Data obtained from 30 earth resources aircraft missions, flown between September 1, 1973 and September 1, 1974, were screened, cataloged, and indexed using microfilm copy. The manhours required for completing the task are presented, and problems encountered during the project are reported. It is concluded that a cataloging and indexing report of remote sensor data can be prepared on a timely basis for a relatively low cost from microfilm. Recommendations are given in order to further facilitate the task.
Tasks completed are as follows: (1) preparation of large Area Crop Inventory experiment for data base entry;(2) preparation of Earth Observations Aircraft Flight summary reports for publication; (3) updating of the aircraft mission index coverage map and Ames aircraft flight map; (4) Prepared of Earth Observation Helicopter Flight reports for publication; and (5) indexing of LANDSAT imagery. (6) formulation of phase 3 biowindows 1, 2, 3, and 4 listings by country, footprint, and acqusition dates; (7) preparation of flight summary reports; and (8) preparation of an Alaska state index coverage map.
Colwell, R. N.; Thorley, G. A.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, V. R.; Wildman, W. E.; Huntington, G. L. (Principal Investigator)
There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Results of an integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data are presented. Areas of investigation cover (1) regional agricultural surveys; (2) solving water resource management problems; (3) resource management in Northern California using ERTS-1 data; (4) analysis of river meanders; (5) assessment and monitoring change in west side of the San Joaquin Valley and central coastal zone of state; (6) assessment and monitoring of changes in Southern California environment; (7) digital handling and processing of ERTS-1 data; (8) use of ERTS-1 data in educational and applied research programs of the Agricultural Extension Service; and (9) identification, classification, and mapping of salt affected soils.
Syvertson, C. A.; Mulholland, D. R.
The role of satellites designed to make a wide variety of earth observations is discussed along with the renewed interest in the use of aircraft as platforms for similar and complementary earth resources surveys. Surveys covering the areas of forestry, agriculture, hydrology, oceanography, geology, and geography are included. Aerials surveys equipped for nonphotographic remote sensing and aircraft flights synchronized with satellite observations to provide correlated data are discussed. Photographs are shown to illustrate preliminary results from several of the test sites.
Sabatini, R. R.; Rabchevsky, G. A.; Sissala, J. E.
The potential for utilizing data gathered by Nimbus satellites to study the earth surface and its physical properties is illustrated. The Nimbus data applicable to investigations of the earth and its resources, and to the problems of resolution and cloud cover are described. Geological, hydrological, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Applications of the data to other fields, such as cartography, agriculture, forestry, and urban analysis are presented. Relevant information is also given on the Nimbus orbit and experiments; surface and atmospheric effects on HRIR and THIR radiation measurements; and noise problems in the AVCS, IDCS, HRIR, and THIR data.
Articles are presented on the utilization of remote sensing data from NASA programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab Earth resources experiment package, and aircraft, as well as from other data acquisition programs. Emphasis is placed on land use and marine resources.
Metz, G.G.; Wiepking, P.J.
Within the technology of the space age lies a key to increased knowledge about the resources and environment of the Earth. This key is remote sensing detecting the nature of an object without actually touching it. Although the photographic camera is the most familiar remote-sensing device, other instrument systems, such as scanning radiometers and radar, also can produce photographs and images. On the basis of the potential of this technology, and in response to the critical need for greater knowledge of the Earth and its resources, the Department of the Interior established the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program to gather and use remotely sensed data collected by satellite and aircraft of natural and manmade features on the Earth's surface.
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...
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Pecora, William T.
Two developments, aerial photography and airborne geophysical surveying techniques, have already increased the rate at which new knowledge of the world's resources can be acquired. But even with far wider use of the tools and techniques already available, the problems that face us are greater than our current ability to solve them. Fortunately, some of the further acceleration required can be obtained through use of remote-sensing devices mounted in high-flying aircraft and earth-orbiting satellites.
... Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. 154(i), 154(j), 157(a), 302(a), 303(c), 303(e), 303(f), 303(g... Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service...-orbit space stations operating in the 10.95-11.2 GHz, 11.45-11.7 GHz, 11.7-12.2 GHz and 14.0-14.5 GHz...
Mittauer, R. T.
A wide variety of the natural resources of earth and man's management of them will be studied by an initial group of foreign and domestic scientists tentatively chosen by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to analyze data to be gathered by two earth-orbiting spacecraft. The spacecraft are the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-A) and the manned Skylab which will carry an Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). In the United States, the initial experiments will study the feasibility of remote sensing from a satellite in gathering information on ecological problems. The objective of both ERTS and EREP aboard Skylab is to obtain multispectral images of the surface of the earth with high resolution remote sensors and to process and distribute the images to scientific users in a wide variety of disciplines. The ERTS-A, EREP, and Skylab systems are described and their operation is discussed.
Davies, R.; Scott, M.; Mitchell, C.; Torbett, A.
Domestic data dissemination networks for earth-resources data in the 1985-1995 time frame were evaluated. The following topics were addressed: (1) earth-resources data sources and expected data volumes, (2) future user demand in terms of data volume and timeliness, (3) space-to-space and earth point-to-point transmission link requirements and implementation, (4) preprocessing requirements and implementation, (5) network costs, and (6) technological development to support this implementation. This study was parametric in that the data input (supply) was varied by a factor of about fifteen while the user request (demand) was varied by a factor of about nineteen. Correspondingly, the time from observation to delivery to the user was varied. This parametric evaluation was performed by a computer simulation that was based on network alternatives and resulted in preliminary transmission and preprocessing requirements. The earth-resource data sources considered were: shuttle sorties, synchronous satellites (e.g., SEOS), aircraft, and satellites in polar orbits.
Colwell, R. N.
The types of photography obtained on the Apollo 9 mission and on concurrent flights made by supporting aircraft are described. The need for earth resource surveys and the value of aircraft and spacecraft as the platforms from which to make such surveys are considered along with the rational for using multiband photography and the means by which such photography can be enhanced. Aerial and space photographs are presented and analyzed. The feasibility of conducting earth resource surveys by means of space photography is discussed and results are summarized.
Wenderoth, S.; Yost, E.; Kalia, R.; Anderson, R.
A guide for producing accurate multispectral results for earth resource applications is presented along with theoretical and analytical concepts of color and multispectral photography. Topics discussed include: capabilities and limitations of color and color infrared films; image color measurements; methods of relating ground phenomena to film density and color measurement; sensitometry; considerations in the selection of multispectral cameras and components; and mission planning.
Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.
Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)
This document addresses a basic function of aircraft (and other vehicle) surveillance and navi-gation systems analyses quantifying the geometric relationship of two or more locations relative to each other and to the earth. Here, geometry means d...
The Council of State Planning Agencies, in consultation with the National Governor's Association and NASA, initiated the Earth Resources Data Project to encourage the appropriate application of cost-effective science and technology to state natural resources issues and problems. This project was established to provide a focal point for identifying those issues associated with state use of remote sensing and related technology. One project goal is to elevate to the consciousness of state policy and program officials new technologies, such as LANDSAT, by association with major issues to which policy officials are attuned. The project assists the coordination between the states and NASA and promotes communication on those issues. A related project objective is to encourage technical assistance opportunities for states that will promote better use of remote sensing and natural resources data in state programs.
Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)
Skylab data has been used: (1) as an aid to resource management in Northern California; (2) to assess and monitor change in the Southern California environment; and (3) for resource inventory and analysis of The California Desert Program.
A number of papers dealing with the practical application of imagery obtained from remote sensors on LANDSAT satellites, the Skylab Earth resources experiment package, and aircraft to problems in agriculture and the environment were presented. Some of the more important topics that were covered included: range management and resources, environmental monitoring and management, crop growth and inventory, land management, multispectral band scanners, forest management, mapping, marshlands, strip mining, water quality and pollution, ecology.
A symposium was conducted on the practical applications of earth resources survey technology including utilization and results of data from programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab earth resources experiment package, and aircraft. Topics discussed include geological structure, landform surveys, energy and extractive resources, and information systems and services.
Matyas, R.; Boughton, J.; Lyons, R.; Spenler, S.; Rigley, J.
While the focus has been international commercial air traffic, an opportunity exists to provide satellite communications to smaller aircraft. For these users equipment cost and weight critically impact the decision to install satellite communications equipment. Less apparent to the operator is the need for a system infrastructure that will be supported both regionally and internationally and that is compatible with the ground segment being installed for commercial aeronautical satellite communications. A system concept is described as well as a low cost terminal that are intended to satisfy the small aircraft market.
Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.; Young, Z.
Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are important assets for accessing high risk airspace and incorporate technologies for sensor coordination, onboard processing, tele-communication, unconventional flight control, and ground based monitoring and optimization. These capabilities permit adaptive mission management in the face of complex requirements and chaotic external influences. NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of Earth science remote sensing missions directed at the assessment of natural resources and here we describe two resource mapping problems having mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability extensible to other resource assessment challenges. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This constraint exists when collecting imaging spectroscopy data over vegetation for time series analysis or for the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the signal. Furthermore, the primary flight control imperative to minimize tracking error should compromise with the requirement to minimize aircraft motion artifacts in the spatial measurement distribution. A second example involves mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in recent Earth Science missions including the OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for spectral and radiometric reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magnetometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and
This bibliography lists 579 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.
This bibliography lists 541 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 480 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography list 580 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
Arnold, J. R. (Editor); Duke, M. B. (Editor)
The possible large scale use of extraterrestrial resources was addressed, either to construct structures in space or to return to Earth as supplements for terrestrial resources. To that end, various specific recommendations were made by the participants in the summer study on near-Earth resources, held at La Jolla, California, 6 to 13 August, 1977. The Moon and Earth-approaching asteroids were considered. Summaries are included of what is known about their compositions and what needs to be learned, along with recommendations for missions designed to provide the needed data. Tentative schedules for these projects are also offered.
The accomplishments of the Earth Resources Laboratory's research and technology program are reported. Sensors and data systems, the AGRISTARS project, applied research and data analysis, joint research projects, test and evaluation studies, and space station support activities are addressed.
This bibliography lists 436 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1, 1980 and December 31, 1980. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 623 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1983. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 337 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 31, 1980 and September 30, 1980. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 480 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1, 1980 and June 30, 1980. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 460 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1984. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.
This bibliography lists 467 reports, articles and other documents introdcued into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1985. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental cultural resources geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.
This bibliography lists 326 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between October 1 and December 31, 1985. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 475 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1984. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.
This bibliography lists 467 reports, articles and other documents introdcued into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1985. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental cultural resources geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.
Wukelic, G. E.; Stephan, J. G.; Smail, H. E.; Landis, L.; Ebbert, T. F.
A user survey was conducted to determine current earth resources survey (ERS) data use/user status and recommendations for strengthening use. Only high-altitude aircraft and satellite (primarily LANDSAT) data were included. Emphasis was placed on the private sector/industrial user. Objectives of the survey included: who is using ERS data, how they are using the data, the relative value of current data use as well as obtaining user views as to possible ways of strengthening future ERS data use. The survey results are documented and should provide relevant decision making information for developing future programs of maximum benefit to all end users of satellite ERS data.
Practical application of earth resources survey data is considered. The utilization and results of data from NASA programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package, and aircraft, as well as other data acquisition programs are included. User services and requirements and applications in land use, agriculture, coastal zone management, and geology are among the topics covered. For Vol. 1A, see N76-17469.
When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.
Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.
NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of important Earth science remote sensing missions including several directed at the assessment of natural resources. A key asset for accessing high risk airspace has been the 180 kg class SIERRA UAS platform, providing mission durations of up to 8 hrs at altitudes up to 3 km. Recent improvements to this mission capability are embodied in the incipient SIERRA-B variant. Two resource mapping problems having unusual mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability are explored here. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This challenges the management of resources in the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the ocean color signal. Furthermore, as for all scanning imager applications, the primary flight control priority to fly the UAS directly to the next waypoint should compromise with the requirement to minimize roll and crab effects in the imagery. A second example involves the mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in several recent Earth Science missions including the October 2013 OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for hyperspectral reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magentometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and demanding requirements to manage solar angle, aircraft attitude and flight path orientation, and efficient (directly geo-rectified) surface and sub
With the launch of the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite in July 1972 a major new tool has become available for decision making in the assessment, exploitation, and management of the earth's resources on a national and international basis. The current status of the earth resources survey program is discussed and the future potential is reviewed. The supportive roles of all stages of the system, including surface, aircraft, and satellite components are noted. Specific cases of application of ERTS data are presented together with a discussion of benefits that might accrue. Need for cooperative, coordinated efforts between participants is emphasized.
Lowe, D. S.; Cook, J. J.
The results are presented of a four month study to define earth resource applications which are uniquely suited to data collection by a geosynchronous satellite. While such a satellite could also perform many of the functions of ERTS, or its low orbiting successors, those applications were considered in those situations where requirements for timely observation limit the capability of ERTS or EOS. Thus, the application presented could be used to justify a SEOS.
The Lewis Research Center earth resources program efforts are in the areas of: (1) monitoring and rapid evaluation of water quality; (2) determining ice-type and ice coverage distribution to aid operations in a possible extension of the Great Lakes ice navigation and shipping season; (3) monitoring spread of crop viruses; and (4) extent of damage to strip mined areas as well as success of efforts to rehabilitate such areas for agriculture.
Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.
One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities
Townshend, J. R. G.
The significance of spatial resolving power on the utility of current and future Earth resources satellites is critically discussed and the relative merits of different approaches in defining and estimating spatial resolution are outlined. It is shown that choice of a particular measure of spatial resolution depends strongly on the particular needs of the user. Several experiments have simulated the capabilities of future satellite systems by degradation of aircraft images. Surprisingly, many of these indicated that improvements in resolution may lead to a reduction in the classification accuracy of land cover types using computer assisted methods. However, where the frequency of boundary pixels is high, the converse relationship is found. Use of imagery dependent upon visual interpretation is likely to benefit more consistently from higher resolutions. Extraction of information from images will depend upon several other factors apart from spatial resolving power: these include characteristics of the terrain being sensed, the image processing methods that are applied as well as certain sensor characteristics.
Davies, R.; Scott, M.; Mitchell, C.; Torbett, A.
The impact of the future capabilities of earth-resources data sensors (both satellite and airborne) and their requirements on the data dissemination network were investigated and optimum ways of configuring this network were determined. The scope of this study was limited to the continental U.S.A. (including Alaska) and to the 1985-1995 time period. Some of the conclusions and recommendations reached were: (1) Data from satellites in sun-synchronous polar orbits (700-920 km) will generate most of the earth-resources data in the specified time period. (2) Data from aircraft and shuttle sorties cannot be readily integrated in a data-dissemination network unless already preprocessed in a digitized form to a standard geometric coordinate system. (3) Data transmission between readout stations and central preprocessing facilities, and between processing facilities and user facilities are most economically performed by domestic communication satellites. (4) The effect of the following factors should be studied: cloud cover, expanded coverage, pricing strategies, multidiscipline missions.
Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E. (Principal Investigator)
Results of research in the remote sensing of natural boreal forest vegetation (the COVER project) are summarized. The study objectives were to establish a baseline forest test site; develop transforms of LANDSAT MSS and TM data for forest composition, biomass, leaf area index, and net primary productivity; and perform tasks required for testing hypotheses regarding observed spectral responses to changes in leaf area index in aspen. In addition, the transfer and documentation of data collected in the COVER project (removed from the Johnson Space Center following the discontinuation of Earth resources research at that facility) is described.
Su, M. Y.; Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Cummings, R. E.
A new clustering technique is presented. It consists of two parts: (a) a sequential statistical clustering which is essentially a sequential variance analysis and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. This unsupervised composite technique was employed for automatic classification of two sets of remote multispectral earth resource observations. The classification accuracy by the unsupervised technique is found to be comparable to that by existing supervised maximum liklihood classification technique.
The efforts and findings of the Earth Resources Data Analysis Program are summarized. Results of a detailed study of the needs of EOD with respect to an applications development system (ADS) for the analysis of remotely sensed data, including an evaluation of four existing systems with respect to these needs are described. Recommendations as to possible courses for EOD to follow to obtain a viable ADS are presented. Algorithmic development comprised of several subtasks is discussed. These subtasks include the following: (1) two algorithms for multivariate density estimation; (2) a data smoothing algorithm; (3) a method for optimally estimating prior probabilities of unclassified data; and (4) further applications of the modified Cholesky decomposition in various calculations. Little effort was expended on task 3, however, two reports were reviewed.
Hedrick, James B.
As if classified as a top-secret project, the rare earths have been shrouded in secrecy. The principal ore mineral of the group, bastnäsite, rarely appears in the leading mineralogy texts. The long names of the rare-earth elements and some unusual arrangements of letters, many Scandinavian in origin, may have intimidated even those skilled in phonics. Somewhat obscurely labeled, the rare earths are neither rare nor earths (the historical term for oxides). They are a relatively abundant group of metallic elements that occur in nature as nonmetallic compounds and have hundreds of commercial applications.
Barker, James C.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.
Alaska’s known mineral endowment includes some of the largest and highest grade deposits of various metals, including gold, copper and zinc. Recently, Alaska has also been active in the worldwide search for sources of rare earth elements (REE) to replace exports now being limitedby China. Driven by limited supply of the rare earths, combined with their increasing use in new ‘green’ energy, lighting, transportation, and many other technological applications, the rare earth metals neodymium, europium and, in particular, the heavy rare earth elements terbium, dysprosium and yttrium are forecast to soon be in critical short supply (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010).
Carneggie, D. M.; Degloria, S. D.
NASA's Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) launched July 23, 1972, offers for the first time the unique capabilities for regional monitoring of forage plant conditions. The repetitive coverage every 18 days, the synoptic view and the real-time recovery of the imagery for immediate analysis, combine to make the ERTS satellite a valuable tool for improving the evaluation of our rangeland resources. Studies presently underway at the University of California, Berkeley (sponsored jointly by NASA and the Bureau of Land Management), seek to determine if imagery obtained from high altitude aircraft and spacecraft (ERTS) can provide: (1) a means for monitoring the growth and development of annual and perennial range plants in California, and for determining the time and the rate of initial plant growth (germination) and terminal plant growth (maturation and senescence); (2) a means for determining or predicting the relative amount of forage that is produced; and (3) a means for mapping rangeland areas having different forage producing capabilities.
This bibliography list 436 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution sytems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 505 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
The recommendations, procedures, and techniques are summarized which provided by the Kodak Apparatus Division to the Ames Research Center to support the Earth Resources Aircraft Program at that facility. Recommendations, procedures, and calibration data are included for sensitometry, densitometry, laboratory cleanliness, and determination of camera exposure. Additional comments are made regarding process control procedures and general laboratory operations.
This memorandum addresses a fundamental function in surveillance and navigation analysis : quantifying the geometry of two or more locations relative to each other and to a spherical earth. Here, geometry refers to: (a) points (idealized lo...
Bensko, J., Jr.; Daniels, J. L.; Downs, S. W., Jr.; Jones, N. L.; Morton, R. R.; Paludan, C. T.
A regional transfer activity contracts review held by the Earth Resources Office was summarized. Contracts in the earth resources field primarily directed toward applications of satellite data and technology in solution of state and regional problems were reviewed. A summary of the progress of each contract was given in order to share experiences of researchers across a seven state region. The region included Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina. Research in several earth science disciplines included forestry, limnology, water resources, land use, geology, and mathematical modeling. The use of computers for establishment of information retrieval systems was also emphasized.
This volume covers the broad area of earth resources in which Skylab experiments will be performed. A brief description of the Skylab program, its objectives, and vehicles is included. Section 1 introduces the concept and historical significance of remote sensing, and discusses the major scientific considerations involved in remotely sensing the earth's resources. Sections 2 through 6 provide a description of the individual earth resource sensors and experiments to be performed. Each description includes a discussion of the experiment background and scientific objectives, the equipment involved, and a discussion of significant experiment performance areas.
Baldwin, C. J. (Principal Investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.
The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) makes images of the earth's surface in four portions of the electromagnetic spectrum with sufficient spatial resolution and with a minimum of geometric distortions, so that these images may be applied experimentally to the study of geophysical processes relating to earth resources, to the exploration and conservation of these resources, and to the assessments of environmental stresses. During the first six months of operation, ERTS-1 has imaged 6.5 million square kilometers of the earth's surface every day, covering most major land masses and coastal zones as well as both polar regions of this planet. These images as well as the results of their analyses are available to all people throughout the world. Scientific investigators of all countries have been invited to participate in the utilization of ERTS-1 observations. Many of them have already demonstrated the great efficiency, economy, and reliability of making earth surveys from space.
This bibliography lists 472 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1974 and September 1974. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory, natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing, and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 616 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1974 and March 1974. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory, natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 485 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1988. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, and instrumentation and sensors.
This bibliography lists 606 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1989. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, and instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 449 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 31, 1989. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, and instrumentation and sensors.
This bibliography lists 518 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1988. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, and instrumentation and sensors.
... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 [IB Docket No. 12-376; FCC 12-161] Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal...
The use of the space shuttle for the Earth Resources Program is discussed. Several problems with respect to payload selection, integration, and mission planning were studied. Each of four shuttle roles in the sortie mode were examined and projected into an integrated shuttle program. Several representative Earth Resources missions were designed which would use the shuttle sortie as a platform and collectively include the four shuttle roles. An integrated flight program based on these missions was then developed for the first two years of shuttle flights. A set of broad implications concerning the uses of the shuttle for Earth Resources studies resulted.
A study of schools was conducted to determine needs of earth science programs, and what, if any, services could effectively be provided by an earth science resource center. Contacts were made with approximately one-half the schools in the Minot State College service region. Discussions were held with administrators and teachers, and facilities at…
Vanvleck, E. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Pitts, S. W.; Slye, R. E.
The system requirements of an operational data handling system for earth resources in the decade of the 1980's are investigated. Attention is drawn to problems encountered in meeting the stringent agricultural user requirements of that time frame. Such an understanding of requirements is essential not only in designing the ground system that will ultimately handle the data, but also in design studies of the earth resources platform, sensors, and data relay satellites which may be needed.
Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Moorman, Brian J.; Riddell, Kevin; Whitehead, Ken
To understand and predict Earth-surface dynamics, scientists often rely on access to the latest remote sensing data. Over the past several decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of specialized Earth observation sensors for measuring a wide range of processes and features. Comparatively little progress has been made, however, in the development of new platforms upon which these sensors can be deployed. Conventional platforms are still almost exclusively restricted to piloted aircraft and satellites. For many Earth science research questions and applications these platforms do not yet have the resolution or operational flexibility to provide answers affordably. The most effective remote sensing data match the spatiotemporal scale of the process or feature of interest. An emerging technology comprising unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), is poised to offer a viable alternative to conventional platforms for acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data with increased operational flexibility, lower cost, and greater versatility (Figure 1).
The remote sensing capabilities of Landsat are reviewed along with the broad areas of application of the Landsat imagery. The importance of Landsat imagery in urban planning and resources management is stressed.
Airborne microwave Doppler measurements of ocean of Guinea according to ground-based and satellite Coral reef remote sensing applications wave directional...understanding of internal Coral reef remote sensing applications an earth-to-satellite Hadamard transform laser long-path waves in the ocean p 20 A87-32951...classifications of coral reefs , and an are provided and new topographic features that are revealed are autocorrelation technique is being developed to
Schiffries, Craig M.
The Board will provide oversight of the earth science and resource activities within the National Research Council, provide a review of research and public activities in the solid-earth sciences, and provide analyses and recommendations relevant to the supply, delivery, and associated impacts of and issues related to hydrocarbon, metallic, and non-metallic mineral resources. The Board will monitor the status of the earth sciences, assess the health of the disciplines, and identify research opportunities, and will respond to specific agency requests.
