Science.gov

Sample records for earth radioactivity measurements

  1. Rapid Evaluation of Radioactive Contamination in Rare Earth Mine Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.

    2017-12-01

    In order to estimate the current levels of environmental radioactivity in Bayan Obo rare earth mine and to study the rapid evaluation methods of radioactivity contamination in the rare earth mine, the surveys of the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry and gamma dose rate measurement were carried out around the mining area and living area. The in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer was composed of a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) (Φ75mm×75mm) and a multichannel analyzer. Our survey results in Bayan Obo Mine display: (1) Thorium-232 is the radioactive contamination source of this region, and uranium-238 and potassium - 40 is at the background level. (2) The average content of thorium-232 in the slag of the tailings dam in Bayan Obo is as high as 276 mg/kg, which is 37 times as the global average value of thorium content. (3) We found that the thorium-232 content in the soil in the living area near the mining is higher than that in the local soil in Guyang County. The average thorium-232 concentrations in the mining areas of the Bayan Obo Mine and the living areas of the Bayan Obo Town were 18.7±7.5 and 26.2±9.1 mg/kg, respectively. (4) It was observed that thorium-232 was abnormal distributed in the contaminated area near the tailings dam. Our preliminary research results show that the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry is an effective approach of fast evaluating rare earths radioactive pollution, not only can the scene to determine the types of radioactive contamination source, but also to measure the radioactivity concentration of thorium and uranium in soil. The environmental radioactive evaluation of rare earth ore and tailings dam in open-pit mining is also needed. The research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41674111).

  2. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  3. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  4. [Investigation of radioactivity measurement of medical radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kazutaka; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kida, Tetsuo; Yanagisawa, Masamichi; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ikebuchi, Hideharu; Kusama, Keiji; Namiki, Nobuo; Okuma, Hiroshi; Fujimura, Yoko; Horikoshi, Akiko; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2004-11-01

    To explore the possibility of which medical radioactive wastes could be disposed as general wastes after keeping them a certain period of time and confirming that their radioactivity reach a background level (BGL), we made a survey of these wastes in several nuclear medicine facilities. The radioactive wastes were collected for one week, packed in a box according to its half-life, and measured its radioactivity by scintillation survey meter with time. Some wastes could reach a BGL within 10 times of half-life, but 19% of the short half-life group (group 1) including 99mTc and 123I, and 8% of the middle half-life group (group 2) including 67Ga, (111)In, and 201Tl did not reach a BGL within 20 times of half-life. A reason for delaying the time of reaching a BGL might be partially attributed to high initial radiation dose rate or heavy package weight. However, mixing with the nuclides of longer half-life was estimated to be the biggest factor affecting this result. When disposing medical radioactive wastes as general wastes, it is necessary to avoid mixing with radionuclide of longer half-life and confirm that it reaches a BGL by actual measurement.

  5. Earth Science Contexts for Teaching Physics. Part 2: Contexts Relating to the Teaching of Energy, Earth and Beyond and Radioactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris; Kennett, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains how physics teaching can be more relevant for elementary and secondary students by integrating physics and earth science content that students can relate to and understand. Identifies and explains Earth contexts that can be appropriately implemented into the physics curriculum such as energy resources and radioactivity. (Author/YDS)

  6. The measurement of Earth rotation on a deformable Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Until recently, the methods of geodetic positioning on the Earth were limited to a precision of roughly one part in 10 to the 6th power. At this level of precision, the Earth can be regarded as a rigid body since the largest departure of the Earth from rigidity is manifested in the strains of the Earth tides which are of the order of one part in 10 to the 7th power. Long baseline interferometry is expected to routinely provide global positioning to a precision of one part in 10 to the 8th power or better. At this level of precision, all parts of the Earth's surface must be regarded as being, at least potentially, in continual motion relative to the geocenter as a result of a variety of geophysical effects. The general implications of this phenomenon for the theory of the Earth's rotation is discussed. Particular attention is given to the question of the measurement of the 'Earth's rotation vector' on a deformable Earth.

  7. System for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers

    SciT

    Gross, V.

    1980-07-08

    A system is described for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers, comprising: a set of containers adapted for receiving aqueous solutions of biological samples containing biopolymers which are subsequently precipitated in said containers on particles of diatomite in the presence of a coprecipitator, then filtered, dissolved, and mixed with a scintillator; radioactivity measuring means including a detection chamber to which is fed the mixture produced in said set of containers; an electric drive for moving said set of containers in a stepwise manner; means for proportional feeding of said coprecipitator and a suspension of diatomite in an acid solution to saidmore » containers which contain the biological sample for forming an acid precipitation of biopolymers; means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers; precipitated biopolymer filtering means for successively filtering the precipitate, suspending the precipitate, dissolving the biopolymers mixed with said scintillator for feeding of the mixture to said detection chamber; a system of pipelines interconnecting said above-recited means; and said means for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers including, a measuring cell arranged in a detection chamber and communicating with said means for filtering precipitated biopolymers through one pipeline of said system of pipelines; a program unit electrically connected to said electric drive, said means for acid precipatation of biopolymers, said means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers, said filtering means, and said radioactivity measuring device; said program unit adapted to periodically switch on and off the above-recited means and check the sequence of the radioactivity measuring operations; and a control unit for controlling the initiation of the system and for selecting programs.« less

  8. [Working environment measurement of radioactive substances].

    PubMed

    Kunugita, Naoki

    2007-12-01

    The control of the working environment is one of the most important duties in any working place to prevent occupational disease. In Japan, in the case of the controlled area using unsealed radioisotopes, the measurement of the concentration of airborne radioactive substances should be carried out under the regulations of the "Industrial Safety and Health Law" and the "Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards". Many reports showed that the results of regular working environment measurements of radioactive substances were about background levels. Safe working environments are sufficiently guaranteed by a suitable estimation and handling under the strict regulation by the "Laws Concerning the Prevention from Radiation Hazards Due to Radioisotopes and Others". The regulation by "Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards" would be relaxed in the field of education and research, which use very low quantities of radioactive substances, in ways such as estimation by calculation in place of the actual measurement, decrease of the number of monthly measurements, and measurement exemption for low levels of isotopes.

  9. Radioactive rare-earth deposit at Scrub Oaks mine, Morris County, New Jersey

    Klemic, Harry; Heyl, A.V.; Taylor, Audrey R.; Stone, Jerome

    1959-01-01

    A deposit of rare-earth minerals in the Scrub Oaks iron mine, Morris County, N. J., was mapped and sampled in 1955. The rare-earth minerals are mainly in coarse-grained magnetite ore and in pegmatite adjacent to it. Discrete bodies of rare-earth-bearing magnetite ore apparently follow the plunge of the main magnetite ore body at the north end of the mine. Radioactivity of the ore containing rare earths is about 0.2 to 0.6 mllliroentgens per hour. The principal minerals of the deposit are quartz, magnetite, hematite, albiteoligoclase, perthite and antiperthite. Xenotime and doverite aggregates and bastnaesite with intermixed leucoxene are the most abundant rare-earth minerals, and zircon, sphene, chevkinite, apatite, and monazite are of minor abundance in the ore. The rare-earth elements are partly differentiated into cerium-rich bastnaesite, chevkinite, and monazite, and yttrium-rich xenotime and doverite. Apatite, zircon, and sphene contain both cerium and yttrium group earths. Eleven samples of radioactive ore and rock average 0.009 percent uranium, 0.062 percent thorium, 1.51 percent combined rare-earth oxides including yttrium oxide and 24.8 percent iron. Scatter diagrams of sample data show a direct correlation between equivalent uranium, uranium, thorium, and combined rare^ earth oxides. Both cerium- and yttrium-group earths are abundant in the rare-earth minerals. Radioactive magnetite ore containing rare-earth minerals probably formed as a variant of the magnetite mineralization that produced the main iron ore of the Scrub Oaks deposit. The rare-earth minerals and the iron ore were deposited contemporaneously. Zircon crystals, probably deposited at the same time, have been determined by the Larsen method to be about 550 to 600 million years old (late Precambrian age). Uranium, thorium, and rare-earth elements are potential byproducts of iron in the coarse-grained magnetite ore.

  10. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Methods of measuring radioactivity in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Mats

    In this thesis a variety of sampling methods have been utilised to assess the amount of deposited activity, mainly of 137Cs, from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapons tests. Starting with the Chernobyl accident in 1986 sampling of air and rain was used to determine the composition and amount of radioactive debris from this accident, brought to southern Sweden by the weather systems. The resulting deposition and its removal from urban areas was than studied through measurements on sewage sludge and water. The main part of the thesis considers methods of determining the amount of radiocaesium in the ground through soil sampling. In connection with soil sampling a method of optimising the sampling procedure has been developed and tested in the areas of Sweden which have a comparatively high amount of 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident. This method was then used in a survey of the activity in soil in Lund and Skane, divided between nuclear weapons fallout and fallout from the Chernobyl accident. By comparing the results from this survey with deposition calculated from precipitation measurements it was found possible to predict the deposition pattern over Skane for both nuclear weapons fallout and fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In addition, the vertical distribution of 137Cs has been modelled and the temporal variation of the depth distribution has been described.

  12. Radioactivity measurement of radioactive contaminated soil by using a fiber-optic radiation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    A fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. The FORS was fabricated using an inorganic scintillator (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce), a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener, aluminum foil, and a plastic optical fiber. Before its real application, the FORS was tested to determine if it performed adequately. The test result showed that the measurements by the FORS adequately followed the theoretically estimated values. Then, the FORS was applied to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. For comparison, a commercial radiation detector was also applied to measure the same soil samples. The measurement data were analyzed by using a statistical parameter, the critical level to determine if net radioactivity statistically different from background was present in the soil sample. The analysis showed that the soil sample had radioactivity distinguishable from background.

  13. Status of the geopotential. [earth gravity measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging, satellite altimetry, and improved measurements of surface gravitational anomalies have broadened the data base on intermediate and short wavelength regions of the earth gravity field. The global data set served to develop new geopotential models with a resolution in spherical harmonics out to degree 180. The resolution was made possible using Seasat altimetry data containing 56,761 values of 1 x 1 deg gravity anomalies. Satellite-to-satellite tracking techniques involving the Geos-3 and Apollo spacecraft data for the sea surface temperature have yielded accurate intermediate wavelength gravity variations which correlate well with residual depth anomalies. Oceanic gravity anomalies have been computed directly from satellite altimetry or through statistical estimation using oceanic geoid heights. The data sets for gravimetric geoids have been compared with altimetric surfaces to identify areas which were of interest for geophysical investigation. Future data sets could become available from a proposed satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking system (Gravsat) launched by NASA.

  14. Earth rotation measured by lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolz, A.; Bender, P. L.; Faller, J. E.; Silverberg, E. C.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.; Williams, J. G.; Carter, W. E.; Currie, D. G.; Kaula, V. M.

    1976-01-01

    The estimated median accuracy of 194 single-day determinations of the earth's angular position in space is 0.7 millisecond (0.01 arc second). Comparison with classical astronomical results gives agreement to about the expected 2-millisecond uncertainty of the 5-day averages obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure. Little evidence for very rapid variations in the earth's rotation is present in the data.

  15. Use of radioactive sources in measuring characteristics of snowpacks

    Henry W. Anderson; Philip M. McDonald; Lloyd W. Gay

    1963-01-01

    Use of radioactive probes inserted in mountain snowpacks may make possible more accurate appraisal and prediction of snowmelt water. Commercially available gamma and neutron probes were tested for their ability to measure snow density, ice lenses, and the thermal quality of individual layers in the snowpack.

  16. The Distribution of Heat-Producing Radioactive Elements in the Deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidester, Bethany A.

    The Earth is a heat engine, where large differences in temperature between the interior and the surface drive large-scale movement that manifests as plate tectonics and the geomagnetic field that protects us from the Sun's harmful charged particles. Decay of the long-lived radioactive elements U, Th, and K is expected to contribute as much as 45% of the current heat production in the Earth, and that heat production was five times higher early in Earth's history. It is unclear how this heat source affects the thermal and dynamic evolution of the Earth's core and mantle and how that contribution has changed over geologic time. This dissertation addresses this problem in several different ways. This work represents the first high-pressure, high-temperature metal-silicate partitioning experiments for U, Th, and K in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell at conditions relevant to core formation. A chemical model is developed using parameterization of these partitioning data to constrain the concentrations of each of these elements in the core. Using a numerical calculation, it is then determined how that radioactive heat would contribute to the core's energy and entropy budget through time. One finds that, despite its strong lithophile nature at the surface, U partitions significantly into the metallic phase at increasing temperatures. This may be due to a decrease in U valence from 4+ to 2+ in high-pressure silicate melts, which our data supports. However, K and Th do not exhibit a similar change in behavior at these conditions, and this may drive fractionation between U and Th in the deep mantle. At the most extreme conditions of core formation, enough U could exist in the core to produce up to 4.4 TW of heat 4.5 billion years ago. Potassium could produce much less heat than U early on (< 1 TW), and due to its short half-life, would have decayed away much faster. While this energy source is significantly greater than was previously thought to be possible, it is likely

  17. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  18. Gastro-Intestinal Blood Loss Measured by Radioactive Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, A. D.

    1960-01-01

    A new technique is described for the measurement of blood loss in the faeces of patients labelled with radioactive chromium (51Cr). The method is simple and is probably more accurate at low levels of faecal radioactivity than those previously described. The method will measure as little as 0·02μC of 51Cr in whole blood in a 24-hour stool. The apparent average daily blood loss in a series of 10 normal people averaged 0·6 ml., with a range of 0·3 to 1·3 ml. Estimations of plasma and salivary radioactivity have been made in an attempt to assess the importance of contamination from eluted 51Cr. Minor radioactivity in plasma but none in saliva was recorded. Stool contamination from such sources is thought to be insignificant. No significant correlation existed between chemical occult blood tests and isotope measurements, where there was less than 10 ml. of whole blood in a 24-hour stool. PMID:13807135

  19. What can earth tide measurements tell us about ocean tides or earth structure?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    Current experimental problems in Earth tides are reviewed using comparisons of tidal gravity and tilt measurements in Europe with loading calculations are examples. The limitations of present day instrumentation and installation techniques are shown as well as some of the ways in which they can be improved. Many of the geophysical and oceanographic investigations that are possible with Earth tide measurements are discussed with emphasis on the percentage accuracies required in the measurements in order to obtain new information about Earth or its oceans.

  20. MEASUREMENT OF TIME INTERVALS FOR TIME CORRELATED RADIOACTIVE DECAY

    SciT

    Lindeman, H.; Mornel, E.; Galil, U.

    1960-11-01

    The distribution of time intervals between successive counts was measured for radioactive decay in the thorium series. The measurements showed that the classical Marsden-Barratt law does not apply to this case of timecorrelated decay. They appeared, however, to be in agreement with the theory of Lindeman-Rosen, taking into account the fact that the counter receives only the radiation emitted in a solid angle near to 2 pi . (auth)

  1. Measuring the Earth's Magnetic Field in a Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartacci, A.; Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    Two methods for measuring the Earth's magnetic field are described. In the former, according to Gauss, the Earth's magnetic field is compared with that of a permanent magnet; in the latter, a well-known method, the comparison is made with the magnetic field generated by a current. As all the used instruments are available off the shelf, both…

  2. Do radioactive half-lives vary with the Earth-to-Sun distance?

    PubMed

    Hardy, J C; Goodwin, J R; Iacob, V E

    2012-09-01

    Recently, Jenkins, Fischbach and collaborators have claimed evidence that radionuclide half-lives vary systematically over a ±0.1% range as a function of the oscillating distance between the Earth and the Sun, based on multi-year activity measurements. We have avoided the time-dependent instabilities to which such measurements are susceptible by directly measuring the half-life of (198)Au (t(1/2)=2.695 d) on seven occasions spread out in time to cover the complete range of Earth-Sun distances. We observe no systematic oscillations in half-life and can set an upper limit on their amplitude of ±0.02%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NASA's Space Lidar Measurements of Earth and Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.

    2010-01-01

    A lidar instrument on a spacecraft was first used to measure planetary surface height and topography on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon in 1971, The lidar was based around a flashlamp-pumped ruby laser, and the Apollo 15-17 missions used them to make a few thousand measurements of lunar surface height from orbit. With the advent of diode pumped lasers in the late 1980s, the lifetime, efficiency, resolution and mass of lasers and space lidar all improved dramatically. These advances were utilized in NASA space missions to map the shape and surface topography of Mars with > 600 million measurements, demonstrate initial space measurements of the Earth's topography, and measured the detailed shape of asteroid. NASA's ICESat mission in Earth orbit just completed its polar ice measurement mission with almost 2 billion measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, and demonstrated measurements to Antarctica and Greenland with a height resolution of a few em. Space missions presently in cruise phase and in operation include those to Mercury and a topographic mapping mission of the Moon. Orbital lidar also have been used in experiments to demonstrate laser ranging over planetary distances, including laser pulse transmission from Earth to Mars orbit. Based on the demonstrated value of the measurements, lidar is now the preferred measurement approach for many new scientific space missions. Some missions planned by NASA include a planetary mission to measure the shape and dynamics of Europa, and several Earth orbiting missions to continue monitoring ice sheet heights, measure vegetation heights, assess atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and to map the Earth surface topographic heights with 5 m spatial resolution. This presentation will give an overview of history, ongoing work, and plans for using space lidar for measurements of the surfaces of the Earth and planets.

  4. Measuring Earth's Radiation Budget from the Vicinity of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, W. H.; Lorentz, S. R.; Erlandson, R. E.; Cahalan, R. F.; Huang, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    We propose to measure Earth's radiation budget (integrated total and solar-reflected shortwave) using broadband radiometers and other technology demonstrated in space. The instrument is compact, autonomous, and has modest resource requirements.

  5. Instrumentation for measurements of lateral Earth pressure in drilled shafts.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1968-09-01

    This project involves the design, construction, and testing in the : laboratory and field of instrumentation capable of measuring the lateral : earth pressure along a drilled shaft. : A good deal of work" has been done concerning the development of p...

  6. Earth's Magnetic Field Measurements for the LCLS Undulators

    SciT

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-12-13

    Measurements of the earth's magnetic field at several locations at SLAC were conducted to determine the possible field error contribution from tuning the undulators in a location with a different magnetic field than that which will be found in the undulator hall. An average difference of 0.08 {+-} 0.04 Gauss has been measured between the downward earth's field components in the test facility and SLAC tunnel locations.

  7. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  8. Need for expanded environmental measurement capabilities in geosynchronous Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercanti, Enrico P.

    1991-01-01

    The proliferation of environmental satellites in low altitude earth orbit (LEO) has demonstrated the usefulness of earth remote sensing from space. As use of the technology grows, the limitations of LEO missions become more apparent. Many inadequacies can be met by remote sensing from geosynchronous earth orbits (GEO) that can provide high temporal resolution, consistent viewing of specific earth targets, long sensing dwell times with varying sun angles, stereoscopic coverage, and correlative measurements with ground and LEO observations. An environmental platform in GEO is being studied by NASA. Small research satellite missions in GEO were studied (1990) at GSFC. Some recent independent assessments of NASA Earth Science Programs recommend accelerating the earlier deployment of smaller missions.

  9. Down to Earth Solar Energy Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppegard, Milo

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of a calorimeter to be used in an experiment which consists of measuring the rate at which ground level solar radiation raises the temperature of the metal in the calorimeter. (GS)

  10. Combining Earth Orientation Measurements Using a Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R.

    2000-01-01

    A Kalman filter has many properties that make it an attractive choice as a technique for combining Earth orientation measurements. It allows the full accuracy of the measurements to be used, whether the measurements are degenerate or are of full rank, are irregularly or regularly spaced in time, or are corrupted by systematic or other errors that can be described by stochastic models.

  11. Improved pressurized Marinelli beaker measurements of radioactive xenon in air.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Troy; Mann, Nick; Houghton, Tracy; Watrous, Matthew; Peterson, John; Fabian, Paul; Hipp, Pat; Reavis, Mark; Fernandez, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    INL has shown that a Marinelli beaker geometry can be used for the measurement of radioactive xenon in air using an aluminum Marinelli. A carbon fiber Marinelli was designed and constructed to improve overall performance. This composite Marinelli can withstand sample pressures of 276bar and achieve approximately a 4x performance improvement in the minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) and concentration uncertainties. The MDCs obtained during a 24h assay for 133 Xe, 131m Xe, and 135 Xe are: 1.4, 13, and 0.35Bq/m 3 . Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Exploring the hidden interior of the Earth with directional neutrino measurements.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Michael; Dye, Stephen; Monroe, Jocelyn

    2017-07-10

    Roughly 40% of the Earth's total heat flow is powered by radioactive decays in the crust and mantle. Geo-neutrinos produced by these decays provide important clues about the origin, formation and thermal evolution of our planet, as well as the composition of its interior. Previous measurements of geo-neutrinos have all relied on the detection of inverse beta decay reactions, which are insensitive to the contribution from potassium and do not provide model-independent information about the spatial distribution of geo-neutrino sources within the Earth. Here we present a method for measuring previously unresolved components of Earth's radiogenic heating using neutrino-electron elastic scattering and low-background, direction-sensitive tracking detectors. We calculate the exposures needed to probe various contributions to the total geo-neutrino flux, specifically those associated to potassium, the mantle and the core. The measurements proposed here chart a course for pioneering exploration of the veiled inner workings of the Earth.

  13. Measuring the earth's rotation and orientation with GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Adam P.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities for providing precise and frequent measurements of earth's orientation in space by using GPS technology are reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the concepts as polar motion and Universal Time, definition of reference frames for unambiguous measurements of earth's rotations, and data processing strategies. Some of the results achieved to date are examined, and it is shown that Universal Time changes can be measured using GPS with an accuracy of better than 100 microseconds over a few hours. Finally, future plans are discussed.

  14. Understanding the shape of the Earth and measuring its size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltatzis, Evangelos; Galanaki, Angeliki

    2016-04-01

    Most elementary students have problems and misconceptions regarding the shape of the Earth. Teachers often contribute to this confusion telling the students that the Earth is almost spherical, but not explaining to them, how the Earth can be spherical while it appears. It would be helpful for students to understand how humanity came with the idea of the spherical Earth (to be precise the Earth is ellipsoid). Historically, most cultures describe the Earth as flat. That changes with the ancient Greek culture. We don't know exactly how the Greeks first understood the spherical shape of the Earth, but some Greek philosophers give some arguments why the Earth must be a sphere. We can discuss these arguments and observations with the students. First, if someone travels in the south, he can see the southern constellations rise higher above the horizon. We can give students pictures of the night sky in southern regions and compare them with observations of ''their'' night sky. Second, in the lunar eclipse we can see the round shadow of the Earth. Third, whenever a ship is on the horizon, his low part is invisible . This is known as "hull-down". Moreover, the low part of mountains is invisible from the sea, due to the curvature of the Earth. It is always better to make these observations in real life but it can also be done via videos and pictures. The realization of the spherical shape of the Earth was sine qua non for the first good measurement of its size. In the second part of the project, following the ancient mathematician Eratosthenes's steps, students can measure the size of the Earth, , find pleasure in doing experimental work and realize how important mathematics is in everyday life. Two sticks, situated a long distance away from each other, can give us approximately the circumference , the radius and the diameter of the Earth. Eratosthenes used geometry combined to the knowledge of ancient Greek culture that the Earth is spherical (360°). He knew the distance

  15. Future radiation measurements in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The first Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission has demonstrated the value of the LDEF concept for deep surveys of the space radiation environment. The kinds of measurements that could be done on a second LDEF mission are discussed. Ideas are discussed for experiments which: (1) capitalize on the discoveries from LDEF 1; (2) take advantage of LDEF's unique capabilities; and (3) extend the investigations begun on LDEF 1. These ideas have been gleaned from investigators on LDEF 1 and others interested in the space radiation environment. They include new approaches to the investigation of Be-7 that was discovered on LDEF 1, concepts to obtain further information on the ionic charge state of cosmic rays and other energetic particles in space and other ideas to extend the investigations begun on LDEF 1.

  16. Modern Replication of Eratosthenes' Measurement of the Circumference of Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes' experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38,874?km, measured at Rosebud,…

  17. A New Perspective on Eratosthenes' Measurement of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald A.; Kumar, Alok

    2011-01-01

    Around 240 B.C., Eratosthenes made what is considered to be the most famous and accurate of the ancient measurements of the circumference of the Earth. It was accomplished by making "presumably simultaneous" measurements of the angles of the shadows cast by a vertical stick at Syene (today known as Aswan) and another at Alexandria, at noon on the…

  18. Apparatus for providing directional permeability measurements in subterranean earth formations

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-01-01

    Directional permeability measurements are provided in a subterranean earth formation by injecting a high-pressure gas from a wellbore into the earth formation in various azimuthal directions with the direction having the largest pressure drop being indicative of the maximum permeability direction. These measurements are provided by employing an inflatable boot containing a plurality of conduits in registry with a like plurality of apertures penetrating the housing at circumferentially spaced-apart locations. These conduits are, in turn, coupled through a valved manifold to a source of pressurized gas so that the high-pressure gas may be selectively directed through any conduit into the earth formation defining the bore with the resulting difference in the pressure drop through the various conduits providing the permeability measurements.

  19. Interlaboratory tests for low-level radioactivity measurements in France

    SciT

    Despres, M.

    In the framework of French national metrological coordination, the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants (LMRI) organizes every year an interlaboratory test program. The participation in these programs is on a voluntary basis and the results are presented in a nameless way. These tests concern radioactivity, neutron and dosimetry measurements. In this paper, a review of interlaboratory tests for low-level radioactivity measurements proposed by LMRI is given from 1975 to 1986. Every year, three types of tests are proposed: activity tests, multigamma tests, radioanalysis tests. For the last ten years, the number of results has been respectively 90 for activitymore » tests, 570 for multigamma tests and 400 for radioanalysis tests. The user's interest has increased, while the quality of results has improved. The deviations from LMRI's reference values are less than 3% for a restricted number of laboratories, and range between 3 and 10% for the majority of the others. The most urgent tests are for mixtures of {sup 90}Sr and activation and fission products in various matrices such as milk, grass, cereals, and sediments. 16 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  20. Natural radioactivity measurements of building materials in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Caifeng; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Natural radioactivity due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the common building materials collected from Baotou city of Inner Mongolia, China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiation hazard of the studied building materials was estimated by the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), internal hazard index (H(in)) and annual effective dose (AED). The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and Ra(eq) in the studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of other countries. The Ra(eq) values of the building materials are below the internationally accepted values (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of H(in) in all studied building materials are less than unity. The AEDs of all measured building materials are at an acceptable level.

  1. A low-cost miniaturised detector for environmental radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen; Briggs, Aaron; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Baird, Adam

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a low-cost (£ few hundred), low-power (40mA), low-mass (30g) detector for environmental radioactivity measurements, using scintillator and solid state technology. The detector can measure energy and therefore has the capability to distinguish between different types of energetic particle. Results from recent tests, when our detector was integrated with a meteorological radiosonde system, and flew on a balloon up to 25km, identified the transition region between energetic particles near the surface, dominated by terrestrial gamma emissions, and higher-energy particles in the free troposphere from cosmic rays. The detector can be used with Bluetooth technology for remote monitoring, which is particularly useful for hazardous areas. It is also small and cheap enough to be used in sensor networks for a wide range of applications, from atmospheric science to disaster monitoring.

  2. The NIST radioactivity measurement assurance program for the radiopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Cessna, Jeffrey T; Golas, Daniel B

    2012-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) maintains a program for the establishment and dissemination of activity measurement standards in nuclear medicine. These standards are disseminated through Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), Calibration Services, radionuclide calibrator settings, and the NIST Radioactivity Measurement Assurance Program (NRMAP, formerly the NEI/NIST MAP). The MAP for the radiopharmaceutical industry is described here. Consolidated results show that, for over 3600 comparisons, 96% of the participants' results differed from that of NIST by less than 10%, with 98% being less than 20%. Individual radionuclide results are presented from 214 to 439 comparisons, per radionuclide, for (67)Ga, (90)Y, (99m)Tc, (99)Mo, (111)In, (125)I, (131)I, and (201)Tl. The percentage of participants results within 10% of NIST ranges from 88% to 98%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Expected Improvements in VLBI Measurements of the Earth's Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the Earth s orientation since the 1970s using space geodetic techniques have provided a continually expanding and improving data set for studies of the Earth s structure and the distribution of mass and angular momentum. The accuracy of current one-day measurements is better than 100 microarcsec for the motion of the pole with respect to the celestial and terrestrial reference frames and better than 3 microsec for the rotation around the pole. VLBI uniquely provides the three Earth orientation parameters (nutation and UTI) that relate the Earth to the extragalactic celestial reference frame. The accuracy and resolution of the VLBI Earth orientation time series can be expected to improve substantially in the near future because of refinements in the realization of the celestial reference frame, improved modeling of the troposphere and non-linear station motions, larger observing networks, optimized scheduling, deployment of disk-based Mark V recorders, full use of Mark IV capabilities, and e-VLBI. More radical future technical developments will be discussed.

  4. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, A.; Feige, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Paul, M.; Fifield, L.K.; Golser, R.; Honda, M.; Linnemann, U.; Matsuzaki, H.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Tims, S.G.; Steier, P.; Yamagata, T.; Winkler, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of supernovae (SNe) in our local galactic neighborhood within a distance of ~100 parsec from Earth (1 parsec (pc)=3.26 light years) is estimated at 1 SN every 2-4 million years (Myr), based on the total SN-rate in the Milky Way (2.0±0.7 per century1,2). Recent massive-star and SN activity in Earth’s vicinity may be evidenced by traces of radionuclides with half-lives t1/2 ≤100 Myr3-6, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System (SS). One such radionuclide is 60Fe (t1/2=2.6 Myr)7,8 which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars1,2,9. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts10,11, is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. Deep-sea archives from all major oceans were analyzed for 60Fe deposition via accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results, based on 60Fe atom-counting at state-of-the-art sensitivity8, reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth 1.7–3.2 Myr and 6.5–8.7 Myr ago. The measured signal implies that a few percent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ~10 Myr at nearby distances ≤100 pc. PMID:27078565

  5. Altimeter measurements for the determination of the Earth's gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the following areas is described: refining altimeter and altimeter crossover measurement models for precise orbit determination and for the solution of the earth's gravity field; performing experiments using altimeter data for the improvement of precise satellite ephemerides; and analyzing an optimal relative data weighting algorithm to combine various data types in the solution of the gravity field.

  6. Semiconductor laser-based ranging instrument for earth gravity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Millar, Pamela S.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1995-01-01

    A laser ranging instrument is being developed to measure the spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field. It will range in space to a cube corner on a passive co-orbiting sub-satellite with a velocity accuracy of 20 to 50 microns/sec by using AlGaAs lasers intensity modulated at 2 GHz.

  7. Earth Sensor Assembly for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Steven S.; Hoover, James M.

    1995-01-01

    EDO Corporation/Barnes Engineering Division (BED) has provided the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), a key element in the TRMM spacecraft's attitude control system. This report documents the history, design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the ESA.

  8. A cavity radiometer for Earth albedo measurement, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Radiometric measurements of the directional albedo of the Earth requires a detector with a flat response from 0.2 to 50 microns, a response time of about 2 seconds, a sensitivity of the order of 0.02 mw/sq cm, and a measurement uncertainty of less than 5 percent. Absolute cavity radiometers easily meet the spectral response and accuracy requirements for Earth albedo measurements, but the radiometers available today lack the necessary sensitivity and response time. The specific innovations addressed were the development of a very low thermal mass cavity and printed/deposited thermocouple sensing elements which were incorporated into the radiometer design to produce a sensitive, fast response, absolute radiometer. The cavity is applicable to the measurement of the reflected and radiated fluxes from the Earth surface and lower atmosphere from low Earth orbit satellites. The effort consisted of requirements and thermal analysis; design, construction, and test of prototype elements of the black cavity and sensor elements to show proof-of-concept. The results obtained indicate that a black body cavity sensor that has inherently a flat response from 0.2 to 50 microns can be produced which has a sensitivity of at least 0.02 mw/sq cm per micro volt ouput and with a time constant of less than two seconds. Additional work is required to develop the required thermopile.

  9. Simple System to Measure the Earth's Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoglu, R.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

    2010-01-01

    Our aim in this proposal is to use Faraday's law of induction as a simple lecture demonstration to measure the Earths magnetic field (B). This will also enable the students to learn about how electric power is generated from rotational motion. Obviously the idea is not original, yet it may be attractive in the sense that no sophisticated devices…

  10. Satellite measurements of the earth's crustal magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The literature associated with the Magsat mission has evaluated the capabilities and limitations of satellite measurements of the earth's crustal magnetic field, and demonstrated that there exists a 300-3000 km magnetic field, related to major features in the earth's crust, which is primarily caused by induction. Due to its scale and sensitivity, satellite data have been useful in the development of models for such large crustal features as subduction zones, submarine platforms, continental accretion boundaries, and rifts. Attention is presently given to the lack of agreement between laboratory and satellite estimates of lower crustal magnetization.

  11. Predictions of LDEF radioactivity and comparison with measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Harmon, B. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the program to utilize LDEF data for evaluation and improvement of current ionizing radiation environmental models and related predictive methods for future LEO missions, calculations have been carried out to compare with the induced radioactivity measured in metal samples placed on LDEF. The predicted activation is about a factor of two lower than observed, which is attributed to deficiencies in the AP8 trapped proton model. It is shown that this finding based on activation sample data is consistent with comparisons made with other LDEF activation and dose data. Plans for confirming these results utilizing additional LDEF data sets, and plans for model modifications to improve the agreement with LDEF data, are discussed.

  12. Measuring the Earth to within an inch using GPS satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    A recently developed technique for “measuring the Earth” was demonstrated in 1991 using data from an experiment involving a world-wide network of receivers that track satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recent results indicate that distances between points separated by as much as 10,000 km on the surface of the Earth can be determined at the 2 cm level, and that the position of the pole of rotation at the Earth's surface can be estimated daily to better than 2 cm. Achieving this level of accuracy in a reliable, economical way is an important step towards building our understanding of the Earth as a rotating, deforming body.Funded by NASA's Solid Earth Science Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory coordinated participation of many international institutions in a 3-week experiment in January-February 1991 called GPS for International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) and Geodynamics '91 (GIG'91). Twenty-one receivers developed by J PL and scores of commercial receivers were simultaneously deployed. Several independent groups around the world analyzed the data and presented results at meetings in the summer and fall of 1991.

  13. Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic based salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Son, S. M.; Lee, T. K.; Yang, H. C.; Kim, I. T.; Lee, H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was studied to recover renewable salts from the salt wastes and to minimize the radioactive wastes by using a vacuum distillation method. Vaporization of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was effective above 900 °C and at 5 Torr. The condensations of the vaporized salt were largely dependent on temperature gradient. Based on these results, a recycling system of the salt wastes as a closed loop type was developed to obtain a high efficiency of the salt recovery condition. In this system, it was confirmed that renewable salt was recovered at more than 99 wt.% from the salt wastes, and the changes in temperature and pressure in the system could be utilized to understand the present condition of the system operation.

  14. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Zaitsev, Boris N.; Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M.; Lazarev, Leonard N.; Dzekun, Evgeniy G.; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.; Herbst, Ronald S.; Law, Jack D.

    2001-01-01

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  15. Understanding the Earth's Mantle Through Advanced Elasticity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, Hauke; Schulze, Kirsten; Kurnosov, Alexander; Buchen, Johannes; Frost, Daniel; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Marquardt, Katharina; Kawazoe, Takaaki

    2017-04-01

    Constraints on the inner structure, chemical and mineralogical composition as well as dynamics of Earth's mantle can be derived through comparison of laboratory elasticity data to seismological observables. A quantitative knowledge of the elastic properties of mantle minerals, and their variations with chemical composition, at pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's mantle is key to construct reliable synthetic mineral physics-based seismic velocity models to be compared to seismic observables. We will discuss results of single-crystal elasticity measurements on Earth mantle minerals that have been conducted using the combined Brillouin scattering and x-ray diffraction (XRD) system at BGI Bayreuth in combination with advanced sample preparation using the focused ion beam (FIB) technique [1] that allows for tailoring sizes and shapes of tiny single-crystals. In our experiments, multiple FIB-prepared single-crystals were loaded in a single sample chamber of a resistively-heated diamond-anvil cell (DAC). The possiblity to measure simultaneously acoustic wave velocities and density (unit-cell parameters) in the DAC in combination with the multi-sample approach facilitates direct quantification of the effects of chemical substitution on the elasticity and seismic wave velocities at non-ambient conditions. Our experimental approach eliminates uncertainties arising from the combination of data collected under (potentially) different conditions in several DAC runs, in different laboratories and/or from using different pressure-temperature sensors. We will present our recent experiments on the elasticity of single-crystal Fe-Al-bearing bridgmanite in the lower mantle and discuss implications for the composition and oxidation state of Earth's lower mantle. We will further discuss our laboratory data on the effects of 'water' and iron on the seismic wave velocities of ringwoodite in Earth's transition zone and outline implications for mapping 'water' in the transition

  16. ASTROPHYSICAL SHRAPNEL: DISCRIMINATING AMONG NEAR-EARTH STELLAR EXPLOSION SOURCES OF LIVE RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES

    SciT

    Fry, Brian J.; Fields, Brian D.; Ellis, John R.

    2015-02-10

    We consider the production and deposition on Earth of isotopes with half-lives in the range 10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} yr that might provide signatures of nearby stellar explosions, extending previous analyses of Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) to include Electron-Capture Supernovae (ECSNe), Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch (SAGB) stars, Thermonuclear/Type Ia Supernovae (TNSNe), and Kilonovae/Neutron Star Mergers (KNe). We revisit previous estimates of the {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al signatures, and extend these estimates to include {sup 244}Pu and {sup 53}Mn. We discuss interpretations of the {sup 60}Fe signals in terrestrial and lunar reservoirs in terms of a nearby stellar ejection ∼2.2 Myr ago, showingmore » that (1) the {sup 60}Fe yield rules out the TNSN and KN interpretations, (2) the {sup 60}Fe signals highly constrain SAGB interpretations but do not completely them rule out, (3) are consistent with a CCSN origin, and (4) are highly compatible with an ECSN interpretation. Future measurements could resolve the radioisotope deposition over time, and we use the Sedov blast wave solution to illustrate possible time-resolved profiles. Measuring such profiles would independently probe the blast properties including distance, and would provide additional constraints for the nature of the explosion.« less

  17. Improved detection of radioactive material using a series of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jenelle

    The goal of this project is to develop improved algorithms for detection of radioactive sources that have low signal compared to background. The detection of low signal sources is of interest in national security applications where the source may have weak ionizing radiation emissions, is heavily shielded, or the counting time is short (such as portal monitoring). Traditionally to distinguish signal from background the decision threshold (y*) is calculated by taking a long background count and limiting the false negative error (alpha error) to 5%. Some problems with this method include: background is constantly changing due to natural environmental fluctuations and large amounts of data are being taken as the detector continuously scans that are not utilized. Rather than looking at a single measurement, this work investigates looking at a series of N measurements and develops an appropriate decision threshold for exceeding the decision threshold n times in a series of N. This methodology is investigated for a rectangular, triangular, sinusoidal, Poisson, and Gaussian distribution.

  18. ICP-MS measurement of natural radioactivity at LNGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisi, S.; Copia, L.; Dafinei, I.; di Vacri, M. L.

    2017-10-01

    Rare events search experiments, like those dedicated to the direct evidence of dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, are among the most exciting challenges of modern physics. The sensitivity of such experiments is driven by the background, which depends substantially on the radiopurity of the materials used for the experimental apparatus. Cutting edge measurement techniques are needed for a fast, sensitive and efficient screening of these materials and the certification of their production. Trace element measurements of high sensitivity and quick execution are mandatory also in other fields like tracing the geographical origin of food, temporal and geographical assignment of cultural heritage or monitoring environmental radioactivity. This work is an overview of the inorganic mass spectrometry facility available at Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) for radiopure material screening and is especially focused on its ICP-MS instrumentation. Analytical methods developed to achieve lowest detection limits in different types of matrix, like metals, polymers, crystals and composite materials, are also indicated. Detection limits of 10-18gg-1 for 226Ra, 10-14gg-1 for U and Th and 10-12gg-1 for K are attained through dedicated operation conditions of the instrumentation. Details are given on the results obtained for different experiments ongoing or under construction at LNGS.

  19. Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of

  20. Exploring the hidden interior of the Earth with directional neutrino measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Leyton, Michael; Dye, Stephen; Monroe, Jocelyn

    2017-07-10

    Roughly 40% of the Earth’s total heat flow is powered by radioactive decays in the crust and mantle. Geo-neutrinos produced by these decays provide important clues about the origin, formation and thermal evolution of our planet, as well as the composition of its interior. Previous measurements of geo-neutrinos have all relied on the detection of inverse beta decay reactions, which are insensitive to the contribution from potassium and do not provide model-independent information about the spatial distribution of geo-neutrino sources within the Earth. Here in this paper we present a method for measuring previously unresolved components of Earth’s radiogenic heatingmore » using neutrino-electron elastic scattering and low-background, direction-sensitive tracking detectors.We calculate the exposures needed to probe various contributions to the total geo-neutrino flux, specifically those associated to potassium, the mantle and the core. The measurements proposed here chart a course for pioneering exploration of the veiled inner workings of the Earth.« less

  1. Exploring the hidden interior of the Earth with directional neutrino measurements

    SciT

    Leyton, Michael; Dye, Stephen; Monroe, Jocelyn

    Roughly 40% of the Earth’s total heat flow is powered by radioactive decays in the crust and mantle. Geo-neutrinos produced by these decays provide important clues about the origin, formation and thermal evolution of our planet, as well as the composition of its interior. Previous measurements of geo-neutrinos have all relied on the detection of inverse beta decay reactions, which are insensitive to the contribution from potassium and do not provide model-independent information about the spatial distribution of geo-neutrino sources within the Earth. Here in this paper we present a method for measuring previously unresolved components of Earth’s radiogenic heatingmore » using neutrino-electron elastic scattering and low-background, direction-sensitive tracking detectors.We calculate the exposures needed to probe various contributions to the total geo-neutrino flux, specifically those associated to potassium, the mantle and the core. The measurements proposed here chart a course for pioneering exploration of the veiled inner workings of the Earth.« less

  2. Exploring the hidden interior of the Earth with directional neutrino measurements

    PubMed Central

    Leyton, Michael; Dye, Stephen; Monroe, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Roughly 40% of the Earth’s total heat flow is powered by radioactive decays in the crust and mantle. Geo-neutrinos produced by these decays provide important clues about the origin, formation and thermal evolution of our planet, as well as the composition of its interior. Previous measurements of geo-neutrinos have all relied on the detection of inverse beta decay reactions, which are insensitive to the contribution from potassium and do not provide model-independent information about the spatial distribution of geo-neutrino sources within the Earth. Here we present a method for measuring previously unresolved components of Earth’s radiogenic heating using neutrino-electron elastic scattering and low-background, direction-sensitive tracking detectors. We calculate the exposures needed to probe various contributions to the total geo-neutrino flux, specifically those associated to potassium, the mantle and the core. The measurements proposed here chart a course for pioneering exploration of the veiled inner workings of the Earth. PMID:28691700

  3. Altimeter measurements for the determination of the Earth's gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of satellite-borne radar altimeter data to measure the global ocean surface with high precision and dense spatial coverage provides a unique tool for the mapping of the Earth's gravity field and its geoid. The altimeter crossover measurements, created by differencing direct altimeter measurements at the subsatellite points where the orbit ground tracks intersect, have the distinct advantage of eliminating geoid error and other nontemporal or long period oceanographic features. In the 1990's, the joint U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON mission and the European Space Agency's ERS-1 mission will carry radar altimeter instruments capable of global ocean mapping with high precision. This investigation aims at the development and application of dynamically consistent direct altimeter and altimeter crossover measurement models to the simultaneous mapping of the Earth's gravity field and its geoid, the ocean tides and the quasi-stationary component of the dynamic sea surface topography. Altimeter data collected by SEASAT, GEOS-3, and GEOSAT are used for the investigation.

  4. Absolute Radiation Measurements in Earth and Mars Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of radiative heating for shock heated flows which simulate conditions for Mars and Earth entries. Radiation measurements are made in NASA Ames' Electric Arc Shock Tube at velocities from 3-15 km/s in mixtures of N2/O2 and CO2/N2/Ar. The technique and limitations of the measurement are summarized in some detail. The absolute measurements will be discussed in regards to spectral features, radiative magnitude and spatiotemporal trends. Via analysis of spectra it is possible to extract properties such as electron density, and rotational, vibrational and electronic temperatures. Relaxation behind the shock is analyzed to determine how these properties relax to equilibrium and are used to validate and refine kinetic models. It is found that, for some conditions, some of these values diverge from non-equilibrium indicating a lack of similarity between the shock tube and free flight conditions. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  5. LIDAR technology for measuring trace gases on Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riris, H.; Abshire, J. B.; Graham, Allan; Hasselbrack, William; Rodriguez, Mike; Sun, Xiaoli; Weaver, Clark; Mao, Jianping; Kawa, Randy; Li, Steve; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    Trace gases and their isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres offer important but subtle clues as to the origins of a planet's atmosphere, hydrology, geology, and potential for biology. An orbiting laser remote sensing instrument is capable of measuring trace gases on a global scale with unprecedented accuracy, and higher spatial resolution that can be obtained by passive instruments. For Earth we have developed laser technique for the remote measurement of the tropospheric CO2, O2, and CH4 concentrations from space. Our goal is to develop a space instrument and mission approach for active CO2 measurements. Our technique uses several on and off-line wavelengths tuned to the CO2 and O2 absorption lines. This exploits the atmospheric pressure broadening of the gas lines to weigh the measurement sensitivity to the atmospheric column below 5 km and maximizes sensitivity to CO2 changes in the boundary layer where variations caused by surface sources and sinks are largest. Simultaneous measurements of O2 column use a selected region in the Oxygen A-band. Laser altimetry and atmospheric backscatter can also be measured simultaneously, which permits determining the surface height and measurements made to thick cloud tops and through aerosol layers. We use the same technique but with a different transmitter at 1.65 um to measure methane concentrations. Methane is also a very important trace gas on earth, and a stronger greenhouse gas than CO2 on a per molecule basis. Accurate, global observations are needed in order to better understand climate change and reduce the uncertainty in the carbon budget. Although carbon dioxide is currently the primary greenhouse gas of interest, methane can have a much larger impact on climate change. Methane levels have remained relatively constant over the last decade but recent observations in the Arctic have indicated that levels may be on the rise due to permafrost thawing. NASA's Decadal Survey underscored the importance of Methane as a

  6. Savannah River Site Experiences in In Situ Field Measurements of Radioactive Materials

    SciT

    Moore, F.S.

    1999-10-07

    This paper discusses some of the field gamma-ray measurements made at the Savannah River Site, the equipment used for the measurements, and lessons learned during in situ identification and characterization of radioactive materials.

  7. Measurement of the Earth tides with a MEMS gravimeter.

    PubMed

    Middlemiss, R P; Samarelli, A; Paul, D J; Hough, J; Rowan, S; Hammond, G D

    2016-03-31

    The ability to measure tiny variations in the local gravitational acceleration allows, besides other applications, the detection of hidden hydrocarbon reserves, magma build-up before volcanic eruptions, and subterranean tunnels. Several technologies are available that achieve the sensitivities required for such applications (tens of microgal per hertz(1/2)): free-fall gravimeters, spring-based gravimeters, superconducting gravimeters, and atom interferometers. All of these devices can observe the Earth tides: the elastic deformation of the Earth's crust as a result of tidal forces. This is a universally predictable gravitational signal that requires both high sensitivity and high stability over timescales of several days to measure. All present gravimeters, however, have limitations of high cost (more than 100,000 US dollars) and high mass (more than 8 kilograms). Here we present a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device with a sensitivity of 40 microgal per hertz(1/2) only a few cubic centimetres in size. We use it to measure the Earth tides, revealing the long-term stability of our instrument compared to any other MEMS device. MEMS accelerometers--found in most smart phones--can be mass-produced remarkably cheaply, but none are stable enough to be called a gravimeter. Our device has thus made the transition from accelerometer to gravimeter. The small size and low cost of this MEMS gravimeter suggests many applications in gravity mapping. For example, it could be mounted on a drone instead of low-flying aircraft for distributed land surveying and exploration, deployed to monitor volcanoes, or built into multi-pixel density-contrast imaging arrays.

  8. Performance measures in the earth observations commercialization applications program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1996-03-01

    Performance measures in the Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP) are key to its success and include net profitability; enhancements to industry productivity through generic innovations in industry practices, standards, and protocols; and documented contributions to public policy governing the newly developing remote sensing industry. Because EOCAP requires company co-funding, both parties to the agreement (the government and the corporate partner) have incentives to pursue these goals. Further strengthening progress towards these goals are requirements for business plans in the company's EOCAP proposal, detailed scrutiny given these plans during proposal selection, and regularly documented progress reports during project implementation.

  9. Measurement of natural and 137Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öksüz, I.; Güray, R. T.; Özkan, N.; Yalçin, C.; Ergül, H. A.; Aksan, S.

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring 238U, 232Th and 40K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope 137Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of 238U and 232Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the 40K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of 137Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobyl accident, was also detected.

  10. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  11. Network Performance Measurements for NASA's Earth Observation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loiacono, Joe; Gormain, Andy; Smith, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS) Project studies all aspects of planet Earth from space, including climate change, and ocean, ice, land, and vegetation characteristics. It consists of about 20 satellite missions over a period of about a decade. Extensive collaboration is used, both with other US. agencies (e.g., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOA), United States Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Defense (DoD), and international agencies (e.g., European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)), to improve cost effectiveness and obtain otherwise unavailable data. Scientific researchers are located at research institutions worldwide, primarily government research facilities and research universities. The EOS project makes extensive use of networks to support data acquisition, data production, and data distribution. Many of these functions impose requirements on the networks, including throughput and availability. In order to verify that these requirements are being met, and be pro-active in recognizing problems, NASA conducts on-going performance measurements. The purpose of this paper is to examine techniques used by NASA to measure the performance of the networks used by EOSDIS (EOS Data and Information System) and to indicate how this performance information is used.

  12. Neutron measurements in near-Earth orbit with COMPTEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, D. J.; Aarts, H.; Bennett, K.; Lockwood, J. A.; Mcconnell, M. L.; Ryan, J. M.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Peng, X.

    1995-01-01

    The fast neutron flux in near-Earth orbit has been measured with the COMPTEL instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). For this measurement one of COMPTEL's seven liquid scintillator modules was used as an uncollimated neutron detector with threshold of 12.8 MeV. The measurements cover a range of 4.8 to 15.5 GV in vertical cutoff rigidity and 3 deg to 177 deg in spacecraft geocenter zenith angle. One of the measurements occurred near the minimum of the deepest Forbush decrease ever observed by ground-level neutron monitors. After correction for solar modulation, the total flux is well fitted by separable functions in rigidity and zenith angle. With the spacecraft pointed near the nadir the flux is consistent with balloon measurements of the atmospheric neutron albedo. The flux varies by about a factor of 4 between the extremes of rigidity and a factor of 2 between the extremes of zenith angle. The effect of the spacecraft mass in shielding the detector from the atmospheric neutron albedo is much more important than its role as a source of additional secondary neutrons. The neutron spectral hardness varies little with rigidity or zenith angle and lies in the range spanned by earlier atmospheric neutron albedo measurements.

  13. The Sun-earth Imbalance radiometer for a direct measurement of the net heating of the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Steven; Karatekin, Özgür; Chevalier, Andre; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Meftah, Mustapha; Irbah, Abdanour; Delabie, Tjorven

    2015-04-01

    It is accepted that the climate on earth is changing due to a radiative energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, up to now this radiation imbalance has not been measured directly. The measurement is challenging both in terms of space-time sampling of the radiative energy that is leaving the earth and in terms of accuracy. The incoming solar radiation and the outgoing terrestrial radiation are of nearly equal magnitude - of the order of 340 W/m² - resulting in a much smaller difference or imbalance of the order of 1 W/m². The only way to measure the imbalance with sufficient accuracy is to measure both the incoming solar and the outgoing terrestrial radiation with the same instrument. Based on our 30 year experience of measuring the Total Solar Irradiance with the Differential Absolute RADiometer (DIARAD) type of instrument and on our 10 year experience of measuring the Earth Radiation Budget with the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on Meteosat Second Generation, we propose an innovative constellation of Sun-earth IMBAlance (SIMBA) radiometer cubesats with the ultimate goal to measure the Sun-earth radiation imbalance. A first Simba In Orbit Demonstration satellite is scheduled for flight with QB50 in 2015. It is currently being developed as ESA's first cubesat through an ESA GSTP project. In this paper we will give an overview of the Simba science objectives and of the current satellite and payload development status.

  14. Measurement of the Earth's rotation: 720 BC to AD 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.; Morrison, L. V.; Hohenkerk, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    New compilations of records of ancient and medieval eclipses in the period 720 BC to AD 1600, and of lunar occultations of stars in AD 1600-2015, are analysed to investigate variations in the Earth's rate of rotation. It is found that the rate of rotation departs from uniformity, such that the change in the length of the mean solar day (lod) increases at an average rate of +1.8 ms per century. This is significantly less than the rate predicted on the basis of tidal friction, which is +2.3 ms per century. Besides this linear change in the lod, there are fluctuations about this trend on time scales of decades to centuries. A power spectral density analysis of fluctuations in the range 2-30 years follows a power law with exponent -1.3, and there is evidence of increased power at a period of 6 years. There is some indication of an oscillation in the lod with a period of roughly 1500 years. Our measurements of the Earth's rotation for the period 720 BC to AD 2015 set firm boundaries for future work on post-glacial rebound and core-mantle coupling which are invoked to explain the departures from tidal friction.

