of mitochondrial protein import. Here we analyzed the effects of Tom20 binding on NMR spectra of a long mitochondrial presequence and found that it contains two distinct Tom20-binding elements. In vitro import and cross-linking experiments revealed that, although the N-terminal Tom20-binding element is essential for targeting to mitochondria, the C-terminal element increases efficiency of protein import in the step prior to translocation across the inner membrane. Therefore Tom20 has a dual role in protein import into mitochondria: recognition of the targeting signal in the presequence and tethering the presequence to the TOM40 complex to increase import efficiency. PMID:21173275

  10. The Phytosiderophore Efflux Transporter TOM2 Is Involved in Metal Transport in Rice*

    PubMed Central

    Nozoye, Tomoko; Nagasaka, Seiji; Kobayashi, Takanori; Sato, Yuki; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential metal element for all living organisms. Graminaceous plants produce and secrete mugineic acid family phytosiderophores from their roots to acquire iron in the soil. Phytosiderophores chelate and solubilize insoluble iron hydroxide in the soil. Subsequently, plants take up iron-phytosiderophore complexes through specific transporters on the root cell membrane. Phytosiderophores are also thought to be important for the internal transport of various transition metals, including iron. In this study, we analyzed TOM2 and TOM3, rice homologs of transporter of mugineic acid family phytosiderophores 1 (TOM1), a crucial efflux transporter directly involved in phytosiderophore secretion into the soil. Transgenic rice analysis using promoter-β-glucuronidase revealed that TOM2 was expressed in tissues involved in metal translocation, whereas TOM3 was expressed only in restricted parts of the plant. Strong TOM2 expression was observed in developing tissues during seed maturation and germination, whereas TOM3 expression was weak during seed maturation. Transgenic rice in which TOM2 expression was repressed by RNA interference showed growth defects compared with non-transformants and TOM3-repressed rice. Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TOM2 released 14C-labeled deoxymugineic acid, the initial phytosiderophore compound in the biosynthetic pathway in rice. In onion epidermal and rice root cells, the TOM2-GFP fusion protein localized to the cell membrane, indicating that the TOM2 protein is a transporter for phytosiderophore efflux to the cell exterior. Our results indicate that TOM2 is involved in the internal transport of deoxymugineic acid, which is required for normal plant growth. PMID:26432636

  11. Surficial geology of the Mount Tom quadrangle, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Fredrick D.

    1972-01-01

    Movement of the last ice sheet in the Mount Tom quadrangle was due south during time of major advance as indicated by striations, drumlins, and indicator stones. Erratics of the Belchertown Tonalite, derived from the northeast portion of the Easthampton quadrangle, have been carried southward a distance of at least 16 miles. The presence of tonalite boulders on the summit of Mount Tom, elevation 1,205 feet, testifies to uplift of erratics through a vertical distance of 1,000 feet. Three tills are recognized on the basis of color, grainsize parameters, and location: (1) a reddish-brown sandy till occurs west of the Holyoke Basalt ridge, (2) a brown silty till lies east of the basalt ridge, and (3) a grayish-brown till-with intermediate grain size occurs in the Easthampton quadrangle and the north-central portion of the Mount Tom quadrangle. The three tills are the same age and are equivalent to the upper till of southern New England. During deglaciation, readvance occurred from the northeast over a minimum distance of 3.5 miles in the southeast portion of the quadrangle. Evidence for readvance consists of (1) till over stratified drift, (2) southwest-oriented till fabrics on south-trending drumlins, (3) west-southwest-trending striations cutting south-trending striations, (4) southwest-oriented glaciotectonic structures, and (5) data from borings. West of the basalt ridge, northward retreat of an active ice margin was punctuated by four stillstands, during which outwash deltas were deposited in proglacial lakes. From oldest to youngest the deposits associated with the four stillstands are named: (1) Paper Mills delta, (2) Barnes delta, (3) Pomeroy Street delta, and (4) White Brook delta. East of the basalt ridge a series of small ice-contact deltas were deposited in high proglacial Lake Hitchcock, which expanded northward with the retreating ice margin. Deposition culminated along the upper east margin of the quadrangle with the formation of a large ice

  12. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  13. Analysis of tobamovirus multiplication in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in TOM2A homologues.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Koki; Kobayashi, Soko; Tsujimoto, Yayoi; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2008-06-01

    The TOM2A gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a four-pass transmembrane protein that is required for efficient multiplication of a tobamovirus, TMV-Cg. In this study, the involvement of three TOM2A homologues in tobamovirus multiplication in A. thaliana was examined. T-DNA insertion mutations in the three homologues, separately or in combination, did not affect TMV-Cg multiplication, whereas, in the tom2a genetic background, some combinations reduced it. This result suggests that the TOM2A homologues are functional in enhancing TMV-Cg multiplication, but their contribution is much less than TOM2A. Interestingly, the multiplication of another tobamovirus, Tomato mosaic virus, was not drastically affected by any combinations of the mutations in TOM2A and its homologues as far as we examined.

  14. Implementation of the TOMS contamination control requirements in the former USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Eve M.

    1992-01-01

    The American Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was integrated with the Russian Meteor-3 spacecraft and launched on August 15, 1991. Although the TOMS instrument was sensitive to both particulate and molecular contamination, the program for Meteor-3 had not formerly addressed contamination control in ground operations. In order to accommodate the TOMS cleanliness requirements, a contamination control program was successfully established from inception at both the Meteor-3 spacecraft plant near Moscow and at the launch site in Plesetsk.

  15. Nimbus-7 TOMS Antarctic ozone atlas: August - December 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.; Scott, Courtney J.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at the Antarctic and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1990 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period 1 Aug. through 31 Dec. 1990. The 1990 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of 1987 and 1989, reaching a comparable depth in early October. This was in sharp contrast to the much weaker hold of 1988. The 1990 ozone hole remained at polar latitudes as it filled in Nov., in contrast to other recent years when the hold drifted to mid-latitudes before disappearing. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1990 ozone distribution to that of other years. A new calibration scheme (Version 6) was used to process 1990 ozone values, as well as to reprocess those of previous years.

  16. The 1988 Antarctic ozone monitoring Nimbus-7 TOMS data atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

    1989-01-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at McMurdo, Syowa, and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1988 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 17, 1988. Although total ozone in mini-holes briefly dropped below 150 DU in late August, the main ozone hole is seen to be much less pronounced than in 1987. Minimum values, observed in late September and early October 1988, were seldom less than 175 DU. Compared with the same period in 1987, when a pronounced ozone hole whose minimum value of 109 Dobson Units (DU) was the lowest total ozone ever observed, the 1988 ozone hole is displaced from the South Pole, opposing a persistent maximum with values consistently above 500 DU. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1988 ozone distribution to that of other years.

  17. The Impact of Withholding Observations from TOMS or SBUV Instruments on the GEOS Ozone Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, Ovanka; Riishojgaard, Lars Peter; Rood, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    In a data assimilation system (DAS), model forecast atmospheric fields, observations and their respective statistics are combined in an attempt to produce the best estimate of these fields. Ozone observations from two instruments are assimilated in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) ozone DAS: the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument. The assimilated observations are complementary; TOMS provides a global daily coverage of total column ozone, without profile information, while SBUV measures ozone profiles and total column ozone at nadir only. The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of the ozone assimilation system in the absence of observations from one of the instruments as it can happen in the event of a failure of an instrument or when there are problems with an instrument for a limited time. Our primary concern is for the performance of the GEOS ozone DAS when it is used in the operational mode to provide near real time analyzed ozone fields in support of instruments on the Terra satellite. In addition, we are planning to produce a longer term ozone record by assimilating historical data. We want to quantify the differences in the assimilated ozone fields that are caused by the changes in the TOMS or SBUV observing network. Our primary interest is in long term and large scale features visible in global statistics of analysis fields, such as differences in the zonal mean of assimilated ozone fields or comparisons with independent observations, While some drifts in assimilated fields occur immediately, after assimilating just one day of different observations, the others develop slowly over several months. Thus, we are also interested in the length of time, which is determined from time series, that is needed for significant changes to take place.

  18. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reconnaissance phase of using satellite observtions to studying electromagnetic induction in the solid earth is summarized. Several points are made: (1) satellite data apparently suffer far less from the effects of near surface lateral heterogeneities in the earth than do ground-based data; (2) zonal ionospheric currents during the recovery phase of major magnetic storms appear to be minimal, at least in the dawn and dusk sectors wher MAGSAT was flown; hence the internal contributions that satellites observe during these times is in fact due primarily to induction in the Earth with little or no contribution from ionospheric currents; and (3) the interpretation of satellite data in terms of primitive electromagnetic response functions, while grossly over-simplified, results in a surprisingly well-resolved radius for an equivalent super-conductor representing the conductivity region of the Earth's interior (5,370 + or - 120 km).

  19. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Model simulations show that induction in a spherical Earth by distant magnetospheric sources can contribute magnetic field fluctuations at MAGSAT altitudes which are 30 to 40 percent of the external field amplitudes. When the characteristic dimensions (e.g. depth of penetration, etc) of a particular situations are small compared with the Earth's radius, the Earth can be approximated by a plane horizontal half space. In this case, electromagnetic energy is reflected with close to 100 percent efficiency from the Earth's surface. This implies that the total horizontal field is twice the source field when the source is above the satellite, but is reduced to values which are much smaller than the source field when the source is below the satellite. This latter effect tends to enhance the signature of gross electrical discontinuities in the lithosphere when observed at satellite altitudes.

  20. The global distribution on total ozone - Toms satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1989-01-01

    The general behavior of total ozone by season and latitude was known before 1930 through the pioneering observations by Dobson. The ozone record at Oxford and other European stations was dominated by an annual cycle and by irregular short term fluctuations. The amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were determined at representative latitudes in both hemispheres. However, the short term variations appeared to be meteorological origin, although the specific cause could not be identified. Data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 spacecraft, with global coverage at an average spatial resolution of 66 km, can now be used to completely map the total ozone field. These maps demonstrate that troughs and ridges in the upper troposphere are responsible for the large, short term ozone variations found at middle latitudes, while in the tropics, the steady, low ozone levels show broad scale structure associated with the Hadley circulation.

  1. User's guide for SBUV/TOMS ozone derivative products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Oslik, N.; Lee, D.; Miller, J.; Magatani, R.

    1984-01-01

    A series of products are available derived from the total-ozone and ozone vertical profile results for the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet/Total-Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus-7 operation. Products available are (1) orbital height-latitude cross sections of the SBUV profile data, (2) daily global total ozone contours in polar coordinates, (3) daily averages of total ozone in global 5x5 degree latitude-longitude grid, (4) daily, monthly and quarterly averages of total ozone and profile data in 10 degree latitude zones, (5) tabular presentation of zonal means, (6) daily global total ozone and profile contours in polar coordinates. The ""Derivative Products User's Guide'' describes each of these products in detail, including their derivation and presentation format. Information is provided on how to order the tapes and microfilm from the National Space Science Data Center.

  2. 77 FR 51912 - Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Sands Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long.... 165.T01-0618 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T01-0618 Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks,...

  3. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's...

  4. Tom Stewart Interview (Part II): A Little Bit About the Man Behind SPEEDE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Although admittedly shy and more comfortable as an attentive listener, Tom Stewart is also friendly and accommodating. He graciously agreed to share his thoughts about some of the important experiences in his life. Tom is that rare bird, a native Floridian, from West Palm Beach, 68 miles north of his Miami home. He received a Bachelor of Chemical…

  5. The TOM Complex of Amoebozoans: the Cases of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the Slime Mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Buczek, Dorota; Stobienia, Olgierd; Karachitos, Andonis; Antoniewicz, Monika; Slocinska, Małgorzata; Makałowski, Wojciech; Kmita, Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Protein import into mitochondria requires a wide variety of proteins, forming complexes in both mitochondrial membranes. The TOM complex (translocase of the outer membrane) is responsible for decoding of targeting signals, translocation of imported proteins across or into the outer membrane, and their subsequent sorting. Thus the TOM complex is regarded as the main gate into mitochondria for imported proteins. Available data indicate that mitochondria of representative organisms from across the major phylogenetic lineages of eukaryotes differ in subunit organization of the TOM complex. The subunit organization of the TOM complex in the Amoebozoa is still elusive, so we decided to investigate its organization in the soil amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. They represent two major subclades of the Amoebozoa: the Lobosa and Conosa, respectively. Our results confirm the presence of Tom70, Tom40 and Tom7 in the A. castellanii and D. discoideum TOM complex, while the presence of Tom22 and Tom20 is less supported. Interestingly, the Tom proteins display the highest similarity to Opisthokonta cognate proteins, with the exception of Tom40. Thus representatives of two major subclades of the Amoebozoa appear to be similar in organization of the TOM complex, despite differences in their lifestyle.

  6. Tom, a new aromatic degradative plasmid from Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, M.S.; Reagin, J.J.; Campbell, R.

    1995-04-01

    Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia PR1{sub 23} has been shown to constitutively express a toluene catabolic pathway distinguished by a unique toluene ortho-monooxygenase (Tom). This strain has also been shown to contain two extrachromosomal elements of <70 and> 100 kb. A derivative strain cured of the largest plasmid, PR1{sub 23} Cure, was unable to grow on phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy, which requires expression of the Tom pathway. Transfer of the larger plasmid from strain G4 J(the parent strain inducible for Tom) enabled PR1{sub 23} Cure to grow on toluene or phenol via inducible Tom pathway expression. Conjugal transfer of TOM{sub 23c} from PR1{sub 23} to an antibiotic-resistant derivative of PR1{sub 23} Cure enabled the transconjugant to grow with either phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy through constitutive expression of the Tom pathway. A cloned 11.2-kb EcoRI restriction fragment of Tom{sub 23c} resulted in the expression of both Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase in Escherichia coli, as evidenced by its ability to oxidize trichloroethylene, toluene, m-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, and catechol. The largest resident plasmid of PR1 was identified as the source of these genes by DNA hybridization. These results indicate that the genes which encode Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase are located on TOM, an approximately 108-kb degradative plasmid of B. cepacia G4. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to address the problem of electromagnetic coupling of ionospheric current systems to both a homogeneous Earth having finite conductivity, and to an Earth having gross lateral variations in its conductivity structure, e.g., the ocean-land interface. Typical results from the model simulation for ionospheric currents flowing parallel to a representative geologic discontinuity are shown. Although the total magnetic field component at the satellite altitude is an order of magnitude smaller than at the Earth's surface (because of cancellation effects from the source current), the anomalous behavior of the satellite observations as the vehicle passes over the geologic contact is relatively more important pronounced. The results discriminate among gross lithospheric structures because of difference in electrical conductivity.

  8. Preliminary Results from an Assimilation of Saharan Dust Using TOMS Radiances and the GOCART Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, C. J.; daSilva, Arlindo; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    At NASA Goddard we are developing a global aerosol data assimilation system that combines advances in remote sensing and modeling of atmospheric aerosols. The goal is to provide high resolution, 3-D aerosol distributions to the research community. Our first step is to develop a simple assimilation system for Saharan mineral aerosol. The Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation model (GOCART) provides accurate 3-D mineral aerosol size distributions. Surface mobilization, wet and dry deposition, convective and long-range transport are all driven by assimilated fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, GEOS-DAS. Our version of GOCART transports sizes from .08-10 microns and only simulates Saharan dust. We draw the assimilation to two observables in this study: the TOMS aerosol index (Al) which is directly related to the ratio of the 340 and 380 radiances and the 380 radiance alone. The forward model that simulates the observables requires the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the height of the aerosol layer from the GOCART fields. The forward model also requires a refractive index for the dust. We test three index values to see which best fits the TOMS observables. These are 1) for Saharan dust reported by Patterson, 2) for a mixture of Saharan dust and a highly reflective material (sea salt or sulfate) and 3) for pure illite. The assimilation works best assuming either pure illite or the dust mixture. Our assimilation cycle first determines values of the aerosol index (Al) and the radiance at 380 nm based on the GOCART aerosol fields. Differences between the observed and GOCART model calculated Al and 380 nm radiance are first analyzed horizontally using the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). A quasi-Newton iteration is then performed to produce analyzed 3D aerosol fields according to parameterized background and observation error covariances. We only assimilate observations into the the GOCART

  9. Global and Seasonal Aerosol Optical Depths Derived From Ultraviolet Observations by Satellites (TOMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Torres, O.

    1999-01-01

    North America and Europe. Comparisons of the estimated TOMS aerosol optical depths show good agreement in magnitude and seasonal dependence with sun-photometer optical depths obtained at Goddard Space Flight Center (39degN 76.88degW) in the U.S. and in Lille (50.63degN 3.07degE) in France. The study of these aerosols is important for detecting the sources of industrial pollution and its redistribution by winds on a global basis, as well as its effect on reducing the UV irradiance at the Earth's surface.

  10. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Efforts continue in the development of a computer program for looking at the coupling of finite dimensioned source fields with a laterally heterogeneous Earth. An algorithm for calculating a time-varying reference field using ground-based magnetic observatory data is also under development as part of the production of noise-free estimates of global electromagnetic response functions using Magsat data.

  11. Contributions of Nimbus 7 TOMS Data to Volcanic Study and Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schaefer, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    Nimbus TOMS data have led to advancements among many volcano-related scientific disciplines, from the initial ability to quantify SO2 clouds leading to derivations of eruptive S budgets and fluxes, to tracking of individual clouds, assessing global volcanism and atmospheric impacts. Some of the major aspects of TOMS-related research, listed below, will be reviewed and updated: (1) Measurement of volcanic SO2 clouds: Nimbus TOMS observed over 100 individual SO2 clouds during its mission lifetime; large explosive eruptions are now routinely and reliably measured by satellite. (2) Eruption processes: quantification of SO2 emissions have allowed assessments of eruption sulfur budgets, the evaluation of "excess" sulfur, and inferences of H2S emissions. (3) Detection of ash: TOMS data are now used to detect volcanic particulates in the atmosphere, providing complementary analyses to infrared methods of detection. Paired TOMS and AVHRR studies have provided invaluable information on volcanic cloud compositions and processes. (4) Cloud tracking and hazard mitigation: volcanic clouds can be considered gigantic tracers in the atmosphere, and studies of the fates of these clouds have led to new knowledge of their physical and chemical dispersion in the atmosphere for predictive models. (5) Global trends: the long term data set has provided researchers an unparalleled record of explosive volcanism, and forms a key component in assessing annual to decadal trends in global S emissions. (6) Atmospheric impacts: TOMS data have been linked to independent records of atmospheric change, in order to compare cause and effect processes following a massive injection of SO2 into the atmosphere. (7) Future TOMS instruments and applications: Nimbus TOMS has given way to new satellite platforms, with several wavelength and resolution modifications. New efforts to launch a geostationary TOMS could provide unprecedented observations of volcanic activity.

  12. Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstrom, Erika

    2013-01-01

    To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

  13. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  14. Nanoscale distribution of mitochondrial import receptor Tom20 is adjusted to cellular conditions and exhibits an inner-cellular gradient.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Christian A; Neumann, Daniel; Lauterbach, Marcel A; Harke, Benjamin; Egner, Alexander; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan

    2011-08-16

    The translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM) complex is the main import pore for nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria, yet little is known about its spatial distribution within the outer membrane. Super-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy was used to determine quantitatively the nanoscale distribution of Tom20, a subunit of the TOM complex, in more than 1,000 cells. We demonstrate that Tom20 is located in clusters whose nanoscale distribution is finely adjusted to the cellular growth conditions as well as to the specific position of a cell within a microcolony. The density of the clusters correlates to the mitochondrial membrane potential. The distributions of clusters of Tom20 and of Tom22 follow an inner-cellular gradient from the perinuclear to the peripheral mitochondria. We conclude that the nanoscale distribution of the TOM complex is finely adjusted to the cellular conditions, resulting in distribution gradients both within single cells and between adjacent cells.

  15. Electron temperature probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2013-11-01

    The electron temperature probe (ETP) was invented in Japan in 1970's. The probe measures the electron temperature accurately and the measurement is not influenced by the electrode contamination. The instrument has low weight, low data transmission bit rate and low power consumption. The probe has been deployed in many sounding rockets, Earth orbiting scientific satellites, and Mars exploration spacecraft in Japan. The probe has also been deployed in sounding rockets in West Germany, India, Canada, USA, and Brazil. The probe has also been deployed in Brazilian satellites, Korean satellites, and recently as a Taiwan satellite payload. The manuscript describes the principle of the ETP instrument, the system configuration, the mechanical interface with respect to the sensor location, the control timing between data processing units; some useful information, the interference with other instruments, and future improvements and tasks. Some useful information for conducting performance check after the instrument fabrication and before the flight deployment is also presented in Appendix A.

  16. America's Prosperity: The Academic Success of Hispanics. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donado, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    In the 2014 Tomás Rivera lecture, Yvette Donado, Senior Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer of Educational Testing Service, discusses the need to create educational opportunities for Hispanic Americans in order to create prosperity for all Americans.

  17. A new method for monitoring long term calibration of the SBUV and TOMS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Seftor, C.; Wellemeyer, C.

    1994-01-01

    A new method has been developed to monitor the long-term calibration of the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments. It is based on the fact that the radiance in one channel can be expressed as a linear sum of the radiances in neighboring channels. Using simulated radiances for the SBUV and TOMS instruments, various scenarios of changes in instrument calibration are investigated. Results from sample processing of SBUV data are also presented.

  18. Comparison of TOMS retrievals and UVMRP measurements of surface spectral UV radiation in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Liang, X.-Z.; Gao, W.; Krotkov, N.

    2010-09-01

    Surface noontime spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiances during May-September of 2000-2004 from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite retrievals are systematically compared with the ground measurements at 27 climatological sites maintained by the USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program. The TOMS retrievals are evaluated by two cloud screening methods and local air quality conditions to determine their bias dependencies on spectral bands, cloudiness, aerosol loadings, and air pollution. Under clear-sky conditions, TOMS retrieval biases vary from -3.4% (underestimation) to 23.6% (overestimation). Averaged over all sites, the relative mean biases for 305, 311, 325, and 368 nm are respectively 15.4, 7.9, 7.6, and 7.0% (overestimation). The bias enhancement for 305 nm by approximately twice that of other bands likely results from absorption by gaseous pollutants (SO2, O3), and aerosols that are not included in the TOMS algorithm. For all bands, strong positive correlations of the TOMS biases are identified with aerosol optical depth, which explains nearly 50% of the variances of TOMS biases. The more restrictive in-situ cloud screening method reduces the biases by 3.4-3.9% averaged over all sites. This suggests that the TOMS biases from the in-situ cloud contamination may account for approximately 25% for 305 nm and 50% for other bands of the total bias. The correlation coefficients between total-sky and clear-sky biases across 27 sites are 0.92, 0.89, 0.83, and 0.78 for 305, 311, 325, and 368 nm, respectively. The results show that the spatial characteristics of the TOMS retrieval biases are systematic, representative of both clear and total-sky conditions.

  19. Results from SIM's Thermo-Opto-Mechanical (TOM3) Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goullioud, Renaud; Lindensmith, C. A.; Hahn, I.

    2006-01-01

    Future space-based optical interferometers, such as the Space Interferometer Mission Planet Quest (SIM), require thermal stability of the optical wavefront to the level of picometers in order to produce astrometric data at the micro-arc-second level. In SIM, the internal path of the interferometer will be measured with a small metrology beam whereas the starlight fringe position is estimated from a large concentric annular beam. To achieve the micro-arc-second observation goal for SIM, it is necessary to maintain the optical path difference between the central and the outer annulus portions of the wavefront of the front-end telescope optics to a few tens of picometers. The Thermo-Opto-Mecha nical testbed (TOM3) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to measure thermally induced optical deformations of a full-size flight-like beam compressor and siderostat, the two largest optics on SIM, in flight-like thermal environments. A Common Path Heterodyne Interferometer (COPHI) developed at JPL was used for the fine optical path difference measurement as the metrology sensor. The system was integrated inside a large vacuum chamber in order to mitigate the atmospheric and thermal disturbances. The siderostat was installed in a temperature-controlled thermal shroud inside the vacuum chamber, creating a flight-like thermal environment. Detailed thermal and structural models of the test articles (siderostat and compressor) were also developed for model prediction and correlation of the thermal deformations. Experimental data shows SIM required thermal stability of the test articles and good agreement with the model predictions.

  20. GOME total ozone and calibration error derived using Version 8 TOMS Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Qin, W.; Ahn, C.; Gopalan, A.; Bhartia, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a hyper-spectral satellite instrument measuring the ultraviolet backscatter at relatively high spectral resolution. GOME radiances have been slit averaged to emulate measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) made at discrete wavelengths and processed using the new TOMS Version 8 Ozone Algorithm. Compared to Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques based on local structure in the Huggins Bands, the TOMS uses differential absorption between a pair of wavelengths including the local structure as well as the background continuum. This makes the TOMS Algorithm more sensitive to ozone, but it also makes the algorithm more sensitive to instrument calibration errors. While calibration adjustments are not needed for the fitting techniques like the DOAS employed in GOME algorithms, some adjustment is necessary when applying the TOMS Algorithm to GOME. Using spectral discrimination at near ultraviolet wavelength channels unabsorbed by ozone, the GOME wavelength dependent calibration drift is estimated and then checked using pair justification. In addition, the day one calibration offset is estimated based on the residuals of the Version 8 TOMS Algorithm. The estimated drift in the 2b detector of GOME is small through the first four years and then increases rapidly to +5% in normalized radiance at 331 nm relative to 385 nm by mid 2000. The 1b detector appears to be quite well behaved throughout this time period.

  1. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  2. Three dimensional data-assimilative VERB-code simulations of the Earth's radiation belts: Reanalysis during the Van Allen Probe era, and operational forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerman, Adam; Shprits, Yuri; Podladchikova, Tatiana; Kondrashov, Dmitri

    2016-04-01

    The Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code 2.0 models the dynamics of radiation-belt electron phase space density (PSD) in Earth's magnetosphere. Recently, a data-assimilative version of this code has been developed, which utilizes a split-operator Kalman-filtering approach to solve for electron PSD in terms of adiabatic invariants. A new dataset based on the TS07d magnetic field model is presented, which may be utilized for analysis of past geomagnetic storms, and for initial and boundary conditions in running simulations. Further, a data-assimilative forecast model is introduced, which has the capability to forecast electron PSD several days into the future, given a forecast Kp index. The model assimilates an empirical model capable of forecasting the conditions at geosynchronous orbit. The model currently runs in real time and a forecast is available to view online http://rbm.epss.ucla.edu.