This bibliography lists 434 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1978. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 273 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1978. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 418 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1976 and March 1976. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 544 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1989. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 524 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1985. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.
This bibliography lists 524 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1977 and March 1977. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 382 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1986. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography list 587 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between July 1, and September 30, 1982. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 451 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1988. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 454 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1986. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 337 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between July 1 and September 30, 1978. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 368 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1987. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geographical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 500 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1988. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 226 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1, 1979 and September 30, 1979. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
A bibliography list of 369 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1979 and March 31, 1979 is presented. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 345 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1, 1979 and December 31, 1979. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 492 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1975 and September 1975. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 775 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1978. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 494 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1985. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.
This bibliography lists 512 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1983. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 523 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1986. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 562 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1987. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 547 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1987. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 651 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1974 and December 1974. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 423 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1983. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.
This bibliography lists 576 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between October 1 and December 31, 1982. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 604 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1987. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
Qiao, Yuliang; Zhao, Shangmin; Zhen, Liu; Bei, Jia
The launch and successful operation of Chinese-Brazil Earth resources satellite (CBERS-1) in China has accelerated the application of space technology in China. These applications include agriculture, forestry, water conservation, land resources, city planning, environment protection and natural hazards monitoring and so on. The result of these applications provides a scientific basis for government decision making and has created great economic and social benefits in Chinese national economy construction. In this paper we present examples and provide auxiliary documentation of additional applications of the data from Earth resource monitoring.
Conference papers on water resources and management are summarized. Summaries cover land use, flood control and prediction, watersheds and the effects of snow melt, soil moisture content, and the usefulness of satellite remote sensors in detecting ground and surface water.
SL3-122-2562 (July-September 1973) --- A near vertical view of the border area of Turkey-Iran?Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture was taken by one of the Skylab 3 crewmen using a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera. THE PICTURE SHOULD BE HELD WITH THE MASS OF WHITE CLOUDS ON THE RIGHT SIDE. The lake at the top center edge is Ozero (Lake) Sevan in the USSR?s Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. The other body of water is Iran?s Lake Urmia. The major feature in this photograph can be seen in the upper left corner. Mount Ararat is in Turkey only a few miles from Iran and USSR borders. Yerevan, the capital of Armenian SSR, is located north-northwest of Mount Ararat. Photo credit: NASA
Hatfield, M. C.; Breen, A. L.; Thurau, R.
The Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management is funding research at the University of Alaska Fairbanks to study Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Resource Management Operations. In August 2015, the team conducted flight research at UAF's Toolik Field Station (TFS). The purpose was to determine the most efficient use of small UAS to collect low-altitude airborne digital stereo images, process the stereo imagery into close-range photogrammetry products, and integrate derived imagery products into the BLM's National Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring (AIM) Strategy. The AIM Strategy assists managers in answering questions of land resources at all organizational levels and develop management policy at regional and national levels. In Alaska, the BLM began to implement its AIM strategy in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) in 2012. The primary goals of AIM-monitoring at the NPR-A are to implement an ecological baseline to monitor ecological trends, and to develop a monitoring network to understand the efficacy of management decisions. The long-term AIM strategy also complements other ongoing NPR-A monitoring processes, collects multi-use and multi-temporal data, and supports understanding of ecosystem management strategies in order to implement defensible natural resource management policy. The campaign measured vegetation types found in the NPR-A, using UAF's TFS location as a convenient proxy. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. The payload was a stereo camera system consisting of Sony NEX7's with various lens configurations (16/20/24/35 mm). A total of 77 flights were conducted over a 4 ½ day period, with 1.5 TB of data collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, transect overlaps, and camera lenses/settings. Invaluable knowledge was gained as to
Tasks were performed in two areas: (1) systems analysis and (2) algorithmic development. The major effort in the systems analysis task was the development of a recommended approach to the monitoring of resource utilization data for the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Other efforts included participation in various studies concerning the LACIE Project Plan, the utility of the GE Image 100, and the specifications for a special purpose processor to be used in the LACIE. In the second task, the major effort was the development of improved algorithms for estimating proportions of unclassified remotely sensed data. Also, work was performed on optimal feature extraction and optimal feature extraction for proportion estimation.
Lehnert, K. A.; Walker, D.; Block, K.; Vinay, S.; Ash, J.
Data management within the EarthScope Cyberinfrastructure needs to pursue two goals in order to advance and maximize the broad scientific application and impact of the large volumes of observational data acquired by EarthScope facilities: (a) to provide access to all data acquired by EarthScope facilities, and to promote their use by broad audiences, and (b) to facilitate discovery of, access to, and integration of multi-disciplinary data sets that complement EarthScope data in support of EarthScope science. EarthChem and SESAR, the System for Earth Sample Registration, are two projects within the Geoinformatics for Geochemistry program that offer resources for EarthScope CI. EarthChem operates a data portal that currently provides access to >13 million analytical values for >600,000 samples, more than half of which are from North America, including data from the USGS and all data from the NAVDAT database, a web-accessible repository for age, chemical and isotopic data from Mesozoic and younger igneous rocks in western North America. The new EarthChem GEOCHRON database will house data collected in association with GeoEarthScope, storing and serving geochronological data submitted by participating facilities. The EarthChem Deep Lithosphere Dataset is a compilation of petrological data for mantle xenoliths, initiated in collaboration with GeoFrame to complement geophysical endeavors within EarthScope science. The EarthChem Geochemical Resource Library provides a home for geochemical and petrological data products and data sets. Parts of the digital data in EarthScope CI refer to physical samples such as drill cores, igneous rocks, or water and gas samples, collected, for example, by SAFOD or by EarthScope science projects and acquired through lab-based analysis. Management of sample-based data requires the use of global unique identifiers for samples, so that distributed data for individual samples generated in different labs and published in different papers can be
This literature survey cites 4930 reports, articles and other documents that were announced between March 1970 and December 1973 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or in International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). This publication supplements Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (NASA-SP-7036) that cited documents announced between January 1962 and February 1970. Beginning in 1974, a quarterly publication, Earth Resources, A Continuing Bibliography (NASA-SP-7041) was initiated. The first issue, NASA-SP-7041(01), was published in June covering the document announced between January 1974 and March 1974. The coverage includes documents related to the identification and evaluation by means of sensors in spacecraft and aircraft of vegetation, minerals, and other natural resources, and the techniques and potentialities of surveying and keeping up-to-date inventories of such riches. It encompasses studies of such natural phenomena as earthquakes, volcanoes, ocean currents and magnetic fields; and such cultural phenomena as cities, transportation networks, and irrigation systems. Descriptions of the components and use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation, their subsystems, observational procedures, signature and analyses and interpretive techniques for gathering data are also included. Reports generated under NASA's Earth Resources Survey Program and announced during the period covered by this bibliography are included.
The Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR) coordinates, the National Research Council`s advice to the federal government on solid-earth science issues. The board identifies opportunities for advancing basic research and understanding, reports on applications of earth sciences in such areas as disaster mitigation and resource utilization, and analyzes the scientific underpinnings and credibility of earth science information for resource, environmental and other applications and policy decision. Committees operating under the guidance of the Board conducts studies addressing specific issues within the earth sciences. The current committees are as follows: Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data; Mapping Sciences Committee; Committeemore » on Seismology; Committee on Geodesy; Rediscovering Geography Committee; Committee on Research Programs of the US Bureau of Mines. The following recent reports are briefly described: research programs of the US Bureau of Mines, first assessment 1994; Mount Rainier, active cascade volcano; the national geomagnetic initiative; reservoir class field demonstration program; solid-earth sciences and society; data foundation for the national spatial infrastructure; promoting the national spatial data infrastructure through partnerships; toward a coordinated spatial data infrastructure for the nation; and charting a course into the digital era; guidance to the NOAA`s nautical charting mission.« less
Nordberg, W.; Tiedemann, H.; Bohn, C.
The potential and promise of observing the earth from the vantage point of space is discussed. The systematic surveying of processes and phenomena occurring on the surface of the earth by Landsat 1 and Nimbus 5 is considered to be useful in the following areas: assessment of water resources; mineral and petroleum exploration; land use planning; crop, forest, and rangeland inventory; assessment of flood, earthquake, and other environmental hazards; monitoring coastal processes; environmental effects of industrial effluents and of air pollution; mapping the distribution and types of ice covering the earth's polar caps and global soil moisture distributions.
entrepreneurship where we will be developing a business idea with the aim of solving an important social as well as environmental problem along with making reasonable profit from selling of the concerned product. Waste management and environmental pollution is a growing concern in the city. To drive a change in the minds of the people it is important to educate them on the issues to face the stark reality. To achieve this we do re-informing drives to bring a change - a. First and foremost people should depend on renewable energy. b. Limited use of natural resources by including recycling in our daily lives which helps in cutting down of natural resources. For example segregating dry waste from wet waste. c. Taking care and respecting the Nature. Being respectful of the environment goes hand in hand as environmental problems have impacted people on broad scale. As Mahatma Gandhi said, 'Be the change you want to see in the world' it is about making efforts to see a change in the society. It is essential to let people know that every individual's efforts do not go waste but add up to ensure an impactful change.
This document contains the proceedings and summaries of the earth resources survey symposium, sponsored by the NASA Headquarters Office of Applications and held in Houston, Texas, June 9 to 12, 1975. Topics include the use of remote sensing techniques in agriculture, in geology, for environmental monitoring, for land use planning, and for management of water resources and coastal zones. Details are provided about services available to various users. Significant applications, conclusions, and future needs are also discussed.
Remote sensing of the earth from satellite systems such as Landsat, Nimbus, and Skylab has demonstrated the potential influence of such observations on a number of major human concerns. These concerns include the management of food, water and fiber resources, the exploration and management of mineral and energy resources, the protection of the environment, the protection of life and property, and improvements in shipping and navigation.
The potential of the space shuttle as a platform for captive earth resources payloads in the sortie mode, and as a launch and services vehicle for automated earth resources spacecraft is examined. The capabilities of the total space transportation system which are pertinent to earth resources sorties and automated spacecraft are included.
Landgrebe, D. A.
The following technologies are considered for automatic processing of earth resources data: (1) registration of multispectral and multitemporal images, (2) digital image display systems, (3) data system parameter effects on satellite remote sensing systems, and (4) data compression techniques based on spectral redundancy. The importance of proper spectral band and compression algorithm selections is pointed out.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
Up-to-date knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling them to broaden their scope of material selection. The second volume emphasizes the sensing of earth resources. The content includes an introduction to the concept and historical…
Skinner, C. W.; Gonzalez, R. C.
The basic concepts of a recently completed large-scale earth resources information system plan are reported. Attention is focused throughout the paper on the information management and processing requirements. After the development of the principal system concepts, a model system for implementation at the state level is discussed.
Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.
Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.
Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.
Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.
Reports, articles, and other documents announced between April and June 1974 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR), and International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA) are cited. Documents related to the identification and evaluation by means of sensors in spacecraft and aircraft of vegetation, minerals, and other natural resources, and the techniques and potentialities of surveying and keeping up-to-date inventories of such riches are included along with studies of such natural phenomena as earthquakes, volcanoes, ocean currents, and magnetic fields; and such cultural phenomena as cities, transportation networks, and irrigation systems. The components and use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation, their subsystems, observational procedures, signature and analyses and interpretive techniques for gathering data are, described. All reports generated under NASA's Earth Resources Survey Program for the time period covered are included.
Lee, Ronald T., Ed.
This resource guide is intended to aid practitioners in the design of new curriculum units or the enrichment of existing units by suggesting activities and resources in the topic areas of earth, air, fire, and water. Special projects and trips relating to these topic areas are proposed. A sample arts networking system used to integrate various…
Goldman, G. C.
Calculated sensitivity requirements for an earth resource satellite in a geostationary orbit are reported. Radiance levels at the satellite sensor were computed for twenty top-priority Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite (SEOS) applications. The observation requirements were reviewed and re-evaluated in terms of spectral band definition, spectral signatures of targets and backgrounds, observation time, and site location. With these data and an atmospheric attenuation and scattering model, the total radiances observed by the SEOS sensor were calculated as were the individual components contributed by the target, target variations, and the atmosphere.
Courtier, A. M.; Pyle, E. J.; Fichter, L.; Lucas, S.; Jackson, A.
The Mathematics and Earth Science Teachers' Resource Organization (MAESTRO) partnership between James Madison University and Harrisonburg City and Page County Public Schools, funded through NSF-GEO. The partnership aims to transform mathematics and Earth science instruction in middle and high schools by developing an integrated mathematics and Earth systems science approach to instruction. This curricular integration is intended to enhance the mathematical skills and confidence of students through concrete, Earth systems-based examples, while increasing the relevance and rigor of Earth science instruction via quantification and mathematical modeling of Earth system phenomena. MAESTRO draws heavily from the Earth Science Literacy Initiative (2009) and is informed by criterion-level standardized test performance data in both mathematics and Earth science. The project has involved two summer professional development workshops, academic year Lesson Study (structured teacher observation and reflection), and will incorporate site-based case studies with direct student involvement. Participating teachers include Grade 6 Science and Mathematics teachers, and Grade 9 Earth Science and Algebra teachers. It is anticipated that the proposed integration across grade bands will first strengthen students' interests in mathematics and science (a problem in middle school) and subsequently reinforce the relevance of mathematics and other sciences (a problem in high school), both in support of Earth systems literacy. MAESTRO's approach to the integration of math and science focuses on using box models to emphasize the interconnections among the geo-, atmo-, bio-, and hydrospheres, and demonstrates the positive and negative feedback processes that connect their mutual evolution. Within this framework we explore specific relationships that can be described both qualitatively and mathematically, using mathematical operations appropriate for each grade level. Site-based case studies
The current literature on image bandwidth compression was surveyed and those methods relevant to compression of multispectral imagery were selected. Typical satellite multispectral data was then analyzed statistically and the results used to select a smaller set of candidate bandwidth compression techniques particularly relevant to earth resources data. These were compared using both theoretical analysis and simulation, under various criteria of optimality such as mean square error (MSE), signal-to-noise ratio, classification accuracy, and computational complexity. By concatenating some of the most promising techniques, three multispectral data compression systems were synthesized which appear well suited to current and future NASA earth resources applications. The performance of these three recommended systems was then examined in detail by all of the above criteria. Finally, merits and deficiencies were summarized and a number of recommendations for future NASA activities in data compression proposed.
Hasell, P. G., Jr.
Earth resources imagery from nine years of data collection with developmental airborne sensors is cataloged for reference. The imaging sensors include single and multiband line scanners and side-looking radars. The operating wavelengths of the sensors include ultraviolet, visible and infrared band scanners, and X- and L-band radar. Imagery from all bands (radar and scanner) were collected at some sites and many sites had repeated coverage. The multiband scanner data was radiometrically calibrated. Illustrations show how the data can be used in earth resource investigations. References are made to published reports which have made use of the data in completed investigations. Data collection sponsors are identified and a procedure described for gaining access to the data.
The need for a realistic set of earth resources collection requirements to test and maximize the data gathering capabilities of the EOS remote sensor systems is considered. The collection requirements will be derived from established user requirements. In order to confine and bound the requirements study, some baseline assumptions were established. These are: (1) image acquisition is confined to the contiguous United States, (2) the fundamental data users are select participating federal agencies, (3) the acquired data will be applied to generating information necessary or in support of existing federal agency charters, and (4) the most pressing or desired federal agency earth resources data requirements have been defined, suggested, or implied in current available literature.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) have sponsored faculty fellowship programs in systems engineering design for the past several years. During the summer of 1972 four such programs were conducted by NASA, with Auburn University cooperating with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The subject for the Auburn-MSFC design group was ERISTAR, an acronym for Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis and Retrieval, which represents an earth resources information management network of state information centers administered by the respective states and linked to federally administered regional centers and a national center. The considerations for serving the users and the considerations that must be given to processing data from a variety of sources are described. The combination of these elements into a national network is discussed and an implementation plan is proposed for a prototype state information center. The compatibility of the proposed plan with the Department of Interior plan, RALI, is indicated.
Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.
Results of a survey of earth resources user applications and their data requirements, earth resources multispectral scanner sensor technology, and preprocessing algorithms for correcting the sensor outputs and for data bulk reduction are presented along with a candidate data format. Computational requirements required to implement the data analysis algorithms are included along with a review of computer architectures and organizations. Computer architectures capable of handling the algorithm computational requirements are suggested and the environmental effects of an on-board processor discussed. By relating performance parameters to the system requirements of each of the user requirements the feasibility of on-board processing is determined for each user. A tradeoff analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of results to each of the system parameters. Significant results and conclusions are discussed, and recommendations are presented.
Johnson, Rebecca L.
The USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center's 2011 Year in Review is an annual report recounting the broad scope of the Center's 2011 accomplishments. The report covers preparations for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) launch, the ever-increasing use of free Landsat data, monitoring the effects of natural hazards, and more to emphasize the importance of innovation in using satellite data to study change over time.
Olstad, W. B.
This paper discusses the NASA aeronautics research and technology program from the viewpoint of the aircraft designer. The program spans the range from fundamental research to the joint validation with industry of technology for application into product development. Examples of recent developments in structures, materials, aerodynamics, controls, propulsion systems, and safety technology are presented as new additions to the designer's handbook. Finally, the major thrusts of NASA's current and planned programs which are keyed to revolutionary advances in materials science, electronics, and computer technology are addressed.
A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.
Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.
This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.
Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.
This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.
The concepts of radar remote sensing and microwave radiometry are discussed and their utility in earth resource sensing is examined. The direct relationship between the character of the remotely sensed data and the level of decision making for which the data are appropriate is considered. Applications of active and a passive microwave sensing covered include hydrology, land use, mapping, vegetation classification, environmental monitoring, coastal features and processes, geology, and ice and snow. Approved and proposed microwave sensors are described and the use of space shuttle as a development platform is evaluated.
How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.
Bernknopf, R.; Brookshire, D.; Faulkner, S.; Chivoiu, B.; Bridge, B.; Broadbent, C.
Earth observations (EO) provide critical information to natural resource assessment. Three examples are presented: conserving potable groundwater in intense agricultural regions, maximizing ecosystem service benefits at regional scales from afforestation investment and management, and enabling integrated natural and behavioral sciences for resource management and policy analysis. In each of these cases EO of different resolutions are used in different ways to help in the classification, characterization, and availability of natural resources and ecosystem services. To inform decisions, each example includes a spatiotemporal economic model to optimize the net societal benefits of resource development and exploitation. 1) EO is used for monitoring land use in intensively cultivated agricultural regions. Archival imagery is coupled to a hydrogeological process model to evaluate the tradeoff between agrochemical use and retention of potable groundwater. EO is used to couple individual producers and regional resource managers using information from markets and natural systems to aid in the objective of maximizing agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality. The contribution of EO is input to a nitrate loading and transport model to estimate the cumulative impact on groundwater at specified distances from specific sites (wells) for 35 Iowa counties and two aquifers. 2) Land use/land cover (LULC) derived from EO is used to compare biological carbon sequestration alternatives and their provisioning of ecosystem services. EO is used to target land attributes that are more or less desirable for enhancing ecosystem services in two parishes in Louisiana. Ecological production functions are coupled with value data to maximize the expected return on investment in carbon sequestration and other ancillary ecosystem services while minimizing the risk. 3) Environmental and natural resources management decisions employ probabilistic estimates of yet-to-find or yet
Resource management missions to be performed by TERSSE are described. Mission and user requirements are defined along with information flows developed for each major resource management mission. Other topics discussed include: remote sensing platforms, remote sensor requirements, ground system architecture, and such related issues as cloud cover, resolution, orbit mechanics, and aircraft versus satellite.
SL4-93-067 (16 Nov. 1973-8 Feb. 1974) --- A spectacular winter view of the Flagstaff, Arizona area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiments package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Included in the scene are the San Francisco Mountains, Oak Creek Canyon, Painted Desert and Meteor Crater. The infrared picture depicts in red living vegetation, in white the snow, and in bright blue the water. Major features identified in this photograph are Humphrey's peak, top center, Flagstaff at foot of the peak, Sunset Crater volcanic field with numerous vents and craters right of Flagstaff and Meteor Crater (right center). Within the mountainous areas several clear areas generally rectangular are visible and represent the areas where lumbering has removed the forest. The thin white line extending from left corner to Sunset Crater fields is the power transmission line cleared area. Roads are subdued and are not easily visible. Photo credit: NASA
Franus, Wojciech; Wiatros-Motyka, Małgorzata M; Wdowin, Magdalena
Rare earth elements (REE) have been recognised as critical raw materials, crucial for many clean technologies. As the gap between their global demand and supply increases, the search for their alternative resources becomes more and more important, especially for the countries which depend highly on their import. Coal fly ash (CFA), which when not utilised is considered waste, has been regarded as the possible source of many elements, including REE. Due to the increase in the energy demand, CFA production is expected to grow, making research into the use of this material a necessity. As Poland is the second biggest coal consumer in the European Union, the authors have studied different coal fly ashes from ten Polish power plants for their rare earth element content. All the fly ashes have a broadly similar distribution of rear earth elements, with light REE being dominant. Most of the samples have REE content relatively high and according to Seredin and Dai (Int J Coal Geol 94: 67-93, 2012) classification can be considered promising REE raw materials.
The article provides information on rare earth elements, which are group of 17 natural metallic elements. The rare earth elements are scandium, yttrium and lanthanides and classified into light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rate earth elements (HREE). The principal ores of the rare earth elements are identified. An overview of China's production of 97 percent of the rare earths in the world is provided. Commercial applications of rare earths are described.
Crow, Tracy, Ed.
The 25th anniversary of Earth Day is 1995. This issue highlights useful, high quality educational materials and other resources that can be used to discuss environmental issues in the classroom. Activities, resources, and teaching materials in this Earth Day issue include: ATLAS 1: Studying Mysteries in the Earth's Atmosphere; Completing the…
Galvin, James J., Jr.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is leading a research effort to develop a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) that will expand air transportation capabilities to hundreds of underutilized airports in the United States. Most of the research effort addresses the technological development of the small aircraft as well as the systems to manage airspace usage and surface activities at airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will also play a major role in the successful implementation of SATS, however, the administration is reluctant to embrace the unproven concept. The purpose of the research presented in this dissertation is to determine if the FAA can pursue a resource management strategy that will support the current radar-based Air Traffic Control (ATC) system as well as a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS)-based ATC system required by the SATS. The research centered around the use of the System Dynamics modeling methodology to determine the future behavior of the principle components of the ATC system over time. The research included a model of the ATC system consisting of people, facilities, equipment, airports, aircraft, the FAA budget, and the Airport and Airways Trust Fund. The model generated system performance behavior used to evaluate three scenarios. The first scenario depicted the base case behavior of the system if the FAA continued its current resource management practices. The second scenario depicted the behavior of the system if the FAA emphasized development of GPS-based ATC systems. The third scenario depicted a combined resource management strategy that supplemented radar systems with GPS systems. The findings of the research were that the FAA must pursue a resource management strategy that primarily funds a radar-based ATC system and directs lesser funding toward a GPS-based supplemental ATC system. The most significant contribution of this research was the insight and understanding gained of how
To provide dissemination of information regarding the availability of Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) imagery, a U.S. Standard Catalog is published on a monthly schedule. The catalogs identify imagery which has been processed and input to the data files during the preceding month. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the Continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. As a supplement to these catalogs, an inventory of ERTS imagery on 16 millimeter microfilm is available. The catalogs consist of four parts: (1) annotated maps which graphically depict the geographic areas covered by the imagery listed in the current catalog, (2) a computer-generated listing organized by observation identification number (D) with pertinent information on each image, (3) a computer listing of observations organized by longitude and latitude, and (4) observations which have had changes made in their catalog information since the original entry in the data base.