  15. Mass spectrometry in Earth sciences: the precise and accurate measurement of time.

    PubMed

    Schaltegger, Urs; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Ovtcharova, Maria; Chiaradia, Massimo; Spikings, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Precise determinations of the isotopic compositions of a variety of elements is a widely applied tool in Earth sciences. Isotope ratios are used to quantify rates of geological processes that occurred during the previous 4.5 billion years, and also at the present time. An outstanding application is geochronology, which utilizes the production of radiogenic daughter isotopes by the radioactive decay of parent isotopes. Geochronological tools, involving isotopic analysis of selected elements from smallest volumes of minerals by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, provide precise and accurate measurements of time throughout the geological history of our planet over nine orders of magnitude, from the accretion of the proto-planetary disk, to the timing of the last glaciation. This article summarizes the recent efforts of the Isotope Geochemistry, Geochronology and Thermochronology research group at the University of Geneva to advance the U-Pb geochronological tool to achieve unprecedented precision and accuracy, and presents two examples of its application to two significant open questions in Earth sciences: what are the triggers and timescales of volcanic supereruptions, and what were the causes of mass extinctions in the geological past, driven by global climatic and environmental deterioration?

  16. a Portable Apparatus for Absolute Measurements of the Earth's Gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark Andrew

    We have developed a new, portable apparatus for making absolute measurements of the acceleration due to the earth's gravity. We use the method of interferometrically determining the acceleration of a freely falling corner -cube prism. The falling object is surrounded by a chamber which is driven vertically inside a fixed vacuum chamber. This falling chamber is servoed to track the falling corner -cube to shield it from drag due to background gas. In addition, the drag-free falling chamber removes the need for a magnetic release, shields the falling object from electrostatic forces, and provides a means of both gently arresting the falling object and quickly returning it to its start position, to allow rapid acquisition of data. A synthesized long period isolation device reduces the noise due to seismic oscillations. A new type of Zeeman laser is used as the light source in the interferometer, and is compared with the wavelength of an iodine stabilized laser. The times of occurrence of 45 interference fringes are measured to within 0.2 nsec over a 20 cm drop and are fit to a quadratic by an on-line minicomputer. 150 drops can be made in ten minutes resulting in a value of g having a precision of 3 to 6 parts in 10('9). Systematic errors have been determined to be less than 5 parts in 10('9) through extensive tests. Three months of gravity data have been obtained with a reproducibility ranging from 5 to 10 parts in 10('9). The apparatus has been designed to be easily portable. Field measurements are planned for the immediate future. An accuracy of 6 parts in 10('9) corresponds to a height sensitivity of 2 cm. Vertical motions in the earth's crust and tectonic density changes that may precede earthquakes are to be investigated using this apparatus.

  17. Enabling Earth Science Measurements with NASA UAS Capabilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, Randal; Schoenung, Susan; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Cutler, Frank; Tagg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Airborne Science Program (ASP) maintains a fleet of manned and unmanned aircraft for Earth Science measurements and observations. The unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) range in size from very large (Global Hawks) to medium (SIERRA, Viking) and relatively small (DragonEye). UAS fly from very low (boundary layer) to very high altitude (stratosphere). NASA also supports science and applied science projects using UAS operated by outside companies or agencies. The aircraft and accompanying data and support systems have been used in numerous investigations. For example, Global Hawks have been used to study both hurricanes and atmospheric composition. SIERRA has been used to study ice, earthquake faults, and coral reefs. DragonEye is being used to measure volcanic emissions. As a foundation for NASA's UAS work, Altair and Ikkana not only flew wildfires in the Western US, but also provided major programs for the development of real-time data download and processing capabilities. In early 2014, an advanced L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) also flew for the first time on Global Hawk, proving the utility of UAVSAR, which has been flying successfully on a manned aircraft. In this paper, we focus on two topics: 1) the results of a NASA program called UAS-Enabled Earth Science, in which three different science teams flew (at least) two different UAS to demonstrate platform performance, airspace integration, sensor performance, and applied science results from the data collected; 2) recent accomplishments with the high altitude, long-duration Global Hawks, especially measurements from several payload suites consisting of multiple instruments. The latest upgrades to data processing, communications, tracking and flight planning systems will also be described.

  18. An Algorithm for Converting Static Earth Sensor Measurements into Earth Observation Vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, R.; Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed that converts penetration angles reported by Static Earth Sensors (SESs) into Earth observation vectors. This algorithm allows compensation for variation in the horizon height including that caused by Earth oblateness. It also allows pitch and roll to be computed using any number (greater than 1) of simultaneous sensor penetration angles simplifying processing during periods of Sun and Moon interference. The algorithm computes body frame unit vectors through each SES cluster. It also computes GCI vectors from the spacecraft to the position on the Earth's limb where each cluster detects the Earth's limb. These body frame vectors are used as sensor observation vectors and the GCI vectors are used as reference vectors in an attitude solution. The attitude, with the unobservable yaw discarded, is iteratively refined to provide the Earth observation vector solution.

  19. How well can we measure Earth's Energy Imbalance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakuba, M. Z.; Stephens, G. L.; Landerer, F. W.; Webb, F.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Tapley, B. D.; Christophe, B.; Foulon, B.

    2017-12-01

    The direct measurement of Earth's energy imbalance (EEI) is one of the greatest challenges in climate research. The global mean EEI is the integrated value of global warming, while its spatial and temporal variability can tell us about the strength and direction of heat transports and reflects internal climate modes such as ENSO. These heat flows ultimately control the circulation in the atmosphere and ocean, and henceforth the water cycle and habitability of our planet. Current space-born systems measure the radiative components of the global mean energy budget with unprecedented accuracy and stability, but the residual budget derived from them has errors too large to determine the absolute magnitude of EEI. Best estimates of EEI are currently derived from changes in ocean heat content, which are afflicted with horizontal and vertical sampling issues. Hence, we see the need to improve on current approaches in order to circumvent calibration issues that are inevitable in radiometry, and sampling issues that are inevitable when profiling the ocean. We will present alternative methods to estimate the EEI by 1) exploiting existing datasets of ocean mass and sea level height from remote sensing. A combination of such datasets, as for example provided by the GRACE and Jason missions, provides a way of estimating the thermo-steric sea level rise and therefore the thermal expansion of the ocean due to heat uptake. Recent studies suggest the retrieval of ocean heat uptake is possible within acceptable error bounds, although the magnitude and sources of error are yet to be comprehensively defined. 2) To monitor the integrated value of EEI from space, we propose a method that aims at measuring the non-gravitational force due to radiation pressure acting on Earth orbiting spacecrafts. This requires measurements of acceleration at high accuracy. The concept of deriving EEI from radiation pressure has been explored in the past and today's advanced capabilities suggest it is

  20. Measurement of the electron beam mode in earth's foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onsager, T. G.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    High frequency electric field measurements from the AMPTE IRM plasma wave receiver are used to identify three simultaneously excited electrostatic wave modes in the earth's foreshock region: the electron beam mode, the Langmuir mode, and the ion acoustic mode. A technique is developed which allows the rest frame frequecy and wave number of the electron beam waves to be determined. It is shown that the experimentally determined rest frame frequency and wave number agree well with the most unstable frequency and wave number predicted by linear homogeneous Vlasov theory for a plasma with Maxwellian background electrons and a Lorentzian electron beam. From a comparison of the experimentally determined and theoretical values, approximate limits are put on the electron foreshock beam temperatures. A possible generation mechanism for ion acoustic waves involving mode coupling between the electron beam and Langmuir modes is also discussed.

  1. The Accuracy of Radio Interferometric Measurements of Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Steppe, J. A.; Spieth, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of very long base interferometry earth rotation (UT1) measurements is examined by intercomparing TEMPO and POLARIS data for 1982 and the first half of 1983. None of these data are simultaneous, and so a proper intercomparison requires accounting for the scatter introduced by the rapid, unpredictable, UT1 variations driven by exchanges of angular momentum with the atmosphere. A statistical model of these variations, based on meteorological estimates of the Atmospheric Angular Momentum is derived, and the optimal linear (Kalman) smoother for this model is constructed. The scatter between smoothed and independent raw data is consistent with the residual formal errors, which do not depend upon the actual scatter of the UT1 data. This represents the first time that an accurate prediction of the scatter between UT1 data sets were possible.

  2. Neutrino measurements from the Sun and Earth: Results from Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-07-01

    Important neutrino results came recently from Borexino, a massive, calorimetric liquid scintillator detector installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. With its unprecedented radiopurity levels achieved in the core of the detection medium, it is the only experiment in operation able to study in real time solar neutrino interactions in the challenging sub-MeV energy region. The recently achieved breakthrough observation of the fundamental pp flux, the precise measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux, and the results concerning the pep, 8B and CNO fluxes, together with their physics implications, are described in this work. Moreover, the detector has also provided a clean detection of terrestrial neutrinos, from which they emerge as a new probe of the interior of the Earth.

  3. SPESS: A New Instrument for Measuring Student Perceptions in Earth and Ocean Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Allison; Lane, Erin; Kennedy, Ben; Frappé-Sénéclauze, Tom-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of a new tool used for measuring shifts in students' perceptions of earth and ocean sciences called the Student Perceptions about Earth Sciences Survey (SPESS). The survey measures where students lie on the novice--expert continuum, and how their perceptions change after taking one or more earth and…

  4. In-situ measurements of rare earth elements in deep sea sediments using nuclear methods.

    PubMed

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Meric, Ilker; Pettersen, Helge E S; Uroić, Milivoj; Nađ, Karlo; Valković, Vlado

    2018-03-21

    The prospecting activities for finding new rare earth elements (REE) sources have increased greatly in recent years. One of the main discoveries was announced in 2011 by Japanese researchers who found large quantities of REE on the ocean seafloor at the sea depths greater than 4,000 m. The classic approach to investigate REE in deep sea sediments is to obtain sediment samples by drilling that is followed by laborious laboratory analysis. This is very expensive, time consuming and not appropriate for exploring vast areas. In order to efficiently explore the ocean floor for REE deposits, the further development of affordable sensors is needed. Here, we propose two nuclear techniques for exploring REE in surface deep sea sediments: i) Passive measurement of lutetium-176 radioactivity, appropriate if long-term in-situ measurements are possible, and ii) The use of the neutron sensor attached to a remotely operated vehicle for rapid in-situ measurement of gadolinium by thermal neutron-capture. Since concentrations of lutetium and gadolinium show strong linear correlation to the total REE concentrations in deep sea sediments, it is possible to deduce the total REE content by measuring Lu or Gd concentrations only.

  5. Refinement of Earth's gravity field with Topex GPS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sien-Chong; Wu, Jiun-Tsong

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Ocean Topography Experiment satellite TOPEX will carry a microwave altimeter accurate to a few centimeters for the measurement of ocean height. The capability can be fully exploited only if TOPEX altitude can be independently determined to 15 cm or better. This in turn requires an accurate gravity model. The gravity will be tuned with selected nine 10-day arcs of laser ranging, which will be the baseline tracking data type, collected in the first six months of TOPEX flight. TOPEX will also carry onboard an experimental Global Positioning System (GPS) flight receiver capable of simultaneously observing six GPS satellites above its horizon to demonstrate the capability of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudorange for precise determination of the TOPEX orbit. It was found that subdecimeter orbit accuracy can be achieved with a mere two-hour arc of GPS tracking data, provided that simultaneous measurements are also made at six of more ground tracking sites. The precision GPS data from TOPEX are also valuable for refining the gravity model. An efficient technique is presented for gravity tuning using GPS measurements. Unlike conventional global gravity tuning, this technique solves for far fewer gravity parameters in each filter run. These gravity parameters yield local gravity anomalies which can later be combined with the solutions over other parts of the earth to generate a global gravity map. No supercomputing power will be needed for such combining. The approaches used in this study are described and preliminary results of a covariance analysis presented.

  6. Radioactive fallout reconstruction from contemporary measurements of reservoir sediments.

    PubMed

    Krey, P W; Heit, M; Miller, K M

    1990-11-01

    The temporal history of atmospheric deposition to a watershed area can be preserved in the sediment of a lake or reservoir that is supplied by the watershed. The 137Cs and isotopic Pu concentrations with depth were determined in the sediments of two reservoirs, Enterprise and Deer Creek, which are located in widely separated regions of the state of Utah. Our data not only reconstruct the history of the total radioactive fallout in the area, but also permit estimating the contributions from global sources and from the Nevada Test Site detonations in the 1950s.

  7. Rapid measurement of 89,90Sr radioactivity in rinse water.

    PubMed

    Masashi, Takada; Hiroko, Enomoto; Toshikazu, Suzuki

    2013-03-01

    Rapid measurement of radioactivity from Sr in aqueous solutions is performed using a technique combining a strontium rad disk and a picobeta spectrometer. Identification of Sr radionuclides is accomplished in as little as 90 min in a radiation-tainted solution that contains more highly radioactive cesium. It is possible to perform triage by assessing skin exposure doses in this short time. This simple technique could be used in mobile laboratories. Sr having 1 Bq radioactivities are measured in 10 kBq Cs in aqueous solution. The radioactivity contained in rinse water used to decontaminate the feet of workers who stepped into highly contaminated water in the basement of the turbine building of Unit 3 at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was measured. The amount of Sr radioactivity in rinse water using the authors' rapid measurement technique (0.29 Bq mL) and a traditional method agree well, with 3.6% difference. Based on this agreement, this technique is confirmed to be useful for rapid measurement of Sr radioactivities.

  8. Radioactivity measurements of ITER materials using the TFTR D-T neutron field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M. A.; Barnes, C. W.; Kugel, H. W.

    1994-06-01

    The availability of high D-T fusion neutron yields at TFTR has provided a useful opportunity to directly measure D-T neutron-induced radioactivity in a realistic tokamak fusion reactor environment for materials of vital interest to ITER. These measurements are valuable for characterizing radioactivity in various ITER candidate materials, for validating complex neutron transport calculations, and for meeting fusion reactor licensing requirements. The radioactivity measurements at TFTR involve potential ITER materials including stainless steel 316, vanadium, titanium, chromium, silicon, iron, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, aluminum, copper, zinc, zirconium, niobium, and tungsten. Small samples of these materials were irradiated close to the plasma and just outside the vacuum vessel wall of TFTR, locations of different neutron energy spectra. Saturation activities for both threshold and capture reactions were measured. Data from dosimetric reactions have been used to obtain preliminary neutron energy spectra. Spectra from the first wall were compared to calculations from ITER and to measurements from accelerator-based tests.

  9. Measurement of natural and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    SciT

    Öksüz, İ., E-mail: ibrahim-ksz@yahoo.com; Güray, R. T., E-mail: tguray@kocaeli.edu.tr; Özkan, N., E-mail: nozkan@kocaeli.edu.tr

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope {sup 137}Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the {sup 40}K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of {sup 137}Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobylmore » accident, was also detected.« less

  10. To measure the chemical composition of a Near Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, 0.; Ball, A.; Biele, J.; D'Uston, C.; Forni, O.; Klingelhofer, G.; Maurice, S.; Ulamec, S.

    Introduction. Scenarios for a Near Earth Object (NEO) rendezvous mission were discussed recently in Europe. Such a mission would address scientific questions about the initial conditions and evolutionary history of the solar nebula, as well as mitigation considerations to prevent impact with the Earth. In our opinion the measurement of the elemental composition and the distribution of volatiles in the shallow sub-surface are two of the key observations to be conducted, either from an orbiter or a lander. These measurements are also valuable for documentation (landing site candidates and sample context). This report is limited to the chemical composition, but we assume that remote and/or in-situ observations of physical characteristics, interior, morphology, mineralogy, and organic compounds will also be made as essential complements to achieve the mission scientific objectives. Scientific Interest. The analysis of the bulk composition addresses three fundamental aspects of the scientific mission: (1) the formation of the asteroid or the comet; (2) the evolution of the object; (3) the relation between the parent body and collected meteorites on Earth. Classification of an asteroid/comet can be based on its global composition (abundances of Mg, Si, Fe, Al, Ca, etc. along with its mineralogy), which bears the signature of the feeding zone where it formed. For example the K/U and K/Th ratios seem to increase with distance from the Sun (decreasing temperature). The hydrogen content is another measurable to study the distribution of volatiles in the Solar System. The surface composition is also the result of the degree of evolution of the object and of the interactions with its environment. Building a compositional map of the major elements is necessary to identify and characterize the processes that influenced the asteroid along its history. Finally, knowing the chemical composition will obviously help to relate the parent 1 body to meteorites. Ideally the measurement

  11. Earth

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  12. A SYSTEM FOR CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN FLOWING STREAMS

    SciT

    Rapkin, E.; Gibbs, J.A.

    1962-10-31

    An apparatus for the determination of alpha or BETA radioactivity in either circulating liquid or gas streams was developed. Solid anthracene crystals are used. The detector consists of a Lucite light pipe coated with titanium dioxide and coupled to two photomultipliers which are in turn fed to appropriate coincidence type circuitry. The detection cell, which consists of a 9-mm OD glass tube with appropriate fittings on either end, was packed with anthracene crystals. A glass frit, or glass wool, was incorporated in the cell on the downstream side to contain the anthracene and a pledget of glass wool was placedmore » above the anthracene on the upstream side. Carbon-14 counting efficiency was found to be of the order of 50% with a coincident background from 100 divisions to infinity of less than 40 cpm at 900 v. Tritium counting efficiency was in the range of 7% and the integral background from 100 divisions to infinity was about 90 cpm at 1130 v. Discussion is also given on the electronics of the detector and the performance in closed flowing systems and gas analysis. (P.C.H.)« less

  13. Radiation Measurements During Trip From Earth to Mars

    2013-05-30

    This graphic shows the level of natural radiation detected by the Radiation Assessment Detector shielded inside NASA Mars Science Laboratory on the trip from Earth to Mars from December 2011 to July 2012.

  14. Proficiency Tests for Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Organized by an Accredited Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Cédric; Osmond, Mélanie

    2008-08-01

    For 40 years, STEME (Environmental Sample Processing and Metrology Department) organized international proficiency testing (PT) exercises formerly for WHO (World Health Organization) and EC (European Community) and currently for ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority). Five PT exercises are organized each year for the measurement of radionuclides (alpha, beta and gamma) in different matrixes (water, soil, biological and air samples) at environmental levels. ASN can deliver a French ministerial agreement to participate on environmental radioactivity measurements French network for laboratories asking it [1]. Since 2006, November, STEME is the first French entity obtaining a COFRAC (French Committee of Accreditation) accreditation as "Interlaboratory Comparisons" for the organization of proficiency tests for environmental radioactivity measurement according to standard International Standard Organization (ISO) 17025 and guide ISO 43-1. STEME has in charge to find, as far as possible, real sample or to create, by radionuclide adding, an adapted sample. STEME realizes the sampling, the samples preparation and the dispatching. STEME is also accredited according to Standard 17025 for radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and determines homogeneity, stability and reference values. After the reception of participating laboratories results, STEME executes statistical treatments in order to verify the normal distribution, to eliminate outliers and to evaluate laboratories performance. Laboratories participate with several objectives, to obtain French agreement, to prove the quality of their analytical performance in regards to standard 17025 or to validate new methods or latest developments. For 2 years, in addition to usual PT exercises, new PT about alpha or beta measurement in air filters, radioactive iodine in carbon cartridges or measurement of environmental dosimeters are organized. These PT exercises help laboratories to improve radioactive measurements

  15. Proficiency Tests for Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Organized by an Accredited Laboratory

    SciT

    Aubert, Cedric; Osmond, Melanie

    2008-08-14

    For 40 years, STEME (Environmental Sample Processing and Metrology Department) organized international proficiency testing (PT) exercises formerly for WHO (World Health Organization) and EC (European Community) and currently for ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority). Five PT exercises are organized each year for the measurement of radionuclides (alpha, beta and gamma) in different matrixes (water, soil, biological and air samples) at environmental levels. ASN can deliver a French ministerial agreement to participate on environmental radioactivity measurements French network for laboratories asking it. Since 2006, November, STEME is the first French entity obtaining a COFRAC (French Committee of Accreditation) accreditation as 'Interlaboratorymore » Comparisons' for the organization of proficiency tests for environmental radioactivity measurement according to standard International Standard Organization (ISO) 17025 and guide ISO 43-1. STEME has in charge to find, as far as possible, real sample or to create, by radionuclide adding, an adapted sample. STEME realizes the sampling, the samples preparation and the dispatching. STEME is also accredited according to Standard 17025 for radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and determines homogeneity, stability and reference values. After the reception of participating laboratories results, STEME executes statistical treatments in order to verify the normal distribution, to eliminate outliers and to evaluate laboratories performance.Laboratories participate with several objectives, to obtain French agreement, to prove the quality of their analytical performance in regards to standard 17025 or to validate new methods or latest developments. For 2 years, in addition to usual PT exercises, new PT about alpha or beta measurement in air filters, radioactive iodine in carbon cartridges or measurement of environmental dosimeters are organized. These PT exercises help laboratories to improve radioactive measurements

  16. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  17. Discovering and measuring a layered Earth: A foundational laboratory for developing students' understanding of Earth's interior structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, M.; Braile, L. W.; Olds, S. E.; Taber, J.

    2010-12-01

    modeled arrivals to the observed data, and when plotted, a notable discrepancy is found. To help interpret the implications of this anomaly the students transfer the data to a second scale model. By extrapolating their data for additional earthquakes students are able to define and measure a boundary for Earth’s outer core. After completing this exercise, not only do students have an understanding of how we know about the structure of Earth, students are more prepared to understand the basics of seismic tomography and the interpretation and limitations of tomographic models.

  18. Solid-state detector system for measuring concentrations of tritiated water vapour and other radioactive gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, J. C.; Surette, R. A.; Wood, M. J.

    1999-08-01

    A detector system was built using a silicon photodiode plus preamplifier and a cesium iodide scintillator plus preamplifier that were commercially available. The potential of the system for measuring concentrations of tritiated water vapour in the presence of other radioactive sources was investigated. For purposes of radiation protection, the sensitivity of the detector system was considered too low for measuring tritiated water vapour concentrations in workplaces such as nuclear power plants. Nevertheless, the spectrometry capability of the system was used successfully to differentiate amongst some radioactive gases in laboratory tests. Although this relatively small system can measure radioactive noble gases as well as tritiated water vapour concentrations, its response to photons remains an issue.

  19. History of satellite missions and measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget (1957-1984)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, F. B.; Gruber, A.; Hunt, G. E.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    The history of satellite missions and their measurements of the earth radiation budget from the beginning of the space age until the present time are reviewed. The survey emphasizes the early struggle to develop instrument systems to monitor reflected shortwave and emitted long-wave exitances from the earth, and the problems associated with the interpretation of these observations from space. In some instances, valuable data sets were developed from satellite measurements whose instruments were not specifically designed for earth radiation budget observations.

  20. Does (131)I Radioactivity Interfere with Thyroglobulin Measurement in Patients Undergoing Radioactive Iodine Therapy with Recombinant Human TSH?

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Bang, Ji-In; Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Sang-Eun

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is widely used in radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) to avoid side effects caused by hypothyroidism during the therapy. Owing to RIT with rhTSH, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is measured with high (131)I concentrations. It is of concern that the relatively high energy of (131)I could interfere with Tg measurement using the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). We investigated the effect of (131)I administration on Tg measurement with IRMA after RIT. A total of 67 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. All patients had undergone rhTSH stimulation for RIT. The patients' sera were sampled 2 days after (131)I administration and divided into two portions: for Tg measurements on days 2 and 32 after (131)I administration. The count per minute (CPM) of whole serum (200 μl) was also measured at each time point. Student's paired t-test and Pearson's correlation analyses were performed for statistical analysis. Serum Tg levels were significantly concordant between days 2 and 32, irrespective of the serum CPM. Subgroup analysis was performed by classification based on the (131)I dose. No difference was noted between the results of the two groups. IRMA using (125)I did not show interference from (131)I in the serum of patients stimulated by rhTSH.

  1. Spectroscopic method for Earth-satellite-Earth laser long-path absorption measurements using Retroreflector In Space (RIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Minato, Atsushi; Sasano, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The Retroreflector in Space (RIS) is a single element cube-corner retroreflector with a diameter of 0.5 m designed for earth-satellite-earth laser long-path absorption experiments. The RIS is to be loaded on the Advanced Earth Observing System (ADEOS) satellite which is scheduled for launch in Feb. 1996. The orbit for ADEOS is a sun synchronous subrecurrent polar-orbit with an inclination of 98.6 deg. It has a period of 101 minutes and an altitude of approximately 800 km. The local time at descending node is 10:15-10:45, and the recurrent period is 41 days. The velocity relative to the ground is approximately 7 km/s. In the RIS experiment, a laser beam transmitted from a ground station is reflected by RIS and received at the ground station. The absorption of the intervening atmosphere is measured in the round-trip optical path.

  2. Reductive capacity measurement of waste forms for secondary radioactive wastes

    SciT

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jung-Seok; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper boundmore » for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.« less

  3. Measurements of induced radioactivity in some LDEF samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, C. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-six stainless steel trunnion samples, five aluminum end support retainer plate samples, two aluminum keel plate samples, and two titanium clips were analyzed. The shielded high purity germanium detectors used had efficiencies of 33, 54, and 80 percent at 1332 keV. Detector efficiencies as a function of energy and corrections for self-absorption in the samples were determined with calibrated sources and unactivated control samples. Several measurements were made on most samples. In the trunnion samples, Mn-54 and Co-57 were seen and limits were obtained for other isotopes. The results agree well with 1-D activation calculations for an anisotropic trapped proton model. In the aluminum and titanium samples, Na-22 was detected. Other results are presented.

  4. Measurements of induced radioactivity in some LDEF samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, C. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six stainless steel trunnion samples, five aluminum end support retainer plate samples, two aluminum keel plate samples, and two titanium clips were analyzed. The shielded high purity germanium detectors used had efficiencies of 33, 54, and 80 pcts. at 1332 keV. Detector efficiencies as a function of energy and corrections for self absorption in the samples were determined with calibrated sources, unactivated control samples, and calculations. Several measurements were made on most samples. In the trunnion samples, Mn-54 and Co-57 were seen and limits were obtained for other isotopes. The results agree well with 1-D activation calculations for an anisotropic trapped proton model. In the aluminum samples, Na-22 and Be-7 were seen. Other results are presented.

  5. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION: STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Brun, S; Byrde, F; Chen, J; Duda, J-M; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Fronka, A; Haug, T; Herranz, M; Husain, A; Jerome, S; Jiranek, M; Judge, S; Kim, S B; Kwakman, P; Loyen, J; LLaurado, M; Michel, R; Porterfield, D; Ratsirahonana, A; Richards, A; Rovenska, K; Sanada, T; Schuler, C; Thomas, L; Tokonami, S; Tsapalov, A; Yamada, T

    2017-04-01

    Radiological protection is a matter of concern for members of the public and thus national authorities are more likely to trust the quality of radioactivity data provided by accredited laboratories using common standards. Normative approach based on international standards aims to ensure the accuracy or validity of the test result through calibrations and measurements traceable to the International System of Units. This approach guarantees that radioactivity test results on the same types of samples are comparable over time and space as well as between different testing laboratories. Today, testing laboratories involved in radioactivity measurement have a set of more than 150 international standards to help them perform their work. Most of them are published by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper reviews the most essential ISO standards that give guidance to testing laboratories at different stages from sampling planning to the transmission of the test report to their customers, summarizes recent activities and achievements and present the perspectives on new standards under development by the ISO Working Groups dealing with radioactivity measurement in connection with radiological protection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Measuring Earth's Local Magnetic Field Using a Helmholtz Coil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I present a low-cost interactive experiment for measuring the strength of Earth's local magnetic field. This activity can be done in most high schools or two-year physics laboratories with limited resources, yet will have a tremendous learning impact. This experiment solidifies the three-dimensional nature of Earth's…

  7. Measuring the Eccentricity of the Earth's Orbit with a Nail and a Piece of Plywood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahaye, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    I describe how to obtain a rather good experimental determination of the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit, as well as the obliquity of the Earth's rotation axis, by measuring, over the course of a year, the elevation of the Sun as a function of time during a day. With a very simple "instrument" consisting of an elementary sundial, first-year…

  8. AMS measurements of 14C and 129I in seawater around radioactive waste dump sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, P. P.; Oregioni, B.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kieser, W. E.; Zhao, X.-L.

    2000-10-01

    According to a recent IAEA compilation of inventories of radioactive wastes dumped in the world ocean, a total of 85 PBq of radioactive wastes were dumped, in the Atlantic (45 PBq), the Pacific (1.4 PBq) and the Arctic (38 PBq) Oceans and their marginal seas between 1946 and 1993, mostly in the form of low-level wastes. 3H, and 14C formed an important part of the beta-activity of these dumped wastes. Because of its long half-life, 14C will be the main constituent in possible leakages from the wastes in the future. On the other hand, 14C and 129I are important radioactive tracers which have been artificially introduced into the oceans. Small amounts of 14C and 129I can be easily measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) on mg-size samples of carbon and iodine extracted from 500 ml seawater samples. The high analytical sensitivity enables one therefore to find even trace amounts of 14C and 129I which could be released from radioactive wastes, and to compare the measured levels with the global distribution of these radionuclides. The IAEAs Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) has been engaged in an assessment program related to radioactive waste dumping in the oceans since 1992 and has participated in several expeditions to the Atlantic, Arctic, Indian and Pacific Oceans to sample seawater, biota and sediment for radiological assessment studies. In the present paper, we report on methods of 14C and 129I measurements in seawater by AMS and present data on the NE Atlantic, the Arctic and the NW Pacific Ocean dumping sites. A small increase of 14C was observed at the NE Atlantic dumping site.

  9. Containers and systems for the measurement of radioactive gases and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Mann, Nicholas R; Watrous, Matthew G; Oertel, Christopher P; McGrath, Christopher A

    2017-06-20

    Containers for a fluid sample containing a radionuclide for measurement of radiation from the radionuclide include an outer shell having one or more ports between an interior and an exterior of the outer shell, and an inner shell secured to the outer shell. The inner shell includes a detector receptacle sized for at least partial insertion into the outer shell. The inner shell and outer shell together at least partially define a fluid sample space. The outer shell and inner shell are configured for maintaining an operating pressure within the fluid sample space of at least about 1000 psi. Systems for measuring radioactivity in a fluid include such a container and a radiation detector received at least partially within the detector receptacle. Methods of measuring radioactivity in a fluid sample include maintaining a pressure of a fluid sample within a Marinelli-type container at least at about 1000 psi.

  10. Use of global positioning system measurements to determine geocentric coordinates and variations in Earth orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Geocentric tracking station coordinates and short-period Earth-orientation variations can be measured with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Unless calibrated, geocentric coordinate errors and changes in Earth orientation can lead to significant deep-space tracking errors. Ground-based GPS estimates of daily and subdaily changes in Earth orientation presently show centimeter-level precision. Comparison between GPS-estimated Earth-rotation variations, which are the differences between Universal Time 1 and Universal Coordinated Time (UT1-UTC), and those calculated from ocean tide models suggests that observed subdaily variations in Earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Preliminary GPS estimates for the geocenter location (from a 3-week experiment) agree with independent satellite laser-ranging estimates to better than 10 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for Earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low Earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low Earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales of less than 1 day.

  11. Gross Alpha Beta Radioactivity in Air Filters Measured by Ultra Low Level α/β Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cfarku, Florinda; Bylyku, Elida; Deda, Antoneta; Dhoqina, Polikron; Bakiu, Erjona; Perpunja, Flamur

    2010-01-01

    Study of radioactivity in air as very important for life is done regularly using different methods in every country. As a result of nuclear reactors, atomic centrals, institutions and laboratories, which use the radioactivity substances in open or closed sources, there are a lot radioactive wastes. Mixing of these wastes after treatment with rivers and lakes waters makes very important control of radioactivity. At the other side nuclear and radiological accidents are another source of the contamination of air and water. Due to their radio toxicity, especially those of Sr90, Pu239, etc. a contamination hazard for human begins exist even at low concentration levels. Measurements of radioactivity in air have been performed in many parts of the world mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming air. In this study we present the results of international comparison organized by IAEA Vienna, Austria for the air filters spiked with unknown Alpha and Beta Activity. For the calibration of system we used the same filters spiked: a) with Pu-239 as alpha source; b) Sr-90 as beta source and also the blank filter. The measurements of air filter samples after calibration of the system are done with Ultra Low Level α/β Counter (MPC 9604) Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the system for the determination of the Gross Alpha and Beta activity makes sure detection of low values activity of air filters. Our laboratory results are: Aα = (0.19±0.01) Bq/filter and Aα (IAEA) = (0.17±0.009) Bq/filter; Aβ = (0.33±0.009) Bq/filter and Aβ (IAEA) = (0.29±0.01) Bq/filter. As it seems our results are in good agreement with reference values given by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency).

  12. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. DANCE : Device for Measurement of (n.g.) Reactions on radioactive Species /

    SciT

    Chamberlin, E. P.; Dragowsky, M.; Fowler, Malcolm M.

    2001-01-01

    DANCE (Device for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) is a 4{pi} 162 element BaF{sub 2} array under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is designed to provide high granularity, fast timing and high photon detection efficiency. It will be located at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center where neutrons are produced using 800 MeV proton induced spallation reactions on heavy element production targets. Using the pulsed high neutron fluence available at this facility combined with time of flight techniques it will be possible to make neutron capture measurements in the neutron energy range from eV to 100's of keV onmore » rare and radioactive target material at the milligram and below level. These measurements will provide critically needed data for the interpretation of the astrophysical s-process 'branching point' nuclei as well as information for reactions needed in understanding transmutation processes of radioactive species.« less

  14. Atomic mass measurements with radioactive beams and/or targets: Where to start

    SciT

    Haustein, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive beams or radioactive targets (or both) can significantly increase the yields of exotic isotopes, allowing studies to be performed in regions which are currently inaccessible. An important goal to pursue with these exotic species is a broad program of nuclidic mass measurements. This is motivated by the observation that mass model predictions generally diverge from one another in regions far from beta-decay stability where well measured masses are sparse or nonexistent. Stringent tests of mass models are therefore possible and these can highlight important features in the mass models that affect the quality of their short-range and long-range extrapolationmore » properties. Selection of systems to study can be guided, in part, by a desire to probe those regions where distinctions among mass models are most apparent and where exotic isotope yields will be optimal. Several examples will be presented to highlight future opportunities in this area. 10 refs., 5 figs.« less

  15. Scintillation statistics measured in an earth-space-earth retroreflector link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Scintillation was measured in a vertical path from a ground-based laser transmitter to the Geos 3 satellite and back to a ground-based receiver telescope and, the experimental results were compared with analytical results presented in a companion paper (Bufton, 1977). The normalized variance, the probability density function and the power spectral density of scintillation were all measured. Moments of the satellite scintillation data in terms of normalized variance were lower than expected. The power spectrum analysis suggests that there were scintillation components at frequencies higher than the 250 Hz bandwidth available in the experiment.

  16. Natural radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluations in soil samples with a high content of NORM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; Durante, G.; Trozzo, R.; Fullone, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Belmusto, G.

    2017-01-01

    In this article natural radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluations in soil samples contaminated by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) are made, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard for the population and for workers professionally exposed to ionizing radiations. Investigated samples came from the district of Crotone, Calabria region, South of Italy. The natural radioactivity investigation was performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From the measured gamma spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 226Ra , 234-mPa , 224Ra , 228Ac and 40K and compared with their clearance levels for NORM. The total effective dose was calculated for each sample as due to the committed effective dose for inhalation and to the effective dose from external irradiation. The sum of the total effective doses estimated for all investigated samples was compared to the action levels provided by the Italian legislation (D.Lgs.230/95 and subsequent modifications) for the population members (0.3mSv/y) and for professionally exposed workers (1mSv/y). It was found to be less than the limit of no radiological significance (10μSv/y).

  17. Environmental radioactivity measurements and applications - Difficulties, current status and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostakis, Marios J.

    2015-11-01

    For several decades natural and artificial radioactivity in the environment have been extensively studied all around the world. Nuclear accidents - mainly that of Chernobyl - have led to the development of the field of radioecology, while detector systems and techniques - with predominant that of γ-spectrometry - have been continuously developed through the years to meet researchers' needs. The study of natural radionuclides that was originally limited to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was then extended to include radionuclides such as 234Th, 210Pb, 235U and 7Be, which allowed the study of radioactive equilibrium. Besides their importance from the radiation protection point of view, many radionuclides are also used as tracers of environmental processes, such as aerosol and transportation of air masses studies (7Be, 10Be, 22Na), soil erosion, sedimentation and geochronology (210Pb, 137Cs), marine ecosystems studies and studies related to climate change. All these studies require specialized samplings strategies and sampling preparation techniques as well as high quality measurements, while the improvement of detection limits is often of vital importance. This work is a review of environmental radioactivity measurements and applications, mainly focused in the field of γ-spectrometry, for which difficulties and limitations will be presented, together with future trends, new challenges and applications.

  18. The method of radioactive tracer for measuring the amount of inorganic nanoparticles in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzulukov, Yu; Antsiferova, A.; Demin, V. A.; Demin, V. F.; Kashkarov, P.

    2015-11-01

    The method to measure the mass of inorganic nanoparticles in biological (or any other samples) using nanoparticles labeled with radioactive tracers is developed and applied to practice. The tracers are produced in original nanoparticles by radioactive activation of some of their atomic nuclei. The method of radioactive tracers demonstrates a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy equal or better than popular methods of optical and mass spectrometry, or electron microscopy and has some specific advantages. The method can be used for study of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in living organism, as well as in ecological and fundamental research. It was used in practice to study absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of nanoparticles of Ag, Au, Se, ZnO, TiO2 as well as to study transportation of silver nanoparticles through the barriers of blood-brain, placenta and milk gland of rats. Brief descriptions of data obtained in experiments with application of this method included in the article. The method was certified in Russian Federation standard system GOST-R and recommended by the Russian Federation regulation authority ROSPOTREBNADZOR for measuring of toxicokinetic and organotropy parameters of nanoparticles.

  19. Validation of an advanced analytical procedure applied to the measurement of environmental radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran Thien; Vuong, Le Quang; Ho, Phan Long; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Nguyen, Vo Hoang; Tao, Chau Van

    2018-04-01

    In this work, an advanced analytical procedure was applied to calculate radioactivity in spiked water samples in a close geometry gamma spectroscopy. It included MCNP-CP code in order to calculate the coincidence summing correction factor (CSF). The CSF results were validated by a deterministic method using ETNA code for both p-type HPGe detectors. It showed that a good agreement for both codes. Finally, the validity of the developed procedure was confirmed by a proficiency test to calculate the activities of various radionuclides. The results of the radioactivity measurement with both detectors using the advanced analytical procedure were received the ''Accepted'' statuses following the proficiency test. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 2: Preliminary feasibility screening study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes in concentrations, matrix materials, and containers designed for storage on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Thompson, R. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of a preliminary feasibility screening study for providing long-term solutions to the problems of handling and managing radioactive wastes by extraterrestrial transportation of the wastes. Matrix materials and containers are discussed along with payloads, costs, and destinations for candidate space vehicles. The conclusions reached are: (1) Matrix material such as spray melt can be used without exceeding temperature limits of the matrix. (2) The cost in mills per kw hr electric, of space disposal of fission products is 4, 5, and 28 mills per kw hr for earth escape, solar orbit, and solar escape, respectively. (3) A major factor effecting cost is the earth storage time. Based on a normal operating condition design for solar escape, a storage time of more than sixty years is required to make the space disposal charge less than 10% of the bus-bar electric cost. (4) Based on a 10 year earth storage without further processing, the number of shuttle launches required would exceed one per day.

  1. Differential neutron energy spectra measured on spacecraft low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Dudkin, E. V.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.

    1995-01-01

    Two methods for measuring neutrons in the range from thermal energies to dozens of MeV were used. In the first method, alpha-particles emitted from the (sup 6) Li(n.x)T reaction are detected with the help of plastic nuclear track detectors, yielding results on thermal and resonance neutrons. Also, fission foils are used to detect fast neutrons. In the second method, fast neutrons are recorded by nuclear photographic emulsions (NPE). The results of measurements on board various satellites are presented. The neutron flux density does not appear to correlate clearly with orbital parameters. Up to 50% of neutrons are due to albedo neutrons from the atmosphere while the fluxes inside the satellites are 15-20% higher than those on the outside. Estimates show that the neutron contribution to the total equivalent radiation dose reaches 20-30%.

  2. Solid Earth science in the 1990s. Volume 3: Measurement techniques and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Reports are contained from the NASA Workshop on Solid Earth Science in the 1990s. The techniques and technologies needed to address the program objectives are discussed. The Measurement Technique and Technology Panel identified (1) candidate measurement systems for each of the measurements required for the Solid Earth Science Program that would fall under the NASA purview; (2) the capabilities and limitations of each technique; and (3) the developments necessary for each technique to meet the science panel requirements. In nearly all cases, current technology or a development path with existing technology was identified as capable of meeting the requirements of the science panels. These technologies and development paths are discussed.

  3. New high-throughput measurement systems for radioactive wastes segregation and free release.

    PubMed

    Suran, J; Kovar, P; Smoldasova, J; Solc, J; Skala, L; Arnold, D; Jerome, S; de Felice, P; Pedersen, B; Bogucarska, T; Tzika, F; van Ammel, R

    2017-12-01

    This paper addresses the measurement facilities for pre-selection of waste materials prior to measurement for repository acceptance or possible free release (segregation measurement system); and free release (free release measurement system), based on a single standardized concept characterized by unique, patented lead-free shielding. The key objective is to improve the throughput, accuracy, reliability, modularity and mobility of segregation and free-release measurement. This will result in a more reliable decision-making with regard to the safe release and disposal of radioactive wastes into the environment and, resulting in positive economic outcomes. The research was carried out within "Metrology for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities" (MetroDecom) project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. OPEN RADIATION: a collaborative project for radioactivity measurement in the environment by the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François; Allain, E.; Baumont, G.; Berthelot, N.; Clairand, I.; Couvez, C.; Darley, G.; Henry, B.; Jolivet, T.; Laroche, P.; Lebau-Livé, A.; Lejeune, V.; Miss, J.; Monange, W.; Quéinnec, F.; Richet, Y.; Simon, C.; Trompier, F.; Vayron, F.

    2017-09-01

    After the Fukushima accident, initiatives emerged from the public to carry out themselves measurements of the radioactivity in the environment with various devices, among which smartphones, and to share data and experiences through collaborative tools and social networks. Such measurements have two major interests, on the one hand, to enable each individual of the public to assess his own risk regarding the radioactivity and, on the other hand, to provide "real time" data from the field at various locations, especially in the early phase of an emergency situation, which could be very useful for the emergency management. The objective of the OPENRADIATION project is to offer to the public the opportunity to be an actor for measurements of the radioactivity in the environment using connected dosimetric applications on smartphones. The challenge is to operate such a system on a sustainable basis in peaceful time and be useful in case of emergency. In "peaceful situation", this project is based on a collaborative approach with the aim to get complementary data to the existing ones, to consolidate the radiation background, to generate alerts in case of problem and to provide education & training and enhanced pedagogical approaches for a clear understanding of measures for the public. In case of emergency situation, data will be available "spontaneously" from the field in "real time" providing an opportunity for the emergency management and the communication with the public. … The practical objective is i) to develop a website centralising data from various systems/dosimeters, providing dose maps with raw and filtered data and creating dedicated areas for specific initiatives and exchanges of data and ii) to develop a data acquisition protocol and a dosimetric application using a connected dosimeter with a bluetooth connection. This project is conducted within a partnership between organisms' representative of the scientific community and associations to create links

  5. Prospects For Earth-Based Measurements Of Europa's Librations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Campbell, D. B.; Peale, S. J.

    2010-10-01

    The exploration of Europa is of great interest because it may be hospitable to certain life forms [1]. Several lines of evidence suggest that a subsurface ocean exists beneath an icy shell [2,3], but there is debate about the thickness of the shell [4], which impacts Europa's astrobiological potential. As in the case of Mercury, it may be possible to determine whether an outer shell is decoupled from the interior and to evaluate the shell thickness by measuring the amplitude of forced longitude librations [5,6]. In the simplest configuration of a rigid shell decoupled from a spherically symmetric interior, the libration amplitude is amplified from the nominal value of 18" by C/Cs, where C is the polar moment of inertia of the body and Cs is that of the outer shell that participates in the librations. For a 100-km thick shell, the libration amplitude would reach 200", an estimate that remains valid even in the presence of gravitational coupling between asymmetrical layers [7]. If there are significant departures from rigid behavior, the shell may deform with the ocean underneath and exhibit a libration amplitude of 52" [8]. Europa reaches closest approach in October 2011, offering a once-in-a-decade opportunity to measure spin rate variations by tracking radar speckles, as advocated by Holin [9,10]. Librations of a rigid shell thinner than 100 km would be detectable. We will describe the experimental design and expected sensitivity. References: [1] NRC, Europa Science Strategy, 1999. [2,3] Kivelson et al, Greeley et al, in Jupiter, CUP, 2004. [4] Greenberg, Unmasking Europa, Praxis, 2008. [5] Peale, Nature 262, 1976. [6] Margot et al, Science 316, 2007. [7] van Hoolst et al, Icarus 195, 2008. [8] Goldreich and Mitchell, Icarus, in press. [9] Green, in Radar Astronomy, McGraw-Hill, 1968. [10] Holin, Radiophys. Quant. Elec. 31, 1988.

  6. Measuring the Radius of the Earth from a Mountain Top Overlooking the Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangadharan, Dhevan

    2009-01-01

    A clear view of the ocean may be used to measure the radius of the Earth. To an observer looking out at the ocean, the horizon will always form some angle [theta] with the local horizontal plane. As the observer's elevation "h" increases, so does the angle [theta]. From measurements of the elevation "h" and the angle [theta],…

  7. Earth Conductivity Estimation from Through-the-Earth Measurements of 94 Coal Mines Using Different Electromagnetic Models

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lincan; Waynert, Joseph; Sunderman, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Through-the-Earth (TTE) communication systems require minimal infrastructure to operate. Hence, they are assumed to be more survivable and more conventional than other underground mine communications systems. This survivability is a major advantage for TTE systems. In 2006, Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act (MINER Act), which requires all underground coal mines to install wireless communications systems. The intent behind this mandate is for trapped miners to be able to communicate with surface personnel after a major accident-hence, the interest in TTE communications. To determine the likelihood of establishing a TTE communication link, it would be ideal to be able to predict the apparent conductivity of the overburden above underground mines. In this paper, all 94 mine TTE measurement data collected by Bureau of Mines in the 1970s and early 1980s, are analyzed for the first time to determine the apparent conductivity of the overburden based on three different models: a homogenous half-space model, a thin sheet model, and an attenuation factor or Q-factor model. A statistical formula is proposed to estimate the apparent earth conductivity for a specific mine based on the TTE modeling results given the mine depth and signal frequency. PMID:26213457

  8. Earth Conductivity Estimation from Through-the-Earth Measurements of 94 Coal Mines Using Different Electromagnetic Models.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lincan; Waynert, Joseph; Sunderman, Carl

    2014-10-01

    Through-the-Earth (TTE) communication systems require minimal infrastructure to operate. Hence, they are assumed to be more survivable and more conventional than other underground mine communications systems. This survivability is a major advantage for TTE systems. In 2006, Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act (MINER Act), which requires all underground coal mines to install wireless communications systems. The intent behind this mandate is for trapped miners to be able to communicate with surface personnel after a major accident-hence, the interest in TTE communications. To determine the likelihood of establishing a TTE communication link, it would be ideal to be able to predict the apparent conductivity of the overburden above underground mines. In this paper, all 94 mine TTE measurement data collected by Bureau of Mines in the 1970s and early 1980s, are analyzed for the first time to determine the apparent conductivity of the overburden based on three different models: a homogenous half-space model, a thin sheet model, and an attenuation factor or Q-factor model. A statistical formula is proposed to estimate the apparent earth conductivity for a specific mine based on the TTE modeling results given the mine depth and signal frequency.

  9. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M

    2012-12-01

    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospect of Continuous VLBI Measurement of Earth Rotation in Monitoring Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Ma, Chopo; Clark, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Large-scale mass transports in the geophysical fluids of the Earth system excite Earth's rotational variations in both length-of-day and polar motion. The excitation process is via the conservation of angular momentum. Therefore Earth rotation observations contain information about the integrated angular momentum (consisting of both the mass term and the motion term) of the geophysical fluids, which include atmosphere, hydrosphere, mantle, and the outer and inner cores. Such global information is often important and otherwise unattainable depending on the nature of the mass transport, its magnitude and time scale. The last few years have seen great advances in VLBI measurement of Earth rotation in precision and temporal resolution. These advances have opened new. areas in geophysical fluid studies, such as oceanic tidal angular momentum, atmospheric tides, Earth librations, and rapid atmospheric angular momentum fluctuations. Precision of 10 microseconds in UTI and 200 microarcseconds in polar motion can now be achieved on hourly basis. Building upon this heritage, the multi-network geodetic VLBI project, Continuous Observation of the Rotation of the Earth (CORE), promises to further these studies and to make possible studies on elusive but tell-tale geophysical processes such as oscillatory modes in the core and in the atmosphere. Currently the early phase of CORE is underway. Within a few years into the new mellinnium, the upcoming space gravity missions (such as GRACE) will measure the temporal variations in Earth's gravitational field, thus providing complementary information to that from Earth rotation study for a better understanding of global geophysical fluid processes.

  11. Post-Chernobyl accident radioactivity measurements in the Comunidad Autonoma de Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J; Ballesteros, L; Serradell, V

    1992-03-01

    Increased atmospheric radioactivity after the accident in Chernobyl was first detected on air filters. Measurements were begun in Valencia on May 2, 1986, with the maximum activity being observed around May 3-4, 1986. As a consequence of this accident, annual campaigns of measurements on migrating birds (several species of aquatic birds and song-thrushes) were started. The data corresponding to the campaign immediately after the accident (1986/87) show a generalized contamination (approximately 50% of the measured specimens). Significant levels of 134Cs, 137Cs and 110Agm were found. It is important to note that 110Agm is only present in Aythya ferina. In the successive campaigns in 1988/89 and 1989/91 few samples were found to be contaminated and only 137Cs was identified. Strontium-90 was measured and identified in some specimens, mainly in their bones.

  12. Radioactivity measurements on migrating birds (Turdus philomelos) captured in the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain).

    PubMed

    Navarro, E; Roldán, C; Cervera, J; Ferrero, J L

    1998-01-19

    The radionuclides 137Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr have been measured in edible tissues and bones of migratory birds (song-thrushes, Turdus philomelos) from central and northern Europe and captured in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain in the 1994 autumn-winter season. Eight years after the Chernobyl accident, extensive agricultural lands in Europe are still contaminated and this study shows that there was a transfer of radioactive isotopes to the captured migratory song-thrushes. The whole-body dose commitment to humans consuming these birds is estimated.

  13. A corotation electric field model of the Earth derived from Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Rotation of the Earth in its own geomagnetic field sets up a primary corotation electric field, compensated by a secondary electric field of induced electrical charges. For the geomagnetic field measured by the Swarm constellation of satellites, a derivation of the global corotation electric field inside and outside of the corotation region is provided here, in both inertial and corotating reference frames. The Earth is assumed an electrical conductor, the lower atmosphere an insulator, followed by the corotating ionospheric E region again as a conductor. Outside of the Earth's core, the induced charge is immediately accessible from the spherical harmonic Gauss coefficients of the geomagnetic field. The charge density is positive at high northern and southern latitudes, negative at midlatitudes, and increases strongly toward the Earth's center. Small vertical electric fields of about 0.3 mV/m in the insulating atmospheric gap are caused by the corotation charges located in the ionosphere above and the Earth below. The corotation charges also flow outward into the region of closed magnetic field lines, forcing the plasmasphere to corotate. The electric field of the corotation charges further extends outside of the corotating regions, contributing radial outward electric fields of about 10 mV/m in the northern and southern polar caps. Depending on how the magnetosphere responds to these fields, the Earth may carry a net electric charge.

  14. MEASUREMENT OF THE ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY OF THE AIR AND OF FALL-OUT (in Italian)

    SciT

    Amadesi, P.; Cervellati, A.; Melandri, C.

    1959-01-01

    The results of the measurement of the artificial radioactivity of the air and of fall-out made in Italy from June 1958 to February 1959 are reported. The measurement stations were located at Bologna, Milan, Genoa, Trieste, Naples, Resina, and Bari. The techniques for collecting the samples and measuring their activity are described. Histograms of the activity obtained at the various stations are given. The meteorological factors affecting the activity and the correlation with nuclear explosions are discussed. The methods used to separate Ba/sup 137/, Sr/sup 90/, and Sr/sup 89/ in the fall-out samples are given. The gamma spectra obtained aremore » discussed. (J.S.R.)« less

  15. An automated LS(β)- NaI(Tl)(γ) coincidence system as absolute standard for radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leena; Das, A P; Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D B; Kulkarni, M S

    2018-07-01

    4πβ-γ coincidence method is a powerful and widely used method to determine the absolute activity concentration of radioactive solutions. A new automated liquid scintillator based coincidence system has been designed, developed, tested and established as absolute standard for radioactivity measurements. The automation is achieved using PLC (programmable logic controller) and SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition). Radioactive solution of 60 Co was standardized to compare the performance of the automated system with proportional counter based absolute standard maintained in the laboratory. The activity concentrations determined using these two systems were in very good agreement; the new automated system can be used for absolute measurement of activity concentration of radioactive solutions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the CCD’s of the DAMIC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Amidei, D.; Bertou, X.; Bole, D.; Butner, M.; Cancelo, G.; Castañeda Vásquez, A.; Chavarria, A. E.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Dixon, S.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Estrada, J.; Fernandez Moroni, G.; Hernández Torres, K. P.; Izraelevitch, F.; Kavner, A.; Kilminster, B.; Lawson, I.; Liao, J.; López, M.; Molina, J.; Moreno-Granados, G.; Pena, J.; Privitera, P.; Sarkis, Y.; Scarpine, V.; Schwarz, T.; Sofo Haro, M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Torres Machado, D.; Trillaud, F.; Yol, X.; Zhou, J.

    2016-05-01

    DAMIC (Dark Matter in CCDs) is an experiment searching for dark matter particles employing fully-depleted charge-coupled devices. Using the bulk silicon which composes the detector as target, we expect to observe coherent WIMP-nucleus elastic scattering. Although located in the SNOLAB laboratory, 2 km below the surface, the CCDs are not completely free of radioactive contamination, in particular coming from radon daughters or from the detector itself. We present novel techniques for the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the bulk silicon and on the surface of DAMIC CCDs. Limits on the Uranium and Thorium contamination as well as on the cosmogenic isotope 32 Si, intrinsically present on the detector, were performed. We have obtained upper limits on the 238 TJ (232 Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg_1 d_1 at 95% CL. Pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks expected from 32 Si-32 P and 210 Pb-210 Bi beta decays were also measured. We have found a decay rate of 80+l10 -65 kg_1 d_1 for 32 Si and an upper limit of - 35 kg-1 d-1 for 210 Pb, both at 95% CL.