  3. Linkage of oxygen deficiency defects and rare earth concentrations in silica glass optical fiber probed by ultraviolet absorption and laser excitation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-S; Galvin, T C; Hawkins, T; Ballato, J; Dong, L; Foy, P R; Dragic, P D; Eden, J G

    2012-06-18

    Ultraviolet absorption measurements and laser excitation spectroscopy in the vicinity of 248 nm provide compelling evidence for linkages between the oxygen deficiency center (ODC) and rare earth concentrations in Yb and Er-doped glass optical fibers. Investigations of YAG-derived and solution-doped glass fibers are described. For both Yb and Er-doped fibers, the dependence of Type II ODC absorption on the rare earth number density is approximately linear, but the magnitude of the effect is greater for Yb-doped fibers. Furthermore, laser excitation spectra demonstrate unambiguously the existence of an energy transfer mechanism coupling an ODC with Yb(3+). Photopumping glass fibers with a Ti:sapphire laser/optical parametric amplifier system, tunable over the 225-265 nm region, or with a KrF laser at 248.4 nm show: 1) emission features in the 200-1100 nm interval attributable only to the ODC (Type II) defect or Yb(3+), and 2) the excitation spectra for ODC (II) emission at ~280 nm and Yb(3+) fluorescence (λ ~1.03 μm) to be, within experimental uncertainty, identical. The latter demonstrates that, when irradiating Yb-doped silica fibers between ~240 and 255 nm, the ODC (II) defect is at least the primary precursor to Yb(3+) emission. Consistent with previous reports in the literature, the data show the ODC (II) absorption spectrum to have a peak wavelength and breadth of ~246 nm and ~19 nm (FWHM). Experiments also reveal that, in the absence of Yb, incorporating either Al(2)O(3) or Y(2)O(3) into glass fibers has a negligible impact on the ODC concentration. Not only do the data reported here demonstrate the relationship between the ODC (II) number density and the Yb doping concentration, but they also suggest that the appearance of ODC defects in the fiber is associated with the introduction of Yb and the process by which the fiber is formed.

  4. Investigation of the effect of atmospheric dust on the determination of total ozone from the earth's ultraviolet reflectivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dave, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented on the effect of atmospheric aerosols on the value of total ozone, in an atmospheric column of the terrestrial atmosphere, estimated from the simulated measurements of the ultraviolet radiation back scattered by the earth atmosphere models. Simulated measurements were used in five (configuration of the BUV experiment of Nimbus-4 satellite), and in six (configuration of the TOMS section of the SBUV/TOMS experiment on Nimbus-G) narrow spectral regions in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum.

  5. The 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment: the Nimbus-7 TOMS Data Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Sechrist, Frank S.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Galimore, Reginald N.

    1988-01-01

    Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were suppled within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile, over a telecommunications network designed specifically for this purpose. The TOMS data preparation and method of transfer over the telecommunications links are reviewed. This atlas includes a complete set of the near-real-time TOMS orbital overpass data over regions around the Palmer Peninsula of Antarctica for the period of August 8 through September 29, 1987. Also provided are daily polar orthographic projections of TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere from August through November 1987. In addition, a chronology of the salient points of the experiment, along with some latitudinal cross sections and time series at locations of interest of the TOMS total ozone observations are presented. The TOMS total ozone measurements are evaluated along the flight tracks of each of the ER-2 and DC-8 missions during the experiment. The ozone hole is shown here to develop in a monotonic progression throughout late August and September. The minimum total ozone amount was found on 5 October, when its all-time lowest value of 109 DU is recorded. The hole remains well defined, but fills gradually from mid-October through mid-November. The hole's dissolution is observed here to begin in mid-November, when it elongates and begins to rotate. By the end of November, the south pole is no longer located within the ozone hole.

  6. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A spherical harmonic analysis program is being tested which takes magnetic data in universal time from a set of arbitrarily space observatories and calculates a value for the instantaneous magnetic field at any point on the globe. The calculation is done as a least mean-squares value fit to a set of spherical harmonics up to any desired order. The program accepts as a set of input the orbit position of a satellite coordinates it with ground-based magnetic data for a given time. The output is a predicted time series for the magnetic field on the Earth's surface at the (r, theta) position directly under the hypothetically orbiting satellite for the duration of the time period of the input data set. By tracking the surface magnetic field beneath the satellite, narrow-band averages crosspowers between the spatially coordinated satellite and the ground-based data sets are computed. These crosspowers are used to calculate field transfer coefficients with minimum noise distortion. The application of this technique to calculating the vector response function W is discussed.

  7. Geological assessment probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, E. R.

    1980-04-01

    A probe is described which can be installed in a side hole that extends from a bore hole in the Earth, to assess the permeability of the strata surrounding the borehole. The probe is elongated and has a plurality of seals spaced therealong and sealed to the walls of the side hole to form a plurality of chambers sealed from one another. A tracer fluid injector on the probe can inject a tracer fluid into one of the chambers, while a tracer fluid detector located in another chamber can detect the tracer fluid, to thereby sense the permeability of the strata surrounding the side hole. The probe can include a train of modules, with each module having an inflatable packer which is inflated by the difference between the borehole pressure and the strata pressure.

  8. Solid Earth: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, R.

    1991-10-01

    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  9. Correlations of TOMS total ozone data (Nimbus-7 satellite) with tropopause height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munteanu, Marie-Jeanne

    1987-01-01

    Two correlation studies of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data with tropopause height from radiosondes performed over Europe showed a correlation coefficient of 0.94 and 0.96. As a result, the rms error in the prediction of tropopause height from total ozone was found to be 20 mb. Correlation between tropopause height and TOMS data was the highest of all the other correlations with variables directly derived from radiosondes or simulated thermal radiances over the location of radiosondes. Comparing the two dimensional fields of TOMS, tropopause height from radiosondes and tropopause height field from TIROS-N retrievals, we can say that the first field is much closer to the true field from radiosondes than the third. The correlation coefficient for a ten-day study between TOMS data and tropopause height from radiosondes is between 0.85 and 0.9 for 30-70N. Tropopause analysis provided by GLA model also shows a very high correlation with TOMS data.

  10. Evaluation of the consistency of OMI-TOMS total ozone with collocated ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mingliang; Shi, Runhe; Bai, Kaixu; Liu, Chaoshun; Gao, Wei; Sun, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    As Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura satellite has provided global scale ozone measurements on a daily basis since 2004, the long-term stability and consistency of ozone retrievals is thus of critical importance, especially for the ozone recovery assessment. This study aims to evaluate the long-term stability of total ozone derived from the OMI Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (OMI-TOMS) algorithm, by comparing with collocated ground-based total ozone measurements recorded from 42Dobson spectrophotometers during the period 2004-2015. It is indicative that the OMI-TOMS total ozone is in good agreement with collocated ground-based measurements, with a R2 of 0.96 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.3%. Further investigations show that the OMI-TOMS total ozone is of quality, as no significant latitude dependence is observed. In the past 12 years, the OMI-TOMS total ozone is highly consistent with the ground-based Dobson total ozone, with a variation of mean relative difference less than 1%. In general, the OMI-TOMS total ozone performs well and can be used with confidence.

  11. TOMS total ozone data compared with northern latitude Dobson ground stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heese, B.; Barthel, K.; Hov, O.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus 7 satellite are compared with ground-based measurements from five Dobson stations at northern latitudes to evaluate the accuracy of the TOMS data, particularly in regions north of 50 deg N. The measurements from the individual stations show mean differences from -2.5 percent up to plus 8.3 percent relative to TOMS measurements and two of the ground stations, Oslo and Longyearbyen, show a significant drift of plus 1.2 percent and plus 3.7 percent per year, respectively. It can be shown from nearly simultaneous measurements in two different wavelength double pairs at Oslo that at least 2 percent of the differences result from the use of the CC' wavelength double pair instead of the standard AD wavelength double pair. Since all Norwegian stations used the CC' wavelength double pair exclusively a similar error can be assumed for Tromso and Longyearbyren. A comparison between the tropospheric ozone content in TOMS data and from ECC ozonesonde measurements at Ny-Alesund and Bear Island shows that the amount of tropospheric ozone in the standard profiles used in the TOMS algorithm is too low, which leads to an error of about 2 percent in total ozone. Particularly at high solar zenith angles (greater than 80 deg), Dobson measurements become unreliable. They are up to 20 percent lower than TOMS measurements averaged over solar zenith angles of 88 deg to 89 deg.

  12. TOM40 Mediates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by α-Synuclein Accumulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O.; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery -TOM40- might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype α-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in α-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in α-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in α-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in α-Synucleinopathies. PMID:23626796

  13. Empirical correction for earth sensor horizon radiance variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph; Andrews, Daniel; Luquette, Richard

    1998-01-01

    A major limitation on the use of infrared horizon sensors for attitude determination is the variability of the height of the infrared Earth horizon. This variation includes a climatological component and a stochastic component of approximately equal importance. The climatological component shows regular variation with season and latitude. Models based on historical measurements have been used to compensate for these systematic changes. The stochastic component is analogous to tropospheric weather. It can cause extreme, localized changes that for a period of days, overwhelm the climatological variation. An algorithm has been developed to compensate partially for the climatological variation of horizon height and at least to mitigate the stochastic variation. This method uses attitude and horizon sensor data from spacecraft to update a horizon height history as a function of latitude. For spacecraft that depend on horizon sensors for their attitudes (such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe-TOMS-EP) a batch least squares attitude determination system is used. It is assumed that minimizing the average sensor residual throughout a full orbit of data results in attitudes that are nearly independent of local horizon height variations. The method depends on the additional assumption that the mean horizon height over all latitudes is approximately independent of season. Using these assumptions, the method yields the latitude dependent portion of local horizon height variations. This paper describes the algorithm used to generate an empirical horizon height. Ideally, an international horizon height database could be established that would rapidly merge data from various spacecraft to provide timely corrections that could be used by all.

  14. The Application of TOMS Ozone, Aerosol and UV-B Data to Madagascar Air Quality Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A.C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products for the area of Madagascar are presented. In addition to total ozone, aerosols and UV-B tropospheric ozone results are shown from 1979 to the present. Tropospheric ozone over Africa and Madagascar is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October. This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass area burning in Africa and Madagascar. Ozone observations were made from 1979 to 1999 using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective cloud differential method. As a result of easterly trade winds, ozone originating on Madagascar is transported to the west over the Mozambique Channel. In El Nino years higher level westerly winds descend to transport low level ozone easterly. This results in African continental ozone being transported east of Madagascar. Long range transport of African ozone is observed during El Nino periods. The potential of TOMS and other space data for use in public education and research on Madagascar air quality is demonstrated.

  15. The 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition Nimbus-7 TOMS data atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past several years, world scientific attention was focused on the rapid and unanticipated decrease in the abundance of ozone over Antarctica during the Austral spring. A major aircraft campaign was conducted from December 1988 to February 1989 in response to the recently published Ozone Trends Panel Report which found that the largest decreases in Arctic ozone occurred during January to February at latitudes near the edge of the Arctic vortex. This atlas provides a complete set of TOMS ozone measurements over Europe and the North Atlantic for the duration of the experiment. These were the orbital TOMS measurements provided to the experimenters in near-real-time. In addition, a set of Northern Hemisphere TOMS ozone measurements for the period December 26, 1988 to March 20, 1989 is presented. A comparison of January and February 1989 mean ozone values to prior years is also presented.

  16. Seven years of total ozone from the TOMS instrument - A report on data quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Albert J.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Silberstein, David S.

    1986-01-01

    Seven years of TOMS total ozone data are currently available. Recently a new ozone retrieval algorithm based on improved ozone absorption cross section was implemented that has introduced 6-7 percent discontinuity in the archived data sets at the end of the fifth year of instrument operation. Until all data are reprocessed with the new algorithm users can use a table of correction factors given in this paper to make the data set internally consistent. This paper also presents a comparison of TOMS results with Amundsen Scott Dobson station. Though the agrement in most years is good, in 1983-84 the Dobson station reported unusually high values of ozone while TOMS saw the very low ozone values associated with the Antarctica ozone hole.

  17. Functional refolding and characterization of two Tom40 isoforms from human mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Mager, Frauke; Gessmann, Dennis; Nussberger, Stephan; Zeth, Kornelius

    2011-07-01

    Tom40 proteins represent an essential class of molecules which facilitate translocation of unfolded proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. They are part of a high-molecular mass complex that forms the protein-conducting channel in outer mitochondrial membranes. This study concerns the recombinant expression, purification and folding of amino-terminally truncated variants of the two human Tom40 isoforms for structural biology experiments. Both CD and FTIR secondary structure analysis revealed a dominant beta-sheet structure and a short alpha-helical part for both proteins together with a high thermal stability. Two secondary structure elements can be denatured independently. Reconstitution of the recombinant protein into planar lipid bilayers demonstrated ion channel activity similar to Tom40 purified from Neurospora crassa mitochondrial membranes, but conductivity fingerprints differ from the structurally closely related VDAC proteins.

  18. Differential Regulation of Synaptic Vesicle Tethering and Docking by UNC-18 and TOM-1

    PubMed Central

    Gracheva, Elena O.; Maryon, Ed B.; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Richmond, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The assembly of SNARE complexes between syntaxin, SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin is required to prime synaptic vesicles for fusion. Since Munc18 and tomosyn compete for syntaxin interactions, the interplay between these proteins is predicted to be important in regulating synaptic transmission. We explored this possibility, by examining genetic interactions between C. elegans unc-18(Munc18), unc-64(syntaxin) and tom-1(tomosyn). We have previously demonstrated that unc-18 mutants have reduced synaptic transmission, whereas tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced release. Here we show that the unc-18 mutant release defect is associated with loss of two morphologically distinct vesicle pools; those tethered within 25 nm of the plasma membrane and those docked with the plasma membrane. In contrast, priming defective unc-13 mutants accumulate tethered vesicles, while docked vesicles are greatly reduced, indicating tethering is UNC-18-dependent and occurs in the absence of priming. C. elegans unc-64 mutants phenocopy unc-18 mutants, losing both tethered and docked vesicles, whereas overexpression of open syntaxin preferentially increases vesicle docking, suggesting UNC-18/closed syntaxin interactions are responsible for vesicle tethering. Given the competition between vertebrate tomosyn and Munc18, for syntaxin binding, we hypothesized that C. elegans TOM-1 may inhibit both UNC-18-dependent vesicle targeting steps. Consistent with this hypothesis, tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced UNC-18 plasma membrane localization and a concomitant increase in both tethered and docked synaptic vesicles. Furthermore, in tom-1;unc-18 double mutants the docked, primed vesicle pool is preferentially rescued relative to unc-18 single mutants. Together these data provide evidence for the differential regulation of two vesicle targeting steps by UNC-18 and TOM-1 through competitive interactions with syntaxin. PMID:21423527

  19. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim interacts with components of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM).

    PubMed

    Frank, Daniel O; Dengjel, Jörn; Wilfling, Florian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Häcker, Georg; Weber, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM). In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20) by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated.

  20. Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2002-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

  1. Effect of stratospheric aerosol layers on the TOMS/SBUV ozone retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Ahmad, Zia; Pan, L.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Mcpeters, R.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation of the optical effects of stratospheric aerosol layers on total ozone retrieval from space by the TOMS/SBUV type instruments is presented here. Using the Dave radiative transfer model we estimate the magnitude of the errors in the retrieved ozone when polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) or volcanic aerosol layers interfere with the measurements. The largest errors are produced by optically thick water ice PSC's. Results of simulation experiments on the effect of the Pinatubo aerosol cloud on the Nimbus-7 and Meteor-3 TOMS products are presented.

  2. Response of the climatic temperature to dust forcing, inferred from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index and the NASA assimilation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P.; Herman, J.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Carmona, I.

    Recently, Alpert et al. (Alpert, P., Shay-El, Y., Kaufman, Y.J., Tanre, D., DaSilva, A., Schubert, S., Joseph, J.H., 1998. Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere, Nature 395 (6700), 367-370, (24 September).) suggested an indirect measure of the tropospheric temperature response to dust aerosols by using model updates — roughly speaking model errors — of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version No. 1 (GEOS-1) data assimilation system. They have shown that these updates, which provide information about missing physical processes not included in the predictive model, have monthly mean patterns, which bear a striking similarity to patterns of dust over the Atlantic. This similarity in the number of dusty days was used to estimate the atmospheric response to dust. Here, the study is extended for all the major subtropical deserts over Africa and Asia using the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index ( AI) for dust recently derived by Herman et al. (Herman, J.R., Bhartia, P.K., Torres, O., Hsu, C., Seftor, C., Celarier, E., 1997. Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16911-16922.). It is shown that the TOMS dust is highly correlated with the model errors with a maximum at the altitude of about 580 hPa and for the month of June with average correlation coefficient of 0.69 reaching up to 0.8 for specific months. In contrast to the previous study where only dust over ocean was employed, here, much higher dust concentrations are detected and the linear heating for weak dust becomes quickly saturated for AI above 1.5, then drops for very high values of AI that exceed about 3. This result is consistent with the theoretical predictions.

  3. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  4. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  5. Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.

    2015-05-01

    Earth has continents, subduction and mobile lid plate tectonics, but details of the early evolution are poorly understood. Here I summarize the Hadean-Archean record, review evidence for a hotter Earth and consider geodynamic models for early Earth.

  6. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  7. Training Preschoolers on First-Order False Belief Understanding: Transfer on Advanced ToM Skills and Metamemory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for…

  8. More than a Dream: Expanding Educational Achievement in the Latino Community. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubinas, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Each year a distinguished scholar or prominent leader is selected to present the Tomás Rivera Lecture. Named in honor of the late Dr. Tomás Rivera, professor, scholar, poet and former president of the University of California, Riverside, in the tradition of the former Hispanic Caucus of the American Association for Higher Education, AAHHE is…

  9. TOM1, an Arabidopsis gene required for efficient multiplication of a tobamovirus, encodes a putative transmembrane protein.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, T; Ohta, T; Takahashi, M; Meshi, T; Schmidt, R; Dean, C; Naito, S; Ishikawa, M

    2000-08-29

    Host-encoded factors play an important role in virus multiplication, acting in concert with virus-encoded factors. However, information regarding the host factors involved in this process is limited. Here we report the map-based cloning of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene, TOM1, which is necessary for the efficient multiplication of tobamoviruses, positive-strand RNA viruses infecting a wide variety of plants. The TOM1 mRNA is suggested to encode a 291-aa polypeptide that is predicted to be a multipass transmembrane protein. The Sos recruitment assay supported the hypothesis that TOM1 is associated with membranes, and in addition, that TOM1 interacts with the helicase domain of tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins. Taken into account that the tobamovirus replication complex is associated with membranes, we propose that TOM1 participates in the in vivo formation of the replication complex by serving as a membrane anchor.

  10. α-Synuclein binds TOM20 and inhibits mitochondrial protein import in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Roberto; Barrett, Paul J.; Hoffman, Eric K.; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Zharikov, Alevtina; Borah, Anupom; Hu, Xiaoping; McCoy, Jennifer; Chu, Charleen T.; Burton, Edward A.; Hastings, Teresa G.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction have both been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), and the two appear to be related. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to accumulation and oligomerization of α-synuclein, and increased levels of α-synuclein cause mitochondrial impairment, but the basis for this bidirectional interaction remains obscure. We now report that certain post-translationally modified species of α-synuclein bind with high-affinity to the TOM20 presequence receptor of the mitochondrial protein import machinery, prevent its interaction with its co-receptor, TOM22, and impair mitochondrial protein import. As a consequence, there is deficient mitochondrial respiration, enhanced ROS production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Examination of postmortem PD tissue reveals an aberrant α-synuclein:TOM20 interaction in nigrostriatal neurons that is associated with loss of imported mitochondrial protein, thereby confirming this pathogenic process in the human disease. Modest knockdown of endogenous α-synuclein was sufficient to maintain mitochondrial protein import in an in vivo model of PD; furthermore, in in vitro systems, overexpression of TOM20 or a mitochondrial targeting signal peptide had beneficial effects and preserved protein import. This study defines a new pathogenic mechanism in PD, identifies toxic species of wildtype α-synuclein, and reveals new therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection. PMID:27280685

  11. Optical effects of polar stratospheric clouds on the retrieval of TOMS total ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Small areas of sharply reduced ozone density appear frequently in the maps produced from polar region total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data. These mini-holes are of the order of 1000 km in extent with a lifetime of a few days. On the basis of measurements from ground-based instruments, balloon-borne ozonesondes, and simultaneous measurements of aerosol and ozone concentrations during aircraft flights in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, the appearance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are frequently associated with false reductions in ozone derived from the TOMS albedo data. By combining radiative transfer calculations with the observed PSC and ozone data, it is shown that PSCs located near or above the ozone density maximum (with optical thickness greater than 0.1) can explain most of the differences between TOMS ozone data and ground or in situ ozone measurements. Several examples of real and false TOMS mini-hole phenomenon are investigated using data from the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) and from balloon flights over Norway and Sweden.

  12. The Decade Ahead: Inquire, Innovate, Impact. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Manuel T.

    2015-01-01

    In the 2015 Tomás Rivera lecture, Manuel T. Pacheco, President Emeritus of the University of Missouri System and the University of Arizona, discusses the importance of representing the Hispanic American population proportionately among college students, faculty, staff, and administration in higher education.

  13. An Open Letter to Suzanne deCastell and Tom Walker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assinck, Beverly Belvin

    1993-01-01

    Responds to "Identity, Metamorphosis, and Ethnographic Research: What Kind of Story Is Ways with Words?" by Suzanne deCastell and Tom Walker (1991). Describes the author's reaction to "Ways with Words--Language, Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms" by Shirley Brice Heath (1983). (SLD)

  14. The Toms Canyon structure, New Jersey outer continental shelf: A possible late Eocene impact crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.; Poppe, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Toms Canyon structure [~20-22 km wide] is located on the New Jersey outer continental shelf beneath 80-100 m of water, and is buried by ~1 km of upper Eocene to Holocene sedimentary strata. The structure displays several characteristics typical of terrestrial impact craters (flat floor; upraised faulted rim: brecciated sedimentary fill), but several other characteristics are atypical (an unusually thin ejecta blanket; lack of an inner basin, peak ring, or central peak; bearing nearly completely filled with breccia). Seismostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses show that the structure formed during planktonic foraminiferal biochron P15 of the early to middle late Eocene. The fill unit is stratigraphically correlating with impact ejecta cored nearby at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 and at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 903 and 904 (22-35 km southeast of the Toms Canyon structure). The Toms Canyon fill unit also correlates with the Exmore breccia, which fills the much larger Chesapeake Bay impact crater (90-km diameter; 335 km to the southwest). On the basis of our analyses, we postulate that the Toms Canyon structure is an impact crater, formed when a cluster of relatively small meteorites approached the target site bearing ~N 50 E, and struck the sea floor obliquely.

  15. Best Practices Case Study: Tom Walsh and Co. - New Columbus, Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    Case study of Tom Walsh, who achieved 50% in heating and cooling energy savings over the 2004 IECC with advanced framing, superior air sealing, extra insulation, and ducts in conditioned space. Surface water runoff in the large urban rebuild development was handled with pervious pavers, swales, retention of existing trees, and green spaces.

  16. Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

  17. Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    "The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

  18. Samuel Langhorne Clemens: A Centennial for Tom Sawyer; An Annotated, Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.; Coughlan, Margaret N., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography, prepared by the Children's Book Section of the Library of Congress to celebrate the centennial of "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," lists editions of the Mark Twain classics most widely read by young people, biographical or autobiographical and travel works significant for relevent background, and miscellaneous…

  19. High-School Reading and Junior-High Hope: The Tom Sawyer Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandeStaay, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Shows how Mark Twain's fictional adolescent Tom Sawyer shares many characteristics with the typical young adult readers of today. Considers the challenge of getting students interested and enthusiastic about reading. Claims that young adult novels are suitable for engaging high school students. (HB)

  20. The "Seductive Outside" and the "Sacred Precincts": Boundaries and Transgressions in "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Neil

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's novel, "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," to determine the ways in which the masculine is constructed by a series of forces or discourses. Argues that this novel articulates the social construction of gender in a manner similar to Michel Foucault's theory of disciplinary discourses. (HB)

  1. Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

  2. SIM PlanetQuest: The TOM-3 (Thermo-Optical-Mechanical) Siderostat Mirror Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PlanetQuest mission. It describes the mission, shows diagrams of the instrument, the collector bays, the Siderostat mirrors, the COL bay thermal environment, the TOM-3 replicating COL Bay Environment, the thermal hardware for the SID heater control, and the results of the test are shown

  3. Microsoft's Tom Corddry on Multimedia, the Information Superhighway and the Future of Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herther, Nancy K.

    1994-01-01

    Tom Corddry, Microsoft Corporation's Creative Director for the Consumer Division, is interviewed about the Microsoft Home line of products and the development of related CD-ROM and multimedia products. Reasons for Microsoft's entry into the content market and its challenges, the market's future, and the company's interest in developing online…

  4. Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zivanovic, Judith

    An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality,…

  5. An Interview Forum on Interlibrary Loan/Document Delivery with Lynn Wiley and Tom Delaney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Douglas F.

    2003-01-01

    The Virginia Boucher-OCLC Distinguished ILL Librarian Award is the most prestigious commendation given to practitioners in the field. The following questions about ILL were posed to the two most recent recipients of the Boucher Award: Tom Delaney (2002), Coordinator of Interlibrary Loan Services at Colorado State University and Lynn Wiley (2001),…

  6. Toward a Latino Attainment Agenda: Shaping Our Own Destiny. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigarroa, Francisco G.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2013 Tomás Rivera lecture, Francisco Cigarroa, chancellor of the University of Texas system, discusses how a major shift in the demographics of the United States is having a profound effect on K-12 and higher education.