Leeman, V.; Earing, D.; Vincent, R. K.; Ladd, S.
The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System and the information contained therein are described. It contains an ordered, indexed compilation of natural targets in the optical region from 0.3 to 45.0 microns. The data compilation includes approximately 100 rock and mineral, 2600 vegetation, 1000 soil, and 60 water spectral reflectance, transmittance, and emittance curves. Most of the data have been categorized by subject, and the curves in those subject areas have been plotted on a single graph. Those categories with too few curves and miscellaneous categories have been plotted as single-curve graphs. Each graph, composite of single, is fully titled to indicate curve source and is indexed by subject to facilitate user retrieval.
Cunningham, Charles G.; Fary, R.W.; Guffanti, Marianne; Laura, Della; Lee, M.P.; Masters, C.D.; Miller, R.L.; Quinones-Marques, Ferdinand; Peebles, R.W.; Reinemund, J.A.; Russ, D.P.
Long-range economic development in Central America will depend in large part on production of indigenous mineral, energy, and water resources and on mitigation of the disastrous effects of geologic and hydrologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods. The region has six world-class metal mines at present as well as additional evidence of widespread mineralization. Systematic investigations using modern mineral exploration techniques should reveal more mineral deposits suitable for development. Widespread evidence of lignite and geothermal resources suggests that intensive studies could identify producible energy sources in most Central American countries. Water supply and water quality vary greatly from country to country. Local problems of ground- and surface-water availability and of contamination create a need for systematic programs to provide better hydrologic data, capital improvements, and management. Disastrous earthquakes have destroyed or severely damaged many cities in Central America. Volcanic eruptions, landslides, mudflows, and floods have devastated most of the Pacific side of Central America at one time or another. A regional approach to earthquake, volcano, and flood-risk analysis and monitoring, using modern technology and concepts, would provide the facilities and means for acquiring knowledge necessary to reduce future losses. All Central American countries need to strengthen institutions and programs dealing with earth and water resources and natural hazards. Some of these needs may be satisfied through existing or pending projects and technical and economic assistance from U.S. or other sources. The need for a comprehensive study of the natural resources of Central America and the requirements for their development is evident. The U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative offers both an excellent opportunity for a regional approach to these pervasive problems and an opportunity for international cooperation.
electronics, systems integration and information technology company.39 Northrop Grumman no longer seeks a position as a prime contractor/integrator of fixed...of the spares procurement and distribution processes. Finally, they recognize that excellence in Information Technology (IT) is a strategic advantage...business in export dollars, the industry has been forced to look for new markets as worldwide aircraft sales have dropped. Because the U.S. national
The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects,more » we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.« less
... Aboard Aircraft (ESAAs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), and 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) frequency bands and transmitting in the 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.227 Blanket licensing provisions for Earth Stations Aboard...
... Aboard Aircraft (ESAAs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), and 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) frequency bands and transmitting in the 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.227 Blanket licensing provisions for Earth Stations Aboard...
Freden, S. C. (Compiler); Mercanti, E. P. (Compiler); Becker, M. A. (Compiler)
Papers presented at the Third Symposium on Significant Results Obtained from the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite covered the areas of: agriculture, forestry, range resources, land use, mapping, mineral resources, geological structure, landform surveys, water resources, marine resources, environment surveys, and interpretation techniques.
Larson, R. W.; Bayma, R. W.; Evans, M. B.; Zelenka, J. S.; Doss, H. W.; Ferris, J. E.
An investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources was conducted during the period from June 1971 to November 1972. The objective of this investigation has been to verify the feasibility of an orbital microwave holographic radar experiment. The primary advantage of microwave hologram radar (MHR) over the side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) is that of aspect or viewing angle; the MHR has a viewing angle identical with that of photography and IR systems. The combination of these systems can thus extend the multispectral analysis concept to span optical through microwave wavelengths. Another advantage is the capacity of the MHR system to generate range contours by operating in a two-frequency mode. It should be clear that along-track resolution of an MHR can be comparable with SLAR systems, but cross-track resolution will be approximately an order of magnitude coarser than the range resolution achievable with an arbitrary SLAR system. An advantage of the MHR over the SLAR is that less average transmitter power is required. This reduction in power results from the much larger receiving apertures associated with MHR systems.
Pourret, Olivier; Tuduri, Johann
The results of this study allow the reassessment of the rare earth elements (REE) external cycle. Indeed, the river input to the oceans has relatively flat REE patterns without cerium (Ce) anomalies, whereas oceanic REE patterns exhibit strong negative Ce anomalies and heavy REE enrichment. Indeed, the processes at the origin of seawater REE patterns are commonly thought to occur within the ocean masses themselves. However, the results from the present study illustrate that seawater-like REE patterns already occur in the truly dissolved pool of river input. This leads us to favor a partial or complete removal of the colloidal REE pool during estuarine mixing by coagulation, as previously shown for dissolved humic acids and iron. In this latter case, REE fractionation occurs because colloidal and truly dissolved pools have different REE patterns. Thus, the REE patterns of seawater could be the combination of both intra-oceanic and riverine processes. In this study, we show that the Atlantic continental shelves could be considered potential REE traps, suggesting further that shelf sediments could potentially become a resource for REE, similar to metalliferous deep sea sediments.
Luby, M.; Haber, J.; Wittenberg, K.
Reform in the classroom, and certainly in academic publishing, is greatly influenced not only by educational research, but also by direct surveys of students and instructors. This presentation looks at changes to Columbia Earthscape, www.earthscape.org, based on an ongoing series of evaluation and testing measures. Two years ago, the Earthscape project was introduced as a central online resource. It aimed to select and make available authoritative materials from all the disciplines that constitute Earth-system science. Its design harnessed the dynamics of the Web and the interrelatedness of research, education, and public policy. In response to substantial class tests, involving five universities in the United States and abroad, three focus groups of geoscience faculty and librarians, user feedback, internal editorial-board review, and extensive consultation with colleagues in commercial and nonprofit educational publishing, Earthscape is implementing broad changes in design and content. These include arranging the site into sections that correspond to user profiles (scientist, policy-maker, teacher, and student), providing easier search or browsing (by research area, policy content, or lesson concept), and streamlining the presentation of links among our resources. These changes are implemented through more advanced searching capabilities, greater specificity of content metatags, and an overall increase in content from journals, books, and original material. The metatags now include all core geoscience disciplines or a range of pertinent issues (such as climate change, geologic hazards, and pollution). Reflecting the evaluation by librarians, Earthscape's revised interface will permit users to begin with a primary area of interest based on who they are, their "profile." They can then either browse the site's entire holdings in that area, perform searches within each area, or follow the extensive hyperlinks to explore connections to other areas and user needs
Cumulative listings of the R and D file data are presented. All Earth Resources Program information available at the Manned Spacecraft Center is in Vol. 1. Sensor data collected during flights over NASA test sites and from missions flown by subcontractors supporting the Earth Resources Survey Program are included in Vol. 2.
Hugenholtz, C.; Riddell, K.; Barchyn, T. E.
Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS, < 25 kg) are emerging as a viable alternative to conventional remote sensing platforms for Earth observation (EO). sUAS technology affords greater control, lower cost, and flexibility for scientists, and provides new opportunities to match the scale of sUAS data to the scale of the geophysical phenomenon under investigation. Although a mechanism is in place to make sUAS available to researchers and other non-military users through the US Federal Aviation Administration's Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (FAAMRA), there are many regulatory hurdles before they are fully accepted and integrated into the National Airspace System. In this talk we will provide a brief overview of the regulatory landscape for sUAS, both in the USA and in Canada, where sUAS regulations are more flexible. We critically outline potential advantages and disadvantages of sUAS for EO applications under current and potential regulations. We find advantages: relatively low cost, potentially high temporal resolution, rapidly improving technology, and operational flexibility. We also find disadvantages: limited temporal and spatial extent, limited accuracy assessment and methodological development, and an immature regulatory landscape. From a case study we show an example of the accuracy of a photogrammetrically-derived digital terrain map (DTM) from sUAS imagery. We also compare the sUAS DTM to a LiDAR DTM. Our results suggest that sUAS-acquired imagery may provide a low-cost, rapid, and flexible alternative to airborne LiDAR. Overall, we are encouraged about the potential of sUAS for geophysical measurements; however, understanding and compliance with regulations is paramount to ensure that research is conducted legally and responsibly. Because UAS are new outside of military operations, we hope researchers will proceed carefully to ensure this great scientific opportunity remains a long term tool.
Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service. Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain, 4. 14 Tse , Pui-Kwan. China’s Rare-Earth Industry...U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1042, 2. Figure 2. Global REO production, 1960-2011. Source: Tse , Pui-Kwan. China’s Rare-Earth...3 compiled from three sources: Tse , Pui-Kwan. China’s Rare-Earth Industry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1042, 4; Areddy, James T
Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan
This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.
Hanson, Carl E.; King, Kenneth W.; Eagan, Mary Ellen; Horonjeff, Richard D.
The results are ultimately used to estimate the potential for damage to a wide variety of cultural resources from operations of commercial helicopters. Comparison of measured vibration levels with criteria for damage based on structural velocities will provide a family of restrictions on aircraft operations in the vicinity of sensitive structures. Such restrictions could take the form of minimum separation distances and prohibited maneuvers for helicopters. The results of the study would be presented in a report as a set of recommended procedures for helicopter operations to avoid damage to prehistoric, historic, sensitive, and conventional structures.
Sharma, R. D.; Smith, W. L.; Thomson, F. J.
The use of the shuttle sortie mode for earth observation applications was investigated and its feasibility for applied research and instrument development was appraised. The results indicate that the shuttle sortie missions offer unique advantages and that specific aspects of earth applications are particularly suited to the sortie mode.
The Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDO, administered by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, provides remotely sensed data to the user community and offers a variety of professional services to further the understanding and use of remote sensing technology. EDC reproduces and sells photographic and electronic copies of satellite images of areas throughout the world. Other products include aerial photographs collected by 16 organizations, including the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Primary users of the remotely sensed data are Federal, State, and municipal government agencies, universities, foreign nations, and private industries. The professional services available at EDC are primarily directed at integrating satellite and aircraft remote sensing technology into the programs of the Department of the Interior and its cooperators. This is accomplished through formal training workshops, user assistance, cooperative demonstration projects, and access to equipment and capabilities in an advanced data analysis laboratory. In addition, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, universities, and the general public can get assistance from the EDC Staff. Since 1973, EDC has contributed to the accelerating growth in development and operational use of remotely sensed data for land resource problems through its role as educator and by conducting basic and applied remote sensing applications research. As remote sensing technology continues to evolve, EDC will continue to respond to the increasing demand for timely information on remote sensing applications. Questions most often asked about EDC's research and training programs include: Who may attend an EDC remote sensing training course? Specifically, what is taught? Who may cooperate with EDC on remote sensing projects? Are interpretation services provided on a service basis? This report attempts to define the goals and
The "issue" of there being only limited time available to teachers for the development of teaching and learning resources has been with us a long time. This article outlines the rationale behind the development of online teaching resources that are freely available on the Earth Science Teachers' Association (ESTA) website and introduces readers to…
The use of Earth Resources Technology Satellites in solving global problems is examined. Topics discussed are: (1) management of food, water, and fiber resources; (2) exploration and management of energy and mineral resources; (3) protection of the environment; (4) protection of life and property; and (5) improvements in shipping and navigation.
Documents related to the identification and evaluation by means of sensors in spacecraft and aircraft of vegetation, minerals, and other natural resources, and the techniques and potentialities of surveying and keeping up-to-date inventories of such riches are cited. These documents were announced in the NASA scientific and technical information system between March 1970 and December 1973.
Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator); Gordon, H. R.; Baig, S. R.; Mccaslin, M.; Devivo, R. J.
The author has identified the following significant results. An experiment to evaluate the Skylab earth resources package for observing ocean currents was performed in the Straits of Florida in January 1974. Data from the S190 photographic facility, S191 spectroradiometer and S192 multispectral scanner, were compared with surface observations. The anticyclonic edge of the Gulf Stream could be identified in the Skylab S190A and B photographs, but the cyclonic edge was obscured by clouds. The aircraft photographs were judged not useful for spectral analysis because vignetting caused the blue/green ratios to be dependent on the position in the photograph. The spectral measurement technique could not identify the anticyclonic front, but mass of Florida Bay water which was in the process of flowing into the Straits could be identified and classified. Monte Carlo simulations of the visible spectrum showed that the aerosol concentration could be estimated and a correction technique was devised.
Lewis, John S.
The status of research on the importation of energy and nonterrestrial materials is reviewed, and certain specific directions for new research are proposed. New technologies which are to be developed include aerobraking, in situ propellant production, mining and beneficiation of extraterresrrial minerals, nuclear power systems, electromagnetic launch, and solar thermal propulsion. Topics discussed include the system architecture for solar power satellite constellations, the return of nonterrestrial He-3 to earth for use as a clean fusion fuel, and the return to earth of platinum-group metal byproducts from processing of nonterrestrial native ferrous metals.
Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.
Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.
Colwell, R. N.; Churchman, C. W.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, R.; Coulson, K. L. (Principal Investigator)
The University of California has been conducting an investigation which seeks to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Most of the work has concentrated on California's water resources, but with some attention being given to other earth resources as well and to the interplay between them and California's water resources.
Coldwell, Bernadette A.
The soil science and soil chemistry is incorporated into teaching materials for earth day and beyond. It revealed some of the chemical properties of the soil through color and texture and the chemical processes relevant to soils abound, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles in the soil, acidification of soils through acid deposition, leaching…
Webster, Chris; Blacksberg, Jordana; Flesch, Greg; Keymeulen, Didier; Christensen, Lance; Forouhar, Siamak
The Tunable Laser Spectrometers (TLS) technique has seen wide applicability in gas measurement and analysis for atmospheric analysis, industrial, commercial and health monitoring and space applications. In Earth science using balloons and aircraft over 2 decades, several groups (JPL, NASA Langley & Ames, NOAA, Harvard U., etc) have demonstrated the technique for ozone hole studies, lab kinetics measurements, cloud physics and transport, climate change in the ice record. The recent availability of high-power (mW) room temperature lasers (TDL, IC, QC) has enabled miniaturized, high-sensitivity spectrometers for industry and space (1) Mars, Titan, Venus, Saturn, Moon (2) Commercial isotope ratio spectrometers are replacing bulkier, complex isotope ratio mass spectrometers.
Churchman, C. W.; Clark, I.
Management planning for the California water survey considers the use of satellite and airplane remote sensing information on water-source, -center, and -sink geographies. A model is developed for estimating the social benefit of water resource information and to identify the most important types of resource information relevant to regulatory agencies and the private sector.
Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; ...
Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less
Cooper, S. (Editor); Ryan, P. T. (Editor)
Subjects covered at the meeting concerned results on the overall data collection system including sensors, interface hardware, power supplies, environmental enclosures, data transmission, processing and distribution, maintenance and integration in resources management systems.
McDonald, Kenneth R.; McKinney, Richard A.; Smith, Timothy B.; Rank, Robert
A major endeavor of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is to acquire, process, archive and distribute data from Earth observing satellites in support of a broad set of science research and applications in the U. S. and abroad. NASA policy directives specifically call for the agency to collect, announce, disseminate and archive all scientific and technical data resulting from NASA and NASA-funded research. During the active life of the satellite missions, while the data products are being created, validated and refined, a number of NASA organizations have the responsibility for data and information system functions. Following the completion of the missions, the responsibility for the long-term stewardship of the ocean and atmospheric, and land process data products transitions to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), respectively. Ensuring that long-term satellite data be preserved to support global climate change studies and other research topics and applications presents some major challenges to NASA and its partners. Over the last several years, with the launch and operation of the EOS satellites and the acquisition and production of an unprecedented volume of Earth science data, the importance of addressing these challenges has been elevated. The lifecycle of NASA's Earth science data has been the subject of several agency and interagency studies and reports and has implications and effects on agency charters, policies and budgets and on their data system's requirements, implementation plans and schedules. While much remains to be done, considerable progress has been made in understanding and addressing the data lifecycle issues.
Robeck, E.; Camphire, G.; Brendan, S.; Celia, T.
There exists a wide array of high quality resources to support K-12 teaching and motivate student interest in the geosciences. Yet, connecting teachers to those resources can be a challenge. Teachers working to implement the NGSS can benefit from accessing the wide range of existing geoscience resources, and from becoming part of supportive networks of geoscience educators, researchers, and advocates. Engaging teachers in such networks can be facilitated by providing them with information about organizations, resources, and opportunities. The American Geoscience Institute (AGI) has developed two key resources that have great value in supporting NGSS implement in these ways. Those are Earth Science Week, and the Education Resources Network in AGI's Center for Geoscience and Society. For almost twenty years, Earth Science Week, has been AGI's premier annual outreach program designed to celebrate the geosciences. Through its extensive web-based resources, as well as the physical kits of posters, DVDs, calendars and other printed materials, Earth Science Week offers an array of resources and opportunities to connect with the education-focused work of important geoscience organizations such as NASA, the National Park Service, HHMI, esri, and many others. Recently, AGI has initiated a process of tagging these and other resources to NGSS so as to facilitate their use as teachers develop their instruction. Organizing Earth Science Week around themes that are compatible with topics within NGSS contributes to the overall coherence of the diverse array of materials, while also suggesting potential foci for investigations and instructional units. More recently, AGI has launched its Center for Geoscience and Society, which is designed to engage the widest range of audiences in building geoscience awareness. As part of the Center's work, it has launched the Education Resources Network (ERN), which is an extensive searchable database of all manner of resources for geoscience
Roberts, L.N.; Biewick, L.R.
This report documents a comparison of two methods of resource calculation that are being used in the National Coal Resource Assessment project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Tewalt (1998) discusses the history of using computer software packages such as GARNET (Graphic Analysis of Resources using Numerical Evaluation Techniques), GRASS (Geographic Resource Analysis Support System), and the vector-based geographic information system (GIS) ARC/INFO (ESRI, 1998) to calculate coal resources within the USGS. The study discussed here, compares resource calculations using ARC/INFO* (ESRI, 1998) and EarthVision (EV)* (Dynamic Graphics, Inc. 1997) for the coal-bearing John Henry Member of the Straight Cliffs Formation of Late Cretaceous age in the Kaiparowits Plateau of southern Utah. Coal resource estimates in the Kaiparowits Plateau using ARC/INFO are reported in Hettinger, and others, 1996.
... Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY... geostationary satellites in the fixed-satellite service on a primary basis. This proposed footnote would grant... licensees and operators, and thus are unable to estimate the number of geostationary space station licensees...
This bibliography lists 387 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1977. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 601 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1975 and March 1975. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 351 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1975 and December 1975. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution system, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 543 reports, articles, and other documents introduced onto the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1977. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 567 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between April 1, and June 30, 1982. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 308 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1981 and March 31, 1981. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 506 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1976 and June 1976. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 526 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1976 and December 1976. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 484 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1975 and June 1975. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 390 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between 1 April 1979 and 30 June 1979. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
This bibliography lists 714 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1976 and September 1976. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
The bibliography lists 380 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1980 and March 31, 1990. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
Manduca, C. A.
Effective Earth science education depends on excellent teachers: teachers who not only possess a strong grasp of geoscience but are also well-versed in the pedagogic methods they need to connect with their audience. Preparing Earth science teachers is a task no less challenging that also requires strengths in both areas. The Teach the Earth website provides a variety of resources to support preparation of Earth science teachers. Here you can find collections of teaching activities addressing all aspects of the Earth system; discussions of teaching methods linked to examples of their use in geoscience courses; and the Earth Exploration Toolbook, a resource specifically designed for teachers who would like to incorporate data rich activities in their teaching. These resources are suitable for use by teachers, students in courses addressing the methodology of teaching Earth science and science, and faculty designing courses. Faculty working with current and future teachers will find a section on Preparing Teachers to Teach Earth Science with a collection of courses designed specifically to benefit future Earth Science teachers, examples of key activities in these courses, and descriptions of programs for pre-service and in-service teachers. The materials housed in this web-resource demonstrate a wide range of fruitful approaches and exciting opportunities. On the order of 25,000 individuals use the site repeatedly during the year. We estimate that 27 percent of these users are geoscience faculty and 12 percent are teachers. We invite teachers, faculty, researchers, and educators to enhance this resource by contributing descriptions of activities, courses, or programs as a mechanism for sharing their experience with others engaged in similar work.
A new EPA technical information resource, “Rare Earth Elements: A Review of Production, Processing, Recycling, and Associated Environmental Issues” has been produced as an introductory resource for those interested in learning more about REE mining and alternatives to meet demand...
The launch data of LANDSAT 3 is announced. The improved capability of the spacecrafts' remote sensors (the return beam vidicon and the multispectral scanner) and application of LANDSAT data to the study of energy supplies, food production, and global large-scale environmental monitoring are discussed along with the piggyback amateur radio communication satellite-OSCAR-D, the plasma Interaction Experiment, and the data collection system onboard LANDSAT 3. An assessment of the utility of LANDSAT multispectral data is given based on the research results to data from studies of LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. Areas studied include agriculture, rangelands, forestry, water resources, environmental and marine resources, environmental and marine resources, cartography, land use, demography, and geological surveys and mineral/petroleum exploration.
Donohoe, Martin J.; Vane, Deborah
The spacecraft and payloads of the Space Station Polar Platform program are described in a brief overview. Present plans call for one platform in a descending morning-equator-crossing orbit at 824 km and two or three platforms in ascending afternoon-crossing orbits at 542-824 km. The components of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) and NOAA payloads are listed in tables and briefly characterized, and data-distribution requirements and the mission development schedule are discussed. A drawing of the platform, a graph showing the spectral coverage of the EOS instruments, and a glossary of acronyms are provided.
Sen. Murkowski, Lisa [R-AK
Senate - 09/30/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-750. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Jacobs, B. E.; Bohls-Graham, E.; Martinez, A. O.; Ellins, K. K.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Stocks, E.; Fox, S.; Kent, M.