  17. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in the High-Resistivity Silicon CCDs of the DAMIC Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.

    2015-08-25

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify α and β particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through α spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the 238U ( 232Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg -1 d -1 at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from 32Simore » – 32P or 210Pb – 210Bi sequences of b decays. The decay rate of 32Si was found to be 80 +110 -65 (95% CI). An upper limit of ~35 kg -1 d -1 (95% CL) on the 210Pb decay rate was obtained independently by α spectroscopy and the β decay sequence search. Furthermore, these levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.« less

  18. Optimising in situ gamma measurements to identify the presence of radioactive particles in land areas.

    PubMed

    Rostron, Peter D; Heathcote, John A; Ramsey, Michael H

    2014-12-01

    High-coverage in situ surveys with gamma detectors are the best means of identifying small hotspots of activity, such as radioactive particles, in land areas. Scanning surveys can produce rapid results, but the probabilities of obtaining false positive or false negative errors are often unknown, and they may not satisfy other criteria such as estimation of mass activity concentrations. An alternative is to use portable gamma-detectors that are set up at a series of locations in a systematic sampling pattern, where any positive measurements are subsequently followed up in order to determine the exact location, extent and nature of the target source. The preliminary survey is typically designed using settings of detector height, measurement spacing and counting time that are based on convenience, rather than using settings that have been calculated to meet requirements. This paper introduces the basis of a repeatable method of setting these parameters at the outset of a survey, for pre-defined probabilities of false positive and false negative errors in locating spatially small radioactive particles in land areas. It is shown that an un-collimated detector is more effective than a collimated detector that might typically be used in the field. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Doubling Your Sunsets or How Anyone Can Measure the Earth's Size with Wristwatch and Meterstick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple method to measure the size of the Earth to an accuracy of order of magnitude 10 percent. The procedure involves finding the time interval between two sunsets, a sunset observed at sea level while lying down, and a sunset viewed at eye height after standing up. (GA)

  20. Measuring Solar Radiation Incident on Earth: Solar Constant-3 (SOLCON-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crommelynck, Dominique; Joukoff, Alexandre; Dewitte, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Life on Earth is possible because the climate conditions on Earth are relatively mild. One element of the climate on Earth, the temperature, is determined by the heat exchanges between the Earth and its surroundings, outer space. The heat exchanges take place in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The Earth gains energy because it absorbs solar radiation, and it loses energy because it emits thermal infrared radiation to cold space. The heat exchanges are in balance: the heat gained by the Earth through solar radiation equals the heat lost through thermal radiation. When the balance is perturbed, a temperature change and hence a climate change of the Earth will occur. One possible perturbation of the balance is the CO2 greenhouse effect: when the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere increases, this will reduce the loss of thermal infrared radiation to cold space. Earth will gain more heat and hence the temperature will rise. Another perturbation of the balance can occur through variation of the amount of energy emitted by the sun. When the sun emits more energy, this will directly cause a rise of temperature on Earth. For a long time scientists believed that the energy emitted by the sun was constant. The 'solar constant' is defined as the amount of solar energy received per unit surface at a distance of one astronomical unit (the average distance of Earth's orbit) from the sun. Accurate measurements of the variations of the solar constant have been made since 1978. From these we know that the solar constant varies approximately with the 11-year solar cycle observed in other solar phenomena, such as the occurrence of sunspots, dark spots that are sometimes visible on the solar surface. When a sunspot occurs on the sun, since the spot is dark, the radiation (light) emitted by the sun drops instantaneously. Oddly, periods of high solar activity, when a lot of sunspot numbers increase, correspond to periods when the average solar constant is high. This indicates that

  1. Earth radiation budget measurement from a spinning satellite: Conceptual design of detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Suomi, V. E.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design, sensor characteristics, sensor performance and accuracy, and spacecraft and orbital requirements for a spinning wide-field-of-view earth energy budget detector were investigated. The scientific requirements for measurement of the earth's radiative energy budget are presented. Other topics discussed include the observing system concept, solar constant radiometer design, plane flux wide FOV sensor design, fast active cavity theory, fast active cavity design and error analysis, thermopile detectors as an alternative, pre-flight and in-flight calibration plane, system error summary, and interface requirements.

  2. Comparison of the radioactive and modified techniques for measurement of stream reaeration coefficients

    Rathbun, R.E.; Grant, R. Stephen

    1978-01-01

    There are advantages and disadvantages to both the radioactive and modified tracer techniques. The main advantage of the radioactive technique is that the tracer gas is chemically inert; the main disadvantage is that a radioactive isotope of the gas must be used to obtain the necessary analytical sensitivity. The main advantage of the modified technique is that radioactive tracers are not necessary; the main disadvantage is that the hydrocarbon tracer gases may be subject to biological degradation and sorption losses. Results of this comparison study suggest that the modified technique is a promising alternative to the use of radioactive tracers.

  3. Crosslinked plastic scintillators: a new detection system for radioactivity measurement in organic and aggressive media.

    PubMed

    Bagán, Héctor; Tarancón, Alex; Ye, Lei; García, José F

    2014-12-10

    The measurement of radioactive solutions containing organic or aggressive media may cause stability problems in liquid and plastic scintillation (PS) techniques. In the case of PS, this can be overcome by adding a crosslinker to the polymer structure. The objectives of this study are to synthesise a suitable crosslinked plastic scintillator (C-PS) for radioactivity determination in organic and aggressive media. The results indicated that an increase in the crosslinker content reduces the detection efficiency and a more flexible crosslinker yields higher detection efficiency. For the polymer composition studied, 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) is the most adequate fluorescent solute and an increase in its concentration causes little change in the detection efficiency. The inclusion of a secondary fluorescent solute 1,4-bis-2-(5-phenyloxazolyl) benzene (POPOP) improves the C-PS radiometrical characteristics. For the final composition chosen, the synthesis of the C-PS exhibits good reproducibility with elevated yield. The obtained C-PS also displays high stability in different organic (toluene, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and methanol) and aggressive media (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide). Finally, the C-PS exhibits high detection efficiency both in water and in aggressive media and can also be applied in organic media showing similar or even higher detection efficiency values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulation of decay processes and radiation transport times in radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Toraño, E.; Peyres, V.; Bé, M.-M.; Dulieu, C.; Lépy, M.-C.; Salvat, F.

    2017-04-01

    The Fortran subroutine package PENNUC, which simulates random decay pathways of radioactive nuclides, is described. The decay scheme of the active nuclide is obtained from the NUCLEIDE database, whose web application has been complemented with the option of exporting nuclear decay data (possible nuclear transitions, branching ratios, type and energy of emitted particles) in a format that is readable by the simulation subroutines. In the case of beta emitters, the initial energy of the electron or positron is sampled from the theoretical Fermi spectrum. De-excitation of the atomic electron cloud following electron capture and internal conversion is described using transition probabilities from the LLNL Evaluated Atomic Data Library and empirical or calculated energies of released X rays and Auger electrons. The time evolution of radiation showers is determined by considering the lifetimes of nuclear and atomic levels, as well as radiation propagation times. Although PENNUC is designed to operate independently, here it is used in conjunction with the electron-photon transport code PENELOPE, and both together allow the simulation of experiments with radioactive sources in complex material structures consisting of homogeneous bodies limited by quadric surfaces. The reliability of these simulation tools is demonstrated through comparisons of simulated and measured energy spectra from radionuclides with complex multi-gamma spectra, nuclides with metastable levels in their decay pathways, nuclides with two daughters, and beta plus emitters.

  5. On Physical Interpretation of the In-Site Measurement of Earth Rotation by Ring Laser Gyrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.

    2004-01-01

    Large ring laser gyrometers under development have demonstrated the capability of detecting minute ground motions and deformations on a wide range of timescales. The next challenge and goal is to measure the Earth's rotation variations to a precision that rivals that of the present space-geodesy techniques, thus providing an in-situ (and cost effective alternatives of Earth rotation measurement for geophysical research and geodetic applications. Aside from thermal and mechanical instabilities, "undesirable" ground motion and tilt that appear in the signal will need to be removed before any variation in Earth rotation can be detected. Removal of these signals, some of them are larger than the sought rotation signals, has been a typical procedure in many precise geophysical instruments, such as gravimeters, seismometers, and tiltmeters. The remaining Earth rotation signal resides in both the spin around the axis and in the orientation of the axis. In the case of the latter, the in-situ measurement is complementary to the space-geodetic observables in terms of polar motion and nutation, a fact to be exploited.

  6. Radioactivity of the moon and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkov, Iu. A.

    The major results of studies of the radioactivity of the moon and terrestrial planets are reviewed. Measurements of the cosmogenic and natural radioactivity of the moon and Mars were obtained from planetary orbiter measurements, and those of Venus by in situ measurements, in addition to measurements of lunar samples brought back to earth. For the case of the moon, the Western maria on the near side are found to be the most radioactive areas, with highlands on both sides of the moon exhibiting lower radioactivity than the maria and lunar radioactivity levels in general less than those of the earth, which is correlated with different chemical compositions of the two bodies. The potassium, uranium and thorium contents of the landing sites of Veneras 8, 9 and 10 are shown to differ from each other, but be similar to those of terrestrial basalts, which they also resemble in density. Gamma-radiation and X-ray fluorescence measurements of Mars indicate the content of natural radioelements to be similar to that of the eruptive rocks of the earth crust, with Martian rocks of volcanic formations similar to terrestrial and lunar basalts, and those of the ancient terra formations more closely resembling the anorthosite-norite-troctolite association of the lunar highlands. It is pointed out that natural radioelements contents of all the bodies examined indicate a single chemical differentiation process, while cosmogenic radiation contents can aid in determining cosmic ray intensities as well as the sequences of geological events.

  7. Using a Video Camera to Measure the Radius of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Joshua; Hughes, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    A simple but accurate method for measuring the Earth's radius using a video camera is described. A video camera was used to capture a shadow rising up the wall of a tall building at sunset. A free program called ImageJ was used to measure the time it took the shadow to rise a known distance up the building. The time, distance and length of…

  8. A test of general relativity using the LARES and LAGEOS satellites and a GRACE Earth gravity model: Measurement of Earth's dragging of inertial frames.

    PubMed

    Ciufolini, Ignazio; Paolozzi, Antonio; Pavlis, Erricos C; Koenig, Rolf; Ries, John; Gurzadyan, Vahe; Matzner, Richard; Penrose, Roger; Sindoni, Giampiero; Paris, Claudio; Khachatryan, Harutyun; Mirzoyan, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We present a test of general relativity, the measurement of the Earth's dragging of inertial frames. Our result is obtained using about 3.5 years of laser-ranged observations of the LARES, LAGEOS, and LAGEOS 2 laser-ranged satellites together with the Earth gravity field model GGM05S produced by the space geodesy mission GRACE. We measure [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the Earth's dragging of inertial frames normalized to its general relativity value, 0.002 is the 1-sigma formal error and 0.05 is our preliminary estimate of systematic error mainly due to the uncertainties in the Earth gravity model GGM05S. Our result is in agreement with the prediction of general relativity.

  9. Impulse Response Measurements Over Space-Earth Paths Using the GPS Coarse/Acquisition Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemmon, J. J.; Papazian, P. B.

    1995-01-01

    The impulse responses of radio transmission channels over space-earth paths were measured using the course/acquisition code signals from the Global Positioning System of satellites. The data acquisition system and signal processing techniques used to develop the impulse responses are described. Examples of impulse response measurements are presented. The results indicate that this measurement approach enables detection of multipath signals that are 20 dB or more below the power of the direct arrival. Channel characteristics that could be investigated with additional measurements and analyses are discussed.

  10. Simultaneous Measurements of Nanoaerosols and Radioactive Aerosols Containing the Short-lived Radon Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Otahal, P P S; Burian, I; Ondracek, J; Zdimal, V; Holub, R F

    2017-11-01

    The activity size distribution of the Equilibrium-Equivalent Concentration (EER) of 222Rn is one of the most important parameters for the estimation of radiation dose by inhalation of radon decay products. A series of measurements of the EER activity size distribution were performed by the screen diffusion battery in Radon-Aerosol chamber (10 m3) at the National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Protection (SUJCHBO). These measurements were performed at different levels of radon concentration. For this study, the Graded Screen Array Diffusion Battery (GSA DB), developed by the SUJCHBO (based on Earl Knutson and Robert F Holub design), consists of 10 screens and backup filter used to collect all particles that penetrated the screens. The measuring range of this GSA DB allows measuring the radioactive nanoaerosols in the size range from 0.5 to 100 nm. The Earl Knutson algorithm was used for EER activity size distribution evaluation. The results of EER activity size distribution were subsequently compared with the aerosol particle size distribution measured by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Spectrometer (SMPS 3936 N, TSI Inc., MN, USA). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination on Work Clothing of Workers Engaged in Decontamination Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Hoshi, Katsuya

    To rationally judge the necessity of the contamination screening measurements required in the decontamination work regulations, a field study of the surface contamination density on the clothing of the workers engaged in decontamination operations was performed. The clothing and footwear of 20 workers was analyzed by high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectroscopy. The maximum radiocesium activities (134Cs + 137Cs) observed were 3600, 1300, and 2100 Bq for the work clothing, gloves, and boots, respectively, and the derived surface contamination densities were below the regulatory limit of 40 Bq/cm2. The results of this field study suggest that the upper bounds of the surface contamination density on the work clothing, gloves, and boots are predictable from the maximum soil loading density on the surface of clothing and footwear and the radioactivity concentration in soil at the site.

  12. Temperature dependent mobility measurements of alkali earth ions in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putlitz, Gisbert Zu; Baumann, I.; Foerste, M.; Jungmann, K.; Riediger, O.; Tabbert, B.; Wiebe, J.; Zühlke, C.

    1998-05-01

    Mobility measurements of impurity ions in superfluid helium are reported. Alkali earth ions were produced with a laser sputtering technique and were drawn inside the liquid by an electric field. The experiments were carried out in the temperature region from 1.27 up to 1.66 K. The temperature dependence of the mobility of Be^+-ions (measured here for the first time) differs from that of the other alkali earth ions Mg^+, Ca^+, Sr^+ and Ba^+, but behaves similar to that of He^+ (M. Foerste, H. Günther, O. Riediger, J. Wiebe, G. zu Putlitz, Z. Phys. B) 104, 317 (1997). Theories of Atkins (A. Atkins, Phys. Rev.) 116, 1339 (1959) and Cole (M.W. Cole, R.A. Bachmann Phys. Rev. B) 15, 1388 (1977) predict a different defect structure for He^+ and the alkali earth ions: the helium ion is assumed to form a snowball like structure whereas for the alkali earth ions a bubble structure is assumed. If the temperature dependence is a characteristic feature for the different structures, then it seems likely that the Be^+ ion builds a snowball like structure.

  13. Measurement of particle directions in low earth orbit with a Timepix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohl, St.; Bergmann, B.; Granja, C.; Owens, A.; Pichotka, M.; Polansky, S.; Pospisil, S.

    2016-11-01

    In Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in space electronic equipment aboard satellites and space crews are exposed to high ionizing radiation levels. To reduce radiation damage and the exposure of astronauts, to improve shielding and to assess dose levels, it is valuable to know the composition of the radiation fields and particle directions. The presented measurements are carried out with the Space Application of Timepix Radiation Monitor (SATRAM). There, a Timepix detector (300 μm thick silicon sensor, pixel pitch 55 μm, 256 × 256 pixels) is attached to the Proba-V, an earth observing satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA). The Timepix detector's capability was used to determine the directions of energetic charged particles and their corresponding stopping powers. Data are continuously taken at an altitude of 820 km on a sun-synchronous orbit. The particles pitch angles with respect to the sensor layer were measured and converted to an Earth Centred Earth Fixed (ECEF) coordinate system. Deviations from an isotropic field are extracted by normalization of the observed angular distributions by a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation —taking the systematics of the reconstruction algorithm and the pixelation into account.

  14. Development of an air flow calorimeter prototype for the measurement of thermal power released by large radioactive waste packages.

    PubMed

    Razouk, R; Beaumont, O; Failleau, G; Hay, B; Plumeri, S

    2018-03-01

    The estimation and control of the thermal power released by the radioactive waste packages are a key parameter in the management of radioactive waste geological repository sites. In the framework of the European project "Metrology for decommissioning nuclear facilities," the French National Agency of Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA) collaborates with Laboratoire National de Métrologie et D'essais in order to measure the thermal power up to 500 W of typical real size radioactive waste packages (of at least 0.175 m 3 ) with an uncertainty better than 5% by using a measurement method traceable to the international system of units. One of the selected metrological approaches is based on the principles of air flow calorimetry. This paper describes in detail the development of the air flow calorimeter prototype as well as the design of a radioactive waste package simulator used for its calibration. Results obtained from the calibration of the calorimeter and from the determination of thermal powers are presented here with an investigation of the measurement uncertainties.

  15. Development of an air flow calorimeter prototype for the measurement of thermal power released by large radioactive waste packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razouk, R.; Beaumont, O.; Failleau, G.; Hay, B.; Plumeri, S.

    2018-03-01

    The estimation and control of the thermal power released by the radioactive waste packages are a key parameter in the management of radioactive waste geological repository sites. In the framework of the European project "Metrology for decommissioning nuclear facilities," the French National Agency of Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA) collaborates with Laboratoire National de Métrologie et D'essais in order to measure the thermal power up to 500 W of typical real size radioactive waste packages (of at least 0.175 m3) with an uncertainty better than 5% by using a measurement method traceable to the international system of units. One of the selected metrological approaches is based on the principles of air flow calorimetry. This paper describes in detail the development of the air flow calorimeter prototype as well as the design of a radioactive waste package simulator used for its calibration. Results obtained from the calibration of the calorimeter and from the determination of thermal powers are presented here with an investigation of the measurement uncertainties.

  16. Field spectroscopy sampling strategies for improved measurement of Earth surface reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Arthur, A.; Alonso, L.; Malthus, T. J.; Moreno, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades extensive networks of research sites have been established to measure the flux of carbon compounds and water vapour between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere using eddy covariance (EC) techniques. However, contributing Earth surface components cannot be determined and (as the ';footprints' are spatially constrained) these measurements cannot be extrapolated to regional cover using this technique. At many of these EC sites researchers have been integrating spectral measurements with EC and ancillary data to better understand light use efficiency and carbon dioxide flux. These spectroscopic measurements could also be used to assess contributing components and provide support for imaging spectroscopy, from airborne or satellite platforms, which can provide unconstrained spatial cover. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in ';smart' database and information retrieval systems such as that proposed by EcoSIS and OPTIMISE to store, analyse, QA and merge spectral and biophysical measurements and provide information to end users. However, as Earth surfaces are spectrally heterogeneous and imaging and field spectrometers sample different spatial extents appropriate field sampling strategies require to be adopted. To sample Earth surfaces spectroscopists adopt either single; random; regular grid; transect; or 'swiping' point sampling strategies, although little comparative work has been carried out to determine the most appropriate approach; the work by Goetz (2012) is a limited exception. Mac Arthur et al (2012) demonstrated that, for two full wavelength (400 nm to 2,500 nm) field spectroradiometers, the measurement area sampled is defined by each spectroradiometer/fore optic system's directional response function (DRF) rather than the field-of-view (FOV) specified by instrument manufacturers. Mac Arthur et al (2012) also demonstrated that each reflecting element within the sampled area was not weighted equally in the integrated

  17. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    SciT

    Sala, E.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, Y. D.

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGemore » with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example {sup 106}Cd and {sup 156}Dy) and rare β decays ({sup 96}Zr, {sup 180m}Ta , etc ) are under study.« less

  18. 3D laser scanning in civil engineering - measurements of volume of earth masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowicz, J. A.; Szafranko, E.; Harasymiuk, J.

    2018-03-01

    Considering the constant drive to improve and accelerate building processes as well as possible applications of the latest technological achievements in civil engineering practice, the author has proposed to use 3D laser scanning in the construction industry. For example, data achieved through a 3D laser scanning process will facilitate making inventories of parameters of buildings in a very short time, will enable one to check irregularly shaped masses of earth, heavy and practically impossible to calculate precisely using traditional techniques. The other part of the research, performed in the laboratory, consisted of measurements of a model mound of earth. All the measurements were made with a 3D SkanStation C10 laser scanner manufactured by Leica. The data were analyzed. The results suggest that there are great opportunities for using the laser scanning technology in civil engineering

  19. Optimum satellite orbits for accurate measurement of the earth's radiation budget, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, G. G.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum set of orbit inclinations for the measurement of the earth radiation budget from spacially integrating sensor systems was estimated for two and three satellite systems. The best set of the two were satellites at orbit inclinations of 80 deg and 50 deg; of three the inclinations were 80 deg, 60 deg and 50 deg. These were chosen on the basis of a simulation of flat plate and spherical detectors flying over a daily varying earth radiation field as measured by the Nimbus 3 medium resolution scanners. A diurnal oscillation was also included in the emitted flux and albedo to give a source field as realistic as possible. Twenty three satellites with different inclinations and equator crossings were simulated, allowing the results of thousand of multisatellite sets to be intercompared. All were circular orbits of radius 7178 kilometers.

  20. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for areas at risk of

  1. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government’s response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. Methods and Findings We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products

  2. RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

    SciT

    Setter, L.R.

    The environment and, consequently, food contains measurable amounts of radionuclides arising primarily from the distribution of nuclear bomb debris over the entire earth's surface. This radioactivity is in addition to natural radioactivity which exists in thc environment. A wealth of information has been gathered on the artificial radioactivity in air, water, vegetation, and soil; on physical and chemical mechanisms of radioaetive movement in the biosphere; and on the biologic behavior of radionuclide uptake by animals and human beings and their distribution in excretions and secretions. Collection of additional information under more carefully designed and executed studies is under way. Theremore » remains the task of marshalling and reviewing the data obtained during active fall-out up to the summer of 1959. With later information collected during a period of substantially no fall-out, the interpretation of these data hopefully will indicate the relative magnitude of physical, chemical, and biologic factors influencing levels in plants and animals, provide a means of predicting future levels, and, most important, permit some evaluation of the effects of nuclear radiation from ingestion of contaminated food as a part of the total effects from fall-out and from natural radioactivity. (auth)« less

  3. Combinations of Earth Orientation Measurements: SPACE2005, COMB2005, and POLE2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Independent Earth orientation measurements taken by the space-geodetic techniques of lunar and satellite laser ranging, by very long baseline interferometry, and by the Global Positioning System have been combined using a Kalman filter. The resulting combined Earth orientation series, SPACE2005, consists of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from September 28, 1976, to January 7, 2006, at daily intervals and is available in versions whose epochs are given at either midnight or noon. The space-geodetic measurements used to generate SPACE2005 have then been combined with optical astrometric measurements to form two additional combined Earth orientation series: (1) COMB2005, consisting of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from January 20, 1962, to January 7, 2006, at daily intervals and which is also available in versions whose epochs are given at either midnight or noon; and (2) POLE2005, consisting of values and uncertainties for polar motion and its rate that span from January 20, 1900, to December 21, 2005, at 30.4375-day intervals.

  4. Combinations of Earth Orientation Measurements: SPACE2003, COMB2003, and POLE2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    Independent Earth orientation measurements taken by the space-geodetic techniques of lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the global positioning system have been combined using a Kalman filter. The resulting combined Earth orientation series, SPACE2003, consists of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from September 28.0, 1976 to January 31.0, 2004 at daily intervals and is available in versions whose epochs are given at either midnight or noon. The space-geodetic measurements used to generate SPACE2003 have then been combined with optical astrometric measurements to form two additional combined Earth orientation series: (1) COMB2003, consisting of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from January 20.0, 1962 to January 31.0, 2004 at daily intervals and which is also available in versions whose epochs are given at either midnight or noon, and (2) POLE2003, consisting of values and uncertainties for polar motion and its rate that span from January 20, 1900 to January 21,2004 at 30.4375-day intervals.

  5. Combinations of Earth Orientation Measurements: SPACE2004, COMB2004, and POLE2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard R.

    2005-01-01

    Independent Earth orientation measurements taken by the space-geodetic techniques of lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the global positioning system have been combined using a Kalman filter. The resulting combined Earth orientation series, SPACE2004, consists of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from September 28, 1976, to January 22, 2005, at daily intervals and is available in versions whose epochs are given at either midnight or noon. The space-geodetic measurements used to generate SPACE2004 have then been combined with optical astrometric measurements to form two additional combined Earth orientation series: (1) COMB2004, consisting of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from January 20, 1962, to January 22, 2005, at daily intervals and which is also available in versions whose epochs are given at either midnight or noon, and (2) POLE2004, consisting of values and uncertainties for polar motion and its rate that span from January 20, 1900, to January 20, 2005, at 30.4375-day intervals.

  6. Combinations of Earth Orientation Measurements: SPACE2001, COMB2001, and POLE2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    Independent Earth-orientation measurements taken by the space-geodetic techniques of lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the global positioning system have been combined using a Kalman filter. The resulting combined Earth-orientation series, SPACE2001, consists of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from September 28.0, 1976 to January 19.0, 2002 at daily intervals. The space-geodetic measurements used to generate SPACE2001 have been combined with optical astrometric measurements to form two additional combined Earth-orientation series: (1) COMB2001, consisting of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from January 20.0, 1962 to January 15.0, 2002 at five-day intervals, and (2) POLE2001, consisting of values and uncertainties for polar motion and its rates that span from January 20, 1900 to December 21, 2001 at 30.4375-day intervals.

  7. Combinations of Earth Orientation Measurements: SPACE2014, COMB2014, and POLE2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, J. T.; Gross, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Independent Earth orientation measurements taken by the space-geodetic techniques of lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the Global Positioning System have been combined using a Kalman filter. The resulting combined Earth orientation series, SPACE2013, consists of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from September 28, 1976, to June 30, 2014, at daily intervals and is available in versions with epochs given at either midnight or noon. The space-geodetic measurements used to generate SPACE2013 have then been combined with optical astrometric measurements to form two additional combined Earth orientation series: (1) COMB2013, consisting of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from January 20, 1962, to June 30, 2014, at daily intervals and which are also available in versions with epochs given at either midnight or noon; and (2) POLE2013, consisting of values and uncertainties for polar motion and its rate that span from January 20, 1900, to June 22, 2014, at 30.4375-day intervals.

  8. Combinations of Earth Orientation Measurements: SPACE2011, COMB2011, and POLE2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, J. T.; Gross, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Independent Earth orientation measurements taken by the space-geodetic techniques of lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the Global Positioning System have been combined using a Kalman filter. The resulting combined Earth orientation series, SPACE2011, consists of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from September 28, 1976, to July 13, 2012, at daily intervals and is available in versions with epochs given at either midnight or noon. The space-geodetic measurements used to generate SPACE2011 have then been combined with optical astrometric measurements to form two additional combined Earth orientation series: (1) COMB2011, consisting of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from January 20, 1962, to July 13, 2012, at daily intervals and which are also available in versions with epochs given at either midnight or noon; and (2) POLE2011, consisting of values and uncertainties for polar motion and its rate that span from January 20, 1900, to June 21, 2012, at 30.4375-day intervals.

  9. Combinations of Earth Orientation Measurements: SPACE2013, COMB2013, and POLE2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, J. T.; Gross, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Independent Earth orientation measurements taken by the space-geodetic techniques of lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the Global Positioning System have been combined using a Kalman filter. The resulting combined Earth orientation series, SPACE2013, consists of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from September 28, 1976, to June 30, 2014, at daily intervals and is available in versions with epochs given at either midnight or noon. The space-geodetic measurements used to generate SPACE2013 have then been combined with optical astrometric measurements to form two additional combined Earth orientation series: (1) COMB2013, consisting of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from January 20, 1962, to June 30, 2014, at daily intervals and which are also available in versions with epochs given at either midnight or noon; and (2) POLE2013, consisting of values and uncertainties for polar motion and its rate that span from January 20, 1900, to June 22, 2014, at 30.4375-day intervals.

  10. Combinations of Earth Orientation Measurements: SPACE2016, COMB2016, and POLE2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, J. T.; Gross, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Independent Earth orientation measurements taken by the space-geodetic techniques of lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the Global Positioning System have been combined using a Kalman filter. The resulting combined Earth orientation series, SPACE2016, consists of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from September 28, 1976, to June 30, 2017, at daily intervals and is available in versions with epochs given at either midnight or noon. The space-geodetic measurements used to generate SPACE2016 have then been combined with optical astrometric measurements to form two additional combined Earth orientation series: (1) COMB2016, consisting of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from January 20, 1962, to June 30, 2017, at daily intervals and which are also available in versions with epochs given at either midnight or noon; and (2) POLE2016, consisting of values and uncertainties for polar motion and its rate that span from January 20, 1900, to June 22, 2017, at 30.4375-day intervals.

  11. Combinations of Earth Orientation Measurements: SPACE2012, COMB2012, and POLE2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, J. T.; Gross, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Independent Earth orientation measurements taken by the space-geodetic techniques of lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the Global Positioning System have been combined using a Kalman filter. The resulting combined Earth orientation series, SPACE2012, consists of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from September 28, 1976, to April 26, 2013, at daily intervals and is available in versions with epochs given at either midnight or noon. The space-geodetic measurements used to generate SPACE2012 have then been combined with optical astrometric measurements to form two additional combined Earth orientation series: (1) COMB2012, consisting of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from January 20, 1962, to April 26, 2013, at daily intervals and which are also available in versions with epochs given at either midnight or noon; and (2) POLE2012, consisting of values and uncertainties for polar motion and its rate that span from January 20, 1900, to May 22, 2013, at 30.4375-day intervals.

  12. Comparison of Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Calibration Using Earth Surface Targets in Laboratory and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

    1999-01-01

    Routine backscatter, beta, measurements by an airborne or space-based lidar from designated earth surfaces with known and fairly uniform beta properties can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities. This can in turn be used to obtain accurate atmospheric aerosol and cloud beta measurements on large spatial scales. This is important because achieving a precise calibration factor for large pulsed lidars then need not rest solely on using a standard hard target procedure. Furthermore, calibration from designated earth surfaces would provide an inflight performance evaluation of the lidar. Hence, with active remote sensing using lasers with high resolution data, calibration of a space-based lidar using earth's surfaces will be extremely useful. The calibration methodology using the earth's surface initially requires measuring beta of various earth surfaces simulated in the laboratory using a focused continuous wave (CW) CO2 Doppler lidar and then use these beta measurements as standards for the earth surface signal from airborne or space-based lidars. Since beta from the earth's surface may be retrieved at different angles of incidence, beta would also need to be measured at various angles of incidences of the different surfaces. In general, Earth-surface reflectance measurements have been made in the infrared, but the use of lidars to characterize them and in turn use of the Earth's surface to calibrate lidars has not been made. The feasibility of this calibration methodology is demonstrated through a comparison of these laboratory measurements with actual earth surface beta retrieved from the same lidar during the NASA/Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission on NASA's DC8 aircraft from 13 - 26 September, 1995. For the selected earth surface from the airborne lidar data, an average beta for the surface was established and the statistics of lidar efficiency was determined. This was compared with the actual lidar efficiency

  13. Measurements of radioactivity and dose assessments in some building materials in Bitlis, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kayakökü, Halime; Karatepe, Şule; Doğru, Mahmut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, samples of perlite, pumice and Ahlat stones (Ignimbrite) extracted from mines in Bitlis and samples of other building materials produced in facilities in Bitlis were collected and analyzed. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples of building materials were measured using NaI detector (NaI(Tl)) with an efficiency of 24%. The radon measurements of building material samples were determined using CR-39 nuclear track detectors. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radioactivity concentrations ranged from (29.6±5.9 to 228.2±38.1Bq/kg), (10.8±5.4 to 95.5±26.1Bq/kg) and (249.3±124.7 to 2580.1±266.9Bq/kg), respectively. Radon concentration, radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate, excess lifetime cancer risk and the values of hazard indices were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in the construction of dwellings. Radon concentration ranged between 89.2±12.0Bq/m(3) and 1141.0±225.0Bq/m(3). It was determined that Raeq values of samples conformed to world standards except for perlite and single samples of brick and Ahlat stone. Calculated values of absorbed dose rate ranged from 81.3±20.5 to 420.6±42.8nGy/h. ELCR values ranged from (1.8±0.3)×10(-3) to (9.0±1.0)×10(-3). All samples had ELCR values higher than the world average. The values of Hin and Hex varied from 0.35±0.11 to 1.78±0.18 and from 0.37±0.09 to 1.17±0.13, respectively. The results were compared with standard radioactivity values determined by international organizations and with similar studies. There would be a radiation risk for people living in buildings made of perlite, Ahlat-1 and Brick-3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring Earth's radiation imbalance with RAVAN: A CubeSat mission to measure the driver of global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, W. H.; Dyrud, L. P.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Lorentz, S. R.; Papadakis, S.; Summers, R. A.; Smith, A. W.; Wu, D. L.; Deglau, D. M.; Arnold, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth radiation imbalance (ERI) is the single most important quantity for predicting the course of climate change over the next century. It is also the single most important metric for any geo-engineering scheme. We review the current scientific understanding of ERI and present a recently funded CubeSat mission, the Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN), that will demonstrate an affordable, accurate radiometer that directly measures Earth-leaving fluxes of total and solar-reflected radiation. Coupled with knowledge of the incoming radiation from the Sun, RAVAN directly gives ERI. The objective of RAVAN is to demonstrate that a compact spaceborne radiometer that is absolutely accurate to NIST-traceable standards can be built for low cost. The key technologies that enable a radiometer with all these attributes are: a gallium fixed-point blackbody as a built-in calibration source and a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) absorber. VACNTs are the blackest known substance, making them ideal radiometer absorbers with order-of-magnitude improvements in spectral flatness and stability over the existing art. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory heritage 3U Multi-Mission Nanosat will host RAVAN, providing the reliability, agility, and resources needed. RAVAN will pave the way for a constellation Earth radiation budget mission that can provide the measurements needed to enable vastly superior predictions of future climate change.

  15. Radioactivity measurement of nuts and seeds available in Erbil city markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzulddin, Saman Khabbat; Ahmed, Ali Hassan; Samad, Ahmed Ismael; Othman, Sardar Qader

    2017-09-01

    A study of natural and artificial radionuclides in nut and seed samples consumed in Erbil city has been performed. The NaI(TI) scintillation detector and nuclear track detector were used to measure the activity concentration of 40K, 232Th, 226Ra, 137Cs and 222Rn; respectively. The measured activity in samples ranges from (207.63 to 533.88) Bq.kg-1 with the mean value of 290.6 Bq.kg-1 for 40K, (0.031 to 0.52) Bq.kg-1 with a mean value of (0.149) Bq.kg-1for 226Ra (0.101 to 0.554) Bq.kg-1 with the mean value of (0.218) Bq.kg-1 for 232Th, 0.033 to 0.0.266 Bq.kg-1 with the mean value of (0.111) Bq.kg-1 for 137Cs and radon concentration ranged from 128.77to 298.1 Bq.m-3 with an average value of 202.7 Bq.m-3. To assess the radiological hazard due to natural radioactivity, the average values of the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin) and Gamma index (Iγ) have been calculated to be (22.67) Bq/kg, (0.061), (1.12) and (0.195) respectively.

  16. High-pressure swing system for measurements of radioactive fission gases in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schell, W. R.; Vives-Battle, J.; Yoon, S. R.; Tobin, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides emitted from nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear weapons tests are distributed widely in the atmosphere but have very low concentrations. As part of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), identification and verification of the emission of radionuclides from such sources are fundamental in maintaining nuclear security. To detect underground and underwater nuclear weapons tests, only the gaseous components need to be analyzed. Equipment has now been developed that can be used to collect large volumes of air, separate and concentrate the radioactive gas constituents, such as xenon and krypton, and measure them quantitatively. By measuring xenon isotopes with different half-lives, the time since the fission event can be determined. Developments in high-pressure (3500 kPa) swing chromatography using molecular sieve adsorbents have provided the means to collect and purify trace quantities of the gases from large volumes of air automatically. New scintillation detectors, together with timing and pulse shaping electronics, have provided the low-background levels essential in identifying the gamma ray, X-ray, and electron energy spectra of specific radionuclides. System miniaturization and portability with remote control could be designed for a field-deployable production model.

  17. A Procedure to Measure the in-Situ Hygrothermal Behavior of Earth Walls

    PubMed Central

    Chabriac, Pierre-Antoine; Fabbri, Antonin; Morel, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Blanc-Gonnet, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Rammed earth is a sustainable material with low embodied energy. However, its development as a building material requires a better evaluation of its moisture-thermal buffering abilities and its mechanical behavior. Both of these properties are known to strongly depend on the amount of water contained in wall pores and its evolution. Thus the aim of this paper is to present a procedure to measure this key parameter in rammed earth or cob walls by using two types of probes operating on the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) principle. A calibration procedure for the probes requiring solely four parameters is described. This calibration procedure is then used to monitor the hygrothermal behavior of a rammed earth wall (1.5 m × 1 m × 0.5 m), instrumented by six probes during its manufacture, and submitted to insulated, natural convection and forced convection conditions. These measurements underline the robustness of the calibration procedure over a large range of water content, even if the wall is submitted to quite important temperature variations. They also emphasize the importance of gravity on water content heterogeneity when the saturation is high, as well as the role of liquid-to-vapor phase change on the thermal behavior. PMID:28788603

  18. Development of Optical Parametric Amplifier for Lidar Measurements of Trace Gases on Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephen R.; Krainak, Michael; Abshire, James

    2011-01-01

    Trace gases in planetary atmospheres offer important clues as to the origins of the planet's hydrology, geology. atmosphere. and potential for biology. Wc report on the development effort of a nanosecond-pulsed optical parametric amplifier (OPA) for remote trace gas measurements for Mars and Earth. The OP A output light is single frequency with high spectral purity and is widely tunable both at 1600 nm and 3300 nm with an optical-optical conversion efficiency of approximately 40%. We demonstrated open-path atmospheric measurements ofCH4 (3291 nm and 1651 nm). CO2 (1573 nm), H20 (1652 nm) with this laser source.

  19. Earth resources data systems design: S192 instrument measurements and characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and characteristics of the S192 instrument for use with the earth resources data systems are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) multispectral scanner measurements, (2) measurement characteristics, (3) calibration and aligment, (4) operating modes, and (5) time tagging and references. The S192 will obtain high spatial resolution, quantitative line scan imagery data of the radiation reflected and emitted by selected test sites in up to 13 spectral bands of visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  20. Amplitude and angle of arrival measurements on a 28.56 GHz Earth-space path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devasirvatham, D. M. J.; Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The amplitude and angle of arrival measurements on an Earth-space path using the 28.56 GHz COMSTAR D3 satellite beacon are described. These measurements were made by the Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory during the period September 1978 to September 1979. Monthly, quarterly, and annual distributions of attenuation, angle of arrival, and variance of both these parameters are reported. During this period, fades exceeding 29 dB for .00% of the time and angle of arrival fluctuations exceeding .12 degrees for .01% of the time were observed.

  1. The measurement of the earth's radiation budget as a problem in information theory - A tool for the rational design of earth observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of the earth's radiation budget has been chosen to illustrate the technique of objective system design. The measurement process is an approximately linear transformation of the original field of radiant exitances, so that linear statistical techniques may be employed. The combination of variability, measurement strategy, and error propagation is presently made with the help of information theory, as suggested by Kondratyev et al. (1975) and Peckham (1974). Covariance matrices furnish the quantitative statement of field variability.

  2. TRAPPED PROTON FLUXES AT LOW EARTH ORBITS MEASURED BY THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT

    SciT

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Barbarino, G. C.

    2015-01-20

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above ∼70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350 ÷ 610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra, and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes, placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be usedmore » to validate current trapped particle radiation models.« less

  3. The Earth's core composition from high pressure density measurements of liquid iron alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Siebert, J.; Andrault, D.; Guignot, N.; Garbarino, G.; Guyot, F.; Antonangeli, D.

    2013-07-01

    High-pressure, high-temperature in situ X-ray diffraction has been measured in liquid iron alloys (Fe-5 wt% Ni-12 wt% S and Fe-5 wt% Ni-15 wt% Si) up to 94 GPa and 3200 K in laser-heated diamond anvil cells. From the analysis of the X-ray diffuse scattering signal of the metallic liquids, we determined density and bulk modulus of the two liquid alloys. Comparison with a reference Earth model indicates that a core composition containing 6% of sulfur and 2% of silicon by weight would best match the geophysical data. Models with 2.5% of sulfur and 4-5% of silicon are still consistent with geophysical constraints whereas silicon only compositions are not. These results suggest only moderate depletion of sulfur in the bulk Earth.

  4. Atlas of the Earth's radiation budget as measured by Nimbus-7: May 1979 to May 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Richard R.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1991-01-01

    This atlas describes the seasonal changes in the Earth's radiation budget for the 13-month period, May 1979 to May 1980. It helps to illustrate the strong feedback mechanisms by which the Earth's climate interacts with the top-of-the-atmosphere insolation to modify the energy that various regions absorb from the Sun. Cloud type and cloud amount, which are linked to the surface temperature and the regional climate, are key elements in this interaction. Annual, seasonal, and monthly maps of the albedo, outgoing longwave and net radiation, noontime cloud cover, and mean diurnal surface temperatures are presented. Annual and seasonal net cloud forcing maps are also given. All of the quantities were derived from Nimbus-7 satellite measurements except for the temperatures, which were used in the cloud detection algorithm and came originally from the Air Force 3-dimensional nephanalysis dataset. The seasonal changes are described. The interaction of clouds and the radiation budget is briefly discussed.

  5. Direct Measurements of Interplanetary Dust Particles in the Vicinity of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCracken, C. W.; Alexander, W. M.; Dubin, M.

    1961-01-01

    The direct measurements made by the Explorer VIII satellite provide the first sound basis for analyzing all available direct measurements of the distribution of interplanetary dust particles. The model average distribution curve established by such an analysis departs significantly from that predicted by the (uncertain) extrapolation of results from meteor observations. A consequence of this difference is that the daily accretion of interplanetary particulate matter by the earth is now considered to be mainly dust particles of the direct measurements range of particle size. Almost all the available direct measurements obtained with microphone systems on rockets, satellites, and spacecraft fit directly on the distribution curve defined by Explorer VIII data. The lack of reliable datum points departing significantly from the model average distribution curve means that available direct measurements show no discernible evidence of an appreciable geocentric concentration of interplanetary dust particles.

  6. Discovery and Mass Measurements of a Cold, 10-Earth Mass Planet and Its Host Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K.; Muraki, Y.; Han, C.; Bennett, D. P.; Gaudi, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery and mass measurement of the cold, low-mass planet MOA-2009-BLG-266Lb, made with the gravitational microlensing method. This planet has a mass of mp = 10.4 +/- M(Earth) and orbits a star of Mstar = 0.56 +/- 0.09 M(Sun) at a semi-major axis of a = 3.2 + 1.9/-0.5 AU, and an orbital period of 7.6 +7.7/-1.5 yrs. The planet and host star mass measurements are due to the measurement of the microlensing parallax effect. This measurement was primarily due to the orbital motion of the Earth, but the analysis also demonstrates the capability measure micro lensing parallax with the Deep Impact (or EPOXI) spacecraft in a Heliocentric orbit. The planet mass and orbital distance are similar to predictions for the critical core mass needed to accrete a substantial gaseous envelope, and thus may indicate that this planet is a failed gas giant. This and future microlensing detections will test planet formation theory predictions regarding the prevalence and masses of such planets

  7. Comparison of planar, PET and well-counter measurements of total tumor radioactivity in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael V; Seidel, Jurgen; Williams, Mark R; Wong, Karen J; Ton, Anita; Basuli, Falguni; Choyke, Peter L; Jagoda, Elaine M

    2017-10-01

    Quantitative small animal radionuclide imaging studies are often carried out with the intention of estimating the total radioactivity content of various tissues such as the radioactivity content of mouse xenograft tumors exposed to putative diagnostic or therapeutic agents. We show that for at least one specific application, positron projection imaging (PPI) and PET yield comparable estimates of absolute total tumor activity and that both of these estimates are highly correlated with direct well-counting of these same tumors. These findings further suggest that in this particular application, PPI is a far more efficient data acquisition and processing methodology than PET. Forty-one athymic mice were implanted with PC3 human prostate cancer cells transfected with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA (+)) and one additional animal (for a total of 42) with a control blank vector (PSMA (-)). All animals were injected with [ 18 F] DCFPyl, a ligand for PSMA, and imaged for total tumor radioactivity with PET and PPI. The tumors were then removed, assayed by well counting for total radioactivity and the values between these methods intercompared. PET, PPI and well-counter estimates of total tumor radioactivity were highly correlated (R 2 >0.98) with regression line slopes near unity (0.95radioactivity can be measured with PET or PPI with an accuracy comparable to well counting if certain experimental and pharmacokinetic conditions are met. In this particular application, PPI is significantly more efficient than PET in making these measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the measured and predicted response of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment active cavity radiometer during solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Tira, N. E.; Lee, Robert B., III; Keynton, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment consists of an array of radiometric instruments placed in earth orbit by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to monitor the longwave and visible components of the earth's radiation budget. Presented is a dynamic electrothermal model of the active cavity radiometer used to measure the earth's total radiative exitance. Radiative exchange is modeled using the Monte Carlo method and transient conduction is treated using the finite element method. Also included is the feedback circuit which controls electrical substitution heating of the cavity. The model is shown to accurately predict the dynamic response of the instrument during solar calibration.

  9. World Pendulum--A Distributed Remotely Controlled Laboratory (RCL) to Measure the Earth's Gravitational Acceleration Depending on Geographical Latitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grober, S.; Vetter, M.; Eckert, B.; Jodl, H.-J.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest that different string pendulums are positioned at different locations on Earth and measure at each place the gravitational acceleration (accuracy [delta]g is approximately equal to 0.01 m s[superscript -2]). Each pendulum can be remotely controlled via the internet by a computer located somewhere on Earth. The theoretical part describes…

  10. Measure the Earth's Radius and the Speed of Light with Simple and Inexpensive Computer-Based Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    With new and inexpensive computer-based methods, measuring the speed of light and the Earth's radius--historically difficult endeavors--can be simple enough to be tackled by high school and college students working in labs that have limited budgets. In this article, the author describes two methods of estimating the Earth's radius using two…

  11. The RAVAN CubeSat Mission: A Pathfinder for a New Measurement of Earth's Radiation Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, W.; Lorentz, S. R.; Huang, P. M.; Smith, A. W.; Deglau, D.; Reynolds, E.; Carvo, J.; Papadakis, S.; Wu, D. L.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat is a pathfinder for a constellation to measure the Earth's radiation imbalance (ERI), which is the single most important quantity for predicting the course of climate change over the next century. RAVAN demonstrates a small, accurate radiometer that measures top-of-the-atmosphere Earth-leaving fluxes of total and solar-reflected radiation. Coupled with knowledge of the incoming radiation from the Sun, a constellation of such measurements would aim to determine ERI directly. Our objective with RAVAN is to establish that a compact radiometer that is absolutely calibrated to climate accuracy can be built and operated in space for low cost. The radiometer, hosted on a 3U CubeSat, relies on two key technologies. The first is the use of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) as the radiometer absorber. VACNT forests are some of the blackest materials known and have an extremely flat spectral response over a wide wavelength range. The second key technology is a gallium fixed-point blackbody calibration source, embedded in RAVAN's sensor head contamination cover, that serves as a stable and repeatable reference to track the long-term degradation of the sensor. Absolute calibration is also maintained by regular solar and deep space views. We present the scientific motivation for the NASA-funded mission, design and characterization of the spacecraft, and mission operations concept. Pending a successful launch in fall 2016, we will also present the first results on-orbit. RAVAN will help enable the development of an Earth radiation budget constellation mission that can provide the measurements needed for superior predictions of future climate change.

  12. RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENT AND RADIOLOGICAL HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF THE COMMONLY USED GRANITE AND MARBLE IN JORDAN.

    PubMed

    Alali, Abdullah E; Al-Shboul, Khaled F; Albdour, Samah A

    2018-05-08

    Natural radioactivity of common commercial marble and granite types used in Jordanian dwellings are measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K ranged from 8.57 ± 1.55 to 152.07 ± 3.26 Bq kg-1, 6.83 ± 1.25 to 365.43 ± 4.84 Bq kg-1 and 121.25 ± 9.10 to 1604.90 ± 31.28 Bq kg-1 in granite and from 0.53 ± 0.12 to 18.61 ± 1.60 Bq kg-1, 0.51 ± 0.19 to 4.87 ± 2.13 Bq kg-1 and 3.21 ± 0.96 to 58.09 ± 6.40 Bq kg-1 in marble, respectively. Various radiological hazard indices like gamma index, internal and external hazard indices and annual effective dose equivalent were calculated and compared with the international limits. Our results show that some granite types may pose a radiation hazard.

  13. A Unique Automation Platform for Measuring Low Level Radioactivity in Metabolite Identification Studies

    PubMed Central

    Krauser, Joel; Walles, Markus; Wolf, Thierry; Graf, Daniel; Swart, Piet

    2012-01-01

    Generation and interpretation of biotransformation data on drugs, i.e. identification of physiologically relevant metabolites, defining metabolic pathways and elucidation of metabolite structures, have become increasingly important to the drug development process. Profiling using 14C or 3H radiolabel is defined as the chromatographic separation and quantification of drug-related material in a given biological sample derived from an in vitro, preclinical in vivo or clinical study. Metabolite profiling is a very time intensive activity, particularly for preclinical in vivo or clinical studies which have defined limitations on radiation burden and exposure levels. A clear gap exists for certain studies which do not require specialized high volume automation technologies, yet these studies would still clearly benefit from automation. Use of radiolabeled compounds in preclinical and clinical ADME studies, specifically for metabolite profiling and identification are a very good example. The current lack of automation for measuring low level radioactivity in metabolite profiling requires substantial capacity, personal attention and resources from laboratory scientists. To help address these challenges and improve efficiency, we have innovated, developed and implemented a novel and flexible automation platform that integrates a robotic plate handling platform, HPLC or UPLC system, mass spectrometer and an automated fraction collector. PMID:22723932

  14. Implications of modelled radioactivity measurements along coastal Odisha, Eastern India for heavy mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, S.; Agrahari, S.; Guin, R.; Sengupta, D.

    2017-01-01

    A radioelemental assemblage assessment of two beaches of Odisha is performed for the first time. The radiation is measured in two ways, both on field with the help of a hand held environmental survey meter and in the laboratory, where the concentrations of radionuclide's 238U, 232Th and 4K have been determined with the help of High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe). Mineralogical analysis of selected samples has been performed with the help of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF). A marked difference between the concentration of Uranium (274 Bq kg-1) and Thorium (2489 Bq kg-1) is observed and discussed based on the geology of the area. The placer deposits showing an enrichment of thorium can be an important source of nuclear fuel for the thorium based nuclear reactors. The ratio of thorium and uranium concentrations gives us an idea about the coastal processes associated with the beach. Statistical analysis of the data shows a positive correlation between 238U and 232Th and a strong negative correlation is indicated between 4 K and 238U, 232Th. A cross plot between the equivalent thorium and the equivalent uranium and the equivalent thorium and potassium, represents the nature of deposition and its association with the heavy mineral along with the radioactive elements. Heavy minerals exhibit an increasing trend towards Northeast-Southwest along the south eastern coast of India.

  15. Rainfall measurement from opportunistic use of earth-space link in Ku Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthès, L.; Mallet, C.

    2013-02-01

    The present study deals with the development of a low cost microwave device devoted to measure average rain rate observed along earth - satellite links. The principle is to use rain atmospheric attenuation along Earth - space links in Ku-band to deduce the path averaged rain rate. These links are characterized by a path length of a few km through the troposphere. Ground based power measurements are carried out by receiving TV channels from different geostationary satellites in Ku-band. The major difficulty in this study is to retrieve rain characteristics among many fluctuations of the received signal which are due to atmospheric scintillations, changes in the composition of the atmosphere (water vapour concentration, cloud water content) or satellite features (variation of the emitted power, satellite motions). In order to perform a feasibility study of such a device, a measurement campaign has been performed for five months near Paris. This paper proposes an algorithm based on an artificial neural network to identify drought and rainy periods and to suppress the variability of the received signal due to no-rain effects. Taking into account the height of the rain layer, rain attenuation is then inverted to obtain path averaged rain rate. Obtained rainfall rates are compared with co-located rain gauges and radar measurements on the whole experiment period, then the most significant rainy events are analyzed.

  16. Measurement of earth pressures on concrete box culverts under highway embankments

    SciT

    Yang, M.Z.; Drumm, E.C.; Bennett, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the stresses acting on cast-in-place concrete box culverts, and to investigate the conditions which resulted in a culvert failure under about 12 meters of backfill, two sections of a new culvert were instrumented. The measured earth pressure distribution was found to depend upon the height of the embankment over the culvert. For low embankment heights (less than one-half the culvert width), the average measured vertical earth pressures, weighted by tributary length, were about 30% greater than the recommended AASHTO pressures. The measured lateral pressures were slightly greater than the AASHTO pressures. As the embankmentmore » height increased, the measured weighted average vertical stress exceeded the AASHTO pressures by about 20%. Lateral pressures which exceeded the vertical pressures were recorded at the bottom of the culvert walls, and small lateral pressures were recorded on the upper locations of the wall. The high lateral pressures at the base of the wall are consistent with the results from finite element analyses with high density (modulus) backfill material placed around the culvert.« less

  17. The radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system from Nimbus 3 radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschke, E.; Vonderhaar, T. H.; Pasternak, M.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system and its components was computed from global measurements of radiation reflected and emitted from the earth to space. These measurements were made from the meteorological satellite Nimbus 3 during the periods from April 16 to August 15, 1969; October 3 to 17, 1969; and January 21 to February 3, 1970. Primarily the method of evaluation, its inherent assumptions, and possible error sources were discussed. Results are presented by various methods: (1) global, hemispherical, and zonal averages obtained from measurements in all semimonthly periods and (2) global maps of the absorbed solar radiation, the albedo, the outgoing longwave radiation, and the radiation balance obtained from measurements during semimonthly periods in each season (May 1 to 15, July 16 to 31, and October 3 to 17, 1969, and January 21 to February 3, 1970). Annual global averages of the albedo and of the outgoing longwave radiation were determined. These values balance to within 1 percent the annual global energy input by solar radiation that was computed for a solar constant.