  7. Systematic Comparison of Brain Imaging Meta-Analyses of ToM with vPT.

    PubMed

    Arora, Aditi; Schurz, Matthias; Perner, Josef

    2017-01-01

    In visual perspective taking (vPT) one has to concern oneself with what other people see and how they see it. Since seeing is a mental state, developmental studies have discussed vPT within the domain of "theory of mind (ToM)" but imaging studies have not treated it as such. Based on earlier results from several meta-analyses, we tested for the overlap of visual perspective taking studies with 6 different kinds of ToM studies: false belief, trait judgments, strategic games, social animations, mind in the eyes, and rational actions. Joint activation was observed between the vPT task and some kinds of ToM tasks in regions involving the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior precuneus, left middle occipital gyrus/extrastriate body area (EBA), and the left inferior frontal and precentral gyrus. Importantly, no overlap activation was found for the vPT tasks with the joint core of all six kinds of ToM tasks. This raises the important question of what the common denominator of all tasks that fall under the label of "theory of mind" is supposed to be if visual perspective taking is not one of them.

  8. Evidence of Distinct Channel Conformations and Substrate Binding Affinities for the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein Translocase Pore Tom40.

    PubMed

    Kuszak, Adam J; Jacobs, Daniel; Gurnev, Philip A; Shiota, Takuya; Louis, John M; Lithgow, Trevor; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Buchanan, Susan K

    2015-10-23

    Nearly all mitochondrial proteins are coded by the nuclear genome and must be transported into mitochondria by the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom40 is the central subunit of the translocase complex and forms a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane. To date, the mechanism it utilizes for protein transport remains unclear. Tom40 is predicted to comprise a membrane-spanning β-barrel domain with conserved α-helical domains at both the N and C termini. To investigate Tom40 function, including the role of the N- and C-terminal domains, recombinant forms of the Tom40 protein from the yeast Candida glabrata, and truncated constructs lacking the N- and/or C-terminal domains, were functionally characterized in planar lipid membranes. Our results demonstrate that each of these Tom40 constructs exhibits at least four distinct conductive levels and that full-length and truncated Tom40 constructs specifically interact with a presequence peptide in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. Therefore, neither the first 51 amino acids of the N terminus nor the last 13 amino acids of the C terminus are required for Tom40 channel formation or for the interaction with a presequence peptide. Unexpectedly, substrate binding affinity was dependent upon the Tom40 state corresponding to a particular conductive level. A model where two Tom40 pores act in concert as a dimeric protein complex best accounts for the observed biochemical and electrophysiological data. These results provide the first evidence for structurally distinct Tom40 conformations playing a role in substrate recognition and therefore in transport function.

  9. Evidence of Distinct Channel Conformations and Substrate Binding Affinities for the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein Translocase Pore Tom40*

    PubMed Central

    Kuszak, Adam J.; Jacobs, Daniel; Gurnev, Philip A.; Shiota, Takuya; Louis, John M.; Lithgow, Trevor; Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K.; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all mitochondrial proteins are coded by the nuclear genome and must be transported into mitochondria by the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom40 is the central subunit of the translocase complex and forms a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane. To date, the mechanism it utilizes for protein transport remains unclear. Tom40 is predicted to comprise a membrane-spanning β-barrel domain with conserved α-helical domains at both the N and C termini. To investigate Tom40 function, including the role of the N- and C-terminal domains, recombinant forms of the Tom40 protein from the yeast Candida glabrata, and truncated constructs lacking the N- and/or C-terminal domains, were functionally characterized in planar lipid membranes. Our results demonstrate that each of these Tom40 constructs exhibits at least four distinct conductive levels and that full-length and truncated Tom40 constructs specifically interact with a presequence peptide in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. Therefore, neither the first 51 amino acids of the N terminus nor the last 13 amino acids of the C terminus are required for Tom40 channel formation or for the interaction with a presequence peptide. Unexpectedly, substrate binding affinity was dependent upon the Tom40 state corresponding to a particular conductive level. A model where two Tom40 pores act in concert as a dimeric protein complex best accounts for the observed biochemical and electrophysiological data. These results provide the first evidence for structurally distinct Tom40 conformations playing a role in substrate recognition and therefore in transport function. PMID:26336107

  10. Determination of Radiative Forcing of Saharan Dust using Combined TOMS and ERBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Weaver, Clark

    1999-01-01

    The direct radiative forcing of Saharan dust aerosols has been determined by combining aerosol information derived from Nimbus-7 TOMS with radiation measurements observed at the top of atmosphere (TOA) by NOAA-9 ERBE made during February-July 1985. Cloud parameters and precipitable water derived from the NOAA-9 HIRS2 instrument were used to aid in screening for clouds and water vapor in the analyses. Our results indicate that under "cloud-free" and "dry" conditions there is a good correlation between the ERBE TOA outgoing longwave fluxes and the TOMS aerosol index measurements over both land and ocean in areas under the influence of airborne Saharan dust. The ERBE TOA outgoing shortwave fluxes were also found to correlate well with the dust loading derived from TOMS over ocean. However, the calculated shortwave forcing of Saharan dust aerosols is very weak and noisy over land for the range of solar zenith angle viewed by the NOAA-9 ERBE in 1985. Sensitivity factors of the TOA outgoing fluxes to changes in aerosol index were estimated using a linear regression fit to the ERBE and TOMS measurements. The ratio of the shortwave-to-longwave response to changes in dust loading over the ocean is found to be roughly 2 to 3, but opposite in sign. The monthly averaged "clear-sky" TOA direct forcing of airborne Saharan dust was also calculated by multiplying these sensitivity factors by the TOMS monthly averaged "clear-sky" aerosol index. Both the observational and theoretical analyses indicate that the dust layer height, ambient moisture content as well as the presence of cloud all play an important role in determining the TOA direct radiative forcing due to mineral aerosols.

  11. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite

  12. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite

  13. Huygens probe on target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    In October 1997, a Titan/Centaur rocket lifting-off from Cape Canaveral will boost the spacecraft into a 6.7 year trajectory to reach Saturn. The trajectory will use two swing-bys of Venus in April 1998 and June 1999, followed by an Earth swing-by in August 1999 and a Jupiter swing-by in December 2000 to boost speed and reach Saturn in July 2004. A few months after going into orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will release the Huygens probe for its descent through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. The Huygens probe will measure the abundance of elements and compounds in Titan's atmosphere, the distribution of trace gases and aerosols, winds, temperature, pressure and surface state and its composition. A multi-spectral camera on the probe will provide images of the landscape of Titan. Titan is a unique planetary body in the solar system. It has an atmosphere which is primarily nitrogen. but is also rich in hydrocarbons. Due to the vast distance of the Saturnian system from the Sun, this atmosphere is at a very low temperature, thus greatly slowing down all the chemical processes. A study of this atmosphere will throw light on the development of our own atmosphere and contribute to our understanding of the origins of life on Earth. The Huygens probe is being developed by ESA with Aerospatiale (F) as the industrial prime contractor. Since the start of the programme in April 1990, very good progress has been made in design and hardware development. The entry into the Titan atmosphere will result in a very high surface temperature on the probe, generated as it decelerates due to the friction of the upper atmospheric layers. After the probe has slowed down sufficiently, a system of parachutes ensures a slow descent to the surface of Titan in approximately two and a half hours. The scientific measurements can only begin after the heat shield, which is needed to protect the probe during the high temperature entry phase, has been ejected

  14. TOM1L1 drives membrane delivery of MT1-MMP to promote ERBB2-induced breast cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Clément; Collin, Guillaume; Descamps, Simon; Touaitahuata, Heiani; Simon, Valérie; Reymond, Nicolas; Fernandez, Laurent; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Georget, Virginie; Urbach, Serge; Lasorsa, Laurence; Orsetti, Béatrice; Boissière-Michot, Florence; Lopez-Crapez, Evelyne; Theillet, Charles; Roche, Serge; Benistant, Christine

    2016-01-01

    ERBB2 overexpression in human breast cancer leads to invasive carcinoma but the mechanism is not clearly understood. Here we report that TOM1L1 is co-amplified with ERBB2 and defines a subgroup of HER2+/ER+ tumours with early metastatic relapse. TOM1L1 encodes a GAT domain-containing trafficking protein and is a SRC substrate that negatively regulates tyrosine kinase signalling. We demonstrate that TOM1L1 upregulation enhances the invasiveness of ERBB2-transformed cells. This pro-tumoural function does not involve SRC, but implicates membrane-bound membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP)-dependent activation of invadopodia, membrane protrusions specialized in extracellular matrix degradation. Mechanistically, ERBB2 elicits the indirect phosphorylation of TOM1L1 on Ser321. The phosphorylation event promotes GAT-dependent association of TOM1L1 with the sorting protein TOLLIP and trafficking of the metalloprotease MT1-MMP from endocytic compartments to invadopodia for tumour cell invasion. Collectively, these results show that TOM1L1 is an important element of an ERBB2-driven proteolytic invasive programme and that TOM1L1 amplification potentially enhances the metastatic progression of ERBB2-positive breast cancers. PMID:26899482

  15. An Outer Mitochondrial Translocase, Tom22, Is Crucial for Inner Mitochondrial Steroidogenic Regulation in Adrenal and Gonadal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Maheshinie; Kaur, Jasmeet; Prasad, Manoj; Pawlak, Kevin J.; Marshall, Brendan; Perry, Elizabeth W.; Whittal, Randy M.

    2016-01-01

    After cholesterol is transported into the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, the first steroid, pregnenolone, is synthesized in adrenal and gonadal tissues to initiate steroid synthesis by catalyzing the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone, which is mediated by the inner mitochondrial enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3βHSD2). We report that the mitochondrial translocase Tom22 is essential for metabolic conversion, as its knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) completely ablated progesterone conversion in both steroidogenic mouse Leydig MA-10 and human adrenal NCI cells. Tom22 forms a 500-kDa complex with mitochondrial proteins associated with 3βHSD2. Although the absence of Tom22 did not inhibit mitochondrial import of cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme) and aldosterone synthase, it did inhibit 3βHSD2 expression. Electron microscopy showed that Tom22 is localized at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), while 3βHSD2 is localized at the inner mitochondrial space (IMS), where it interacts through a specific region with Tom22 with its C-terminal amino acids and a small amino acid segment of Tom22 exposed to the IMS. Therefore, Tom22 is a critical regulator of steroidogenesis, and thus, it is essential for mammalian survival. PMID:26787839

  16. Evidence Supporting the 19 β-Strand Model for Tom40 from Cysteine Scanning and Protease Site Accessibility Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Sebastian W. K.; Taylor, Rebecca D.; Go, Nancy E.; Wong, Annie; Sherman, E. Laura; Nargang, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    Most proteins found in mitochondria are translated in the cytosol and enter the organelle via the TOM complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane). Tom40 is the pore forming component of the complex. Although the three-dimensional structure of Tom40 has not been determined, the structure of porin, a related protein, has been shown to be a β-barrel containing 19 membrane spanning β-strands and an N-terminal α-helical region. The evolutionary relationship between the two proteins has allowed modeling of Tom40 into a similar structure by several laboratories. However, it has been suggested that the 19-strand porin structure does not represent the native form of the protein. If true, modeling of Tom40 based on the porin structure would also be invalid. We have used substituted cysteine accessibility mapping to identify several potential β-strands in the Tom40 protein in isolated mitochondria. These data, together with protease accessibility studies, support the 19 β-strand model for Tom40 with the C-terminal end of the protein localized to the intermembrane space. PMID:24947507

  17. 'Spider' in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module 'Spider' in a lunar landing configuration photographed by Command Module pilot David Scott inside the Command/Service Module 'Gumdrop' on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on 'Spider' has been deployed. lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the 'Spider' were astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 Commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, Lunar Module pilot.

  18. Atmospheric probes: needs and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Tobias

    2004-02-01

    There is only one Rosetta Stone in the Solar System; it's in the British Museum. We cannot understand the inner planets by simply studying the Earth, nor can we apprehend the giants by examining only Jupiter. Despite the stunning successes of previous probes to Venus and the Galileo probe to Jupiter, our knowledge of the atmospheres of even these two planets remains tantalizingly incomplete. We must therefore return to Venus and consider the challenge of exploring all of the outer planets with a family of identical probes, a project that could commemorater the vision of multiple worlds championed by Giordano Bruno.

  19. Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum

  20. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  1. Comparative analysis of UVB exposure between Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite estimates and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the patterns of variation in ultraviolet (UV) exposure across time and space using two continental scale data sets on UV radiation and conducts a comparative analysis of two sources of noontime UV-B exposure data across the continental US. One dataset was collected from 37 ground-based stations equipped with broadband UV-B-1 Pyranometers across North America whereas the other dataset was of synchronous satellite data collected from the Nimbus-7/TOMS sensor. Comparisons of these datasets confirmed agreement between the ground-based measurements and the TOMS satellite estimates with correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.95 for daily and monthly UV Index time series (i.e., a common metric of UV radiation exposure), respectively.

  2. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, A.J.; Penn, L.M.; Scott, C.J.; Larko, D.E.

    1992-08-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of stratospheric ozone, and to support continuing research at the Antarctic Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1991 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1991. The 1991 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of the 1987, 1989, and 1990 holes, reaching a comparable depth in early October. However, the 1991 ozone hole filled far more rapidly than in 1987 or 1989, and nearly 4 weeks earlier than in 1990.

  3. Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR volcanic ssh retrievals from the August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krotkov, N.A.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C.; Krueger, A.J.; Kostinski, A.; Rose, William I.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Schneider, D.; Schaefer, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    On August 19, 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA-12 and NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite simultaneously detected and mapped the ash cloud from the eruption of Mt. Spurr, Alaska. The spatial extent and geometry of the cloud derived from the two datasets are in good agreement and both AVHRR split window IR (11-12??m brightness temperature difference) and the TOMS UV Aerosol Index (0.34-0.38??m ultraviolet backscattering and absorption) methods give the same range of total cloud ash mass. Redundant methods for determination of ash masses in drifting volcanic clouds offer many advantages for potential application to the mitigation of aircraft hazards.

  4. Atlas of TOMS ozone data collected during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE), 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1986-11-01

    Data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite were collected daily in real time during the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) from January 15 through March 15, l986. The TOMS ozone data values were processed into GEMPAK format and transferred from the Goddard Space Flight Center to GALE operations in Raleigh-Durham, NC, in as little as three hours for use, in part, to direct aircraft research flights recording in situ measurements of ozone and water vapor in areas of interest. Once in GEMPAK format, the ozone values were processed into gridded form using the Barnes objective analysis scheme and contour plots of the ozone created. This atlas provides objectively analyzed contour plots of the ozone for each of the sixty days of GALE as well as four-panel presentations of the ozone analysis combined on the basis of GALE Intensive Observing Periods (IOP's).

  5. Atlas of TOMS ozone data collected during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE), 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite were collected daily in real time during the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) from January 15 through March 15, l986. The TOMS ozone data values were processed into GEMPAK format and transferred from the Goddard Space Flight Center to GALE operations in Raleigh-Durham, NC, in as little as three hours for use, in part, to direct aircraft research flights recording in situ measurements of ozone and water vapor in areas of interest. Once in GEMPAK format, the ozone values were processed into gridded form using the Barnes objective analysis scheme and contour plots of the ozone created. This atlas provides objectively analyzed contour plots of the ozone for each of the sixty days of GALE as well as four-panel presentations of the ozone analysis combined on the basis of GALE Intensive Observing Periods (IOP's).

  6. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Scott, Courtney J.; Larko, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of stratospheric ozone, and to support continuing research at the Antarctic Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1991 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1991. The 1991 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of the 1987, 1989, and 1990 holes, reaching a comparable depth in early October. However, the 1991 ozone hole filled far more rapidly than in 1987 or 1989, and nearly 4 weeks earlier than in 1990.

  7. Magnétométrie à hélium par pompage laser: le bilan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Monfort, Y.

    2002-06-01

    Depuis 1986, l'équipe Physique Atomique et Capteurs du CIRIL-ISMRA de Caen étudie les magnétomètres à hélium par pompage laser. On présente ici le bilan de ces travaux de recherche et les performances des deux prototypes (hélium4 et hélium3) réalisés au Laboratoire.

  8. Total Ozone from the Ozone Monitoring System (OMI) using TOMS and DOAS Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Gleason, J.; deHaan, J. F.; Wellemeyer, C.; Levelt, P. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to NASA's EOS-Aura satellite scheduled for launch in January 2004. OMI is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm. The instrument provides near global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13x24 square kilometers. OMI is a new instrument, with a heritage from TOMS, SBW, GOME, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY. OMI'S unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases and aerosols with a small footprint and daily global coverage, in conjunction with the other Aura instruments, will make a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI will provide data continuity with the 23-year ozone record of TOMS. There are three ozone products planned for OMI: total column ozone, ozone profile and tropospheric column ozone. We are developing two different algorithms for total column ozone: one similar to the algorithm currently being used to process the TOMS data, and the other an improved version of the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method, which has been applied to GOME and SCIAMACHY data. The main reasons for starting with two algorithms for total ozone have to do with heritage and past experience; our long-term goal is to combine the two to develop a more accurate and reliable total ozone product for OMI. We will compare the performance of these two algorithms by applying both of them to the GOME data. We will examine where and how the results differ, and use the extensive TOMS-Dobson comparison studies to assess the performance of the DOAS algorithm.

  9. Satellite Detection of Smoke Aerosols Over a Snow/Ice Surface by TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Gleason, J. F.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data demonstrates the recently developed technique of using satellite UV radiance measurements to detect absorbing tropospheric aerosols is effective over snow/ice surfaces. Instead of the traditional single wavelength (visible or infrared) method of measuring tropospheric aerosols, this method takes advantage of the wavelength dependent reduction in the backscattered radiance due to the presence of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces. An example of the resulting aerosol distribution derived from TOMS data is shown for an August 1998 event in which smoke generated by Canadian forest fires drifts over and across Greenland. As the smoke plume moved over Greenland, the TOMS observed 380 nm reflectivity over the snow/ice surface dropped drastically from 90-100% down to 30-40%. To study the effects of this smoke plume in both the UV and visible regions of the spectrum, we compared a smoke-laden spectrum taken over Greenland by the high spectral resolution (300 to 800 nm) GOME instrument with one that is aerosol-free. We also discuss the results of modeling the darkening effects of various types of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces using a radiative transfer code. Finally, we investigated the history of such events by looking at the nearly twenty year record of TOMS aerosol index measurements and found that there is a large interannual variability in the amount of smoke aerosols observed over Greenland. This information will be available for studies of radiation and transport properties in the Arctic.

  10. Samara Probe For Remote Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Imaging probe descends through atmosphere of planet, obtaining images of ground surface as it travels. Released from aircraft over Earth or from spacecraft over another planet. Body and single wing shaped like samara - winged seed like those of maple trees. Rotates as descends, providing panoramic view of terrain below. Radio image obtained by video camera to aircraft or spacecraft overhead.

  11. How Tom Moon's research highlighted the question of glucose tolerance in carnivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Polakof, S; Panserat, S

    2016-09-01

    Fifteen years ago, Tom Moon wrote a review on this journal in order to propose some explanations to the exacerbated glycaemic response after a glucose load or a carbohydrate meal intake observed in fish, the so-called intolerance to glucose. Before, but in most of cases after this paper, several laboratories worldwide started to make important efforts in order to better understand this strange phenotype observed in fish and that so far seemed to belong to diabetic humans only. Tom had been worked on fish metabolism for at least 30years when he proposed that mini-review and the paths opened by him in 2001 were followed by tens of fish researchers, making this paper a breaking point on the field. Fifteen years later, we propose not only to have a look to the answers given to the questions rose in that paper, but also to summarize how his career over all these years impacted the domain of glucose metabolism in fish. In the review, we will show how Tom Moon analysed at different levels (from genes up to the whole organism), using distinct experimental tools (cells, hormone or glucose injection, pumps, drugs) the questions of glucose metabolism, tolerance and nutrition in fish species.

  12. Ocean Color and Evidence of Chlorophyll Signature in the TOMS Minimum Reflectivity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the TOMS minimum reflectivity data for 380 nm channel (R380) show regions of high reflectivity values (approx. 7 to 8%) over Sargasso Sea in the Northern Atlantic, anti-cyclonic region in the Southern Atlantic, and a large part of the ocean in the Southern Pacific, and low values (5 approx. 6 %) over the rest of the open ocean. Through radiative transfer simulations we show that these features are highly correlated with the distribution of chlorophyll in the ocean. Theoretical minimum reflectivity values derived with the help of CZCS chlorophyll concentration data as input into a vector ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer code developed by Ahmad and Fraser show very good agreement with TOMS minimum reflectivity data for the winter season of year 1980. For the summer season of year 1980, good qualitative agreement is observed in the equatorial and northern hemisphere but not as good in the southern hemisphere. Also, for cloud-free conditions, we find a very strong correlation between R340 minus R380 values and the chlorophyll concentration in the ocean. Results on the possible effects of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols on the TOMS minimum reflectivity will also be presented. The results also imply that ocean color will affect the aerosol retrieval over oceans unless corrected.

  13. Highlights from a Decade of OMI-TOMS Total Ozone Observations on EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haffner, David P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Joiner, Joanna; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Vassilkov, Alexander; Labow, Gordon J.; Chiou, Er-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Total ozone measurements from OMI have been instrumental in meeting Aura science objectives. In the last decade, OMI has extended the length of the TOMS total ozone record to over 35 years to monitor stratospheric ozone recovery. OMI-TOMS total ozone measurements have also been combined synergistically with measurements from other Aura instruments and MLS in particular, which provides vertically resolved information that complements the total O3 mapping capability of OMI. With this combined approach, the EOS Aura platform has produced more accurate and detailed measurements of tropospheric ozone. This has led in turn to greater understanding of the sources and transport of tropospheric ozone as well as its radiative forcing effect. The combined use of OMI and MLS data was also vital to the analysis of the severe Arctic ozone depletion event of 2011. The quality of OMI-TOMS total O3 data used in these studies is the result of several factors: a mature and well-validated algorithm, the striking stability of the OMI instrument, and OMI's hyperspectral capabilities used to derive cloud pressures. The latter has changed how we think about the effects of clouds on total ozone retrievals. We will discuss the evolution of the operational V8.5 algorithm and provide an overview and motivation for V9. After reviewing results and developments of the past decade, we finally highlight how ozone observations from EOS Aura are playing an important role in new ozone mapping missions.

  14. Near-real-time TOMS, telecommunications and meteorological support for the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, P.; Victorine, J.; Sechrist, F.; Feiner, A.; Penn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the experiment. During the experiment, the near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were supplied within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The final report summarizes the role which Research and Data Systems (RDS) Corporation played in the support of the experiment. The RDS provided telecommunications to support the science and operations efforts for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, and supplied near real-time weather information to ensure flight and crew safety; designed and installed the telecommunications network to link NASA-GSFC, the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), Palmer Station, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to the operation at Punta Arenas; engineered and installed stations and other stand-alone systems to collect data from designated low-orbiting polar satellites and beacons; provided analyses of Nimbus-7 TOMS data and backup data products to Punta Arenas; and provided synoptic meteorological data analysis and reduction.

  15. Systematic Comparison of Brain Imaging Meta-Analyses of ToM with vPT

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Matthias; Perner, Josef

    2017-01-01

    In visual perspective taking (vPT) one has to concern oneself with what other people see and how they see it. Since seeing is a mental state, developmental studies have discussed vPT within the domain of “theory of mind (ToM)” but imaging studies have not treated it as such. Based on earlier results from several meta-analyses, we tested for the overlap of visual perspective taking studies with 6 different kinds of ToM studies: false belief, trait judgments, strategic games, social animations, mind in the eyes, and rational actions. Joint activation was observed between the vPT task and some kinds of ToM tasks in regions involving the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior precuneus, left middle occipital gyrus/extrastriate body area (EBA), and the left inferior frontal and precentral gyrus. Importantly, no overlap activation was found for the vPT tasks with the joint core of all six kinds of ToM tasks. This raises the important question of what the common denominator of all tasks that fall under the label of “theory of mind” is supposed to be if visual perspective taking is not one of them. PMID:28367446

  16. Peeping at TOMs-Diverse Entry Gates to Mitochondria Provide Insights into the Evolution of Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Mani, Jan; Meisinger, Chris; Schneider, André

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondria are essential for eukaryotic life and more than 95% of their proteins are imported as precursors from the cytosol. The targeting signals for this posttranslational import are conserved in all eukaryotes. However, this conservation does not hold true for the protein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane that serves as entry gate for essentially all precursor proteins. Only two of its subunits, Tom40 and Tom22, are conserved and thus likely were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Tom7 is found in representatives of all supergroups except the Excavates. This suggests that it was added to the core of the translocase after the Excavates segregated from all other eukaryotes. A comparative analysis of the biochemically and functionally characterized outer membrane translocases of yeast, plants, and trypanosomes, which represent three eukaryotic supergroups, shows that the receptors that recognize the conserved import signals differ strongly between the different systems. They present a remarkable example of convergent evolution at the molecular level. The structural diversity of the functionally conserved import receptors therefore provides insight into the early evolutionary history of mitochondria.

  17. Constructing a coherent long-term global total ozone climatology from the BUV, MFR, and SBUV/TOMS data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-02-01

    The backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer (BUV) aboard the NIMBUS 4 satellite provided global ozone data until mid-1977. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard the NIMBUS 7 satellite began providing global ozone in November 1978. The only satellite derived global total ozone data available between the termination of the BUV data and the startup of the SBUV/TOMS data is that from the Multichannel Filter Radiometer (MFR) instrument aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series of satellites. The MFR and the SBUV/TOMS data are compared during the data overlap period in order to determine how well the MFR data might be used to represent the SBUV/TOMS and BUV data during the data gap period. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  19. Spin of Planetary Probes in Atmospheric Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    Probes that enter planetary atmospheres are often spun during entry or descent for a variety of reasons. Their spin rate histories are influenced by often subtle effects. The spin requirements, control methods and flight experience from planetary and earth entry missions are reviewed. An interaction of the probe aerodynamic wake with a drogue parachute, observed in Gemini wind tunnel tests, is discussed in connection with the anomalous spin behaviour of the Huygens probe.