Today's instruction in Earth's systems requires thoughtful selection of curricula, and in turn, high quality learning activities that address modern Earth science. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which are intended to guide K-12 science instruction, further demand a discriminating selection process. The DIG (Diversity & Innovation in Geoscience) Texas Instructional Blueprints attempt to fulfill this practice by compiling vetted educational resources freely available online into units that are the building blocks of the blueprints. Each blueprint is composed of 9 three-week teaching units and serves as a scope and sequence for teaching a one-year Earth science course. In the earliest stages of the project, teams explored the Internet for classroom-worthy resources, including laboratory investigations, videos, visualizations, and readings, and submitted the educational resources deemed suitable for the project into the project's online review tool. Each team member evaluated the educational resources chosen by fellow team members according to a set of predetermined criteria that had been incorporated into the review tool. Resources rated as very good or excellent by all team members were submitted to the project PIs for approval. At this stage, approved resources became candidates for inclusion in the blueprint units. Team members tagged approved resources with descriptors for the type of resource and instructional strategy, and aligned these to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Earth and Space Science and the Earth Science Literacy Principles. Each team then assembled and sequenced resources according to content strand, balancing the types of learning experiences within each unit. Once units were packaged, teams then considered how they addressed the NGSS and identified the relevant disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices. In addition to providing a brief overview of the project, this
Johnson, Robert; Smith, Karen; Wescott, Konstance
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) have made dramatic technical advances in the past decade. Their use domestically is currently tightly constrained by existing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. Within the next few years, the FAA is expected to provide a regulatory framework that allows for a greatly expanded role for UASs in domestic airspace for a wide variety of applications. One of those will be remote sensing for land and natural resource monitoring. While there has recently been a large body of published research on UAS applications to environmental monitoring, in practice, very little has been operationalized by private or publicmore » entities to date. In July 2014, Argonne National Laboratory hosted a workshop dedicated to environmental monitoring UAS applications with attendance by representatives from 11 federal agencies as well as academics. The workshop reviewed the UAS state-of-the-art within the federal arena and barriers to broader UAS use. While a number of agencies, the including National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration, the United States Geological Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Bureau of Land Management have conducted proof-of-concept UAS demonstrations, typically using surplus Department of Defense equipment, the promise of UAS systems at the moment remains untapped for a variety of reasons. The consensus was, however, that UAS systems will play an increasingly important role in cost-effectively supporting timely natural-resource and land-management monitoring needs. Environmental Practice 17: 170–177 (2015)« less
Simulations were made at three month intervals to investigate the EOS mission performance over the four seasons of the year. The basic objectives of the study were: (1) to evaluate the ability of an EOS type system to meet a representative set of specific collection requirements, and (2) to understand the capabilities and limitations of the EOS that influence the system's ability to satisfy certain collection objectives. Although the results were obtained from a consideration of a two sensor EOS system, the analysis can be applied to any remote sensing system having similar optical and operational characteristics. While the category related results are applicable only to the specified requirement configuration, the results relating to general capability and limitations of the sensors can be applied in extrapolating to other U.S. based EOS collection requirements. The TRW general purpose mission simulator and analytic techniques discussed in this report can be applied to a wide range of collection and planning problems of earth orbiting imaging systems.
Vonbun, F. O.; Marsh, J. G.; Mcgoogan, J. T.; Leitao, C. D.; Vincent, S.; Wells, W. T.
The S-193 Skylab radar altimeter was operated in a round-the-world pass on Jan. 31, 1974. The main purpose of this experiment was to test and 'measure' the variation of the sea surface topography using the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geoid model as a reference. This model is based upon 430,000 satellite and 25,000 ground gravity observations. Variations of the sea surface on the order of -40 to +60 m were observed along this pass. The 'computed' and 'measured' sea surfaces have an rms agreement on the order of 7 m. This is quite satisfactory, considering that this was the first time the sea surface has been observed directly over a distance of nearly 35,000 km and compared to a computed model. The Skylab orbit for this global pass was computed using the Goddard Earth Model (GEM 6) and S-band radar tracking data, resulting in an orbital height uncertainty of better than 5 m over one orbital period.
Menicucci, A. J.; Bean, J. R.
Environmental, geological, and climatological sciences are important facets of physical science education. However, it is often difficult for educators to acquire the necessary resources to facilitate content explanations, and demonstration of the conceptual links between individual lessons. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley is aligning new and existing Earth systems educational resources that are high-quality, interactive and inquiry based. Learning resources are organized by the UGC framework topics (Causes of Change, How the Earth System Works, and Measurable Changes), and focus on exploring topic relationships. Resources are currently aligned with both the UGC framework and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), facilitating broad utility among K-16 educators. The overarching goal of the UGC Project is to provide the necessary resources that guide the construction of coherent, interdisciplinary instructional units. These units can be reinforced through system models, providing visual learning scaffolds for assessments of student content knowledge. Utilizing the central framework of UGC alleviates the long-standing problem of creating coherent instructional units from multiple learning resources, each organized and categorized independently across multiple platforms that may not provide explicit connections among Earth science subjects UGC topic cross listing of learning modules establishes conceptual links. Each resource is linked across several Earth system components, facilitating exploration of relationships and feedbacks between processes. Cross listed topics are therefore useful for development of broad picture learning goals via targeted instructional units. We also anticipate cultivating summaries of the explicit conceptual links explored in each resource from both current teachers and content specialists. Insructional units currated and aligned under the UGC
Sabhasri, S. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments include the identification of a series of active alluvial fans along the margins of the Central Plain, the compilation of crop resources maps of central and eastern Thailand, and evaluation of the Purdue/LARS printout using unsupervised mode of an area near Bangkok. Results from LANDSAT 1 imagery and ground truth survey showed that Thailand existing forest in 1973 covered an area of approximately 37% of total land area. The last countrywide survey using aerial photographs at 1:60,000 scale conducted in 1961 gave the figure of 58%. Experience has shown many advantages of LANDSAT imagery over the conventional aerial photography in locating faults and fractures in the preparation of tectonic maps. Several rock types can also be identified from LANDSAT imagery.
Woodcock, Robert; Angreani, Rini; Cox, Simon; Fraser, Ryan; Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens; Rankine, Terry; Robertson, Jess; Vote, Josh
The CSIRO Mineral Resources Flagship was established to tackle medium- to long-term challenges facing the Australian mineral industry across the value chain from exploration and mining through mineral processing within the framework of an economically, environmentally and socially sustainable minerals industry. This broad portfolio demands collaboration and data exchange with a broad range of participants and data providers across government, research and industry. It is an ideal environment to link geoscience informatics platforms to application across the resource extraction industry and to unlock the value of data integration between traditionally discrete parts of the minerals digital value chain. Despite the potential benefits, data integration remains an elusive goal within research and industry. Many projects use only a subset of available data types in an integrated manner, often maintaining the traditional discipline-based data 'silos'. Integrating data across the entire minerals digital value chain is an expensive proposition involving multiple disciplines and, significantly, multiple data sources both internal and external to any single organisation. Differing vocabularies and data formats, along with access regimes to appropriate analysis software and equipment all hamper the sharing and exchange of information. AuScope has addressed the challenge of data exchange across organisations nationally, and established a national geosciences information infrastructure using open standards-based web services. Federated across a wide variety of organisations, the resulting infrastructure contains a wide variety of live and updated data types. The community data standards and infrastructure platforms that underpin AuScope provide important new datasets and multi-agency links independent of software and hardware differences. AuScope has thus created an infrastructure, a platform of technologies and the opportunity for new ways of working with and integrating
A list and summary description of all Johnson Space Center electronic laboratory and photographic laboratory capabilities available to earth resources division personnel for processing earth resources data are provided. The electronic capabilities pertain to those facilities and systems that use electronic and/or photographic products as output. The photographic capabilities pertain to equipment that uses photographic images as input and electronic and/or table summarizes processing steps. A general hardware description is presented for each of the data processing systems, and the titles of computer programs are used to identify the capabilities and data flow.
Vincent, R. K.
The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System (ERSIS) and the information contained therein are described. It is intended for use as a second supplement to the NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation, NASA CR-31650-24-T, May 1971. The current supplement includes approximately 100 rock and mineral, and 375 vegetation directional reflectance spectral curves in the optical region from 0.2 to 22.0 microns. The data were categorized by subject and each curve plotted on a single graph. Each graph is fully titled to indicate curve source and indexed by subject to facilitate user retrieval from ERSIS magnetic tape records.
Venkata Rao, M.; Gupta, J. P.; Rattan, Ram; Thyagarajan, K.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has established an operational Remote sensing satellite system by launching its first satellite, IRS-1A in 1988, followed by a series of IRS spacecraft. The IRS-1C/1D satellites with their unique combination of Payloads have taken a lead position in the Global remote sensing scenario. Realising the growing User demands for the "Multi" level approach in terms of Spatial, Spectral, Temporal and Radiometric resolutions, ISRO identified the Resourcesat as a continuity as well as improved RS Satellite. The Resourcesat-1 (IRS-P6) was launched in October 2003 using PSLV launch vehicle and it is in operational service. Resourcesat-2 is its follow-on Mission scheduled for launch in 2008. Each Resourcesat satellite carries three Electro-optical cameras as its payload - LISS-3, LISS-4 and AWIFS. All the three are multi-spectral push-broom scanners with linear array CCDs as Detectors. LISS-3 and AWIFS operate in four identical spectral bands in the VIS-NIR-SWIR range while LISS-4 is a high resolution camera with three spectral bands in VIS-NIR range. In order to meet the stringent requirements of band-to-band registration and platform stability, several improvements have been incorporated in the mainframe Bus configuration like wide field Star trackers, precision Gyroscopes, on-board GPS receiver etc,. The Resourcesat data finds its application in several areas like agricultural crop discrimination and monitoring, crop acreage/yield estimation, precision farming, water resources, forest mapping, Rural infrastructure development, disaster management etc,. to name a few. A brief description of the Payload cameras, spacecraft bus elements and operational modes and few applications are presented.
This thesis focuses on the development and testing of the KHawk multispectral remote sensing system for environmental and agricultural applications. KHawk Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS), a small and low-cost remote sensing platform, is used as the test bed for aerial video acquisition. An efficient image geotagging and photogrammetric procedure for aerial map generation is described, followed by a comprehensive error analysis on the generated maps. The developed procedure is also used for generation of multispectral aerial maps including red, near infrared (NIR) and colored infrared (CIR) maps. A robust Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) calibration procedure is proposed and validated by ground tests and KHawk flight test. Finally, the generated aerial maps and their corresponding Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are used for typical application scenarios including prescribed fire monitoring, initial fire line estimation, and tree health monitoring.
de Goeij, B. T. G.; Otter, G. C. J.; van Wakeren, J. M. O.; Veefkind, J. P.; Vlemmix, T.; Ge, X.; Levelt, P. F.; Dirks, B. P. F.; Toet, P. M.; van der Wal, L. F.; Jansen, R.
In recent years TNO has investigated and developed different innovative opto-mechanical designs to realize advanced spectrometers for space applications in a more compact and cost-effective manner. This offers multiple advantages: a compact instrument can be flown on a much smaller platform or as add-on on a larger platform; a low-cost instrument opens up the possibility to fly multiple instruments in a satellite constellation, improving both global coverage and temporal sampling (e.g. multiple overpasses per day to study diurnal processes); in this way a constellation of low-cost instruments may provide added value to the larger scientific and operational satellite missions (e.g. the Copernicus Sentinel missions); a small, lightweight spectrometer can easily be mounted on a small aircraft or high-altitude UAV (offering high spatial resolution).
Cashion, Kenneth D.; Whitehurst, Charles A.
The activities of the Earth Resources Laboratoy (ERL) for the past seventeen years are reviewed with particular reference to four typical applications demonstrating the use of remotely sensed data in a geobased information system context. The applications discussed are: a fire control model for the Olympic National Park; wildlife habitat modeling; a resource inventory system including a potential soil erosion model; and a corridor analysis model for locating routes between geographical locations. Some future applications are also discussed.
Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K.; Marvel, M. T.; Ruhlman, K.; LaPan, J.; Lewis, P.; Madigan, J.; Oostra, D.; Taylor, J.
Among atmospheric scientists, the importance of the Earth radiation budget concept is well understood. Papers have addressed the topic for over 100 years, and the large Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (among others), with its multiple on-orbit instruments, is working hard to quantify the details of its various parts. In education, Earth's energy budget is a concept that generally appears in middle school and Earth science curricula, but its treatment in textbooks leaves much to be desired. Students and the public hold many misconceptions, and very few people have an appreciation for the importance of this energy balance to the conditions on Earth. More importantly, few have a correct mental model that allows them to make predictions and understand the effect of changes such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. As an outreach element of the core CERES team at NASA Langley, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, educators, graphic artists, writers, and web developers has been developing and refining graphics and resources to explain the Earth's Energy budget over the last few decades. Resources have developed through an iterative process involving ongoing use in front of a variety of audiences, including students and teachers from 3rd to 12th grade as well as public audiences.
Barnett, T. L.; Juday, R. D.
The paper describes the S191 visible-infrared spectrometer of the Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package - a manually pointed two-channel instrument operating in the reflective (0.4-2.5 micron) and thermal emissive (6-15 micron) regions. A sensor description is provided and attention is given to data quality in the short wavelength and thermal infrared regions.
Nishioka, K.; Arno, R. D.; Alexander, A. D.; Slye, R. E.
The technologies and systems required to establish the mining base, mine, refine, and return lunar resources to earth are discussed. Gross equipment requirements, their weights and costs are estimated and documented. The operational requirements are analyzed and tabulated. Diagrams of equipment and processing facilities are provided.
Desconnets, Jean-Christophe; Giuliani, Gregory; Guigoz, Yaniss; Lacroix, Pierre; Mlisa, Andiswa; Noort, Mark; Ray, Nicolas; Searby, Nancy D.
The discovery of and access to capacity building resources are often essential to conduct environmental projects based on Earth Observation (EO) resources, whether they are Earth Observation products, methodological tools, techniques, organizations that impart training in these techniques or even projects that have shown practical achievements. Recognizing this opportunity and need, the European Commission through two FP7 projects jointly with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) teamed up with the Committee on Earth observation Satellites (CEOS). The Global Earth Observation CApacity Building (GEOCAB) portal aims at compiling all current capacity building efforts on the use of EO data for societal benefits into an easily updateable and user-friendly portal. GEOCAB offers a faceted search to improve user discovery experience with a fully interactive world map with all inventoried projects and activities. This paper focuses on the conceptual framework used to implement the underlying platform. An ISO19115 metadata model associated with a terminological repository are the core elements that provide a semantic search application and an interoperable discovery service. The organization and the contribution of different user communities to ensure the management and the update of the content of GEOCAB are addressed.
With the recent bad news that there may be little or no budget money for NASA to continue funding programs aimed at the human exploration of space beyond Earth's orbit, it becomes even more important for other initiatives to be considered. SpaceDev is the world' s first commercial space exploration company, and enjoys the strong support of Dan Goldin, Wes Huntress, Carl Pilcher, Alan Ladwig, and others at NASA headquarters. SpaceDev is also supported by such scientists as Jim Arnold, Paul Coleman, John Lewis, Steve Ostro, and many others. Taxpayers cannot be expected to carry the entire burden of exploration, construction, and settlement. The private sector must be involved, and the SpaceDev Near Earth Asteroid Prospector (NEAP) venture may provide a good example of how governments and the private sector can cooperate to accomplish these goals. SpaceDev believes that the utilization of in situ resources will take place on near-Earth asteroids before the Moon or Mars because many NEOs are energetically closer than the Moon or Mars and have a highly concentrated composition. SpaceDev currently expects to perform the following three missions: NEAP (science data gathering); NEAP 2, near-Earth asteroid or short-term comet sample return mission; and NEAP 3, in situ fuel production or resource extraction and utilization. These missions could pioneer the way for in situ resources for construction.
Anthony R. de Souza, Ph.D. Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
The Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR) provided oversight of the earth sciences and resources activities with the National Research Council (NRC). The Board reviewed research and public activities in the earth sciences; undertook analyses relevant to the discovery, supply, delivery, waste disposal and associated impacts and issues related to hydrocarbon, metallic, and nonmetallic mineral resources; and monitored the status of the earth sciences, assessed the health of the disciplines, identified research opportunities, and responded to specific agency requests for advice. These tasks were conducted by distinguished volunteers and NRC staff members that are representative of the breadth andmore » depth of the earth sciences and resources disciplines (e.g., ecology, geophysics, geochemistry, geobiology, hydrology, geography, geographic information science, materials science, mineral resources and mining, energy resources, paleontology, visualization, remote sensing, geophysical data and information). Each year the Board held two meetings. Most recently at the May 2003 Board meeting, the main topic of discussion was Coordination of Geospatial Data in the Era of the Department of Homeland Security. Speakers were Steven Cooper, DHS; Barry Napier, FEMA; Bill Shinar, VGIN; Barbara Ryan, USGS; and Hank Garie, DOI. Other topics were Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and New Opportunities in the Geology Discipline (Pat Leahy, USGS); Challenges to Understanding Biological Change in a Fluid Landscape (Sue Haseltine, USGS); and GIS and Remote Sensing at the USDA (Rodney Brown, USDA). The Board and the AGI also held a Leadership Forum. At the October 2003 Board meeting in Irvine, California, the Board plans to discuss earth resource issues, develop a white paper on the future directions of the Board, and review two of its standing committees--Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics, and the Committee on Geological and Geotechnical Engineering
A wide range of decisionmakers and analysts, including government and industry resource managers, financial lenders and insurers, ecologists, conservationists, and economists have long struggled with how to ascribe "value" to environmental resources. Despite other differences among these experts, all agree that accurate measures of the physical status of resources are essential as a basis for valuation. Earth observations from space offer some of these measures and as a result, are becoming an essential component of valuation-oriented resource management. This paper illustrates the use of earth observations in two growing applications: payments for environmental services and index insurance for livestock and agriculture. These applications are taking place both in the United States and in an increasing number of other countries. The paper also highlights issues of concern about these uses of earth observations, including short- and long-term availability of data and quality of data. These concerns call into question the viability of building valuation approaches upon a mere assumption of data supply.
For centuries, men have attempted to understand the climate system through observations obtained from Earth's surface. These observations yielded preliminary understanding of the ocean currents, tides, and prevailing winds using visual observation and simple mechanical tools as their instruments. Today's sensitive, downward-looking radar systems, called altimeters, onboard satellites can measure globally the precise height of the ocean surface. This surface is largely that of the equipotential gravity surface, called the geoid - the level surface to which the oceans would conform if there were no forces acting on them apart from gravity, as well as having a significant 1-2- meter-level signal arising from the motion of the ocean's currents.
Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.
CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.
Landgrebe, D. A.
Discussion of the state of the technology of earth resources information systems relative to future operational implementation. The importance of recognizing the difference between systems with image orientation and systems with numerical orientation is illustrated in an example concerning the effect of noise on multiband multispectral data obtained in an agricultural experiment. It is suggested that the data system hardware portion of the total earth resources information system be designed in terms of a numerical orientation; it is argued, however, that this choise is entirely compatible with image-oriented analysis tasks. Some aspects of interfacing such an advanced technology with an operational user community in such a way as to accommodate the user's need for flexibility and yet provide the services needed on a cost-effective basis are discussed.
The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System and the information contained therein are described. It is intended to be used as a supplement to the NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation, N72-28366. This supplement includes approximately 500 rock and mineral, 100 soil, and 30 vegetation bidirectional and directional reflectance, transmittance, emittance, and degree-of-polarization curves in the optical region from 0.2 to 22.0 microns. The data have been categorized by subject and each curve plotted on a single graph. For some rocks and minerals, all curves of the same type, differing only in particle size, have been plotted on one grid as a composite plot. Each graph, composite or single, is fully titled to indicate curve source and is indexed by subject to facilitate user retrieval.
The Exploratorium is a museum of science, art and human perception located in San Francisco, CA. The Exploratorium has been offering resources and professional development to primary and secondary teachers since 1972. We focus on inquiry based, hands-on learning, with an emphasis on Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) implementation. This brief, invited presentation will feature the programs and online resources developed by the Exploratorium's "Institute for Inquiry" and "Teacher Institute" that may help formal and informal educators engage, implement and promote three dimensional learning in the Earth Sciences.
This project is to foster and develop new applications of remote sensing under an interdisciplinary effort. Seven reports make up the specific projects presently being conducted throughout the State of Minnesota in cooperation with several agencies and municipalities. These are included under the general headings of: (1) applications of aerial photography and ERTS-1 data to agricultural, forest, and water resources management; (2) classification and dynamics of water and wetland resources of Minnesota; (3) studies of Lake Superior Bay; and (4) feasibility of detecting major air pollutants by earth-oriented satellite-borne sensors.
The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.
Lamoreaux, P. E.; Henry, H. R.
The University of Alabama, the Geological Survey of Alabama, and the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center are involved in an interagency, interdisciplinary effort to use remotely sensed, multispectral observations to yield improved and timely assessment of earth resources and environmental quality in Alabama. It is the goal of this effort to interpret these data and provide them in a format which is meaningful to and readily usable by agencies, industries, and individuals who are potential users throughout the State.
Richard, S. M.; Zaslavsky, I.; Gupta, A.; Valentine, D.
Geoscience Architecture for Research (GEAR) is approaching EarthCube design as a complex and evolving socio-technical federation of systems. EarthCube is intended to support the science research enterprise, for which there is no centralized command and control, requirements are a moving target, the function and behavior of the system must evolve and adapt as new scientific paradigms emerge, and system participants are conducting research that inherently implies seeking new ways of doing things. EarthCube must address evolving user requirements and enable domain and project systems developed under different management and for different purposes to work together. The EC architecture must focus on creating a technical environment that enables new capabilities by combining existing and newly developed resources in various ways, and encourages development of new resource designs intended for re-use and interoperability. In a sense, instead of a single architecture design, GEAR provides a way to accommodate multiple designs tuned to different tasks. This agile, adaptive, evolutionary software development style is based on a continuously updated portfolio of compatible components that enable new sub-system architecture. System users make decisions about which components to use in this marketplace based on performance, satisfaction, and impact metrics collected continuously to evaluate components, determine priorities, and guide resource allocation decisions by the system governance agency. EC is designed as a federation of independent systems, and although the coordinator of the EC system may be named an enterprise architect, the focus of the role needs to be organizing resources, assessing their readiness for interoperability with the existing EC component inventory, managing dependencies between transient subsystems, mechanisms of stakeholder engagement and inclusion, and negotiation of standard interfaces, rather than actual specification of components. Composition of
Polge, R. J.; Bhagavan, B. K.; Callas, L.
The Earth Resources Technology Satellite system is studied, with emphasis on sensors, data processing requirements, and image data compression using the Fast Fourier and Hadamard transforms. The ERTS-A system and the fundamentals of remote sensing are discussed. Three user applications (forestry, crops, and rangelands) are selected and their spectral signatures are described. It is shown that additional sensors are needed for rangeland management. An on-board information processing system is recommended to reduce the amount of data transmitted.
Zaslavsky, Ilya; Bermudez, Luis; Grethe, Jeffrey; Gupta, Amarnath; Hsu, Leslie; Lehnert, Kerstin; Malik, Tanu; Richard, Stephen; Valentine, David; Whitenack, Thomas
Organizing geoscience data resources to support cross-disciplinary data discovery, interpretation, analysis and integration is challenging because of different information models, semantic frameworks, metadata profiles, catalogs, and services used in different geoscience domains, not to mention different research paradigms and methodologies. The central goal of CINERGI, a new project supported by the US National Science Foundation through its EarthCube Building Blocks program, is to create a methodology and assemble a large inventory of high-quality information resources capable of supporting data discovery needs of researchers in a wide range of geoscience domains. The key characteristics of the inventory are: 1) collaboration with and integration of metadata resources from a number of large data facilities; 2) reliance on international metadata and catalog service standards; 3) assessment of resource "interoperability-readiness"; 4) ability to cross-link and navigate data resources, projects, models, researcher directories, publications, usage information, etc.; 5) efficient inclusion of "long-tail" data, which are not appearing in existing domain repositories; 6) data registration at feature level where appropriate, in addition to common dataset-level registration, and 7) integration with parallel EarthCube efforts, in particular focused on EarthCube governance, information brokering, service-oriented architecture design and management of semantic information. We discuss challenges associated with accomplishing CINERGI goals, including defining the inventory scope; managing different granularity levels of resource registration; interaction with search systems of domain repositories; explicating domain semantics; metadata brokering, harvesting and pruning; managing provenance of the harvested metadata; and cross-linking resources based on the linked open data (LOD) approaches. At the higher level of the inventory, we register domain-wide resources such as domain
SL4-93-153 (February 1974) --- A vertical view of the Birmingham and central Alabama area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photographed taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Illustrated here is the utility of color infrared film in depicting distribution of living vegetation in the 3,600 square mile Birmingham region. The Birmingham industrial complex, with a population of nearly 850,000, is the light gray area nestled in the valley between the northeast-trending ridges that are prominent topographic features in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The narrow ridges and adjacent valleys reflect folded and faulted sedimentary rocks, indicating the complex geological history of the region. Two major rivers and several reservoirs are easily distinguished in this photograph. Bankhand Lake, formed by a dam on the Black Warrior River, appears as bright blue west of Birmingham. Two lakes are formed by dams on the Goosa River east of Birmingham. Federal and state highways appear as thin white lines and are easily identified. Interstate 65 to Montgomery is the prominent white line extending southward from Birmingham. Power line clearings are visible in the center of the picture along the Goosa River, and can be traced northwestward to northern parts of Birmingham. The predominant deep red color of the picture is due to the reflections from living vegetation. In contrast are the light tan areas that commonly occur as rectangular patterns in the east part of the photograph and represent mature agricultural crops or grazing lands. Analysis of the photographic data from the earth terrain camera will be conducted by Dr. H. Jayroe of the Marshall Space Flight Center in developing analytical techniques. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior's Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA
Zhou, X.; Zhou, Z.; Apple, M. E.; Spangler, L.