  18. Space Technology 5 Multi-point Measurements of Near-Earth Magnetic Fields: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Le, G.; Strangeway, R. L.; Wang, Y.; Boardsen, S.A.; Moldwin, M. B.; Spence, H. E.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) mission successfully placed three micro-satellites in a 300 x 4500 km dawn-dusk orbit on 22 March 2006. Each spacecraft carried a boom-mounted vector fluxgate magnetometer that returned highly sensitive and accurate measurements of the geomagnetic field. These data allow, for the first time, the separation of temporal and spatial variations in field-aligned current (FAC) perturbations measured in low-Earth orbit on time scales of approximately 10 sec to 10 min. The constellation measurements are used to directly determine field-aligned current sheet motion, thickness and current density. In doing so, we demonstrate two multi-point methods for the inference of FAC current density that have not previously been possible in low-Earth orbit; 1) the "standard method," based upon s/c velocity, but corrected for FAC current sheet motion, and 2) the "gradiometer method" which uses simultaneous magnetic field measurements at two points with known separation. Future studies will apply these methods to the entire ST-5 data set and expand to include geomagnetic field gradient analyses as well as field-aligned and ionospheric currents.

  19. On the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM): Bringing NASA's Earth System Science Program to the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is the first mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall using a variety of remote sensing instrumentation, including the first spaceborne rain-measuring radar. Since the energy released when tropical rainfall occurs is a primary "fuel" supply for the weather and climate "engine"; improvements in computer models which predict future weather and climate states may depend on better measurements of global tropical rainfall and its energy. In support of the STANYS conference theme of Education and Space, this presentation focuses on one aspect of NASA's Earth Systems Science Program. We seek to present an overview of the TRMM mission. This overview will discuss the scientific motivation for TRMM, the TRMM instrument package, and recent images from tropical rainfall systems and hurricanes. The presentation also targets educational components of the TRMM mission in the areas of weather, mathematics, technology, and geography that can be used by secondary school/high school educators in the classroom.

  20. Measurement of the potential drop across the earth's collisionless bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formisano, V.

    1982-01-01

    The normal component of the dc electric field measured on ISEE-1 ordinarily exhibits an enhancement of a few mV/m over both upstream and downstream values at the earth's bow shock. Using the measured relative velocity between the shock and the spacecraft (from the ISEE-1/2 time delay in the magnetometer data), it is possible to transform the observed E enhancement to a potential drop (delta phi). For a subcritical shock the potential drop is found to be very close to the measured change of particle kinetic energy (delta phi, approximately 280 V on day 330, 1977), whereas for a supercritical shock the potential drop is only a fraction of the measured change of kinetic energy (delta phi, approximately 140 V on day 324, 1977).

  1. Displacements of the earth's surface due to atmospheric loading - Effects of gravity and baseline measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dam, T. M.; Wahr, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loads and deforms the earth's crust. By performing a convolution sum between daily, global barometric pressure data and mass loading Green's functions, the time dependent effects of atmospheric loading, including those associated with short-term synoptic storms, on surface point positioning measurements and surface gravity observations are estimated. The response for both an oceanless earth and an earth with an inverted barometer ocean is calculated. Load responses for near-coastal stations are significantly affected by the inclusion of an inverted barometer ocean. Peak-to-peak vertical displacements are frequently 15-20 mm with accompanying gravity perturbations of 3-6 micro Gal. Baseline changes can be as large as 20 mm or more. The perturbations are largest at higher latitudes and during winter months. These amplitudes are consistent with the results of Rabbel and Zschau (1985), who modeled synoptic pressure disturbances as Gaussian functions of radius around a central point. Deformation can be adequately computed using real pressure data from points within about 1000 km of the station. Knowledge of local pressure, alone, is not sufficient. Rabbel and Zschau's hypothesized corrections for these displacements, which use local pressure and the regionally averaged pressure, prove accurate at points well inland but are, in general, inadequate within a few hundred kilometers of the coast.

  2. Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest and Shear Modulus Measurements on Hanford Sludge Simulants

    SciT

    Wells, Beric E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Boeringa, Gregory K.

    2010-09-30

    This report describes the equipment, techniques, and results of lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus measurements on kaolin clay as well as two chemical sludge simulants. The testing was performed in support of the problem of hydrogen gas retention and release encountered in the double- shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) are being transferred to double-shell tanks (DSTs) for safety reasons (some SSTs are leaking or are in danger of leaking), but the available DST space is limited.

  3. Space Communications and Data Systems Technologies for Next Generation Earth Science Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert A.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Hilderman, Don R.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of Earth observing satellites and sensor networks will face challenges in supporting robust high rate communications links from the increasingly sophisticated onboard instruments. Emerging applications will need data rates forecast to be in the 100's to 1000's of Mbps. As mission designers seek smaller spacecraft, challenges exist in reducing the size and power requirements while increasing the capacity of the spacecraft's communications technologies. To meet these challenges, this work looks at three areas of selected space communications and data services technologies, specifically in the development of reflectarray antennas, demonstration of space Internet concepts, and measurement of atmospheric propagation effects on Ka-band signal transmitted from LEO.

  4. Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors - A comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is made of four prominent Doppler lidar systems, ranging in wavelength from the near UV to the middle IR, which are presently being studied for their potential in an earth-orbiting global tropospheric wind field measurement application. The comparison is restricted to relative photon efficiencies, i.e., the required number of transmitted photons per pulse is calculated for each system for midtropospheric velocity estimate uncertainties ranging from + or - 1 to + or - 4 m/s. The results are converted to laser transmitter pulse energy and power requirements. The analysis indicates that a coherent CO2 Doppler lidar operating at 9.11-micron wavelength is the most efficient.

  5. Measurement of spectra and neutron fluxes on artificial earth satellites from the Cosmos series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudkin, V. Y.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Novikova, M. R.; Potapov, Y. V.; Skvortsov, S. S.; Smirennyy, L. N.

    1975-01-01

    In 1966-1967 measurements were carried out at the altitudes of 200 to 400 km to determine the spectra and fluxes of fast neutrons inside the hermetically sealed artificial earth satellites of the Cosmos series. The detectors used were nuclear emulsions of the B9 and BR types and an emulsion of the P9 type, filled with Li and P. Spectra and fluxes of neutrons in the range of energies from thermal energies to 10 MeV are presented. Neutron doses are also estimated.

  6. Candidate configuration trade study, Stellar-inertial Measurement Systems (SIMS) for an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogletree, G.; Coccoli, J.; Mckern, R.; Smith, M.; White, R.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analytical and simulation studies of the stellar-inertial measurement system (SIMS) for an earth observation satellite are presented. Subsystem design analyses and sensor design trades are reported. Three candidate systems are considered: (1) structure-mounted gyros with structure-mounted star mapper, (2) structure-mounted gyros with gimbaled star tracker, and (3) gimbaled gyros with structure-mounted star mapper. The purpose of the study is to facilitate the decisions pertaining to gimbaled versus structure-mounted gyros and star sensors, and combinations of systems suitable for the EOS satellite.

  7. NIGHTGLOW: An Instrument to Measure the Earth's Nighttime Ultraviolet Glow - Results from the First Engineering Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, Louis M.; Smith, Robert; Murphy, Scott; Christian, Eric R.; Farley, Rodger; Krizmanic, John F.; Mitchell, John W.; Streitmatter, Robert E.; Loh, Eugene C.; Stochaj, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    We have designed and built an instrument to measure and monitor the "nightglow" of the Earth's atmosphere in the near ultraviolet (NUV). In this paper we describe the design of this instrument, called NIGHTGLOW. NIGHTGLOW is designed to be flown-from a high altitude research balloon, and circumnavigate the globe. NIGHTGLOW is a NASA, University of Utah, and New Mexico State University project. A test flight took place from Palestine, Texas on July 5, 2000, lasting about 8 hours. The instrument performed well and landed safely in Stiles, Texas with little damage. The resulting measurements of the NUV nightglow are consistent with previous measurements from sounding rockets and balloons. The results will be presented and discussed.

  8. Earth-atmosphere system and surface reflectivities in arid regions from LANDSAT multispectral scanner measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Fraser, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    Programs for computing atmospheric transmission and scattering solar radiation were used to compute the ratios of the Earth-atmosphere system (space) directional reflectivities in the vertical direction to the surface reflectivity, for the four bands of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS). These ratios are presented as graphs for two water vapor levels, as a function of the surface reflectivity, for various sun elevation angles. Space directional reflectivities in the vertical direction are reported for selected arid regions in Asia, Africa and Central America from the spectral radiance levels measured by the LANDSAT MSS. From these space reflectivities, surface vertical reflectivities were computed applying the pertinent graphs. These surface reflectivities were used to estimate the surface albedo for the entire solar spectrum. The estimated albedos are in the range 0.34-0.52, higher than the values reported by most previous researchers from space measurements, but are consistent with laboratory measurements.

  9. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activities range 24-231, 20-70, and 242-1434 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The geographic distribution of (238)U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of (238)U than of (232)Th. The (238)U activities become lower than (232)Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. (137)Cs activity ranges 0.4-86.8 kBq m(-2). The lowest activity of (137)Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The (137)Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to (137)Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses.

    PubMed

    Turhan, S; Baykan, U N; Sen, K

    2008-03-01

    A total of 183 samples of 20 different commonly used structural and covering building materials were collected from housing and other building construction sites and from suppliers in Ankara to measure the natural radioactivity due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. The specific activities of the different building materials studied varied from 0.5 +/- 0.1 to 144.9 +/- 4.9 Bq kg(-1), 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 169.9 +/- 6.6 Bq kg(-1) and 2.0 +/- 0.1 to 1792.3 +/- 60.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The results show that the lowest mean values of the specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 0.8 +/- 0.5, 0.9 +/- 0.4 and 4.1 +/- 1.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, measured in travertine tile while the highest mean values of the specific activity of the same radionuclides are 78.5 +/- 18.1 (ceramic wall tile), 77.4 +/- 53.0 (granite tile) and 923.4 +/- 161.0 (white brick), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the gamma-index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The mean values of the gamma-index and the estimated annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation inside the room for structural building materials ranged from 0.15 to 0.89 and 0.2 to 1.1 mSv, respectively. Applying criteria recently recommended for building materials in the literature, four materials meet the exemption annual dose criterion of 0.3 mSv, five materials meet the annual dose limit of 1 mSv and only one material slightly exceeds this limit. The mean values of the gamma-index for all building materials were lower than the upper limit of 1.

  11. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciT

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M.

    2013-08-08

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Levelmore » Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.« less

  12. A low-cost spectrometer for NMR measurements in the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, Carl A.

    2010-10-01

    We describe and demonstrate an inexpensive, easy-to-build, portable spectrometer for nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in the Earth's magnetic field. The spectrometer is based upon a widely available inexpensive microcontroller, which acts as a pulse programmer, audio-frequency synthesizer and digitizer, replacing what are typically the most expensive specialized components of the system. The microcontroller provides the capability to execute arbitrarily long and complicated sequences of phase-coherent, phase-modulated excitation pulses and acquire data sets of unlimited duration. Suitably packaged, the spectrometer is amenable to measurements in the research lab, in the field or in the teaching lab. The choice of components was heavily weighted by cost and availability, but required no significant sacrifice in performance. Using an existing personal computer, the resulting design can be assembled for as little as US200. The spectrometer performance is demonstrated with spin-echo and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequences on a water sample.

  13. CPMIP: measurements of real computational performance of Earth system models in CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Venkatramani; Maisonnave, Eric; Zadeh, Niki; Lawrence, Bryan N.; Biercamp, Joachim; Fladrich, Uwe; Aloisio, Giovanni; Benson, Rusty; Caubel, Arnaud; Durachta, Jeffrey; Foujols, Marie-Alice; Lister, Grenville; Mocavero, Silvia; Underwood, Seth; Wright, Garrett

    2017-01-01

    A climate model represents a multitude of processes on a variety of timescales and space scales: a canonical example of multi-physics multi-scale modeling. The underlying climate system is physically characterized by sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and natural stochastic variability, so very long integrations are needed to extract signals of climate change. Algorithms generally possess weak scaling and can be I/O and/or memory-bound. Such weak-scaling, I/O, and memory-bound multi-physics codes present particular challenges to computational performance. Traditional metrics of computational efficiency such as performance counters and scaling curves do not tell us enough about real sustained performance from climate models on different machines. They also do not provide a satisfactory basis for comparative information across models. codes present particular challenges to computational performance. We introduce a set of metrics that can be used for the study of computational performance of climate (and Earth system) models. These measures do not require specialized software or specific hardware counters, and should be accessible to anyone. They are independent of platform and underlying parallel programming models. We show how these metrics can be used to measure actually attained performance of Earth system models on different machines, and identify the most fruitful areas of research and development for performance engineering. codes present particular challenges to computational performance. We present results for these measures for a diverse suite of models from several modeling centers, and propose to use these measures as a basis for a CPMIP, a computational performance model intercomparison project (MIP).

  14. Data fusion with artificial neural networks (ANN) for classification of earth surface from microwave satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lure, Y. M. Fleming; Grody, Norman C.; Chiou, Y. S. Peter; Yeh, H. Y. Michael

    1993-01-01

    A data fusion system with artificial neural networks (ANN) is used for fast and accurate classification of five earth surface conditions and surface changes, based on seven SSMI multichannel microwave satellite measurements. The measurements include brightness temperatures at 19, 22, 37, and 85 GHz at both H and V polarizations (only V at 22 GHz). The seven channel measurements are processed through a convolution computation such that all measurements are located at same grid. Five surface classes including non-scattering surface, precipitation over land, over ocean, snow, and desert are identified from ground-truth observations. The system processes sensory data in three consecutive phases: (1) pre-processing to extract feature vectors and enhance separability among detected classes; (2) preliminary classification of Earth surface patterns using two separate and parallely acting classifiers: back-propagation neural network and binary decision tree classifiers; and (3) data fusion of results from preliminary classifiers to obtain the optimal performance in overall classification. Both the binary decision tree classifier and the fusion processing centers are implemented by neural network architectures. The fusion system configuration is a hierarchical neural network architecture, in which each functional neural net will handle different processing phases in a pipelined fashion. There is a total of around 13,500 samples for this analysis, of which 4 percent are used as the training set and 96 percent as the testing set. After training, this classification system is able to bring up the detection accuracy to 94 percent compared with 88 percent for back-propagation artificial neural networks and 80 percent for binary decision tree classifiers. The neural network data fusion classification is currently under progress to be integrated in an image processing system at NOAA and to be implemented in a prototype of a massively parallel and dynamically reconfigurable Modular

  15. Combinations of Earth Orientation Measurements: SPACE94, COMB94, and POLE94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    A Kalman filter has been used to combine independent measurements of the Earth's orientation taken by the space-geodetic observing techniques of lunar laser ranging, satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the Global Positioning System. Prior to their combination, the data series were adjusted to have the same bias and rate, the stated uncertainties of the measurements were adjusted, and data points considered to be outliers were deleted. The resulting combination, SPACE94, consists of smoothed, interpolated polar motion and UT1-UTC values spanning October 6, 1976, to January 27, 1995, at 1-day intervals. The Kalman filter was then used to combine the space-geodetic series comprising SPACE94 with two different, independent series of Earth orientation measurements taken by the technique of optical astrometry. Prior to their combination with SPACE94, the bias, rate and annual term of the optical astrometric series were corrected, the stated uncertainties of the measurements were adjusted, and data points considered to be outliers were deleted. The adjusted optical astrometric series were then combined with SPACE94 in two steps: (1) the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) optical astrometric series was combined with SPACE94 to form COMB94, a combined series of smoothed, interpolated polar motion and UT1-UTC values spanning January 20, 1962, to January 27, 1995, at 5-day intervals, and (2) the International Latitude Service (ILS) optical astrometric series was combined with COMB94 to form POLE94, a combined series of smoothed, interpolated polar motion values spanning January 20, 1900, to January 21, 1995, at 30.4375-day intervals.

  16. Measurements of radioactive and stable sulfur isotopes at Mt. Everest and its geochemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Thiemens, M. H.; Zhang, Q.; Li, C.; Kang, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Zhang, Z.; Su, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalayas were recently identified as a global hotspot for deep stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) during spring [1]. Although STT transport in this region may play a vital role in tropospheric chemistry, the hydrological cycle and aquatic ecosystems in Asia, there is no direct measurement of a specific chemical stratospheric tracer to verify and evaluate its possible impact. Here, cosmogenic 35S tracer (half-life: ~87 days) produced in the stratosphere was measured for the first time in surface snow and river runoff samples collected at Mt. Everest in April 2013 using a low-noise liquid scintillation spectroscopy [2]. Strikingly, we find extraordinarily high concentrations of 35S in these samples (>10 times higher than the southern Tibetan Plateau), verifying the Himalayas as a gateway of springtime STT. In light of this, two studies were conducted: a) Measurements of 35SO2 and 35SO42- at the southern Tibetan Plateau reveals that the oxidative life time of SO2 is reduced to 2.1 days under the influence of aged stratospheric air masses from the Himalayas. A concept box model for estimating the influence of STT on surface O3 using 35S tracer is proposed. b) Quadruple stable sulfur isotopes in a sediment core (~250 years) from the Gokyo Lake (the world's highest freshwater lake) [3] near Mt. Everest are being measured to investigate the possible impact of STT on sulfur budget at the Himalayas. The absence of sulfide suggests that bacterial sulfate reduction may be negligible in this lake. Enrichment of uranium (EF ≈ 10) in 20th century samples highlights the impact of atmospheric deposition. S-isotope sulfate anomalies are not found (Δ33S and Δ36S ≈ 0‰), implying that sulfate in this lake may be mainly contributed by eolian dust or derived from rock. This is also supported by the low enrichments of most trace elements (EF ≈ 1). Rare earth elements will be used to assist in identifying the potential sources and interpreting the variation of δ34

  17. Scalar Measurements and Analysis of Helium Jets in Earth Gravity and Microgravity using Rainbow Schlieren Deflectometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yep, Tze Wing

    2001-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that low-density gas jets injected into a high-density gas undergo an instability mode leading to highly periodic oscillations in the flow field. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow in these jets is abrupt, without a gradual change in scales. Although this type of instability at high Richardson numbers has been attributed to buoyancy, direct physical evidence was not acquired through experiments. In this study, several experiments were conducted in Earth gravity and microgravity to acquire qualitative data on near field flow structure of helium jets injected into air. Microgravity conditions were simulated in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA Glenn Research Center. The operating parameters of this study included the tube inside diameter, the jet Reynolds number, and the jet Richardson number. Tubes with inside diameters of 19.05 mm and 31.75 mm were used in the experiments conducted in the drop tower. The jet flow was analyzed using quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry, a non-intrusive line of sight measurement technique for the whole field. The flow structure was characterized by distributions of angular deflection and the resulting helium mole fraction obtained from color schlieren images taken at 60 Hz. Three sets of experimental data with respect to three schlieren fields of view were acquired for each tube. Results show that the jet in microgravity was up to 70 percent wider than that in Earth gravity. The global jet flow oscillations observed in Earth gravity were absent in microgravity, providing direct experimental evidence that the flow instability in the low-density jet was buoyancy-induced. This study provides quantitative details of temporal flow evolution as the experiments undergo change in gravity in the drop tower.

  18. Techniques for Measuring Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, a low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen reaction with polymers causes erosion, which is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, where the atomic oxygen fluence is often so low that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties, recession measurements based on atomic force microscopy analyses can be used. Equally necessary to knowing the mass loss or recession depth for determining the erosion yield of polymers is the knowledge of the atomic oxygen fluence that the polymers were exposed to in space. This paper discusses the procedures and relevant issues for mass loss and recession depth measurements for passive atomic oxygen erosion yield characterization of polymers, along with techniques for active atomic oxygen fluence and erosion characterization. One active atomic oxygen erosion technique discussed is a new technique based on optical measurements. Details including the use of both semi-transparent and opaque polymers for active erosion measurement are reviewed.

  19. High-Albedo Salt Crusts on the Tropical Ocean of Snowball Earth: Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carns, R.; Light, B.; Warren, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    During a Snowball Earth event, almost all of the ocean surface first freezes as sea ice. As in modern sea ice, trapped inclusions of liquid brine permeate the ice cover. As the ice grows and cools, salt crystals precipitate within the inclusions. At -23C, the most abundant salt in seawater, sodium chloride, begins to precipitate as the dihydrate mineral hydrohalite (NaCl·2H2O). Crystals of hydrohalite within the sea ice scatter light. Measurements of cold, natural sea ice show a broadband albedo increase of 10-20% when salt precipitates. Such snow-free natural sea ice with a surface temperature below -23C is rare on modern Earth, but would have been common in tropical regions of a Snowball Earth where evaporation exceeded precipitation. The persistent cold and lack of summer melt on the Snowball ocean surface, combined with net evaporation, is hypothesized to yield lag deposits of hydrohalite crystals on the ice surface. To investigate this process, we prepared laboratory-grown sea ice in a 1000 liter tank in a walk-in freezer laboratory. The ice was cooled below -23 C and the surface sprayed with a 23% NaCl solution to create a layer of hydrohalite-enriched ice, a proxy for lag deposits that would have formed over long periods of surface sublimation. We have developed a novel technique for measuring the spectral albedo of ice surfaces in the laboratory; this technique was used to monitor the evolution of the surface albedo of our salt crust as the ice matrix sublimated away leaving a layer of fine-grained hydrohalite crystals. Measurements of this hydrohalite surface crust show a very high albedo, comparable to fresh snow at visible wavelengths and significantly larger than fresh snow at near infrared wavelengths. Broadband albedos are 0.55 for bare artificial sea ice at -30C, 0.75 for ice containing 25% hydrohalite by volume, 0.84 after five days of desiccation and 0.93 after 47 days of desiccation. Using our laboratory measurements, along with estimates of

  20. In-flight measurement of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-10 static Earth sensor error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvie, E.; Filla, O.; Baker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis performed in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) measures error in the static Earth sensor onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-10 spacecraft using flight data. Errors are computed as the difference between Earth sensor pitch and roll angle telemetry and reference pitch and roll attitude histories propagated by gyros. The flight data error determination illustrates the effect on horizon sensing of systemic variation in the Earth infrared (IR) horizon radiance with latitude and season, as well as the effect of anomalies in the global IR radiance. Results of the analysis provide a comparison between static Earth sensor flight performance and that of scanning Earth sensors studied previously in the GSFC/FDD. The results also provide a baseline for evaluating various models of the static Earth sensor. Representative days from the NOAA-10 mission indicate the extent of uniformity and consistency over time of the global IR horizon. A unique aspect of the NOAA-10 analysis is the correlation of flight data errors with independent radiometric measurements of stratospheric temperature. The determination of the NOAA-10 static Earth sensor error contributes to realistic performance expectations for missions to be equipped with similar sensors.

  1. Measurement of electrons from albedo neutron decay and neutron density in near-Earth space.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlin; Selesnick, Richard; Schiller, Quintin; Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Hong; Baker, Daniel N; Temerin, Michael A

    2017-12-21

    The Galaxy is filled with cosmic-ray particles, mostly protons with kinetic energies greater than hundreds of megaelectronvolts. Around Earth, trapped energetic protons, electrons and other particles circulate at altitudes from about 500 to 40,000 kilometres in the Van Allen radiation belts. Soon after these radiation belts were discovered six decades ago, it was recognized that the main source of inner-belt protons (with kinetic energies of tens to hundreds of megaelectronvolts) is cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND). In this process, cosmic rays that reach the upper atmosphere interact with neutral atoms to produce albedo neutrons, which, being prone to β-decay, are a possible source of geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons. These protons would retain most of the kinetic energy of the neutrons, while the electrons would have lower energies, mostly less than one megaelectronvolt. The viability of CRAND as an electron source has, however, been uncertain, because measurements have shown that the electron intensity in the inner Van Allen belt can vary greatly, while the neutron-decay rate should be almost constant. Here we report measurements of relativistic electrons near the inner edge of the inner radiation belt. We demonstrate that the main source of these electrons is indeed CRAND, and that this process also contributes to electrons in the inner belt elsewhere. Furthermore, measurement of the intensity of electrons generated by CRAND provides an experimental determination of the neutron density in near-Earth space-2 × 10 -9 per cubic centimetre-confirming theoretical estimates.

  2. Cold Atom Interferometers Used In Space (CAIUS) for Measuring the Earth's Gravity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraz, O.; Luca, M.; Siemes, C.; Haagmans, R.; Silvestrin, P.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decades, it has been shown that atomic quantum sensors are a newly emerging technology that can be used for measuring the Earth's gravity field. There are two ways of making use of that technology: One is a gravity gradiometer concept and the other is in a low-low satellite-to-satellite ranging concept. Whereas classical accelerometers typically suffer from high noise at low frequencies, Cold Atom Interferometers are highly accurate over the entire frequency range. We recently proposed a concept using cold atom interferometers for measuring all diagonal elements of the gravity gradient tensor and the full spacecraft angular velocity in order to achieve better performance than the GOCE gradiometer over a larger part of the spectrum, with the ultimate goals of determining the fine structures in the gravity field better than today. This concept relies on a high common mode rejection, which relaxes the drag free control compare to GOCE mission, and benefits from a long interaction time with the free falling clouds of atoms due to the micro gravity environment in space as opposed to the 1-g environment on-ground. Other concept is also being studied in the frame of NGGM, which relies on the hybridization between quantum and classical techniques to improve the performance of accelerometers. This could be achieved as it is realized in frequency measurements where quartz oscillators are phase locked on atomic or optical clocks. This technique could correct the spectrally colored noise of the electrostatic accelerometers in the lower frequencies. In both cases, estimation of the Earth gravity field model from the instruments has to be evaluated taking into account different system parameters such as attitude control, altitude of the satellite, time duration of the mission, etc. Miniaturization, lower consumptions and upgrading Technical Readiness Level are the key engineering challenges that have to be faced for these space quantum technologie.

  3. Thermal Infrared Spectrometer for Earth Science Remote Sensing Applications—Instrument Modifications and Measurement Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Christoph; Hook, Simon; van der Meijde, Mark; Bakker, Wim; van der Werff, Harald; Wilbrink, Henk; van Ruitenbeek, Frank; de Smeth, Boudewijn; van der Meer, Freek

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe a new instrumental setup at the University of Twente Faculty ITC with an optimized processing chain to measure absolute directional-hemispherical reflectance values of typical earth science samples in the 2.5 to 16 μm range. A Bruker Vertex 70 FTIR spectrometer was chosen as the base instrument. It was modified with an external integrating sphere with a 30 mm sampling port to allow measuring large, inhomogeneous samples and quantitatively compare the laboratory results to airborne and spaceborne remote sensing data. During the processing to directional-hemispherical reflectance values, a background radiation subtraction is performed, removing the effect of radiance not reflected from the sample itself on the detector. This provides more accurate reflectance values for low-reflecting samples. Repeat measurements taken over a 20 month period on a quartz sand standard show that the repeatability of the system is very high, with a standard deviation ranging between 0.001 and 0.006 reflectance units depending on wavelength. This high level of repeatability is achieved even after replacing optical components, re-aligning mirrors and placement of sample port reducers. Absolute reflectance values of measurements taken by the instrument here presented compare very favorably to measurements of other leading laboratories taken on identical sample standards. PMID:22346683

  4. Thermal infrared spectrometer for Earth science remote sensing applications-instrument modifications and measurement procedures.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Christoph; Hook, Simon; van der Meijde, Mark; Bakker, Wim; van der Werff, Harald; Wilbrink, Henk; van Ruitenbeek, Frank; de Smeth, Boudewijn; van der Meer, Freek

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe a new instrumental setup at the University of Twente Faculty ITC with an optimized processing chain to measure absolute directional-hemispherical reflectance values of typical earth science samples in the 2.5 to 16 μm range. A Bruker Vertex 70 FTIR spectrometer was chosen as the base instrument. It was modified with an external integrating sphere with a 30 mm sampling port to allow measuring large, inhomogeneous samples and quantitatively compare the laboratory results to airborne and spaceborne remote sensing data. During the processing to directional-hemispherical reflectance values, a background radiation subtraction is performed, removing the effect of radiance not reflected from the sample itself on the detector. This provides more accurate reflectance values for low-reflecting samples. Repeat measurements taken over a 20 month period on a quartz sand standard show that the repeatability of the system is very high, with a standard deviation ranging between 0.001 and 0.006 reflectance units depending on wavelength. This high level of repeatability is achieved even after replacing optical components, re-aligning mirrors and placement of sample port reducers. Absolute reflectance values of measurements taken by the instrument here presented compare very favorably to measurements of other leading laboratories taken on identical sample standards.

  5. Trace Gas Measurements on Mars and Earth Using Optical Parametric Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Haris, Riris; Li, Steve; Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James Brice

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and their isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres offer important but subtle clues as to the origins of a planet's atmosphere, hydrology, geology, and potential for biology. An orbiting laser remote sensing instrument is capable of measuring trace gases on a global scale with unprecedented accuracy, and higher spatial resolution that can be obtained by passive instruments. We have developed an active sensing instrument for the remote measurement of trace gases in planetary atmospheres (including Earth). The technique uses widely tunable, seeded optical parametric generation (OPG) to measure methane, CO2, water vapor, and other trace gases in the near and mid-infrared spectral regions. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and it is also a potential biogenic marker on Mars and other planets. Methane in the Earth's atmosphere survives for a shorter time than CO2 but its impact on climate change can be larger than CO2. Methane levels have remained relatively constant over the last decade around 1.78 parts per million (ppm) but recent observations indicate that methane levels may be on the rise. Increasing methane concentrations may trigger a positive feedback loop and a subsequent runaway greenhouse effect, where increasing temperatures result in increasing methane levels. The NRC Decadal Survey recognized the importance of global observations of greenhouse gases and called for simultaneous CH4, CO, and CO2 measurements but also underlined the technological limitations for these observations. For Mars, methane measurements are of great interest because of its potential as a strong biogenic marker. A remote sensing instrument that can measure day and night over all seasons and latitudes can identify and localize sources of biogenic gas plumes produced by subsurface chemistry or biology, and aid in the search for extra-terrestrial life. It can identify the dynamics of methane generation over time and latitude and identify future lander mission sites

  6. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India using gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ravisankar, R; Vanasundari, K; Chandrasekaran, A; Rajalakshmi, A; Suganya, M; Vijayagopal, P; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2012-04-01

    The natural level of radioactivity in building materials is one of the major causes of external exposure to γ-rays. The primordial radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the radioactivity level in building materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the specific activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials from Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India, using gamma-ray spectrometer. The radiation hazard due to the total natural radioactivity in the studied building materials was estimated by different approaches. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and the radium equivalent activity in studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical conductivity of the Earth's mantle from the first Swarm magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civet, F.; Thébault, E.; Verhoeven, O.; Langlais, B.; Saturnino, D.

    2015-05-01

    We present a 1-D electrical conductivity profile of the Earth's mantle down to 2000 km derived from L1b Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements from November 2013 to September 2014. We first derive a model for the main magnetic field, correct the data for a lithospheric field model, and additionally select the data to reduce the contributions of the ionospheric field. We then model the primary and induced magnetospheric fields for periods between 2 and 256 days and perform a Bayesian inversion to obtain the probability density function for the electrical conductivity as function of depth. The conductivity increases by 3 orders of magnitude in the 400-900 km depth range. Assuming a pyrolitic mantle composition, this profile is interpreted in terms of temperature variations leading to a temperature gradient in the lower mantle that is close to adiabatic.

  8. Measurements of the earth radiation budget from satellites during the first GARP global experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Campbell, G. G.; Smith, E. A.; Arking, A.; Coulson, K.; Hickey, J.; House, F.; Ingersoll, A.; Jacobowitz, H.; Smith, L.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation budget data (which will aid in climate model development) and solar constant measurements (both to be used for the study of long term climate change and interannual seasonal weather variability) are presented, obtained during Nimbus-6 and Nimbus-7 satellite flights, using wide-field-of-view, scanner, and black cavity detectors. Data on the solar constant, described as a function of the date of measurement, are given. The unweighed mean amounts to 1377 + or - 20 per sq Wm, with a standard deviation of 8 per sq Wm. The new solar data are combined with earlier measurements, and it is suggested that the total absolute energy output of the sun is a minimum at 'solar maximum' and vice versa. Attention is given to the measurements of the net radiation budget, the planetary albedo, and the infrared radiant exitance. The annual and semiannual cycles of normal variability explain most of the variance of energy exchange between the earth and space. Examination of separate ocean and atmospheric energy budgets implies a net continent-ocean region energy exchange.

  9. SU-G-201-16: Thermal Imaging in Source Visualization and Radioactivity Measurement for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    SciT

    Zhu, X; Lei, Y; Zheng, D

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy poses a special challenge to radiation safety and quality assurance (QA) due to its high radioactivity, and it is thus critical to verify the HDR source location and its radioactive strength. This study demonstrates a new method for measuring HDR source location and radioactivity utilizing thermal imaging. A potential application would relate to HDR QA and safety improvement. Methods: Heating effects by an HDR source were studied using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Thermal cameras were used to visualize an HDR source inside a plastic applicator made of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). Using different source dwellmore » times, correlations between the HDR source strength and heating effects were studied, thus establishing potential daily QA criteria using thermal imaging Results: For an Ir1?2 source with a radioactivity of 10 Ci, the decay-induced heating power inside the source is ∼13.3 mW. After the HDR source was extended into the PVDF applicator and reached thermal equilibrium, thermal imaging visualized the temperature gradient of 10 K/cm along the PVDF applicator surface, which agreed with FEA modeling. For Ir{sup 192} source activities ranging from 4.20–10.20 Ci, thermal imaging could verify source activity with an accuracy of 6.3% with a dwell time of 10 sec, and an accuracy of 2.5 % with 100 sec. Conclusion: Thermal imaging is a feasible tool to visualize HDR source dwell positions and verify source integrity. Patient safety and treatment quality will be improved by integrating thermal measurements into HDR QA procedures.« less

  10. Radioactive contamination processes during 14-21 March after the Fukushima accident: What does atmospheric electric field measurements tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Makino, M.; Owada, T.; Miyagi, I.

    2012-04-01

    Ionizing radiation from the radioactive material is known to increase atmospheric electric conductivity, and hence to decrease vertical downward atmospheric DC electric field at ground level, or potential gradient (PG). In the past, the drop of PG has been observed after rain-induced radioactive fallout (wet contamination) after nuclear tests or after the Chernobyl disaster. After the nuclear accident Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) that started 11 March 2011, the PG also at Kakioka, 150 km southwest from the FNPP, also dropped a by one order of magnitude. Unlike the past examples, the PG drop was two-stepped on 14 March and 20 March. Both correspond to two largest southward release of radioactive material according to the data from the radiation dose rate measurement network. We compare the Kakioka's PG data with the radiation dose rate data at different places to examine the fallout processes of both on 14 March and on 20 March. The former turned out to be dry contamination by surface wind, leaving a substantial amount of fallout floating near the ground. The latter turned out to be wet contamination by rain after transport by relatively low-altitude wind, and the majority of the fallout settled to the ground at this time. It is recommended that all nuclear power plant to have a network of PG observation surrounding the plant. Takeda, et al. (2011): Initial effect of the Fukushima accident on atmospheric electricity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15811, doi:10.1029/2011GL048511. Yamauchi, et al. (2012): Settlement process of radioactive dust to the ground inferred from the atmospheric electric field measurement, Ann. Geophys., 30, 49-56, doi:10.5194/angeo-30-49-2012.

  11. Using DORIS measurements for modeling the vertical total electron content of the Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) system was originally developed for precise orbit determination of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. Beyond that, it is highly qualified for modeling the distribution of electrons within the Earth's ionosphere. It measures with two frequencies in L-band with a relative frequency ratio close to 5. Since the terrestrial ground beacons are distributed quite homogeneously and several LEOs are equipped with modern receivers, a good applicability for global vertical total electron content (VTEC) modeling can be expected. This paper investigates the capability of DORIS dual-frequency phase observations for deriving VTEC and the contribution of these data to global VTEC modeling. The DORIS preprocessing is performed similar to commonly used global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) preprocessing. However, the absolute DORIS VTEC level is taken from global ionospheric maps (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS) as the DORIS data contain no absolute information. DORIS-derived VTEC values show good consistency with IGS GIMs with a RMS between 2 and 3 total electron content units (TECU) depending on solar activity which can be reduced to less than 2 TECU when using only observations with elevation angles higher than . The combination of DORIS VTEC with data from other space-geodetic measurement techniques improves the accuracy of global VTEC models significantly. If DORIS VTEC data is used to update IGS GIMs, an improvement of up to 12 % can be achieved. The accuracy directly beneath the DORIS satellites' ground-tracks ranges between 1.5 and 3.5 TECU assuming a precision of 2.5 TECU for altimeter-derived VTEC values which have been used for validation purposes.

  12. RADIO-ACTIVE TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Wanetick, S.

    1962-03-01

    ABS>ure the change in velocity of a moving object. The transducer includes a radioactive source having a collimated beam of radioactive particles, a shield which can block the passage of the radioactive beam, and a scintillation detector to measure the number of radioactive particles in the beam which are not blocked by the shield. The shield is operatively placed across the radioactive beam so that any motion normal to the beam will cause the shield to move in the opposite direction thereby allowing more radioactive particles to reach the detector. The number of particles detected indicates the acceleration. (AEC)

  13. Anomalous effects of radioactive decay rates and capacitance values measured inside a modified Faraday cage: Correlations with space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholkmann, F.; Milián-Sánchez, V.; Mocholí-Salcedo, A.; Milián, C.; Kolombet, V. A.; Verdú, G.

    2017-03-01

    Recently we reported (Milián-Sánchez V. et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A, 828 (2016) 210) our experimental results involving 226Ra decay rate and capacitance measurements inside a modified Faraday cage. Our measurements exhibited anomalous effects of unknown origin. In this letter we report new results regarding our investigation into the origins of the observed effects. We report preliminary findings of a correlation analysis between the radioactive decay rates and capacitance time series and space weather related variables (geomagnetic field disturbances and cosmic-ray neutron counts). A significant correlation was observed for specific data sets. The results are presented and possible implications for future work discussed.

  14. Development of a Torsional Seismometer for measuring the rotational oscillations of the Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madziwa-Nussino, T. G.; Cowsik, R.; Wagoner, K.

    2008-12-01

    The motivations for the development and characterization of instruments capable of recording the rotations associated with seismic activity and normal mode oscillations were detailed extensively at the 2006 Fall- meeting of the American Geophysical Union in 2006 and in a special workshop at USGS-Menlo Park in 2007. This paper describes the effort and progress we have made in building a new instrument to be used for such measurements. Our prototype has two basic subsystems; a torsional oscillator and an optical lever for angular measurements. The essential idea behind the design maybe briefly stated as follows: A mechanical torsional oscillator with a natural frequency significantly below the lowest normal mode frequencies will couple negligibly to the rotational motions of the earth, even though the housing of the oscillator is firmly fixed to the earth. A sensitive optical lever, fixed to the Earth, observing such a balance can therefore faithfully measure the rotational oscillations of the Earth. The challenges we face in this development are two-fold: (a) the development of a mechanical torsional oscillator with a low enough natural frequency ~10- 3Hz and the fabrication of an optical lever with an angular resolution better than ~10- 6rad·Hz-1/2; (b) to make the instrument robust and field-worthy for the study of near-field strong motions at frequencies higher than ~10-2Hz. The initial implemented design is as follows: the balance bob consists of a circular mirror of diameter ~ 40mm, with its normal in the horizontal plane. The mirror is mounted within an aluminum framework whose moment of inertia may be adjusted as required and also used for capacitive damping of unwanted torsional oscillations. The configuration has a mass of under 50g and a moment of inertia of ~150g·cm2 about the suspension axis. The suspension fiber is made of SS-304 alloy with a cross section of 7μm × 110μm and length ~5cm. The angular frequency of natural oscillations for this

  15. Potential Pitfalls Related to Space-Based Lidar Remote Sensing of the Earth with an Emphasis on Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Spiers, Gary D.; Frehlich, Rod G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A collection of issues is discussed that are potential pitfalls, if handled incorrectly, for earth-orbiting lidar remote sensing instruments. These issues arise due to the long target ranges, high lidar-to-target relative velocities, low signal levels, use of laser scanners, and other unique aspects of using lasers in earth orbit. Consequences of misunderstanding these topics range from minor inconvenience to improper calibration to total failure. We will focus on wind measurement using coherent detection Doppler lidar, but many of the potential pitfalls apply also to noncoherent lidar wind measurement, and to measurement of parameters other than wind. Each area will be identified as to its applicability.

  16. Potential Pitfalls Related to Space-Based Lidar Remote Sensing of the Earth With an Emphasis on Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Spiers, Gary D.; Frehlich, Rod G.

    2000-01-01

    A collection of issues is discussed that are potential pitfalls, if handled incorrectly, for earth-orbiting lidar remote sensing instruments. These issues arise due to the long target ranges, high lidar-to-target relative velocities, low signal levels, use of laser scanners, and other unique aspects of using lasers in earth orbit. Consequences of misunderstanding these topics range from minor inconvenience to improper calibration to total failure. We will focus on wind measurement using coherent detection Doppler lidar, but many of the potential pitfalls apply also to noncoherent lidar wind measurement, and to measurement of parameters other than wind.

  17. Neutron Measurements for Radiation Protection in Low Earth Orbit - History and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, M. J.; Se,pmes. E/

    2003-01-01

    The neutron environment inside spacecraft has been of interest from a scientific and radiation protection perspective since early in the history of manned spaceflight. With 1:.1e exception of a few missions which carried plutonium-fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators, all of the neutrons inside the spacecraft are secondary radiations resulting from interactions of high-energy charged particles with nuclei in the Earth's atmosphere, spacecraft structural materials, and the astronaut's own bodies. Although of great interest, definitive measurements of the spacecraft neutron field have been difficult due to the wide particle energy range and the limited available volume and power for traditional techniques involving Bonner spheres. A multitude of measurements, however, have been made of the neutron environment inside spacecraft. The majority of measurements were made using passive techniques including metal activation fo ils, fission foils, nuclear photoemulsions, plastic track detectors, and thermoluminescent detectors. Active measurements have utilized proton recoil spectrometers (stilbene), Bonner Spheres eRe proportional counter based), and LiI(Eu)phoswich scintillation detectors. For the International Space Station (ISS), only the plastic track! thermoluminescent detectors are used with any regularity. A monitoring program utilizing a set of active Bonner spheres was carried out in the ISS Lab module from March - December 200l. These measurements provide a very limited look at the crew neutron exposure, both in time coverage and neutron energy coverage. A review of the currently published data from past flights will be made and compared with the more recent results from the ISS. Future measurement efforts using currently available techniques and those in development will be also discussed.

  18. Optical Fiber Sensors for Infrasonic Wind Noise Reduction and Earth Strain Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWolf, Scott

    Fiber-based interferometers provide the means to sense very small displacements over long baselines, and have the advantage of being nearly completely passive in their operation, making them particularly well suited for geophysical applications. This work presents the development and results from four new systems: one in atmospheric acoustics and three in Earth strain. Turbulent pressure fluctuations (wind noise) are a significant limiting factor in low-frequency atmospheric acoustic measurements. The Optical Fiber Infrasound Sensor (OFIS) provides an alternative to traditional infrasonic wind noise reduction (WNR) techniques by providing an instantaneous average over a large spatial extent. This study shows that linear OFISs ranging in length from 30 to 270 m provide a WNR of up to 30 dB in winds up to 5 m/s, in good agreement with a new analytical model. Arrays of optical fiber strainmeters were deployed to measure sediment compaction at two sites in Bangladesh. One array at Jamalganj (in the north) consists of 20, 40, 60, and 100 m long strainmeters, while the second near Khulna (in the south) also includes lengths of 80 and 300 m. Two years of weekly measurements show a clear seasonal signal and subsidence at both sites that is in reasonable agreement with collocated GPS receivers. A new 250-meter, interferometric vertical borehole strainmeter has been developed based completely on passive optical components. Details of the prototyping, design, and deployment at the Pinon Flat Observatory (PFO) are presented. Power spectra show an intertidal noise level of -130 dB (re. 1 epsilon/Hz), consistent within 1-3 dB between redundant components. Examination of its response to Earth tides and earthquakes relative to the areal strain recorded by an orthogonal pair of collocated, 730 m horizontal laser strainmeters yield a Poisson's ratio of 0.26. Two prototype horizontal strainmeters were also developed to explore the use of similar interferometric optical fiber

  19. Seismic measurements to reveal short-term variations in the elastic properties of the Earth crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, Davide; Zaccarelli, Lucia; Pastori, Marina; Margheriti, Lucia; Pio Lucente, Francesco; De Gori, Pasquale; Faenza, Licia; Soldati, Gaia

    2013-04-01

    Since the late the late '60s-early '70s era seismologists started developed theories that included variations of the elastic property of the Earth crust and the state of stress and its evolution crust prior to the occurrence of a large earthquake. Among the others the theory of the dilatancy (Scholz et al., 1973): when a rock is subject to stress, the rock grains are shifted generating micro-cracks, thus the rock itself increases its volume. Inside the fractured rock, fluid saturation and pore pressure play an important role in earthquake nucleation, by modulating the effective stress. Thus measuring the variations of wave speed and of anisotropic parameter in time can be highly informative on how the stress leading to a major fault failure builds up. In 80s and 90s such kind of research on earthquake precursor slowed down and the priority was given to seismic hazard and ground motions studies, which are very important since these are the basis for the building codes in many countries. Today we have dense and sophisticated seismic networks to measure wave-fields characteristics: we archive continuous waveform data recorded at three components broad-band seismometers, we almost routinely obtain high resolution earthquake locations. Therefore we are ready to start to systematically look at seismic-wave propagation properties to possibly reveal short-term variations in the elastic properties of the Earth crust. One seismological quantity which, since the '70s, is recognized to be diagnostic of the level of fracturation and/or of the pore pressure in the rock, hence of its state of stress, is the ratio between the compressional (P-wave) and the shear (S-wave) seismic velocities, the Vp/Vs (Nur, 1972; Kisslinger and Engdahl, 1973). Variations of this ratio have been recently observed and measured during the preparatory phase of a major earthquake (Lucente et al. 2010). In active fault areas and volcanoes, tectonic stress variation influences fracture field orientation

  20. Safety monitoring of the FBG sensor in respect of radioactivity and deformation measurement of a silo structure for radioactive waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Soo; Cho, Seong-Kyu

    2015-07-01

    The FBG sensor has globally been commercialized in various fields that is actively applied in Korea as well. Especially it is widely used as a structural monitoring sensor in civil engineering and construction structures due to its advantages including electrical stability, chemical stability and multiplexing. This report aims to introduce safety inspection of the FBG sensor in respect of radioactivity which has been applied to a silo structure for radioactive waste disposal as an example.

  1. Simulation and Measurement of Through-the-Earth, Extremely Low-Frequency Signals Using Copper-Clad Steel Ground Rods.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Nicholas William; Yan, Lincan; Whisner, Bruce; Zhou, Chenming

    2017-01-01

    The underground mining environment can greatly affect radio signal propagation. Understanding how the earth affects signal propagation is a key to evaluating communications systems used during a mine emergency. One type of communication system is through-the-earth, which can utilize extremely low frequencies (ELF). This paper presents the simulation and measurement results of recent National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research aimed at investigating current injection at ELF, and in particular, ground contact impedance. Measurements were taken at an outside surface testing location. The results obtained from modeling and measurement are characterized by electrode impedance, and the voltage received between two distant electrodes. This paper concludes with a discussion of design considerations found to affect low-frequency communication systems utilizing ground rods to inject a current into the earth.

  2. Simulation and Measurement of Through-the-Earth, Extremely Low-Frequency Signals Using Copper-Clad Steel Ground Rods

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Nicholas William; Yan, Lincan; Whisner, Bruce; Zhou, Chenming

    2017-01-01

    The underground mining environment can greatly affect radio signal propagation. Understanding how the earth affects signal propagation is a key to evaluating communications systems used during a mine emergency. One type of communication system is through-the-earth, which can utilize extremely low frequencies (ELF). This paper presents the simulation and measurement results of recent National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research aimed at investigating current injection at ELF, and in particular, ground contact impedance. Measurements were taken at an outside surface testing location. The results obtained from modeling and measurement are characterized by electrode impedance, and the voltage received between two distant electrodes. This paper concludes with a discussion of design considerations found to affect low-frequency communication systems utilizing ground rods to inject a current into the earth. PMID:29176916

  3. The Low Earth Orbit validation of a dynamic and anisotropic trapped radiation model through ISS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.

    2011-10-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides the proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the experimental validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport code algorithms and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the Space Transportation System (STS; Shuttle) have provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code development by requiring dynamic models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Previous studies using Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of the evolving ISS configurations with Thermo-Luminescent Detector (TLD) area monitors, demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate non-isotropic as well as dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) description of ISS trajectory and orientation. It is imperative that we understand ISS exposures dynamically for crew career planning, and insure that the regulatory requirements of keeping exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) are adequately implemented. This is especially true as ISS nears some form of completion with increasing complexity, resulting in a larger drag coefficient, and requiring operation at higher altitudes with increased exposure rates. In this paper ISS environmental model is configured for 11A (circa mid 2005), and uses non-isotropic and dynamic geomagnetic transmission and trapped proton models. ISS 11A and LEO model validations are important steps in preparation for the design and validation for the next generation manned vehicles. While the described cutoff rigidity, trapped proton and electron formalisms as coded in a package named GEORAD (GEOmagnetic RADiation) and a web interface named OLTARIS (On-line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space) are applicable to the LEO, Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of a NaI(Tl) detector for in situ radioactivity measurements in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Li, Changkai; Liu, Dongyan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Yan

    2015-04-01

    To develop in situ NaI(Tl) detector for radioactivity measurement in the marine environment, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code was utilized to simulate the measurement of NaI(Tl) detector immersed in seawater, taking into account the material and geometry of the detector, and the interactions between the photons with the atoms of the seawater and the detector. The simulation results of the marine detection efficiency and distance were deduced and analyzed. In order to test their reliability, the field measurement was made at open sea and the experimental value of the marine detection efficiency was deduced and seems to be in good agreement with the simulated one. The minimum detectable activity for (137)Cs in the seawater of NaI(Tl) detector developed was determined mathematically at last. The simulation method and results in the paper can be used for the better design and quantitative calculation of in situ NaI(Tl) detector for radioactivity measurement in the marine environment, and also for some applications such as the installation on the marine monitoring platform and the quantitative analysis of radionuclides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Think the way to measure the Earth Radiation Budget and the Total Solar Irradiance with a small satellites constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Keckhut, P.; Damé, L.; Bekki, S.; Sarkissian, A.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2018-05-01

    Within the past decade, satellites constellations have become possible and practical. One of the interest to use a satellites constellation is to measure the true Earth Radiation Imbalance, which is a crucial quantity for testing climate models and for predicting the future course of global warming. This measurement presents a high interest because the 2001-2010 decade has not shown the accelerating pace of global warming that most models predict, despite the fact that the greenhouse-gas radiative forcing continues to rise. All estimates (ocean heat content and top of atmosphere) show that over the past decade the Earth radiation imbalance ranges between 0.5 to 1W-2. Up to now, the Earth radiation imbalance has not been measured directly. The only way to measure the imbalance with sufficient accuracy is to measure both the incoming solar radiations (total solar irradiance) and the outgoing terrestrial radiations (top of atmosphere outgoing longwave radiations and shortwave radiations) onboard the same satellite, and ideally, with the same instrument. The incoming solar radiations and the outgoing terrestrial radiations are of nearly equal magnitude of the order of 340.5W-2. The objective is to measure these quantities over time by using differential Sun-Earth measurements (to counter calibration errors) with an accuracy better than 0.05Wm-2 at 1σ. It is also necessary to have redundant instruments to track aging in space in order to measure during a decade and to measure the global diurnal cycle with a dozen satellites. Solar irradiance and Earth Radiation Budget (SERB) is a potential first in orbit demonstration satellite. The SERB nano-satellite aims to measure on the same platform the different components of the Earth radiation budget and the total solar irradiance. Instrumental payloads (solar radiometer and Earth radiometers) can acquire the technical maturity for the future large missions (constellation that insure global measurement cover) by flying in a

  6. Improvements in absolute seismometer sensitivity calibration using local earth gravity measurements

    Anthony, Robert E.; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    The ability to determine both absolute and relative seismic amplitudes is fundamentally limited by the accuracy and precision with which scientists are able to calibrate seismometer sensitivities and characterize their response. Currently, across the Global Seismic Network (GSN), errors in midband sensitivity exceed 3% at the 95% confidence interval and are the least‐constrained response parameter in seismic recording systems. We explore a new methodology utilizing precise absolute Earth gravity measurements to determine the midband sensitivity of seismic instruments. We first determine the absolute sensitivity of Kinemetrics EpiSensor accelerometers to 0.06% at the 99% confidence interval by inverting them in a known gravity field at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). After the accelerometer is calibrated, we install it in its normal configuration next to broadband seismometers and subject the sensors to identical ground motions to perform relative calibrations of the broadband sensors. Using this technique, we are able to determine the absolute midband sensitivity of the vertical components of Nanometrics Trillium Compact seismometers to within 0.11% and Streckeisen STS‐2 seismometers to within 0.14% at the 99% confidence interval. The technique enables absolute calibrations from first principles that are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measurements while providing nearly an order of magnitude more precision than step‐table calibrations.

  7. Spatial autocorrelation of radiation measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment: Scene inhomogeneity and reciprocity violation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Roger

    1994-01-01

    The spatial autocorrelation functions of broad-band longwave and shortwave radiances measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are analyzed as a function of view angle in an investigation of the general effects of scene inhomogeneity on radiation. For nadir views, the correlation distance of the autocorrelation function is about 900 km for longwave radiance and about 500 km for shortwave radiance, consistent with higher degrees of freedom in shortwave reflection. Both functions rise monotonically with view angle, but there is a substantial difference in the relative angular dependence of the shortwave and longwave functions, especially for view angles less than 50 deg. In this range, the increase with angle of the longwave functions is found to depend only on the expansion of pixel area with angle, whereas the shortwave functions show an additional dependence on angle that is attributed to the occlusion of inhomogeneities by cloud height variations. Beyond a view angle of about 50 deg, both longwave and shortwave functions appear to be affected by cloud sides. The shortwave autocorrelation functions do not satisfy the principle of directional reciprocity, thereby proving that the average scene is horizontally inhomogeneous over the scale of an ERBE pixel (1500 sq km). Coarse stratification of the measurements by cloud amount, however, indicates that the average cloud-free scene does satisfy directional reciprocity on this scale.