  20. Investigations of Desert Dust and Smoke in the North Atlantic in Support of the TOMS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.

    2005-01-01

    During the initial period of the work we concentrated on Saharan dust storms and published a sequence of papers (Colarco et a1 2002,2003a,b, Toon, 2004). The U.S. Air Force liked the dust model so well that they appropriated it for operational dust storm forecasting (Barnum et al., 2004). The Air Force has used it for about 5 yrs in the Middle East where dust storms cause significant operational problems. The student working on this project, Peter Colarco, has graduated and is now a civil servant at Goddard where he continues to interact with the TOMS team. This work helped constrain the optical properties of dust at TOMS wavelengths, which is useful for climate simulations and for TOMS retrievals of dust properties such as optical depth. We also used TOMS data to constrain the sources of dust in Africa and the Middle East, to determine the actual paths taken by Saharan dust storms, to learn more about the mechanics of variations in the optical depths, and to learn more about the mechanisms controlling the altitudes of the dust. During the last two years we have been working on smoke from fires. Black carbon aerosols are one of the leading factors in radiative forcing. The US Climate Change Science Program calls this area out for specific study. It has been suggested by Jim Hansen, and Mark Jacobsen among others, that by controlling emissions of black carbon we might reduce greenhouse radiative forcing in a relatively painless manner. However, we need a greatly improved understanding of the amount of black carbon in the atmosphere, where it is located, where it comes from, how it is mixed with other particles, what its actual optical properties are, and how it evolves. In order to learn about these issues we are using a numerical model of smoke. We have applied this model to the SAFARI field program data, and used the TOMS satellite observations in that period (Sept. 2000). Our goal is to constrain source function estimates for black carbon, and smoke optical

  1. Subsurface Ice Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Michael; Carsey, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The subsurface ice probe (SIPR) is a proposed apparatus that would bore into ice to depths as great as hundreds of meters by melting the ice and pumping the samples of meltwater to the surface. Originally intended for use in exploration of subsurface ice on Mars and other remote planets, the SIPR could also be used on Earth as an alternative to coring, drilling, and melting apparatuses heretofore used to sample Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets. The SIPR would include an assembly of instrumentation and electronic control equipment at the surface, connected via a tether to a compact assembly of boring, sampling, and sensor equipment in the borehole (see figure). Placing as much equipment as possible at the surface would help to attain primary objectives of minimizing power consumption, sampling with high depth resolution, and unobstructed imaging of the borehole wall. To the degree to which these requirements would be satisfied, the SIPR would offer advantages over the aforementioned ice-probing systems.

  2. Tropospheric Ozone during the TRACE-P Mission: Comparison between TOMS Satellite Retrievals and Aircraft Lidar Data, March 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolov, A. D.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Browell, E. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Witte, J. C.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method ('TDOT' = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere) represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone. It is not geographically restricted, using meteorological regimes as the basis for classifying TOMS radiances and for selecting appropriate comparison data. TDOT is useful where tropospheric ozone displays high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. Some of these episodes were observed downwind of Asian biomass burning during the TRACE-P (Transport and Atmospheric Chemical Evolution-Pacific) field experiment in March 2001. This paper features comparisons among TDOT tropospheric ozone column depth, integrated uv-DIAL measurements made from NASA's DC-8, and ozonesonde data.

  3. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  4. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  5. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Transport Traced from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument During the Nashville-1999 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method [("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere; Frolov et al., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly (i.e., not previously processed for TOMS ozone) to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. These events tend to occur in certain meteorological regimes. For example, mid-latitude pollution usually occurs on the backside of subtropical fronts, as low pv, usually moist air intrudes to the extra-tropics. July 1999 was a month characterized by robust pollution in the eastern US, with high ozone, as detected by TOMS, originating over south central states and moving up the Atlantic seaboard. This corresponds to 50-80 DU in tropospheric ozone column depth. In most cases, further transport occurred to the North Atlantic, with ozone plumes traveling to western Europe in 4-5 days. Examples of high ozone and transit across boundaries within the US, as well as US->Europe, give a regional context for model results and field measurements taken in the SE US during the Nashville-1999 campaign period. Validation of the TDOT maps is made with ozonesondes taken during that time. TDOT maps also show ozone pollution from Asia traveling to the western US in July 1999.

  6. Characterization of rat TOM70 as a receptor of the preprotein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Maki; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2002-05-01

    We cloned a approximately 70 kDa rat mitochondrial outer membrane protein (OM70) with a sequence identity of 28.1% and 20.1% with N. crassa and S. cerevisiae Tom70, respectively. Even with this low sequence identity, however, the proteins share a remarkable structural similarity: they have 7-10 tetratricopeptide repeat motifs and are anchored to the outer membrane through the N-terminal transmembrane domain with the bulk portion located in the cytosol. Antibodies against OM70 inhibited import of preproteins, such as the ADP/ATP carrier and rTOM40, that use internal targeting signals but not the import of cleavable presequence-containing preproteins. Blue native gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation of digitoninsolubilized mitochondrial outer membranes revealed that OM70 was loosely associated with the approximately 400 kDa translocase complex of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which contains rTOM22 and rTOM40. A yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated that OM70 interacted with rTOM20 and rTOM22 through the cytoplasmic domains. Thus, OM70 is a functional homologue of fungal Tom70 and functions as a receptor of the preprotein import machinery of the rat mitochondrial outer membrane. Furthermore, the N-terminal 66 residue region of OM70, which comprises a hydrophilic 41 residue N-terminal domain, a 22 residue transmembrane domain and three arginine residues, is sufficient to act as a mitochondria-targeting signal, and the arginine cluster is crucial for this function.

  7. Rainbow Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation;…

  8. Earth tides

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

  9. Cross Calibration of TOMS, SBUV/2 and SCIAMACHY Radiances from Ground Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; Bhartia, P. K.; Bojkov, B.; Kowaleski, M.; Labow, G.; Ahmad, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We have shown that validation of radiances is a very effective means for correcting absolute accuracy and long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements. This method by-passes the algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements which are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. A new method for satellite validation is planned which will compliment measurements from the existing ground-based networks. This method will employ very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sky radiances and satellite nadir radiances. These comparisons will rely heavily on the experience derived from the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) program which provided a reference standard of radiance measurements for SBUV/2, TOMS, and GOME. This new measurement program, called 'Skyrad', employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. The Skyrad instruments (SSBUV, Brewer spectrophotometers, and possibly others) will be calibrated and maintained to a precision of a few tenths of a percent. Skyrad data will then enable long term calibration of upcoming satellite instruments such as QuickTOMS, SBUV/2s and SCIAMACHY with a high degree of precision. This technique can be further employed to monitor the performance of future instruments such as GOMEZ, OMI, and OMPS. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  10. Reinterpreting funerals and pastoral care: a pastoral theology response to Tom Long's Accompany Them with Singing.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Gene

    2012-03-01

    This article addresses Tom Long's (2009) criticism that a traditional pastoral care approach to funerals is responsible for significant distortions in contemporary Christian funeral practices in the United States. The article will show that his criticism should be affirmed but that his solution for a contemporary understanding of pastoral care and funerals is not adequate. A critique and reinterpretation of pastoral care and funerals will show that Long's reform of Christian funerals needs to incorporate a contemporary understanding of caring for the bereaved in funerals.

  11. Comparisons between TOMS, TOVS and DOBSON observations - Satellite and surface views of total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Neuendorffer, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    The reliability of the ozone retrievals by the TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) calculated with the newly developed physical algorithm is investigated by comparing the quality of the TOVS total ozone soundings to the corresponding values obtained by the Nimbus-7 TOMS and by the ground-based DOBSON network. The three-way comparison concentrates on observations during the last 4 months of 1987, the period of the great Antarctic 'ozone hole'. It is shown that each instrument has characteristic strengths and weaknesses, and that each of the three systems makes serious errors under some conditions.

  12. Toms Creek integrated gasification combined cycle demonstration project. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Feher, G.; Schmid, M.

    1993-09-01

    The quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1993, summarizes the work done to date by Tampella Power Corporation and Enviropower, Inc. Enviropower Inc.`s efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). Tampella Power Corporation`s efforts were concentrated on site specific heat and material balances to provide the basis for evaluating alternate locations for the Project. Enviropower, Inc. is nearing completion of the PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). The status of the design of the equipment for the Gasifier Island, not covered in the previous technical progress report, is given.

  13. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  14. The Sounds of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Flying board Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. The cover of each gold plated aluminum jacket, designed to protect the record from micrometeorite bombardment, also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

  15. Tropospheric ozone during the TRACE-P mission: Comparison between TOMS satellite retrievals and aircraft lidar data, March 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, A.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Browell, E. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Witte, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v.7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method ("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere) represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone. It is not geographically restricted and it is useful where tropospheric ozone displays high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. Some of these episodes were observed downwind of Asian biomass burning during the TRACE-P (Transport and Atmospheric Chemical Evolution-Pacific) field experiment in March 2001. This paper features comparisons among TDOT tropospheric ozone column depth, uv-DIAL measurements made from NASA's DC-8, and ozonesondes.

  16. An assessment of the long-term drift in TOMS total ozone data, based on comparison with the Dobson network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Albert J.; Silberstein, David S.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Cebula, Richard P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    1988-01-01

    Seven years of total ozone data derived from the TOMS instrument on Nimbus-7 are compared with results from 41 Dobson stations. In this study, a significant improvement in fit from previous studies is obtained using a model which assumes a change in the rate of drift between TOMS and Dobson around the middle of 1982. Results indicate that the TOMS measurements have drifted relative to the Dobson stations with a two-part linear trend of -0.25 + or - 0.17 percent per year during the period from launch to 6/30/82, and -0.51 + or - 0.21 percent per year during 7/1/82 - 10/31/85. The causes of this drift cannot be definitively separated between residual uncorrected drift in the TOMS instrument (a similar drift is apparent in the SBUV-Dobson comparisons), limited sensitivity of the TOMS to increases in tropospheric ozone, and the effect of local increases in pollution levels on individual Dobson stations.

  17. The observation of atmospheric structure with TOMS and some potential advancements. [Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) which was designed to observe the spatial characteristics of total ozone that were not resolved by the nadir-viewing Nimbus BUV and SBUV instruments. At the wavelengths suitable for total ozone measurements, the radiance is large enough that the entire daytime atmosphere could be surveyed with about 50-km resolution from a polar orbiting satellite. The resulting high spatial resolution TOMS ozone images are found to reflect the internal dynamic structure of the lower atmosphere. Features which can be identified and tracked include: planetary wave scale troughs and ridges, mesoscale cutoff lows and rapidly moving troughs, jet stream confluence and difluence areas, hurricanes, and polar night lows. These features control the ozone above any given location and account for nearly all the variance in the total ozone. The instrument has been used to track the volcanic eruption clouds from El Chichon, Mount St. Helens, Alaid, and smaller eruptions such as Galunggung. It would be feasible to use a similar instrument on a geostationary platform to obtain half-hourly maps. Determination of the vertical ozone distribution in the lower stratosphere using Radon transform principles would be of importance in measuring jet stream folds and the related troposphere-stratosphere exchange.

  18. Thin layer modeling of tom yum herbs in vacuum heat pump dryer.

    PubMed

    Artnaseaw, A; Theerakulpisut, S; Benjapiyaporn, C

    2010-04-01

    Thin layer vacuum heat pump drying experiments were conducted to determine drying models for Tom Yum herbs (chili, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaf and galangal slice). The drying experiments were conducted in a vacuum heat pump dryer at a constant drying pressure of 0.2 bars and drying temperatures ranging from 50 °C to 65 °C. The experimental results were fitted to a number of well-known thin layer drying models and it was found, for the range of drying temperature tested, that the Midilli model is the best model for all Tom Yum herbs. To account for the influence of drying temperature, the constants and coefficients of model were formulated as functions of the drying temperature. Statistical tests of agreement between the model and experimental results were performed by determining the coefficient of determination (R²) , reduced chi-square (χ²) and root mean square error (RMSE). It was found that the model is in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Comparison of recalculated Dobson and TOMS total ozone at Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia, 1978-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanek, Martin; Vanicek, Karel

    1994-01-01

    The reevaluated Dobson total ozone data from Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia were compared with independent Total Ozone Mapping Spectrophotometer (TOMS) 'version 6' data set. The comparison was performed by means of the parallel daily averages of ground-based and satellite total ozone pairs of the period November 1978 to December 1990. The comparison showed slight differences between both data series. Their average relative difference is 0.48 percent. The similar results have been reached for subsets of direct sun and zenith types of measurements as well. Their relative differences are 0.61 percent and 0.11 percent respectively. These facts indicate not only good mutual relation of both data sources but also reliability and accuracy of the zenith charts of the spectrophotometer No. 74 used at Hradec Kralove. Preliminary assessment of seasonal MU-dependence of the differences between Dobson and TOMS data was made while using total ozones of winter and summer months representing values of MU=2.70-5.20 and MU = 1.12-1.30 respectively. The results did not show systematic underestimation or overestimation of total ozone due to MU-dependence of the instrument at Hradec Kralove in both seasons.

  20. Optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Micro-Tom tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Guo, M; Zhang, Y L; Meng, Z J; Jiang, J

    2012-03-16

    Micro-Tom is the smallest known variety of tomatoes. An orthogonal experimental design L(16) (4(5)) was used to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotyledon explants of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Micro-Tom. Four parameters were investigated to determine their effect on transformation frequency: the concentration of bacterial suspension, time of dip in bacterial suspension, co-cultivation time, and concentration of carbenicillin. We also examined the effect of these parameters on contamination rate, necrosis rate, mortality, cut-surface browning rate, and undamaged explant rate. Both the bacterial and carbenicillin concentrations had a significant influence on the rate of infected explants. The time of co-cultivation also had a significant influence on the transformation parameters. The optimal transformation protocol consisted of an Agrobacterium suspension of 0.5 × 10(8) cells/mL (OD(600) = 0.5) and an infection time of 5 min, one day of co-cultivation and 500 mg/L carbenicillin. Under these conditions, the transformation efficiency of the shoots reached 5.1%; the mean transformation frequency was 3.9% (N = 838).

  1. Spectral analyses, climatology, and interannual variability of Nimbus-7 TOMS version 6 total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, J. L.; Ziemke, J. R.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Krueger, A. J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    1995-01-01

    This reference publication presents selected results from space-time spectral analyses of 13 years of version 6 daily global ozone fields from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). One purpose is to illustrate more quantitatively the well-known richness of structure and variation in total ozone. A second purpose is to provide, for use by modelers and for comparison with other analysts' work, quantitative measures of zonal waves 1, 2, 3, and medium-scale waves 4-7 in total ozone. Their variations throughout the year and at a variety of latitudes are presented, from equatorial to polar regions. The 13-year averages are given, along with selected individual years which illustrate year-to-year variability. The largest long wave amplitudes occur in the polar winters and early springs of each hemisphere, and are related to strong wave amplification during major warning events. In low attitudes total ozone wave amplitudes are an order of magnitude smaller than at high latitudes. However, TOMS fields contain a number of equatorial dynamical features, including Rossby-gravity and Kelvin waves.

  2. The 1989 Antarctic ozone hole as observed by TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer)

    SciTech Connect

    Stolarski, R.S.; Schoeberl, M.R.; McPeters, R.D.; Krueger, A.J. ); Newman, P.A. )

    1990-08-01

    In 1989 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite observed the springtime decrease in Antarctic total ozone for the 11th consecutive year. The 1989 minimum values of total ozone measured by TOMS declined throughout the month of September a6t a rate nearly identical to 1987. The National Meteorological Center analysis of lower stratospheric temperatures in August and September 1989 also showed conditions similar to those observed in 1987. A minimum in total ozone of 111 DU was reached on October 7, 1989. Within uncertainties this is the same as previously observed minimum on October 5, 1987. The area of the ozone hole as defined by the 220 DU contour grew rapidly during early September. It reached a mid-September peak of 7.5% of the southern hemisphere or 19 million square kilometers, essentially the same as observed in 1987. From mid October through November 1989, minimum polar total ozone values increased and the are within the 220 DU contour decreased more rapidly than during the comparable period of 1987. The more rapid erosion of the 1989 ozone hole resulted from strong wave number one perturbations of the vortex dynamics in late October.

  3. Seasonal trend analysis of published ground-based and TOMS total ozone data through 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinsel, Gregory C.; Tiao, George C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kerr, James B.; Miller, Alvin J.; Nagatani, Ronald M.; Bishop, Lane; Ying, Lisa H.

    1994-01-01

    A seasonal trend analysis of published Dobson (including stations' newly revised and Brewer-simulated Dobson) total ozone data through 1991 from a network of 56 stations has been performed, using three different data periods. The trend results for the longest data period 1964 - 1991 indicate substantial negative trends in ozone in the higher northern latitudes during the winter and spring seasons, some evidence of negative trend in the higher southern latitudes (30 deg S - 55 deg S) during all seasons, and trends close to zero for all seasons over the 30 deg S - 30 deg N latitude range. For the shortest data period, November 1978 through 1991, there is a clear indication that trends have become more negative in the higher northern latitudes, especially during the winter and spring seasons, and also in the higher southern latitudes in all seasons. A seasonal trend analysis of zonal averages of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite total ozone data for the comparable period November 1978 through 1991 has also been performed, and moderately good agreement is found between trends in Dobson and TOMS data over this period.

  4. The Effect of New Ozone Cross Sections Applied to SBUV and TOMS Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Labow, Gordon J.

    2010-01-01

    The ozone cross sections as measured by Bass and Paur have been used for processing of SBUV and TOMS data since 1986. While these cross sections were a big improvement over those previously available, there were known minor problems with accuracy for wavelengths longward of 330 nm and with the temperature dependance. Today's requirements to separate stratospheric ozone from tropospheric ozone and for the derivation of minor species such as BrO and N02 place stringent new requirements on the accuracy needed. The ozone cross section measurements of Brion, Daumont, and Malicet (BDM) are being considered for use in UV-based ozone retrievals. They have much better resolution, an extended wavelength range, and a more consistent temperature dependance. Tests show that BDM retrievals exhibit lower retrieval residuals in the satellite data; i.e., they explain our measured atmospheric radiances more accurately. Total column ozone retrieved by the TOMS instruments is about 1.5% higher than before. Ozone profiles retrieved from SBUV using the new cross sections are lower in the upper stratosphere and higher in the lower stratosphere and troposphere.

  5. The Toms River Childhood Cancer Cluster: Coupled Groundwater and Water Distribution System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.

    2003-12-01

    Toms River, New Jersey is the location of a statistically significant childhood cancer cluster. A 1995 cancer investigation indicated that relative to the state, the Toms River section of Dover Township had excess childhood cancer incidence for all malignant cancers combined, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers, and leukemia. Children under the age of five were found to have a seven-fold increase in brain and CNS cancer. The community's concern focused on the possibility that exposure to environmental contaminants may be related to the incidence of these childhood cancers. Two Superfund sites in Dover Township were implicated as having a possible impact on the local water supply. One of these, the Reich Farm site, is a source of contaminants to the aquifer that serves a major well field for Toms River. Contaminants in the aquifer include TCE, PCE and styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer. In 1997, the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began an epidemiology study to evaluate the relationship between the environmental exposure pathways and the elevated childhood cancer incidence. Toxicity studies for the SAN trimer were also initiated. Groundwater modeling was undertaken to establish the historical relationship between the Reich Farm site and the municipal well field and to aid in the management and protection of the aquifer and well field to ensure both water quality and quantity. The modeling of the water distribution system for Toms River was also part of the study. Groundwater flow from the Reich Farm Superfund site to the municipal well field for Toms River was modeled for a thirty-year time period using MODFLOW. To account for the growth and development of the well field within the modeling domain, a transient model was constructed. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases to manage, maintain, and compile field observations for model input and calibration was

  6. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  7. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  8. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T.

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  9. The three domains of the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mim1 have discrete functions in assembly of the TOM complex.

    PubMed

    Lueder, Franziska; Lithgow, Trevor

    2009-05-06

    The assembly of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins is an essential process, mediated by the SAM complex and a set of additional protein modules. We show that one of these, Mim1, is anchored in the outer membrane with its N-terminus exposed to the cytosol and its C-terminus in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Using an in vitro assay to measure the multi-step pathway for assembly of Tom40 into the TOM complex, we find that an "early reaction" mediated by the SAM complex is regulated by the N-terminal domain of Mim1. In addition, a "late reaction" catalysed by the Sam37 subunit of the SAM complex is also influenced by Mim1. Thus, Mim1 participates at multiple stages in the assembly of the TOM complex.

  10. Polypeptide Translocation Through the Mitochondrial TOM Channel: Temperature-Dependent Rates at the Single-Molecule Level.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R; Lamichhane, Usha; Romero-Ruiz, Mercedes; Nussberger, Stephan; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2013-01-03

    The TOM protein complex facilitates the transfer of nearly all mitochondrial preproteins across outer mitochondrial membranes. Here we characterized the effect of temperature on facilitated translocation of a mitochondrial presequence peptide pF1β. Ion current fluctuations analysis through single TOM channels revealed thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of substrate binding and allowed determining the energy profile of peptide translocation. The activation energy for the on-rate and off-rate of the presequence peptide into the TOM complex was symmetric with respect to the electric field and estimated to be about 15 and 22 kT per peptide. These values are above that expected for free diffusion of ions in water (6 kT) and reflect the stronger interaction in the channel. Both values are in the range for typical enzyme kinetics and suggest one process without involving large conformational changes within the channel protein.

  11. Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Beaujardiere, J.

    2001-05-01

    Digital Earth (DE) seeks to make geospatial information broadly and easily available. Vast amounts of natural and cultural information are gathered about the Earth, but it is often difficult to find needed data, to share knowledge across disciplines, and to combine information from several sources. DE defines a framework for interoperability by selecting relevant open standards from the information technology community. These standards specify the technical means by which publishers can provide or sell their data, and by which client applications can find and access data in an automated fashion. The standardized DE framework enables many types of clients--from web browsers to museum kiosks to research-grade virtual environments--to use a common geospatial information infrastructure. Digital Earth can benefit Earth system education in general, and DLESE in particular, in several ways. First, educators, students and creators of instructional material will benefit from standardized access to georeferenced data. Secondly, educational lesson plans that focus on a region or aspect of the Earth can themselves be considered geospatial information resources that could be cataloged and retrieved through DE. Finally, general public knowledge about our planet will by increased by Digital Earth.

  12. Science payload. [of outer planet atmospheric entry probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, H.

    1974-01-01

    The representative science payload of an outer planet atmospheric entry probe is described. The instrumental details are based on experiments that have been successfully flown in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus. The incorporation of these instruments into an outer planet probe requires a strong interaction between instrument designer and probe designer. The installation of the instruments into a 250 lb entry probe is illustrated.

  13. Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Demonstration Project. Final quarterly technical progress report for the period ending March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Feher, G.

    1993-05-24

    This Quarterly Technical Progress Report for the period ending March 31, 1993 summarizes the work done to data by Tampella Power Corporation and Enviropower, Inc. on the integrated combined-cycle power plant project. Efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). Tampella Power Corporation`s efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek Preliminary Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs). Tampella Power Corporation also prepared Heat and Material Balances (H&MBs) for different site-specific cases.

  14. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  15. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  16. Active Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Past activity from Near Earth Asteroids is recorded in the meteoroid streams that cause our meteor showers. Automated meteoroid orbit surveys by photographic, low-light video, specular radar, and head-echo radar reflections are providing the first maps of meteor shower activity at different particle sizes. There are distinct differences in particle size distributions among streams. The underlaying mechanisms that created these streams are illuminated: fragmentation from spin-up or thermal stresses, meteoroid ejection by water vapor drag, and ejection of icy particles by CO and CO2 sublimation. The distribution of the meteoroid orbital elements probe the subsequent evolution by planetary perturbations and sample the range of dynamical processes to which Near Earth Asteroids are exposed. The non-stream "sporadic" meteors probe early stages in the evolution from meteoroid streams into the zodiacal dust cloud. We see that the lifetime of large meteoroids is generally not limited by collisions. Results obtained by the CAMS video survey of meteoroid orbits are compared to those from other orbit surveys. Since October 2010, over 200,000 meteoroid orbits have been measured. First results from an expansion into the southern hemisphere are also presented, as are first results from the measurement of main element compositions. Among the many streams detected so far, the Geminid and Sextantid showers stand out by having a relatively high particle density and derive from parent bodies that appear to have originated in the main belt.