To extract methane from unminable seams of coal in the Powder River Basin of Montana and Wyoming, coalbed methane (CBM) water has to be pumped and kept in retention ponds rather than discharged to the vadose zone to mix with the ground water. The water areal coverage of these ponds changes due to evaporation and repetitive refilling. The water quality also changes due to growing of microalgae (unicellular or filamentous including green algae and diatoms), evaporation, and refilling. To estimate the water coverage changes and monitor water quality becomes important for monitoring the CBM water retention ponds to provide timely management plan for the newly pumped CBM water. Conventional methods such as various water indices based on multi-spectral satellite data such as Landsat because of the small pond size ( 100mx100m scale) and low spatial resolution ( 30m scale) of the satellite data. In this study we will present new methods to estimate water coverage and water quality changes using Google Earth images and images collected from an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) (Phantom 2 plus). Because these images have only visible bands (red, green, and blue bands), the conventional water index methods that involve near-infrared bands do not work. We design a new method just based on the visible bands to automatically extract water pixels and the intensity of the water pixel as a proxy for water quality after a series of image processing such as georeferencing, resampling, filtering, etc. Differential GPS positions along the water edges were collected the same day as the images collected from the UAS. Area of the water area was calculated from the GPS positions and used for the validation of the method. Because of the very high resolution ( 10-30 cm scale), the water areal coverage and water quality distribution can be accurately estimated. Since the UAS can be flied any time, water area and quality information can be collected timely.
From the first hand-held cameras on the Gemini space missions to present day satellite instruments, Earth observations have enhanced the management of natural resources including water, land, and air. Applications include the development of new methodology (for example, developing and testing algorithms or demonstrating how data can be used) and the direct use of data in decisionmaking and policy implementation. Using well-defined bibliographic search indices to systematically survey a broad social science literature, this project enables identification of a host of well-documented, practical and direct applications of Earth science data in resource management. This literature has not previously been well surveyed, aggregated, or analyzed for the heritage of lessons learned in practical application of Earth science data. In the absence of such a survey, the usefulness of Earth science data is underestimated and the factors that make people want to use -- and able to use -- the data are poorly understood. The project extends and updates previous analysis of social science applications of Landsat data to show their contemporary, direct use in new policy, business, and management activities and decisionmaking. The previous surveys (for example, Blumberg and Jacobson 1997; National Research Council 1998) find that the earliest attempts to use data are almost exclusively testing of methodology rather than direct use in resource management. Examples of methodology prototyping include Green et al. (1997) who demonstrate use of remote sensing to detect and monitor changes in land cover and use, Cowen et al. (1995) who demonstrate design and integration of GIS for environmental applications, Hutchinson (1991) who shows uses of data for famine early warning, and Brondizio et al. (1996) who show the link of thematic mapper data with botanical data. Blumberg and Jacobson (in Acevedo et al. 1996) show use of data in a study of urban development in the San Francisco Bay and the
Williams, D. N.
The data associated with climate research is often generated, accessed, stored, and analyzed on a mix of unique platforms. The volume, variety, velocity, and veracity of this data creates unique challenges as climate research attempts to move beyond stand-alone platforms to a system that truly integrates dispersed resources. Today, sharing data across multiple facilities is often a challenge due to the large variance in supporting infrastructures. This results in data being accessed and downloaded many times, which requires significant amounts of resources, places a heavy analytic development burden on the end users, and mismanaged resources. Working across U.S. federal agencies, international agencies, and multiple worldwide data centers, and spanning seven international network organizations, the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has begun to solve this problem. Its architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes that are independently administered yet united by common federation protocols and application programming interfaces. However, significant challenges remain, including workflow provenance, modular and flexible deployment, scalability of a diverse set of computational resources, and more. Expanding on the existing ESGF, the Distributed Resources for the Earth System Grid Federation Advanced Management (DREAM) will ensure that the access, storage, movement, and analysis of the large quantities of data that are processed and produced by diverse science projects can be dynamically distributed with proper resource management. This system will enable data from an infinite number of diverse sources to be organized and accessed from anywhere on any device (including mobile platforms). The approach offers a powerful roadmap for the creation and integration of a unified knowledge base of an entire ecosystem, including its many geophysical, geographical, social, political, agricultural, energy, transportation, and cyber aspects. The
Stackouse, Paul W., Jr.; Renne, D.; Beyer, H.-G.; Wald, L.; Meyers, R.; Perez, R.; Suri, M.
The GEOSS strategic plan specifically targets the area of improved energy resource management due to the importance of these to the economic and social viability of every nation of the world. With the world s increasing demand for energy resources, the need for new alternative energy resources grows. This paper overviews a new initiative within the International Energy Agency that addresses needs to better manage and develop solar energy resources worldwide. The goal is to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information of the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface in easily-accessible formats and understandable quality metrics. The scope of solar resource assessment information includes historic data sets and currently derived data products using satellite imagery and other means. Thus, this new task will address the needs of the solar energy sector while at the same time will serve as a model that satisfies GEOSS objectives and goals.
Dutta, Tanushree; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Uchimiya, Minori; Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Deep, Akash; Yun, Seong-Taek
Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and 'smart' electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficient REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficientmore » REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes.« less
SL4-92-300 (February 1974) --- A near vertical view of the Mobile Bay, Alabama area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. North of Mobile the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers join to form the Mobile River. Detailed configuration of the individual stream channels and boundaries can be defined as the Mobile River flows into Mobile Bay, and thence into the Gulf of Mexico. The Mobile River Valley with its numerous stream channels is a distinct light shade in contrast to the dark green shade of the adjacent areas. The red coloration of Mobile Bay reflects the sediment load carried into the Bay by the rivers. Variations in red color indicate sediment load and the current paths within Mobile Bay. The waterly movement of the along shore currents at the mouth of Mobile Bay is shown by the contrasting light blue of the sediment-laden current and the blue of the Gulf predominately. Agricultural areas east and west of Mobile Bay are characterized by a rectangular pattern in green to white shades. Color variations may reflect the type and growth cycle of crops. Agricultural areas (light gray-greens) are also clearly visible in other parts of the photograph. Interstate 10 extends from near Pascagoula, Mississippi eastward through Mobile to the outskirts of Pensacola, Florida. Analysis of the EREP photographic data will be undertaken by the U.S. Corps of Engineers to determine bay dynamic processes. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior's Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. 57198 Photo credit: NASA
Ireton, F.; Owens, A.; Steffen, P. L.
Each year, the NASA Explorer Schools (NES) program establishes a three-year partnership between NASA and 50 school teams, consisting of teachers and education administrators from diverse communities across the country. While partnered with NASA, NES teams acquire and use new teaching resources and technology tools for grades 4 - 9 using NASA's unique content, experts and other resources. Schools in the program are eligible to receive funding (pending budget approval) over the three-year period to purchase technology tools that support science and mathematics instruction. Explorer School teams attend a one-week summer institute at one of NASA's field centers each summer. The weeklong institutes are designed to introduce the teachers and administrators to the wealth of NASA information and resources available and to provide them with content background on NASA's exploration programs. During the 2004 summer institutes at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) the National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) entered into a pilot program with NES to test the feasibility of master teachers serving as mentors for the NES teams. Five master teachers were selected as Earth Science Resource Teachers (ESRT) from an application pool and attended the NES workshop at GSFC. During the workshop they participated in the program along side the NES teams which provided the opportunity for them to meet the teams and develop a rapport. Over the next year the ESRT will be in communication with the NES teams to offer suggestions on classroom management, content issues, classroom resources, and will be able to assist them in meeting the goals of NES. This paper will discuss the planning, selection, participation, outcomes, costs, and suggestions for future ESRT mentorship programs.
Haber, J.; Luby, M.; Wittenberg, K.
For three years, Columbia Earthscape, www.earthscape.org, has served as a test bed for the development and evaluation of Web-based geoscience education. Last fall (EOS Trans. AGU, 82(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract ED11A-11, 2001), we described how librarian, scientist, instructor, and student feedback led to sweeping changes in interface and acquisitions. Further assessment has looked at the value of a central online resource for Earth-system science education in light of patterns of study. Columbia Earthscape aimed to create an authoritative resource that reflects the interconnectedness of the Internet, of the disciplines of Earth-systems science, and of research, education, and public policy. Evaluation thus has three parts. The editors and editorial advisory board have evaluated projects for the site for accuracy and relevance to the project?s original context of Earth issues and topical mini-courses. Second, our research sought patterns of student use and library acquisition of Internet sources. Last, we asked if and how students benefit from Columbia Earthscape. We found, first, that while libraries are understandably reluctant to add online resources to strained budgets, almost all students work online; they vary almost solely in personal Web use. Second, Web use does not discourage use of print. Third, researchers often search Columbia Earthscape, but students, especially in schools, prefer browsing by topic of interest. Fourth, if they did not have this resource, most would surf, but many feel lost on the Web, and few say they can judge the quality of materials they used. Fifth, students found Columbia Earthscape helpful, relevant, and current, but most often for its research and policy materials. Many commented on issue-related collections original to Columbia Earthscape. While indeed we intended our Classroom Models and Sample Syllabi primarily as aids to instructor course design, we conclude, first, that students stick anyway to assigned materials and
Goldstein, A. S.
The design, development, and characteristics of the S192 instrument for use with the earth resources data systems are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) multispectral scanner measurements, (2) measurement characteristics, (3) calibration and aligment, (4) operating modes, and (5) time tagging and references. The S192 will obtain high spatial resolution, quantitative line scan imagery data of the radiation reflected and emitted by selected test sites in up to 13 spectral bands of visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Harwell, D. E.; Asher, P. M.; Hankin, E. R.; Janick, N. G.; Marasco, L.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is committed to inspiring and educating present and future generations of diverse, innovative, and creative Earth and space scientists. To meet our commitment, AGU provides career and educational resources, webinars, mentoring, and support for students and professionals at each level of development to reduce barriers to achievement and to promote professional advancement. AGU is also working with other organizations and educational institutions to collaborate on projects benefiting the greater geoscience community. The presentation will include an overview of current Pathfinder efforts, collaborative efforts, and an appeal for additional partnerships.
The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.
Stow, W. K.; Cheeseman, C.; Dallam, W.; Dietrich, D.; Dorfman, G.; Fleming, R.; Fries, R.; Guard, W.; Jackson, F.; Jankowski, H.
Economic benefits studies regarding the application of remote sensing to resource management and the Total Earth Resources for the Shuttle Era (TERSSE) study to outline the structure and development of future systems are used, along with experience from LANDSAT and LACIE, to define the system performance and economics of an operational Earth Resources system. The system is to be based on current (LANDSAT follow-on) technology and its application to high priority resource management missions, such as global crop inventory. The TERSSE Operational System Study (TOSS) investigated system-level design alternatives using economic performance as the evaluation criterion. As such, the TOSS effort represented a significant step forward in the systems engineering and economic analysis of Earth Resources programs. By parametrically relating engineering design parameters, such as sensor performance details, to the economic benefit mechanisms a new level of confidence in the conclusions concerning the implementation of such systems can be reached.
Cattermole, P. J.; Junkin, G.; Finkelstein, M. I.; Kingsley, S. P.
Ground probing radar is a well established technique for locating buried objects and has found application in resource mapping. The development of this technology for the Mars exploration programme has lead to lightweight systems with potential applications for investigating shallow geological structures on Earth, Mars and Venus. Recent advances in ground probing radar technology for planetary exploration include the development of single-antenna systems with improved beam focussing into the ground and a move to lower frequencies which considerably extends the depth penetration in dry ground. These systems are designed for mobility and could form the basis of autonomous mapping systems for terrestrial exploration. Such systems would be particularly valuable for water resource surveying in arid and semi-arid regions, where there is a need to have lightweight instrumentation that can be moved into sometimes inhospitable terrain.
Drake, B.; Shuchman, R. A.; Bryan, M. L.; Larson, R. W.; Liskow, C. L.; Rendleman, R. A.
A multiplexed synthetic aperture Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) that simultaneously images the terrain with X-band (3.2 cm) and L-band (23.0 cm) radar wavelengths was developed. The Feasibility of using multiplexed SLAR to obtain useful information for earth resources purposes. The SLAR imagery, aerial photographs, and infrared imagery are examined to determine the qualitative tone and texture of many rural land-use features imaged. The results show that: (1) Neither X- nor L-band SLAR at moderate and low depression angles can directly or indirectly detect pools of water under standing vegetation. (2) Many of the urban and rural land-use categories present in the test areas can be identified and mapped on the multiplexed SLAR imagery. (3) Water resources management can be done using multiplexed SLAR. (4) Drainage patterns can be determined on both the X- and L-band imagery.
A near vertical view of the Mobile Bay, Alabama area seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in earth orbit. North of Mobile the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers join to form the Mobile River. Detailed configuration of the individual stream channels and boundaries can be defined as the Mobile River flows into Mobile Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico. The Mobile River Valley with its numerous stream channels is a distinct light shade in contrast to the dark green shade of the adjacent areas. The red coloration of Mobile Bay reflects the sediment load carried into the bay by the rivers. The westerly movement of the shore currents at the mouth of Mobile Bay is shown by the contrasting light blue of the sediment-laden current the the blue of the Gulf. Agricultural areas east and west of Mobile Bay are characterized by a rectangular pattern in green to white shades. Color variations may reflect
Ramirez, P. C.; LaDochy, S.; Patzert, W. C.; Willis, J. K.
The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) recently developed a set of climate related educational modules to be used by K-12 teachers. These modules incorporate recent NASA and NOAA resources in Earth Science education. In the summer of 2011, these modules were tested by in-service teachers in courses held at several college campuses. At California State University, Los Angeles, we reviewed two climate modules: The Great Ocean Conveyer Belt and Abrupt Climate Change (http://essea.strategies.org/module.php?module_id=148) and Sulfur Dioxide: Its Role in Climate Change (http://essea.strategies.org/module.php?module_id=168). For each module, 4-6 teachers formed a cohort to complete assignments and unit assessments and to evaluate the effectiveness of the module for use in their classroom. Each module presented the teachers with a task that enabled them to research and better understand the science behind the climate related topic. For The Great Ocean Conveyer Belt, teachers are tasked with evaluating the impacts of the slowing or stopping of the thermohaline circulation on climate. In the same module teachers are charged with determining the possibilities of an abrupt climate shift during this century such as happened in the past. For the Sulfur Dioxide module teachers investigated the climate implications of the occurrence of several major volcanic eruptions within a short time period, as well as the feasibility of using sulfates to geoengineer climate change. In completing module assignments, teachers must list what they already know about the topic as well as formulate questions that still need to be addressed. Teachers then model the related interactions between spheres comprising the earth system (atmosphere-lithosphere, for example) to evaluate possible environmental impacts. Finally, teachers applied their research results to create lesson plans for their students. At a time when climate change and global warming are important topics in science
Earth resources requirements to be investigated by Skylab missions 1 through 4 are presented tabularly. Areas to be investigated include: (1) agriculture, range, and forestry; (2) geology; (3) continental water resources; (4) ocean investigations; (5) atmospheric investigations; (6) coastal zones, shoals, and bays; (7) remote sensing techniques; and (8) cartography.
So, Wing Mui Winnie; Kong, Siu Cheung
This research aims to study how a resource-based learning environment (RBLE) helps primary students develop better understanding of the Earth's movement. One objective of the study is to establish an RBLE by creating authentic contexts, selecting appropriate resources, designing relevant tools and adopting necessary scaffolds. The other objective…
Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.
Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP
Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.
Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration
Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration
Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben
Rare earth elements (REE) are considered to be highly "critical" by the European Commission , owing to the concentration of global supply  and their use in a wide range of emerging technologies (e.g. smart phones, electric cars and wind turbines). The main source of REE is the mineral bastnäsite, which is primarily extracted from carbonatites. Alternative resources of REE have been identified in a variety of other environments such as alluvial placers, bauxites and ore tailings. The EURARE project (www.eurare.eu), funded by the European Commission, aims to improve understanding of potential REE resources in Europe with the overall objective of establishing the basis for a European REE industry. As a part of this project, alternative sources of rare earth elements in Europe are being considered. REE have been identified as being particularly enriched in karst-bauxites and hence in the red muds generated as a waste product from the processing of these bauxites to alumina through the Bayer process . Karst-bauxites are widely distributed with deposits known across the Mediterranean and with intermittent exploitation occurring over many decades. REE become concentrated in the bauxite deposits by the bauxitisation process and are retained due to the geochemical barrier created by the limestone bedrock below. This can result in several processes, including the crystallisation of authigenic REE-bearing minerals, the accumulation of residual phases and the adsorption of ions onto clays and other mineral surfaces . Red muds produced from alumina processing represent a potentially important concentration of REE as it has been demonstrated that the REE pass through the alumina extraction process into the waste, and the total REE concentrations are typically enriched by a factor of two compared with the original bauxite ore . Bauxites and red muds from the Parnassus Ghiona region of Greece  and the Seydişehir-Akseki region of Turkey have been assessed as
Wyrick, D. Y.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Smart, K. J.
Water is the most important Martian exploration target - key to finding evidence of past life and providing a crucial resource for future exploration. Water is thought to be present in vapor, liquid, and ice phases on Mars. Except for ice in polar regions, little direct evidence of current surface accumulation of water has been found. Existing research has addressed potential source areas, including meteoric water, glacial ice, and volcanic centers and areas of discharge such as large paleo-outflow channels. Missing from these analyses is characterization of migration pathways of water in the subsurface from sources to discharge areas, and the present distribution of water. It has been estimated that ~90% of the global inventory of water on Mars resides in the subsurface. Targeting potential subsurface accumulations has relied primarily on theoretical modeling and geomorphic analysis. While global scale thermal modeling and analysis of the stability of ground ice provide important constraints on potential locations of large deposits of ice or liquid water, these studies have not accounted for variations in stratigraphy and structure that may strongly influence local distribution. Depth to water or ice on Mars is thought to be controlled primarily by latitude and elevation. However, the distribution of outflow channels clearly indicates that structural, stratigraphic, and geomorphic features all play important roles in determining past and present distribution of water and ice on Mars as they do on Earth. Resource exploration and extraction is a multi-billion dollar industry on Earth that has developed into a highly sophisticated enterprise with constantly improving exploration technologies. Common to all successful exploration programs, whether for hydrocarbons or water, is detailed analysis and integration of all available geologic, geophysical and remotely sensed data. The primary issues for identification and characterization of water or hydrocarbon resource
Chapman, W. S.; Yen, H. H.
As a result of a consortium of several industries and organizations, an economical, versatile, and stable data collection and transmission buoy has been designed, developed, and deployed to gather and transmit water quality data to a ground receiving station at three-minute intervals and to the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as it passes over the deployed buoy every 12 hours. The buoy system, designed for both fresh and salt water application, gathers data inclusive of temperature measurement, conductivity, relative acidity, dissolved oxygen, current speed, and direction. The mechanical design philosophy used to determine and satisfy boundary conditions involving stability, ease of deployment, servicing and maintenance, minimal manufacturing costs, and fresh and salt water installation capability is discussed. The development of peripheral handling equipment and anchoring systems is described.
Brockmann, C. E.
The Earth Resources Technology Satellite program of Bolivia has developed a multidisciplinary project to carry out investigations in cartography and to prepare various thematic maps. In cartography, investigations are being carried out with the ERTS-1 images and with existing maps, to determine their application to the preparation of new cartographic products on one hand and on the other to map those regions where the cartography is still deficient. The application of the MSS images to the geological mapping has given more than satisfactory results. Working with conventional photointerpretation, it has been possible to prepare regional geological maps, tectonic maps, studies relative to mining, geomorphological maps, studies relative to petroleum exploration, volcanological maps and maps of hydrologic basins. In agriculture, the ERTS images are used to study land classification and forest and soils mapping.
Chapelle, W. E.; Bybee, J. E.; Bedross, G. M.
Description of the precision processor, a subsystem in the image-processing system for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS). This processor is a special-purpose image-measurement and printing system, designed to process user-selected bulk images to produce 1:1,000,000-scale film outputs and digital image data, presented in a Universal-Transverse-Mercator (UTM) projection. The system will remove geometric and radiometric errors introduced by the ERTS multispectral sensors and by the bulk-processor electron-beam recorder. The geometric transformations required for each input scene are determined by resection computations based on reseau measurements and image comparisons with a special ground-control base contained within the system; the images are then printed and digitized by electronic image-transfer techniques.
Araki, Tsunehiko; Ishida, Chu; Ochiai, Kiyoshi; Nozue, Tatsuhiro; Tachibana, Kyozo; Yoshida, Kazutoshi
The Bubble Memory Recorder (BMR) developed for use on the Earth Resources Satellite is described in terms of its design, capabilities, and functions. The specifications of the BMR are given listing memory capacity, functions, and interface types for data, command, and telemetry functions. The BMR has an emergency signal interface to provide contingency recording, and a satellite-separation signal interface can be turned on automatically by signal input. Data are stored in a novolatile memory device so that the memory is retained during power outages. The BMR is characterized by a capability for random access, nonvolatility, and a solid-state design that is useful for space operations since it does not disturb spacecraft attitude.
Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Crepps, G.; Clayton, A.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.
The NASA DEVELOP National Program builds capacity to use and apply NASA Earth observations to address environmental concerns around the globe. The DEVELOP model builds capacity in both participants (students, recent graduates, and early and transitioning career professionals) who conduct the projects and partners (decision and policy makers) who are recipients of project methodologies and results. Projects focus on a spectrum of thematic topics, including water resource management which made up 30% of the DEVELOP FY2017 portfolio. During this period, DEVELOP conducted water-focused feasibility studies in collaboration with 22 partners across 13 U.S. states and five countries. This presentation will provide an overview of needs identified, DEVELOP's response, data sources, challenges, and lessons learned.
The feasibility of using the Scanning Celestial Attitude Determination System (SCADS) during Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) missions to compute an accurate spacecraft attitude by use of stellar measurements is considered. The spacecraft is local-vertical-stabilized. A heuristic discussion of the SCADS concept is first given. Two concepts are introduced: a passive system which contains no moving parts, and an active system in which the reticle is caused to rotate about the sensor's axis. A quite complete development of the equations of attitude motions is then given. These equations are used to generate the true attitude which in turn is used to compute the transit times of detectable stars and to determine the errors associated with the SCADS attitude. A more complete discussion of the analytical foundation of SCADS concept and its use for the geometries particular to this study, as well as salient design parameters for the passive and active systems are included.
Smithson, J. C.; Luksa, N. C.
Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) experiments, S191 and S192, required a cold temperature reference for operation of a spectrometer. This cold temperature reference was provided by a subminiature Stirling cycle cooler. However, the failure of the cooler to pass the qualification test made it necessary for additional cooler development, refurbishment, and qualification. A description of the failures and the cause of these failures for each of the coolers is presented. The solutions to the various failure modes are discussed along with problems which arose during the refurbishment program. The rationale and results of various tests are presented. The successful completion of the cryogenic cooler refurbishment program resulted in four of these coolers being flown on Skylab. The system operation during the flight is presented.
Vachon, R. I.; Obrien, J. F., Jr.; Lueg, R. E.; Cox, J. E.
The 1972 Systems Engineering program at Marshall Space Flight Center where 15 participants representing 15 U.S. universities, 1 NASA/MSFC employee, and another specially assigned faculty member, participated in an 11-week program is discussed. The Fellows became acquainted with the philosophy of systems engineering, and as a training exercise, used this approach to produce a conceptional design for an Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval System. The program was conducted in three phases; approximately 3 weeks were devoted to seminars, tours, and other presentations to subject the participants to technical and other aspects of the information management problem. The second phase, 5 weeks in length, consisted of evaluating alternative solutions to problems, effecting initial trade-offs and performing preliminary design studies and analyses. The last 3 weeks were occupied with final trade-off sessions, final design analyses and preparation of a final report and oral presentation.
Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.
A study of the Mississippi Sound was initiated in early 1971 by personnel of NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. Four separate seasonal experiments consisting of quasi-synoptic remote and surface measurements over the entire area were planned. Approximately 80 stations distributed throughout Mississippi Sound were occupied. Surface water temperature and secchi extinction depth were measured at each station and water samples were collected for water quality analyses. The surface distribution of three water parameters of interest from a remote sensing standpoint - temperature, salinity and chlorophyll content - are displayed in map form. Areal variations in these parameters are related to tides and winds. A brief discussion of the general problem of radiative measurements of water temperature is followed by a comparison of remotely measured temperatures (PRT-5) to surface vessel measurements.
A brief status report is given of the ERTS-1 satellite system as of June, 1974, and some applications of the ERTS-1 images are discussed. The multispectral images make it possible to identify or measure the quality and composition of water, the potential water content of snow, the moisture and possible composition of soils, the types and state of vegetation cover, and factors relating to stresses on the environment. The orthographic view of the earth provided by the satellite makes it possible to rapidly produce thematic maps, on a scale of 1:250,000, of most areas of the world. The regular, repetitive coverage provided by ERTS-1 every 18 days is important in areas such as water-supply and flood-damage studies. The use of ERTS-1 imagery for land-use planning, wetlands surveying, assessing marine resources, and observing processes such as desertification in the African Sahel is discussed.
Field measurements were performed at selected ground sites in order to provide comparative calibration measurements of sensors for the Earth Resources Experiment Package. Specifically, the solar radiation (400 to 1300 namometers) and thermal radiation (8-14 micrometers) were measured. Sites employed for the thermal measurements consisted of warm and cold water lakes. The thermal brightness temperature of the lake water, the temperature and humidity profile above the lake, and near surface meteorology (wind speed, pressure, etc.) were measured near the time of overpass. Sites employed for the solar radiation measurements were two desert type sites. Ground measurements consisted of: (1) direct solar radiation - optical depth; (2) diffuse solar radiation; (3) total solar radiation, (4) target directional (normal) reflectance; (5) target hemispherical reflectance; and (6) near surface meteorology.
Clark, E.; Hooper, R. P.; Lilienfeld, L.
Connecting a diverse audience to science can be challenging. Scientists generally publish their findings in ways that are not easily accessible to audiences outside of the science community and translating findings for wider consumption requires a mindful balance of generalization and accuracy. In response to these communication challenges, the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) developed the Let's Talk About Water (LTAW) program as a formula for hosting successful events for Earth Science education. The program uses film as a bridge to open a discussion between scientists and the audience. In this setting, films are powerful educational tools because they use storytelling to engage audiences emotionally, which creates relatable, teachable moments. Originally designed to bring awareness to water issues, the formula can easily be applied to increase literacy on climate change and other critical Earth Science issues facing society. This presentation will discuss the LTAW event formula and the resources that CUAHSI has available to support event organizers in the development of their own LTAW events.
Duffy, D.; Maxwell, T. P.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.; Chaudhary, A.; Ames, S.
As the size of remote sensing observations and model output data grows, the volume of the data has become overwhelming, even to many scientific experts. As societies are forced to better understand, mitigate, and adapt to climate changes, the combination of Earth observation data and global climate model projects is crucial to not only scientists but to policy makers, downstream applications, and even the public. Scientific progress on understanding climate is critically dependent on the availability of a reliable infrastructure that promotes data access, management, and provenance. The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has created such an environment for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). ESGF provides a federated global cyber infrastructure for data access and management of model outputs generated for the IPCC Assessment Reports (AR). The current generation of the ESGF federated grid allows consumers of the data to find and download data with limited capabilities for server-side processing. Since the amount of data for future AR is expected to grow dramatically, ESGF is working on integrating server-side analytics throughout the federation. The ESGF Compute Working Team (CWT) has created a Web Processing Service (WPS) Application Programming Interface (API) to enable access scalable computational resources. The API is the exposure point to high performance computing resources across the federation. Specifically, the API allows users to execute simple operations, such as maximum, minimum, average, and anomalies, on ESGF data without having to download the data. These operations are executed at the ESGF data node site with access to large amounts of parallel computing capabilities. This presentation will highlight the WPS API, its capabilities, provide implementation details, and discuss future developments.
Williams, D.; Middleton, D.; Foster, I.; Nevedova, V.; Kesselman, C.; Chervenak, A.; Bharathi, S.; Drach, B.; Cinquni, L.; Brown, D.; Strand, G.; Fox, P.; Garcia, J.; Bernholdte, D.; Chanchio, K.; Pouchard, L.; Chen, M.; Shoshani, A.; Sim, A.
High-resolution, long-duration simulations performed with advanced DOE SciDAC/NCAR climate models will produce tens of petabytes of output. To be useful, this output must be made available to global change impacts researchers nationwide, both at national laboratories and at universities, other research laboratories, and other institutions. To this end, we propose to create a new Earth System Grid, ESG-II - a virtual collaborative environment that links distributed centers, users, models, and data. ESG-II will provide scientists with virtual proximity to the distributed data and resources that they require to perform their research. The creation of this environment will significantly increase the scientific productivity of U.S. climate researchers by turning climate datasets into community resources. In creating ESG-II, we will integrate and extend a range of Grid and collaboratory technologies, including the DODS remote access protocols for environmental data, Globus Toolkit technologies for authentication, resource discovery, and resource access, and Data Grid technologies developed in other projects. We will develop new technologies for (1) creating and operating "filtering servers" capable of performing sophisticated analyses, and (2) delivering results to users. In so doing, we will simultaneously contribute to climate science and advance the state of the art in collaboratory technology. We expect our results to be useful to numerous other DOE projects. The three-year R&D program will be undertaken by a talented and experienced team of computer scientists at five laboratories (ANL, LBNL, LLNL, NCAR, ORNL) and one university (ISI), working in close collaboration with climate scientists at several sites.
Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.
As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.
Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, Richard S.
As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit and/or on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.
Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033
Geary, E. E.; Barstow, D.
Enhancing access to high quality science education resources for teachers, students, and the general public is a high priority for the earth and space science education communities. However, to significantly increase access to these resources and promote their effective use will require a coordinated effort between content developers, publishers, professional developers, policy makers, and users in both formal and informal education settings. Federal agencies, academic institutions, professional societies, informal science centers, the Digital Library for Earth System Education, and other National SMETE Digital Library Projects are anticipated to play key roles in this effort. As a first step to developing a coordinated, national strategy for developing and delivering high quality earth and space science education resources to students, teachers, and the general public, 65 science educators, scientists, teachers, administrators, policy makers, and business leaders met this June in Snowmass, Colorado to create "Earth and Space Science Education 2010: A Blueprint for Change". The Blueprint is a strategy document that will be used to guide Earth and space science education reform efforts in grades K-12 during the next decade. The Blueprint contains specific goals, recommendations, and strategies for coordinating action in the areas of: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development, Curriculum and Materials, Equity and Diversity, Assessment and Evaluation, Public Policy and Systemic Reform, Public and Informal Education, Partnerships and Collaborations, and Technology. If you develop, disseminate, or use exemplary earth and space science education resources, we invite you to review the Blueprint for Change, share it with your colleagues and local science educators, and join as we work to revolutionize earth and space science education in grades K-12.
United Nations Environment Program, New York, NY.
This publication was assembled with the idea of assisting religious leaders in all denominations to conduct services which would relate to the healing of Planet Earth in conjunction with the first United Nations Environmental Sabbath during June, 1990. Part I is introductory, in nature, and contains factual data concerning the following…
Colwell, R. N.
Progress and results of an integrated study of California's water resources are discussed. The investigation concerns itself primarily with the usefulness of remote sensing of relation to two categories of problems: (1) water supply; and (2) water demand. Also considered are its applicability to forest management and timber inventory. The cost effectiveness and utility of remote sensors such as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite for water and timber management are presented.
Lacefield, James Anderson
Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of responding teachers were found to be properly certified to teach the subject; most had been trained for teaching life science. Approximately one-half had never had a course in geology, astronomy, or meteorology--the three primary components of the typical earth science course. Of 32 earth science topics suggested for possible additional inservice workshops, teachers responding to the Logue and Lacefield survey selected Alabama and Southeastern geology as the topic of greatest interest and need. As an alternative to conventional inservice training, an illustrated book on Alabama geologic history was developed for publication. Its purpose was to supply an ongoing, usable geologic reference for Alabama earth science teachers and their students and to promote greater understanding of Alabama geology by the public in general. Entitled Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: The Half-Billion Year Record of Change in the State's Life and Landscape, the 82-page book (included as appendix) explains how geologic history is reconstructed using evidence from rocks, surveys the major sets of sedimentary rocks found within the state, details what each means in terms of ancient environment, and describes how Alabama's present landscape can be interpreted to reflect past geologic changes. The resource includes nearly 200 color photographs and graphics and 12 pages of fossil identification guides illustrating the most common fossil organisms found within the state. A selected group of professional geologists and earth science educators evaluated the book for scientific accuracy, format, presentation of content, and
Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Horton, Forrest; Buttleman, Kim; Scott, Emily R.
The rapid rise in world demand for the rare-earth elements (REEs) has expanded the search for new REE resources. We document two types of light rare-earth element (LREE)-enriched rocks in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of southern Afghanistan: type 1 concordant seams of khanneshite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce) within banded barite-strontianite alvikite, and type 2 igneous dikes of coarse-grained carbonatite, enriched in fluorine or phosphorus, containing idiomorphic crystals of khanneshite-(Ce) or carbocernaite. Type 1 mineralized barite-strontianite alvikite averages 22.25 wt % BaO, 4.27 wt % SrO, and 3.25 wt % ∑ LREE2O3 (sum of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd oxides). Type 2 igneous dikes average 14.51 wt % BaO, 5.96 wt % SrO, and 3.77 wt % ∑ LREE2O3. A magmatic origin is clearly indicated for the type 2 LREE-enriched dikes, and type 1 LREE mineralization probably formed in the presence of LREE-rich hydrothermal fluid. Both types of LREE mineralization may be penecontemporaneous, having formed in a carbonate-rich magma in the marginal zone of the central vent, highly charged with volatile constituents (i.e., CO2, F, P2O5), and strongly enriched in Ba, Sr, and the LREE. Based on several assumptions, and employing simple geometry for the zone of LREE enrichment, we estimate that at least 1.29 Mt (million metric tonnes) of LREE2O3 is present in this part of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex.
Simandl, G. J.
China started to produce rare earth elements (REEs) in the 1980s, and since the mid-1990s, it has become the dominant producer. Rare earth element export quotas first introduced by the Chinese government in the early 2000s were severely reduced in 2010 and 2011. This led to strong government-created disparity between prices within China and the rest of the world. Industrialized countries identified several REEs as strategic metals. Because of rapid price increases of REE outside of China, we have witnessed a world-scale REE exploration rush. The REE resources are concentrated in carbonatite-related deposits, peralkaline igneous rocks, pegmatites, monazite ± apatite veins, ion adsorption clays, placers, and some deep ocean sediments. REE could also be derived as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production, U processing, mining of Ti-Zr-bearing placers, and exploitation of Olympic Dam subtype iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits. Currently, REEs are produced mostly from carbonatite-related deposits, but ion adsorption clay deposits are an important source of heavy REE (HREE). Small quantities of REE are derived from placer deposits and one peralkaline intrusion-related deposit. The ideal REE development targets would be located in a politically stable jurisdiction with a pro-mining disposition such as Canada and Australia. REE grade, HREE/light REE (LREE) ratio of the mineralization, tonnage, mineralogy, and permissive metallurgy are some of the key technical factors that could be used to screen potential development projects. As REEs are considered strategic metals from economic, national security, and environmental points of view, technical and economic parameters alone are unlikely to be used in REE project development decision-making. Recycling of REE is in its infancy and unless legislated, in the short term, it is not expected to contribute significantly to the supply of REE.
Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Grethe, J. S.; Hsu, L.; Malik, T.; Bermudez, L. E.; Gupta, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Whitenack, T.; Ozyurt, I. B.; Condit, C.; Calderon, R.; Musil, L.
EarthCube is envisioned as a cyberinfrastructure that fosters new, transformational geoscience by enabling sharing, understanding and scientifically-sound and efficient re-use of formerly unconnected data resources, software, models, repositories, and computational power. Its purpose is to enable science enterprise and workforce development via an extensible and adaptable collaboration and resource integration framework. A key component of this vision is development of comprehensive inventories supporting resource discovery and re-use across geoscience domains. The goal of the EarthCube CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability) project is to create a methodology and assemble a large inventory of high-quality information resources with standard metadata descriptions and traceable provenance. The inventory is compiled from metadata catalogs maintained by geoscience data facilities, as well as from user contributions. The latter mechanism relies on community resource viewers: online applications that support update and curation of metadata records. Once harvested into CINERGI, metadata records from domain catalogs and community resource viewers are loaded into a staging database implemented in MongoDB, and validated for compliance with ISO 19139 metadata schema. Several types of metadata defects detected by the validation engine are automatically corrected with help of several information extractors or flagged for manual curation. The metadata harvesting, validation and processing components generate provenance statements using W3C PROV notation, which are stored in a Neo4J database. Thus curated metadata, along with the provenance information, is re-published and accessed programmatically and via a CINERGI online application. This presentation focuses on the role of resource inventories in a scalable and adaptable information infrastructure, and on the CINERGI metadata pipeline and its implementation challenges. Key project
Dong, Shaochun; Xu, Shijin; Lu, Xiancai
Educators around the world are striving to make science more accessible and relevant to students. Online instructional resources have become an integral component of tertiary science education and will continue to grow in influence and importance over the coming decades. A case study in the iterative improvement of the online instructional resources provided for first-year undergraduates taking " Introductory Earth System Science" at Nanjing University in China is presented in this paper. Online instructional resources are used to conduct a student-centered learning model in the domain of Earth system science, resulting in a sustainable online instructional framework for students and instructors. The purpose of our practice is to make Earth system science education more accessible and exciting to students, changing instruction from a largely textbook-based teacher-centered approach to a more interactive and student-centered approach, and promoting the integration of knowledge and development of deep understanding by students. Evaluation on learning performance and learning satisfaction is conducted to identify helpful components and perception based on students' learning activities. The feedbacks indicate that the use of online instructional resources has positive impacts on mitigating Earth system science education challenges, and has the potential to promote deep learning.
Freden, S. C. (Compiler); Mercanti, E. P. (Compiler); Friedman, D. B. (Compiler)
Presentations at the conference covered the following disciplines: (1) agriculture, forestry, and range resources; (2) land use and mapping; (3) mineral resources, geological structure, and landform surveys; (4) water resources; (5) marine resources; (6) environment surveys; and (7) interpretation techniques.
To provide dissemination of information regarding the availability of Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) imagery, a Non-U.S. Standard Catalog is published on a monthly schedule. The catalogs identify imagery which has been processed and input to the data files during the preceding month. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering all areas except that of the United States, Hawaii, and Alaska. Imagery adjacent to the Continental U.S. and Alaska borders will normally appear in the U.S. Standard Catalog. As a supplement to these catalogs, an inventory of ERTS imagery on 16 millimeter microfilm is available. The catalogs consist of four parts: (1) annotated maps which graphically depict the geographic areas covered by the imagery listed in the current catalog, (2) a computer-generated listing organized by observation identification number (ID) with pertinent information for each image, (3) a computer listing of observations organized by longitude and latitude, and (4) observations which have had changes made in their catalog information since the original entry in the data base.
Smith, D. A.; Schwerin, T. G.; Peticolas, L. M.; Porcello, D.; Kansa, E.; Shipp, S. S.; Bartolone, L.
The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have developed a digital library--NASAWavelength.org--that enables easy discovery and retrieval of thousands of resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio. The system has been developed based on best practices in the architecture and design of web-based information systems. The design style and philosophy emphasize simple, reusable data and services that facilitate the free flow of data across systems. The primary audiences for NASA Wavelength are STEM educators (K-12, higher education and informal education) as well as scientists, education and public outreach professionals who work with K-12, higher education, and informal education. A NASA Wavelength strandmap service features the 19 AAAS strandmaps that are most relevant to NASA science; the service also generates all of the 103 AAAS strandmaps with content from the Wavelength collection. These maps graphically and interactively provide connections between concepts as well as illustrate how concepts build upon one another across grade levels. New features have been developed for this site based on user feedback, including list-building so that users can create and share individual collections within Wavelength. We will also discuss potential methods for integrating the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into the search and discovery tools on NASA Wavelength.
A brief status report on the performance of the ERTS-1, and an overview of the applications derived from the images are presented. The ERTS-1 spacecraft, sensor and picture processing systems have continued to perform almost flawlessly since August 1972. Registered, multispectral images of all major land masses of the earth, both polar and some oceanic regions are continuously made, covering daily an area of about 5 million square kilometers. The systematic repetition of these observations, which were made over most parts of the world at least once every season, and the high accuracy of thematic mapping that can be obtained from the images, have resulted in many applications that have immense potential benefits for developing countries. Among these applications are the detection and accurate mensuration of surface water; the identification and mensuration of forests, rangeland, crops and soils; the monitoring and mapping of water quality, wildlife habitats and of the effects of land use practices on food and water resources; the assessment of flooding and earthquake hazards; and the facilitation of mineral exploration.
Wagner, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Johannes; Stowasser, Rainer; Wotawa, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Christian; Federspiel, Christian; Nortarnicola, Claudia; Zebisch, Marc; Boresch, Alexander
an increasing trend towards more specialisation and cooperation. Also this strategy has already led to remarkable advances in the provision of high-quality scientific EO data sets. Nonetheless, many of these collaborative developments stand on shaky grounds given that the scientific and technical know-how and the data processing capabilities remain largely fragmented. This is because the cooperation between different EO teams is typically project-based and can end abruptly after the end of a project. In other words, few EO teams cooperate on a more strategic level that involves e.g. the sharing of software code or the joint use of common IT resources. In recognition of the problems discussed above, and with a view on the high potential of the upcoming Sentinel satellites for monitoring of global water resources (Wagner et al. 2011, Hornáček et al. 2012), we are proposing the foundation of an Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC-Water). The EODC-Water will be a collaborative undertaking of research organisations, public agencies and private industry with the goal to foster the use of EO data for monitoring of global water resources. It will do so by proving a collaborative computer cloud that connects several data centres throughout Europe, thereby enabling the archiving, distributing, and processing of large EO data sets. The basic idea is to move the processing to the data instead of moving the data to where the software is. This sounds simple, but its realisation will overhaul the way of how EO data processing and distribution are organised. Another important element of EODC-Water will be its partner organisations which have agreed to participate in a collaborative software development process for establishing end-to-end EO data processing chains. EODC-Water will boost the scientific exploitation of EO data by allowing its scientific users to focus their efforts on scientific problems rather than having to deal with standard
Kato, Yasuhiro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kitamura, Kenichi; Ohta, Junichiro; Toda, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Takuya; Iwamori, Hikaru
World demand for rare-earth elements and the metal yttrium--which are crucial for novel electronic equipment and green-energy technologies--is increasing rapidly. Several types of seafloor sediment harbour high concentrations of these elements. However, seafloor sediments have not been regarded as a rare-earth element and yttrium resource, because data on the spatial distribution of these deposits are insufficient. Here, we report measurements of the elemental composition of over 2,000 seafloor sediments, sampled at depth intervals of around one metre, at 78 sites that cover a large part of the Pacific Ocean. We show that deep-sea mud contains high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium at numerous sites throughout the eastern South and central North Pacific. We estimate that an area of just one square kilometre, surrounding one of the sampling sites, could provide one-fifth of the current annual world consumption of these elements. Uptake of rare-earth elements and yttrium by mineral phases such as hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite seems to be responsible for their high concentration. We show that rare-earth elements and yttrium are readily recovered from the mud by simple acid leaching, and suggest that deep-sea mud constitutes a highly promising huge resource for these elements.
Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Buttleman, Kim P.
There is increased concern about the future availability of rare earth elements (REE) because of China's dominance as the supplier of more than 95 percent of world REE output, their decision to restrict exports of rare earth products, and the rapid increase in world-wide consumption of rare earth product. As a result, countries such as the United States, Japan, and member nations of the European Union face a future of tight supplies and high prices for rare earth products unless other sources of REE are found and developed (Long and others, 2010; U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, p. 128-129, 184-185). We report and describe a significant new deposit of light rare earth elements (LREE), estimated at 1 Mt, within the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of south Afghanistan. The potential resource is located in a remote and rugged part of the igneous complex in a region previously identified by Soviet geologists in the 1970s. This report reviews the geologic setting of LREE deposit, presents new geochemical data documenting the grade of LREE mineralization, briefly describes the mineralogy and mineralogical associations of the deposit, and presents a preliminary estimate of LREE resources based on our current understanding of the geology.
Results of a state-of-the-art assessment of technology areas which affect the Earth Resources Program are presented along with a functional description of the basic earth resources system. Major areas discussed include: spacecraft flight hardware, remote sensors, data processing techniques and hardware, user models, user interfaces, and operations technology.
Several national and international initiatives, both from the private or the institutional sectors, arised to address the sustainable development of the extractive industry and the reduction of its environmental footprint. Meanwhile, the extractive industry is facing increasing environmental and societal pressures, being regulatory or not, during all phases of a project, from exploration to exploitation and closure. The social acceptability of a project is among the major key issues to be dealt with. The EO-MINERS project (Earth Observation for Monitoring and Observing Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation) is a newly EU funded Research and Technological Development project started in February 2010. EO-MINERS scientific and technical objectives are to: i) assess policy requirements at macro (public) and micro (mining companies) levels and define environmental, socio-economic, societal and sustainable development criteria and indicators to be possibly dealt using EO (Earth Observation); ii) use existing EO knowledge and carry out new developments on demonstration sites to further demonstrate the capabilities of integrated EO-based methods and tools in monitoring, managing and contributing reducing the environmental and societal footprints of the extractive industry during all phases of a mining project, from the exploration to the exploitation and closure stages; iii) contribute making reliable and objective information about affected ecosystems, populations and societies, to serve as a basis for a sound "trialogue" between industrialists, governmental organisations and stakeholders. EO-MINERS also is designed to embed the outcomes of the project firmly in the GEO process through a review the existing GEO Tasks covering the 9 societal benefit and 5 transverse areas defined by GEO work plan 2007-2009. This analysis will be used to identify synergies and gaps between EO-MINERS and GEO, with the aim of mapping mining and
Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Malik, T.; Hsu, L.; Gupta, A.; Grethe, J. S.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Lehnert, K. A.; Bermudez, L. E.; Ozyurt, I. B.; Whitenack, T.; Schachne, A.; Giliarini, A.