  8. TRMM Data from the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC DAAC: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Tropical rainfall affects the lives and economies of a majority of the Earth's population. Tropical rain systems, such as hurricanes, typhoons, and monsoons, are crucial to sustaining the livelihoods of those living in the tropics. Excess rainfall can cause floods and great property and crop damage, whereas too little rainfall can cause drought and crop failure. The latent heat release during the process of precipitation is a major source of energy that drives the atmospheric circulation. This latent heat can intensify weather systems, affecting weather thousands of kilometers away, thus making tropical rainfall an important indicator of atmospheric circulation and short-term climate change. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan, provides visible, infrared, and microwave observations of tropical and subtropical rain systems. The satellite observations are complemented by ground radar and rain gauge measurements to validate satellite rain estimation techniques. Goddard Space Flight Center's involvement includes the observatory, four instruments, integration and testing of the observatory, data processing and distribution, and satellite operations. TRMM has a design lifetime of three years. It is currently in its fifth year of operation. Data generated from TRMM and archived at the GES DAAC are useful not only for hydrologists, atmospheric scientists, and climatologists, but also for the health community studying infectious diseases, the ocean research community, and the agricultural community.

  9. Rainfall measurement from the opportunistic use of an Earth-space link in the Ku band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthès, L.; Mallet, C.

    2013-08-01

    The present study deals with the development of a low-cost microwave device devoted to the measurement of average rain rates observed along Earth-satellite links, the latter being characterized by a tropospheric path length of a few kilometres. The ground-based power measurements, which are made using the Ku-band television transmissions from several different geostationary satellites, are based on the principle that the atmospheric attenuation produced by rain encountered along each transmission path can be used to determine the path-averaged rain rate. This kind of device could be very useful in hilly areas where radar data are not available or in urban areas where such devices could be directly placed in homes by using residential TV antenna. The major difficulty encountered with this technique is that of retrieving rainfall characteristics in the presence of many other causes of received signal fluctuation, produced by atmospheric scintillation, variations in atmospheric composition (water vapour concentration, cloud water content) or satellite transmission parameters (variations in emitted power, satellite pointing). In order to conduct a feasibility study with such a device, a measurement campaign was carried out over a period of five months close to Paris. The present paper proposes an algorithm based on an artificial neural network, used to identify dry and rainy periods and to model received signal variability resulting from effects not related to rain. When the altitude of the rain layer is taken into account, the rain attenuation can be inverted to obtain the path-averaged rain rate. The rainfall rates obtained from this process are compared with co-located rain gauges and radar measurements taken throughout the full duration of the campaign, and the most significant rainfall events are analysed.

  10. Measurement of the reaeration coefficients of the North Fork Licking River at Utica, Ohio by radioactive tracers

    Hren, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Reaeration coefficients of the North Fork Licking River at Utica, Ohio were measured by the radioactive-tracer method. The tests were conducted on a 2.1-mile reach on September 23 and October 7, 1981, during low-flow conditions. Krypton-85 gas and tritium were the radioopactive tracers, which were used in conjunction with rhodamine-WT dye. The reaertion coefficients determined on September 23 were 3.09 days-1 (subreach 1-2) and 3.32 days-1 (subreach 2-3). On October 7, the values were 2.04 days -1 and 2.23 days-1 respectively.

  11. Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites

    Cao, C.; Uprety, S.; Xiong, J.; Wu, A.; Jing, P.; Smith, D.; Chander, G.; Fox, N.; Ungar, S.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing satellite measurement consistency by using common desert sites has become increasingly more important not only for climate change detection but also for quantitative retrievals of geophysical variables in satellite applications. Using the Antarctic Dome C site (75°06′S, 123°21′E, elevation 3.2 km) for satellite radiometric calibration and validation (Cal/Val) is of great interest owing to its unique location and characteristics. The site surface is covered with uniformly distributed permanent snow, and the atmospheric effect is small and relatively constant. In this study, the long-term stability and spectral characteristics of this site are evaluated using well-calibrated satellite instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Preliminary results show that despite a few limitations, the site in general is stable in the long term, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model works well, and the site is most suitable for the Cal/Val of reflective solar bands in the 0.4–1.0 µm range. It was found that for the past decade, the reflectivity change of the site is within 1.35% at 0.64 µm, and interannual variability is within 2%. The site is able to resolve calibration biases between instruments at a level of ~1%. The usefulness of the site is demonstrated by comparing observations from seven satellite instruments involving four space agencies, including OrbView-2–SeaWiFS, Terra–Aqua MODIS, Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) – Hyperion, Meteorological Operational satellite programme (MetOp) – Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Envisat Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) – dvanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Dome C is a promising candidate site for climate quality calibration of satellite radiometers towards more consistent satellite measurements, as part

  12. A New Approach to Isolating External Magnetic Field Components in Spacecraft Measurements of the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Global Positioning System observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C.; Hajj, G.

    1994-01-01

    We review the problem of separating components of the magnetic field arising from sources in the Earth's core and lithosphere, from those contributions arising external to the Earth, namely ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, in spacecraft measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.

  13. Measuring the seismic velocity in the top 15 km of Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwin, Harriet; Waszek, Lauren; Deuss, Arwen

    2018-01-01

    We present seismic observations of the uppermost layer of the inner core. This was formed most recently, thus its seismic features are related to current solidification processes. Previous studies have only constrained the east-west hemispherical seismic velocity structure in the Earth's inner core at depths greater than 15 km below the inner core boundary. The properties of shallower structure have not yet been determined, because the seismic waves PKIKP and PKiKP used for differential travel time analysis arrive close together and start to interfere. Here, we present a method to make differential travel time measurements for waves that turn in the top 15 km of the inner core, and measure the corresponding seismic velocity anomalies. We achieve this by generating synthetic seismograms to model the overlapping signals of the inner core phase PKIKP and the inner core boundary phase PKiKP. We then use a waveform comparison to attribute different parts of the signal to each phase. By measuring the same parts of the signal in both observed and synthetic data, we are able to calculate differential travel time residuals. We apply our method to data with ray paths which traverse the Pacific hemisphere boundary. We generate a velocity model for this region, finding lower velocity for deeper, more easterly ray paths. Forward modelling suggests that this region contains either a high velocity upper layer, or variation in the location of the hemisphere boundary with depth and/or latitude. Our study presents the first direct seismic observation of the uppermost 15 km of the inner core, opening new possibilities for further investigating the inner core boundary region.

  14. Effects of Different Containers on Radioactivity Measurements using a Dose Calibrator with Special Reference to 111In and 123I.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Kei; Miyatake, Hiroki; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy characteristic x-rays emitted by 111 In and 123 I sources are easily absorbed by the containers of the sources, affecting radioactivity measurements using a dose calibrator. We examined the effects of different containers on the estimated activities. The radioactivities of 111 In, 123 I, 201 Tl, and 99m Tc were measured in containers frequently employed in clinical practice in Japan. The 111 In measurements were performed in the vials A and B of the 111 In-pentetreotide preparation kit and in the plastic syringe. The activities of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and 201 Tl chloride were measured in the prefilled glass syringes and plastic syringes. The milking vial, vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe were used to assay 99m Tc. For 111 In and 123 I, measurements were performed with and without a copper filter. The filter was inserted into the well of the dose calibrator to absorb low-energy x-rays. The relative estimate was defined as the ratio of the activity estimated with the dose calibrator to the standard activity. The estimated activities varied greatly depending on the container when 111 In and 123 I sources were assayed without the copper filter. The relative estimates of 111 In were 0.908, 1.072, and 1.373 in the vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe, respectively. The relative estimates of 123 I were 1.052 and 1.352 in the glass syringe and plastic syringe, respectively. Use of the copper filter eliminated the container-dependence in 111 In and 123 I measurements. Container-dependence was demonstrated in neither 201 Tl nor 99m Tc measurements. The activities of 111 In and 123 I estimated with a dose calibrator differ greatly among the containers. Accurate estimation may be attained using the container-specific correction factor or using the copper filter.

  15. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    SciT

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment bymore » the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)« less

  16. Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende Cai by Nanosims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in CAIs by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in CAIs are important to understand processes of CAI formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A CAI with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the CAI in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its

  17. Full-Scale Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Tests: Methods and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2018-01-01

    During the summer of 2016, a series of drop tests were conducted on two passive earth entry vehicle (EEV) test articles at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The tests were conducted to evaluate the structural integrity of a realistic EEV vehicle under anticipated landing loads. The test vehicles were lifted to an altitude of approximately 400m via a helicopter and released via release hook into a predesignated 61 m landing zone. Onboard accelerometers were capable of measuring vehicle free flight and impact loads. High-speed cameras on the ground tracked the free-falling vehicles and data was used to calculate critical impact parameters during the final seconds of flight. Additional sets of high definition and ultra-high definition cameras were able to supplement the high-speed data by capturing the release and free flight of the test articles. Three tests were successfully completed and showed that the passive vehicle design was able to withstand the impact loads from nominal and off-nominal impacts at landing velocities of approximately 29 m/s. Two out of three test resulted in off-nominal impacts due to a combination of high winds at altitude and the method used to suspend the vehicle from the helicopter. Both the video and acceleration data captured is examined and discussed. Finally, recommendations for improved release and instrumentation methods are presented.

  18. Global land ice measurements from space (GLIMS): remote sensing and GIS investigations of the Earth's cryosphere

    Bishop, Michael P.; Olsenholler, Jeffrey A.; Shroder, John F.; Barry, Roger G.; Rasup, Bruce H.; Bush, Andrew B. G.; Copland, Luke; Dwyer, John L.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kääb, Andreas; Paul, Frank; Hall, Dorothy K.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Molnia, Bruce F.; Trabant, Dennis C.; Wessels, Rick L.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns over greenhouse‐gas forcing and global temperatures have initiated research into understanding climate forcing and associated Earth‐system responses. A significant component is the Earth's cryosphere, as glacier‐related, feedback mechanisms govern atmospheric, hydrospheric and lithospheric response. Predicting the human and natural dimensions of climate‐induced environmental change requires global, regional and local information about ice‐mass distribution, volumes, and fluctuations. The Global Land‐Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project is specifically designed to produce and augment baseline information to facilitate glacier‐change studies. This requires addressing numerous issues, including the generation of topographic information, anisotropic‐reflectance correction of satellite imagery, data fusion and spatial analysis, and GIS‐based modeling. Field and satellite investigations indicate that many small glaciers and glaciers in temperate regions are downwasting and retreating, although detailed mapping and assessment are still required to ascertain regional and global patterns of ice‐mass variations. Such remote sensing/GIS studies, coupled with field investigations, are vital for producing baseline information on glacier changes, and improving our understanding of the complex linkages between atmospheric, lithospheric, and glaciological processes.

  19. Earth Science

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  20. Measuring the Tilt of the Earth's Axis with the Help of a Plastic Pipe and a Piece of Wood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isildak, R. Suat

    2016-01-01

    In this project, a method that had been developed using a single setup was employed to correctly measure the tilt of the Earth's axis on 21 June 2015. The method is an easily comprehensible and applicable technique that can be used in elementary science and astronomy courses and understood by students of every age group.

  1. Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

  2. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  3. New Active Optical Technique Developed for Measuring Low-Earth-Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Demko, Rikako

    2003-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton (DuPont) and Teflon FEP (DuPont, fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials because of desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, a low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen reaction with polymers causes erosion, which is a threat to spacecraft performance and durability. It is, therefore, important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield E (the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. The most common technique for determining E is a passive technique based on mass-loss measurements of samples exposed to LEO atomic oxygen during a space flight experiment. There are certain disadvantages to this technique. First, because it is passive, data are not obtained until after the flight is completed. Also, obtaining the preflight and postflight mass measurements is complicated by the fact that many polymers absorb water and, therefore, the mass change due to water absorption can affect the E data. This is particularly true for experiments that receive low atomic oxygen exposures or for samples that have a very low E. An active atomic oxygen erosion technique based on optical measurements has been developed that has certain advantages over the mass-loss technique. This in situ technique can simultaneously provide the erosion yield data on orbit and the atomic oxygen exposure fluence, which is needed for erosion yield determination. In the optical technique, either sunlight or artificial light can be used to measure the erosion of semitransparent or opaque polymers as a result of atomic oxygen attack. The technique is simple and adaptable to a rather wide range of polymers, providing that they have a sufficiently high optical absorption coefficient. If one covers a photodiode with a

  4. Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi's measurement in a low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Asai, Makoto; Hagino, Kouichi; Koi, Tatsumi; Madejski, Greg; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Ohno, Masanori; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Tamotsu; Wright, Dennis H.; Enoto, Teruaki; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kobayashi, Shogo B.; Kokubun, Motohide; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, Francois; Limousin, Olivier; Maier, Daniel; Makishima, Kazuo; Mimura, Taketo; Miyake, Katsuma; Mori, Kunishiro; Murakami, Hiroaki; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakano, Toshio; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Noda, Hirofumi; Ohta, Masayuki; Ozaki, Masanobu; Sato, Goro; Sato, Rie; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Terada, Yukikatsu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Watanabe, Shin; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Tetsuya; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yuasa, Takayuki; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Hard X-ray astronomical observatories in orbit suffer from a significant amount of background due to radioactivation induced by cosmic-ray protons and/or geomagnetically trapped protons. Within the framework of a full Monte Carlo simulation, we present modeling of in-orbit instrumental background which is dominated by radioactivation. To reduce the computation time required by straightforward simulations of delayed emissions from activated isotopes, we insert a semi-analytical calculation that converts production probabilities of radioactive isotopes by interaction of the primary protons into decay rates at measurement time of all secondary isotopes. Therefore, our simulation method is separated into three steps: (1) simulation of isotope production, (2) semi-analytical conversion to decay rates, and (3) simulation of decays of the isotopes at measurement time. This method is verified by a simple setup that has a CdTe semiconductor detector, and shows a 100-fold improvement in efficiency over the straightforward simulation. To demonstrate its experimental performance, the simulation framework was tested against data measured with a CdTe sensor in the Hard X-ray Imager onboard the Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite, which was put into a low Earth orbit with an altitude of 570 km and an inclination of 31°, and thus experienced a large amount of irradiation from geomagnetically trapped protons during its passages through the South Atlantic Anomaly. The simulation is able to treat full histories of the proton irradiation and multiple measurement windows. The simulation results agree very well with the measured data, showing that the measured background is well described by the combination of proton-induced radioactivation of the CdTe detector itself and thick Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator shields, leakage of cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma-ray radiation, and emissions from naturally contaminated isotopes in the detector system.

  5. Electrical resistivity measurement of mechanically stabilized Earth wall backfill : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    In Kansas, mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining walls are typically backfilled with coarse aggregate. : Current backfill material testing procedures used by the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) utilize on-site : observations for co...

  6. Electrical resistivity measurement of mechanically stabilized Earth wall backfill : technical summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    In Kansas, mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining walls are typically : backfilled with coarse aggregate. Current backfill material testing procedures used : by the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) utilize on-site observations for : ...

  7. NASA's NPOESS Preparatory Project Science Data Segment: A Framework for Measurement-based Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, Mathew R.; Schweiss, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Data Segment (SDS) provides a framework for the future of NASA s distributed Earth science data systems. The NPP SDS performs research and data product assessment while using a fully distributed architecture. The components of this architecture are organized around key environmental data disciplines: land, ocean, ozone, atmospheric sounding, and atmospheric composition. The SDS thus establishes a set of concepts and a working prototypes. This paper describes the framework used by the NPP Project as it enabled Measurement-Based Earth Science Data Systems for the assessment of NPP products.

  8. The constrained inversion of Nimbus-7 wide field-of-view radiometer measurements for the Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hucek, Richard R.; Ardanuy, Philip; Kyle, H. Lee

    1990-01-01

    The results of a constrained, wide field-of-view radiometer measurement deconvolution are presented and compared against higher resolution results obtained from the Earth Radiation Budget instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite and from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. The method is applicable to both longwave and shortwave observations and is specifically designed to treat the problem of anisotropic reflection and emission at the top of the atmosphere as well as low signal-to-noise ratios that arise regionally within a field. The procedure is reviewed, and the improvements in resolution obtained are examined. Some minor improvements in the albedo algorithm are also described.

  9. Earth Radiation Budget Science, 1978. 1: Introduction. [to obtain radiation budget measurements by satellite observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An earth radiation budget satellite system (ERBSS) is planned in order to understand climate on various temporal and spatial scales. The system consists of three satellites and is designed to obtain radiation budget data from the earth's surface. Among the topics discussed are the climate modeling and climate diagnostics, the applications of radiation modeling to ERBSS, and the influence of albedo clouds on radiation budget and atmospheric circulation.

  10. Venus, Earth, Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Xenon has been regarded as an important goal of many proposed missions to Venus. This talk is intended to explain why. Despite its being the heaviest gas found in natural planetary atmospheres, there is more evidence that Xe escaped from Earth than for any element apart from helium: (i) Atmospheric Xe is very strongly mass fractionated (at about 4% per amu) from any known solar system source. This suggests fractionating escape that preferentially left the heavy Xe isotopes behind. (ii) Xe is underabundant compared to Kr, a lighter noble gas that is not strongly mass fractionated in air. (iii) Radiogenic Xe is strongly depleted by factors of several to ~100 compared to the quantities expected from radioactive decay of primordial solar system materials. In these respects Xe on Mars is similar to Xe on Earth, but with one key difference: Xe on Mars is readily explained by a simple process like hydrodynamic escape that acts on an initially solar or meteoritic Xe. This is not so for Earth. Earth's Xe cannot be derived by an uncontrived mass fractionating process acting on any known type of Solar System Xe. Earth is a stranger, made from different stuff than any known meteorite or Mars or even the Sun. Who else is in Earth's family? Comets? We know nothing. Father Zeus? Data from Jupiter are good enough to show that jovian Xe is not strongly mass-fractionated but not good enough to determine whether Jupiter resembles the Earth or the Sun. Sister Venus? Noble gas data from Venus are incomplete, with Kr uncertain and Xe unmeasured. Krypton was measured by several instruments on several spacecraft. The reported Kr abundances are discrepant and were once highly controversial. These discrepancies appear to have been not so much resolved as forgotten. Xenon was not detected on Venus. Upper limits were reported for the two most abundant xenon isotopes 129Xe and 132Xe. From the limited data it is not possible to tell whether Venus's affinities lie with the solar wind, or with

  11. Ultraviolet stellar occultation measurement of the H2 and O2 densities near 100 km in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Wasser, B.; Donahue, T. M.; Sharp, W. E.; Drake, J. F.; Riegler, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study designed to measure the density of H2 near 100 km in the earth's atmosphere from occultation of a star, Gamma Vel, by the earth's atmosphere at several wavelengths near the H2 absorption line at 1108.128 A by a spectrometer on an orbiting astronomical observatory. Measurement of the O2 density between 95 and 123 km is also reported. Attention is focused on testing the predictions of a model of the distribution of hydrogen constituents, H, H2, H2O, CH4, OH, and H2O in the upper atmosphere related to a theory of hydrogen escape developed by Hunten and Strobel (1974) and by Liu and Donahue (1974). The measured H2 densities are found to be in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions, whereas the measured O2 density profile generally agrees with the models except for a wavelike structure in the range 104-114 km.

  12. A Geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture Provides for Disaster Management, Measurement of Soil Moisture, and Measurement of Earth-Surface Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Soren; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A GEO-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) could provide daily coverage of basically all of North and South America with very good temporal coverage within the mapped area. This affords a key capability to disaster management, tectonic mapping and modeling, and vegetation mapping. The fine temporal sampling makes this system particularly useful for disaster management of flooding, hurricanes, and earthquakes. By using a fairly long wavelength, changing water boundaries caused by storms or flooding could be monitored in near real-time. This coverage would also provide revolutionary capabilities in the field of radar interferometry, including the capability to study the interferometric signature immediately before and after an earthquake, thus allowing unprecedented studies of Earth-surface dynamics. Preeruptive volcano dynamics could be studied as well as pre-seismic deformation, one of the most controversial and elusive aspects of earthquakes. Interferometric correlation would similarly allow near real-time mapping of surface changes caused by volcanic eruptions, mud slides, or fires. Finally, a GEO SAR provides an optimum configuration for soil moisture measurement that requires a high temporal sampling rate (1-2 days) with a moderate spatial resolution (1 km or better). From a technological point of view, the largest challenges involved in developing a geosynchronous SAR capability relate to the very large slant range distance from the radar to the mapped area. This leads to requirements for large power or alternatively very large antenna, the ability to steer the mapping area to the left and right of the satellite, and control of the elevation and azimuth angles. The weight of this system is estimated to be 2750 kg and it would require 20 kW of DC-power. Such a system would provide up to a 600 km ground swath in a strip-mapping mode and 4000 km dual-sided mapping in a scan-SAR mode.

  13. Measurements of the north polar cap of Mars and the earth's Northern Hemisphere ice and snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J.; Owe, M.; Capen, C.

    1986-01-01

    The boundaries of the polar caps of Mars have been measured on more than 3000 photographs since 1905 from the plate collection at the Lowell Observatory. For the earth, the polar caps have been accurately mapped only since the mid 1960s when satellites were first available to synoptically view the polar regions. The polar caps of both planets wax and wane in response to changes in the seasons, and interannual differences in polar cap behavior on Mars as well as earth are intimately linked to global energy balance. Data on the year to year variations in the extent of the north polar caps of Mars and earth have been assembled and compared, although only 6 years of concurrent data were available for comparison.

  14. Investigation of the effect of atmospheric dust on the determination of total ozone from the earth's ultraviolet reflectivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dave, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented on the effect of atmospheric aerosols on the value of total ozone, in an atmospheric column of the terrestrial atmosphere, estimated from the simulated measurements of the ultraviolet radiation back scattered by the earth atmosphere models. Simulated measurements were used in five (configuration of the BUV experiment of Nimbus-4 satellite), and in six (configuration of the TOMS section of the SBUV/TOMS experiment on Nimbus-G) narrow spectral regions in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum.

  15. The BiPo-3 detector for the measurement of ultra low natural radioactivities of thin materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Birdsall, E.; Blondel, S.; Blot, S.; Bongrand, M.; Boursette, D.; Brudanin, V.; Busto, J.; Caffrey, A. J.; Calvez, S.; Cascella, M.; Cebrián, S.; Cerna, C.; Cesar, J. P.; Chauveau, E.; Chopra, A.; Dafní, T.; De Capua, S.; Duchesneau, D.; Durand, D.; Egorov, V.; Eurin, G.; Evans, J. J.; Fajt, L.; Filosofov, D.; Flack, R.; Garrido, X.; Gómez, H.; Guillon, B.; Guzowski, P.; Holý, K.; Hodák, R.; Huber, A.; Hugon, C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jeremie, A.; Jullian, S.; Kauer, M.; Klimenko, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kovalenko, V.; Lang, K.; Lemière, Y.; Le Noblet, T.; Liptak, Z.; Liu, X. R.; Loaiza, P.; Lutter, G.; Luzón, G.; Macko, M.; Mamedov, F.; Marquet, C.; Mauger, F.; Morgan, B.; Mott, J.; Nemchenok, I.; Nomachi, M.; Nova, F.; Ohsumi, H.; Oliviéro, G.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pahlka, R. B.; Pater, J.; Perrot, F.; Piquemal, F.; Povinec, P.; Přidal, P.; Ramachers, Y. A.; Remoto, A.; Richards, B.; Riddle, C. L.; Rukhadze, E.; Saakyan, R.; Salazar, R.; Sarazin, X.; Shitov, Yu.; Simard, L.; Šimkovic, F.; Smetana, A.; Smolek, K.; Smolnikov, A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soulé, B.; Štekl, I.; Thomas, J.; Timkin, V.; Torre, S.; Tretyak, Vl. I.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vilela, C.; Vorobel, V.; Waters, D.; Žukauskas, A.

    2017-06-01

    The BiPo-3 detector, running at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Laboratorio Subterr&aposaneo de Canfranc, LSC, Spain) since 2013, is a low-radioactivity detector dedicated to measuring ultra low natural radionuclide contaminations of 208Tl (232Th chain) and 214Bi (238U chain) in thin materials. The total sensitive surface area of the detector is 3.6 m2. The detector has been developed to measure the radiopurity of the selenium double β-decay source foils of the SuperNEMO experiment. In this paper the design and performance of the detector, and results of the background measurements in 208Tl and 214Bi, are presented, and the validation of the BiPo-3 measurement with a calibrated aluminium foil is discussed. Results of the 208Tl and 214Bi activity measurements of the first enriched 82Se foils of the double β-decay SuperNEMO experiment are reported. The sensitivity of the BiPo-3 detector for the measurement of the SuperNEMO 82Se foils is Script A(208Tl) <2 μBq/kg (90% C.L.) and Script A(214Bi) <140 μBq/kg (90% C.L.) after 6 months of measurement.

  16. Measurement and Interpretation of Temporal Variations of the Earths Gravity Field Using GPS and SLR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. Steven; Leuliette, Eric; Russell, Gary

    2003-01-01

    This investigation has had four main thrusts: 1) The analysis of seasonal variations of the Earth's gravitational field using Lageos 1 and 2 SLR data and comparisons to geophysical models. We have estimated the annual variation of the gravity field via a spherical harmonic expansion complete to degree and order 4. We have also constructed a similar model using models of the annual variation in the gravity field due to atmospheric, hydrologic, and ocean mass redistribution. These three models, when combined together, are in excellent agreement with the variations observed by satellite laser ranging. An article on these results was published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. 2) The second thrust of our investigation has been to analyze the output of a Global Climate Model (GCM) to determine if the GRACE gravity mission can be expected to detect climate change signals. Working with Gary Russell at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), we have determined that there are several large secular signals that GRACE might be able to detect, including secular changes in snow cover, sea ice, polar ice, ocean mass, and other variables. It is possible that some of these signals could be detected with 5 years of GRACE measurements - its hard to judge this because the interannual variability in the GCM, which could mask the climate signals, is unreliable. Certainly a follow-on GRACE mission could detect these signals when compared to the data from the initial GRACE mission.). An article on these results will be published in the journal Journal of Geophysical Research. 3) In the last year of the investigation, we developed a new technique for analyzing temporal gravity variations using "geophysical fingerprints", which was successfully demonstrated on 20 years of satellite laser ranging data [Nerem et al., 20031. 4]. We also participated in a workshop on future satellite gravity measurements, which resulted in paper on measuring ocean mass variations using GRACE

  17. A modified beam-to-earth transformation to measure short-wavelength internal waves with an acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Scotti, A.; Butman, B.; Beardsley, R.C.; Alexander, P.S.; Anderson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The algorithm used to transform velocity signals from beam coordinates to earth coordinates in an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) relies on the assumption that the currents are uniform over the horizontal distance separating the beams. This condition may be violated by (nonlinear) internal waves, which can have wavelengths as small as 100-200 m. In this case, the standard algorithm combines velocities measured at different phases of a wave and produces horizontal velocities that increasingly differ from true velocities with distance from the ADCP. Observations made in Massachusetts Bay show that currents measured with a bottom-mounted upward-looking ADCP during periods when short-wavelength internal waves are present differ significantly from currents measured by point current meters, except very close to the instrument. These periods are flagged with high error velocities by the standard ADCP algorithm. In this paper measurements from the four spatially diverging beams and the backscatter intensity signal are used to calculate the propagation direction and celerity of the internal waves. Once this information is known, a modified beam-to-earth transformation that combines appropriately lagged beam measurements can be used to obtain current estimates in earth coordinates that compare well with pointwise measurements. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  18. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  19. Further experience with the local lymph node assay using standard radioactive and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Kolle, Susanne N; Basketter, David; Schrage, Arnhild; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    In a previous study, the predictive capacity of a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA) based on cell counts, the LNCC, was demonstrated to be closely similar to that of the original assay. In addition, a range of substances, including some technical/commercial materials and a range of agrochemical formulations (n = 180) have also been assessed in both methods in parallel. The results in the LNCC and LLNA were generally consistent, with 86% yielding an identical classification outcome. Discordant results were associated with borderline data and were evenly distributed between the two methods. Potency information derived from each method also demonstrated good consistency (n = 101), with 93% of predictions being close. Skin irritation was observed only infrequently and was most commonly associated with positive results; it was not associated with the discordant results. Where different vehicles were used with the same test material, the effect on sensitizing activity was modest, consistent with historical data. Analysis of positive control data indicated that the LNCC and LLNA displayed similar levels of biological variation. When taken in combination with the previously published results on LLNA Performance Standard chemicals, it is concluded that the LNCC provides a viable non-radioactive alternative to the LLNA for the assessment of substances, including potency predictions, as well as for the evaluation of preparations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Low level radioactivity measurements with phoswich detectors using coincident techniques and digital pulse processing analysis.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, R; de Celis, B; del Canto, V; Lumbreras, J M; de Celis Alonso, B; Martín-Martín, A; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J L

    2008-10-01

    A new system has been developed for the detection of low radioactivity levels of fission products and actinides using coincidence techniques. The device combines a phoswich detector for alpha/beta/gamma-ray recognition with a fast digital card for electronic pulse analysis. The phoswich can be used in a coincident mode by identifying the composed signal produced by the simultaneous detection of alpha/beta particles and X-rays/gamma particles. The technique of coincidences with phoswich detectors was proposed recently to verify the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT) which established the necessity of monitoring low levels of gaseous fission products produced by underground nuclear explosions. With the device proposed here it is possible to identify the coincidence events and determine the energy and type of coincident particles. The sensitivity of the system has been improved by employing liquid scintillators and a high resolution low energy germanium detector. In this case it is possible to identify simultaneously by alpha/gamma coincidence transuranic nuclides present in environmental samples without necessity of performing radiochemical separation. The minimum detectable activity was estimated to be 0.01 Bq kg(-1) for 0.1 kg of soil and 1000 min counting.

  1. Automated delay measurement system for an Earth station for Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, Gerrit; Polderman, Michel C.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of the difference of the transmit and receive delays of the signals in a Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) Earth station is crucial for its nanosecond time transfer capability. Also, the monitoring of the change of this delay difference with time, temperature, humidity, or barometric pressure is important for improving the TWSTFT capabilities. An automated system for this purpose has been developed from the initial design at NMi-VSL. It calibrates separately the transmit and receive delays in cables, amplifiers, upconverters and downconverters, and antenna feeds. The obtained results can be applied as corrections to the TWSTFT measurement when, before and after a measurement session, a calibration session is performed. Preliminary results obtained at NMi-VSL will be shown. Also, if available, the results of a manual version of the system that is planned to be circulated in Sept. 1994 together with a USNO portable station on a calibration trip to European TWSTFT Earth stations.

  2. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; Mills, Gerald D.; Romero-Romero, Elisa; Stracener, Daniel W.

    2015-10-01

    We present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al2O3 targets. However, Al2O3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al- required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al2O3-AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF3) were tested and compared using the ion source test facility and the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al2O3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al2O3 with graphite powder at 1600 °C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. The potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.

  3. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    DOE PAGES

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; ...

    2015-06-29

    In this paper, we present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al 2O 3 targets. However, Al 2O 3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al - required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al 2O 3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al 2O 3–AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF 3) weremore » tested and compared using the ion source test facility and the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al 2O 3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al 2O 3 with graphite powder at 1600°C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. In conclusion, the potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.« less

  4. Evidence of neutron leakage at the Fukushima nuclear plant from measurements of radioactive 35S in California

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshi, Antra; Dominguez, Gerardo; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    A recent earthquake and the subsequent tsunami have extensively damaged the Fukushima nuclear power plant, releasing harmful radiation into the environment. Despite the obvious implication for human health and the surrounding ecology, there are no quantitative estimates of the neutron flux leakage during the weeks following the earthquake. Here, using measurements of radioactive 35S contained in sulfate aerosols and SO2 gas at a coastal site in La Jolla, California, we show that nearly 4 × 1011 neutrons per m2 leaked at the Fukushima nuclear power plant before March 20, 2011. A significantly higher activity as measured on March 28 is in accord with neutrons escaping the reactor core and being absorbed by the coolant seawater 35Cl to produce 35S by a (n, p) reaction. Once produced, 35S oxidizes to and and was then transported to Southern California due to the presence of strong prevailing westerly winds at this time. Based on a moving box model, we show that the observed activity enhancement in is compatible with long-range transport of the radiation plume from Fukushima. Our model predicts that , the concentration in the marine boundary layer at Fukushima, was approximately 2 × 105 atoms per m3, which is approximately 365 times above expected natural concentrations. These measurements and model calculations imply that approximately 0.7% of the total radioactive sulfate present at the marine boundary layer at Fukushima reached Southern California as a result of the trans-Pacific transport. PMID:21844372

  5. Melting curve of compressed barium carbonate from in situ ionic conductivity measurements: Implications for the melting behavior of alkaline earth carbonates in Earth's deep carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Li, J.; Zhu, F.; Li, Z.; Farawi, R.

    2017-12-01

    The whereabouts of subducted carbonates place a major constraint on the Earth's deep carbon cycle, but the fraction of carbon retained in the slab and transported into the deep mantle, compared to that released from the slab and recycled to the surface, is still under debate. Knowledge of the stability of carbonated mantle rocks is pivotal for assessing the ability of slabs to carry carbonates into the deep mantle. Determination and systematic comparison of the melting curves of alkali and alkaline earth carbonates at high pressure can help construct thermodynamic models to predict the melting behavior of complex carbonated mantle rocks. Among alkaline earth carbonates, the melting behavior of barium carbonate (BaCO3) has not been adequately understood. The reported melting point of BaCO3at 1 bar differ by nearly 800 °C and constraints on the melting curve of BaCO3 at high pressure are not available. In this study, the melting temperatures of BaCO3 were determined up to 11 GPa from in situ ionic conductivity measurements using the multi-anvil apparatus at the University of Michigan. The solid-liquid boundary at high pressure was detected on the basis of a steep rise in conductivity through the sample upon melting. The melting point of BaCO3 was found to drop from 1797 °C at 3.3 GPa to 1600 °C at 5.5 GPa and then rise with pressure to 2180 °C at 11 GPa. The observed melting depression point at 5.5 GPa corresponds to the phase transition of BaCO3 from the aragonite structure (Pmcn) to post-aragonite structure (Pmmn) at 6.3 GPa, 877 °C and 8.0 GPa, 727 °C, determined from synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements using laser-heated DAC experiments at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. These results are also compared with ex situ falling marker experiments, and the three methods together place tight constraints on the melting curve of BaCO3 and elucidates the effect of structural phase transitions on its melting behavior.

  6. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  7. Testing Models for the Origin of the Earth-Moon System with 142Nd/144Nd Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, E.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Zeng, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Sm-Nd system is widely used for tracking the differentiation and evolution of planetary silicate reservoirs, due to the well understood, strong Sm-Nd fractionation between melt and mantle minerals. The short-lived 146Sm-142Nd system with a half-life of 103 Ma or 68 Ma has been used to constrain early planetary differentiation events based on early Archean terrestrial rocks, lunar rocks and meteorites. Early Archean terrestrial rocks show significant variations in 142Nd/144Nd of about 30 ppm, demonstrating very early differentiation of the Earth's mantle and crust. In contrast, present day 142Nd/144Nd ratios of mantle-derived ocean island basalts and MORBs show almost no variation at the reported analytical precision level (2σ = ± 6 ppm), suggesting that such early variations have been erased with time due to crustal recycling and mantle mixing. The 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the lunar mantle has been reported to be offset from terrestrial standards by about -5 ppm, barely resolvable with the reported analytical uncertainties. Differences in the 142Nd/144Nd ratios between the bulk Earth and Moon may suggest early large scale silicate differentiation events on the Earth that predate the Giant Moon forming impact. To address this problem, we carry out new 142Nd/144Nd measurements of terrestrial rocks, and lunar rocks and meteorites with a TIMS (Isoprobe T) equipped with new Xact Faraday amplifiers provided by Isotopx. We find that the Xact amplifiers provide lower noise than the earlier generation preamplifiers and operate close to the theoretical thermodynamic noise limit calculated from the Johnson equation. So far we have been able to improve multidynamic measurements to be reproducible to within ± 2 ppm at the 2σ level, and with this precision we find no variations in a few young terrestrial rocks. Our next step is measurements of lunar rocks and E-chondrites. If these turn out to be identical to the modern Earth, then the Nd isotope system may tell the same

  8. B(E2)↑ Measurements for Radioactive Neutron-Rich Ge Isotopes: Reaching the N=50 Closed Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Baktash, C.; Batchelder, J. C.; Beene, J. R.; Bijker, R.; Brown, B. A.; Castaños, O.; Fuentes, B.; del Campo, J. Gomez; Hausladen, P. A.; Larochelle, Y.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Mueller, P. E.; Radford, D. C.; Stracener, D. W.; Urrego, J. P.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, C.-H.

    2005-03-01

    The B(E2;0+1→2+1) values for the radioactive neutron-rich germanium isotopes 78,80Ge and the closed neutron shell nucleus 82Ge were measured at the HRIBF using Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics. These data allow a study of the systematic trend between the subshell closures at N=40 and 50. The B(E2) behavior approaching N=50 is similar to the trend observed for heavier isotopic chains. A comparison of the experimental results with a shell model calculation demonstrates persistence of the N=50 shell gap and a strong sensitivity of the B(E2) values to the effective interaction.

  9. Approach to Managing MeaSURES Data at the GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vollmer, Bruce; Kempler, Steven J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2009-01-01

    A major need stated by the NASA Earth science research strategy is to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. (NASA Solicitation for Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) 2006-2010) Selected projects create long term records of a given parameter, called Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), based on mature algorithms that bring together continuous multi-sensor data. ESDRs, associated algorithms, vetted by the appropriate community, are archived at a NASA affiliated data center for archive, stewardship, and distribution. See http://measures-projects.gsfc.nasa.gov/ for more details. This presentation describes the NASA GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) approach to managing the MEaSUREs ESDR datasets assigned to GES DISC. (Energy/water cycle related and atmospheric composition ESDRs) GES DISC will utilize its experience to integrate existing and proven reusable data management components to accommodate the new ESDRs. Components include a data archive system (S4PA), a data discovery and access system (Mirador), and various web services for data access. In addition, if determined to be useful to the user community, the Giovanni data exploration tool will be made available to ESDRs. The GES DISC data integration methodology to be used for the MEaSUREs datasets is presented. The goals of this presentation are to share an approach to ESDR integration, and initiate discussions amongst the data centers, data managers and data providers for the purpose of gaining efficiencies in data management for MEaSUREs projects.

  10. Correlations and linkages between the sun and the earth's atmosphere: Needed measurements and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, W. W.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the sequence of processes that lead from some change in solar input to the earth to a change in tropospheric circulation and weather. Topics discussed include: inputs from the sun, the solar wind, and the magnetosphere; bremsstrahlung, ionizing radiation, cirrus clouds, thunderstorms, wave propagation, and gravity waves.

  11. Attitude estimation from magnetometer and earth-albedo-corrected coarse sun sensor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Pontus

    2005-01-01

    For full 3-axes attitude determination the magnetic field vector and the Sun vector can be used. A Coarse Sun Sensor consisting of six solar cells placed on each of the six outer surfaces of the satellite is used for Sun vector determination. This robust and low cost setup is sensitive to surrounding light sources as it sees the whole sky. To compensate for the largest error source, the Earth, an albedo model is developed. The total albedo light vector has contributions from the Earth surface which is illuminated by the Sun and visible from the satellite. Depending on the reflectivity of the Earth surface, the satellite's position and the Sun's position the albedo light changes. This cannot be calculated analytically and hence a numerical model is developed. For on-board computer use the Earth albedo model consisting of data tables is transferred into polynomial functions in order to save memory space. For an absolute worst case the attitude determination error can be held below 2∘. In a nominal case it is better than 1∘.

  12. Measurement of the Earth's Radius Based on Historical Evidence of Its Curvature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roura, Pere; Josep, Calbo

    2005-01-01

    Probably the most direct observation of the Earth's curvature is how objects appear from over the horizon when we approach them and disappear as we get further away from them. Similarly, the portion of a high object (a building or a mountain) that is visible depends on the height of the site where the observation is made. Based upon these very…

  13. Crystal surface integrity and diffusion measurements on Earth and planetary materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.; Thomas, J. B.; Hanchar, J. M.; Wirth, R.

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of diffusion behavior in minerals is key to providing quantitative constraints on the ages and thermal histories of Earth and planetary materials. Laboratory experiments are a vital source of the needed diffusion measurements, but these can pose challenges because the length scales of diffusion achievable in a laboratory time are commonly less than 1 μm. An effective strategy for dealing with this challenge is to conduct experiments involving inward diffusion of the element of interest from a surface source, followed by quantification of the resulting diffusive-uptake profile using a high-resolution depth-profiling technique such as Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), or ion microprobe (SIMS). The value of data from such experiments is crucially dependent on the assumption that diffusion in the near-surface of the sample is representative of diffusion in the bulk material. Historical arguments suggest that the very process of preparing a polished surface for diffusion studies introduces defects-in the form of dislocations and cracks-in the outermost micrometer of the sample that make this region fundamentally different from the bulk crystal in terms of its diffusion properties. Extensive indirect evidence suggests that, in fact, the near-surface region of carefully prepared samples is no different from the bulk crystal in terms of its diffusion properties. A direct confirmation of this conclusion is nevertheless clearly important. Here we use transmission electron microscopy to confirm that the near-surface regions of olivine, quartz and feldspar crystals prepared using careful polishing protocols contain no features that could plausibly affect diffusion. This finding does not preclude damage to the mineral structure from other techniques used in diffusion studies (e.g., ion implantation), but even in this case the role of possible structural damage can be objectively assessed and controlled. While all

  14. Design of a Slab Waveguide Multiaperture Fourier Spectrometer for Water Vapor Measurements in Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Kenneth; Florjańczyk, Mirosław; Solheim, Brian; Scott, Alan; Quine, Ben; Cheben, Pavel

    Concept, theory and design of a new type of waveguide device, a multiaperture Fourier-transform planar waveguide spectrometer[1], implemented as a prototype instrument is pre-sented. The spectrometer's objective is to demonstrate the ability of the new slab waveguide technology for application in remote sensing instruments[2]. The spectrometer will use a limb viewing configuration to detect the 1.36um waveband allowing concentrations of water vapor in earth's atmosphere to be measured[3]. The most challenging aspects of the design, assembly and calibration are presented. Focus will be given to the effects of packaging the spectrometer and interfacing to the detector array. Stress-induced birefringence will affect the performance of the waveguides, therefore the design of a stress-free mounting over a range of temperatures is important. Spectral retrieval algo-rithms will have to correct for expected fabrication errors in the waveguides. Data processing algorithms will also be developed to correct for non-uniformities of input brightness through the array, making use of MMI output couplers to capture both the in-phase and anti-phase interferometer outputs. A performance assessment of an existing breadboard spectrometer will demonstrate the capability of the instrument. REFERENCES 1. M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Multiaper-n ture planar waveguide spectrometer formed by arrayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Expr. 15(26), 18176-18189 (2007). 2. M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. n Lapointe, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Slab waveguiode spatial heterodyne spectrom-eters for remote sensing from space," Optical sensors 2009. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7356 (2009)., pp. 73560V-73560V-7 (2009). 3. A. Scott, M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, n B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Micro-interferometer with high throughput for remote sensing." MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems VIII. Proceedings of the SPIE

  15. Atmospheric influences on infrared-laser signals used for occultation measurements between Low Earth Orbit satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, S.; Kirchengast, G.; Proschek, V.

    2011-10-01

    LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO) is a new occultation technique between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, which applies signals in the short wave infrared spectral range (SWIR) within 2 μm to 2.5 μm. It is part of the LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method that enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity) and altitude levels from microwave signals and profiles of greenhouse gases and further variables such as line-of-sight wind speed from simultaneously measured LIO signals. Due to the novelty of the LMIO method, detailed knowledge of atmospheric influences on LIO signals and of their suitability for accurate trace species retrieval did not yet exist. Here we discuss these influences, assessing effects from refraction, trace species absorption, aerosol extinction and Rayleigh scattering in detail, and addressing clouds, turbulence, wind, scattered solar radiation and terrestrial thermal radiation as well. We show that the influence of refractive defocusing, foreign species absorption, aerosols and turbulence is observable, but can be rendered small to negligible by use of the differential transmission principle with a close frequency spacing of LIO absorption and reference signals within 0.5%. The influences of Rayleigh scattering and terrestrial thermal radiation are found negligible. Cloud-scattered solar radiation can be observable under bright-day conditions, but this influence can be made negligible by a close time spacing (within 5 ms) of interleaved laser-pulse and background signals. Cloud extinction loss generally blocks SWIR signals, except very thin or sub-visible cirrus clouds, which can be addressed by retrieving a cloud layering profile and exploiting it in the trace species retrieval. Wind can have a small influence on the trace species absorption, which can be made negligible by using a simultaneously retrieved or a moderately accurate background wind speed profile. We conclude that

  16. Comparative Measurements of Earth and Martian Entry Environments in the NASA Langley HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Bey, Kim S.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Arc-jet facilities play a major role in the development of heat shield materials for entry vehicles because they are capable of producing representative high-enthalpy flow environments. Arc-jet test data is used to certify material performance for a particular mission and to validate or calibrate models of material response during atmospheric entry. Materials used on missions entering Earth s atmosphere are certified in an arc-jet using a simulated air entry environment. Materials used on missions entering the Martian atmosphere should be certified in an arc-jet using a simulated Martian atmosphere entry environment, which requires the use of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide has not been used as a test gas in a United States arc-jet facility since the early 1970 s during the certification of materials for the Viking Missions. Materials certified for the Viking missions have been used on every entry mission to Mars since that time. The use of carbon dioxide as a test gas in an arc-jet is again of interest to the thermal protection system community for certification of new heat shield materials that can increase the landed mass capability for Mars bound missions beyond that of Viking and Pathfinder. This paper describes the modification, operation, and performance of the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) arc-jet facility with carbon dioxide as a test gas. A basic comparison of heat fluxes, various bulk properties, and performance characteristics for various Earth and Martian entry environments in HYMETS is provided. The Earth and Martian entry environments consist of a standard Earth atmosphere, an oxygen-rich Earth atmosphere, and a simulated Martian atmosphere. Finally, a preliminary comparison of the HYMETS arc-jet facility to several European plasma facilities is made to place the HYMETS facility in a more global context of arc-jet testing capability.

  17. Comparison of the Earth's high-latitude disturbances with energetic electrons measured by the ERG/Arase satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C. Y.; Chang, T. F.; Tam, S. W. Y.; Syugu, W. J.; Kazama, Y.; Wang, B. J.; Wang, S. Y.; Kasahara, S.; Yokota, S.; Hori, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) satellite has been successfully launched from the Uchinoura Space Center in December 2016. The main goal of the ERG project is to elucidate acceleration and loss mechanisms of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. In addition, the apogee of the ERG satellite's orbit often exceeds the edge of outer radiation belt in radial distance. Thus the data measured from the higher-L region may be associated with the activities observed in the Earth's high-latitude region. We statistically compare the Auroral Electrojet (AE) index with the data measured by the Low-Energy Particle Experiments - Electron Analyzer (LEP-e) and Medium-Energy Particle Experiments - Electron Analyzer (MEP-e) onboard the ERG satellite in the past months. With the selected data for L > 7, we statistically investigate the contributions of the different electron energies observed in various magnetic local time (MLT) sectors to the Earth's high-latitude disturbances.

  18. Measurement of the fall in the level of plasma radioactivity after intravenous administration of radiohippuran as a test of renal function

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, J. D.; Boyle, J. A.

    1965-01-01

    The level of plasma radioactivity following a single intravenous injection of 131I-labelled sodium orthoiodohippurate (radiohuppuran) falls with time in a tri-exponential fashion. The rate of fall of plasma radioactivity after an intravenous injection of radiohippuran was measured over the period 25 to 40 minutes from the time of injection and was expressed as the half-life of radiohippuran. The results suggest that this procedure may provide a valid measure of renal function which is more sensitive than the blood urea estimation but less sensitive than the creatinine clearance. PMID:14304256

  19. Measurements of the Coefficient of Restitution of Quartz Sand on Basalt: Implications for Abrasion Rates on Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, M.; Bridges, N. T.; Benzit, M.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the rates at which rocks abrade from the impact of saltating sand provides important input into estimating the age and degree of modification of arid surfaces on Earth and Mars. Previous work has relied on measuring mass loss rates in the field and the laboratory. The susceptibility of rocks and other natural materials has been quantified on a relative scale from laboratory studies.

  20. Spacecraft Instrumentation to Measure and Stimulate Space Particles and Plasma Waves in the Medium-Earth Orbit (MEO) Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-12

    fluxgate magnetometer for the AFRL-DSX mission. The instrument is designed to measure the medium-Earth orbit geomagnetic field with precision of 0.1 nT and...which is essential to fulfill the two primary goals of the DSX science program. 1.1. Scientific Rationale: Ring Current and The fluxgate magnetometer ...UCLA’s ments and the Radiation Belt Remediation primary motivation in providing fluxgate requirements. The magnetic field is necessary magnetometers for

  1. Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Projects Data and Services at the GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vollmer, Bruce E.; Ostrenga, D.; Savtchenko, A.; Johnson, J.; Wei, J.; Teng, W.; Gerasimov, I.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Program is dedicated to advancing Earth remote sensing and pioneering the scientific use of satellite measurements to improve human understanding of our home planet. Through the MEaSUREs Program, NASA is continuing its commitment to expand understanding of the Earth system using consistent data records. Emphasis is on linking together multiple data sources to form coherent time-series, and facilitating the use of extensive data in the development of comprehensive Earth system models. A primary focus of the MEaSUREs Program is the creation of Earth System Data Records (ESDRs). An ESDR is defined as a unified and coherent set of observations of a given parameter of the Earth system, which is optimized to meet specific requirements for addressing science questions. These records are critical for understanding Earth System processes; for the assessment of variability, long-term trends, and change in the Earth System; and for providing input and validation means to modeling efforts. Seven MEaSUREs projects will be archived and distributed through services at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC).

  2. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  3. Influence of radioactivity out of the field of view on 3D PET dynamic measurement with [/sup 11/C]MP4A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Suzuki, M.; Murayama, H.; Irie, T.; Fukushi, K.; Wada, Y.

    1999-08-01

    This study assessed the influence of radioactivity out of the field of view (out-of-FOV) on the measurement of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity with the tracer [/sup 11/C]N-methyl-4-piperidyl-acetate by positron emission tomography in three-dimensional mode. Dynamic scans on a volunteer showed that the out-of-FOV radioactivity in the chest was much higher than that of the brain immediately after tracer injection. A representative phantom measurement was performed to quantitate the systematic errors due to the out-of-FOV radioactivity. Resultant errors in the AChE activity (k3 parameter) as calculated by compartment model analysis were found to be less than one percent in all of the brain regions studied.

  4. Rates of change of the earth's magnetic field measured by recent analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Huang, Qilin

    1990-01-01

    Typical rates of change of the earth's magnetic field are presented as a function of the earth's spherical harmonics. Harmonics up to the eight degree are analyzed. With the increase in the degree of the harmonics an increase in the relative rate of change can be observed. For higher degrees, the rate of change can be predicted. This enables a differentiation between harmonics originating in the core and harmonics caused by crustal magnetization. The westward drift of the magnetic field depends on the longitudinal gradient of the field. In order to determine the longitudinal motions, harmonics up to degree 20 can be utilized. The average rate of secular acceleration increases with the degree of harmonics from 0.001 deg/sq yr for a dipole term to an average of 0.05 deg/sq yr for degree eight harmonics.

  5. Earth radiation budget measurements from satellites and their interpretation for climate modeling and studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Stephens, G. L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    The annual and seasonal averaged Earth atmosphere radiation budgets derived from the most complete set of satellite observations available are presented. The budgets were derived from a composite of 48 monthly mean radiation budget maps. Annually and seasonally averaged radiation budgets are presented as global averages and zonal averages. The geographic distribution of the various radiation budget quantities is described. The annual cycle of the radiation budget was analyzed and the annual variability of net flux was shown to be largely dominated by the regular semi and annual cycles forced by external Earth-Sun geometry variations. Radiative transfer calculations were compared to the observed budget quantities and surface budgets were additionally computed with particular emphasis on discrepancies that exist between the present computations and previous surface budget estimates.

  6. An Architecture Trade Study for Passive 10-km Soil Moisture Measurements from Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando; ONeill, P.; Dod, L.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 NASA HQ, as a result of an internal NASA study on potential Earth Science Enterprise Post-2002 Missions, directed the hydrology community to focus on achieving a 10-km spatial resolution global soil moisture mission. This type of resolution represents a significant technological challenge for an L-band radiometer in sun-synchronous low-earth orbit. An engineering trade study has been completed to determine alternative system configurations that could achieve the science requirements and to identify the most appropriate technology investments and development path for NASA to pursue in order to bring about such a mission. The results of the study are presented here together with a short discussion of future efforts.

  7. A space weather information service based upon remote and in-situ measurements of coronal mass ejections heading for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartkorn, O. A.; Ritter, B.; Meskers, A. J. H.; Miles, O.; Russwurm, M.; Scully, S.; Roldan, A.; Juestel, P.; Reville, V.; Lupu, S.; Ruffenach, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of the interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past forty years with the intention of understandingand forcasting solar behavior and space weather. In particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. We present a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the CME properties. The mission secondary objective is the improvement of scientific space weather models. In-situ measurements are performed using a Solar Wind Analyzer instrumentation package and flux gate magnetometers. For remote measurements, coronagraphs are employed. The proposed instruments originate from other space missions with the intention to reduce mission costs and to streamline the mission design process. Communication with the six identical spacecraft is realized via a deep space network consisting of six ground stations. This network provides an information service that is in uninterrupted contact with the spacecraft, allowing for continuos space weather monitoring. A dedicated data processing center will handle all the data, and forward the processed data to the SSA Space Weather Coordination Center. This organization will inform the general public through a space weather forecast. The data processing center will additionally archive the data for the scientific community. This concept

  8. Using Deep Space Climate Observatory Measurements to Study the Earth as an Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Zhai, Albert J.; Herman, Jay; Zhai, Chengxing; Hu, Renyu; Su, Hui; Natraj, Vijay; Li, Jiazheng; Xu, Feng; Yung, Yuk L.