  17. Cross Calibration of TOMS, SBUV/2 and Sciamachy Radiances from Ground Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsenrath, Ernest; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Bhartia, Pawan K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify recovery. We have shown that validation of radiances is the most effective means for correcting absolute accuracy and long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements. This method by-passes the algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements which are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. Validation of radiances will also improve all higher level data products derived from the satellite observations. Backscatter algorithms suffer from several errors such as unrepresentative a-priori data and air mass factor corrections. Radiance comparisons employ forward models but are inherently more accurate and than inverse (retrieval) algorithms. A new method for satellite validation is planned which will compliment measurements from the existing ground-based networks. This method will employ very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sky radiances and satellite nadir radiances. These comparisons will rely heavily on the experience derived from the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) program which provided a reference standard of radiance measurements for SBUV/2, TOMS, and GOME. This new measurement program, called "Skyrad", employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. The Skyrad instruments (SSBUV, Brewer spectrophotometers, and

  18. Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; P<=0.015), with smaller but significant increases at five of the nine South American sites (r(exp 2) = 0.24-0.42; P<=0.05). The contribution of the highest UV-B(sub ery) exposure levels (>= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  19. Determination of the UV solar risk in Argentina with high-resolution maps calculated using TOMS ozone climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, Rubén D.; Cede, Alexander; Luccini, Eduardo; Stengel, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The connection between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various skin diseases is well known. In this work, we present the computer program "UVARG", developed in order to prevent the risk of getting sunburn for persons exposed to solar UV radiation in Argentina, a country that extends from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. The software calculates the so-called "erythemal irradiance", i.e., the spectral irradiance weighted by the McKinlay and Diffey action spectrum for erythema and integrated in wavelength. The erythemal irradiance depends mainly on the following geophysical parameters: solar elevation, total ozone column, surface altitude, surface albedo, total aerosol optical depth and Sun-Earth distance. Minor corrections are due to the variability in the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure, humidity and temperature profiles and the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance. Key parameter in the software is a total ozone column climatology incorporating monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina that was obtained from TOMS/NASA satellite data from 1978 to 2000. Different skin types are considered in order to determine the sunburn risk at any time of the day and any day of the year, with and without sunscreen protection. We present examples of the software for three different regions: the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North-West, Tierra del Fuego in the South when the ozone hole event overpasses and low summertime ozone conditions over Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country. In particular, we analyzed the maximum time for persons having different skin types during representative days of the year (southern hemisphere equinoxes and solstices). This work was made possible by the collaboration between the Argentine Skin Cancer Foundation, the Institute of Physics Rosario (CONICET-National University of Rosario, Argentina) and the Institute of

  20. The Huygens Probe System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, K. C.; Hassan, H.; Verdant, M.; Couzin, P.; Huttin, G.; Brisson, M.; Sollazzo, C.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2002-07-01

    The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and its largest moon Titan. Huygens is an entry probe designed to enter Titan's atmosphere and descend under parachute down to the surface. The Probe is carried to Titan on board the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. Huygens is dormant for 7.2 years, during the interplanetary journey and during the first 6 months around Saturn. It is activated about every 6 months for an in-flight checkout to verify and monitor its health and to perform a periodic maintenance and calibration of the payload instruments. The Probe will be targeted to Titan and released from the Orbiter about 3 weeks before the Titan encounter on the third Orbit around Saturn. During the 3-week coast phase the Probe is ‘OFF’, except a timer unit that has the task to awaken Huygens before it enters Titan's atmosphere. The Probe's aeroshell will decelerate it in less than 2 minutes from the entry speed of about 6 km s-1 to 400 m s-1 (Mach 1.5) at an altitude of 150 180 km. From that point onwards, a pre-programmed sequence will trigger the parachute deployment and the heat-shield ejection. The main part of the scientific mission will then start, lasting for a descent of 2 21/2 hours. The Orbiter will listen to the Probe for a total duration of at least 3 hours, which includes time to receive data from the surface, should the Probe continue to transmit data after touchdown. Huygens' transmissions are received and stored aboard the Orbiter for later retransmission to the Earth. This paper presents a technical description of the elements of the Huygens Probe System. The reader is invited to refer to the companion paper (Lebreton and Matson, 2002) for further background information about the Huygens mission, and the payload. The early in-flight performance of the Probe is briefly discussed. During in-flight testing in 2000, a technical anomaly was found with the Probe-to-Orbiter telecommunication system that

  1. Perirenal hemorrhage syndrome in market turkey toms: effect of management factors.

    PubMed

    Frank, R K; Noll, S L; el Halawani, M; Newman, J A; Halvorson, D A; Ruth, G R

    1990-01-01

    Differences in the overall mortality rates and mortality due to perirenal hemorrhage syndrome (PHS) were compared in large white Nicholas tom turkeys. The study evaluated the effects of 1) four different light and temperature treatments; 2) three feed additives proposed to have anti-stress effects (reserpine, acetylsalicylic acid, and increased calcium); 3) toe-clipping on mortality, various disease conditions, and production parameters. Mortality varied from 0.60% to 3.57% among groups. Increased room temperature (21 C), toe-clipping, step-up/step-down lighting, and dietary reserpine reduced the incidence of PHS as compared with lower room temperature (13 C), no toe-clipping, intermittent lighting (2 hours light, 4 hours dark), and no dietary reserpine. Dietary aspirin or elevated calcium levels had no effect on PHS incidence. Overall mortality was greatest in the warmer rooms.

  2. Components of interannual ozone change based on Nimbus 7 TOMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Lon L.; Mccormack, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A multiple regression statistical model is applied to estimate the latitude and seasonal dependences of the solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and anthropogenic trend components of stratospheric total ozone change using 13.2 years of Nimbus 7 TOMS data. The characteristics of the linear trend component are in agreement with earlier studies. The QBO regression coefficient is significantly different from zero at high southern latitudes in the Austral spring supporting earlier evidence that the Antarctic ozone depletion is modulated by the QBO. The existence of a solar cycle component is indicated by empirical studies of model residuals and by the approximate agreement of the derived global mean solar coefficient amplitude with photochemical calculations. Initial estimates for the latitude dependence of the solar coefficient suggest higher amplitudes with increasing latitude, especially in the Southern Hemisphere in spring. The statistical model predicts a return to more rapid ozone depletions during the next 4 years as solar minimum is approached.

  3. Scorched Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    For the past three years, leading scientists from more than 40 countries have been conducting a physical of the planet. They have monitored its vital signs, probed its parts, taken its temperature, measured its bodily fluids. This article deals with the global-warming report for the United Nations released by a panel of 1,200 scientists at a news…

  4. Modeling the Effects of Connecting Side Channels to the Long Tom River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, C.; McDowell, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The lower Long Tom River is a heavily managed, highly modified stream in the southwestern Willamette Valley with many opportunities for habitat improvements and river restoration. In the 1940s and 1950s, the US Army Corps of Engineers dramatically altered this river system by constructing the Fern Ridge Dam and three, large drop structures, converting the River from a highly sinuous channel to a straight, channelized stream that is interrupted by these grade control structures, and removed the majority of the riparian vegetation. As a result, juvenile spring Chinook salmon are no longer found in the Watershed and the local population of coastal cutthroat trout face limited aquatic habitat. When the river was channelized, long sections of the historical channel were left abandoned on the floodplain. Reconnecting these historical channels as side channels may improve the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat and could allow fish passage around current barriers. However, such construction may also lead to undesirable threats to infrastructure and farmland. This study uses multiple HEC-RAS models to determine the impact of reconnecting two historical channels to the lower Long Tom River by quantifying the change in area of flood inundation and identifying infrastructure in jeapordy given current and post-restoration conditions for 1.5, 5, 10, and 25-year flood discharges. Bathymetric data from ADCP and RTK-GPS surveys has been combined with LiDAR-derived topographic data to create continuous elevation models. Several types of side channel connections are modeled in order to determine which type of connection will result in both the greatest quantity of accessible habitat and the fewest threats to public and private property. In the future, this study will also consider the change in the quantity of physical salmonid habitat and map the areas prone to sedimentation and erosion using CEASAR and PHABSIM tools.

  5. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  6. Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

  7. Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology leader,…

  8. From the External to the Internal: Behavior Clarifications Facilitate Theory of Mind (ToM) Development in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yanchun; Wang, Yijie; Luo, Rufan; Su, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Chinese children develop theory of mind (ToM) in a language environment with limited mental state talk that is rich in behavior discourse. In Study 1, 60 mothers shared a wordless storybook with their 3-4-year-olds. The children completed two false-belief tasks and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at…

  9. 77 FR 57477 - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authority Under Section 5(a) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Authority Under Section 5(a) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts Act of 2008 #0... Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority... Lantos Block Burmese Junta's Anti- Democratic Efforts Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-286) (the ``Act''),...

  10. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  11. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  12. Rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  13. Limited Evaluation of Image Quality Produced by a Portable Head CT Scanner (CereTom) in a Neurosurgery Centre

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Ariz Chong; Adnan, Johari Siregar; Rahman, Noor Azman A.; Palur, Ravikant

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Computed tomography (CT) is the preferred diagnostic toolkit for head and brain imaging of head injury. A recent development is the invention of a portable CT scanner that can be beneficial from a clinical point of view. Aim To compare the quality of CT brain images produced by a fixed CT scanner and a portable CT scanner (CereTom). Methods This work was a single-centre retrospective study of CT brain images from 112 neurosurgical patients. Hounsfield units (HUs) of the images from CereTom were measured for air, water and bone. Three assessors independently evaluated the images from the fixed CT scanner and CereTom. Streak artefacts, visualisation of lesions and grey–white matter differentiation were evaluated at three different levels (centrum semiovale, basal ganglia and middle cerebellar peduncles). Each evaluation was scored 1 (poor), 2 (average) or 3 (good) and summed up to form an ordinal reading of 3 to 9. Results HUs for air, water and bone from CereTom were within the recommended value by the American College of Radiology (ACR). Streak artefact evaluation scores for the fixed CT scanner was 8.54 versus 7.46 (Z = −5.67) for CereTom at the centrum semiovale, 8.38 (SD = 1.12) versus 7.32 (SD = 1.63) at the basal ganglia and 8.21 (SD = 1.30) versus 6.97 (SD = 2.77) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. Grey–white matter differentiation showed scores of 8.27 (SD = 1.04) versus 7.21 (SD = 1.41) at the centrum semiovale, 8.26 (SD = 1.07) versus 7.00 (SD = 1.47) at the basal ganglia and 8.38 (SD = 1.11) versus 6.74 (SD = 1.55) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. Visualisation of lesions showed scores of 8.86 versus 8.21 (Z = −4.24) at the centrum semiovale, 8.93 versus 8.18 (Z = −5.32) at the basal ganglia and 8.79 versus 8.06 (Z = −4.93) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. All results were significant with P-value < 0.01. Conclusions Results of the study showed a significant difference in image quality produced by the fixed CT scanner and

  14. Comparisons Between Ground Measurements of Broadband UV Irradiance (300-380 nm) and TOMS UV Estimates at Moscow for 1979-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurova, Alla Y.; Krotkov, Nicholay A.; Herman, Jay R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We show the comparisons between ground-based measurements of spectrally integrated (300 nm to 380 nm) ultraviolet (UV) irradiance with satellite estimates from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone and reflectivity data for the whole period of TOMS measurements (1979-2000) over the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University (MO MSU), Moscow, Russia. Several aspects of the comparisons are analyzed, including effects of cloudiness, aerosol, and snow cover. Special emphasis is given to the effect of different spatial and temporal averaging of ground-based data when comparing with low-resolution satellite measurements (TOMS footprint area 50-200 sq km). The comparisons in cloudless scenes with different aerosol loading have revealed TOMS irradiance overestimates from +5% to +20%. A-posteriori correction of the TOMS data accounting for boundary layer aerosol absorption (single scattering albedo of 0.92) eliminates the bias for cloud-free conditions. The single scattering albedo was independently verified using CIMEL sun and sky-radiance measurements at MO MSU in September 2001. The mean relative difference between TOMS UV estimates and ground UV measurements mainly lies within 1 10% for both snow-free and snow period with a tendency to TOMS overestimation in snow-free period especially at overcast conditions when the positive bias reaches 15-17%. The analysis of interannual UV variations shows quite similar behavior for both TOMS and ground measurements (correlation coefficient r=0.8). No long-term trend in the annual mean bias was found for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions with snow and without snow. Both TOMS and ground data show positive trend in UV irradiance between 1979 and 2000. The UV trend is attributed to decreases in both cloudiness and aerosol optical thickness during the late 1990's over Moscow region. However, if the analyzed period is extended to include pre-TOMS era (1968-2000 period), no trend in ground UV irradiance is

  15. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  16. Comparison of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare images from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor on Landsat-7 and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on Earth Observing One (EO-1) over a test site in Rochester, New York. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, and grass fields, to urban areas. Nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected one minute apart on 25 August 2001. We also compare images of a forest site near Howland, Maine, that were collected on 7 September, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each pair of images with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by in situ Cimel sun photometers within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), along with ozone density derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Earth Probe satellite. We present true-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement between the multispectral sensors, along with grey-scale images that demonstrate a significantly improved ALI panchromatic band. We quantitatively compare ALI and ETM+ reflectance spectra of a grassy field in Rochester and find < or equal to 6% differences in the visible/near infrared and approx. 2% differences in the short wave infrared. Spectral comparisons of forest sites in Rochester and Howland yield similar percentage agreement except for band 1, which has very low reflectance. Principal component analyses and comparison of normalized difference vegetation index histograms for each sensor indicate that the ALI is able to reproduce the information content in the ETM+ but with superior signal-to-noise performance due to its increased 12-bit quantization.

  17. Galileo Atmospheric Entry Probe System - Design, development, and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Givens, J. J.; Nolte, L. J.; Pochettino, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    The overall development of the Galileo Atmospheric Entry Probe System is described. The Probe will be carried to Jupiter by the Galileo Orbiter and released on an entry trajectory 150 days before entry. A complement of seven science instruments will measure the near-Jupiter radiation field and the characteristics of the Jovian atmosphere from a distance of about 5 Jupiter radii above the 1-bar level down to levels in the 10-20-bar range. Probe data are to be transmitted to earth via the Orbiter. System requirements are discussed. Probe design features and those features of the development test program peculiar to entry probes are described.

  18. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  19. Dementia and well-being: A conceptual framework based on Tom Kitwood's model of needs.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Elke G; Engel, Sabine A

    2016-07-01

    The topic of well-being is becoming increasingly significant as a key outcome measure in dementia care. Previous work on personhood of individuals with dementia suggests that their subjective well-being can be described in terms of comfort, inclusion, identity, occupation and attachment The study aimed to examine Tom Kitwood's model of psychological needs and well-being in dementia based on the self-report of individuals with moderate or severe dementia and to differentiate and elaborate this model in the light of the empirical qualitative data. Nineteen inhabitants of a special long-term care unit were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using content analysis. Thirty components within Kitwood's model have been identified. A conceptual framework of subjective well-being in dementia was developed based on a theoretical background. The study was able to find indications that Kitwood's model has empirical relevance. Nevertheless, it requires to be extended by the domain agency. Furthermore, the study suggests that individuals with dementia are important informants of their subjective well-being.

  20. Re-processing TOMS UV Measurements to Retrieve SO2 Emissions From Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B. L.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Li, C.; Haffner, D. P.; Leonard, P.; Carn, S. A.; Telling, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The SO2 Monitoring Group at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is producing a new multi-satellite long term data set of volcanic SO2 column amounts and heights (MSVOLSO2L4) as part of the NASA MEaSUREs Program. Here we present re-analysis of the UV measurements (BUV) from the NASA Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (N7 TOMS: 1978-1993). Ozone is the dominant atmospheric absorber in the BUV spectrum, but volcanic eruptions can produce enough SO2 to be distinguished from ozone background. Quantitative retrieval of volcanic SO2 requires:1) Separation of the O3 and SO2 absorption in BUV radiances;2) Close to zero mean SO2 background;3) RT forward model that accounts for the presence of volcanic ash in the plume; 4) A priori knowledge of the ozone and SO2 vertical profiles.Our iterative retrieval algorithm returns O3 and SO2 column amounts, effective reflectivity and its spectral slope. The retrieval model also generates a 4 x 4 gain matrix for the SO2 free regions that is used to soft calibrate the measured 340 nm BUV radiance. The spectral slope implicitly accounts for the interference of volcanic ash, but more explicit ash treatment is required to better quantify SO2 errors in volcanic plumes heavily loaded with ash. This presentation will discuss the methods used to characterize the error sources and assess the quality of this unique long-term SO2 data set.

  1. Test-retest reliability and validity of the Sniffin' TOM odor memory test.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Zehner, Cora; Larsson, Maria; Zucco, Gesualdo M; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Few attempts have been made to develop an olfactory test that captures episodic retention of olfactory information. Assessment of episodic odor memory is of particular interest in aging and in the cognitively impaired as both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss have been targeted as reliable hallmarks of cognitive decline and impending dementia. Here, 96 healthy participants (18-92 years) and an additional 19 older people with mild cognitive impairment were tested (73-82 years). Participants were presented with 8 common odors with intentional encoding instructions that were followed by a yes-no recognition test. After recognition completion, participants were asked to identify all odors by means of free or cued identification. A retest of the odor memory test (Sniffin' TOM = test of odor memory) took place 17 days later. The results revealed satisfactory test-retest reliability (0.70) of odor recognition memory. Both recognition and identification performance were negatively affected by age and more pronounced among the cognitively impaired. In conclusion, the present work presents a reliable, valid, and simple test of episodic odor recognition memory that may be used in clinical groups where both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss are prevalent preclinically such as Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Effects of dietary threonine in starting, growing, and finishing turkey toms.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, D; Pack, M; Jeroch, H

    1997-05-01

    The present study investigates the threonine requirements of British United Turkey (BUT) Big 6 turkey toms from 0 to 4, 8 to 12, and 16 to 20 wk of age. Growth, feed conversion, and carcass quality responses to increasing dietary threonine levels were measured. From 0 to 4 wk of age (57 g to 1.1 kg live weight), a dietary threonine level of about 0.95% (3.3 g/Mcal ME) was found to be adequate to obtain optimum growth and feed conversion. From 8 to 12 wk of age (4.0 to 8.6 kg live weight), there was no significant response to dietary threonine beyond the basal level of 0.69% (2.2 g/ Mcal ME). From 16 to 20 wk of age (13.1 to 18.7 kg live weight), a threonine level of about 0.58% (1.8 g/Mcal ME) appeared to be adequate to obtain optimum growth. For optimum breast meat deposition, a higher level in the range of 0.64% (2.0 g/Mcal ME) dietary threonine was required. The present findings may point to the importance of threonine as potentially third limiting amino acid after methionine and lysine in cereal-based turkey diets.

  3. Comprehensive Resources for Tomato Functional Genomics Based on the Miniature Model Tomato Micro-Tom

    PubMed Central

    Matsukura, C; Aoki, K; Fukuda, N; Mizoguchi, T; Asamizu, E; Saito, T; Shibata, D; Ezura, H

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) is an excellent model plant for genomic research of solanaceous plants, as well as for studying the development, ripening, and metabolism of fruit. In 2003, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL, www.sgn.cornell.edu ) was initiated by members from more than 30 countries, and the tomato genome-sequencing project is currently underway. Genome sequence of tomato obtained by this project will provide a firm foundation for forthcoming genomic studies such as the comparative analysis of genes conserved among the Solanaceae species and the elucidation of the functions of unknown tomato genes. To exploit the wealth of the genome sequence information, there is an urgent need for novel resources and analytical tools for tomato functional genomics. Here, we present an overview of the development of genetic and genomic resources of tomato in the last decade, with a special focus on the activities of Japan SOL and the National Bio-Resource Project in the development of functional genomic resources of a model cultivar, Micro-Tom. PMID:19506732

  4. Portable optical fiber probe for in vivo brain temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Stefan; Schartner, Erik P; Tsiminis, Georgios; Salem, Abdallah; Monro, Tanya M; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    This work reports on the development of an optical fiber based probe for in vivo measurements of brain temperature. By utilizing a thin layer of rare-earth doped tellurite glass on the tip of a conventional silica optical fiber a robust probe, suitable for long-term in vivo measurements of temperature can be fabricated. This probe can be interrogated using a portable optical measurement setup, allowing for measurements to be performed outside of standard optical laboratories.

  5. Portable optical fiber probe for in vivo brain temperature measurements

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Stefan; Schartner, Erik P.; Tsiminis, Georgios; Salem, Abdallah; Monro, Tanya M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the development of an optical fiber based probe for in vivo measurements of brain temperature. By utilizing a thin layer of rare-earth doped tellurite glass on the tip of a conventional silica optical fiber a robust probe, suitable for long-term in vivo measurements of temperature can be fabricated. This probe can be interrogated using a portable optical measurement setup, allowing for measurements to be performed outside of standard optical laboratories. PMID:27570698

  6. Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data during the Gap, France, ozone intercomparisons of June 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1983-07-01

    The Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data over Europe have been processed for 2 days of the ozone sensor intercomparison balloon campaign in June 1981 at Gap, France. The June 19 TOMS map shows an elongated ozone maximum (about 400 D.U) extending in a NW-SE direction across central Europe and an ozone minimum (300 D.U.) in the central Atlantic. This pattern produces a 12 D.U. decrease along the balloon trajectory from the fist ascent to the second descent. On June 26 a much smaller ozone maximum (400 D.U.) is centered in northern France with its main axis running in a SW-NE direction. The total ozone contours tend to lie parallel to the balloon trajectory so that the total ozone during the flight is nearly constant.

  7. Flood Plain Information, Toms River, Union Branch Ridgeway Branch, and Long Swamp Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-06-01

    UNORMAL STREAM N. J. FLOODWAY DESIGN FLOOD (NJFDF) I PROFILES in the Flod Pain /nformation Report~shw elevoti-~o A c W0 0 forthe entire study area TO...INFORMATION TOMS RIVER OCEAN COUNTY, N.J. FLOODED AREAS JUNE 1972 L E j ",’.PLATE6 ui DOVEI zA XC RV! crCN.J. FL 0ESIG M+II MILI ZE CRC GROI G.S. TOW 1

  8. Magnetic, fluorescent, and thermo-responsive Fe(3)O(4)/rare earth incorporated poly(St-NIPAM) core-shell colloidal nanoparticles in multimodal optical/magnetic resonance imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haie; Tao, Juan; Wang, Wenhao; Zhou, Yingjie; Li, Penghui; Li, Zheng; Yan, Kai; Wu, Shuilin; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Xu, Zushun; Xu, Haibo; Chu, Paul K

    2013-03-01

    Multifunctional colloidal nanoparticles which exhibit fluorescence, superparamagnetism, and thermosensitivity are produced by two step seed emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and sodium undecylenate (NaUA) modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. In the first step, St and NIPAM polymerize the NaUA on the surface of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles to form Fe(3)O(4)/poly(St-NIPAM) nanoparticles which act as seeds for the polymerization of Eu(AA)(3)Phen with the remaining St and NIPAM in the second step to form an outer fluorescent layer. The core-shell composite nanoparticles show reversible dimensional changes in response to external temperature stimuli. Fluorescence spectra acquired from the composites exhibit characteristic emission peaks of Eu(3+) at 594 and 619 nm and vivid red luminescence can be observed by 2-photon confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM). In vitro cytotoxicity tests based on the MTT assay demonstrate good cytocompatibility and the composites also possess paramagnetic properties with a maximum saturation magnetization of 6.45 emu/g and high transverse relaxivity rates (r(2)) of 411.78 mM(-1) s(-1). In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show significant liver and spleen contrast with relative signal intensity reduction of about 86% 10 min after intravenous injection of the composites. These intriguing properties suggest that these nanocarriers have large clinical potential as multimodal optical/MRI probes.

  9. Sulfur Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  10. Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. This photograph is a close up of a niobium-coated gyroscope motor and its housing halves. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Don Harley.)

  11. Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  12. TOMS ozone data compared at mesoscale resolution to tropopause heights from the AVE radiosonde network and to VAS radiances over the south-central United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Uccellini, Louis; Larko, David

    1987-01-01

    Observations from 1982 are being compared between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE), and the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) across Texas and Oklahoma. TOMS data show a significant ozone maximum over northeastern Texas. AVE radiosonde analysis shows tropopause heights with the highest pressure (lowest altitudes) over central Oklahoma accompanied by a mid-level jet across northern Mexico exiting above the Texas-Gulf coast. Corresponding VAS radiances show a dry slot in the middle tropopause across central Texas accompanied by a secondary slot over Oklahoma. The maxima are separated by 100 to 500 km. The impact of TOMS data on tropopause analysis is preliminarily seen as insignificant because TOMS data is not registered with respect to AVE tropopause heights.

  13. Journey to the Center of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, David

    2014-03-01

    The center of Earth is at about the temperature of the surface of the Sun (about 6000K) but frozen because of the extreme pressure. I will place the Earth in a more general context of planets (including exoplanets) and explain how it is that the materials deep in Earth can behave differently from the same composition at low pressure.I will describe the sequence of layers and materials and conditions as one travels in a hypothetical probe from the surface to the center, emphasizing the things we do not understand well. I will talk about he extent to which Earth's mantle is imperfectly mixed and may have a bottom layer above the core that is different in composition. I will discuss the Urey number puzzle (what explains Earth's heat flow?). I will focus on the puzzle that Earth's magnetic field presents: How is it generated and how has this worked for billions of years? It seems that we need another energy source. I will talk about how Earth has a memory of how it formed, in particulate the high temperatures resulting from events such as the giant impact that led to our Moon. I will end with a discussion of what to do about the remaining puzzles, in particular the possible value of the geoneutrino experiment and attempts to directly probe the interior.

  14. Asymmetric Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, Carlo; Carminati, Eugenio; Crespi, Mattia; Cuffaro, Marco; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Levshin, Anatoli; Panza, Giuliano F.; Riguzzi, Federica

    2010-05-01

    The net rotation, or so-called W-ward drift of the lithosphere, implies a decoupling of the plates relative to the underlying asthenosphere, and a relative "E-ward" mantle flow. This polarized flow can account for a number of asymmetries. When comparing the W-directed versus the E- to NE-directed subduction zones, as a general observation, they have the subduction hinge diverging versus converging relative to the upper plate; low versus high topography and structural elevation respectively; deep versus shallow trenches and foreland basins; shallow versus deep decollement; low versus high basement involvement; high versus low heat flow and gravity anomaly; shallow versus deep asthenosphere; etc. The western limbs of rift zones show S-waves faster in the lithosphere and slower in the asthenosphere with respect to the eastern limb. The asymmetry can be recognized when moving along the "tectonic equator", which describes the fastest flow of plates relative to the mantle, and it undulates relative to the geographic equator. In our reconstructions, the best fit for the tectonic equator has a pole of rotation at latitude -56.4° and longitude 136.7°, with an angular velocity of 1.2036°/Ma. Shear-wave splitting alignments tend to parallel the tectonic flow, apart along the subduction zones where they become orthogonal, as a flow encountering an obstacle. The tectonic equator lies close to the revolution plane of the Moon about the Earth. All these data and interpretations point for an asymmetric Earth, whose nature appears to be related to the rotation and its tidal despinning, combined with the thermal cooling of the planet. However, this model has been questioned on the basis of the high viscosity so far inferred in the asthenosphere. Preliminary modelling shows that the tidal oscillation can generate gravitational wave propagation in the lithosphere, and the wave velocity can increase with the decrease of the asthenospheric viscosity.