While many geoscience-related repositories and data discovery portals exist, finding information about available resources remains a pervasive problem, especially when searching across multiple domains and catalogs. Inconsistent and incomplete metadata descriptions, disparate access protocols and semantic differences across domains, and troves of unstructured or poorly structured information which is hard to discover and use are major hindrances toward discovery, while metadata compilation and curation remain manual and time-consuming. We report on methodology, main results and lessons learned from an ongoing effort to develop a geoscience-wide catalog of information resources, with consistent metadata descriptions, traceable provenance, and automated metadata enhancement. Developing such a catalog is the central goal of CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability), an EarthCube building block project (earthcube.org/group/cinergi). The key novel technical contributions of the projects include: a) development of a metadata enhancement pipeline and a set of document enhancers to automatically improve various aspects of metadata descriptions, including keyword assignment and definition of spatial extents; b) Community Resource Viewers: online applications for crowdsourcing community resource registry development, curation and search, and channeling metadata to the unified CINERGI inventory, c) metadata provenance, validation and annotation services, d) user interfaces for advanced resource discovery; and e) geoscience-wide ontology and machine learning to support automated semantic tagging and faceted search across domains. We demonstrate these CINERGI components in three types of user scenarios: (1) improving existing metadata descriptions maintained by government and academic data facilities, (2) supporting work of several EarthCube Research Coordination Network projects in assembling information resources for their domains
Stacy, N. J. S.; Campbell, D. B.
The lunar regolith will most likely be a primary raw material for lunar base construction and resource extraction. High-resolution radar observations of the Moon provide maps of radar backscatter that have intensity variations generally controlled by the local slope, material, and structural properties of the regolith. The properties that can be measured by the radar system include the dielectric constant, density, loss tangent, and wavelength scale roughness. The radar systems currently in operation at several astronomical observatories provide the ability to image the lunar surface at spatial resolutions approaching 30 m at 3.8 cm and 12.6 cm wavelengths and approximately 500 m at 70 cm wavelength. The radar signal penetrates the lunar regolith to a depth of 10-20 wavelengths so the measured backscatter contains contributions from the vacuum-regolith interface and from wavelength-scale heterogeneities in the electrical properties of the subsurface material. The three wavelengths, which are sensitive to different scale structures and scattering volumes, provide complementary information on the regolith properties. Aims of the previous and future observations include (1) analysis of the scattering properties associated with fresh impact craters, impact crater rays, and mantled deposits; (2) analysis of high-incidence-angle observations of the lunar mare to investigate measurement of the regolith dielectric constant and hence porosity; (3) investigation of interferometric techniques using two time-delayed observations of the same site, observations that require a difference in viewing geometry less than 0.05 deg and, hence, fortuitous alignment of the Earth-Moon system when visible from Arecibo Observatory.
A catalog containing data pertaining to the imagery acquired by the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) from its date of launch, July 23, 1972 through the first year of activity is presented. The catalog supersedes the previous catalog which supplied data available through May 1973. Two listings of the imagery are included: (1) an observation identifications listing and (2) a listing of the imagery based on geographical location, the coordinate listing.
Dunn, S.; Rupp, J.; Cheeseman, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Prashad, L. C.; Dickenshied, S.; Anwar, S.; Noss, D.; Murray, K.
There is a need for a software tool that has the ability to display and analyze various types of earth science and social data through a simple, user-friendly interface. The J-Earth software tool has been designed to be easily accessible for download and intuitive use, regardless of the technical background of the user base. This tool does not require courses or text books to learn to use, yet is powerful enough to allow a more general community of users to perform complex data analysis. Professions that will benefit from this tool range from geologists, geographers, and climatologists to sociologists, economists, and ecologists as well as policy makers. J-Earth was developed by the Arizona State University Mars Space Flight Facility as part of the JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) suite of open-source tools. The program is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) application used for viewing and processing satellite and airborne remote sensing data. While the functionality of JMARS has historically focused on the research needs of the planetary science community, J-Earth has been designed for a much broader Earth-based user audience. NASA instrument products accessible within J-Earth include data from ASTER, GOES, Landsat, MODIS, and TIMS. While J-Earth contains exceptionally comprehensive and high resolution satellite-derived data and imagery, this tool also includes many socioeconomic data products from projects lead by international organizations and universities. Datasets used in J-Earth take the form of grids, rasters, remote sensor "stamps", maps, and shapefiles. Some highly demanded global datasets available within J-Earth include five levels of administrative/political boundaries, climate data for current conditions as well as models for future climates, population counts and densities, land cover/land use, and poverty indicators. While this application does share the same powerful functionality of JMARS, J-Earth's apperance is
Folta, David C.; Beckman, Mark; Mar, Greg C.; Mesarch, Michael; Cooley, Steven; Leete, Steven J.
Spacecraft travel between the Sun-Earth system, the Earth-Moon system, and beyond has received extensive attention recently. The existence of a connection between unstable regions enables mission designers to envision scenarios of multiple spacecraft traveling cheaply from system to system, rendezvousing, servicing, and refueling along the way. This paper presents examples of transfers between the Sun-Earth and Earth-Moon systems using a true ephemeris and perturbation model. It shows the (Delta)V costs associated with these transfers, including the costs to reach the staging region from the Earth. It explores both impulsive and low thrust transfer trajectories. Additionally, analysis that looks specifically at the use of nuclear power in libration point orbits and the issues associated with them such as inadvertent Earth return is addressed. Statistical analysis of Earth returns and the design of biased orbits to prevent any possible return are discussed. Lastly, the idea of rendezvous between spacecraft in libration point orbits using impulsive maneuvers is addressed.
Smith, Elizabeth A.; Alfultis, Michael
Studying the Earth's Environment From Space is a two-year project to develop a suite of CD-ROMs containing Earth System Science curriculum modules for introductory undergraduate science classes. Lecture notes, slides, and computer laboratory exercises, including actual satellite data and software, are being developed in close collaboration with Carla Evans of NASA GSFC Earth Sciences Directorate Scientific and Educational Endeavors (SEE) project. Smith and Alfultis are responsible for the Oceanography and Sea Ice Processes Modules. The GSFC SEE project is responsible for Ozone and Land Vegetation Modules. This document constitutes a report on the first year of activities of Smith and Alfultis' project.
Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Peterson, L. M.; Thomson, F. J.; Work, E. A.; Kriegler, F. J.
The development of an experimental airborne multispectral scanner to provide both active (laser illuminated) and passive (solar illuminated) data from a commonly registered surface scene is discussed. The system was constructed according to specifications derived in an initial programs design study. The system was installed in an aircraft and test flown to produce illustrative active and passive multi-spectral imagery. However, data was not collected nor analyzed for any specific application.
The capabilities of the NASA Ames Center U-2 aircraft for research or experimental programs are described for such areas as Earth resources inventories; remote sensing data interpretation, electronic sensor research and development; satellite investigative support; stratospheric gas studies; and astronomy and astrophysics. The availability of this aircraft on a cost-reimbursable basis for use in high-altitude investigations that cannot be performed by the private sector is discussed.
Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.
Retention of geoscientists throughout the professional pipeline is especially challenging in the case of groups that are already underrepresented in science, including racial minorities and women. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) is a professional network of early-career female geoscientists that provides its members with a variety of career resources, through both informal, online and in-person networking and formal career development workshops. The group’s members are of diverse nationalities and racial/ethnic backgrounds, of various age cohorts and career stages, but primarily graduate students, postdocs, and early-career researchers. With funding from an NSF ADVANCE grant to ESWN, we have conducted a detailed survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young geoscientists. The survey data provide information about members’ personal and professional situations, their professional development needs, and obstacles they face as young women scientists. ESWN members indicated a variety of areas of professional growth that would advance their scientific careers, but at all career stages, members chose expanding their professional networks as among their top career needs. Professional networking has established benefits for retention of people from groups underrepresented in science, including women: it introduces young scientists to career best practices and advancement opportunities, provides access to role models, and creates a sense of community. ESWN members strongly indicate that their professional networks benefited from their involvement with the Network. The community aspect of network-building is especially important for people from underrepresented groups, as they often feel alone due to the lack of role models. The intimate character of the ESWN discussion list greatly contributes to its members’ sense of community. Moreover, personal concerns and professional success are
Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.
Human activities have caused various changes to the Earth system, and hence the interconnections between human activities and the Earth system should be recognized and reflected in models that simulate Earth system processes. One key anthropogenic activity is water resource management, which determines the dynamics of human-water interactions in time and space and controls human livelihoods and economy, including energy and food production. There are immediate needs to include water resource management in Earth system models. First, the extent of human water requirements is increasing rapidly at the global scale and it is crucial to analyze the possible imbalance between water demands and supply under various scenarios of climate change and across various temporal and spatial scales. Second, recent observations show that human-water interactions, manifested through water resource management, can substantially alter the terrestrial water cycle, affect land-atmospheric feedbacks and may further interact with climate and contribute to sea-level change. Due to the importance of water resource management in determining the future of the global water and climate cycles, the World Climate Research Program's Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (WRCP-GEWEX) has recently identified gaps in describing human-water interactions as one of the grand challenges in Earth system modeling (GEWEX, 2012). Here, we divide water resource management into two interdependent elements, related firstly to water demand and secondly to water supply and allocation. In this paper, we survey the current literature on how various components of water demand have been included in large-scale models, in particular land surface and global hydrological models. Issues of water supply and allocation are addressed in a companion paper. The available algorithms to represent the dominant demands are classified based on the demand type, mode of simulation and underlying modeling assumptions. We discuss
Bain, Amy; Richer, Janet; Weckman, Janet
This book provides resources to teachers and librarians for creating thematic units on specific topics targeting grades K-8. Each topic includes key concepts, comprehensive teaching resources, teaching resources (nonfiction children's literature), reading selections (fiction children's literature), science activities, creative writing and art…
Abstracts of reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between March 1970 and December 1973 are presented in the following areas: agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
Ferrini, V. L.; Grange, B.; Morton, J. J.; Soule, S. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Lehnert, K.
The National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) operates the Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV) Alvin, the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason, and the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry. These vehicles are deployed throughout the global oceans to acquire sensor data and physical samples for a variety of interdisciplinary science programs. As part of the EarthCube Integrative Activity Alliance Testbed Project (ATP), new web services were developed to improve access to existing online NDSF data and metadata resources. These services make use of tools and infrastructure developed by the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) and enable programmatic access to metadata and data resources as well as the development of new service-driven user interfaces. The Alvin Frame Grabber and Jason Virtual Van enable the exploration of frame-grabbed images derived from video cameras on NDSF dives. Metadata available for each image includes time and vehicle position, data from environmental sensors, and scientist-generated annotations, and data are organized and accessible by cruise and/or dive. A new FrameGrabber web service and service-driven user interface were deployed to offer integrated access to these data resources through a single API and allows users to search across content curated in both systems. In addition, a new NDSF Dive Metadata web service and service-driven user interface was deployed to provide consolidated access to basic information about each NDSF dive (e.g. vehicle name, dive ID, location, etc), which is important for linking distributed data resources curated in different data systems.
Remote sensor systems operating in the microwave region of the frequency spectrum provide information unobtainable with basic imaging techniques such as photography, television, or multispectral imaging. The frequency allocation requirements for passive microwave sensors used in the earth exploration satellite and space research services are presented for: (1) agriculture, forestry, and range resources; (2) land use survey and mapping: (3) water resources; (4) weather and climate; (5) environmental quality; and (6) marine resources, estuarine and oceans. Because measurements are required simultaneously in multiple frequency bands to adequately determine values of some phenomena, the relationships between frequency bands are discussed. The various measurement accuracies, dynamic range, resolutions and frequency needs are examined. A band-by-band summary of requirements, unique aspects, and sharing analyses of the required frequency bands is included.
Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Steentofte, Catherine; Holbrook, Abigail
Developing countries often struggle with providing water security and sanitation services to their populations. An important aspect of improving security and sanitation is developing a comprehensive understanding of the country's water budget. Water For People, a non-profit organization dedicated to providing clean drinking water, is working with the Peruvian government to develop a water budget for the La Libertad region of Peru which includes the creation of an extensive watershed management plan. Currently, the data archive of the necessary variables to create the water management plan is extremely limited. Implementing NASA Earth observations has bolstered the dataset being used by Water For People, and the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration) model has allowed for the estimation of the evapotranspiration values for the region. Landsat 8 imagery and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard Terra were used to derive the land cover information, and were used in conjunction with local weather data of Cascas from Peru's National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI). Python was used to combine input variables and METRIC model calculations to approximate the evapotranspiration values for the Ochape sub-basin of the Chicama River watershed. Once calculated, the evapotranspiration values and methodology were shared Water For People to help supplement their decision support tools in the La Libertad region of Peru and potentially apply the methodology in other areas of need.
Noll, K. E.; Tschantz, B. A.; Davis, W. T.
The vertical variations in atmospheric light attenuation under ambient conditions were identified, and a method through which aerial photographs of earth features might be corrected to yield quantitative information about the actual features was provided. A theoretical equation was developed based on the Bouguer-Lambert extinction law and basic photographic theory.
Rare earths elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for the emerging green (low-carbon) energy technologies and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at a compound annual rate of 5% by 2020. Such high growth rate would require a steady supply base of REEs in the long ru...
Nishioka, K.; Arno, R. D.; Alexander, A. D.; Slye, R. E.
The feasibility of obtaining lunar minerals for terrestrial uses is examined. Preliminary results gave indications that it will not be economically feasible to mine, refine, and transport lunar materials to Earth for consumption. A broad systems approach was used to analyze the problem. It was determined that even though the procedure was not economically advisable, the concept for the operations is technically sound.
Landgrebe, D. A.
Progress is reported for several projects involving the utilization of LANDSAT remote sensing capabilities. Areas under study include crop inventory, crop identification, crop yield prediction, forest resources evaluation, land resources evaluation and soil classification. Numerical methods for image processing are discussed, particularly those for image enhancement and analysis.
Nelson, Janice S.
The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. The work of the Center is shaped by the earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management, and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote-sensing-based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet, and where possible exceed, the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2010. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by EROS staff or by visiting our web site at http://eros.usgs.gov. We welcome comments and follow-up questions on any aspect of this Annual Report and invite any of our customers or partners to contact us at their convenience. To
Pascucci, R. F.; North, G. W.; Albrizio, R. A.; Shelkin, B. D.
Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made of multi-sensor data acquired during aircraft missions. While the principal analysis effort was concentrated on imagery taken over test sites in Southern California, data were also studied from records acquired on missions over test sites at Phoenix, Chicago, Asheville, and New Orleans. The objectives of the analyses were: (1) to determine the capabilities of ten remote sensors in identifying the elements of information necessary in conducting geographic investigations in land use analysis, urban problems, surface energy budget, and soil moisture; (2) to determine the feasibility of using these sensors for these purposes at orbital altitudes; and (3) to collate and analyze ground and air data previously collected and assemble it in a format useful in the accomplishment of cost effectiveness studies.
Lewis, N.; Thome, K. J.; Bounoua, L.; Owen, T.
Leaping advances in the capability to accurately measure global atmospheric and surficial conditions from space have created an abundance of educationally relevant images, discoveries, and products. In attempt to fully utilize these abundant resources, TERRA has allocated a portion of its mission toward education and public outreach. From highly interactive websites allowing users to view the latest satellite images and discoveries, to partnerships with museums encouraging enhanced primary and secondary scholastic experiences, TERRA has successfully applied a multifaceted range of tools to aid in the furthering of education for students, educators, scientists, and the general public. This presentation aims to increase publicity regarding these many methods of outreach, and to highlight particular outreach success stories. With the increasing emphasis on STEM education in current school systems, the invaluable resources and opportunities that TERRA provides for young scientists have become a necessity and will continue to help inspire the next generation of Earth Scientists.
University of California investigations to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques have concentrated on the water resources of the state. The studies consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships.
Freden, S. C. (Editor); Mercanti, E. P. (Editor); Friedman, D. B. (Editor)
Summaries are provided of significant results taken from presentations at the symposium along with some typical examples of the applications of ERTS-1 data for solving resources management problems at the national, state, and local levels.
Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria
Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.
Abell, Paul A.
U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.
A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lockheed U-2 aircraft on display at the 1973 Inspection of the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Lockheed developed the U-2 as a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft in the early 1950s before satellites were available. The U-2 could cruise over enemy territory at 70,000 feet and remain impervious to ground fire, interceptor aircraft, and even radar. An advanced camera system was designed specifically for the aircraft. The pilot is required to use a pressure suit similar to those worn by astronauts. NASA’s Ames Research Center received two U-2 aircraft in April 1971 to conduct high-altitude research. They were used to study and monitor various Earth resources, celestial bodies, atmospheric chemistry, and oceanic processes. NASA replaced its U-2s with ER-2 aircraft in 1981 and 1989. The ER-2s were designed to carry up to 2600 pounds of scientific equipment. The ER-2 program was transferred to Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997. Since the inaugural flight for this program on August 31, 1971, NASA’s U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4500 data missions and test flights for NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector.
This teacher's resource book is a guide to three intermediate texts about Eurasia entitled Population Pressure in Indonesia, Problems of Industrialization in Eurasia, and Power Blocs in Eurasia. The texts are part of the series, Man on the Earth, which probes broad-based issues confronting mankind. The resource book distinguishes 18 major concepts…
Kesler, Stephen E.; Wilkinson, Bruce H.
Improved estimates of global mineral endowments are relevantto issues ranging from strategic planning to global geochemicalcycling. We have used a time-space model for the tectonic migrationof porphyry copper deposits vertically through the crust tocalculate Earth's endowment of copper in mineral deposits. Themodel relies only on knowledge of numbers and ages of porphyrycopper deposits, Earth's most widespread and important sourceof copper, in order to estimate numbers of eroded and preserveddeposits in the crust. Model results indicate that 125,895 porphyrycopper deposits were formed during Phanerozoic time, that only47,789 of these remain at various crustal depths, and that thesecontain 1.7 x 1011 tonnes (t) of copper. Assuming that othertypes of copper deposits behave similarly in the crust and haveabundances proportional to their current global production yieldsan estimate of 3 x 1011 t for total global copper resourcesat all levels in Earth's crust. Thus, 0.25% of the copper inthe crust has been concentrated into deposits through Phanerozoictime, and about two-thirds of this has been recycled by upliftand erosion. The amount of copper in deposits above 3.3 km,a likely limit of future mining, could supply current worldmine production for 5500 yr, thus quantifying the highly unusualand nonrenewable nature of mineral deposits.
Stroud, W. G.
The LANDSATS 1 and 2 have demonstrated the role of remote sensing from satellite in research, development, and operational activities essential to the better management of our resources. Hundreds of agricultural, geological, hydrological, urban land use, and other investigations have raised the question of the development of an operational system providing continuous, timely data. The LANDSAT Follow-on Study addressed the economics, technological performance, and design of a system in transition from R and D to operations. Economic benefits were identified; and a complete system from sensors to the ultilization in forecasting crop production, oil and mineral exploration, and water resources management was designed.
von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Bouman, Caludia; Kamber, Balz; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Gorbushina, Anna; James, Rachael; Oelkers, Eric; Tesmer, Maja; Ashton, John
The Marie Curie Initial Training Network »Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - IsoNose« is an alliance of eight international partners and five associated partners from science and industry. The project is coordinated at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and will run until February 2018. In the last 15 years advances in novel mass-spectrometric methods have opened opportunities to identify "isotopic fingerprints" of virtually all metals and to make use of the complete information contained in these fingerprints. The understanding developed with these new tools will ultimately guide the exploitation of Earth surface environments. However, progress in bringing these methods to end-users depends on a multi transfer of knowledge between (1) isotope Geochemistry and Microbiology, Environmental Sciences (2), Economic Geology and (3) instrument developers and users in the development of user-friendly and new mass spectrometric methods. IsoNose will focus on three major Earth surface resources: soil, water and metals. These resources are currently being exploited to an unprecedented extent and their efficient management is essential for future sustainable development. Novel stable isotope techniques will disclose the processes generating (e.g. weathering, mineral ore formation) and destroying (e.g. erosion, pollution) these resources. Within this field the following questions will be addressed and answered: - How do novel stable isotope signatures characterize weathering processes? - How do novel stable isotope signatures trace water transport? - How to use novel stable isotope as environmental tracers? - How to use novel stable isotope for detecting and exploring metal ores? - How to improve analytical capabilities and develop robust routine applications for novel stable isotopes? Starting from the central questions mentioned above the IsoNose activities are organized in five scientific work packages: 1
Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Li, Xiang; Bugbee, Kaylin
This paper presents two research applications exploiting unused metadata resources in novel ways to aid data discovery and exploration capabilities. The results based on the experiments are encouraging and each application has the potential to serve as a useful standalone component or service in a data system. There were also some interesting lessons learned while designing the two applications and these are presented next.
A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)
Mission plans and objectives of the ERTS 2 Satellite are presented. ERTS 2 follow-on investigations in various scientific disciplines including agriculture, meteorology, land-use, geology, water resources, oceanography, and environment are discussed. Spacecraft design and its sensors are described along with the Delta launch vehicle and launch operations. Applications identified from ERTS 1 investigations are summarized.
Akanda, A. S.; Nusrat, F.; Hasan, M. A.; Fallatah, O.
Water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the world population and is projected to rise substantially, affecting safe water and sanitation access globally. The recently released WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) 2017 report on global water and sanitation access paints a grim picture across the planet; approximately 30% people worldwide, or 2.1 billion, still lack access to safe, readily available clean water, and 60% people worldwide, or 4.5 billion ppl, lack safely managed sanitation. Meanwhile, demand for water and competition for water resources are sharply rising amid growing uncertainty of climate change and its impacts on water resources. The United Nations Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for substantially increasing water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensuring sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, providing clean water and sanitation for all, increasing international cooperation over transboundary surface and groundwater resources (under Goal 6), as well as ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, and end the epidemics of neglected tropical and water-borne diseases (under Goal 3). Data availability in developing regions, especially at the appropriate resolution in both space and time, has been a recurring problem for various technological and institutional reasons. Earth observation techniques provide the most cost-effective and encompassing tool to monitor these regions, large transboundary river basins and aquifer systems, and water resources vulnerabilities to climate change around the globe. University of Rhode Island, with US and international collaborators, is using earth observations to develop tools to analyze, monitor and support decision-makers to track their progress towards SDGs with better data resolution and accuracy. Here, we provide case studies on 1) providing safe water and sanitation access South Asia through safe water
Data handling requirements are reviewed for earth observation missions along with likely technology advances. Parametric techniques for synthesizing potential systems are developed. Major tasks include: (1) review of the sensors under development and extensions of or improvements in these sensors; (2) development of mission models for missions spanning land, ocean, and atmosphere observations; (3) summary of data handling requirements including the frequency of coverage, timeliness of dissemination, and geographic relationships between points of collection and points of dissemination; (4) review of data routing to establish ways of getting data from the collection point to the user; (5) on-board data processing; (6) communications link; and (7) ground data processing. A detailed synthesis of three specific missions is included.
Stroud, W. G.
The Landsats 1 and 2 have demonstrated the role of remote sensing from satellite in research, development, and operational activities essential to the better management of our resources. Hundreds of agricultural, geological, hydrological, urban land use, and other investigations have raised the question of the development of an operational system providing continuous, timely data. The Landsat follow-on study addressed the economics, technological performance, and design of a system in transition from R&D to operations. Economic benefits were identified; and a complete system from sensors to the utilization in forecasting crop production, oil and mineral exploration, water resources management was designed. Benefits-to-costs ratio in present-worth dollars is at least 4:1.