    2018-07-01

    Even though it was not designed as an exoplanetary research mission, the Deep Space Climate Observatory ( DSCOVR ) has been opportunistically used for a novel experiment in which Earth serves as a proxy exoplanet. More than 2 yr of DSCOVR Earth images were employed to produce time series of multiwavelength, single-point light sources in order to extract information on planetary rotation, cloud patterns, surface type, and orbit around the Sun. In what follows, we assume that these properties of the Earth are unknown and instead attempt to derive them from first principles. These conclusions are then compared with known data about our planet. We also used the DSCOVR data to simulate phase-angle changes, as well as the minimum data collection rate needed to determine the rotation period of an exoplanet. This innovative method of using the time evolution of a multiwavelength, reflected single-point light source can be deployed for retrieving a range of intrinsic properties of an exoplanet around a distant star.

  9. Interpretation of magnetotelluric measurements over an electrically dispersive one-dimensional earth

    SciT

    Patella, D.

    1987-01-01

    Frequency dispersion of electromagnetic parameters of earth materials has been widely documented in recent years. It is claimed that magnetotellurics (MT)may be significantly affected by dispersion. This paper studies the MT plane-wave interpretative problem for a one-dimensional earth characterized by the presence of dispersive layers. The theoretical properties of the MT field under the dispersion hypothesis, and the main features of the dispersion phenomenon are synthetically reviewed. The examination of previously published MT curve responses over some models of dispersive earth section shows that ambiguity can arise when interpreting MT data with no other source of information. Thus it maybemore » almost impossible to distinguish between the response of a dispersive section and an equally probable dispersion-free section. The dispersion magnetotelluric (DMT) method is proposed as a means to resolve the ambiguity. The DMT method is based on the execution, at the same site, of an MT sounding and of an always dispersion-free dc geoelectric deep sounding.« less

  10. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  11. Radioactivity: Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (1962), (ICRU) Report 10 c.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This handbook presents recommendations agreed upon at the meeting of the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) held in Montreux, Switzerland, in April 1962. It is written in a report form with a preface including symbols, abbreviations and definitions of terms used in the report. The report consists of four…

  12. World pendulum—a distributed remotely controlled laboratory (RCL) to measure the Earth's gravitational acceleration depending on geographical latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröber, S.; Vetter, M.; Eckert, B.; Jodl, H.-J.

    2007-05-01

    We suggest that different string pendulums are positioned at different locations on Earth and measure at each place the gravitational acceleration (accuracy Δg ~ 0.01 m s-2). Each pendulum can be remotely controlled via the internet by a computer located somewhere on Earth. The theoretical part describes the physical origin of this phenomenon g(phiv), that the Earth's effective gravitational acceleration g depends on the angle of latitude phiv. Then, we present all necessary formula to deduce g(phiv) from oscillations of a string pendulum. The technical part explains tips and tricks to realize such an apparatus to measure all necessary values with sufficient accuracy. In addition, we justify the precise dimensions of a physical pendulum such that the formula for a mathematical pendulum is applicable to determine g(phiv) without introducing errors. To conclude, we describe the internet version—the string pendulum as a remotely controlled laboratory. The teaching relevance and educational value will be discussed in detail at the end of this paper including global experimenting, using the internet and communication techniques in teaching and new ways of teaching and learning methods.

  13. Limitations imposed by ionospheric turbulence on satellite-to-satellite Doppler measurement accuracy. [of earth gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    For some time the possibility has been considered to perform an accurate survey from orbit of the earth gravity field by making use of low-low, satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking with a radio link which operates in the frequency band in the range from 50 to 100 GHz. It is, therefore, of interest to discuss the upper bound in Doppler measurement accuracy imposed by the effects of ionospheric turbulence. The present investigation is concerned with the measurement error induced by ionospheric turbulence. The assumptin is made that the so-called ionospheric refractive 'bias' can be removed with one of the multifrequency methods of the current practice.

  14. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    SciT

    Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Kettler, J.

    The Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of somemore » elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.« less

  15. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Kettler, J.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B.

    2013-04-01

    The Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) [1]. The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  16. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of diurnal longwave flux variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Direskeneli, Haldun; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite measurements are subject to a wide range of uncertainties due to their temporal, spatial, and directional sampling characteristics. An information-theory approach is suggested to examine the nonuniform temporal sampling of ERB measurements. The information (i.e., its entropy or uncertainty) before and after the measurements is determined, and information gain (IG) is defined as a reduction in the uncertainties involved. A stochastic model for the diurnal outgoing flux variations that affect the ERB is developed. Using Gaussian distributions for the a priori and measured radiant exitance fields, the IG is obtained by computing the a posteriori covariance. The IG for the monthly outgoing flux measurements is examined for different orbital parameters and orbital tracks, using the Earth Observing System orbital parameters as specific examples. Variations in IG due to changes in the orbit's inclination angle and the initial ascending node local time are investigated.

  17. MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF THE FOOD CHAIN (in French)

    SciT

    Chevallier, A.; Schneider, R.

    ABS>The results obtained at the Laboratoire de Protection of 1'Institut de Physique Biologique, Strasbourg, from 1958 to 1960 on the contamination of food are tabulated. The methods used for the measurement of the total beta activity and for the radiochemical separations and determination of the elements isolated are described for milk and vegetables. The activities found in milk, vegetables, and animal skeletons are given in tabular form. (J.S.R.)

  18. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples.

    PubMed

    Turhan, S; Ozçitak, E; Taşkin, H; Varinlioğlu, A

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples collected from the different drilled wells in Nevşehir province were measured to assess annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the water samples. Nevşehir province is one of the major cities of Cappadocia Region which is a popular tourist destination as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. Sampling and measurements were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The values of the activity concentrations of the gross α and β measured in the water samples ranged from 80 to 380 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 192 mBq L(-1) and 120-3470 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 579 mBq L(-1) respectively. All values of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two ground water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). Therefore two water samples were the subject of further radioisotope-specific analysis. The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross β in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Continuous-Wave CO2 Lidar Calibration by use of Earth-Surface Targets in Laboratory and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

    1998-01-01

    Backscatter of several Earth surfaces was characterized in the laboratory as a function of incidence angle with a focused continuous-wave 9.1 micro meter CO2 Doppler lidar for use as possible calibration targets. Some targets showed negligible angular dependence, while others showed a slight increase with decreasing angle. The Earth-surface signal measured over the complex Californian terrain during a 1995 NASA airborne mission compared well with laboratory data. Distributions of the Earth's surface signal shows that the lidar efficiency can be estimated with a fair degree of accuracy, preferably with uniform Earth-surface targets during flight for airborne or space-based lidar.

  20. Earth Science

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  1. Evaluation of thyroid radioactivity measurement data from Hanford workers, 1944--1946

    SciT

    Ikenberry, T.A.

    1991-05-01

    This report describes the preliminary results of an evaluation conducted in support of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. A secondary objective is to make information that HEDR staff members used in estimate radiation doses available to the public. The objectives of this report to make available thyroid measurement data from Hanford workers for the year 1944 through 1946, and to investigate the suitability of those data for use in the HEDRmore » dose estimation process. An important part of this investigation was to provide a description of the uncertainty associated with the data. Lack of documentation on thyroid measurements from this period required that assumptions be made to perform data evaluations. These assumptions introduce uncertainty into the evaluations that could be significant. It is important to recognize the nature of these assumptions, the inherent uncertainty, and the propagation of this uncertainty, and the propagation of this uncertainty through data evaluations to any conclusions that can be made by using the data. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.« less

  2. Quantitative measurement of natural radioactivity in some roofing tile materials used in upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Uosif, M A M

    2013-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in some roofing tile materials (granite, alabaster, marble, traditional and advanced ceramic) used in Upper Egypt is presented in this paper. Measurements were done by using gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl) 3" × 3"). The values of concentration of natural radionuclides were in the following ranges: 12-78.9 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 8.4-113.1 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 94.9-509 Bq kg(-1)for (40)K. The activity concentration index (I), the specific dose rates indoors ( ) and the annual effective dose (DE) due to gamma radiation were calculated for each investigated sample. The lowest value of I is 0.19 for alabaster, while the highest one is 0.88 for traditional and advanced ceramic. The ranges of DE are between 0.03 and 0.13 mSv, it is below the maximal permitted values, so that the examined materials could be used as roofing tiles in the construction of new buildings.

  3. Measurement of natural radioactivity in chemical fertilizer and agricultural soil: evidence of high alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radiation from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer belonging to 232Th and 238U series as well as radioisotope of potassium (40K) are the major contributors of outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. The study of alpha activity in fertilizers, which is the first ever in West Bengal, has been performed in order to determine the effect of the use of phosphate fertilizers on human health. The data have been compared with the alpha activity of different types of chemical fertilizers. The measurement of alpha activity in surface soil samples collected from the cultivated land was also performed. The sampling sites were randomly selected in the cultivated land in the Midnapore district, which is the largest district in West Bengal. The phosphate fertilizer is widely used for large agricultural production, mainly potatoes. The alpha activities have been measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The results show that alpha activity of those fertilizer and soil samples varies from 141 Bq/kg to 2,589 Bq/kg and from 109 Bq/kg to 660 Bq/kg, respectively. These results were used to estimate environmental radiation exposure on human health contributed by the direct application of fertilizers.

  4. Evaluation of Grounding Impedance of a Complex Lightning Protective System Using Earth Ground Clamp Measurements and ATP Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Rakov, V. A.; Mata, Angel G.

    2010-01-01

    A new Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, which consists of a catenary wire system (at a height of about 181 meters above ground level) supported by three insulators installed atop three towers in a triangular configuration. A total of nine downconductors (each about 250 meters long, on average) are connected to the catenary wire system. Each of the nine downconductors is connected to a 7.62-meter radius circular counterpoise conductor with six equally spaced 6-meter long vertical grounding rods. Grounding requirements at LC39B call for all underground and above ground metallic piping, enclosures, raceways, and cable trays, within 7.62 meters of the counterpoise, to be bounded to the counterpoise, which results in a complex interconnected grounding system, given the many metallic piping, raceways, and cable trays that run in multiple direction around LC39B. The complexity of this grounding system makes the fall of potential method, which uses multiple metallic rods or stakes, unsuitable for measuring the grounding impedances of the downconductors. To calculate the downconductors grounding impedance, an Earth Ground Clamp (a stakeless grounding resistance measuring device) and a LPS Alternative Transient Program (ATP) model are used. The Earth Ground Clamp is used to measure the loop impedance plus the grounding impedance of each downconductor and the ATP model is used to calculate the loop impedance of each downconductor circuit. The grounding impedance of the downconductors is then calculated by subtracting the ATP calculated loop impedances from the Earth Ground Clamp measurements.

  5. Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption.

    PubMed

    2017-11-30

    Neutrinos interact only very weakly, so they are extremely penetrating. The theoretical neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section, however, increases with increasing neutrino energy, and neutrinos with energies above 40 teraelectronvolts (TeV) are expected to be absorbed as they pass through the Earth. Experimentally, the cross-section has been determined only at the relatively low energies (below 0.4 TeV) that are available at neutrino beams from accelerators. Here we report a measurement of neutrino absorption by the Earth using a sample of 10,784 energetic upward-going neutrino-induced muons. The flux of high-energy neutrinos transiting long paths through the Earth is attenuated compared to a reference sample that follows shorter trajectories. Using a fit to the two-dimensional distribution of muon energy and zenith angle, we determine the neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section for neutrino energies 6.3-980 TeV, more than an order of magnitude higher than previous measurements. The measured cross-section is about 1.3 times the prediction of the standard model, consistent with the expectations for charged- and neutral-current interactions. We do not observe a large increase in the cross-section with neutrino energy, in contrast with the predictions of some theoretical models, including those invoking more compact spatial dimensions or the production of leptoquarks. This cross-section measurement can be used to set limits on the existence of some hypothesized beyond-standard-model particles, including leptoquarks.

  6. Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Hill, G. C.; Kyriacou, A.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B. J.; Ackermann, M.; Bernardini, E.; Blot, S.; Bradascio, F.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brostean-Kaiser, J.; Franckowiak, A.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Kintscher, T.; Kunwar, S.; Nahnhauer, R.; Satalecka, K.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stasik, A.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; van Santen, J.; Adams, J.; Bagherpour, H.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O'Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C.; Ahlers, M.; Koskinen, D. J.; Larson, M. J.; Medici, M.; Rameez, M.; Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J. P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Zoll, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Bron, S.; Carver, T.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Altmann, D.; Anton, G.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Katz, U.; Kittler, T.; Tselengidou, M.; Andeen, K.; Plum, M.; Anderson, T.; Delaunay, J. J.; Dunkman, M.; Eller, P.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Pankova, D. V.; Teši´, G.; Turley, C. F.; Weiss, M. J.; Argüelles, C.; Axani, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Moulai, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Brenzke, M.; Glauch, T.; Haack, C.; Kalaczynski, P.; Koschinsky, J. P.; Leuermann, M.; Rädel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Sälzer, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stettner, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Wallraff, M.; Waza, A.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Bai, X.; Barron, J. P.; Giang, W.; Grant, D.; Kopper, C.; Moore, R. W.; Nowicki, S. C.; Herrera, S. E. Sanchez; Sarkar, S.; Wandler, F. D.; Weaver, C.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Yanez, J. P.; Barwick, S. W.; Yodh, G.; Baum, V.; Böser, S.; di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Köpke, L.; Krückl, G.; Momenté, G.; Peiffer, P.; Sandroos, J.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K.; Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P. B.; Woschnagg, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Schöneberg, S.; Tenholt, F.; Becker, K.-H.; Bindig, D.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Lauber, F.; Naumann, U.; Pollmann, A. Obertacke; Soldin, D.; Benzvi, S.; Cross, R.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Friedman, E.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K. D.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Klein, S. R.; Miarecki, S.; Palczewski, T.; Tatar, J.; Börner, M.; Fuchs, T.; Hünnefeld, M.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Pieloth, D.; Rhode, W.; Ruhe, T.; Sandrock, A.; Schlunder, P.; Soedingrekso, J.; Werthebach, J.; Bose, D.; Dujmovic, H.; in, S.; Jeong, M.; Kang, W.; Kim, J.; Rott, C.; Botner, O.; Burgman, A.; Hallgren, A.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Unger, E.; Bourbeau, J.; Braun, J.; Casey, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Fahey, S.; Ghorbani, K.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hokanson-Fasig, B.; Hoshina, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Liu, Q. R.; Luszczak, W.; Mancina, S.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Schneider, A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Ty, B.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, J.; Xu, D. L.; Yuan, T.; Brayeur, L.; Casier, M.; de Clercq, C.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; Kunnen, J.; Lünemann, J.; Maggi, G.; Toscano, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Kappes, A.; Coenders, S.; Huber, M.; Krings, K.; Rea, I. C.; Resconi, E.; Turcati, A.; Cowen, D. F.; de André, J. P. A. M.; Deyoung, T.; Hignight, J.; Lennarz, D.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Micallef, J.; Neer, G.; Rysewyk, D.; Dembinski, H.; Evenson, P. A.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Koirala, R.; Pandya, H.; Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Tilav, S.; De Ridder, S.; Labare, M.; Ryckbosch, D.; van Driessche, W.; Vanheule, S.; Vraeghe, M.; de With, M.; Hebecker, D.; Kolanoski, H.; Fazely, A. R.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Xu, X. W.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Nygren, D. R.; Przybylski, G. T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Ishihara, A.; Kim, M.; Kuwabara, T.; Lu, L.; Mase, K.; Relich, M.; Stößl, A.; Yoshida, S.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Niederhausen, H.; Xu, Y.; Kohnen, G.; Kopper, S.; Nakarmi, P.; Pepper, J. A.; Toale, P. A.; Williams, D. R.; Kowalski, M.; Kurahashi, N.; Relethford, B.; Richman, M.; Wills, L.; Madsen, J.; Seunarine, S.; Spiczak, G. M.; Maruyama, R.; Rawlins, K.; Sarkar, S.; Sutherland, M.; Taboada, I.; Tung, C. F.; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Neutrinos interact only very weakly, so they are extremely penetrating. The theoretical neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section, however, increases with increasing neutrino energy, and neutrinos with energies above 40 teraelectronvolts (TeV) are expected to be absorbed as they pass through the Earth. Experimentally, the cross-section has been determined only at the relatively low energies (below 0.4 TeV) that are available at neutrino beams from accelerators. Here we report a measurement of neutrino absorption by the Earth using a sample of 10,784 energetic upward-going neutrino-induced muons. The flux of high-energy neutrinos transiting long paths through the Earth is attenuated compared to a reference sample that follows shorter trajectories. Using a fit to the two-dimensional distribution of muon energy and zenith angle, we determine the neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section for neutrino energies 6.3-980 TeV, more than an order of magnitude higher than previous measurements. The measured cross-section is about 1.3 times the prediction of the standard model, consistent with the expectations for charged- and neutral-current interactions. We do not observe a large increase in the cross-section with neutrino energy, in contrast with the predictions of some theoretical models, including those invoking more compact spatial dimensions or the production of leptoquarks. This cross-section measurement can be used to set limits on the existence of some hypothesized beyond-standard-model particles, including leptoquarks.

  7. A Survey of Radiation Measurements Made Aboard Russian Spacecraft in Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate prediction of ionizing radiation exposure in low-Earth orbit is necessary in order to minimize risks to astronauts, spacecraft and instrumentation. To this end, models of the radiation environment, the AP-8 trapped proton model and the AE-8 trapped electron model, have been developed for use by spacecraft designers and mission planners. It has been widely acknowledged for some time now by the space radiation community that these models possess some major shortcomings. Both models cover only a limited trapped particle energy region and predictions at low altitudes are extrapolated from higher altitude data. With the launch of the first components of the International Space Station with numerous constellations of low-Earth orbit communications satellites now being planned and deployed, the inadequacies of these trapped particle models need to be addressed. Efforts are now underway both in the U.S. and in Europe to refine the AP-8 and AE-8 trapped particle models. This report is an attempt to collect a significant fraction of data for use in validation of trapped radiation models at low altitudes.

  8. STABILIZATION OF SPIDER CRAB NERVE MEMBRANES BY ALKALINE EARTHS, AS MANIFESTED IN RESTING POTENTIAL MEASUREMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Rita

    1940-01-01

    1. The alkaline earths, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Mg, in isotonic solutions of their chlorides, have, in general, no effect upon the resting potential of non-medullated spider crab nerve. 2. Ba, Sr, and Ca can, however, prevent the depressing action of K upon the resting potential. The order of effectiveness of these ions in this regard is the following: Ba > Sr > Ca. 3. Ba, Sr, Ca, and Mg oppose the depressing action of veratrine sulfate upon the resting potential. The order of effectiveness is Ba > Sr > Ca > Mg. The relation between drop in potential caused by veratrine sulfate and the logarithm of the veratrine sulfate concentration is a linear one. 4. The action of various other organic ions and molecules which depress the resting potential: saponin, amyl urethane, chloral hydrate, and Na salicylate is neutralized by Ba. 5. Hypertonic sea water solutions do not affect the resting potential. Also, preliminary experiments indicate that the nerves do not shrink in hypertonic solutions although they swell in hypotonic sea water. 6. The alkaline earths depress excitability reversibly. The various organic agents which depress the resting potential also depress excitability, in most cases, reversibly, but the concentrations necessary to depress excitability are much smaller than those necessary to depress the resting potential. 7. The relation of these findings to theories put forward as possible explanations of resting potential phenomena is considered. PMID:19873160

  9. Charge transfer in rare earth oxide hybrid solar cells revealed through ultrafast spectroscopic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Bill; Fernando, Kasun; Alphenaar, Bruce; Liu, Jinjun

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells typically combine a transition metal oxide (such as TiO2) and organic dye or polymer absorber to form the donor acceptor pair. Here, Oxidized neodymium (Nd2O3) particles are combined with [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to form the active layer of a bulk heterojunction solar cell. The addition of the Nd2O3 results in an enhancement in the short circuit current and open circuit voltage compared to pure PCBM. We also studied the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcitation in pristine PCBM film, and their blends with the rare earth oxide neodymium particles using the pump-probe photomodulation (PM) spectroscopy with ~30 fs time resolution. Our transient PM spectrum covers spectral range of 430 nm to 730 nm. Although the spectra of Nd2O3/PCBM are very similar with pristine PCBM, the recombination kinetics of photogenerated excitons decay rate increases with the addition of Nd2O3, and ground state photobleaching is also observed. Taken together this provides evidence for the charge transfer between the organic and rare earth inorganic components. Supported by the DOE-EPSCoR fund DOE BES (DE-FG02-07ER46375) at University of Louisville.

  10. Data List - Specifying and Acquiring Earth Science Data Measurements All at Once

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C. L.; Teng, W. L.; Liu, Z.; Hearty, T. J., III; Shen, S.; Li, A.; Hegde, M.; Bryant, K.; Seiler, E.; Kempler, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Natural phenomena, such as tropical storms (e.g., hurricane/typhoons), winter storms (e.g., blizzards) volcanic eruptions, floods, and drought, have the potential to cause immense property damage, great socioeconomic impact, and tragic losses of human life. In order to investigate and assess these natural hazards in a timely manner, there needs to be efficient searching and accessing of massive amounts of heterogeneous scientific data from, particularly, satellite and model products. This is a daunting task for most application users, decision makers, and science researchers. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has, for many years, archived and served massive amounts of Earth science data, along with value-added information and services. In order to facilitate the GES DISC users in acquiring their data of interest "all at once," with minimum effort, the GES DISC has started developing a value-added and knowledge-based data service framework. This framework allows the preparation and presentation to users of collections of data and their related resources for natural disaster events or other scientific themes. These collections of data, initially termed "Data Bundle" and then "Virtual Collections" and finally "Data Lists," contain suites of annotated Web addresses (URLs) that point to their respective data and resource addresses, "all at once" and "virtually." Because these collections of data are virtual, there is no need to duplicate the data. Currently available "Data Lists" for several natural disaster phenomena and the architecture of the data service framework will be presented.

  11. MAVEN-Measured Meteoritic Ions on Mars - Tracers of Lower Ionosphere Processes With and Without Analogues On Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benna, M.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Collinson, G.; Plane, J. M. C.; Mitchell, D.; Srivastava, N.

    2017-12-01

    MAVEN observations of meteoritic metal ion populations during "deep dip" campaigns at Mars have revealed unique non-Earth like behavior that are not yet understood. These deep dip campaigns (6 so far) consisted each of more than a score of repeated orbits through the Martian molecular-ion-dominated lower ionosphere, whose terrestrial parallel (Earth's E-region) has been rather sparcely surveyed in situ by sounding rockets. In regions of weak Mars magnetic fields, MAVEN found ordered exponentially decreasing metal ion concentrations above the altitude of peak meteor ablation. Such an ordered trend has never been observed on Earth. Isolated anomalous high-altitude layers in the metal ion are also encountered, typically on deep dip campaigns in the southern hemisphere where large localized surface remanent magnetic fields prevail. The source of these anomalous layers is not yet evident, although the occurrences of some high-altitude metal ion enhancements were in regions with measured perturbed magnetic fields, indicative of localized electrical currents. Further investigation shows that those currents are also sometimes associated with superthermal/energetic electron bursts offering evidence that that impact ionization of neutral metal populations persisting at high altitudes are the source of metal ion enhancement - a rather difficult assumption to accept far above the ablation region where the metal neutrals are deposited. The relationship of the anomalous layers to the coincident electron populations as well as to the orientation of the magnetic fields which can play a role in the neutral wind generated ion convergences as on Earth is investigated.

  12. Effective method of measuring the radioactivity of [ 131I]‐capsule prior to radioiodine therapy with significant reduction of the radiation exposure to the medical staff

    PubMed Central

    Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Marx, Marlies; Imme, Thea; Assam, Isong; Siebert, Frank‐Andre; Culman, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radio Oncology is of the utmost importance. Radioiodine therapy is a frequently used and effective method for the treatment of thyroid disease. Prior to each therapy the radioactivity of the [ 131I]‐capsule must be determined to prevent misadministration. This leads to a significant radiation exposure to the staff. We describe an alternative method, allowing a considerable reduction of the radiation exposure. Two [ 131I]‐capsules (A01=2818.5; A02=73.55.0 MBq) were measured multiple times in their own delivery lead containers — that is to say, [ 131I]‐capsules remain inside the containers during the measurements (shielded measurement) using a dose calibrator and a well‐type and a thyroid uptake probe. The results of the shielded measurements were correlated linearly with the [ 131I]‐capsules radioactivity to create calibration curves for the used devices. Additional radioactivity measurements of 50 [ 131I]‐capsules of different radioactivities were done to validate the shielded measuring method. The personal skin dose rate (HP(0.07)) was determined using calibrated thermo luminescent dosimeters. The determination coefficients for the calibration curves were R2>0.9980 for all devices. The relative uncertainty of the shielded measurement was <6.8%. At a distance of 10 cm from the unshielded capsule the HP(0.07) was 46.18 μSv/(GBq⋅s), and on the surface of the lead container containing the [ 131I]‐capsule the HP(0.07) was 2.99 and 0.27 μSv/(GBq⋅s) for the two used container sizes. The calculated reduction of the effective dose by using the shielded measuring method was, depending on the used container size, 74.0% and 97.4%, compared to the measurement of the unshielded [ 131I]‐capsule using a dose calibrator. The measured reduction of the effective radiation dose in the practice was 56.6% and 94.9 for size I and size II containers. The shielded [ 131I

  13. Implications of ground-deformation measurements across earth fissures in subsidence areas in the southwestern USA

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Ground deformation was monitored at earth fissures in areas of land subsidence induced by groundwater extraction in the southwestern United States. The ground deformation is consistent with the mechanism that fissures are caused by horizontal strains generated by bending of overburden in response to localized differential compaction. Subsidence profiles indicated that localized differential subsidence occurred across the fissures and that maximum convex-upward curvature was at the fissure. The overall shape of the profile stayed similar with time, and maximum curvature remained stationary at the fissure. Horizontal displacements were largest near the fissure, and generally were small to negligible away from the fissure. Maximum tensile horizontal strains were at the fissure and coincided with maximum curvature in the subsidence profiles. Horizontal tensile strain continued to accumulate at fissures after they formed with rates of opening ranging from 30 to 120 microstrain/year at fissures in Arizona.

  14. Study on multi-satellite, multi-measurement of the structure of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The pulsation model of the earth's bow shock proposed a nonuniform shock having both perpendicular (abrupt, monotonic) and oblique (oscillatory, multigradient) properties simultaneously, depending on local orientation of the shock surface to the interplanetary field B sub sw in parallel planes defined by B sub sw and solar wind velocity. Multiple, concurrent, satellite observations of the shock and solar wind conditions were used. Twenty-six potentially useful intervals of concurrent Explorer 33 and 35 data acquisition were examined, of which six were selected for closer study. In addition, two years of OGO-5 and HEOS 1 magnetometer data were examined for possible conjunctions to these spacecraft having applicable data. One case of clear nonuniformity and several of field-dependent structure were documented. A computational aid, called pulsation index, was developed.

  15. Improved vertical optical fiber borehole strainmeter design for measuring Earth strain.

    PubMed

    DeWolf, Scott; Wyatt, Frank K; Zumberge, Mark A; Hatfield, William

    2015-11-01

    Fiber-based interferometers provide the means to sense very small displacements over long baselines, and have the advantage of being nearly completely passive in their operation, making them particularly well suited for geophysical applications. A new 250 m, interferometric vertical borehole strainmeter has been developed based completely on passive optical components. Details of the design and deployment at the Piñon Flat Observatory are presented. Power spectra show an intertidal noise level of -130 dB (re. 1 ϵ(2)/Hz), consistent within 1-3 dB between redundant components. Examination of its response to Earth tides and earthquakes relative to the areal strain recorded by an orthogonal pair of collocated, 730 m horizontal laser strainmeters yield a Poisson's ratio for local near surface material of 0.25 that is consistent with previous results.

  16. MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M. (Editor); Haberle, Robert M. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The workshop was held to discuss a variety of questions related to the detection and cycling of atmospheric water. Among the questions addressed were: what factors govern the storage and exchange of water between planetary surfaces and atmospheres; what instruments are best suited for the measurement and mapping of atmospheric water; do regolith sources and sinks of water have uniquely identifiable column abundance signatures; what degree of time and spatial resolution in column abundance data is necessary to determine dynamic behavior. Of special importance is the question, does the understanding of how atmospheric water is cycled on Earth provide any insights for the interpretation of Mars atmospheric data.

  17. Measures to restore metallurgical mine wasteland using ecological restoration technologies: A case study at Longnan Rare Earth Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yunzhang; Gu, Ruizhi; Guo, Ruikai; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Whereas mining activities produce the raw materials that are crucial to economic growth, such activities leave extensive scarring on the land, contributing to the waste of valuable land resources and upsetting the ecological environment. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate various ecological technologies to restore metallurgical mine wastelands. These technologies include measures such as soil amelioration, vegetation restoration, different vegetation planting patterns, and engineering technologies. The Longnan Rare Earth Mine in the Jiangxi Province of China is used as the case study. The ecological restoration process provides a favourable reference for the restoration of a metallurgical mine wasteland.

  18. Measuring river from the cloud - River width algorithm development on Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.; Donchyts, G.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers are some of the most dynamic features of the terrestrial land surface. They help distribute freshwater, nutrients, sediment, and they are also responsible for some of the greatest natural hazards. Despite their importance, our understanding of river behavior is limited at the global scale, in part because we do not have a river observational dataset that spans both time and space. Remote sensing data represent a rich, largely untapped resource for observing river dynamics. In particular, publicly accessible archives of satellite optical imagery, which date back to the 1970s, can be used to study the planview morphodynamics of rivers at the global scale. Here we present an image processing algorithm developed using the Google Earth Engine cloud-based platform, that can automatically extracts river centerlines and widths from Landsat 5, 7, and 8 scenes at 30 m resolution. Our algorithm makes use of the latest monthly global surface water history dataset and an existing Global River Width from Landsat (GRWL) dataset to efficiently extract river masks from each Landsat scene. Then a combination of distance transform and skeletonization techniques are used to extract river centerlines. Finally, our algorithm calculates wetted river width at each centerline pixel perpendicular to its local centerline direction. We validated this algorithm using in situ data estimated from 16 USGS gauge stations (N=1781). We find that 92% of the width differences are within 60 m (i.e. the minimum length of 2 Landsat pixels). Leveraging Earth Engine's infrastructure of collocated data and processing power, our goal is to use this algorithm to reconstruct the morphodynamic history of rivers globally by processing over 100,000 Landsat 5 scenes, covering from 1984 to 2013.

  19. Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

  20. Radioactivity in the Kuwait marine environment--Baseline measurements and review.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Fowler, S W; Behbehani, M; Ismaeel, A; Al-Shammari, H; Alboloushi, A; Mietelski, J W; Al-Ghadban, A; Al-Ghunaim, A; Khabbaz, A; Alboloushi, O

    2015-11-30

    The Arabian Gulf region is moving towards a nuclear energy option with the first nuclear power plant now operational in Bushehr, Iran, and others soon to be constructed in Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia. Radiological safety is becoming a prime concern in the region. This study compiles available data and presents recent radionuclide data for the northern Gulf waters, considered as pre-nuclear which will be a valuable dataset for future monitoring work in this region. Radionuclide monitoring in the marine environment is a matter of prime concern for Kuwait, and an assessment of the potential impact of radionuclides requires the establishment and regular updating of baseline levels of artificial and natural radionuclides in various environmental compartments. Here we present baseline measurements for (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (3)H in Kuwait waters. The seawater concentration of (3)H, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr vary between 130-146, 0.48-0.68, 0.75-0.89, 1.25-1.38 and 0.57-0.78 mBq L(-1), respectively. The (40)K concentration in seawater varies between 8.9-9.3 Bq L(-1). The concentration of (40)K, total (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (239+240)Pu and (238)Pu were determined in sediments and range, respectively, between 353-445, 23.6-44.3, 1.0-3.1, 4.8-5.29, 17.3-20.5, 15-16.4, 28.7-31.4, 1.26-1.30, 29.7-30.0, 0.045-0.21 and 0.028-0.03 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. Since, radionuclides are concentrated in marine biota, a large number of marine biota samples covering several trophic levels, from microalgae to sharks, were analyzed. The whole fish concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (228)Ra, (137)Cs, (210)Po and (90)Sr range between 230-447, 0.7-7.3, <0.5-6.6, <0.5-15.80, <0.17, 0.88-4.26 and 1.86-5.34 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. (210)Po was found to be highly concentrated in several marine organisms with the highest (210)Po concentration found in Marica marmorata (193.5-215.6 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). (210)Po in

  1. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  2. The Earth's Mantle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and dynamics of the earth's mantle is discussed. Research indicates that the silicate mantle is heated by the decay of radioactive isotopes and that the heat energizes massive convention currents in the upper 700 kilometers of the ductile rock. These currents and their consequences are considered. (JN)

  3. Peak Satellite-to-Earth Data Rates Derived From Measurements of a 20 Gbps Bread-Board Modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landon, David G.; Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Sun, Jun Y.; Winn, James S.; Laraway, Stephen A.; McIntire, William K.; Metz, John L.; Smith, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    A prototype data link using a Ka-band space qualified, high efficiency 200 W TWT amplifier and a bread-board modem emulator were created to explore the feasibility of very high speed communications in satellite-to-earth applications. Experiments were conducted using a DVB-S2-like waveform with modifications to support up to 20 Gbps through the addition of 128-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Limited by the bandwidth of the amplifier, a constant peak symbol rate of 3.2 Giga-symbols/sec was selected and the modulation order was varied to explore what peak data rate might be supported by an RF link through this amplifier. Using 128-QAM, an implementation loss of 3 dB was observed at 20 Gbps, and the loss decreased as data rate or bandwidth were reduced. Building on this measured data, realistic link budget calculations were completed. Low-Earth orbit (LEO) missions based on this TWTA with reasonable hardware assumptions and antenna sizing are found to be bandwidth-limited, rather than power-limited, making the spectral efficiency of 9/10-rate encoded 128-QAM very attractive. Assuming a bandwidth allocation of 1 GHz, these computations indicate that low-Earth orbit vehicles could achieve data rates up to 5 Gbps-an order of magnitude beyond the current state-of-practice, yet still within the processing power of a current FPGA-based software-defined modem. The measured performance results and a description of the experimental setup are presented to support these conclusions.

  4. Measurement of diurnal and semidiurnal rotational variations and tidal parameters of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Thomas A.; Dong, Danan

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the determination of diurnal and semidiurnal variations in the rotation rate and the direction of rotation axis of Earth from the analysis of 8 years of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data. This analysis clearly show that these variations are largely periodic and tidally driven; that is, the periods of the variations correspond to the periods of the largest lunar and solar tides. For rotation rate variations, expressed in terms of changes in universal time (UT), the tidal lines with the largest observed signals are O1 (amplitude 23.5 microseconds in time (microseconds), period 25.82 solar hours); KL (18.9 microseconds, 23.93 hours); M2 (17.9 microseconds, 12.54 hours); and S2 (8.6 microseconds, 12.00 hours). For variations in the direction of the rotation axis (polar motion), significant signals exist in the retrograde semidiurnal band at the M2 and S2 tides (amplitudes 265 and 119 microarc seconds (microarc seconds, respectively); the prograde diurnal band at the O1, K1, and P1 tides (amplitudes 199, 152, and 60 microarc seconds, respectively); and the prograde semidiurnal band at the M2 and K2 tides (amplitudes 58 and 39 microarc seconds, respectively). Variations in the retrograde diurnal band are represented by corrections with previous estimates except that a previously noted discrepancy in the 13.66-day nutation (corresponding to the O1 tide) is largely removed in this new analysis. We estimate that the standard deviations of these estimates are 1.0 microseconds for the UT1 variations and 14-16 microarc seconds for the polar motion terms. These uncertainties correspond to surface displacements of approximately 0.5 mm. From the analysis of atmospheric angular momentum data we conclude that variations in UT1 excited by the atmosphere with subdaily periods are small (approximately 1 microsecond). We find that the average radial tidal displacements of the VLBI sites in the diurnal band are largely consistent with known deficiencies in current

  5. Digital Earth Watch And Picture Post Network: Measuring The Environment Through Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloss, A. L.; Beaudry, J.; Carrera, F.; Pickle, J.

    2010-12-01

    Digital Earth Watch (DEW) involves individuals, schools, organizations and communities in a systematic monitoring project of their local environment, especially vegetation health. The program offers people the means to join the Picture Post network and to study and analyze their own findings using DEW software. A Picture Post is an easy-to-use and inexpensive platform for repeatedly taking digital photographs as a standardized set of images of the entire 360 ° landscape, which then can be shared over the Internet on the Picture Post website. This simple concept has the potential to create a wealth of information and data on changing environmental conditions, which is important for a society grappling with the effects of environmental change. Picture Post participants study change over time in their local area, compare digital images with NASA satellite imagery and contribute towards improving their own communities. A key message in DEW is that although plants are dynamic and respond continuously to their environment, they do so either on a time-scale that most people don't notice or with a subtlety our senses can't detect. DEW has created simple tools for monitoring vegetation as a means towards understanding the connection between global climate change and local effects. Picture Posts may be added by anyone interested in monitoring a particular location. The value of a Picture Post is in the commitment of participants to take repeated photographs - monthly, weekly, or even daily - to build up a long-term record over many years. DEW is being developed by a collaborative effort led by the University of New Hampshire with the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners, the University of Southern Maine, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. This poster will show examples of picture posts and data that can be collected and will describe our soon-to-be-released “ virtual ” picture post cell phone app. The Picture Post network is new and we invite individuals

  6. From digital earth to digital neighbourhood: A study of subjective measures of walkability attributes in objectively assessed digital neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S.; Ho, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    According to IEA report (2011), about 23% of the World's CO2 emissions result from transport and this is one of the few areas where emissions are still rapidly increasing. The use of private vehicles is one of the principle contributors to green house gas emissions from transport sector. Therefore this paper focuses on the shift to more sustainable and low carbon forms of transportation mode such as walking. Neighbourhood built environment attributes may influence walkability. For this study, the author used a modified version of the "Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale" to make comparison between respondents' perceptions regarding attributes of two neighborhoods of Putrajaya. The 21st Century really needs planners to use the Digital Earth Concept, to go from global to regional to national to very local issues, using integrated, advanced technologies such as earth observation, GIS, virtual reality, etc. For this research, two (2) neighborhoods of different densities (High and Low density) were selected. A sample total of 381(195 and 186) between 7 to 65 years old participants were selected For subjective measures we used 54 questions questionnaire survey where as for the objective measures we used desktop 9.3 version of Arc GIS soft ware. Our results shows that respondents who reside in high-walkable neighbourhood precinct 9 in Putrajaya rated factors such as residential density, land use mix, proximity to destination and street connectivity, consistently higher then did respondents of the low walkable neighbourhood precinct 8 in Putrajaya.

  7. Comparison between the Juno Earth flyby magnetic measurements and the magnetometer package on the IRIS solar observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merayo, J. M.; Connerney, J. E.; Joergensen, J. L.; Dougherty, B.

    2013-12-01

    In October 2013 the NASA's Juno New Frontier spacecraft will perform an Earth Flyby Gravity Assist. During this flyby, Juno will reach an altitude of about 600 km and the magnetometer experiment will measure the magnetic field with very high precision. In June 2013 the NASA's IRIS solar observatory was successfully launched. IRIS uses a very fine guiding telescope in order to maintain a high pointing accuracy, assisted by a very high accuracy star tracker and a science grade vector magnetometer. IRIS was placed into a Sun-synchronous orbit at about 600 km altitude by a Pegasus rocket from the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. This platform will also allow to performing measurements of the Earth's magnetic field with very high precision, since it carries similar instrumentation as on the Swarm satellites (star trackers and magnetometer). The data recorded by the Juno magnetic experiment and the IRIS magnetometer will bring a very exciting opportunity for comparing the two experiments as well as for determining current structures during the flyby.

  8. Digital Earth Watch And Picture Post Network: Measuring The Environment Through Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloss, A. L.; Beaudry, J.; Pickle, J.; Carrera, F.

    2012-12-01

    Digital Earth Watch (DEW) involves individuals, schools, organizations and communities in a systematic monitoring project of their local environment, especially vegetation health. The program offers people the means to join the Picture Post network and to study and analyze their own findings using DEW software. A Picture Post is an easy-to-use and inexpensive platform for repeatedly taking digital photographs as a standardized set of images of the entire 360° landscape, which then can be shared over the Internet on the Picture Post website. This simple concept has the potential to create a wealth of information and data on changing environmental conditions, which is important for a society grappling with the effects of environmental change. Picture Posts may be added by anyone interested in monitoring a particular location. The value of a Picture Post is in the commitment of participants to take repeated photographs - monthly, weekly, or even daily - to build up a long-term record over many years. This poster will show examples of Picture Post pictures being used for monitoring and research applications, and a DEW mobile app for capturing repeat digital photographs at a virtual post. We invite individuals, schools, informal education centers, groups and communities to join.; A new post and its website. ; Creating a virtual post using the mobile app.

  9. Visual Earth observation performance in the space environment. Human performance measurement 4: Flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, John F.; Whiteley, James D.; Hawker, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of secondary payloads have flown on the Space Transportation System (STS) since its first flight in the 1980's. These experiments have typically addressed specific issues unique to the zero-gravity environment. Additionally, the experiments use the experience and skills of the mission and payload specialist crew members to facilitate data collection and ensure successful completion. This paper presents the results of the Terra Scout experiment, which flew aboard STS-44 in November 1991. This unique Earth Observation experiment specifically required a career imagery analyst to operate the Spaceborne Direct-View Optical System (SpaDVOS), a folded optical path telescope system designed to mount inside the shuttle on the overhead aft flight deck windows. Binoculars and a small telescope were used as backup optics. Using his imagery background, coupled with extensive target and equipment training, the payload specialist was tasked with documenting the following: (1) the utility of the equipment; (2) his ability to acquire and track ground targets; (3) the level of detail he could discern; (4) the atmospheric conditions; and (5) other in-situ elements which contributed to or detracted from his ability to analyze targets. Special emphasis was placed on the utility of a manned platform for research and development of future spaceborne sensors. The results and lessons learned from Terra Scout will be addressed including human performance and equipment design issues.

  10. Ground-Support Algorithms for Simulation, Processing, and Calibration of Barnes Static Earth Sensor Measurements: Applications to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natanson, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    New algorithms are described covering the simulation, processing, and calibration of penetration angles of the Barnes static Earth sensor assembly (SESA) as implemented in the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Division ground support system for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Observatory. The new treatment involves a detailed analysis of the measurements by individual quadrants. It is shown that, to a good approximation, individual quadrant misalignments can be treated simply as penetration angle biases. Simple formulas suitable for real-time applications are introduced for computing quadrant-dependent effects. The simulator generates penetration angles by solving a quadratic equation with coefficients uniquely determined by the spacecraft's position and the quadrant's orientation in GeoCentric Inertial (GCI) coordinates. Measurement processing for attitude determination is based on linearized equations obtained by expanding the coefficients of the aforementioned quadratic equation as a Taylor series in both the Earth oblateness coefficient (alpha approx. 1/150) and the angle between the pointing axis and the geodetic nadir vector. A simple formula relating a measured value of the penetration angle to the deviation of the Earth-pointed axis from the geodetic nadir vector is derived. It is shown that even near the very edge of the quadrant's Field Of View (FOV), attitude errors resulting from quadratic effects are a few hundredths of a degree, which is small compared to the attitude determination accuracy requirement (0.18 degree, 3 sigma) of TRMM. Calibration of SESA measurements is complicated by a first-order filtering used in the TRMM onboard algorithm to compute penetration angles from raw voltages. A simple calibration scheme is introduced where these complications are avoided by treating penetration angles as the primary raw measurements, which are adjusted using biases and scale factors. In addition to three misalignment parameters

  11. Radiation budget and related measurements in 1985 and beyond. [earth radiation budget satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Development of systems for obtaining radiation budget and cloud data is discussed. Instruments for measuring total solar irradiance, total infrared flux, reflected solar flux, and cloud heights and properties are considered. Other topics discussed include sampling by multiple satellites, user identification, and determination of the parameters that need to be measured.

  12. Measuring and Modeling the Earth's Gravity - Introduction to Ground-Based Gravity Surveys and Analysis of Local Gravity Data

    SciT

    Rowe, Charlotte Anne

    We can measure changes in gravity from place to place on the earth. These measurements require careful recording of location, elevation and time for each reading. These readings must be adjusted for known effects (such as elevation, latitude, tides) that can bias our data and mask the signal of interest. After making corrections to our data, we can remove regional trends to obtain local Bouguer anomalies. The Bouguer anomalies arise from variations in the subsurface density structure. We can build models to explain our observations, but these models must be consistent with what is known about the local geology. Combiningmore » gravity models with other information – geologic, seismic, electromagnetic, will improve confidence in the results.« less

  13. Evolution of collectivity near mid-shell from excited-state lifetime measurements in rare earth nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, V.; Cooper, N.; Régis, J.-M.; Rudigier, M.; Williams, E.; Jolie, J.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Ahn, T.; Anagnostatou, V.; Berant, Z.; Bonett-Matiz, M.; Elvers, M.; Heinz, A.; Ilie, G.; Radeck, D.; Savran, D.; Smith, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    The B (E 2 ) excitation strength of the first excited 2+ state in even-even nuclei should directly correlate with the size of the valence space and maximize at mid-shell. A previously found saturation of B (E 2 ) strengths in well-deformed rotors at mid-shell is tested through high-precision measurements of the lifetimes of the lowest-lying 2+ states of the 168Hf and 174W rare earth isotopes. Measurements were performed using fast LaBr3 scintillation detectors. Combined with the recently remeasured B (E 2 ;21+→01+) values for Hf and W isotopes the new data remove discrepancies observed in the differentials of B (E 2 ) values for these isotopes.

  14. Experimental and Monte Carlo measurements of dose perturbation around a non-radioactive brachytherapy seed in external beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, James P.

    I-125 seeds used in permanent prostate brachytherapy are composed of high-Z metals and may number from 40 to over 100 in a typical implant. If any supplemental external beam treatment is administered afterward (as for salvaging failed brachytherapy treatment), it is possible that the seeds may cause substantial dose perturbation which will depend on numerous factors (photon energy, depth, field size, number of seeds, etc.) and this effect needs to be thoroughly investigated. Film measurements were primarily done using Kodak XV2 layered above and below a non-radioactive I-125 seed placed in a groove on a Lucite plate with 5 cm buildup and 10 cm backscatter added at 95 cm SSD. The phantom was irradiated with and without seed with 6 MV photons for a 1 x 1 cm2 field size. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using DOSXYZnrc using the same parameters and compared with Gafchromic EBT2 film. Other comparisons looked at changing energy, depth, and field size in both with and without seeds configuration. This study was further extended to include metals of various Z of the seed's dimensions and also looked into effect of 3 seeds spaced 0.5 cm vertically. Another measurement was done using two opposing fields using single as well as 3 seed configuration to see whether the dose enhancement and attenuation cancel out in multi-field treatments which is the norm clinically in a prostate treatment. For a single I-125 seed, on XV film a localized dose enhancement of 6.3% upstream and -10.9% downstream was noticed. With three seeds, this effect did not change. With two opposing fields, a cold spot around the seed of ~3% was noticed from film measurements. Increasing energy and field size decreased the effect while increase in Z of material greatly increased the effect. Increasing depth appeared to have no effect. DOSXYZnrc and EBT2 film verified maximum dose enhancement of +15% upstream and -20% downstream of the I-125 seed surface. In general, the range of the effect was

  15. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  16. NASA Earth Remote Sensing Programs: An Overview with Special Emphasis on the NASA/JAXA Led Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of NASA's operations monitoring the earth from space. It includes information on NASA's administrative divisions and key operating earth science missions with specific information on the Landsat satellites, Seastar spacecraft, and the TRMM satellite.

  17. Orbital measurements of the Earth's radiation budget during the first decade of the space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandeen, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The instrumentation and data analysis methods applied to data from the Explorer 7, TIROS 2, 3, 4, and 7, and Nimbus 2 and 3 experimental satellites are summarized. Problems encountered in analyzing these data included: determining the value of the solar constant, inaccuracies introduced by degradation of the sensors in orbit, the need to infer the total reflected and emitted radiation from filtered measurements, the development of corrections for anisotropy in order to determine the outgoing flux densities at the moment of measurement, and the development of corrections to account for diurnal variability. The corrections for long- and shortwave anisotropy and historical determinations of the solar constant and albedo are treated in detail. These early measurements indicated that the planetary albedo was lower, the emitted radiation higher, and the equator-to-pole gradient of net radiation greater than previously supposed.

  18. Measurement of the PPN parameter γ by testing the geometry of near-Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jie; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Dian-Hong; Qin, Cheng-Gang; Shao, Cheng-Gang

    2016-06-01

    The Beyond Einstein Advanced Coherent Optical Network (BEACON) mission was designed to achieve an accuracy of 10^{-9} in measuring the Eddington parameter γ , which is perhaps the most fundamental Parameterized Post-Newtonian parameter. However, this ideal accuracy was just estimated as a ratio of the measurement accuracy of the inter-spacecraft distances to the magnitude of the departure from Euclidean geometry. Based on the BEACON concept, we construct a measurement model to estimate the parameter γ with the least squares method. Influences of the measurement noise and the out-of-plane error on the estimation accuracy are evaluated based on the white noise model. Though the BEACON mission does not require expensive drag-free systems and avoids physical dynamical models of spacecraft, the relatively low accuracy of initial inter-spacecraft distances poses a great challenge, which reduces the estimation accuracy in about two orders of magnitude. Thus the noise requirements may need to be more stringent in the design in order to achieve the target accuracy, which is demonstrated in the work. Considering that, we have given the limits on the power spectral density of both noise sources for the accuracy of 10^{-9}.

  19. Penning Trap Experiments with the Most Exotic Nuclei on Earth: Precision Mass Measurements of Halo Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Lapierre, A.; Ringle, R.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.

    2009-05-01

    Exotic nuclei are characterized with an extremely unbalanced protons-neutrons ratio (p/n) where for instance, the halo isotopes of He and Li have up to 3X more n than p (compared to p/n = 1 in ^12C). The properties of these exotic halo nuclei have long been recognized as the most stringent tests of our understanding of the strong force. ^11Li belongs to a special category of halos called Borromean, bound as a three-body family, while the two-body siblings, ^10Li and 2 n, are unbound as separate entities. Last year, a first mass measurement of the radioisotope ^11Li using a Penning trap spectrometer was carried out at the TITAN (Triumf's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science) facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. Penning traps are proven to be the most precise device to make mass measurements, yet until now they were unable to reach these nuclei. At TRIUMF we managed to measure the mass of ^11Li to an unprecedented precision of dm/m = 60 ppb, which is remarkable since it has a half-life of only 8.8 ms which it the shortest-lived nuclide to be measured with this technique. Furthermore, new and improved masses for the 2 and 4 n halo ^6,8He, as well has the 1 n halo ^11Be have been performed. An overview of the TITAN mass measurement program and its impact in understanding the most exotic nuclei will be given.

  20. Radiometric Measurement Comparisons Using Transfer Radiometers in Support of the Calibration of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Brown, Steven W.; Yoon, Howard W.; Barnes, Robert A.; Markham, Brian L.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Spyak, Paul R.; Cooper, John W.; hide

    1999-01-01

    EOS satellite instruments operating in the visible through the shortwave infrared wavelength regions (from 0.4 micrometers to 2.5 micrometers) are calibrated prior to flight for radiance response using integrating spheres at a number of instrument builder facilities. The traceability of the radiance produced by these spheres with respect to international standards is the responsibility of the instrument builder, and different calibration techniques are employed by those builders. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Observing System (EOS) Project Science Office, realizing the importance of preflight calibration and cross-calibration, has sponsored a number of radiometric measurement comparisons, the main purpose of which is to validate the radiometric scale assigned to the integrating spheres by the instrument builders. This paper describes the radiometric measurement comparisons, the use of stable transfer radiometers to perform the measurements, and the measurement approaches and protocols used to validate integrating sphere radiances. Stable transfer radiometers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center Remote Sensing Group, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan, have participated in these comparisons. The approaches used in the comparisons include the measurement of multiple integrating sphere lamp levels, repeat measurements of select lamp levels, the use of the stable radiometers as external sphere monitors, and the rapid reporting of measurement results. Results from several comparisons are presented. The absolute radiometric calibration standard uncertainties required by the EOS satellite instruments are typically in the +/- 3% to +/- 5% range. Preliminary results reported during eleven radiometric measurement comparisons held between February 1995 and May 1998 have shown the radiance of integrating spheres

  1. Transmittance Measurement of a Heliostat Facility used in the Preflight Radiometric Calibration of Earth-Observing Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Anderson, N.; McCorkel, J.; Leisso, N.; Good, W.; Collins, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has developed a heliostat facility that will be used to determine the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors that operate in the solar-reflective regime. While automatically tracking the Sun, the heliostat directs the solar beam inside a thermal vacuum chamber, where the sensor under test resides. The main advantage to using the Sun as the illumination source for preflight radiometric calibration is because it will also be the source of illumination when the sensor is in flight. This minimizes errors in the pre- and post-launch calibration due to spectral mismatches. It also allows the instrument under test to operate at irradiance values similar to those on orbit. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona measured the transmittance of the heliostat facility using three methods, the first of which is a relative measurement made using a hyperspectral portable spectroradiometer and well-calibrated reference panel. The second method is also a relative measurement, and uses a 12-channel automated solar radiometer. The final method is an absolute measurement using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer and reference panel combination, where the spectroradiometer is calibrated on site using a solar-radiation-based calibration.

  2. Sensitive Technique Developed Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low-Earth-Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim D.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne; Youngstrom, Erica; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth; Marx, Laura

    2001-01-01

    A recession measurement technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to determine the atomic oxygen durability of polymers exposed to the space environment for short durations. Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene, DuPont) are commonly used in spacecraft because of their desirable properties, such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low- Earth-orbit environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen, resulting in erosion and potential structural loss. It is, therefore, important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data are rare and very costly, short-term exposures, such as on the space shuttles, are often relied on for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass-loss measurements. For limited-duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle flight experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass-loss measurements are not sensitive enough. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed at Glenn to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences.