  15. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.; Conti, Armond E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  16. Probe tip heating assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  17. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Plescia, J.B.; Molzer, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay - 35.7 Ma; Toms Canyon - 35.7 Ma; Montagnais - 51 Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub - 65 Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest structures. These craters were created by submarine impacts, which produced many structural and morphological features similar in construction, composition, and variability to those documented in well-preserved subaerial and planetary impact craters. The subcircular Chesapeake Bay (diameter 85 km) and ovate Montagnais (diameter 45-50 km) structures display outer-rim scarps, annular troughs, peak rings, inner basins, and central peaks similar to those incorporated in the widely cited conceptual model of complex impact craters. These craters differ in several respects from the model, however. For example, the Montagnais crater lacks a raised lip on the outer rim, the Chesapeake Bay crater displays only small remnants of a raised lip, and both craters contain an unusually thick body of impact breccia. The subtriangular Toms Canyon crater (diameter 20-22 km), on the other hand, contains none of the internal features of a complex crater, nor is it typical of a simple crater. It displays a prominent raised lip on the outer rim, but the lip is present only on the western side of the crater. In addition, each of these craters contains some distinct features, which are not present in one or both of the others. For example, the central peak at Montagnais rises well above the elevation of the outer rim, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the outer rim is higher than the central peak. The floor of the Toms Canyon crater is marked by parallel deep troughs and linear ridges formed of sedimentary rocks, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the crater floor contains

  18. Telluride, Tom Cruise, and Land Use Codes: Science, Policy, and Community Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raby, K. S.; Williams, M. W.

    2003-12-01

    Mountain areas throughout the western US have experienced a surge in popularity in the last decade, resulting in degradation of the resources that drew people to the area in the first place. Traditional economic interests, recreational users, and environmentalists all have opposing priorities. Thus, resource managers and planners face increasingly critical and controversial decisions regarding development and protection of watersheds. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are generally an attempt to improve land and water quality after degradation. Here we report on our work with local stakeholders in the San Miguel River drainage-home of Telluride Ski Area and Hollywood moguls such as Tom Cruise-to prevent degradation of headwater catchments while providing for reasonable economic and recreational activities. We developed new tools for resource managers by mapping landscape types and associated water quality parameters so as to develop sensitivity criteria that are displayed visually using GIS maps. Using these results, San Miguel County Commissioners adopted land use codes to restrict development, including an 800-sqft building footprint, and bans on septic systems and winter plowing. This case study lays the foundation for science-based policy at the catchment scale, but is dependent on local culture and politics. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2003 as the first steps toward similar work in adjacent San Juan County, which has a strong mining heritage. The San Juan County Planning Commission identified priority basins for study, and extensive physical field surveys were conducted in these drainages to map spatial distribution and aerial extent of numerous landscape types. Again, water quality parameters will be associated with different land covers to enable alpine sensitivity analysis at the landscape unit scale. Results will be provided to the San Juan Planning Commission to augment current planning tools. However, because of the different

  19. Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with TOMS and AVHRR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, D.J.; Rose, William I.; Coke, L.R.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Sprod, I.E.; Krueger, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a detailed study of remote sensing data from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite detectors, of the 1982 eruption of El Chichón, Mexico. The volcanic cloud/atmosphere interactions in the first four days of this eruption were investigated by combining ultraviolet retrievals to estimate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud [Krueger et al., 1995] with thermal infrared retrievals of the size, optical depth, and mass of fine-grained (1–10 μm radius) volcanic ash [Wen and Rose, 1994]. Our study provides the first direct evidence of gravitational separation of ash from a stratospheric, gas-rich, plinian eruption column and documents the marked differences in residence times of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds. The eruption column reached as high as 32 km [Carey and Sigurdsson, 1986] and was injected into an atmosphere with a strong wind shear, which allowed for an observation of the separation of sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash. The upper, more sulfur dioxide-rich part of the cloud was transported to the west in the stratosphere, while the fine-grained ash traveled to the south in the troposphere. The mass of sulfur dioxide released was estimated at 7.1 × 109 kg with the mass decreasing by approximately 4% 1 day after the peak. The mass of fine-grained volcanic ash detected was estimated at 6.5 × 109 kg, amounting to about 0.7% of the estimated mass of the ash which fell out in the mapped ash blanket close to the volcano. Over the following days, 98% of this remaining fine ash was removed from the volcanic cloud, and the effective radius of ash in the volcanic cloud decreased from about 8 μm to about 4 μm.

  20. Ecologization of water-land property matters on the territory of the Tom lower course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. K.; Kozina, M. V.; Levak, Yu Yu; Shvagrukova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper the water-land property complex is considered as a strategic resource of the city development. The formulated question is expounded through the example of water-land property complex usage on the territory of the Tom lower course for land-use planning and developing the systems of water recourses management and land tenure. Consequences of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) landfilling are investigated in terms of arable farming. Also, forming a water budget of the soils spread on the area of the Tomsk underground water supply cone of depression and its role in the development of agricultural industry are studied. The main aspect of the analysis is the incorporation of social, economic, and ecological requirements for the system of life-supporting branches of municipal economy and social services. As far as the system of land tax payments plays an important role in land property complex management, the common issues and tendencies are specified in the paper. These problems are concerned with the inadequate incorporation of an ecological constituent in the methods of cadastral valuation of lands, as well as the situation of the narrow area of its results usage in the Russian Federation. Natural factors (hydrological, territorial, geological (geomorphologic) territory conditions) are combined by the authors into a special group. These factors should be reflected in the results of cadastral valuation. Also, in order to protect the interests of water consumers, it is offered to establish the Water Consumers Association based on the international experience of such countries as Spain and Uzbekistan.

  1. Tom Kibble and the early universe as the ultimate high energy experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turok, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Tom Kibble pioneered the idea that there were one or more symmetry breaking phase transitions in the very early universe, at which defects like monopoles, strings and domain walls would have formed. In the context of grand unified theories, or their extensions, this idea remains compelling: observing these defects would be one of the very few ways of directly confirming the theories. In contrast, inflationary theory invoked a strongly supercooled transition driving a period of exponential expansion which would sweep all such defects away. If inflation terminated slowly, quantum vacuum fluctuations would be amplified and stretched to cosmological scales, forming density variations of just the character required to explain the formation of galaxies. The ensuing paradigm has dominated cosmology for the last three decades. However, basic problems in the scenario remain unresolved. Extreme tuning both of the initial conditions and of the physical laws are required. There are many different versions, each with slightly different predictions. Finally, inflation brought with it the theory of a "multiverse" — a universe containing infinite number of different, infinite, universes — while providing no "measure" or means of calculating the probability of observing any one of them. I will discuss an alternative to inflation, in which the big bang was a bounce from a previous contracting epoch. The discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC has provided new evidence for such a picture by showing that, within the minimal standard model, our current vacuum is metastable. This opens the door to a cyclic universe scenario in which the electroweak Higgs plays a central role.

  2. Initial estimate of NOAA-9 SBUV/2 total ozone drift: Based on comparison with re-calibrated TOMS measurements and pair justification of SBUV/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Gu, X. U.; Mcpeters, Richard D.; Hudson, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Newly recalibrated version 6 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data are used as a reference measurement in a comparison of monthly means of total ozone in 10 degree latitude zones from SBUV/2 and the nadir measurements from TOMS. These comparisons indicate a roughly linear long-term drift in SBUV/2 total ozone relative to TOMS of about 2.5 Dobson units per year at the equator over the first three years of SBUV/2. The pari justification technique is also applied to the SBUV/2 measurements in a manner similar to that used for SBUV and TOMS. The higher solar zenith angles associated with the afternoon orbit of NOAA-9 and the large changes in solar zenith angle associated with its changing equator crossing time degrade the accuracy of the pair justification method relative to its application to SBUV and TOMS, but the results are consistent with the SBUV/2-TOMS comparisons, and show a roughly linear drift in SBUV/2 of 2.5 to 4.5 Dobson units per year in equatorial ozone.

  3. Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

  4. J. W. Goethe - poet engaged in Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The famous German poet Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749 - 1832) was a man of an outstanding interest for the Earth sciences. In the Czech geological dictionary his own biography remembers his frequent visits to the famous West Bohemian health resorts. In this region he was focusing his attention to the geological history, petrography and mineralogy, genesis of mineral water springs etc. Some of his studies were published. His geological points of view were not always correct (as seen from a recent knowledge) but his efforts to deepen studies of this territory cannot be forgotten. - In his rich correspondence with the count Kaspar Maria Sternberg (1761 - 1838) - founder of the (nowadays) National Museum in Prague - the author of this article has recently discovered in the Prague archives a letter written just one week before the death of the poet. It is a confession of his deep relation especially to the region if West Bohemia where he found lot of enjoyment and new knowledge in the course of numerous visits and stays. - Goethe had the largest private collection of minerals in all of Europe (17800 rock samples). A mineral goethite has been named after him. - The Czech composer Václav Jan Tomášek (1774 - 1850) describing his visit paid to Goethe in Cheb (Eger) in 1822 remembers also mineralogical interest of the poet and his excursions to the region for collecting local minerals. The main reason for personal contact in this case was the art (Tomášek composed songs using Goethe's poems). But Tomášek described also his frequent talks on science with the famous Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848) in Karlsbad (1822). From other sources a common stay of Berzelius, Goethe and Sternberg in Marienbad (also 1822) is reported.

  5. Monitoring Physiological Variables with Membrane Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janle, Elsa M.

    1997-01-01

    This project has demonstrated the possibility of using membrane probes in rodents to monitor physiological variables for extended periods of time. The utility of these probes in physiological studies of microgravity has been demonstrated. The feasibility of developing on-line sensors has also been demonstrated and allows for the possibility of developing real-time automated monitoring systems which can be used in ground-base physiological research as well as in research and medical monitoring in space. In addition to space applications these techniques can be extended to medical monitoring in critical care situations on earth as well as facilitating research in many human and animal diseases.

  6. Hot-wire probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulla, V.

    1976-01-01

    High-temperature platinum probe measures turbulence and Reynolds shear stresses in high-temperature compressible flows. Probe does not vibrate at high velocities and does not react like strain gage on warmup.

  7. Analysis and comparison of ozone maps obtained by TOMS and TOVS during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, S.; Krueger, A. J.

    1987-05-01

    The Nimbus 7 TOMS (UV) and NOAA 7 and NOAA 8 TOVS (IR) data have been specially processed for the MAP/GLOBUS campaign (September 1983, over Europe). Comparison of the ozone results shows a general agreement but also some discrepancies due to clouds, emissivity of the surface, and latitude effects. The variability of the ozone field, closely linked to geopotential height field, may have induced a great change in total ozone along the balloon flights, but fortunately trajectories tend to lie parallel to the total ozone contours, so that the total ozone during each flight is nearly constant.

  8. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  9. A Magnetoresistance Measuring Probe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The in line four point probe, commonly used for measuring the sheet resistance in a conductor, cannot measure the anisotropic ferromagnetic magnetoresistance. However, the addition of two contact points that are not collinear with the current contacts give the probe the ability to non-destructively measure the anistropic magnetoresistance. Keywords: Magnetoresistance; Anisotropic; Thin-Film; Permalloy; Four Point Probe; Anisotropic Resistance.

  10. Cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender men (Toms) and Transgender Women (Kathoeys) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gooren, Louis J; Sungkaew, Tanapong; Giltay, Erik J; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    There exists limited understanding of cross-sex hormone use and mental well-being among transgender women and, particularly, among transgender men. Moreover, most studies of transgender people have taken place in the Global North and often in the context of HIV. This exploratory study compared 60 transgender men (toms) with 60 transgender women (kathoeys) regarding their use of cross-sex hormones, mental well-being and acceptance by their family. Participants also completed a dispositional optimism scale (the Life Orientation Test Revised), the Social Functioning Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey 36 assessing their profile of functional health and mental well-being. Cross-sex hormones were used by 35% of toms and 73% of kathoeys and were largely unsupervised by health-related personnel. There were no differences in functional health and mental well-being among toms and kathoeys. However, toms currently using cross-sex hormones scored on average poorer on bodily pain and mental health, compared to non-users. Furthermore, compared to non-users, cross-sex hormone users were about eight times and five times more likely to be associated with poor parental acceptance among toms and kathoeys, respectively. This study was the first to compare cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender women and transgender men in Southeast Asia.

  11. The Hha-TomB Toxin-Antitoxin System Shows Conditional Toxicity and Promotes Persister Cell Formation by Inhibiting Apoptosis-Like Death in S. Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Sangeeta; Paul, Prajita; Padhi, Chandrashekhar; Ray, Shilpa; Ryan, Daniel; Dash, Shantoshini; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2016-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two component “addictive” genetic elements found on either plasmid or bacterial chromosome, sometimes on both. TA systems perform a wide range of functions like biofilm formation, persistence, programmed cell death, phage abortive infection etc. Salmonella has been reported to contain several such TA systems. However, the hemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) and its adjacent uncharacterized hypothetical protein TomB (previously known as YbaJ), have not been listed as a TA module in Salmonella. In this study we established that Hha and TomB form a bonafide TA system where Hha serves as a toxin while TomB functions as an antitoxin. Interestingly, the toxicity of Hha was conditional causing cell death under acid stress. The antitoxin attenuated the toxicity of Hha by forming a TA complex through stable interactions. The Hha-TomB TA system was found to increase persistence and inhibit programmed cell death under antibiotic stress where a phenotypically diverse population expressing differential level of TA components was observed. Therefore we propose that Hha and TomB prevent cells from committing suicide thereby promoting persister cell formation. PMID:27910884

  12. Prospective risk of morbidity in relation to multiplicity of infection with Plasmodium falciparum in São Tomé.

    PubMed

    Müller, D A; Charlwood, J D; Felger, I; Ferreira, C; do Rosario, V; Smith, T

    2001-02-23

    The prospective risk of acute morbidity was analysed in relation to multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in 491 individuals in a peri-urban community in São Tomé. In an initial cross-sectional survey, 40.5% of individuals were recorded by microscopy as infected with P. falciparum, and by PCR 60.5%, with the maximum prevalence in children aged 5-10 years. PCR-RFLP typing of the msp-2 gene of P. falciparum found a mean of 2.4 parasite genotypes per infected person, with little age dependence in this multiplicity and a total of 43 different msp-2 alleles identified. None of these were unique for São Tomé. Study participants were encouraged to report to a project worker whenever they suffered a febrile illness. During the 3 months following the parasitological survey the recorded incidence rates decreased with increasing baseline msp-2 multiplicity, both for P. falciparum-positive episodes and for fever without parasitaemia. While this is consistent with suggestions that multiple P. falciparum infections may protect against super-infecting parasites, confounding by patterns of health service usage is an alternative explanation. The incidence of clinical malaria episodes was only a little higher in children than in adults. This weak age-dependence in clinical immunity might be a consequence of a cohort effect resulting from resurgence of the disease after the breakdown of malaria control programs in the 1980s.

  13. Fine-Scale Comparison of TOMS Total Ozone Data with Model Analysis of an Intense Midwestern Cyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Gallus, William A., Jr.; Stanford, John L.; Brown, John M.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution (approx. 40 km) along-track total column ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are compared with a high-resolution mesoscale numerical model analysis of an intense cyclone in the Midwestern United States. Total ozone increased by 100 DU (nearly 38%) as the TOMS instrument passed over the associated tropopause fold region. Complex structure is seen in the meteorological fields and compares well with the total ozone observations. Ozone data support the meteorological analysis showing that stratospheric descent was confined to levels above approx. 600 hPa; significant positive potential vorticity at lower levels is attributable to diabetic processes. Likewise, meteorological fields show that two pronounced ozone streamers extending north and northeastward into Canada at high levels are not bands of stratospheric air feeding into the cyclone; one is a channel of exhaust downstream from the system, and the other apparently previously connected the main cyclonic circulation to a southward intrusion of polar stratospheric air and advected eastward as the cut-off cyclone evolved. Good agreement between small-scale features in the model output and total ozone data underscores the latter's potential usefulness in diagnosing upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric dynamics and kinematics.

  14. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  15. Traversing probe system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  16. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  17. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  18. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  19. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  20. The 1981 Jupiter Orbiter Probe mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Hyde, J. R.; Van Allen, J. A.; Nunamaker, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    Plans for the 1981 Jupiter Orbiter Probe (JOP) mission are presented in some detail. The need for a Jupiter entry probe, remote sensing of the planet, and an orbiter, in addition to flybys, is made clear. Launch hardware, using the Space Shuttle flight system and Interim Upper Stage, is described, along with scientific tasks laid out for the entry probe and the orbiter. Combined analysis of the Jovian magnetosphere and other orbiter missions calls for a two-part orbiter with one part spun and the other de-spun. Related design problems and solutions are described and diagrammed. Jovian moon flybys and orbiter path adjustments by subsequent earth-launched flybys are discussed. The importance of Jupiter data for solar system evolution and possible analysis of early stages of stellar evolution or of a binary system are also treated.

  1. Surface reflections of Pioneer Venus probe signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    As the four Pioneer Venus probes fell within the atmosphere toward the surface of Venus, each of them transmitted a radio signal directly to earth. Because of the relatively broad antenna beamwidth of these small probes, some of the transmitted power went down to the surface of Venus. This paper reports the discovery that the radio signals scattered off the surface are not only detectable but that their characteristics can be determined with a surprising degree of certainty. From these characteristics one can determine parameters of the Venusian atmospheric winds and of the surface that promise to be useful. Most of the scattered energy is that which originally radiated from the probes in a near-horizontal direction; the downward-directed radiation is detectable but much weaker. Refraction in the atmosphere of Venus clearly plays a significant role in establishing both the strength of scatter and its Doppler shift.

  2. Flattening Earth acceleration in atomic fountains

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldi, Andrea

    2010-07-15

    A method to compensate for Earth's gravity tide over an extended axial region is reported. Flattening acceleration is important in experiments where the coupling of the dynamics of free-falling probes to the gravity gradient generates stochastic noise on the measurement. Optimized cylindrically symmetric mass distributions lower Earth's tidal effect over 10 cm by a factor 10{sup 3}. A multimass compensation system with comparable performance is devised for tall atom interferometers. Reducing the gravity gradient is essential in terrestrial experiments based on atom fountain configurations being developed to precisely test general relativity or the neutrality of matter.

  3. High temperature probe

    DOEpatents

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  4. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  5. A computer program for the determination of the solar risk in Argentina by dermatologists employing NASA TOMS satellite ozone data as a key geophysical variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, R.; Cede, A.; Luccini, E.; Stengel, F.

    The connection between skin cancer and solar ultraviolet radiation has been well documented (i.e., UNEP report "Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion. 1998 Assessment"). In this work wepresent a computer software that can be used by dermatologists for determining the risk of persons that are exposed to solar UV radiation incident in Argentina, a country largely extended from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. In particular, its spectral distribution weighted by the CIE standard erythemal action spectrum and integrated in wavelength usually called "erythemal irradiance", is calculated including the following geophysical variables: ozone, solar elevation, Sun-Earth distance, altitude, aerosol and albedo. Other variables that have less influence in the final results are the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure and temperature profiles, the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance and the ozone photoabsorption cross section. The ozone total column was obtained from the corresponding seasonal and latitudinal climatological NASA TOMS satellite data, including monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina. The program considers also the different skin types, in order to determine the skin risk without or with a sunscreen protection at each moment of the day and for different days of the year. We present the program output for typical examples of persons exposed in extreme conditions, like in the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North- West, or when the ozone hole event overpasses Ushuaia in the South, as well as in Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country and one of the megacities of the world. The availability of a large satellite ozone data set gives us the possibility to make a clear sky day solar risk forecast for all the year, that can be applied in all places of the country. This work was made possible through a collaboration between the Argentina

  6. Transient internal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T.

    1993-12-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) diagnostic is a novel method for probing the interior of hot magnetic fusion plasmas that are inaccessible with ordinary stationary probes. A small probe of magneto-optic (Verdet) material is fired through a plasma at speeds of several km/sec, illuminated by a laser beam. The beam's polarization is rotated in the probe by the local magnetic field and retroreflection back to a polarimetry detector allows determination of the B-field profile across the diameter of a plasma at a spatial resolution of better than 1-cm and an absolute B-field resolution of a few tens of Gauss. The principal components of a TIP diagnostic system were developed and tested. A two-stage light gas gun was constructed that accelerates 30-caliber projectiles to 3 km/sec, and methods were examined for stripping a lexan sabot from a probe prior to entry into a plasma. Probes of CdMnTe and FR-5 Verdet glass were fabricated, and a polarimetry system was constructed for resolving polarization to within 0.25 deg. The diagnostic was validated by measuring a static B-field with a moving (dropped) TIP probe, and finding agreement with Hall-probe measurements to within experimental accuracy (40 Gauss).

  7. UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

    2000-01-01

    The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice). Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicates the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. Statistical analysis of 14 years of daily data show that most snow/ice-free regions of the Earth have their largest fraction of days each year when the reflectivity is low (R less than 10%). The 380 nm reflectivity data shows that the true surface reflectivity is 2 to 3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene. The most likely cause of this could be a combination of frequently occurring boundary-layer water or aerosol haze. For most regions, the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain-forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R greater than 15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes, the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show the presence of large nearly clear ocean areas and the effects

  8. TOMS Validation Based on Profiles of Aerosol Properties in the Lower Troposphere as Obtained with Light Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Maring, Hal; Savoie, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the University of Miami Aerosol Group (UMAG) in this project was to make measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol properties and aerosol optical depth using a light aircraft. The UMAG developed a light aircraft aerosol package (LAAP) that was used in light aircraft (Cessna 172) during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). This field campaign took place on Puerto Rico during July 2000. Design details and results from the use of the LAAP were presented at TOMS Science team meetings on April 1998, April 1999, and May 2000. Results from the LAAP collected during the PRIDE Experiment were presented at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, December 2000. Some of the results from the LAAP collected during the PRIDE Experiment have been accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research in a "topical section" made up of papers from the PRIDE Program.

  9. A Multiple Regression Analysis Between UV Radiation Measurements at Badajoz and Ozone, Reflectivity and Aerosols Estimated by TOMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.; García, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between ultraviolet erythemal radiation (UVER) measured in Badajoz (Spain) and ozone, cloudiness and aerosols. Initially, the values of transmissivity of UVER are related with three parameters (ozone amount, reflectivity and aerosol index) estimated by the satellite instrument TOMS. The relative importance and dependence of each variable is analyzed by means of a multiple regression analysis with an expression derived from the Lambert-Bouger-Beer law. The results indicate that the aerosol index is not a statistically significant factor for the initial expression. Then, a partial model with only ozone and reflectivity as regressors is proposed and coefficients are obtained using UVER measurements of year 2001. Finally the model is validated comparing its prediction for 2002 with UVER measurements at ground. The agreement between both data sets is reasonably good, suggesting that UVER estimations can be successfully derived from observations of other atmospheric variables, thus providing the basis to obtain spatial distributed maps of UV variations.

  10. The gravity probe B relativity gyroscope program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, C. W. Francis; Parkinson, B. W.; Turneaure, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The idea of testing general relativity through observations on Earth orbiting gyroscopes was suggested in 1959 to 1960. The direction, it was noted, of spin of a suitably oriented gyroscope should change with respect to the line of sight to a guide star for two reasons: a geodetic effect from the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth, and a frame-dragging effect from the Earth's rotation. NASA began supporting laboratory research on the experiment, now called Gravity Probe B, in 1964. Technologies for it were progressively established, and an error analysis demonstrated the potential of measuring frame-dragging to 1 to 2 percent and the geodetic effect to 1 part in 10(exp 4). Later analyses, discussed herein, suggest possibilities for further improving those precisions each by a further factor of 10. In 1984, after technical and scientific reviews by the Space Science Board and other bodies, and completion by NASA Marshall Center of a Phase B Study, the NASA Administrator approved the start of a program known as STORE (Shuttle Test Of the Relativity Experiment). The purpose of STORE is to verify the final Gravity Probe B science payload, perform on the Shuttle a 7-day experiment rehearsal (including sophisticated gyro tests in low gravity), and then return the payload to Earth for refurbishment and integration into the Science Mission spacecraft. The payload comprises four gyroscopes, a telescope, and a drag-free proof mass, all mounted in a quartz block assembly within an evacuated magnetically shielded probe, which in turn is inserted into a 10-ft long, 6-ft diameter liquid helium dewar, operating at 1.8 K and maintaining low temperature for 2 years. STORE is manifested on Shuttle OV-105, for launch MSSN 69 in February 1993. The Science Mission is set tentatively for June 1995.

  11. Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

  12. Strong enhancement of Penning ionization for asymmetric atom pairs in cold Rydberg gases: the Tom and Jerry effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, D. K.; Miculis, K.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Ekers, A.

    2016-06-01

    We consider Penning ionization of Rydberg atom pairs as an Auger-type process induced by the dipole-dipole interaction and employ semiclassical formulae for dipole transitions to calculate the autoionization width as a function of the principal quantum numbers, n d , n i , of both atoms. While for symmetric atom pairs with {n}d={n}i={n}0 the well-known increase of the autoionization width with increasing n 0 is obtained, the result for asymmetric pairs is counterintuitive—for a fixed n i of the ionizing atom of the pair, the autoionization width strongly increases with decreasing n d of the de-excited atom. For H Rydberg atoms this increase reaches two orders of magnitude at the maximum of the n d dependence, and the same type of counterintuitive behavior is exhibited also by Na, Rb and Cs atoms. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect, which points towards existence of optimal (we call them ‘Tom’ and ‘Jerry’ for ‘big’ and ‘small’) pairs of Rydberg atoms with respect to autoionization efficiency. Building on the model of population redistribution in cold Rydberg gases proposed in [1], we demonstrate that population evolution following the initial laser excitation of Rydberg atoms in state n 0 would eventually lead to the formation of such Tom-Jerry pairs with {n}i\\gt {n}0\\gt {n}d which feature autoionization widths that are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to that of two atoms in the initial laser-excited state n 0. We also show that in the high-density regime of cold Rydberg gas experiments the ionization rate of Tom-Jerry pairs can be substantially larger than the blackbody radiation-induced photoionization rate.

  13. Isolation and characterization of an IgNAR variable domain specific for the human mitochondrial translocase receptor Tom70.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Stewart D; Krishnan, Usha V; Doughty, Larissa; Pearson, Kylie; Ryan, Michael T; Hoogenraad, Nicholas J; Hattarki, Meghan; Carmichael, Jennifer A; Irving, Robert A; Hudson, Peter J

    2003-09-01

    The new antigen receptor (IgNAR) from sharks is a disulphide bonded dimer of two protein chains, each containing one variable and five constant domains, and functions as an antibody. In order to assess the antigen-binding capabilities of isolated IgNAR variable domains (VNAR), we have constructed an in vitro library incorporating synthetic CDR3 regions of 15-18 residues in length. Screening of this library against the 60 kDa cytosolic domain of the 70 kDa outer membrane translocase receptor from human mitochondria (Tom70) resulted in one dominant antigen-specific clone (VNAR 12F-11) after four rounds of in vitro selection. VNAR 12F-11 was expressed into the Escherichia coli periplasm and purified by anti-FLAG affinity chromatography at yields of 3 mg x L(-1). Purified protein eluted from gel filtration columns as a single monomeric protein and CD spectrum analysis indicated correct folding into the expected beta-sheet conformation. Specific binding to Tom70 was demonstrated by ELISA and BIAcore (Kd = 2.2 +/- 0.31 x 10(-9) m-1) indicating that these VNAR domains can be efficiently displayed as bacteriophage libraries, and selected against target antigens with an affinity and stability equivalent to that obtained for other single domain antibodies. As an initial step in producing 'intrabody' variants of 12F-11, the impact of modifying or removing the conserved immunoglobulin intradomain disulphide bond was assessed. High affinity binding was only retained in the wild-type protein, which combined with our inability to affinity mature 12F-11, suggests that this particular VNAR is critically dependent upon precise CDR loop conformations for its binding affinity.

  14. Monitoring spatio-temporal aerosol patterns over Pakistan based on MODIS, TOMS and MISR satellite data and a HYSPLIT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Khan; Qureshi, Salman; Blaschke, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Three different satellite-borne sensors, namely the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), were used to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over several cities in Pakistan. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used for trajectory analysis in order to reconstruct the origins of air masses and understand the spatio-temporal variability of aerosol concentrations. Recent MODIS aerosol data (2002-2008) and earlier TOMS data (1979-2001) revealed increasing concentrations of aerosols over Pakistan and adjacent areas. Validation of MODIS and MISR derived aerosol optical depths (AODs) with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for 2007 demonstrated that the MISR data was more accurate when close to the ocean, while the MODIS was more accurate over vegetated areas. The relationship between MODIS and MISR AOD data from 2002 to 2008 was analyzed, revealing a strong correlation between the two datasets. An assessment of seasonal variability in AOD for industrial, urban, semi-urban, rural, and semi-arid areas revealed maximum AOD values during the summer over all the areas investigated. Back trajectory analyses indicated that while winter air masses reaching Pakistan had travelled long distances, summer air masses had travelled only short distances. The higher aerosol concentrations during the summer are interpreted to be a result of the air masses spending more time over land during the summer than they do during the winter. While monsoonal rainfall tends to reduce aerosol concentrations by washing aerosols out of the atmosphere, this effect is mainly restricted to the eastern and south-eastern parts of Pakistan.

  15. Scientific Value of a Saturn Atmospheric Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Atreya, S. K.; Spilker, T. R.; Coustenis, A.; Atkinson, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric entry probe mISSions to the giant planets can uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. This provides for important comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. As outlined in the recent Planetary Decadal Survey, a Saturn Probe mission - with a shallow probe - ranks as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission [1].

  16. Earth on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

  17. Earth's changeable atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    Billions of years ago, high atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations were vital to life's tenuous foothold on Earth. Despite new constraints, the composition and evolution of Earth's early atmosphere remains hazy.

  18. The Hera Saturn entry probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Spilker, T.; Venkatapathy, E.; Poncy, J.; Frampton, R.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hueso, R.; Amato, M. J.; Colaprete, A.; Ferri, F.; Stam, D.; Wurz, P.; Atreya, S.; Aslam, S.; Banfield, D. J.; Calcutt, S.; Fischer, G.; Holland, A.; Keller, C.; Kessler, E.; Leese, M.; Levacher, P.; Morse, A.; Muñoz, O.; Renard, J.-B.; Sheridan, S.; Schmider, F.-X.; Snik, F.; Waite, J. H.; Bird, M.; Cavalié, T.; Deleuil, M.; Fortney, J.; Gautier, D.; Guillot, T.; Lunine, J. I.; Marty, B.; Nixon, C.; Orton, G. S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an M-class mission led by ESA with a contribution from NASA. It consists of one atmospheric probe to be sent into the atmosphere of Saturn, and a Carrier-Relay spacecraft. In this concept, the Hera probe is composed of ESA and NASA elements, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is delivered by ESA. The probe is powered by batteries, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is powered by solar panels and batteries. We anticipate two major subsystems to be supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the solar electric power system (including solar arrays and the power management and distribution system), and the probe entry system (including the thermal protection shield and aeroshell). Hera is designed to perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic compositions as well as the dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and evolution of Saturn, the giant planets and their satellite systems, with extrapolation to extrasolar planets. Hera's aim is to probe well into the cloud-forming region of the troposphere, below the region accessible to remote sensing, to the locations where certain cosmogenically abundant species are expected to be well mixed. By leading to an improved understanding of the processes by which giant planets formed, including the composition and properties of the local solar nebula at the time and location of giant planet formation, Hera will extend the legacy of the Galileo and Cassini missions by further addressing the creation, formation, and chemical, dynamical, and thermal evolution of the giant planets, the entire solar system including Earth and the other terrestrial planets, and formation of other planetary systems.

  19. Early Results from the Floating Potential Probe on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) on the International Space Station (ISS). The FPP measures the body voltage (electric potential) of the, and the measurements are then transmitted to Earth.

  20. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  1. Probing Skills for Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Beryl E.

    The Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services (OASIS) at the University of California at San Diego sponsors a workshop that teaches tutors to use five types of probing skills. The use of the skills is fundamental to the student learner's acquisition of complex relationships and problem solving skills. The five types of probes are:…

  2. Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Autism or Typical Development: Links between Eye-Reading and False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Previous research shows that high-functioning children with autism are slow to pass "litmus" false belief tests of ToM but how this may relate to other aspects of mindreading (e.g., discerning thoughts from facial expressions) is less clear, partly for methodological reasons. Thus the joint methodological and conceptual goals of this…

  3. The Sounds of Earth Record Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This gold aluminum cover was designed to protect the Voyager 1 and 2 'Sounds of Earth' gold-plated records from micrometeorite bombardment, but also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Flying aboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

  4. Goddard earth models (5 and 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Richardson, J. A.; Brownd, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive earth model has been developed that consists of two complementary gravitational fields and center-of-mass locations for 134 tracking stations on the earth's surface. One gravitational field is derived solely from satellite tracking data. This data on 27 satellite orbits is the most extensive used for such a solution. A second solution uses this data with 13,400 simultaneous events from satellite camera observations and surface gravimetric anomalies. The satellite-only solution as a whole is accurate to about 4.5 milligals as judged by the surface gravity data. The majority of the station coordinates are accurate to better than 10 meters as judged by independent results from geodetic surveys and by Doppler tracking of both distant space probes and near earth orbits.

  5. Multiple seismic reflectors in Earth's lowermost mantle.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xuefeng; Shim, Sang-Heon; de Hoop, Maarten; van der Hilst, Robert

    2014-02-18

    The modern view of Earth's lowermost mantle considers a D″ region of enhanced (seismologically inferred) heterogeneity bounded by the core-mantle boundary and an interface some 150-300 km above it, with the latter often attributed to the postperovskite phase transition (in MgSiO3). Seismic exploration of Earth's deep interior suggests, however, that this view needs modification. So-called ScS and SKKS waves, which probe the lowermost mantle from above and below, respectively, reveal multiple reflectors beneath Central America and East Asia, two areas known for subduction of oceanic plates deep into Earth's mantle. This observation is inconsistent with expectations from a thermal response of a single isochemical postperovskite transition, but some of the newly observed structures can be explained with postperovskite transitions in differentiated slab materials. Our results imply that the lowermost mantle is more complex than hitherto thought and that interfaces and compositional heterogeneity occur beyond the D″ region sensu stricto.

  6. The Dynamic Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siever, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)

  7. Earth Science, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finson, Kevin D.; Enochs, Larry G.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that the teaching of earth science is largely neglected in the elementary science curriculum. Provides examples of how more instruction in the earth sciences at all levels can enhance decision-making skills. Discusses the relationship between various learning theories and certain instructional strategies in earth science. (TW)

  8. Circumferential pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor); Moore, Thomas C. (Inventor); Fantl, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A probe for measuring circumferential pressure inside a body cavity is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, a urodynamic pressure measurement probe for evaluating human urinary sphincter function is disclosed. Along the length of the probe are disposed a multiplicity of deformable wall sensors which typically comprise support tube sections with flexible side wall areas. These are arranged along the length of the probe in two areas, one just proximal to the tip for the sensing of fluid pressure inside the bladder, and five in the sensing section which is positioned within the urethra at the point at which the urinary sphincter constricts to control the flow of urine. The remainder of the length of the probe comprises multiple rigid support tube sections interspersed with flexible support tube sections in the form of bellows to provide flexibility.

  9. Inflatable traversing probe seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    An inflatable seal acts as a pressure-tight zipper to provide traversing capability for instrumentation rakes and probes. A specially designed probe segment with a teardrop cross-section in the vicinity of the inflatable seal minimizes leakage at the interface. The probe is able to travel through a lengthwise slot in a pressure vessel or wind tunnel section, while still maintaining pressure integrity. The design uses two commercially available inflatable seals, opposing each other, to cover the probe slot in a wind tunnel wall. Proof-of-concept tests were conducted at vessel pressures up to 30 psig, with seals inflated to 50 psig, showing no measurable leakage along the seal's length or around the probe teardrop cross-section. This seal concept can replace the existing technology of sliding face plate/O-ring systems in applications where lengthwise space is limited.

  10. Application of probe manipulator to repair probe cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Mikihiko; Egashira, Mitsuru; Machida, Kazumichi; Urata, Atsuo

    2006-03-01

    We fabricated an apparatus for manipulation and welding of fine metal objects using a probe. The apparatus is composed of a work probe of a tungsten alloy needle, stages, a DC power supply, and an observation system. The work probe is held vertically above a gold substrate placed on stages to control the relative position against the work probe. The DC power supply is equipped to apply voltage of 0-10kV between the work probe and the substrate. One application of the apparatus is to repair probe cards. Thousands of contact probes (needles) are mounted on the printed circuit board (PCB) in the probe card. The contact probes are mounted one by one by the hands. Recently, an array of the contact probe on the PCB is produced by the LIGA process in response to narrower semiconductor pitch length. The problem is that there are no methods to repair a wrong contact probe. Whole of the contact probes should be a waste owing to one wrong contact probe. We propose to replace a wrong contact probe with a good one using our apparatus. Experiments to remove a contact probe by the apparatus is carried out using the specimen of a mimic probe card, where a cantilever type contact probes are arranged with a pitch of 25 micrometers. Removal of the wrong contact probe is carried out by a non-contact discharge and a contact discharge using the apparatus. High voltage of about 1-2kV is applied after the work probe is moved to above the target contact probe for the non-contact discharge. While high voltage of about10kV is applied after the work probe is positioned in contact with the target contact probe for the contact discharge. The target contact probe is removed by both methods, though the neighboring contact probes are damaged. The latter method is hopeful for removal for repair of the probe card.

  11. Pioneer Jupiter orbiter probe mission 1980, probe description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The adaptation of the Saturn-Uranus Atmospheric Entry Probe (SUAEP) to a Jupiter entry probe is summarized. This report is extracted from a comprehensive study of Jovian missions, atmospheric model definitions and probe subsystem alternatives.

  12. Can REDD+ Help the Conservation of Restricted-Range Island Species? Insights from the Endemism Hotspot of São Tomé

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Ricardo Faustino; Olmos, Fábio; Dallimer, Martin; Atkinson, Philip W.; Barlow, Jos

    2013-01-01

    REDD+ aims to offset greenhouse gas emissions through “Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation”. Some authors suggest that REDD+ can bring additional benefits for biodiversity, namely for the conservation of extinction-prone restricted-range species. Here, we assess this claim, using São Tomé Island (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe) as a case study. We quantified the abundance of bird and tree species, and calculated the aboveground carbon stocks across a gradient of land-use intensity. We found a strong spatial congruence between carbon and the presence and abundance of endemic species, supporting the potential of REDD+ to protect these taxa. We then assessed if REDD+ could help protect the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe. To do so, we used OSIRIS simulations to predict country-level deforestation under two different REDD+ designs. These simulations showed that REDD+ could promote the loss of forests in São Tomé and Príncipe through leakage. This happened even when additional payments for biodiversity were included in the simulations, and despite São Tomé and Príncipe having the fourth highest carbon stocks per land area and the second highest biodiversity values according to the OSIRIS database. These results show weaknesses of OSIRIS as a planning tool, and demonstrate that the benefits that REDD+ might bring for biodiversity are strongly dependent on its careful implementation. We recommend that payment for ecosystem services programmes such as REDD+ develop safeguards to ensure that biodiversity co-benefits are met and perverse outcomes are avoided across all tropical countries. In particular, we advise specific safeguards regarding the conservation of extinction-prone groups, such as island restricted-range species. PMID:24066109

  13. Can REDD+ help the conservation of restricted-range island species? Insights from the endemism hotspot of São Tomé.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Ricardo Faustino; Olmos, Fábio; Dallimer, Martin; Atkinson, Philip W; Barlow, Jos

    2013-01-01

    REDD+ aims to offset greenhouse gas emissions through "Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation". Some authors suggest that REDD+ can bring additional benefits for biodiversity, namely for the conservation of extinction-prone restricted-range species. Here, we assess this claim, using São Tomé Island (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe) as a case study. We quantified the abundance of bird and tree species, and calculated the aboveground carbon stocks across a gradient of land-use intensity. We found a strong spatial congruence between carbon and the presence and abundance of endemic species, supporting the potential of REDD+ to protect these taxa. We then assessed if REDD+ could help protect the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe. To do so, we used OSIRIS simulations to predict country-level deforestation under two different REDD+ designs. These simulations showed that REDD+ could promote the loss of forests in São Tomé and Príncipe through leakage. This happened even when additional payments for biodiversity were included in the simulations, and despite São Tomé and Príncipe having the fourth highest carbon stocks per land area and the second highest biodiversity values according to the OSIRIS database. These results show weaknesses of OSIRIS as a planning tool, and demonstrate that the benefits that REDD+ might bring for biodiversity are strongly dependent on its careful implementation. We recommend that payment for ecosystem services programmes such as REDD+ develop safeguards to ensure that biodiversity co-benefits are met and perverse outcomes are avoided across all tropical countries. In particular, we advise specific safeguards regarding the conservation of extinction-prone groups, such as island restricted-range species.

  14. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  15. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  16. Earth Science Information Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1991-01-01

    An ESIC? An Earth Science Information Center. Don't spell it. Say it. ESIC. It rhymes with seasick. You can find information in an information center, of course, and you'll find earth science information in an ESIC. That means information about the land that is the Earth, the land that is below the Earth, and in some instances, the space surrounding the Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of Earth Science Information Centers that sell earth science products and data. There are more than 75 ESIC's. Some are operated by the USGS, but most are in other State or Federal agencies. Each ESIC responds to requests for information received by telephone, letter, or personal visit. Your personal visit.

  17. BEAM CONTROL PROBE

    DOEpatents

    Chesterman, A.W.

    1959-03-17

    A probe is described for intercepting a desired portion of a beam of charged particles and for indicating the spatial disposition of the beam. The disclosed probe assembly includes a pair of pivotally mounted vanes moveable into a single plane with adjacent edges joining and a calibrated mechanical arrangement for pivoting the vancs apart. When the probe is disposed in the path of a charged particle beam, the vanes may be adjusted according to the beam current received in each vane to ascertain the dimension of the beam.

  18. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2007-07-03

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  19. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2009-07-07

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  20. Focus: DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

  1. Recent Science Highlights of the Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr

    2016-10-01

    The morning of 30 August 2012 saw an Atlas 5 rocket launch NASA's second Living With a Star spacecraft mission, the twin Radiation Belt Storm Probes, into an elliptic orbit cutting through Earth's radiation belts. Renamed the Van Allen Probes soon after launch, the Probes are designed to determine how the highly variable populations of high-energy charged particles within the radiation belts, dangerous to astronauts and satellites, are created, respond to solar variations, and evolve in space environments. The Van Allen Probes mission extends beyond the practical considerations of the hazard's of Earth's space environment. Twentieth century observations of space and astrophysical systems throughout the solar system and out into the observable universe have shown that the processes that generate intense particle radiation within magnetized environments such as Earth's are universal. During its mission the Van Allen Probes verified and quantified previously suggested energization processes, discovered new energization mechanisms, revealed the critical importance of dynamic plasma injections into the innermost magnetosphere, and used uniquely capable instruments to reveal inner radiation belt features that were all but invisible to previous sensors. This paper gives a brief overview of the mission, presents some recent science highlights, and discusses plans for the extended mission.

  2. Jupiter probe heatshield configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirling, R. B., Jr.; Binder, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of initial probe heatshield shape on the total probe mass loss during Jovian entry is considered. Modification of the aerothermal environment and probe entry trajectory due to changing probe heatshield shape is included in a computerized technique designed for rapid assessment of the effect of probe initial shape on heatshield mass loss. Results obtained indicate the importance of trajectory and heating distribution coupling with probe shape and mass change.

  3. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  4. An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

  5. Technology for Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James A.; Arnold, James; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul; Laub, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph describing technologies for entry probes is presented. The topics include: 1) Entry Phase; 2) Descent Phase; 3) Long duration atmospheric observations; 4) Survivability at high temperatures; and 5) Summary.

  6. Space and Earth Sciences, Computer Systems, and Scientific Data Analysis Support, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Ronald H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This Final Progress Report covers the specific technical activities of Hughes STX Corporation for the last contract triannual period of 1 June through 30 Sep. 1993, in support of assigned task activities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It also provides a brief summary of work throughout the contract period of performance on each active task. Technical activity is presented in Volume 1, while financial and level-of-effort data is presented in Volume 2. Technical support was provided to all Division and Laboratories of Goddard's Space Sciences and Earth Sciences Directorates. Types of support include: scientific programming, systems programming, computer management, mission planning, scientific investigation, data analysis, data processing, data base creation and maintenance, instrumentation development, and management services. Mission and instruments supported include: ROSAT, Astro-D, BBXRT, XTE, AXAF, GRO, COBE, WIND, UIT, SMM, STIS, HEIDI, DE, URAP, CRRES, Voyagers, ISEE, San Marco, LAGEOS, TOPEX/Poseidon, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Cassini, Nimbus-7/TOMS, Meteor-3/TOMS, FIFE, BOREAS, TRMM, AVHRR, and Landsat. Accomplishments include: development of computing programs for mission science and data analysis, supercomputer applications support, computer network support, computational upgrades for data archival and analysis centers, end-to-end management for mission data flow, scientific modeling and results in the fields of space and Earth physics, planning and design of GSFC VO DAAC and VO IMS, fabrication, assembly, and testing of mission instrumentation, and design of mission operations center.

  7. Cryogenic Optoelectronic Probe Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    capability is very important for a few on- going projects under DOD support. Selected Examples of Research Using COPS Example 1: sheet resistance measurement...donor concentration of this thin film contact material, we need to know the sheet resistance . As shown in Fig. 1, four electric probes are landed...voltage of 62.4 mV across probe 2 and 3. Therefore we can determine the sheet resistance by using Eq: = ( ) . This gives the sheet

  8. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  9. Miniature Instrumentation for SIPR (Subsurface Ice PRobe)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostmo, Karl P.

    2005-01-01

    Ice coring has proved to be a valuable scientific tool for determining climate history on Earth. The goal of the SIPR project is to develop a simple extraterrestrial ice sampling method of comparable value to coring. The SIPR probe works by melting its way through glacial ice, pumping the melt water to the surface for analysis as it descends hundreds of meters. The specific geometry of the probe, along with size and power constraints, requires creative diagnostic instrumentation. A thin, vertically strung heated filament will provide continuous-level monitoring of water in down-hole containers. The filament has an appreciable temperature coefficient to resistance (TCR), so as water cools the wire, its resistance decreases. At a constant electrical current, the voltage across the filament varies linearly with water level.

  10. Clear-Sky UV-B trends over Northern Midlatitudes derived from TOMS Low-Reflectivity Footprint Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil; Varotsos, C.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of clear-sky ultraviolet-B (UV-B, wavelengths 290-320 nm) trends in northern midlatitudes using 1979-1991 Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) version 7 low-reflectivity (R<0.2) total ozone footprint measurements. The incorporation of essentially cloud-free ozone data from TOMS provides a direct method for separating transient cloud effects from anthropogenic and other dynamical factors present in UV-B. This study has also included both National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) microwave sounding unit channel 4 (MSU4) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 500 hPa temperature (T500) fields in our trend models to improve UV-Index (UVI) trend statistics and to investigate the effects of interannual changes in UVI caused by synoptic-scale (horizontal wavelengths 4000-8000 km) and planetary-scale (horizontal wavelengths greater than 8000 km) dynamical events. Clear-sky UVI trends in the northern midlatitudes show large increases (exceeding 10 % per decade) and distinct regional variability especially during winter-spring months which can be attributed to topography and dynamical forcing effects. In the UV-important summer-autumn months, these trends are more uniformly distributed and still statistically significant, although smaller at around +2 to +3 % per decade. Specifically, during April largest increases in midlatitude UVI are seen to extend from near the dateline eastward across North America. In June months largest UVI increases occur over the east Asian continent with values around +5 to +6 % per decade. These increases in UVI over both the Pacific and Asian continent regions persist through summer into Autumn. In the the European sector, statistically significant increases in clear-sky UVI are found over central Europe with values around +2 to +3 % per decade and +8 to +9 % per decade during summer and winter-spring months, respectively. Over the nearby Mediterranean region

  11. People and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John James William; Feiss, P. Geoffrey

    1998-03-01

    People and the Earth examines the numerous ways in which this planet enhances and limits our lifestyles. Written with wit and remarkable insight, and illustrated with numerous case histories, it provides a balanced view of the complex environmental issues facing our civilization. The authors look at the geologic restrictions on our ability to withdraw resources--food, water, energy, and minerals--from the earth, the effect human activity has on the earth, and the lingering damage caused by natural disasters. People and the Earth examines the basic components of our interaction with this planet, provides a lucid, scientific discussion of each issue, and speculates on what the future may hold. It provides the fundamental concepts that will enable us to make wise and conscientious choices on how to live our day-to-day lives. People and the Earth is an ideal introductory textbook and will also appeal to anyone concerned with our evolving relationship to the earth.

  12. A Comparison of Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Soil Dust Aerosols Over the Atlantic Ocean as Inferred by the Toms AI and AVHRR AOT Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakmur, R. V.; Miller, R. L.; Tegen, Ina; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of two estimates of soil (or 'mineral') dust aerosols are compared: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI), Both data sets, comprising more than a decade of global, daily images, are commonly used to evaluate aerosol transport models. The present comparison is based upon monthly averages, constructed from daily images of each data set for the period between 1984 and 1990, a period that excludes contamination from volcanic eruptions. The comparison focuses upon the Northern Hemisphere subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where soil dust aerosols make the largest contribution to the aerosol load, and are assumed to dominate the variability of each data set. While each retrieval is sensitive to a different aerosol radiative property - absorption for the TOMS AI versus reflectance for the AVHRR AOT - the seasonal cycles of dust loading implied by each retrieval are consistent, if seasonal variations in the height of the aerosol layer are taken into account when interpreting the TOMS AI. On interannual time scales, the correlation is low at most locations. It is suggested that the poor interannual correlation is at least partly a consequence of data availability. When the monthly averages are constructed using only days common to both data sets, the correlation is substantially increased: this consistency suggests that both TOMS and AVHRR accurately measure the aerosol load in any given scene. However, the two retrievals have only a few days in common per month so that these restricted monthly averages have a large uncertainty. Calculations suggest that at least 7 to 10 daily images are needed to estimate reliably the average dust load during any particular month, a threshold that is rarely satisfied by the AVHRR AOT due to the presence of clouds in the domain. By rebinning each data set onto a coarser grid, the availability of

  13. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  14. EarthExplorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houska, Treva

    2012-01-01

    The EarthExplorer trifold provides basic information for on-line access to remotely-sensed data from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) client/server interface allows users to search and download aerial photography, satellite data, elevation data, land-cover products, and digitized maps. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.

  15. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  16. Earth on the Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the first image ever taken of Earth from the surface of a planet beyond the Moon. It was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit one hour before sunrise on the 63rd martian day, or sol, of its mission. Earth is the tiny white dot in the center. The image is a mosaic of images taken by the rover's navigation camera showing a broad view of the sky, and an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera of Earth. The contrast in the panoramic camera image was increased two times to make Earth easier to see.

  17. Exospheric cleaning of the Earth Radiation Budget solar radiometer during solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Predmore, R. E.; Jacobowitz, H.; Hickey, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Anomalous behavior of the Earth Sensor Assemblies (ESA) had been observed on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) 5D/1 satellites and the Tiros-N satellite. The present investigation is concerned with the reasons for the observed phenomena. Degradation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) solar channels and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) diffuser plate is attributed to transmission or reflection loss originating from the growth of an organic film by photolytic polymerization. Simultaneous degradation of the ESA interference filter coated lenses facing the flight direction and the recovery of the ERB solar channels on Nimbus 6 and 7 is caused by a reaction with the increase in the exospheric atmospheric density caused by solar maximum.

  18. The influence of earth tides on earth's coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincente, R. O.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of the Earth's tides on Earth coordinates were examined for the following reasons: (1) the precision for obtaining the Earth's coordinates shows that the effects of Earth tides appear on the values obtained for the coordinates; (2) the possibility of determining the values of the Earth tides; and (3) the consideration of theoretical models that can compute the values of Earth tides. The astronomical and geodetic coordinates of a point at the Earth's surface are described.