  3. Simultaneous measurements of L- and S-band tree shadowing for space-Earth communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.; Lin, Hsin P.

    1995-01-01

    We present results from simultaneous L- and S-Band slant-path fade measurements through trees. One circularly-polarized antenna was used at each end of the dual-frequency link to provide information on the correlation of tree shadowing at 1620 and 2500 MHz. Fades were measured laterally in the shadow region with 5 cm spacing. Fade differences between L- and S-Band had a normal distribution with low means and standard deviations from 5.2 to 7.5 dB. Spatial variations occurred with periods larger than 1-2 wavelengths. Swept measurements over 160 MHz spans showed that the stdv. of power as function of frequency increased from approximately 1-6 dB at locations with mean fades of 4 and 20 dB, respectively. At a 5 dB fade, the central 90% of fade slopes were within a range of 0.7 (1.9) dB/MHz at L-(S-) Band.

  4. Earth strain measurements with the transportable laser ranging system: Field techniques and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Dorman, H. J.; Cahill, T.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of the transportable laser ranging system for monitoring the ground deformation around satellite ranging stations and other geodetic control points was examined with emphasis on testing the usefulness of the relative alteration technique. The temporal variation of the ratio of the length of each survey line to the mean length of all survey lines in a given area is directly related to the mean shear strain rate for the area. The data from a series of experimental measurements taken over the Los Angeles basin from a TLRS station at Mt. Wilson show that such ratios can be determined to an accuracy of one part in 10 million with a measurement program lasting for three days and without using any corrections for variations in atmospheric conditions. A numerical experiment using a set of hypothetical data indicates that reasonable estimates of the present shear strain rate and the direction of the principal axes in southern California can be deduced from such measurements over an interval of one to two years.

  5. Study of the Earth's interior using measurements of sound velocities in minerals by ultrasonic interferometry

    SciT

    Li, Baosheng; Liebermann, Robert C.

    2014-07-29

    This paper reviews the progress of the technology of ultrasonic interferometry from the early 1950s to the present day. During this period of more than 60 years, sound wave velocity measurements have been increased from at pressures less than 1 GPa and temperatures less than 800 K to conditions above 25 GPa and temperatures of 1800 K. This is complimentary to other direct methods to measure sound velocities (such as Brillouin and impulsive stimulated scattering) as well as indirect methods (e.g., resonance ultrasound spectroscopy, static or shock compression, inelastic X-ray scattering). Newly-developed pressure calibration methods and data analysis procedures usingmore » a finite strain approach are described and applied to data for the major mantle minerals. The implications for the composition of the Earth’s mantle are discussed. The state-of-the-art ultrasonic experiments performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation can provide simultaneous measurements of the elastic bulk and shear moduli and their pressure and temperature derivatives with direct determination of pressure. The current status and outlook/challenges for future experiments are summarized.« less

  6. Propagation of sound through the Earth's atmosphere. 1: Measurement of sound absorption in the air: 2: Measurement of ground impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, R. W.; Becher, J.

    1981-01-01

    Parts were fabricated for the acoustic ground impedance meter and the instrument was tested. A rubber hose was used to connect the resonator neck to the chamber in order to suppress vibration from the volume velocity source which caused chatter. An analog to digital converter was successfully hardwired to the computer detection system. The cooling system for the resonant tube was modified to use liquid nitrogen cooling. This produced the required temperature for the tube, but the temperature gradients within each of the four tube sections reached unacceptable levels. Final measurements of the deexcitation of nitrogen by water vapor indicate that the responsible physical process is not the direct vibration-translation energy transfer, but is a vibration-vibration energy transfer.

  7. Fallout radioactivity in soil and food samples in the Ukraine: Measurements of iodine, plutonium, cesium, and strontium isotopes

    SciT

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawamura, Hisao

    1994-08-01

    To estimate the level and distribution of fallout attributable to the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine, the authors sampled several kinds of substances at Korosten, Zhitomir and at Katyuzhanka, Vishgorod, Kiev in the Ukraine, and measured {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 129}I, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and the density of {sup 127}I (stable). The substances investigated were soil, dry milk, wheat, rye, drinking water, and mushrooms. Except for the mushrooms collected, which were sampled at Katyuzhanka, Vishgorod, and at Kiev, all substances were at Korosten, Zhitomir. The activity of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, andmore » {sup 239,240}Pu were all higher in soil and mushrooms than in the other four substances. The activity of {sup 137}Cs was 960 and 1,210 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in the two soil samples and 6,110 of Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in the mushrooms. The activity of {sup 134}Cs was {approximately} 15% of {sup 137}Cs in the two soil samples while <3% of {sup 137}Cs in the mushrooms. The activity concentration level of {sup 90}Sr as compared to {sup 137}Cs concentration was 15-31% in food samples other than mushrooms but only 1.9% in mushrooms and 1.4 and 1.2% in the two soil samples. The radioactivity ratios, {sup 238}Pu:{sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu:{sup 137}Cs, suggested that the proportion of cesium radioisotopes and {sup 239,240}Pu in the soil attributable to the Chernobyl accident was {approximately}100% and 10-20%, respectively, while {approximately} 100% of {sup 239,240}Pu in the mushrooms was attributable to the accident. The activity of {sup 129}I was small but the ratio of {sup 129}I:{sup 127}I in the two soil samples was 4.3x10{sup {minus}8} and 1.0x10{sup {minus}7}, which is {approximately} 10 times larger than that in the global fallout. These results suggest that the areas where the soil was sampled are iodine-deficient and were contaminated slightly by the Chernobyl accident. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.« less

  8. Singular measures versus nondifferentiability: from the solid earth to the atmosphere and their interface (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    In the 1980’s, the paradigm of Fractal Geometry popularized the fact that the ubiquitous geostatistical power laws imply nondifferentiabilty of the corresponding fractal sets, fractal functions. The prototypical examples of such scaling have flucutations Δf which change with scale Δx accordng to laws of the form Δf ≈ φΔx**H where H is the scaling exponent and φ is flux. The famous Kolmorogov turbulence law is the special case where Δf = Δv for velocity fluctuations across a distance Δx with H = 1/3 and φ = ɛ**1/3 where ɛ is the turbulent energy flux. Similarly, there is much evidence that topographic altitude fluctuations Δh are of the same form with Δf = Δh , H ≈1/2 and with φ a fundamental flux field governing topography dynamics. In both cases the basic laws are quite classical going back to 1941 (Kolmogorov; Δv) and to 1951 (Venig-Meinsz; Δh) respectively. From the above form we see that Δf/Δx ≈ φΔx**(H-1) which (when H<1) diverges as Δx tends to zero implying the divergence of the first derivative. Indeed, all (fractional) derivatives of order >H diverge. The focus on the geometry / differentiability properties puts the spotlight on the old H parameter. This has unfortunately drawn attention away from the more important consequences of our new understanding of the nonclassical flux φ as a singular multifractal measure. Over the last 25 years it has become clear that nonlinear processes that are scale invariant over wide ranges generically give rise to singular measures with statistics satisfying the relation <φ(λ)**q> ≈ λ**K(q) where λ is the resolution (defined as the ratio of the largest scale of the variability to the averaging scale), q is an arbitrary order of moment “<>” means statistical averaging, and K(q) is a scaling exponent function which characterizes the statistics of the flux at all the scales λ. Since φ(λ) is the ratio of the (Lebesque) integral of φ over a λ-resolution line, square or cube to the

  9. Solar Cycle variations in Earth's open flux content measured by the SuperDARN radar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present a long term study, from 1996 - 2012, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) determined using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection and is here used as a proxy for the amount of open flux in the polar cap. The mean HMB latitude (measured at midnight) is found to be at 64 degrees during the entire period, with secondary peaks at lower latitudes during the solar maximum of 2003, and at higher latitudes during the recent extreme solar minimum of 2008-2011. We associate these large scale statistical variations in open flux content with solar cycle variations in the solar wind parameters leading to changes in the intensity of the coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.

  10. Material interactions with the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment: Accurate reaction rate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T.; Leger, Lubert J.

    1987-01-01

    To resolve uncertainties in estimated LEO atomic oxygen fluence and provide reaction product composition data for comparison to data obtained in ground-based simulation laboratories, a flight experiment has been proposed for the space shuttle which utilizes an ion-neutral mass spectrometer to obtain in-situ ambient density measurements and identify reaction products from modeled polymers exposed to the atomic oxygen environment. An overview of this experiment is presented and the methodology of calibrating the flight mass spectrometer in a neutral beam facility prior to its use on the space shuttle is established. The experiment, designated EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials, third series), will provide a reliable materials interaction data base for future spacecraft design and will furnish insight into the basic chemical mechanisms leading to atomic oxygen interactions with surfaces.

  11. Precipitation measurements for earth-space communications: Accuracy requirements and ground-truth techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, L. J.; Kaul, R.

    1981-01-01

    Rainfall which is regarded as one of the more important observations for the measurements of this most variable parameter was made continuously, across large areas and over the sea. Ships could not provide the needed resolution nor could available radars provide the needed breadth of coverage. Microwave observations from the Nimbus-5 satellite offered some hope. Another possibility was suggested by the results of many comparisons between rainfall and the clouds seen in satellite pictures. Sequences of pictures from the first geostationary satellites were employed and a general correspondence between rain and the convective clouds visible in satellite pictures was found. It was demonstrated that the agreement was best for growing clouds. The development methods to infer GATE rainfall from geostationary satellite images are examined.

  12. Electrical conductivity of the Earth's mantle after one year of SWARM magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civet, François; Thebault, Erwan; Verhoeven, Olivier; Langlais, Benoit; Saturnino, Diana

    2015-04-01

    We present a global EM induction study using L1b Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements data down to a depth of 2000 km. Starting from raw measurements, we first derive a model for the main magnetic field, correct the data for a lithospheric field model, and further select the data to reduce the contributions of the ionospheric field. These computations allowed us to keep a full control on the data processes. We correct residual field from outliers and estimate the spherical harmonic coefficients of the transient field for periods between 2 and 256 days. We used full latitude range and all local times to keep a maximum amount of data. We perform a Bayesian inversion and construct a Markov chain during which model parameters are randomly updated at each iteration. We first consider regular layers of equal thickness and extra layers are added where conductivity contrast between successive layers exceed a threshold value. The mean and maximum likelihood of the electrical conductivity profile is then estimated from the probability density function. The obtained profile particularly shows a conductivity jump in the 600-700 km depth range, consistent with the olivine phase transition at 660 km depth. Our study is the first one to show such a conductivity increase in this depth range without any a priori informations on the internal strucutres. Assuming a pyrolitic mantle composition, this profile is interpreted in terms of temperature variations in the depth range where the probability density function is the narrowest. We finally obtained a temperature gradient in the lower mantle close to adiabatic.

  13. Discovery and measurement of an isotopically distinct source of sulfate in Earth's atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Gerardo; Jackson, Terri; Brothers, Lauren; Barnett, Burton; Nguyen, Bryan; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate (SO4) and its precursors are significant components of the atmosphere, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Recently, our triple-isotope (16O, 17O, 18O) measurements of atmospheric sulfate have provided specific insights into the oxidation pathways leading to sulfate, with important implications for models of the sulfur cycle and global climate change. Using similar isotopic measurements of aerosol sulfate in a polluted marine boundary layer (MBL) and primary sulfate (p-SO4) sampled directly from a ship stack, we quantify the amount of p-SO4 found in the atmosphere from ships. We find that ships contribute between 10% and 44% of the non-sea-salt sulfate found in fine [diameter (D) < 1.5 μm) particulate matter in coastal Southern California. These fractions are surprising, given that p-SO4 constitutes ≈2–7% of total sulfur emissions from combustion sources [Seinfed JH, Pandis SN (2006) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Wiley–Interscience, New York)]. Our findings also suggest that the interaction of SO2 from ship emissions with coarse hydrated sea salt particles may lead to the rapid removal of SO2 in the MBL. When combined with the longer residence time of p-SO4 emissions in the MBL, these findings suggest that the importance of p-SO4 emissions in marine environments may be underappreciated in global chemical models. Given the expected increase of international shipping in the years to come, these findings have clear implications for public health, air quality, international maritime law, and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:18753618

  14. Discovery and measurement of an isotopically distinct source of sulfate in Earth's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Gerardo; Jackson, Terri; Brothers, Lauren; Barnett, Burton; Nguyen, Bryan; Thiemens, Mark H

    2008-09-02

    Sulfate (SO(4)) and its precursors are significant components of the atmosphere, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Recently, our triple-isotope ((16)O, (17)O, (18)O) measurements of atmospheric sulfate have provided specific insights into the oxidation pathways leading to sulfate, with important implications for models of the sulfur cycle and global climate change. Using similar isotopic measurements of aerosol sulfate in a polluted marine boundary layer (MBL) and primary sulfate (p-SO(4)) sampled directly from a ship stack, we quantify the amount of p-SO(4) found in the atmosphere from ships. We find that ships contribute between 10% and 44% of the non-sea-salt sulfate found in fine [diameter (D) < 1.5 microm) particulate matter in coastal Southern California. These fractions are surprising, given that p-SO(4) constitutes approximately 2-7% of total sulfur emissions from combustion sources [Seinfed JH, Pandis SN (2006) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Wiley-Interscience, New York)]. Our findings also suggest that the interaction of SO(2) from ship emissions with coarse hydrated sea salt particles may lead to the rapid removal of SO(2) in the MBL. When combined with the longer residence time of p-SO(4) emissions in the MBL, these findings suggest that the importance of p-SO(4) emissions in marine environments may be underappreciated in global chemical models. Given the expected increase of international shipping in the years to come, these findings have clear implications for public health, air quality, international maritime law, and atmospheric chemistry.

  15. Single Cell Multiplex Protein Measurements through Rare Earth Element Immunolabeling, Laser Capture Microdissection and Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liba, Amir; Wanagat, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Complex diseases such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, and aging are the primary causes of death in the US. These diseases cause heterogeneous conditions among cells, conditions that cannot be measured in tissue homogenates and require single cell approaches. Understanding protein levels within tissues is currently assayed using various molecular biology techniques (e.g., Western blots) that rely on milligram to gram quantities of tissue homogenates or immunofluorescent (IF) techniques that are limited by spectral overlap. Tissue homogenate studies lack references to tissue structure and mask signals from individual or rare cellular events. Novel techniques are required to bring protein measurement sensitivity to the single cell level and offer spatiotemporal resolution and scalability. We are developing a novel approach to protein quantification by exploiting the inherently low concentration of rare earth elements (REE) in biological systems. By coupling REE-antibody immunolabeling of cells with laser capture microdissection (LCM) and ICP-QQQ, we are achieving multiplexed protein measurement in histological sections of single cells. This approach will add to evolving single cell techniques and our ability to understand cellular heterogeneity in complex biological systems and diseases.

  16. Effect of the magnetic field on measurements of the electron density and temperature by cylindrical probes in the Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubsky, V. F.

    2009-12-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s, quite simply produced cylindrical Langmuir probes were used in the USSR both on satellites (Kosmos-378, Intercosmos-2, -4, -8, -10, -19) and to measure the electron density and temperature on vertical launched rockets (Vertical’-4, -6, -10) within the Intercosmos program. These measurements were first made at middle latitudes. With increasing inclination of the orbits of launched satellites (satellites had no stabilization), falling sections were sometimes observed on probe characteristics in the electron saturation region. The Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite, which was stabilized along three axes and was equipped with a cylindrical probe whose longitudinal axis was always directed downward to the Earth, was launched in 1981. This satellite allowed definite conclusions on the effect of the geomagnetic field on the form of the probe characteristic and, hence, on the determination of the electron density and temperature. Probe characteristics with falling sections are presented. These measurements are compared with those performed in a laboratory plasma. The appearance of negative sections on the probe characteristics is shown to be due to the effect of the geomagnetic field. The degree of this effect depends both on the electron density and temperature and on the probe voltage.

  17. Noninvasive Intracranial Pressure and Tissue Oxygen Measurements for Space and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: Increasing intracranial pressure in humans during simulated microgravity. and near-infrared monitoring of model chronic compartment syndrome in exercising skeletal muscle. Compared to upright-seated posture, 0 deg. supine, 6 deg. HDT, and 15 deg. HDT produced TMD changes of 317 +/- 112, 403 +/- 114, and 474 +/- 112 n1 (means +/- S.E.), respectively. Furthermore, postural transitions from 0 deg. supine to 6 deg. HDT and from 6 deg. to 15 deg. HDT generated significant TMD changes (p less than 0.05). There was no hysteresis when postural transitions to HDT were compared to reciprocal transitions toward upright seated posture. Currently, diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) depends on measurement of intramuscular pressure by invasive catheterization. We hypothesized that this syndrome can be detected noninvasively by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, which tracks variations in muscle hemoglobin/myoglobin oxygen saturation. CCS was simulated in the tibialis anterior muscle of 7 male and 3 female subjects by gradual inflation of a cuff placed around the leg to 40 mmHg during 14 minutes of cyclic isokinetic dorsiflexion exercise. On a separate day, subjects underwent the identical exercise protocol with no external compression. In both cases, tissue oxygenation (T(sub O2) was measured in the tibialis anterior by NIR spectroscopy and normalized to a percentage scale between baseline and a T(sub O2) nadir reached during exercise to ischemic exhaustion. Over the course of exercise, T(sub O2) declined at a rate of 1.4 +/- 0.3% per minute with model CCS, yet did not decrease during control exercise. Post-exercise recovery of T(sub O2) was slower with model CCS (2.5 +/- 0.6 min) than in control (1.3 +/- 0.2 min). These results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can detect muscle deoxygenation caused by pathologically elevated intramuscular pressure in exercising skeletal muscle. Consequently, this technique shows promise as a

  18. iPadPix—A novel educational tool to visualise radioactivity measured by a hybrid pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, O.; Schmeling, S.; Müller, A.; Benoit, M.

    2016-11-01

    With the ability to attribute signatures of ionising radiation to certain particle types, pixel detectors offer a unique advantage over the traditional use of Geiger-Müller tubes also in educational settings. We demonstrate in this work how a Timepix readout chip combined with a standard 300μm pixelated silicon sensor can be used to visualise radioactivity in real-time and by means of augmented reality. The chip family is the result of technology transfer from High Energy Physics at CERN and facilitated by the Medipix Collaboration. This article summarises the development of a prototype based on an iPad mini and open source software detailed in ref. [1]. Appropriate experimental activities that explore natural radioactivity and everyday objects are given to demonstrate the use of this new tool in educational settings.

  19. A comparison of Doppler lidar wind sensors for Earth-orbit global measurement applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1985-01-01

    Now, there are four Doppler lidar configurations which are being promoted for the measurement of tropospheric winds: (1) the coherent CO2 Lidar, operating in the 9 micrometer region using a pulsed, atmospheric pressure CO2 gas discharge laser transmitter, and heterodyne detection; (2) the coherent Neodymium doped YAG or Glass Lidar, operating at 1.06 micrometers, using flashlamp or diode laser optical pumping of the solid state laser medium, and heterodyne detection; (3) the Neodymium doped YAG/Glass Lidar, operating at the doubled frequency (at 530 nm wavelength), again using flashlamp or diode laser pumping of the laser transmitter, and using a high resolution tandem Fabry-Perot filter and direct detection; and (4) the Raman shifted Xenon Chloride Lidar, operating at 350 nm wavelength, using a pulsed, atmospheric pressure XeCl gas discharge laser transmitter at 308 nm, Raman shifted in a high pressure hydrogen cell to 350 nm in order to avoid strong stratospheric ozone absorption, also using a high resolution tandem Fabry-Perot filter and direct detection. Comparisons of these four systems can include many factors and tradeoffs. The major portion of this comparison is devoted to efficiency. Efficiency comparisons are made by estimating the number of transmitted photons required for a single pulse wind velocity estimate of + or - 1 m/s accuracy in the middle troposphere, from an altitude of 800 km, which is assured to be reasonable for a polar orbiting platform.

  20. Quality assurance for measurements of the radioactivity in the area of the"Horia Hulubei" National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH.

    PubMed

    Stochioiu, Ana; Luca, Aurelian; Sahagia, Maria; Margineanu, Romul Mircea; Tudor, Ion

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents one part of the activities deployed by the Laboratory for Environment and Personnel Dosimetry (LDPM) of IFIN-HH, namely the radiological monitoring of the environment within the Institute's area and its surrounding influence zone, according to the program approved by the National Regulatory Body for Nuclear Activities, CNCAN. The representative reports regard the radioactive content of soil, surface and underground water, cultivated and spontaneous vegetation, aerosols and atmospheric fallout, sediments. The common requirement is that the measured quantities be precise and the reported values be reliable and credible. This goal is achieved by maintaining a Quality System, verified within the obtaining and maintaining of the laboratory accreditation, according to the international standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005.The LDPM is accredited by the Romanian accreditation body, RENAR, member of the European Accreditation, EA and is designed by CNCAN as a notified testing laboratory. Many measurements were performed in collaboration with the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, RENAR accredited and CNCAN notified for calibration and for testing in the field of radioactivity measurement. This paper proposes a short presentation of the important aspects in our activity: i. description of equipment, samplingmethods, processing and measurement of environmental samples; ii. validation of equipment and methods by participation in international and national proficiency tests; iii. a five year follow chart, containing the results in measurement of samples; iv. a recent application, with a wide impact in Romanian mass media: the credible daily report on the possible influence of Fukushima accident over the Romanian environmental radioactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring the radioactivity of drinking water with the liquid counters M2H in combination with contamination meters IM 4457

    SciT

    Vanhemmen, J.J.; Vanhoek, L.P.; Aten, J.B.T.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between the meter indications and the radioactivity of fission products in drinking water for the combination contamination meter IM 4457 and liquid counter M2H was investigated. The experimental setup is presented, the efficiency of the liquid counter for a mixture of fission products is briefly dealt with, and the use of the combination counter/meter in the field is discussed.

  2. On the influence of Aerosols in measurement of electric field from Earth surface using a Field-Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Sundar De, Syam; Paul, Suman; Hazra, Pranab; Guha, Gautam

    2016-07-01

    Aerosol particles influence the electrical conductivity of air. The value is reduced through the removal of small ions responsible for the conductivity. The metropolitan city, Kolkata (latitude 22.56° N, longitude 88.5° E) is densely populated surrounded by various types of Industries. Air is highly invaded by pollutant particles here for which the city falls under small-scale fair-weather condition where electric field and air-earth current get perturbed by ionization and different aerosols produced locally. Fine particles having diameter < 0.1 μm (Aitken nuclei) are distributed in air which decreases the electrical conductivity and increases the columnar resistance. Aerosol particles steadily change the status at different times of the day through coagulation, sedimentation, charge-transfer initiated by precipitation. The diurnal variation of potential gradient is caused mainly due to urbanization, emission from industry and traffic. The rate of production of haze (atmospheric suspension) and their vertical transportation control the daily variation of atmospheric potential. The nuclei of pollutant particles combine with ions and decrease the concentration of small ions thereby reducing the conductivity. The pollutants, influenced by CO _{2} and other green house gas emission from fossil fuels are also responsible for the variation of electric field. Variation in consumption of Oil and Gasoline due to traffic in the city contributes a high Aitken count and there are changes in atmospheric dispersion following reduction of conductivity of the medium. Outcome of some important measurement of potential gradient and air-earth current will be presented. Different parameters like air-conductivity, relative abundance of smoke, visibility would offer new signatures of aerosol-influence on electric potential gradient. Some of those will be reported here.

  3. The spectral albedo of sea ice and salt crusts on the tropical ocean of Snowball Earth: 1. Laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Bonnie; Carns, Regina C.; Warren, Stephen G.

    2016-07-01

    The ice-albedo feedback mechanism likely contributed to global glaciation during the Snowball Earth events of the Neoproterozoic era (1 Ga to 544 Ma). This feedback results from the albedo contrast between sea ice and open ocean. Little is known about the optical properties of some of the possible surface types that may have been present, including sea ice that is both snow-free and cold enough for salts to precipitate within brine inclusions. A proxy surface for such ice was grown in a freezer laboratory using the single salt NaCl and kept below the eutectic temperature (-21.2°C) of the NaCl-H2O binary system. The resulting ice cover was composed of ice and precipitated hydrohalite crystals (NaCl · 2H2O). As the cold ice sublimated, a thin lag-deposit of salt formed on the surface. To hasten its growth in the laboratory, the deposit was augmented by addition of a salt-enriched surface crust. Measurements of the spectral albedo of this surface were carried out over 90 days as the hydrohalite crust thickened due to sublimation of ice, and subsequently over several hours as the crust warmed and dissolved, finally resulting in a surface with puddled liquid brine. The all-wave solar albedo of the subeutectic crust is 0.93 (in contrast to 0.83 for fresh snow and 0.67 for melting bare sea ice). Incorporation of these processes into a climate model of Snowball Earth will result in a positive salt-albedo feedback operating between -21°C and -36°C.

  4. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  5. Arecibo Radar Observation of Near-Earth Asteroids: Expanded Sample Size, Determination of Radar Albedos, and Measurements of Polarization Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejoly, Cassandra; Howell, Ellen S.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Springmann, Alessondra; Virkki, Anne; Nolan, Michael C.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.

    2017-10-01

    The Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population ranges in size from a few meters to more than 10 kilometers. NEAs have a wide variety of taxonomic classes, surface features, and shapes, including spheroids, binary objects, contact binaries, elongated, as well as irregular bodies. Using the Arecibo Observatory planetary radar system, we have measured apparent rotation rate, radar reflectivity, apparent diameter, and radar albedos for over 350 NEAs. The radar albedo is defined as the radar cross-section divided by the geometric cross-section. If a shape model is available, the actual cross-section is known at the time of the observation. Otherwise we derive a geometric cross-section from a measured diameter. When radar imaging is available, the diameter was measured from the apparent range depth. However, when radar imaging was not available, we used the continuous wave (CW) bandwidth radar measurements in conjunction with the period of the object. The CW bandwidth provides apparent rotation rate, which, given an independent rotation measurement, such as from lightcurves, constrains the size of the object. We assumed an equatorial view unless we knew the pole orientation, which gives a lower limit on the diameter. The CW also provides the polarization ratio, which is the ratio of the SC and OC cross-sections.We confirm the trend found by Benner et al. (2008) that taxonomic types E and V have very high polarization ratios. We have obtained a larger sample and can analyze additional trends with spin, size, rotation rate, taxonomic class, polarization ratio, and radar albedo to interpret the origin of the NEAs and their dynamical processes. The distribution of radar albedo and polarization ratio at the smallest diameters (≤50 m) differs from the distribution of larger objects (>50 m), although the sample size is limited. Additionally, we find more moderate radar albedos for the smallest NEAs when compared to those with diameters 50-150 m. We will present additional trends we

  6. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Charabi, Yassine; Baawain, Mahad; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2017-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste related activities around the world in 2016. The current reveiw include studies related to safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation. Further, the review highlights on management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in ecosystem, water and soil alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  7. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  8. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  9. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  10. Long Term Measurement of the Earth's Radiation Budget using a constellation of Broadband Radiometers hosted on Iridium NEXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Om Prakash; Thoma, Donald; Chaloner, Chris; Russell, Jacqueline; Simpson, Bill; Spilling, David; Morris, Nigel; Caldwell, Martin; Oneill, Alan

    The WMO called for "bringing new missions to operational status" and that "ERB should be measured through a constellation of sensors". A unique opportu-nity exists to host a set of Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) sensors on the Iridium NEXT (NEXT) LEO constellation in a cost effective manner that can deliver these requirements. The NEXT constellation, with 66 interconnected satellites in 6 near polar orbiting planes, provides a unique platform for hosting a variety of Earth observation missions including ERB. Launches are planned to begin in 2014 through 2016. The ERB both drives and responds to global climate and monitoring it can provide much insight into the climate system and how it might be changing. A climate quality measurement of the ERB requires high absolute accuracy and excellent stability and a long-term (decades) data record in order to inform the debate about global warming. Measurement of the ERB in terms of the broadband reflected solar (0.3 to 4 µm) and emitted thermal (4 to 200 µm) components have been identified as high priority by the WMO for climate observations. High temporal resolution is the key advantage offered by the NEXT platform and can provide a great step forward in accurately monitoring the energy balance of the planet. The sensor we propose will consist of a broad band instrument and associated imager for scene identification and cloud classification. There is the chance to place two such sensors in each of six different orbital planes this will improve the product refresh time from currently 12 hours to 3 hours. The increased temporal resolution will allow direct measure-ment of the changes to the broadband radiances that result from rapidly varying components of the climate such as cloud and aerosol, and avoid the need of relying on narrow band sensors to infer such changes. Considering that the prediction of cloud response to climate change is still a major source of uncertainty; improved measurement of the cloud effect and

  11. Cross Section Measurements of the Radioactive 107Pd and Stable 105,108Pd Nuclei at J-PARC/MLF/ANNRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.; Kimura, A.; Kitatani, F.; Ohta, M.; Furutaka, K.; Goko, S.; Hara, K. Y.; Harada, H.; Hirose, K.; Kin, T.; Koizumi, M.; Oshima, M.; Toh, Y.; Kino, K.; Hiraga, F.; Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Mizumoto, M.; Igashira, M.; Hori, J.; Fujii, T.; Fukutani, S.; Takamiya, K.

    2014-05-01

    The measurements of the neutron-capture cross sections were performed for the radioactive 107Pd and stable 105,108Pd nuclei by the time-of flight method using an apparatus called “Accurate Neutron-Nucleus Reaction measurement Instrument (ANNRI)” installed at the neutron Beam Line No.4 of the Materials and Life science experimental Facility (MLF) in the J-PARC. The neutron-capture cross sections of 107Pd and 105,108Pd have been measured in the low energy region from the thermal to a few hundreds eV. From the measurements, new information was obtained for some resonances of these Pd nuclei.

  12. Albedo of cold sea ice with precipitated salt on the tropical ocean of Snowball Earth: field measurements and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, B.; Black, T.; Carns, R.; Brandt, R.; Dadic, R.; Warren, S.

    2012-04-01

    During the initial freezing of the tropical ocean on Snowball Earth, the first ice to form would be sea ice, which contains salt within liquid brine inclusions. At temperatures below -23 C, significant amounts of salt begin to crystallize within the brine inclusions. These crystals scatter light, increasing the ice albedo. The most abundant salt is hydrohalite, NaCl.2H2O. A dry tropical atmosphere promoting ice surface sublimation would cause a salt crust to be left on the surface as a lag deposit. Such a high-albedo surface could be crucial during the snowball initiation. These processes must be considered when assigning albedos to sea ice in a climate model of Snowball Earth. Precipitation of salt within brine inclusions was observed on windswept bare ice of McMurdo Sound at the coast of Antarctica (78 S) in late winter. Consequently the albedo was higher at lower temperature. The precipitation process exhibited hysteresis, with hydrohalite precipitating at about -30 C and dissolving at about -23 C. The causes of the hysteresis are being investigated in laboratory experiments; they may involve biological macromolecules. Nowhere on the modern Earth does sea ice undergo sublimation at low temperatures for long enough to develop a salt crust before the summer melt begins, so this process is being investigated in our laboratory. A 1000-liter tank is used to grow artificial sea ice, and a system has been built to measure its albedo. A diffusely reflecting hemispherical dome of diameter 1.2 m is placed on top of the tank and illuminated from within. The interior of the dome illuminates the ice surface as well as serving as a platform for detecting the incident and backscattered radiance fields. The diffusely reflecting surfaces of the ice and the dome make it straightforward to estimate incoming and reflected irradiance as angular integrals of the radiance measurements. The albedo of the bare, cold (below -23 C) ice is 0.8 at visible wavelengths, decreasing toward the

  13. Determination of intermediate perturbed orbits of Near-Earth asteroids from range and range rate measurements at three times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefer, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    Two methods that the author developed earlier for finding the intermediate perturbed orbit of a small celestial body from three pairs of range and range rate observations [1, 2] are applied to the determination of orbits of Near-Earth asteroids. The methods are based on using the superosculating orbits with three- and fourth-order tangency. The degrees of approximation of the real motion by the constructed intermediate orbits near the middle measurement time are two and three orders of magnitude higher than by the Keplerian orbit determined with the help of traditional methods. We calculated the orbits of the asteroids 99942 Apophis, 1566 Icarus, 4179 Toutatis, 2007 DN41 and 2012 DA14. For the sake of brevity, we call the method based on the orbit with third-order tangency as Algorithm A1 and the method based on the orbit with fourth-order tangency -- as Algorithm A2. The results of the calculations are compared with the results of the calculations by the version of the methods mentioned that allows us to construct the unperturbed Keplerian orbit. We call this version of the methods as Algorithm A. The observational data were simulated using the nominal trajectories of the selected asteroids. These trajectories were obtained by the numerical integration of the differential equations of motion subject to the perturbations from the eight major planets, Pluto, and the Moon. The integration was carried out with the help of the 15-order Everhart procedure [3]. The main results of the calculations are the following. When the reference time interval is shortened by half (for small sizes of this interval), the errors in the compared algorithms A, A1, A2 decrease approximately by the factors 4, 16, 64 in coordinates and by the factors 2, 8, 16 in velocities, respectively. Such behavior of the errors is most clearly seen with the asteroids 2007 DN41 and 2012 DA14. This leads to a significant increase in the accuracy of the real motion approximation by the intermediate orbits

  14. Measuring Relativistic effects in the field of the Earth with Laser Ranged Satellites and the LARASE research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Bassan, Massimo; Magnafico, Carmelo; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) research program is to obtain refined tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) by means of very precise measurements of the round-trip time among a number of ground stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network and a set of geodetic satellites. These measurements are guaranteed by means of the powerful and precise Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technique. In particular, a big effort of LARASE is dedicated to improve the dynamical models of the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES satellites, with the objective to obtain a more precise and accurate determination of their orbit. These activities contribute to reach a final error budget that should be robust and reliable in the evaluation of the main systematic errors sources that come to play a major role in masking the relativistic precession on the orbit of these laser-ranged satellites. These error sources may be of gravitational and non-gravitational origin. It is important to stress that a more accurate and precise orbit determination, based on more reliable dynamical models, represents a fundamental prerequisite in order to reach a sub-mm precision in the root-mean-square of the SLR range residuals and, consequently, to gather benefits in the fields of geophysics and space geodesy, such as stations coordinates knowledge, geocenter determination and the realization of the Earth's reference frame. The results reached over the last year will be presented in terms of the improvements achieved in the dynamical model, in the orbit determination and, finally, in the measurement of the relativistic precessions that act on the orbit of the satellites considered.

  15. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    SciT

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of {approximately}11,600 km{sup 2} and a population of {approximately}600,000.

  16. EMAG2: A 2-arc min resolution Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, airborne, and marine magnetic measurements

    Maus, S.; Barckhausen, U.; Berkenbosch, H.; Bournas, N.; Brozena, J.; Childers, V.; Dostaler, F.; Fairhead, J.D.; Finn, C.; von Frese, R.R.B; Gaina, C.; Golynsky, S.; Kucks, R.; Lu, Hai; Milligan, P.; Mogren, S.; Muller, R.D.; Olesen, O.; Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.; Schreckenberger, B.; Thebault, E.; Tontini, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    A global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) has been compiled from satellite, ship, and airborne magnetic measurements. EMAG2 is a significant update of our previous candidate grid for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. The resolution has been improved from 3 arc min to 2 arc min, and the altitude has been reduced from 5 km to 4 km above the geoid. Additional grid and track line data have been included, both over land and the oceans. Wherever available, the original shipborne and airborne data were used instead of precompiled oceanic magnetic grids. Interpolation between sparse track lines in the oceans was improved by directional gridding and extrapolation, based on an oceanic crustal age model. The longest wavelengths (>330 km) were replaced with the latest CHAMP satellite magnetic field model MF6. EMAG2 is available at http://geomag.org/models/EMAG2 and for permanent archive at http://earthref.org/ cgi-bin/er.cgi?s=erda.cgi?n=970. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Mathematical modeling of a survey-meter used to measure radioactivity in human thyroids: Monte Carlo calculations of the device response and uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Kutsen, Semion; Minenko, Victor; Khrouch, Valeri; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of Monte Carlo modeling of the SRP-68-01 survey meter used to measure exposure rates near the thyroid glands of persons exposed to radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident. This device was not designed to measure radioactivity in humans. To estimate the uncertainty associated with the measurement results, a mathematical model of the SRP-68-01 survey meter was developed and verified. A Monte Carlo method of numerical simulation of radiation transport has been used to calculate the calibration factor for the device and evaluate its uncertainty. The SRP-68-01 survey meter scale coefficient, an important characteristic of the device, was also estimated in this study. The calibration factors of the survey meter were calculated for 131I, 132I, 133I, and 135I content in the thyroid gland for six age groups of population: newborns; children aged 1 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, 15 yr; and adults. A realistic scenario of direct thyroid measurements with an “extended” neck was used to calculate the calibration factors for newborns and one-year-olds. Uncertainties in the device calibration factors due to variability of the device scale coefficient, variability in thyroid mass and statistical uncertainty of Monte Carlo method were evaluated. Relative uncertainties in the calibration factor estimates were found to be from 0.06 for children aged 1 yr to 0.1 for 10-yr and 15-yr children. The positioning errors of the detector during measurements deviate mainly in one direction from the estimated calibration factors. Deviations of the device position from the proper geometry of measurements were found to lead to overestimation of the calibration factor by up to 24 percent for adults and up to 60 percent for 1-yr children. The results of this study improve the estimates of 131I thyroidal content and, consequently, thyroid dose estimates that are derived from direct thyroid measurements performed in Belarus shortly after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:22245289

  18. Radioactivity of buildings materials available in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singovszka, E.; Estokova, A.; Mitterpach, J.

    2017-10-01

    In the last decades building materials, both of natural origin and containing industrial by-products, have been shown to significantly contribute to the exposure of the population to natural radioactivity. As a matter of fact, neither the absorbed dose rate in air due to gamma radiation nor the radon activity concentration are negligible in closed environments. The soil and rocks of the earth contains substances which are naturally radioactive and provide natural radiation exposures. The most important radioactive elements which occur in the soil and in rocks are the long lived primordial isotopes of potassium (40K), uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th). Therefore, additional exposures have to be measured and compared with respect to the natural radiation exposure. Further, it is important to estimate the potential risk from radiation from the environment. The paper presents the results of mass activities of 226Ra, 232Th a 40K radionuclides in cement mortars with addition of silica fume. The gamma index was calculated as well.

  19. Constraining Bulk Densities of Near-Earth Asteroid Surfaces from Radar Observations Using Laboratory Measurements of Permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickson, D. C.; Boivin, A.; Daly, M. G.; Ghent, R. R.; Nolan, M. C.; Tait, K.; Cunje, A.; Tsai, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary radar is widely used to survey the Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population and can provide insight into target shapes, sizes, and spin states. The dual-polarization reflectivity is sensitive to surface roughness as well as material properties, specifically the real part of the complex permittivity, or dielectric constant. Knowledge of the behavior of the dielectric constant of asteroid regolith analogue material with environmental parameters can be used to inversely solve for such parameters, such as bulk density, from radar observations. In this study laboratory measurements of the complex permittivity of powdered aluminum oxide and dunite samples are performed in a low-pressure environment chamber using a coaxial transmission line from roughly 1 GHz to 8.5 GHz. The bulk densities of the samples are varied across the measurements by incrementally adding silica aerogel, a low-density material with a very low dielectric constant. This allows the alteration of the proportions of void space to solid particle grains to achieve microgravity-relevant porosities without significantly altering the dielectric properties of the powder sample. The data are then modeled using various electromagnetic mixing equations to characterize the change in dielectric constant with increasing volume fractions of void space (decreasing bulk density). Using spectral analogues as constraints on the composition of NEAs allows us to calculate the range in bulk densities in the near surface of NEAs that have been observed by planetary radar. Utilizing existing radar data from Arecibo Observatory we calculate the bulk density in the near-surface on (101955) Bennu, the target of NASA's OSIRIS-Rex mission, to be ρ = 1.27 ± 0.33 g cm-3 based on an average of the likely range in particle density and dielectric constant of the regolith material.

  20. Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi ’s measurement in a low Earth orbit

    SciT

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Asai, Makoto; Hagino, Kouichi

    Hard X-ray astronomical observatories in orbit suffer from a significant amount of background due to radioactivation induced by cosmic-ray protons and/or geomagnetically trapped protons. Within the framework of a full Monte Carlo simulation, we present modeling of in-orbit instrumental background which is dominated by radioactivation. To reduce the computation time required by straightforward simulations of delayed emissions from activated isotopes, we insert a semi-analytical calculation that converts production probabilities of radioactive isotopes by interaction of the primary protons into decay rates at measurement time of all secondary isotopes. Therefore, our simulation method is separated into three steps: (1) simulation ofmore » isotope production, (2) semi-analytical conversion to decay rates, and (3) simulation of decays of the isotopes at measurement time. This method is verified by a simple setup that has a CdTe semiconductor detector, and shows a 100-fold improvement in efficiency over the straightforward simulation. To demonstrate its experimental performance, the simulation framework was tested against data measured with a CdTe sensor in the Hard X-ray Imager onboard the Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite, which was put into a low Earth orbit with an altitude of 570 km and an inclination of 31°, and thus experienced a large amount of irradiation from geomagnetically trapped protons during its passages through the South Atlantic Anomaly. The simulation is able to treat full histories of the proton irradiation and multiple measurement windows. As a result, the simulation results agree very well with the measured data, showing that the measured background is well described by the combination of proton-induced radioactivation of the CdTe detector itself and thick Bi 4Ge 3O 12 scintillator shields, leakage of cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma-ray radiation, and emissions from naturally contaminated isotopes in the detector system.« less

  1. Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi ’s measurement in a low Earth orbit

    DOE PAGES

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Asai, Makoto; Hagino, Kouichi; ...

    2018-02-19

    Hard X-ray astronomical observatories in orbit suffer from a significant amount of background due to radioactivation induced by cosmic-ray protons and/or geomagnetically trapped protons. Within the framework of a full Monte Carlo simulation, we present modeling of in-orbit instrumental background which is dominated by radioactivation. To reduce the computation time required by straightforward simulations of delayed emissions from activated isotopes, we insert a semi-analytical calculation that converts production probabilities of radioactive isotopes by interaction of the primary protons into decay rates at measurement time of all secondary isotopes. Therefore, our simulation method is separated into three steps: (1) simulation ofmore » isotope production, (2) semi-analytical conversion to decay rates, and (3) simulation of decays of the isotopes at measurement time. This method is verified by a simple setup that has a CdTe semiconductor detector, and shows a 100-fold improvement in efficiency over the straightforward simulation. To demonstrate its experimental performance, the simulation framework was tested against data measured with a CdTe sensor in the Hard X-ray Imager onboard the Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite, which was put into a low Earth orbit with an altitude of 570 km and an inclination of 31°, and thus experienced a large amount of irradiation from geomagnetically trapped protons during its passages through the South Atlantic Anomaly. The simulation is able to treat full histories of the proton irradiation and multiple measurement windows. As a result, the simulation results agree very well with the measured data, showing that the measured background is well described by the combination of proton-induced radioactivation of the CdTe detector itself and thick Bi 4Ge 3O 12 scintillator shields, leakage of cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma-ray radiation, and emissions from naturally contaminated isotopes in the detector system.« less

  2. A Sensitive Technique Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne M.; Youngstrom, Erica E.; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth S.; Marx, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers occurs in LEO and is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data is rare and very costly, short-term exposures such as on the shuttle are often relied upon for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed using selective protection of polymer samples, combined with postflight atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. This paper discusses the procedures used for this recession depth technique along with relevant characterization issues. In particular, a polymer is salt-sprayed prior to flight, then the salt is washed off postflight and AFM is used to determine the erosion depth from the protected plateau. A small sample was salt-sprayed for AFM erosion depth analysis and flown as part of the Limited Duration Candidate Exposure (LDCE-4,-5) shuttle flight experiment on STS-51. This sample was used to study issues such as use of contact versus non-contact mode imaging for determining recession depth measurements. Error analyses were conducted and the percent probable

  3. Earth Versus Neutrinos: Measuring the Total Muon-Neutrino-to-Nucleon Cross Section at Ultra-High Energies through Differential Earth Absorption of Muon Neutrinos from Cosmic Rays Using the IceCube Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miarecki, Sandra Christine

    The IceCube Neutrino Detector at the South Pole was constructed to measure the flux of high-energy neutrinos and to try to identify their cosmic sources. In addition to these astrophysical neutrinos, IceCube also detects the neutrinos that result from cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. These atmospheric neutrinos can be used to measure the total muon neutrino-to-nucleon cross section by measuring neutrino absorption in the Earth. The measurement involves isolating a sample of 10,784 Earth-transiting muons detected by IceCube in its 79-string configuration. The cross-section is determined using a two-dimensional fit in measured muon energy and zenith angle and is presented as a multiple of the Standard Model expectation as calculated by Cooper-Sarkar, Mertsch, and Sarkar in 2011. A multiple of 1.0 would indicate agreement with the Standard Model. The results of this analysis find the multiple to be 1.30 (+0.21 -0.19 statistical) (+0.40 -0.44 systematic) for the neutrino energy range of 6.3 to 980 TeV, which is in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.

  4. Measurement of radioactivity and heavy metal levels in edible vegetables and their impact on Kuala Selangor communities of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, M U; Amin, Y M; Zainuddin, Z; Farook, M S; Bradley, D A

    2015-11-01

    Vegetable is an essential daily diet item for the people of Malaysia. This work addressed the radiation and heavy metal exposure scenarios through the consumption of vegetables. Kuala Selangor is located in Sungai Selangor estuary in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, which is susceptible to pollution load due to the presence of large-scale industrial and human activities. Radioactivity and heavy metals level in human diet is of particular concern for the assessment of possible radiological and chemical hazards to human health. Therefore, a comprehensive study was carried out to determine the radioactivity levels ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K) and heavy metal concentrations (Cr, As, Cd, Mn, Mg, Al, Sr, Rb, Sb, Ba, Hg, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Bi and Pb) in 10 varieties of vegetable collected from different farmlands in Kuala Selangor region. The committed doses for (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K due to consumption of vegetables were found 16.6±1.3, 23.6±1.7 and 58±5 µSv y(-1), respectively, with a total of 98±8 µSv y(-1). This dose imposes no significant threat to human health. The estimated cancer risk shows that probability of increase in cancer risk from daily intake of vegetables is only a minor fraction of International Commission on Radiological Protection values. The concentrations of heavy metal were below the daily intake recommended by the international organisations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The natural radioactivity measurements in coastal sediment samples along the East Coast of Tamilnadu using gamma spectrometry technique

    SciT

    Chandramohan, J.; Tholkappian, M.; Harikrishnan, N.

    2015-08-28

    The natural radioactivity concentration in beach sediment samples collected from Pattipulam to Devanampattinam of East Coast of Tamilnadu have been determined by NaI (TI) gamma ray spectrometer. The specific activity concentrations range from ≤ 2.21 (BDL) to 37.02 Bq kg{sup −1} with a mean of 3.79 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 238}U, ≤ 2.11 (BDL) to 643.77 Bqkg{sup −1} with a mean of 49.60 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 232}Th and 300.34 Bqkg{sup −1} to 449.08 Bqkg{sup −1} with a mean of 360.23 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 40}K. The potential radiological hazards due to natural radionuclides content such as Radium Equivalent activitymore » (Ra{sub eq}), Representative level index (RLI), External hazard index (H{sub ex}), absorbed gamma does rate (D{sub R}), and Annual effective dose rate (AEDR) are estimated to assess the radiation hazard associated with the sediments. The obtained data are compared with the recommended safety limits and international approved values. All the values are well below the recommended safety limits indicating that radiation levels do not poses any significant health hazard to the public in the area as a result of the natural radioactivity of beach sediments. This study may help the baseline data for more extensive works in the same subjects of future studies.« less

  6. An asymptotic method for estimating the vertical ozone distribution in the Earth's atmosphere from satellite measurements of backscattered solar UV-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishov, Alexander G.

    1994-01-01

    An asymptotic approach to solution of the inverse problems of remote sensing is presented. It consists in changing integral operators characteristic of outgoing radiation into their asymptotic analogues. Such approach does not add new principal uncertainties into the problem and significantly reduces computation time that allows to develop the real (or about) time algorithms for interpretation of satellite measurements. The asymptotic approach has been realized for estimating vertical ozone distribution from satellite measurements of backscatter solar UV radiation in the Earth's atmosphere.

  7. [Measures against Radiation Exposure Due to Large-Scale Nuclear Accident in Distant Place--Radioactive Materials in Nagasaki from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Sera, Koichiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human health effects of radiation exposure due to possible future nuclear accidents in distant places and other various findings of analysis of the radioactive materials contaminating the atmosphere of Nagasaki due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The concentrations of radioactive materials in aerosols in the atmosphere of Nagasaki were measured using a germanium semiconductor detector from March 2011 to March 2013. Internal exposure dose was calculated in accordance with ICRP Publ. 72. Air trajectories were analyzed using NOAA and METEX web-based systems. (134)Cs and (137)Cs were repeatedly detected. The air trajectory analysis showed that (134)Cs and (137)Cs flew directly from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from March to April 2011. However, the direct air trajectories were rarely detected after this period even when (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected after this period. The activity ratios ((134)Cs/(137)Cs) of almost all the samples converted to those in March 2011 were about unity. This strongly suggests that the (134)Cs and (137)Cs detected mainly originated from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Although the (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations per air volume were very low and the human health effects of internal exposure via inhalation is expected to be negligible, the specific activities (concentrations per aerosol mass) were relatively high. It was found that possible future nuclear accidents may cause severe radioactive contaminations, which may require radiation exposure control of farm goods to more than 1000 km from places of nuclear accidents.

  8. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  9. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  10. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Vanessa L; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML3-1 and a Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F. Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual. Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. terreus strain ML3-1 and Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F in the presence of monazite leached rare earths to concentrations 1.7-3.8 times those of HCl solutions of comparable pH, indicating that compounds exogenously released by these organisms contribute substantially to leaching. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Simulation study of geometric shape factor approach to estimating earth emitted flux densities from wide field-of-view radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed on the use of geometric shape factors to estimate earth-emitted flux densities from radiation measurements with wide field-of-view flat-plate radiometers on satellites. Sets of simulated irradiance measurements were computed for unrestricted and restricted field-of-view detectors. In these simulations, the earth radiation field was modeled using data from Nimbus 2 and 3. Geometric shape factors were derived and applied to these data to estimate flux densities on global and zonal scales. For measurements at a satellite altitude of 600 km, estimates of zonal flux density were in error 1.0 to 1.2%, and global flux density errors were less than 0.2%. Estimates with unrestricted field-of-view detectors were about the same for Lambertian and non-Lambertian radiation models, but were affected by satellite altitude. The opposite was found for the restricted field-of-view detectors.

  12. Characterizing an Integrated Annual Global Measure of the Earth's Maximum Land Surface Temperatures from 2003 to 2012 Reveals Strong Biogeographic Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildrexler, D. J.; Zhao, M.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a good indicator of the surface energy balance because it is determined by interactions and energy fluxes between the atmosphere and the ground. The variability of land surface properties and vegetation densities across the Earth's surface changes these interactions and gives LST a unique biogeographic influence. Natural and human-induced disturbances modify the surface characteristics and alter the expression of LST. This results in a heterogeneous and dynamic thermal environment. Measurements that merge these factors into a single global metric, while maintaining the important biophysical and biogeographical factors of the land surface's thermal environment are needed to better understand integrated temperature changes in the Earth system. Using satellite-based LST we have developed a new global metric that focuses on one critical component of LST that occurs when the relationship between vegetation density and surface temperature is strongly coupled: annual maximum LST (LSTmax). A 10 year evaluation of LSTmax histograms that include every 1-km pixel across the Earth's surface reveals that this integrative measurement is strongly influenced by the biogeographic patterns of the Earth's ecosystems, providing a unique comparative view of the planet every year that can be likened to the Earth's thermal maximum fingerprint. The biogeographical component is controlled by the frequency and distribution of vegetation types across the Earth's land surface and displays a trimodal distribution. The three modes are driven by ice covered polar regions, forests, and hot desert/shrubland environments. In ice covered areas the histograms show that the heat of fusion results in a convergence of surface temperatures around the melting point. The histograms also show low interannual variability reflecting two important global land surface dynamics; 1) only a small fraction of the Earth's surface is disturbed in any given year, and 2) when

  13. Nimbus 7 earth radiation budget wide field of view climate data set improvement. I - The earth albedo from deconvolution of shortwave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hucek, Richard R.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1987-01-01

    A deconvolution method for extracting the top of the atmosphere (TOA) mean, daily albedo field from a set of wide-FOV (WFOV) shortwave radiometer measurements is proposed. The method is based on constructing a synthetic measurement for each satellite observation. The albedo field is represented as a truncated series of spherical harmonic functions, and these linear equations are presented. Simulation studies were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the method. It is observed that a maximum of about 289 pieces of data can be extracted from a set of Nimbus 7 WFOV satellite measurements. The albedos derived using the deconvolution method are compared with albedos derived using the WFOV archival method; the developed albedo field achieved a 20 percent reduction in the global rms regional reflected flux density errors. The deconvolution method is applied to estimate the mean, daily average TOA albedo field for January 1983. A strong and extensive albedo maximum (0.42), which corresponds to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation event of 1982-1983, is detected over the south central Pacific Ocean.

  14. Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (<10,000 ppm TDS) waters. These modified procedures have been successfully tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly

  15. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  16. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Radioactive contamination of scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danevich, F. A.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    Low counting experiments (search for double β decay and dark matter particles, measurements of neutrino fluxes from different sources, search for hypothetical nuclear and subnuclear processes, low background α, β, γ spectrometry) require extremely low background of a detector. Scintillators are widely used to search for rare events both as conventional scintillation detectors and as cryogenic scintillating bolometers. Radioactive contamination of a scintillation material plays a key role to reach low level of background. Origin and nature of radioactive contamination of scintillators, experimental methods and results are reviewed. A programme to develop radiopure crystal scintillators for low counting experiments is discussed briefly.

  18. Measurement of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in groundwater at a legacy radioactive waste site and its possible role in contaminant mobilisation.