  19. The Gravity Probe B Flight Dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. This photograph is of the Gravity Probe B flight dewar, a metal container made like a vacuum bottle that is used especially for storing liquefied gases, that will maintain the experiment at a temperature just above absolute zero, staying cold for two years. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched in 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Photo Credit: Lockheed Martin Corporation/R. Underwood)

  20. Gravity Probe B Completed With Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is completed during the solar array installation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  1. Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  2. Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  3. Gravity Probe B Number 4 Gyro Inspected

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. In this photograph, Stanford engineer, Chris Gray, is inspecting the number 4 gyro under monochromatic light. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Stanford University.)

  4. Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by Marshall Space Flight Center, development of GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  5. Radio interference in the near-earth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.

    1988-01-01

    Natural and man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) are potentially serious obstacles to the successful operation of an array of spacecraft used for low frequency (1 to 30 MHz) radio interferometry in the near-earth environment. Several satellites and planetary probes have carried radio astronomy experiments, and the moderate data base that they provide are examined to help understand the near-earth RFI environment. The general conclusion is that the region of space within 100 earth-radii of the earth is a hostile environment for any radio astronomy experiment. If a low frequency array in earth orbit is to yield useful astronomical results, severe interference problems must be anticipated and overcome. A number of recommendations are made to further examine the feasibility of such an array.

  6. The Rg1 allele as a valuable tool for genetic transformation of the tomato 'Micro-Tom' model system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) is regarded as a model system for tomato genetics due to its short life cycle and miniature size. However, efforts to improve tomato genetic transformation have led to protocols dependent on the costly hormone zeatin, combined with an excessive number of steps. Results Here we report the development of a MT near-isogenic genotype harboring the allele Rg1 (MT-Rg1), which greatly improves tomato in vitro regeneration. Regeneration was further improved in MT by including a two-day incubation of cotyledonary explants onto medium containing 0.4 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) before cytokinin treatment. Both strategies allowed the use of 5 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), a cytokinin 100 times less expensive than zeatin. The use of MT-Rg1 and NAA pre-incubation, followed by BAP regeneration, resulted in high transformation frequencies (near 40%), in a shorter protocol with fewer steps, spanning approximately 40 days from Agrobacterium infection to transgenic plant acclimatization. Conclusions The genetic resource and the protocol presented here represent invaluable tools for routine gene expression manipulation and high throughput functional genomics by insertional mutagenesis in tomato. PMID:20929550

  7. The global distribution of ozone destruction rates obtained from 13 years of Nimbus/TOMS data (1979-1991)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Mcpeters, R.; Larko, D.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term ozone trends (percentage change) have been computed from 13 years of Nimbus/TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data as a function of latitude, longitude, and month for the period January 1, 1979 to December 31, 1991. In both hemispheres, the ozone column content has decreased at latitudes above 30 deg by amounts that are larger than predicted by homogeneous chemistry models for the 13-year time period. The largest rates of ozone decrease occur in the Southern Hemisphere during winter and spring, with recovery during the summer and autumn. The large winter ozone loss rates are consistent with observed low stratospheric temperatures, ice-cloud formation, and heterogeneous chemistry at middle and high latitudes. There are similar, but smaller changes observed in the Northern Hemisphere. At midlatitudes, (40 deg N to 50 deg N) there are increased zonal average ozone depletion rates that correspond to 5 geographically localized regions of increased ozone depletion rates. Only the equatorial band between plus or minus 20 deg shows little or no long-term ozone change since January, 1979. The long-term winter ozone depletion rate data for both hemispheres suggests that heterogeneous chemistry processes may operate over a wide range of latitudes during half of the year.

  8. Evaluation of a Multi-Decadal Simulation of Stratospheric Ozone by Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Steenrod, Steven; Pawson, Steven

    2003-01-01

    One key application of atmospheric chemistry and transport models is prediction of the response of ozone and other constituents to various natural and anthropogenic perturbations. These include changes in composition, such as the previous rise and recent decline in emission of man-made chlorofluorcarbons, changes in aerosol loading due to volcanic eruption, and changes in solar forcing. Comparisons of hindcast model results for the past few decades with observations are a key element of model evaluation and provide a sense of the reliability of model predictions. The 25 year data set from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers is a cornerstone of such model evaluation. Here we report evaluation of three-dimensional multi-decadal simulation of stratospheric composition. Meteorological fields for this off-line calculation are taken from a 50 year simulation of a general circulation model. Model fields are compared with observations from TOMS and also with observations from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES), and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). This overall evaluation will emphasize the spatial, seasonal, and interannual variability of the simulation compared with observed atmospheric variability.

  9. Upper Tropospheric Ozone Between Latitudes 60S and 60N Derived from Nimbus 7 TOMS/THIR Cloud Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Chandra, Sushil; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the spatial distributions and seasonal cycles in upper tropospheric ozone (pressure range 200-500 hPa) from low to high latitudes (60S to 60N) derived from the satellite retrieval method called "Cloud Slicing." Cloud Slicing is a unique technique for determining ozone profile information in the troposphere by combining co-located measurements of cloud-top, pressure and above-cloud column ozone. For upper tropospheric ozone, co-located measurements of Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) above-cloud column ozone, and Nimbus 7 Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure during 1979-1984 were incorporated. In the tropics, upper tropospheric ozone shows year-round enhancement in the Atlantic region and evidence of a possible semiannual variability. Upper tropospheric ozone outside the tropics shows greatest abundance in winter and spring seasons in both hemispheres with largest seasonal and largest amounts in the NH. These characteristics are similar to lower stratospheric ozone. Comparisons of upper tropospheric column ozone with both stratospheric ozone and a proxy of lower stratospheric air mass (i.e., tropopause pressure) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suggest that stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) may be a significant source for the seasonal variability of upper tropospheric ozone almost everywhere between 60S and 60N except in low latitudes around 10S to 25N where other sources (e.g., tropospheric transport, biomass burning, aerosol effects, lightning, etc.) may have a greater role.

  10. Small and remarkable: The Micro-Tom model system as a tool to discover novel hormonal functions and interactions.

    PubMed

    Campos, Marcelo Lattarulo; Carvalho, Rogério Falleiros; Benedito, Vagner Augusto; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

    2010-03-01

    Hormones are molecules involved in virtually every step of plant development and studies in this field have been shaping plant physiology for more than a century. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, long used as a tool to study plant hormones, lacks significant important developmental traits, such as fleshy climacteric fruit, compound leaf and multicellular trichomes, suggesting the necessity for alternative plant models. An attractive option often used is tomato, a species also of major economic importance, being ideal to bring together basic and applied plant sciences. The tomato Micro-Tom (MT) cultivar makes it possible to combine the direct benefits of studying a crop species with the fast life cycle and small size required for a suitable biological model. However, few obscure questions are constantly addressed to MT, creating a process herein called "MT mystification". In this work we present evidence clarifying these questions and show the potential of MT, aiming to demystify it. To corroborate our ideas we showed that, by making use of MT, our laboratory demonstrated straightforwardly new hormonal functions and also characterized a novel antagonistic hormonal interaction between jasmonates and brassinosteroids in the formation of anti-herbivory traits in tomato.

  11. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  12. Investigation of the effect of atmospheric dust on the determination of total ozone from the earth's ultraviolet reflectivity measurements, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dave, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results of a detailed analysis of the simulated measurements for the BUV (Nimbus-4) configuration are described by using a total-ozone estimation procedure. A set of recommendations are discussed for increasing the accuracy and confidence level of the total ozone values estimated from the measurements of the earth's ultraviolet reflectivity at five different wavelengths (BUV configuration). A tentative procedure is also considered for the estimation of total ozone from measurements of reflectivity at six different wavelengths specified in the SBUV/TOMS (Nimbus-G) configuration.

  13. The mitochondrial BKCa channel cardiac interactome reveals BKCa association with the mitochondrial import receptor subunit Tom22, and the adenine nucleotide translocator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Li, Min; Zhang, Zhu; Zhu, Ronghui; Olcese, Riccardo; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia

    2017-03-01

    Mitochondrial BKCa channel, mitoBKCa, regulates mitochondria function in the heart but information on its protein partnerships in cardiac mitochondria is missing. A directed proteomic approach discovered the novel interaction of BKCa with Tom22, a component of the mitochondrion outer membrane import system, and the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). The expressed protein partners co-immunoprecipitated and co-segregated into mitochondrial fractions in HEK293T cells. The BKCa 50 amino acid splice insert, DEC, facilitated BKCa interaction with ANT. Further, BKCa transmembrane domain was required for the association with both Tom22 and ANT. The results serve as a working framework to understand mitoBKCa import and functional relationships.

  14. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  15. Surgical force detection probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Roberts, Paul; Scott, Charles; Prass, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The development progress of a precision electro-mechanical instrument which allows the detection and documentation of the forces and moment applied to human tissue during surgery (under actual operation room conditions), is reported. The pen-shaped prototype probe which measures 1/2 inch in diameter and 7 inches in length was fabricated using an aerodynamic balance. The aerodynamic balance, a standard wind tunnel force and moment sensing transducer, measures the forces and the moments transmitted through the surgeon's hand to the human tissue during surgery. The prototype probe which was fabricated as a development tool was tested successfully. The final version of the surgical force detection probe will be designed based on additional laboratory tests in order to establish the full scale loads. It is expected that the final product will require a simplified aerodynamic balance with two or three force components and one moment component with lighter full scale loads. A signal conditioner was fabricated to process and display the outputs from the prototype probe. This unit will be interfaced with a PC-based data system to provide automatic data acquisition, data processing, and graphics display. The expected overall accuracy of the probe is better than one percent full scale.

  16. Rare Earth Nanoprobes for Functional Biomolecular Imaging and Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Naczynski, Dominik J.; Tan, Mei Chee; Riman, Richard E.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2014-01-01

    Contrast agents designed to visualize the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer pathogenesis and progression have deepened our understanding of disease complexity and accelerated the development of enhanced drug strategies targeted to specific biochemical pathways. For the next generation probes and imaging systems to be viable, they must exhibit enhanced sensitivity and robust quantitation of morphologic and contrast features, while offering the ability to resolve the disease-specific molecular signatures that may be critical to reconstitute a more comprehensive portrait of pathobiology. This feature article provides an overview on the design and advancements of emerging biomedical optical probes in general and evaluates the promise of rare earth nanoprobes, in particular, for molecular imaging and theranostics. Combined with new breakthroughs in nanoscale probe configurations, and improved dopant compositions, and multimodal infrared optical imaging, rare-earth nanoprobes can be used to address a wide variety of biomedical challenges, including deep tissue imaging, real-time drug delivery tracking and multispectral molecular profiling. PMID:24921049

  17. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  18. Hands On Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  19. Guided earth boring tool

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, W.J.; Pittard, G.T.; Maurer, W.C.; Wasson, M.R.; Herben, W.C.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a controllable tool for drilling holes in soft earth. The tool comprising an elongated rigid supporting drill rod or pipe, means supporting the drill rod or pipe for earth boring or piercing movement, including means for moving the drill rod or pipe longitudinally for penetrating the earth, means for rotating the drill rod or pipe while penetrating the earth, and means for controlling the direction of movement of the drill rod or pipe along a straight or curved path. The drill rod or pipe moving and rotating means being constructed to permit addition and removal of supporting drill rod or pipe during earth penetrating operation, an earth piercing member of substantially cylindrical shape. The tool being operable to penetrate the earth upon longitudinal movement of the drill rod or pipe by the longitudinal rod or pipe moving means, and the direction controlling means comprising means causing drill rod or pipe movement in a curved path through the earth when the rod or pipe is not rotated and causing drill rod or pipe straight line movement when the rod or pipe is rotated.

  20. The Earth Charter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Humanity is part of a vast evolving universe. Earth is alive with a unique community of life. The forces of nature make existence a demanding and uncertain adventure, but Earth has provided the conditions essential to life's evolution. The resilience of the community of life and the well-being of humanity depend upon preserving a healthy biosphere…

  1. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  2. Earth physics, overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite applications in earth and ocean dynamic studies are considered for: earthquake hazard assessment and alleviation; prediction of general ocean circulation, surface currents, and heat transport; monitoring of transient phenomena of the ocean surface, such as sea state and wave conditions, wind-surface interactions and storm searches; and refinement of the global geoid, the gravity and magnetic fields of the earth.

  3. The Earth's Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  4. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2016-07-12

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  5. The Earth Needs You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Celebrated annually on April 22, schools and communities organize numerous activities during Earth Day to promote awareness. To help teachers plan their own initiatives and to learn more about what is happening around the world, they can join the Earth Day Network at: http://network.earthday.net/. Once they have joined, they can create a webpage…

  6. Earth System Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  7. Earth and ocean modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezovich, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  8. Skylab Explores the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This book describes the Skylab 4 Earth Explorations Project. Photographs of the earth taken by the Skylab astronauts are reproduced here and accompanied by an analytical and explanatory text. Some of the geological and geographical topics covered are: (1) global tectonics - some geological analyses of observations and photographs from Skylab; (2)…

  9. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  10. Methods for Probing New Physics at High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Peter B.

    This dissertation covers two broad topics. The title, " Methods for Probing New Physics at High Energies," hopefully encompasses both of them. The first topic is located in part I of this work and is about integral dispersion relations. This is a technique to probe for new physics at energy scales near to the machine energy of a collider. For example, a hadron collider taking data at a given energy is typically only sensitive to new physics occurring at energy scales about a factor of five to ten beneath the actual machine energy due to parton distribution functions. This technique is sensitive to physics happening directly beneath the machine energy in addition to the even more interesting case: directly above. Precisely where this technique is sensitive is one of the main topics of this area of research. The other topic is located in part II and is about cosmic ray anisotropy at the highest energies. The unanswered questions about cosmic rays at the highest energies are numerous and interconnected in complicated ways. What may be the first piece of the puzzle to fall into place is determining their sources. This work looks to determine if and when the use of spherical harmonics becomes sensitive enough to determine these sources. The completed papers for this work can be found online. For part I on integral dispersion relations see reference published in Physical Review D. For part II on cosmic ray anisotropy, there are conference proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The analysis of the location of an experiment on anisotropy reconstruction is, and the comparison of different experiments' abilities to reconstruct anisotropies is published in The Astrophysical Journal and the Journal of High Energy Astrophysics respectively. While this dissertation is focused on three papers completed with Tom Weiler at Vanderbilt University, other papers were completed at the same time. The first was with Nicusor Arsene, Lauretiu Caramete, and

  11. Earth Science Week evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earth Science Week, October 7-13, is an annual grassroots effort sponsored by the American Geological Institute (AGI) and its member societies, of which AGU is the largest. This year, for the first time, Earth Science Week has a general theme, evolution in Earth history. The Earth Science Week information kit for 2001, available from AGI, includes a variety of posters, bookmarks, and other materials that illustrate this concept. The kit contains a new 32-page “Ideas and Activities” booklet that emphasizes evolution in Earth history through an array of activities about rocks, fossils, and geologic time. It also has information on the upcoming Public Broadcasting Service series, “Evolution,” which is to be aired in late September.

  12. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

  13. Multispectral imaging probe

    SciTech Connect

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  14. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  15. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes nearly 150 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies. Remote Sensing; Earth Science Informatics, Data Systems; Data Services; Metadata

  16. Changes in the Earth's UV Reflectivity (1979 to 1992)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermana, J. R.; Ziemkeb, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of the Earth,s 380 nm UV reflectivity combine the effects of surface reflectivity, aerosols, haze, cloud optical thickness, and the fraction of the scene covered by clouds. Since the 380 nm surface reflectivity is low (2 to 8%) over most surfaces, water and land, the observed reflectivity changes are mostly caused by changes in the amount of snow/ice, cloudiness and aerosols. Time-series analysis of TOMS reflectivity over the period from 1979 to 1992 shows that there were no significant changes in annually-averaged zonal-average reflectivity at latitudes within 60 degrees S to 60 degrees N, even though there were changes at higher latitudes (e.g., 3% per decade, in reflectivity units, between 60 degrees N and 70 degrees N). When the effects of the 11-year solar cycle and ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) are removed from the data, statistically significant reflectivity changes are observed poleward of both 40 degrees S and 40 degrees N. The solar-cycle results suggest a possible Sun-weather relationship.

  17. The Evolving Space Weather System—Van Allen Probes Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, L. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Sotirelis, T. S.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Kessel, R. L.; Becker, H. N.

    2014-10-01

    The overarching goal and purpose of the study of space weather is clear—to understand and address the issues caused by solar disturbances on humans and technological systems. Space weather has evolved in the past few decades from a collection of concerned agencies and researchers to a critical function of the National Weather Service of NOAA. The general effects have also evolved from the well-known telegraph disruptions of the mid-1800s to modern day disturbances of the electric power grid, communications and navigation, human spaceflight and spacecraft systems. The last two items in this list, and specifically the effects of penetrating radiation, were the impetus for the space weather broadcast implemented on NASA's Van Allen Probes' twin pair of satellites, launched in August of 2012 and orbiting directly through Earth's severe radiation belts. The Van Allen Probes mission, formerly the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), was renamed soon after launch to honor the discoverer of Earth's radiation belts at the beginning of the space age, the late James Van Allen (the spacecraft themselves are still referred to as RBSP-A and RBSP-B). The Van Allen Probes are one part of NASA's Living With a Star program formulated to advance the scientific understanding of the connection between solar disturbances, the resulting heliospheric conditions, and their effects on the geospace and Earth environment.

  18. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon.

  19. Earth as art three

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  20. Sun-Earth Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  1. Earths, Super-Earths, and Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Eugene; Lee, Eve J.

    2015-12-01

    We review and add to the theory of how planets acquire atmospheres from parent circumstellar disks. We derive (in real time) a simple and general analytic expression for how a planet's atmosphere grows with time, as a function of the underlying core mass and nebular conditions, including the gas metallicity. Planets accrete as much gas as can cool: an atmosphere's doubling time is given by its Kelvin-Helmholtz time. The theory can be applied in any number of settings --- gas-rich vs. gas-poor nebulae; dusty vs. dust-free atmospheres; close-in vs. far-out distances --- and is confirmed against detailed numerical models for objects ranging in mass from Mars (0.1 Mearth) to the most extreme super Earths (10--20 Mearth). We explain why heating from planetesimal accretion, commonly invoked in models of core accretion, is irrelevant. This talk sets the stage for another presentation, "Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs".

  2. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  3. Laboratory plasma probe studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Diagnostic experiments performed in a collisionless plasma using CO2 as the working gas are described. In particular, simultaneous measurements that have been performed by means of Langmuir- and RF-probes are presented. A resonance occurring above the parallel resonance in the frequency characteristic of a two electrode system is interpreted as being due to the resonant excitation of electroacoustic waves.

  4. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1997-01-24

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  5. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  6. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  7. The Phoenix Pluto Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunning, George R.; Spapperi, Jeff; Wilkinson, Jeffrey P.; Eldred, Jim; Labij, Dennis; Strinni, Meredith

    1990-01-01

    A design proposal for an unmanned probe to Pluto is presented. The topics covered include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion system; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  8. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  9. Meteterakis saotomensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) from Schistometopum thomense (Bocage) (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae) on São Tomé Island.

    PubMed

    Junker, Kerstin; Mariaux, Jean; Measey, G John; Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2015-10-01

    Meteterakis saotomensis n. sp. is described from Schistometopum thomense (Bocage), a gymnophionan endemic to the oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea. The specimens were assigned to Meteterakis Karve, 1930, based on the possession of a head with three rounded lips, not set-off from the body, the absence of interlabia and cordons, females with a long vagina and males with a preanal sucker, surrounded by a cuticularised rim and caudal alae that are supported by fleshy papillae. The new species is characterised by: body length 4.2-4.5 mm (males) and 5.1-6.4 mm (females); total length of oesophagus, including pharyngeal portion and oesophageal bulb, 820-856 µm (males) and 898-1,070 µm (females); length of pharynx 57-58 µm (males) and 65-68 µm (females); spicules equal, 410-521 µm long, with tessellated ornamentation throughout their length and alae, and with bevelled tip; gubernaculum or 'gubernacular mass' absent; tail length 164-176 µm (males) and 214-239 µm (females), with elongated tip; vulva at 2.3-2.8 mm from anterior end, with anterior lip forming small flap. This is the second species of Meteterakis reported from gymnophionan hosts and the first from the Afrotropical region. Selected comparative morphological data for Meteterakis spp. are presented, and data on host range and geographic distribution are updated. The name M. striaturus Oshmarin & Demshin, 1972 is corrected to M. striatura to reflect the female gender of the genus name.

  10. Population Genetics of the São Tomé Caecilian (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae: Schistometopum thomense) Reveals Strong Geographic Structuring

    PubMed Central

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Measey, G. John; Drewes, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Islands provide exciting opportunities for exploring ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. The oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea exhibits high diversity of fauna including the endemic caecilian amphibian, Schistometopum thomense. Variation in pigmentation, morphology and size of this taxon over its c. 45 km island range is extreme, motivating a number of taxonomic, ecological, and evolutionary hypotheses to explain the observed diversity. We conducted a population genetic study of S. thomense using partial sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes (ND4 and 16S), together with morphological examination, to address competing hypotheses of taxonomic or clinal variation. Using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, we found evidence of four geographic clades, whose range and approximated age (c. 253 Kya – 27 Kya) are consistent with the spread and age of recent volcanic flows. These clades explained 90% of variation in ND4 (φCT = 0.892), and diverged by 4.3% minimum pairwise distance at the deepest node. Most notably, using Mismatch Distributions and Mantel Tests, we identified a zone of population admixture that dissected the island. In the northern clade, we found evidence of recent population expansion (Fu's Fs = −13.08 and Tajima's D = −1.80) and limited dispersal (Mantel correlation coefficient = 0.36, p = 0.01). Color assignment to clades was not absolute. Paired with multinomial regression of chromatic data, our analyses suggested that the genetic groups and a latitudinal gradient together describe variation in color of S. thomense. We propose that volcanism and limited dispersal ability are the likely proximal causes of the observed genetic structure. This is the first population genetic study of any caecilian and demonstrates that these animals have deep genetic divisions over very small areas in accordance with previous speculations of low dispersal abilities. PMID:25171066

  11. Exploring the Diversity of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Knutson, Heather; Lothringer, Joshua; Dragomir, Diana; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Howard, Andrew; McCullough, Peter R.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Kempton, Eliza; Morley, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of planets with masses and radii intermediate between Earth and Neptune was one of the biggest surprises in the brief history of exoplanet science. These "super-Earths" are an order of magnitude more abundant than close-in giant planets. Despite this ubiquity, we know little about their typical compositions and formation histories. Spectroscopic transit observations can shed new light on these mysterious worlds by probing their atmospheric compositions. In this talk, we will give an overview of our ongoing 124-orbit (200-hour) Hubble Space Telescope program to reveal the chemical diversity and formation histories of super-Earths. This unprecedented survey will provide the first comprehensive look at this intriguing new class of planets ranging from 1 Neptune mass and temperatures close to 2000K to a 1 Earth mass planet near the habitable zone of its host star. We will discuss the scope of the program, demonstrate observational techniques to observe extremely bright exoplanet targets with HST WFC3 and STIS, and present early results.

  12. Earth Limb Radiance Transformation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-02

    AD-A097 523 AEROSPACE CORP EL SEGUNDO CA CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS LAB F/G 4/1 EARTH LIMB RADIANCE TRANSFORMATION (U) MAR AI S 4 YOUNG F0701-80 -C-0081... Earth Limb Radiance Trafisformation Prepared by S. J. YOUNG Chemistr and Physics Laboratory Laboratory Operations The Aerospace Corporation S.El...ITLEK (and Subtitle) TYPE OF REPORT & P53100 COVERED Earth Limb Radiance Transformation. ( Interim ./ / /TR-OJ081(697j7-g4)-l-- i7.Step hen J. Young

  13. Rare earth gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  14. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is small, and its only effect on the seasons is their unequal durations. Here I show a pleasant way to guide students to the actual value of Earth's orbital eccentricity, starting from the durations of the four seasons. The date of perihelion is also found.

  15. Mechanosensitive membrane probes.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Marta; Verolet, Quentin; Soleimanpour, Saeideh; Matile, Stefan

    2015-04-13

    This article assembles pertinent insights behind the concept of planarizable push-pull probes. As a response to the planarization of their polarized ground state, a red shift of their excitation maximum is expected to report on either the disorder, the tension, or the potential of biomembranes. The combination of chromophore planarization and polarization contributes to various, usually more complex processes in nature. Examples include the color change of crabs or lobsters during cooking or the chemistry of vision, particularly color vision. The summary of lessons from nature is followed by an overview of mechanosensitive organic materials. Although often twisted and sometimes also polarized, their change of color under pressure usually originates from changes in their crystal packing. Intriguing exceptions include the planarization of several elegantly twisted phenylethynyl oligomers and polymers. Also mechanosensitive probes in plastics usually respond to stretching by disassembly. True ground-state planarization in response to molecular recognition is best exemplified with the binding of thoughtfully twisted cationic polythiophenes to single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides. Molecular rotors, en vogue as viscosity sensors in cells, operate by deplanarization of the first excited state. Pertinent recent examples are described, focusing on λ-ratiometry and intracellular targeting. Complementary to planarization of the ground state with twisted push-pull probes, molecular rotors report on environmental changes with quenching or shifts in emission rather than absorption. The labeling of mechanosensitive channels is discussed as a bioengineering approach to bypass the challenge to create molecular mechanosensitivity and use biological systems instead to sense membrane tension. With planarizable push-pull probes, this challenge is met not with twistome screening, but with "fluorescent flippers," a new concept to insert large and bright monomers into oligomeric

  16. Beautiful Earth with GPM

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a musical and visual tour of Earth from space followed by a discussion with scientists from NASA's new rain and snow satellite. During this one-hour event, students and teachers from across...

  17. Earth Reconnect -- July 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    A visualization of Earth's magnetosphere on July 15-16, 2012, shows how constant magnetic reconnection caused by an arriving coronal mass ejection, or CME, from the sun disrupted the magnetosphere,...

  18. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    ScienceCinema

    Daughton, Bill

    2016-07-12

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  19. Observing earth from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.

  20. Earth study from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.