    PubMed

    Rowling, Brett; Kinsela, Andrew S; Comarmond, M Josick; Hughes, Catherine E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Johansen, Mathew P; Payne, Timothy E

    2017-11-01

    At many legacy radioactive waste sites, organic compounds have been co-disposed, which may be a factor in mobilisation of radionuclides at these sites. Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a component of waste streams from the nuclear fuel cycle, where it has been used in separating actinides during processing of nuclear fuels. Analyses of ground waters from the Little Forest Legacy Site (LFLS) in eastern Australia were undertaken using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results indicate the presence of TBP several decades after waste disposal, with TBP only being detected in the immediate vicinity of the main disposal area. TBP is generally considered to degrade in the environment relatively rapidly. Therefore, it is likely that its presence is due to relatively recent releases of TBP, possibly stemming from leakage due to container degradation. The ongoing presence and solubility of TBP has the potential to provide a mechanism for nuclide mobilisation, with implications for long term management of LFLS and similar legacy waste sites. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The JPL near-real-time VLBI system and its application to clock synchronization and earth orientation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. S.; Eubanks, T. M.; Roth, M. G.; Steppe, J. A.; Esposito, P. B.

    1983-01-01

    The JPL near-real-time VLBI system called Block I is discussed. The hardware and software of the system are described, and the Time and Earth Motion Precision Observations (TEMPO) which utilize Block I are discussed. These observations are designed to provide interstation clock synchronization to 10 nsec and to determine earth orientation (UT1 and polar motion - UTPM) to 30 cm or better in each component. TEMPO results for clock synchronization and UTPM are presented with data from the July 1980-August 1981 analyzed using the most recent JPL solution software and source catalog. Future plans for TEMPO and Block I are discussed.

  20. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciT

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be,more » /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.« less

  1. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  2. Photographic consulting services to the Earth Resources program. [using aerial photography as a tool for scientific measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The recommendations, procedures, and techniques are summarized which provided by the Kodak Apparatus Division to the Ames Research Center to support the Earth Resources Aircraft Program at that facility. Recommendations, procedures, and calibration data are included for sensitometry, densitometry, laboratory cleanliness, and determination of camera exposure. Additional comments are made regarding process control procedures and general laboratory operations.

  3. Systematic influences of gamma-ray spectrometry data near the decision threshold for radioactivity measurements in the environment.

    PubMed

    Zorko, Benjamin; Korun, Matjaž; Mora Canadas, Juan Carlos; Nicoulaud-Gouin, Valerie; Chyly, Pavol; Blixt Buhr, Anna Maria; Lager, Charlotte; Aquilonius, Karin; Krajewski, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Several methods for reporting outcomes of gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of environmental samples for dose calculations are presented and discussed. The measurement outcomes can be reported as primary measurement results, primary measurement results modified according to the quantification limit, best estimates obtained by the Bayesian posterior (ISO 11929), best estimates obtained by the probability density distribution resembling shifting, and the procedure recommended by the European Commission (EC). The annual dose is calculated from the arithmetic average using any of these five procedures. It was shown that the primary measurement results modified according to the quantification limit could lead to an underestimation of the annual dose. On the other hand the best estimates lead to an overestimation of the annual dose. The annual doses calculated from the measurement outcomes obtained according to the EC's recommended procedure, which does not cope with the uncertainties, fluctuate between an under- and overestimation, depending on the frequency of the measurement results that are larger than the limit of detection. In the extreme case, when no measurement results above the detection limit occur, the average over primary measurement results modified according to the quantification limit underestimates the average over primary measurement results for about 80%. The average over best estimates calculated according the procedure resembling shifting overestimates the average over primary measurement results for 35%, the average obtained by the Bayesian posterior for 85% and the treatment according to the EC recommendation for 89%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Earth Observation

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  5. Radioactive body burden measurements in (131)iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer: effect of recombinant thyroid stimulating hormone in whole body (131)iodine clearance.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Saadi, Amal; Al Balushi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Protocols in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer, recommend adequate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation for radioactive (131)I administrations, both for imaging and subsequent ablations. Commonly followed method is to achieve this by endogenous TSH stimulation by withdrawal of thyroxine. Numerous studies worldwide have reported comparable results with recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) intervention as conventional thyroxine hormone withdrawal. Radiation safety applications call for the need to understand radioactive (131)I (RA(131)I) clearance pattern to estimate whole body doses when this new methodology is used in our institution. A study of radiation body burden estimation was undertaken in two groups of patients treated with RA(131)I; (a) one group of patients having thyroxine medication suspended for 5 weeks prior to therapy and (b) in the other group retaining thyroxine support with two rhTSH injections prior to therapy with RA(131)I. Sequential exposure rates at 1 m in the air were measured in these patients using a digital auto-ranging beta gamma survey instrument calibrated for measurement of exposure rates. The mean measured exposure rates at 1 m in μSv/h immediately after administration and at 24 h intervals until 3 days are used for calculating of effective ½ time of clearance of administered activity in both groups of patients, 81 patients in conventionally treated group (stop thyroxine) and 22 patients with rhTSH administration. The (131)I activities ranged from 2.6 to 7.9 GBq. The mean administered (131)I activities were 4.24 ± 0.95 GBq (n = 81) in "stop hormone" group and 5.11 ± 1.40 GBq (n = 22) in rhTSH group. The fall of radioactive body burden showed two clearance patterns within observed 72 h. Calculated T½eff values were 16.45 h (stop hormone group) 12.35 h (rhTSH group) for elapsed period of 48 h. Beyond 48 h post administration, clearance of RA(131)I takes place with T½eff> 20 h in both groups

  6. Physical properties, structure, and shape of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident derived from soil, bamboo and shiitake mushroom measurements.

    PubMed

    Niimura, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Tuyen, Ninh Duc; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an elution experiment with contaminated soils using various aqueous reagent solutions and autoradiography measurements of contaminated bamboo shoots and shiitake mushrooms to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Based on our study results and data in the literature, we conclude that the active Cs emitted by the accident fell to the ground as granular non-ionic materials. Therefore, they were not adsorbed or trapped by minerals in the soil, but instead physically adhere to the rough surfaces of the soil mineral particles. Granular Cs* can be transferred among media, such as soils and plants. The physical properties and dynamic behavior of the granular Cs* is expected to be helpful in considering methods for decontamination of soil, litter, and other media. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Rare Earth Electrochemical Property Measurements and Phase Diagram Development in a Complex Molten Salt Mixture for Molten Salt Recycle

    SciT

    Zhang, Jinsuo; Guo, Shaoqiang

    Pyroprocessing is a promising alternative for the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) that uses electrochemical methods. Compared to the hydrometallurgical reprocessing method, pyroprocessing has many advantages such as reduced volume of radioactive waste, simple waste processing, ability to treat refractory material, and compatibility with fast reactor fuel recycle. The key steps of the process are the electro-refining of the spent metallic fuel in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, which can be integrated with an electrolytic reduction step for the reprocessing of spent oxide fuels.

  8. Assessment of ambient gamma dose rate around a prospective uranium mining area of South India - A comparative study of dose by direct methods and soil radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara, K.; Tripathi, R. M.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    Indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were evaluated around a prospective uranium mining region - Gogi, South India through (i) direct measurements using a GM based gamma dose survey meter, (ii) integrated measurement days using CaSO4:Dy based thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs), and (iii) analyses of 273 soil samples for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K activity concentration using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean values of indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were 104 nGy h-1 and 97 nGy h-1, respectively with an indoor to outdoor dose ratio of 1.09. The gamma dose rates and activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K varied significantly within a small area due to the highly localized mineralization of the elements. Correlation study showed that the dose estimated from the soil radioactivity is better correlated with that measured directly using the portable survey meter, when compared to that obtained from TLDs. This study showed that in a region having localized mineralization in situ measurements using dose survey meter provide better representative values of gamma dose rates.

  9. Revealing the Earth's mantle from the tallest mountains using the Jinping Neutrino Experiment.

    PubMed

    Šrámek, Ondřej; Roskovec, Bedřich; Wipperfurth, Scott A; Xi, Yufei; McDonough, William F

    2016-09-09

    The Earth's engine is driven by unknown proportions of primordial energy and heat produced in radioactive decay. Unfortunately, competing models of Earth's composition reveal an order of magnitude uncertainty in the amount of radiogenic power driving mantle dynamics. Recent measurements of the Earth's flux of geoneutrinos, electron antineutrinos from terrestrial natural radioactivity, reveal the amount of uranium and thorium in the Earth and set limits on the residual proportion of primordial energy. Comparison of the flux measured at large underground neutrino experiments with geologically informed predictions of geoneutrino emission from the crust provide the critical test needed to define the mantle's radiogenic power. Measurement at an oceanic location, distant from nuclear reactors and continental crust, would best reveal the mantle flux, however, no such experiment is anticipated. We predict the geoneutrino flux at the site of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment (Sichuan, China). Within 8 years, the combination of existing data and measurements from soon to come experiments, including Jinping, will exclude end-member models at the 1σ level, define the mantle's radiogenic contribution to the surface heat loss, set limits on the composition of the silicate Earth, and provide significant parameter bounds for models defining the mode of mantle convection.

  10. Radioactivities induced in some LDEF samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, Robert C.; Moss, Calvin E.; Bobias, S. George; Masarik, Jozef

    1993-01-01

    Radioactivities induced in several Long Duration Exposure Facilities (LDEF) samples were measured by low-level counting at Los Alamos and elsewhere. These radionuclides have activities similar to those observed in meteorites and lunar samples. Some trends were observed in these measurements in terms of profiles in trunnion layers and as a function of radionuclide half-life. Several existing computer codes were used to model the production by the protons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts and by the galactic cosmic rays of some of these radionuclides, Mn-54 and Co-57 in steel, Sc-46 in titanium, and Na-22 in alloys of titanium and aluminum. Production rates were also calculated for radionuclides possibly implanted in LDEF, Be-7, Be-10, and C-14. Enhanced concentrations of induced isotopes in the surfaces of trunnion sections relative to their concentrations in the center are caused by the lower-energy protons in the trapped radiation. Secondary neutrons made by high-energy trapped protons and by galactic cosmic rays produce much of the observed radioactivities, especially deep in an object. Comparisons of the observed to calculated activities of several radionuclides with different half-lives indicate that the flux of trapped protons at LDEF decreased significantly at the end of the mission.

  11. Arduino based radioactive tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  12. Automated Delay Measurement System for an Earth Station for Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    important for improving the TWSTFT capabilities. An automnted system for this purpose has been developed from the initial design at NMi-VSL. It...September 1994 together with a USNO portable station on a calibration trip to European TWSTFT earth staions. 1. Introduction The Two-Way Satellite...Time and Frequency Transfer ( TWSTFT ) method (Fig. I) is used to compare two clocks or time scales which are often located at great distances from each

  13. Earth Science

    1996-01-13

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft undergoing preflight preparation in the Spacecraft Assembly Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). NEAR will perform two critical mission events - Mathilde flyby and the Deep-Space maneuver. NEAR will fly-by Mathilde, a 38-mile (61-km) diameter C-type asteroid, making use of its imaging system to obtain useful optical navigation images. The primary science instrument will be the camera, but measurements of magnetic fields and mass also will be made. The Deep-Space Maneuver (DSM) will be executed about a week after the Mathilde fly-by. The DSM represents the first of two major burns during the NEAR mission of the 100-pound bi-propellant (Hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide) thruster. This maneuver is necessary to lower the perihelion distance of NEAR's trajectory. The DSM will be conducted in two segments to minimize the possibility of an overburn situation.

  14. Extrapolation of earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, John A.; Pilewskie, Peter A.; Scott-Fleming, Ian C.; Herman, Benjamin M.; Ben-David, Avishai

    1987-01-01

    Techniques for extrapolating earth-based spectral band measurements of directly transmitted solar irradiance to equivalent exoatmospheric signal levels were used to aid in determining system gain settings of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) sunsensor being developed for the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) 2 instrument on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. A band transmittance approach was employed for the HALOE sunsensor which has a broad-band channel determined by the spectral responsivity of a silicon detector. A modified Langley plot approach, assuming a square-root law behavior for the water vapor transmittance, was used for the SAGE-2 940 nm water vapor channel.

  15. Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. A.; Pilewskie, P. A.; Scott-Fleming, I. C.; Hermann, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques for extrapolating Earth-based spectral band measurements of directly transmitted solar irradiance to equivalent exoatmospheric signal levels were used to aid in determining system gain settings of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) sunsensor system being developed for the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) 2 instrument on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. A band transmittance approach was employed for the HALOE sunsensor which has a broad-band channel determined by the spectral responsivity of a silicon detector. A modified Langley plot approach, assuming a square-root law behavior for the water vapor transmittance, was used for the SAGE-2 940 nm water vapor channel.

  16. Accurate measurement in the field of the earth of the general-relativistic precession of the LAGEOS II pericenter and new constraints on non-newtonian gravity.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, David M; Peron, Roberto

    2010-12-03

    The pericenter shift of a binary system represents a suitable observable to test for possible deviations from the newtonian inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions between macroscopic objects. We analyzed 13 years of tracking data of the LAGEOS satellites with GEODYN II software but with no models for general relativity. From the fit of LAGEOS II pericenter residuals we have been able to obtain a 99.8% agreement with the predictions of Einstein's theory. This result may be considered as a 99.8% measurement in the field of the Earth of the combination of the γ and β parameters of general relativity, and it may be used to constrain possible deviations from the inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions parametrized by a Yukawa-like potential with strength α and range λ. We obtained |α| ≲ 1 × 10(-11), a huge improvement at a range of about 1 Earth radius.

  17. Science with radioactive beams: the alchemist's dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelletly, W.

    2001-05-01

    Nuclear science is being transformed by a new capacity to create beams of radioactive nuclei. Until now all of our knowledge of nuclear physics and the applications which flow from it has been derived from studies of radioactive decay and nuclear reactions induced by beams of the 283 stable or long-lived nuclear species we can find on Earth. Here we describe first how beams of radioactive nuclei can be created. The present status of nuclear physics is then reviewed before potential applications to nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, materials science, bio-medical, and environmental studies are described.

  18. Radioactive and magnetic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heye, D.; Beiersdorf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Age and growth pattern determination of manganese nodules were explored. Two methods are discussed: (1) measurement of the presence of radioactive iodine isotopes; which is effective only up to 3.105 years, and (2) measurements of magnetism. The growth rates of three nodules were determined. The surface of the nodule was recent, and the overall age of the nodule could be determined with accuracy of better than 30%. Measurement of paleomagnetic effect was attempted to determine wider age ranges, however, the measured sign changes could not be interpreted as paleomagnetic reversals.

  19. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  20. Sequim Marine Research Laboratory routine environmental measurements during CY-1978. [Monitoring for laboratory-related radioactivity and pollutants in environment

    SciT

    Houston, J.R.; Blumer, P.J.

    1979-03-01

    Environmental data collected during 1978 in the vicinity of the Marine Research Laboratory show continued compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations and furthermore show no detectable change from conditions that existed in previous years. Samples collected for radiological analysis included soil, drinking water, bay water, clams, and seaweed. Radiation dose rates at 1 meter aboveground were also measured.

  1. Down to earth relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concepts of the special and general theories of relativity are described. Simple examples are given to illustrate the effect of relativity on measurements of time and frequency in the near-earth environment.

  2. Wear measurement using radioactive tracer technique based on proton, deuteron and α-particle induced nuclear reactions on molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.

    2012-11-01

    Excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for various applications. Excitation functions of 93,94g,94m,95g,95m,96,99mTc, 90,93m,99Mo, 90,91m,92m,95m,95g,96Nb and 88,89Zr were measured up to 50 MeV deuteron energy Tárkányi et al., 2012 [1], 93m,93g,94m,94g,95m,95g,96g,99mTc, 90,93m,99Mo, 90,92m,95m,95g,96Nb and 88,89Zr were measured up to 40 MeV proton energy Tárkányi et al., 2012 [2] and 93m,93g,94m,94g,95m,95g,96g,99mTc, 93m,99Mo, 90Nb, 94,95,97,103Ru and 88Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha energy Ditrói et al., 2012 [3] by using the stacked foil technique and activation method. The results for 3He induced reactions on natural Mo were taken from the literature Comparetto and Qaim, 1980 [4]. According to their half-lives, from the above listed radionuclides the 95m,96Tc, 91m,92m,95m,95gNb, 99Mo, 103,97Ru and 88Zr are suitable candidates for wear measurement by using thin layer activation (TLA) method. The goal of this work was to determine the necessary nuclear data for TLA of the above radionuclides and to prove their applicability for wear measurements.

  3. Sulfur Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  4. Microbial Life in the Deep Subsurface: Deep, Hot and Radioactive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeStefano, Andrea L.; Ford, Jill C.; Winsor, Seana K.; Allen, Carlton C.; Miller, Judith; McNamara, Karen M.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies, motivated in part by the search for extraterrestrial life, continue to expand the recognized limits of Earth's biosphere. This work explored evidence for life a high-temperature, radioactive environment in the deep subsurface.

  5. Evaluation of geomagnetic field models using magnetometer measurements for satellite attitude determination system at low earth orbits: Case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilden-Guler, Demet; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Hajiyev, Chingiz

    2018-01-01

    In this study, different geomagnetic field models are compared in order to study the errors resulting from the representation of magnetic fields that affect the satellite attitude system. For this purpose, we used magnetometer data from two Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft and the geomagnetic models IGRF-12 (Thébault et al., 2015) and T89 (Tsyganenko, 1989) models to study the differences between the magnetic field components, strength and the angle between the predicted and observed vector magnetic fields. The comparisons were made during geomagnetically active and quiet days to see the effects of the geomagnetic storms and sub-storms on the predicted and observed magnetic fields and angles. The angles, in turn, are used to estimate the spacecraft attitude and hence, the differences between model and observations as well as between two models become important to determine and reduce the errors associated with the models under different space environment conditions. We show that the models differ from the observations even during the geomagnetically quiet times but the associated errors during the geomagnetically active times increase. We find that the T89 model gives closer predictions to the observations, especially during active times and the errors are smaller compared to the IGRF-12 model. The magnitude of the error in the angle under both environmental conditions was found to be less than 1°. For the first time, the geomagnetic models were used to address the effects of the near Earth space environment on the satellite attitude.

  6. Mathematical modeling and measurement of electric fields of electrode-based through-the-earth (TTE) communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lincan; Zhou, Chenming; Reyes, Miguel; Whisner, Bruce; Damiano, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    There are two types of through-the-earth (TTE) wireless communication in the mining industry: magnetic loop TTE and electrode-based (or linear) TTE. While the magnetic loop systems send signal through magnetic fields, the transmitter of an electrode-based TTE system sends signal directly through the mine overburden by driving an extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultralow frequency (ULF) AC current into the earth. The receiver at the other end (underground or surface) detects the resultant current and receives it as a voltage. A wireless communication link between surface and underground is then established. For electrode-based TTE communications, the signal is transmitted through the established electric field and is received as a voltage detected at the receiver. It is important to understand the electric field distribution within the mine overburden for the purpose of designing and improving the performance of the electrode-based TTE systems. In this paper, a complete explicit solution for all three electric field components for the electrode-based TTE communication was developed. An experiment was conducted using a prototype electrode-based TTE system developed by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The mathematical model was then compared and validated with test data. A reasonable agreement was found between them.

  7. Mathematical modeling and measurement of electric fields of electrode-based through-the-earth (TTE) communication.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lincan; Zhou, Chenming; Reyes, Miguel; Whisner, Bruce; Damiano, Nicholas

    2017-07-12

    There are two types of through-the-earth (TTE) wireless communication in the mining industry: magnetic loop TTE and electrode-based (or linear) TTE. While the magnetic loop systems send signal through magnetic fields, the transmitter of an electrode-based TTE system sends signal directly through the mine overburden by driving an extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultralow frequency (ULF) AC current into the earth. The receiver at the other end (underground or surface) detects the resultant current and receives it as a voltage. A wireless communication link between surface and underground is then established. For electrode-based TTE communications, the signal is transmitted through the established electric field and is received as a voltage detected at the receiver. It is important to understand the electric field distribution within the mine overburden for the purpose of designing and improving the performance of the electrode-based TTE systems. In this paper, a complete explicit solution for all three electric field components for the electrode-based TTE communication was developed. An experiment was conducted using a prototype electrode-based TTE system developed by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The mathematical model was then compared and validated with test data. A reasonable agreement was found between them.

  8. Mathematical modeling and measurement of electric fields of electrode-based through-the-earth (TTE) communication

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lincan; Zhou, Chenming; Reyes, Miguel; Whisner, Bruce; Damiano, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    There are two types of through-the-earth (TTE) wireless communication in the mining industry: magnetic loop TTE and electrode-based (or linear) TTE. While the magnetic loop systems send signal through magnetic fields, the transmitter of an electrode-based TTE system sends signal directly through the mine overburden by driving an extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultralow frequency (ULF) AC current into the earth. The receiver at the other end (underground or surface) detects the resultant current and receives it as a voltage. A wireless communication link between surface and underground is then established. For electrode-based TTE communications, the signal is transmitted through the established electric field and is received as a voltage detected at the receiver. It is important to understand the electric field distribution within the mine overburden for the purpose of designing and improving the performance of the electrode-based TTE systems. In this paper, a complete explicit solution for all three electric field components for the electrode-based TTE communication was developed. An experiment was conducted using a prototype electrode-based TTE system developed by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The mathematical model was then compared and validated with test data. A reasonable agreement was found between them. PMID:28845062

  9. Measures of Success for Earth System Science Education: The DLESE Evaluation Services and the Evaluation Toolkit Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S.

    2005-12-01

    Increased agency emphasis upon the integration of research and education coupled with the ability to provide students with access to digital background materials, learning activities and primary data sources has begun to revolutionize Earth science education in formal and informal settings. The DLESE Evaluation Services team and the related Evaluation Toolkit collection (http://www.dlese.org/cms/evalservices/ ) provides services and tools for education project leads and educators. Through the Evaluation Toolkit, educators may access high-quality digital materials to assess students' cognitive gains, examples of alternative assessments, and case studies and exemplars of authentic research. The DLESE Evaluation Services team provides support for those who are developing evaluation plans on an as-requested basis. In addition, the Toolkit provides authoritative peer reviewed articlesabout evaluation research techniques and strategies of particular importance to geoscience education. This paper will provide an overview of the DLESE Evaluation Toolkit and discuss challenges and best practices for assessing student learning and evaluating Earth system sciences education in a digital world.

  10. An impact of moss sample cleaning on uncertainty of analytical measurement and pattern profiles of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Dołęgowska, Sabina; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M

    2017-12-01

    The main source of rare earth elements (REE) in mosses is atmospheric deposition of particles. Sample treatment operations including shaking, rinsing or washing, which are made in a standard way on moss samples prior to chemical analysis, may lead to removing particles adsorbed onto their tissues. This in turn causes differences in REE concentrations in treated and untreated samples. For the present study, 27 combined moss samples were collected within three wooded areas and prepared for REE determinations by ICP-MS using both manual cleaning by shaking and triple rinsing with deionized water. Higher concentrations of REE were found in manually cleaned samples. The comparison of REE signatures and shale-normalized REE concentration patterns showed that the treatment procedure did not lead to fractionation of REE. All the samples were enriched in medium rare earth elements, and the δMREE factor remained practically unchanged after rinsing. Positive anomalies of Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Er and Yb were observed in both, manually cleaned and rinsed samples. For all the elements examined, analytical uncertainty was below 3.0% whereas sample preparation uncertainty computed with ANOVA, RANOVA, modified RANOVA and range statistics methods varied from 3.5 to 29.7%. In most cases the lowest s rprep values were obtained with the modified RANOVA method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. USE OF THE AERIAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM HELICOPTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE ACQUISITION SYSTEMS WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE SOIL REMEDIATION - [11504

    SciT

    BROCK CT

    2011-02-15

    The Aerial Measurement System (AMS) Helicopter Emergency Response Acquisition System provides a thorough and economical means to identify and characterize the contaminants for large area radiological surveys. The helicopter system can provide a 100-percent survey of an area that qualifies as a scoping survey under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) methodology. If the sensitivity is adequate when compared to the clean up values, it may also be used for the characterization survey. The data from the helicopter survey can be displayed and manipulated to provide invaluable data during remediation activities.

  12. Radioactivity measurements in moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) samples collected from Marmara region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Belivermiş, Murat; Cotuk, Yavuz

    2010-11-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U activity concentrations in epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis). The activity levels in 37 moss and 38 lichen samples collected from the Marmara region of Turkey were measured using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in the moss samples were found to be in the range of 0.36-8.13, 17.1-181.1, 1.51-6.17, and 0.87-6.70 Bq kg(-1) respectively, while these values were below detection limit (BDL)-4.32, 16.6-240.0, 1.32-6.47, and BDL-3.57 Bq kg(-1) respectively in lichen. The average moss/lichen activity ratios of (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U were found to be 1.32 +/- 0.57, 2.79 +/- 1.67, 2.11 +/- 0.82, and 2.19 +/- 1.02, respectively. Very low (137)Cs concentrations were observed in moss and lichen samples compared to soil samples collected from the same locations in a previous study. Seasonal variations of the measured radionuclide activities were also examined in the three sampling stations.

  13. Sound velocity measurements of dhcp-FeHx up to 70 GPa using inelastic X-ray scattering: Implications for the abundance of hydrogen in the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibazaki, Y.; Ohtani, E.; Fukui, H.; Sakai, T.; Kamada, S.; Baron, A. Q.; Nishitani, N.; Hirao, N.; Takemura, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's interior has been directly investigated by seismic wave propagation and normal mode oscillation. In particular, the distributions of density and sound velocity are available to study the Earth's core (e.g. PREM). The inner core, which is solid state, is approximately 3 % less dense than pure iron (a core density deficit), and it is considered that the core consists of iron and light elements, such as hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, silicon, and sulfur. In this work, in order to constrain the abundance of hydrogen in the Earth's core by matching the density and sound velocity of FeHx to those of PREM, we determined the compressional sound velocity of iron hydride at high pressure using inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS). The IXS experiments and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were conducted up to 70 GPa and room temperature. High-pressure conditions were generated using a symmetric diamond anvil cell (DAC) with tungsten gaskets. Hydrogen initially pressurized to 0.18 GPa was loaded to the sample chamber. The IXS experiments were performed at BL35XU of the SPring-8 facility in Japan. The XRD experiments at high pressure were carried out by the angle dispersive method at BL10XU of the SPring-8 facility in Japan. The each XRD pattern of FeHx was collected after each IXS measurement in order to obtain directly the density of FeHx. Over the range of pressure studied, the diffraction lines of double-hexagonal close-packed (dhcp)-FeHx were observed and there were no diffraction lines of iron. We show that FeHx follows Birch's law for Vp above 37 GPa, namely a linear dependence between velocity and density. The estimated Vp, extrapolated to core conditions, is compared with PREM. Our results provide that the Earth's inner core could contain about 0.2 wt% hydrogen.

  14. Measurements of natural radioactivity concentration in drinking water samples of Shiraz city and springs of the Fars province, Iran, and dose estimation.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Simin; Faghihi, Reza; Sina, Sedigheh; Derakhshan, Shahrzad

    2013-11-01

    The Fars province is located in the south-west region of Iran where different nuclear sites has been established, such as Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant. In this research, 92 water samples from the water supplies of Shiraz city and springs of the Fars province were investigated with regard to the concentrations of natural radioactive elements, total uranium, (226)Ra, gross alpha and gross beta. (226)Ra concentration was determined by the (222)Rn emanation method. To measure the total uranium concentration, a laser fluorimetry analyzer (UA-3) was used. The mean concentration of (226)Ra in Shiraz's water resources was 23.9 mBq l(-1), while 93 % of spring waters have a concentration <2 mBq l(-1). The results of uranium concentration measurements show the mean concentrations of 7.6 and 6 μg l(-1) in the water of Shiraz and springs of Fars, respectively. The gross alpha and beta concentrations measured by the evaporation method were lower than the limit of detection of the measuring instruments used in this survey. The mean annual effective doses of infants, children and adults from (238)U and (226)Ra content of Shiraz's water and spring waters were estimated. According to the results of this study, the activity concentration in water samples were below the maximum permissible concentrations determined by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Finally, the correlation between (226)Ra and total U activity concentrations and geochemical properties of water samples, i.e. pH, total dissolve solids and SO4(-2), were estimated.

  15. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  16. Measurement of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate from rock samples of Jaduguda uranium mines and its radiological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahur, A. K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sonkawade, R. G.; Sengupta, D.; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-04-01

    The Singhbhum shear zone is a 200 km long arcuate belt in Jharkhand state situated in eastern India. The central part between Jaduguda-Bhatin-Nimdih, Narwapahr-Garadih-Turamdih is rich in uranium. Presence of uranium in the host rocks and the prevalence of a confined atmosphere within mines could result in enhanced concentration of radon (222Rn) gas and its progeny. Inhalation of radon daughter products is a major contributor to the radiation dose to exposed subjects. By using high resolution γ-ray spectroscopic system various radionuclides in the rock samples, collected from different places of Jaduguda uranium mines have been identified quantitatively based on the characteristic spectral peaks. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides, uranium (238U), thorium (232Th) and potassium (40K) were measured in the rock samples and radiological parameters were calculated. Uranium concentration was found to vary from 123 ± 7 Bq kg-1 to 40,858 ± 174 Bq kg-1. Activity of thorium was not significant in the samples, whereas, few samples have shown potassium activity from 162 ± 11 Bq kg-1 to 9024 ± 189 Bq kg-1. Radon exhalation rates from these samples were also measured using "Sealed Can technique" and found to vary from 4.2 ± 0.05 to 13.7 ± 0.08 Bq m-2 h-1. A positive correlation was found between the radon exhalation rate and the uranium activity. The absorbed dose rates vary from 63.6 to 18876.4 nGy h-1, with an average value of 7054.2 nGy h-1. The annual external effective dose rates vary from 0.7 to 23.2 mSv y-1. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) varied from 134.3 to 40858.0 Bq kg-1. Value of external hazard index (Hex) varied from 0.4 to 110.4 with an average value of 41.2.

  17. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    PubMed

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The electrical conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle as estimated from satellite measured magnetic field variations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didwall, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Low latitude magnetic field variations (magnetic storms) caused by large fluctuations in the equatorial ring current were derived from magnetic field magnitude data obtained by OGO 2, 4, and 6 satellites over an almost 5 year period. Analysis procedures consisted of (1) separating the disturbance field into internal and external parts relative to the surface of the Earth; (2) estimating the response function which related to the internally generated magnetic field variations to the external variations due to the ring current; and (3) interpreting the estimated response function using theoretical response functions for known conductivity profiles. Special consideration is given to possible ocean effects. A temperature profile is proposed using conductivity temperature data for single crystal olivine. The resulting temperature profile is reasonable for depths below 150-200 km, but is too high for shallower depths. Apparently, conductivity is not controlled solely by olivine at shallow depths.

  19. Determination of Galactic Aberration from VLBI Measurements and Its Effect on VLBI Reference Frames and Earth Orientation Parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Galactic aberration is due to the motion of the solar system barycenter around the galactic center. It results in a systematic pattern of apparent proper motion of radio sources observed by VLBI. This effect is not currently included in VLBI analysis. Estimates of the size of this effect indicate that it is important that this secular aberration drift be accounted for in order to maintain an accurate celestial reference frame and allow astrometry at the several microarcsecond level. Future geodetic observing systems are being designed to be capable of producing a future terrestrial reference frame with an accuracy of 1 mm and stability of 0.1 mm/year. We evaluate the effect galactic aberration on attaining these reference frame goals. This presentation will discuss 1) the estimation of galactic aberration from VLBI data and 2) the effect of aberration on the Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frames and the Earth Orientation Parameters that connect these frames.

  20. Determination Gradients of the Earth's Magnetic Field from the Measurements of the Satellites and Inversion of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karoly, Kis; Taylor, Patrick T.; Geza, Wittmann

    2014-01-01

    We computed magnetic field gradients at satellite altitude, over Europe with emphasis on the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). They were calculated using the CHAMP satellite total magnetic anomalies. Our computations were done to determine how the magnetic anomaly data from the new ESA/Swarm satellites could be utilized to determine the structure of the magnetization of the Earths crust, especially in the region of the KMA. Since the ten years of 2 CHAMP data could be used to simulate the Swarm data. An initial East magnetic anomaly gradient map of Europe was computed and subsequently the North, East and Vertical magnetic gradients for the KMA region were calculated. The vertical gradient of the KMA was determined using Hilbert transforms. Inversion of the total KMA was derived using Simplex and Simulated Annealing algorithms. Our resulting inversion depth model is a horizontal quadrangle with upper 300-329 km and lower 331-339 km boundaries.

  1. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  2. Measurement of intrinsic radioactive backgrounds from the 137Cs and U/Th chains in CsI(Tl) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shu-Kui; Yue, Qian; Lin, Shin-Ted; Li, Yuan-Jing; Tang, Chang-Jian; Wong Tsz-King, Henry; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yang, Chao-Wen; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Jing-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The inorganic CsI(Tl) crystal scintillator is a candidate anti-compton detector for the China Dark matter Experiment. Studying the intrinsic radiopurity of the CsI(Tl) crystal is an issue of major importance. The timing, energy and spatial correlations, as well as the capability of pulse shape discrimination provide powerful methods for the measurement of intrinsic radiopurities. The experimental design, detector performance and event-selection algorithms are described. A total of 359×3 kg-days data from three prototypes of CsI(Tl) crystals were taken at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL), which offers a good shielding environment. The contamination levels of internal isotopes from 137Cs, 232Th and 238U series, as well as the upper bounds of 235U series are reported. Identification of the whole α peaks from U/Th decay chains and derivation of those corresponding quenching factors are achieved. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275107, 11175099)

  3. Serial post-surgical stimulated and unstimulated highly sensitive thyroglobulin measurements in low- and intermediate-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma patients not receiving radioactive iodine.

    PubMed

    Kashat, Lawrence; Orlov, Steven; Orlov, David; Assi, Jasmeet; Salari, Farnaz; Walfish, Paul G

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the natural temporal trends of serial thyroglobulin (Tg) among low/intermediate-risk PTC patients not receiving radioactive iodine (RAI) using TSH-stimulated Tg (Stim-Tg) and unstimulated highly sensitive Tg (u-hsTg). We prospectively analyzed serial Stim-Tg measurements after total thyroidectomy ± therapeutic central neck dissection among 121 consecutive low/intermediate-risk PTC patients who did not receive RAI, of whom 104 also had serial u-hsTg measurements available. Median follow-up was 6.5 years with Stim-Tg measurements commencing 3 months after surgery and u-hsTg commencing 1.8 years after surgery (when the assay became available). TSH stimulation was performed with 9-day T3 withdrawal, 22-day T4 withdrawal, or using recombinant human TSH (rhTSH). To account for within-patient correlations of repeated Tg measurements, temporal trends in Stim-Tg and u-hsTg were assessed using Generalized Estimating Equations. Stim-Tg models were adjusted for the method of TSH stimulation, whereas the u-hsTg models were adjusted for concurrent TSH level. Linear regression modeling was used to assess the trend in serial Stim-Tg and u-hsTg measurements as a function time from time of surgery throughout the duration of follow-up. The main outcome measured was the change in u-hsTg and Stim-Tg measurements over time. A total of 337 Stim-Tg (2.8/patient) and 602 u-hsTg (5.8/patient) measurements were analyzed. Among the 337 Stim-Tg measurements, Stim-Tg was assessed using rhTSH in 202 (60 %), T4 withdrawal in 41 (12 %), and T3 withdrawal in 94 (28 %) measurements. The overall mean ± 1SD for Stim-Tg and u-hsTg measured was 1.0 ± 1.2 and 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/L, respectively. When adjusted for method of TSH stimulation, serial Stim-Tg measurements did not significantly change over time (all p = NS). The estimated changes in Stim-Tg per year for rhTSH, T4 withdrawal, and T3 withdrawal were 0.01, -0.08, and 0.04

  4. Ecology of Near-Earth Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghosyan, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    The technical achievements of our civilization are accompanied by certain negative consequences affect the near-Earth space. The problem of clogging of near-Earth space by "space debris" as purely theoretical arose essentially as soon as the first artificial satellite in 1957 was launched. Since then, the rate of exploitation of outer space has increased very rapidly. As a result, the problem of clogging of near-Earth space ceased to be only theoretical and transformed into practical. Presently, anthropogenic factors of the development of near-Earth space are divided into several categories: mechanical, chemical, radioactive and electromagnetic pollution.

  5. Earth before life.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  6. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Panelists pose for a group photo at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  7. The relation between degree-2160 spectral models of Earth's gravitational and topographic potential: a guide on global correlation measures and their dependency on approximation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, Christian; Rexer, Moritz; Claessens, Sten; Rummel, Reiner

    2017-10-01

    Comparisons between high-degree models of the Earth's topographic and gravitational potential may give insight into the quality and resolution of the source data sets, provide feedback on the modelling techniques and help to better understand the gravity field composition. Degree correlations (cross-correlation coefficients) or reduction rates (quantifying the amount of topographic signal contained in the gravitational potential) are indicators used in a number of contemporary studies. However, depending on the modelling techniques and underlying levels of approximation, the correlation at high degrees may vary significantly, as do the conclusions drawn. The present paper addresses this problem by attempting to provide a guide on global correlation measures with particular emphasis on approximation effects and variants of topographic potential modelling. We investigate and discuss the impact of different effects (e.g., truncation of series expansions of the topographic potential, mass compression, ellipsoidal versus spherical approximation, ellipsoidal harmonic coefficient versus spherical harmonic coefficient (SHC) representation) on correlation measures. Our study demonstrates that the correlation coefficients are realistic only when the model's harmonic coefficients of a given degree are largely independent of the coefficients of other degrees, permitting degree-wise evaluations. This is the case, e.g., when both models are represented in terms of SHCs and spherical approximation (i.e. spherical arrangement of field-generating masses). Alternatively, a representation in ellipsoidal harmonics can be combined with ellipsoidal approximation. The usual ellipsoidal approximation level (i.e. ellipsoidal mass arrangement) is shown to bias correlation coefficients when SHCs are used. Importantly, gravity models from the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) are inherently based on this approximation level. A transformation is presented that enables a

  8. Feasibility of modifying the high resolution infrared radiation sounder (HIRS/2) for measuring spectral components of Earth radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, E. W.; Holman, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of adding four spectral channels to the 20 channel HIRS/2 instrument for the purpose of determining the origin and profile of radiant existence from the Earth's atmosphere is considered. Methods of addition of three channels at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.6 micron m to the present 0.7 micron m visible channel and an 18-25 micron m channel to the present 19 channels spaced from 3.7 micron m to 15 micron m are addressed. Optical components and physical positions were found that permit inclusion of these added channels with negligible effect on the performance of the present 20 channels. Data format changes permit inclusion of the ERB data in the 288 bits allocated to HIRS for each scan element. A lamp and collimating optic assembly may replace one of the on board radiometric black bodies to provide a reference source for the albedo channels. Some increase in instrument dimensions, weight and power will be required to accommodate the modifications.

  9. Comparisons of LET distributions measured in low-earth orbit using tissue-equivalent proportional counters and the position-sensitive silicon-detector telescope (RRMD-III)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doke, T.; Hayashi, T.; Borak, T. B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Determinations of the LET distribution, phi(L), of charged particles within a spacecraft in low-Earth orbit have been made. One method used a cylindrical tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), with the assumption that for each measured event, lineal energy, y, is equal to LET and thus phi(L) = phi(y). The other was based on the direct measurement of LETs for individual particles using a charged-particle telescope consisting of position-sensitive silicon detectors called RRMD-III. There were differences of up to a factor of 10 between estimates of phi(L) using the two methods on the same mission. This caused estimates of quality factor to vary by a factor of two between the two methods.

  10. Earth Observation

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  11. Earth Observation

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. On crewmember's Flickr page - Look straight down into an aurora.

  12. Earth Observation

    2014-06-07

    ISS040-E-008174 (7 June 2014) --- Layers of Earth's atmosphere, brightly colored as the sun rises, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  13. Earth Observation

    2014-06-02

    ISS040-E-006817 (2 June 2014) --- Intersecting the thin line of Earth's atmosphere, International Space Station solar array wings are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  14. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  15. Earth Observation

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  16. Earth Observation

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  17. Earth Observation

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  18. Earth Science

    1990-10-24

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  19. Earth Observation

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  20. Earth Observation

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  1. Earth Observations

    2010-06-16

    ISS024-E-006136 (16 June 2010) --- Polar mesospheric clouds, illuminated by an orbital sunrise, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric, or noctilucent (?night shining?), clouds are observed from both Earth?s surface and in orbit by crew members aboard the space station. They are called night-shining clouds as they are usually seen at twilight. Following the setting of the sun below the horizon and darkening of Earth?s surface, these high clouds are still briefly illuminated by sunlight. Occasionally the ISS orbital track becomes nearly parallel to Earth?s day/night terminator for a time, allowing polar mesospheric clouds to be visible to the crew at times other than the usual twilight due to the space station altitude. This unusual photograph shows polar mesospheric clouds illuminated by the rising, rather than setting, sun at center right. Low clouds on the horizon appear yellow and orange, while higher clouds and aerosols are illuminated a brilliant white. Polar mesospheric clouds appear as light blue ribbons extending across the top of the image. These clouds typically occur at high latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and at fairly high altitudes of 76?85 kilometers (near the boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere atmospheric layers). The ISS was located over the Greek island of Kos in the Aegean Sea (near the southwestern coastline of Turkey) when the image was taken at approximately midnight local time. The orbital complex was tracking northeastward, nearly parallel to the terminator, making it possible to observe an apparent ?sunrise? located almost due north. A similar unusual alignment of the ISS orbit track, terminator position, and seasonal position of Earth?s orbit around the sun allowed for striking imagery of polar mesospheric clouds over the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

  2. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Kempler, S.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is also home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 17 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available: -Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products, DPR products -Level-2 Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products, DPR products -Level-3 daily and monthly products, DPR products -Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data version control and provenance; documentation; science support for proper data usage, FAQ, help desk; monitoring services (e.g. Current Conditions) for applications. The United User Interface (UUI) is the next step in the evolution of the GES DISC web site. It attempts to provide seamless access to data, information and services through a single interface without sending the user to different applications or URLs (e.g., search, access

  3. Field measurements of horizontal forward motion velocities of terrestrial dust devils: Towards a proxy for ambient winds on Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, M. R.; Pathare, A.; Metzger, S. M.; Towner, M. C.; Lewis, S. R.; Spiga, A.; Fenton, L. K.; Renno, N. O.; Elliott, H. M.; Saca, F. A.; Michaels, T. I.; Russell, P.; Verdasca, J.

    2012-11-01

    Dust devils - convective vortices made visible by the dust and debris they entrain - are common in arid environments and have been observed on Earth and Mars. Martian dust devils have been identified both in images taken at the surface and in remote sensing observations from orbiting spacecraft. Observations from landing craft and orbiting instruments have allowed the dust devil translational forward motion (ground velocity) to be calculated, but it is unclear how these velocities relate to the local ambient wind conditions, for (i) only model wind speeds are generally available for Mars, and (ii) on Earth only anecdotal evidence exists that compares dust devil ground velocity with ambient wind velocity. If dust devil ground velocity can be reliably correlated to the ambient wind regime, observations of dust devils could provide a proxy for wind speed and direction measurements on Mars. Hence, dust devil ground velocities could be used to probe the circulation of the martian boundary layer and help constrain climate models or assess the safety of future landing sites. We present results from a field study of terrestrial dust devils performed in the southwest USA in which we measured dust devil horizontal velocity as a function of ambient wind velocity. We acquired stereo images of more than a 100 active dust devils and recorded multiple size and position measurements for each dust devil. We used these data to calculate dust devil translational velocity. The dust devils were within a study area bounded by 10 m high meteorology towers such that dust devil speed and direction could be correlated with the local ambient wind speed and direction measurements. Daily (10:00-16:00 local time) and 2-h averaged dust devil ground speeds correlate well with ambient wind speeds averaged over the same period. Unsurprisingly, individual measurements of dust devil ground speed match instantaneous measurements of ambient wind speed more poorly; a 20-min smoothing window applied to

  4. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http://pmm.nasa.gov/GPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM "Core Observatory" satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding

  5. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

    2014-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following:Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer productsLevel-2 Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner productsLevel-3 daily and monthly productsIntegrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: 1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products. 2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products. 3. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products. (early, late, and final)A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data

  7. New Approaches in estimating Dust Devil Parameters, Trajectories and Populations from Single-Station Measurements on Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    A Monte-Carlo modeling approach (Lorenz, J. Atm. Sci., 2014) using a power law population function and empirical correlations between diameter and longevity can be used to reconcile single-station pressure records of vortex close-approaches with visual counts of dust devils and Large Eddy Simulations (LES). That work suggests that on Earth, the populations can be reconciled if dust-lifting occurs with a typical threshold corresponding to core pressure drop of 0.8 mb, a little higher than the ~0.3 mb estimated in laboratory experiments. A similar analysis can be conducted at Mars. The highest vortex production rates in LES, indicated from field encounters, and extrapolated from visual counts, appear to be of the order of 1000 per km2 per day.Recent field experiments at a playa near Goldstone, CA (Lorenz et al., Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, in press) show that dust devils cause a ground tilt, due to the negative pressure load of the vortex on the elastic ground, that can be detected with a broadband seismometer like that on InSight. Dust devils therefore can serve as a ‘seismic source’ to characterize the shallow subsurface.Observations of the InSight landing area in Elysium by Reiss and Lorenz (Icarus, submitted) show that dust devil trails are abundant, but smaller in diameter than those at Gusev. This may indicate a shallower Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) at this site and season : Fenton and Lorenz (Icarus, 2015) found that observed dust devil height and spacing in Amazonis relates to the PBL thickness.Quantitative assessment of dust devil effects (e.g. electrical and magnetic signatures) requires knowledge of encounter geometry, notably miss distance. A recent heuristic approach has been developed (Lorenz, Icarus, submitted) to fit an analytic vortex model to pressure, windspeed and direction histories to recover this geometry. Some ambiguities exist, but can be constrained with camera images and/or the azimuth history estimated from

  8. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  9. First Results from Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE): Differential Flux Measurements of Energetic Particles in a Highly Inclined Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Palo, S. E.; Kohnert, R.; Gerhardt, D.; Blum, L. W.; Schiller, Q.; Turner, D. L.; Tu, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) is a 3-unit (10cm x 10cm x 30cm) CubeSat mission funded by the National Science Foundation, scheduled for launch into a low-Earth, polar orbit after August 14th, 2012 as a secondary payload under NASA's Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa) program. The science objectives of CSSWE are to investigate the relationship of the location, magnitude, and frequency of solar flares to the timing, duration, and energy spectrum of solar energetic particles (SEP) reaching Earth, and to determine the precipitation loss and the evolution of the energy spectrum of radiation belt electrons. CSSWE contains a single science payload, the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), which is a miniaturization of the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) built at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The REPT instrument will fly onboard the NASA/Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, which consists of two identical spacecraft scheduled to launch after August 23rd, 2012 that will go through the heart of the radiation belts in a low inclination orbit. CSSWE's REPTile is designed to measure the directional differential flux of protons ranging from 10 to 40 MeV and electrons from 0.5 to >3 MeV. Such differential flux measurements have significant science value, and a number of engineering challenges were overcome to enable these clean measurements to be made under the mass and power limits of a CubeSat. The CSSWE is an ideal class project, providing training for the next generation of engineers and scientists over the full life-cycle of a satellite project. We will report the first results from this exciting mission.

  10. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in northeastern United States during 1952

    McKeown, Francis A.; Klemic, Harry

    1953-01-01

    Reconnaissance for radioactive materials was made in parts of Maine, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The primary objective was to examine the iron ore deposits and associated rocks in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the Highlands of New Jersey. In addition, several deposits known or reported to contain radioactive minerals were examined to delimit their extent. Most of the deposits examined are not significant as possible sources of radioactive elements and the data pertaining to them are summarized in table form. Deposits that do warrant more description than can be given in table form are: Benson Mines, St. Lawrence County, N. Y.; Rutgers mine, Clinton County, N. Y.; Mineville Mines, Essex County, N. Y.l Canfield phosphate mine, Morris County, N. J.; Mullgan quarry, Hunterdon County, N. J.; and the Chestnut Hill-Marble Mountain area, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The Old Bed in the Mineville district is the only deposit that may be economically significant. Apatite from Old Bed ore contains as much as 4.9 percent total rare earth. 0.04 percent thorium, and 0.018 percent uranium. Magnetite ore at the Rutgers mine contains radioactive zircon and apatite. Radioactivity measurements of outcrops and dump material show that the ore contains from 0.005 to 0.010 percent equivalent uranium. One sample of lean magnetite ore contains 0.006 percent equivalent uranium. Garnet-rich zones in the Benson Mines magnetite deposit contain as much as 0.017 equivalent uranium. Most of the rock and ore, however, contains about 0.005 percent equivalent uranium. Available data indicate that the garnet-rich zones are enriched in radioactive allanite. A shear zone in the Kittatinny limestone of Cambrian age at the Mulligan quarry contains uraniferous material. Radioactivity anomalies elsewhere in the quarry and in adjacent fields indicate that there may be other uraniferous shear zones. Assays of samples and measurements of outcrop radioactivity indicate that the uranium

  11. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Panelists discuss how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist, Planetary Science Institute, moderates a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  13. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    An audience member asks the panelists a question at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  14. Geomanetically Induced Currents (GIC) calculation, impact assessment on transmission system and validation using 3-D earth conductivity tensors and GIC measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; McCalley, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) causes the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in the power transmission system that may cause large scale power outages and power system equipment damage. In order to plan for defense against GMD, it is necessary to accurately estimate the flow of GICs in the power transmission system. The current calculation as per NERC standards uses the 1-D earth conductivity models that don't reflect the coupling between the geoelectric and geomagnetic field components in the same direction. For accurate estimation of GICs, it is important to have spatially granular 3-D earth conductivity tensors, accurate DC network model of the transmission system and precisely estimated or measured input in the form of geomagnetic or geoelectric field data. Using these models and data the pre event, post event and online planning and assessment can be performed. The pre, post and online planning can be done by calculating GIC, analyzing voltage stability margin, identifying protection system vulnerabilities and estimating heating in transmission equipment. In order to perform the above mentioned tasks, an established GIC calculation and analysis procedure is needed that uses improved geophysical and DC network models obtained by model parameter tuning. The issue is addressed by performing the following tasks; 1) Geomagnetic field data and improved 3-D earth conductivity tensors are used to plot the geoelectric field map of a given area. The obtained geoelectric field map then serves as an input to the PSS/E platform, where through DC circuit analysis the GIC flows are calculated. 2) The computed GIC is evaluated against GIC measurements in order to fine tune the geophysical and DC network model parameters for any mismatch in the calculated and measured GIC. 3) The GIC calculation procedure is then adapted for a one in 100 year storm, in order to assess the impact of the worst case GMD on the power system. 4) Using the transformer models, the voltage

  15. A technique for measurement of earth station antenna G/T by radio stars and Applications Technology Satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochevar, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    A new technique has been developed to accurately measure the G/T of a small aperture antenna using geostationary satellites and the well established radio star method. A large aperture antenna having the capability of accurately measuring its G/T by using a radio star of known power density is used to obtain an accurate G/T to use as a reference. The CNR of both the large and small aperture antennas are then measured using an Applications Technology Satellite (ATS). After normalizing the two C/N ratios to the large antenna system noise temperature the G/T or the gain G of the small aperture antenna can then be determined.

  16. Earth Science

    1994-03-08

    Workers at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville prepared for a news media showing of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-1 (GOES-1). GOES-1 was the first in a new generation of weather satellites deployed above Earth. It was the first 3-axis, body-stabilized meteorological satellite to be used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA. These features allowed GOES-1 to continuously monitor the Earth, rather than viewing it just five percent of the time as was the case with spin-stabilized meteorological satellites. GOES-1 also has independent imaging and sounding instruments which can operate simultaneously yet independently. As a result, observations provided by each instrument will not be interrupted. The imager produces visual and infrared images of the Earth's surface, oceans, cloud cover and severe storm development, while the prime sounding products include vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and layer mean moisture.

  17. Composition of the Earth's inner core from high-pressure sound velocity measurements in Fe-Ni-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonangeli, Daniele; Siebert, Julien; Badro, James; Farber, Daniel L.; Fiquet, Guillaume; Morard, Guillaume; Ryerson, Frederick J.

    2010-06-01

    We performed room-temperature sound velocity and density measurements on a polycrystalline alloy, Fe0.89Ni0.04Si0.07, in the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase up to 108 GPa. Over the investigated pressure range the aggregate compressional sound velocity is ∼ 9% higher than in pure iron at the same density. The measured aggregate compressional (VP) and shear (VS) sound velocities, extrapolated to core densities and corrected for anharmonic temperature effects, are compared with seismic profiles. Our results provide constraints on the silicon abundance in the core, suggesting a model that simultaneously matches the primary seismic observables, density, P-wave and S-wave velocities, for an inner core containing 4 to 5 wt.% of Ni and 1 to 2 wt.% of Si.

  18. Analysis of regolith electromagnetic scattering as constrained by high resolution Earth-based measurements of the lunar microwave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keihm, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    When high resolution measurements of the phase variation of the lunar disk center brightness temperature revealed that in situ regolith electrical losses were larger than those measured on returned samples by a factor of 1.5 to 2.0 at centimeter wavelengths, the need for a refinement of the regolith model to include realistic treatment of scattering effects was identified. Two distinct scattering regimes are considered: vertial variations in dielectric constant and volume scattering due to subsurface rock fragments. Models of lunar regolith energy transport processes are now at the state for which a maximum scientific return could be realized from a lunar orbiter microwave mapping experiment. A detailed analysis, including the effects of scattering produced a set of nominal brightness temperature spectra for lunar equatorial regions, which can be used for mapping as a calibration reference for mapping variations in mineralogy and heat flow.

  19. Earth Science

    1994-09-02

    This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.

  20. Earth Observation

    2010-08-23

    ISS024-E-016042 (23 Aug. 2010) --- This night time view captured by one of the Expedition 24 crew members aboard the International Space Station some 220 miles above Earth is looking southward from central Romania over the Aegean Sea toward Greece and it includes Thessaloniki (near center), the larger bright mass of Athens (left center), and the Macedonian capital of Skopje (lower right). Center point coordinates of the area pictured are 46.4 degrees north latitude and 25.5 degrees east longitude. The picture was taken in August and was physically brought back to Earth on a disk with the return of the Expedition 25 crew in November 2010.