Foster, I.; Elliott, J.; Munson, T.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E. J.; Sanstad, A. H.
We report here on the development of an open source software framework termed CIM-EARTH that is intended to aid decision-making in climate and energy policy. Numerical modeling in support of evaluating policies to address climate change is difficult not only because of inherent uncertainties but because of the differences in scale and modeling approach required for various subcomponents of the system. Economic and climate models are structured quite differently, and while climate forcing can be assumed to be roughly global, climate impacts and the human response to them occur on small spatial scales. Mitigation policies likewise can be applied on scales ranging from the better part of a continent (e.g. a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S.) to a few hundred km (e.g. statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes). Both spatial and time resolution requirements can be challenging for global economic models. CIM-EARTH is a modular framework based around dynamic general equilibrium models. It is designed as a community tool that will enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of both mitigation policies and unchecked climate change. Modularity enables both integration of highly resolved component sub-models for energy and other key systems and also user-directed choice of tradeoffs between e.g. spatial, sectoral, and time resolution. This poster describes the framework architecture, the current realized version, and plans for future releases. As with other open-source models familiar to the climate community (e.g. CCSM), deliverables will be made publicly available on a regular schedule, and community input is solicited for development of new features and modules.
Nelson, Janice S.
The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. As part of the USGS Geography Discipline, EROS contributes to the Land Remote Sensing (LRS) Program, the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program, and the National Geospatial Program (NGP), as well as our Federal partners and cooperators. The work of the Center is shaped by the Earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote sensing based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet and/or exceed the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2009. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by
Poulton, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Welch, R. I.
There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Progress on plans for the development and testing of a practical procedure and system for the uniform mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems and environmental complexes from space-acquired imagery is discussed. With primary emphasis on ERTS-1 imagery, but supported by appropriate aircraft photography as necessary, the objectives are to accomplish the following: (1) Develop and test in a few selected sites and areas of the western United States a standard format for an ecological and land use legend for making natural resource inventories on a simulated global basis. (2) Based on these same limited geographic areas, identify the potentialities and limitations of the legend concept for the recognition and annotation of ecological analogs and environmental complexes. An additional objective is to determine the optimum combination of space photography, aerial photography, ground data, human data analysis, and automatic data analysis for estimating crop yield in the rice growing areas of California and Louisiana.
The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.
Landgrebe, D. A.
Research performed on NASA and USDA remote sensing projects are reviewed and include: (1) the 1971 Corn Blight Watch Experiment; (2) crop identification; (3) soil mapping; (4) land use inventories; (5) geologic mapping; and (6) forest and water resources data collection. The extent to which ERTS images and airborne data were used is indicated along with computer implementation. A field and laboratory spectroradiometer system is described together with the LARSYS software system, both of which were widely used during the research. Abstracts are included of 160 technical reports published as a result of the work.
Highlights of research and practical benefits are discussed for the following projects which utilized ERTS 1 data to provide municipal, state, federal, and industrial users with environmental resource information for the state of Minnesota: (1) forest disease detection and control; (2) evaluation of water quality by remote sensing techniques; (3) forest vegetation classification and management; (4) detection of saline soils in the Red River Valley; (5) snowmelt flood prediction; (6) remote sensing applications to hydrology; (7) Rice Creek watershed project; (8) water quality in Lake Superior and the Duluth Superior Harbor; and (9) determination of Lake Superior currents from turbidity patterns.
Scaduto, L. C. N.; Carvalho, E. G.; Modugno, R. G.; Cartolano, R.; Evangelista, S. H.; Segoria, D.; Santos, A. G.; Stefani, M. A.; Castro Neto, J. C.
The purpose of this paper is to present the optical system developed for the Wide Field imaging Camera - WFI that will be integrated to the CBERS 3 and 4 satellites (China Brazil Earth resources Satellite). This camera will be used for remote sensing of the Earth and it is aimed to work at an altitude of 778 km. The optical system is designed for four spectral bands covering the range of wavelengths from blue to near infrared and its field of view is +/-28.63°, which covers 866 km, with a ground resolution of 64 m at nadir. WFI has been developed through a consortium formed by Opto Electrônica S. A. and Equatorial Sistemas. In particular, we will present the optical analysis based on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) obtained during the Engineering Model phase (EM) and the optical tests performed to evaluate the requirements. Measurements of the optical system MTF have been performed using an interferometer at the wavelength of 632.8nm and global MTF tests (including the CCD and signal processing electronic) have been performed by using a collimator with a slit target. The obtained results showed that the performance of the optical system meets the requirements of project.
Yu, K. C.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.
New visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. We have impacted the community through topical policy presentations at both state and city levels, adult education classes at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS), and public lectures at DMNS. We have constructed three-dimensional models from well data and surface observations which allow policy makers to better understand the distribution of groundwater in sandstone aquifers of the Denver Basin. Our presentations to local governments in the Denver metro area have allowed resource managers to better project future ground water depletion patterns, and to encourage development of alternative sources. DMNS adult education classes on water resources, geography, and regional geology, as well as public lectures on global issues such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion, have utilized the visualizations developed from these research models. In addition to presenting GIS models in traditional lectures, we have also made use of the immersive display capabilities of the digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium at DMNS. The real-time Uniview visualization application installed at Gates was designed for teaching astronomy, but it can be re-purposed for displaying our model datasets in the context of the Earth's surface. The 17-meter diameter dome of the Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience---similar to virtual reality CAVEs employed by the oil exploration industry---that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend
Hein, James; Koschinsky, Andrea; Mikesell, Mariah; Mizell, Kira; Glenn, Craig R.; Wood, Ray
Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM) and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm) and high heavy REY (HREY) complements (mean 49%), while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm), and very high HREY complements (mean 60%). The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.
Smith, Elizabeth A.
Standard, text-book based learning for earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences has been limited by the unavailability of quantitative teaching materials. While a descriptive presentation, in a lecture format, of discrete satellite images is often adequate for high school classrooms, this is seldom the case at the undergraduate level. In order to address these concerns, a series of numerical exercises for the Macintosh was developed for use with satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature, pigment and sea ice concentration data. Using a modified version of NIH Image, to analyze actual satellite data, students are able to better understand ocean processes, such as circulation, upwelling, primary production, and ocean/atmosphere coupling. Graphical plots, image math, and numerical comparisons are utilized to substantiate temporal and spatial trends in sea surface temperature and ocean color. Particularly for institutions that do not offer a program in remote sensing, the subject matter is presented as modular units, each of which can be readily incorporated into existing curricula. These materials have been produced in both CD-ROM and WWW format, making them useful for classroom or lab setting. Depending upon the level of available computer support, graphics can be displayed directly from the CD-ROM, or as a series of color view graphs for standard overhead projection.
Odenwald, Sten F.; Green, James L.
We calculate the economic impact on the existing geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellite population of an 1859-caliber superstorm event were it to occur between 2008 and 2018 during the next solar activity cycle. From a detailed model for transponder capacity and leasing, we have investigated the total revenue loss over the entire solar cycle, as a function of superstorm onset year and intensity. Our Monte Carlo simulations of 1000 possible superstorms, of varying intensity and onset year, suggest that the minimum revenue loss could be of the order of 30 billion. The losses would be larger than this if more that 20 satellites are disabled, if future launch rates do not keep up with the expected rate of retirements, or if the number of spare transponders falls below ˜30%. Consequently, revenue losses can be significantly reduced below 30 billion if the current satellite population undergoes net growth beyond 300 units during Solar Cycle 24 and a larger margin of unused transponders is maintained.
Lowry, K.; Sindt, M.; Jahn, J.
Using assistive technology, children with hearing loss can actively participate in the hearing world. However, to develop the necessary skills, hearing-impaired students need to be immersed in a language-rich environment which compensates for the lack of "incidental" learning that typifies the language acquisition of their peers with typical hearing. For any subject matter taught in class, this means that the conceptual and language framework of the topic has to be provided in addition to regular class materials. In a collaboration between the Sunshine Cottage School for Deaf Children and the Southwest Research Institute, we are exploring how NASA-developed educational resources covering Space Science topics can be incorporated successfully in blended classrooms containing children with hearing loss and those with typical hearing in grades 3-5. Utilizing the extensive routine language monitoring performed at Sunshine Cottage, student progress is directly monitored during the year as well as from year to year. This allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of the resources used. Since all instruction at Sunshine Cottage is auditory-oral, our experiences in using those materials can be fed back directly into mainstream classrooms of the same grade levels.
Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco
Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.
Lambert, B. P.; Benson, M. L.; Borough, C. J.; Myers, B. J.; Maffi, C. E.; Simpson, C. J.; Perry, W. J.; Burns, K. L.; Shepherd, J.; Beattie, R. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. In subhumid, vegetated areas, S190B photography: (1) has a potentially operational role in detecting lineaments in 1:100,000 scale geological mapping and in major civil engineering surveys; (2) is of limited value for regional lithological mapping at 1:500,000 scale; and (3) provided much useful synoptic information and some detailed information of direct value to the mapping of nonmineral natural resources such as vegetation, land soil, and water. In arid, well exposed areas, S190B photography could be used: (1) with a limited amount of field traverses, to produce reliable 1:500,000 scale geological maps of sedimentary sequences; (2) to update superficial geology on 1:250,000 scale maps; and (3) together with the necessary field studies, to prepare landform, soil, and vegetation maps at 1:1,000,000 scale. Skylab photography was found to be more useful than LANDSAT images for small scale mapping of geology and land types, and for the revision of topographic maps at 1:100,000 scale, because of superior spatial resolution and stereoscopic coverage.
Grunow, Annie M.; Elliot, David H.; Codispoti, Julie E.
The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) is a U. S. national facility designed for the permanent curatorial preservation of rock samples, along with associated materials such as field notes, annotated air photos and maps, raw analytic data, paleomagnetic cores, ground rock and mineral residues, thin sections, and microfossil mounts, microslides and residues from Polar areas. This facility was established by the Office of Polar Programs at the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to minimize redundant sample collecting, and also because the extreme cold and hazardous field conditions make fieldwork costly and difficult. The repository provides, along with an on-line database of sample information, an essential resource for proposal preparation, pilot studies and other sample based research that should make fieldwork more efficient and effective. This latter aspect should reduce the environmental impact of conducting research in sensitive Polar Regions. The USPRR also provides samples for educational outreach. Rock samples may be borrowed for research or educational purposes as well as for museum exhibits.
Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978
Reviews educational resources for classroom teachers. Resources include books, films, journals, science project guides, and public TV weather briefings. Addresses for obtaining the materials are provided. (MA)
Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.
The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.
Graffi, Paige Valderrama; Stefanov, William; Willis, Kim; Runco, Sue
Teachers in today s classrooms are bound by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can they gain skills and confidence to replace units or individual activities with curriculum that incorporates project and inquiry-based learning and promotes authentic research in the classroom? The key to promoting classroom authentic research experiences lies in educator professional development that is structured around teacher needs. The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program is a new geosciences program based at the NASA Johnson Space Center designed to engage, inspire and educate teachers and students in grades 5-14. The program promotes authentic research experiences for classrooms and uses strategies that will help NASA reach its education goals while still allowing educators to teach required standards. Teachers will have access to experts in terrestrial and planetary remote sensing and geoscience; this will enhance their use of content, structure, and relevant experiences to gain the confidence and skills they need to actively engage students in authentic research experiences. Integrated and powerful educational strategies are used to build skills and confidence in teachers. The strategies are as follows: 1) creating Standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources as ready-to-use materials that can be modified by teachers to fit their unique classroom situation; 2) providing ongoing professional development opportunities that focus on active experiences using curricular materials, inquiry-based techniques and expanding content knowledge; 3) connecting science experts to classrooms to deepen content knowledge and provide relevance to classroom activities and real world applications; 4) facilitating students sharing research with their peers and scientists reinforcing their active participation and contributions to research. These components of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program will be enhanced by providing exciting and
Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.
Teachers in today’s classrooms are bound by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can they gain skills and confidence to replace units or individual activities with curriculum that incorporates project and inquiry-based learning and promotes authentic research in the classroom? The key to promoting classroom authentic research experiences lies in educator professional development that is structured around teacher needs. The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program is a new geosciences program based at the NASA Johnson Space Center designed to engage, inspire and educate teachers and students in grades 5-14. The program promotes authentic research experiences for classrooms and uses strategies that will help NASA reach its education goals while still allowing educators to teach required standards. Teachers will have access to experts in terrestrial and planetary remote sensing and geoscience; this will enhance their use of content, structure, and relevant experiences to gain the confidence and skills they need to actively engage students in authentic research experiences. Integrated and powerful educational strategies are used to build skills and confidence in teachers. The strategies are as follows: 1) creating Standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources as ready-to-use materials that can be modified by teachers to fit their unique classroom situation; 2) providing ongoing professional development opportunities that focus on active experiences using curricular materials, inquiry-based techniques and expanding content knowledge; 3) connecting science experts to classrooms to deepen content knowledge and provide relevance to classroom activities and real world applications; 4) facilitating students sharing research with their peers and scientists reinforcing their active participation and contributions to research. These components of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program will be enhanced by providing exciting and
Elag, M.; Kumar, P.
Often, scientists and small research groups collect data, which target to address issues and have limited geographic or temporal range. A large number of such collections together constitute a large database that is of immense value to Earth Science studies. Complexity of integrating these data include heterogeneity in dimensions, coordinate systems, scales, variables, providers, users and contexts. They have been defined as long-tail data. Similarly, we use "long-tail models" to characterize a heterogeneous collection of models and/or modules developed for targeted problems by individuals and small groups, which together provide a large valuable collection. Complexity of integrating across these models include differing variable names and units for the same concept, model runs at different time steps and spatial resolution, use of differing naming and reference conventions, etc. Ability to "integrate long-tail models and data" will provide an opportunity for the interoperability and reusability of communities' resources, where not only models can be combined in a workflow, but each model will be able to discover and (re)use data in application specific context of space, time and questions. This capability is essential to represent, understand, predict, and manage heterogeneous and interconnected processes and activities by harnessing the complex, heterogeneous, and extensive set of distributed resources. Because of the staggering production rate of long-tail models and data resulting from the advances in computational, sensing, and information technologies, an important challenge arises: how can geoinformatics bring together these resources seamlessly, given the inherent complexity among model and data resources that span across various domains. We will present a semantic-based framework to support integration of "long-tail" models and data. This builds on existing technologies including: (i) SEAD (Sustainable Environmental Actionable Data) which supports curation
Two tasks of machine processing of S-192 multispectral scanner data are reviewed. In the first task, the effects of changing atmospheric and base altitude on the ability to machine-classify agricultural crops were investigated. A classifier and atmospheric effects simulation model was devised and its accuracy verified by comparison of its predicted results with S-192 processed results. In the second task, land resource maps of a mountainous area near Cripple Creek, Colorado were prepared from S-192 data collected on 4 August 1973.
Additional Expenditures for Baseline Scenario .. 75 IV. Total Expenditures for Fiscal Year 1987 for the CHIPMUNK Aircraft Type ... e,........... 76 V. Source...flying hour program for the CHIPMUNK aircraft type. From the relevant information concerned with the fiscal year 1986, the following data elements were...validation goal is to compare model results with the level of budget assigned to this aircraft type. For the fiscal year of 1986 a 20,000,000$00
A computer printout is presented of the mission requirement for the TERSSE missions and their associated user tasks. The data included in the data base represents a broad-based attempt to define the amount, extent, and type of information needed for an earth resources management program in the era of the space shuttle. An effort was made to consider all aspects of remote sensing and resource management; because of its broad scope, it is not intended that the data be used without verification for in-depth studies of particular missions and/or users. The data base represents the quantitative structure necessary to define the TERSSE architecture and requirements, and to an overall integrated view of the earth resources technology requirements of the 1980's.
Controller JTRS Joint Tactical Radio System Lasercom Laser communications LDHD Low Density High Demand LEO Low Earth Orbit LGB Laser Guided Bomb...published the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2005 that included the terms Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) and Unmanned Aircraft (UA). This...comprehensive publication used the term Unmanned Aircraft Systems when referring to the entire system and the term Unmanned Aircraft when referring only to the
Ryan, J. G.; Singer, J.
The NSF offers funding programs that support geoscience education spanning atmospheric, oceans, and Earth sciences, as well as environmental science, climate change and sustainability, and research on learning. The 'Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education' (RTUGeoEd) is an NSF Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES) Type 2 special project aimed at supporting college-level geoscience faculty at all types of institutions. The project's goals are to carry out activities and create digital resources that encourage the geoscience community to submit proposals that impact their courses and classroom infrastructure through innovative changes in instructional practice, and contribute to making transformative changes that impact student learning outcomes and lead to other educational benefits. In the past year information sessions were held during several national and regional professional meetings, including the GSA Southeastern and South-Central Section meetings. A three-day proposal-writing workshop for faculty planning to apply to the TUES program was held at the University of South Florida - Tampa. During the workshop, faculty learned about the program and key elements of a proposal, including: the need to demonstrate awareness of prior efforts within and outside the geosciences and how the proposed project builds upon this knowledge base; need to fully justify budget and role of members of the project team; project evaluation and what matters in selecting a project evaluator; and effective dissemination practices. Participants also spent time developing their proposal benefitting from advice and feedback from workshop facilitators. Survey data gathered from workshop participants point to a consistent set of challenges in seeking grant support for a desired educational innovation, including poor understanding of the educational literature, of available funding programs, and of learning assessment and project evaluation. Many also noted
Uden, Edward (Inventor); Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor)
The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.
Science Programs Applied Energy Programs Civilian Nuclear Energy Programs Laboratory Directed Research Service Academies Research Associates (SARA) Postdocs, Students Employee, Retiree Resources Benefits New
The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)
Maynard, Nancy G.
A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.
Smith, Michael J.
This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…
Some countries may require aircraft coming from countries where certain insects or insect-borne diseases are present, such as malaria and Zika virus, to be treated with insecticide. Find out about regulation of pesticides for this treatment.
Colwell, R. N.; Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.
Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.
A linear aircraft model for a rigid aircraft of constant mass flying over a flat, nonrotating earth is derived and defined. The derivation makes no assumptions of reference trajectory or vehicle symmetry. The linear system equations are derived and evaluated along a general trajectory and include both aircraft dynamics and observation variables.
Wetzler, E.; Peterson, W.; Putnam, M.
The economic value of an ERTS system in the area of inland water resources management is investigated. Benefits are attributed to new capabilities for managing inland water resources in the field of power generation, agriculture, and urban water supply. These benefits are obtained in the area of equal capability (cost savings) and increased capability (equal budget), and are estimated by applying conservative assumptions to Federal budgeting information, Congressional appropriation hearings, and ERTS technical capabilities.
Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.
GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; space. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four units: 1) the sun, earth, and moon; 2) stars and planets; 3) exploring space; 4) man's existence in space. Each unit includes initiatory and developmental activities. There are also sections on evaluation, vocabulary,…
The educational policy in Morocco is aimed at promoting the wide use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education and the adoption of interactive and autonomous digital resources for distance teaching and self-learning. The objective of this research is to evaluate the suitability of the existing digital educational resources for…
Lietzke, K. R.
The impact of remote sensing upon marine activities and oceanography is presented. The present capabilities of the current Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1), as demonstrated by the principal investigators are discussed. Cost savings benefits are quantified in the area of nautical and hygrographic mapping and charting. Benefits are found in aiding coastal zone management and in the fields of weather (marine) prediction, fishery harvesting and management, and potential uses for ocean vegetation. Difficulties in quantification are explained, the primary factor being that remotely sensed information will be of greater benefit as input to forecasting models which have not yet been constructed.
Rayman, Russell B
Aircraft disinsection has been an international practice since the 1920s, the purpose of which is to protect public health, the environment, agriculture, and livestock by the eradication of disease vectors. Although most nations of the world have discontinued this practice, about 20 continue with this requirement. Aircraft disinsection is sanctioned by international law with the World Health Organization (WHO) publishing general procedural guidelines in the International Health Regulations (IHR). There are currently four acceptable procedures: blocks away, top of descent, on arrival, and residual. A 2% pyrethrum solution, a naturally occurring substance found in the chrysanthemum flower, or several synthetic pyrethroids, are the recommended agents because they are extremely effective insecticides which pose minimal health risks. Although the use of insecticides for aircraft disinsection is controversial, national policies compelling this requirement must be respected. This paper will explore the background of aircraft disinsection, the procedures, the types of agents, and the toxicity. If aircraft disinsection is regulatory policy, it should be done in accordance with WHO procedures. Residual application is probably the most efficacious method. The use of air curtains or plastic strips should be explored as an alternative to the use of chemicals.
Raje, S.; Mcknight, J.; Willoughby, G.; Economy, R. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. The County of Los Angeles photointerpreted ERTS film products to define problems of interest, coordinated ground truth over the complex test site including interfaces with secondary users as well as participated in on-line analyses of the GE multispectral information extraction systems. Interactive machine analyses were carried out, developing techniques and procedures as well as evaluating the outputs for community and regional planning. Extensive aircraft underflight coverage was provided that was valuable both in inputs preparation and outputs evaluation of the machine-aided analyses. One of the nonstandard ERTS images led to the discovery of a major new fault lineament on the northern slope of the Santa Monica Mountains.
Meeson, Blanche W.; Gabrys, Robert; Ireton, M. Frank; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
Education projects supported by federal agencies and carried out by a wide range of organizations foster learning about Earth and Space systems science in a wide array of venues. Across these agencies a range of strategies are employed to ensure that effective materials are created for these diverse venues. And that these materials are deployed broadly so that a large spectrum of the American Public, both adults and children alike, can learn and become excited by the Earth and space system science. This session will highlight some of those strategies and will cover representative examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the strategies. Invited speakers from selected formal and informal educational efforts will anchor this session. Speakers with representative examples are encouraged to submit abstracts for the session to showcase the strategies which they use.
Major resource management missions to be performed by the TERSSE are examined in order to develop an understanding of the form and function of a system designed to perform an operational mission. Factors discussed include: resource manager (user) functions, methods of performing their function, the information flows and information requirements embodied in their function, and the characteristics of the observation system which assists in the management of the resource involved. The missions selected for study are: world crop survey and land resources management. These missions are found to represent opposite ends of the TERSSE spectrum and to support the conclusion that different missions require different systems and must be analyzed in detail to permit proper system development decisions.
User models defined as any explicit process or procedure used to transform information extracted from remotely sensed data into a form useful as a resource management information input are discussed. The role of the user models as information, technological, and operations interfaces between the TERSSE and the resource managers is emphasized. It is recommended that guidelines and management strategies be developed for a systems approach to user model development.
Vette, A. R.; Pfeiffer, W. A.
The Apollo range instrumentation aircraft (ARIA) fleet which consists of four EC-135N aircraft used for Apollo communication support is discussed. The ARIA aircraft are used to provide coverage of lunar missions, earth orbit missions, command module/service module separation to spacecraft landing, and assist in recovery operations. Descriptions of ARIA aircraft, capabilities, and instrumentation are included.
Bowman, Helen L.
The U.S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program was established in 1967 by Secretarial order to plan and develop techniques for collecting and analyzing remotely sensed data, and to apply these techniques to the resource inventory and management responsibilities of the Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, realizing the potential benefits of synoptic views of the Earth, were among the first members of America's scientific community to press for the launch of civilian Earth-surface observation satellites. Under the leadership of Director William T. Pecora, U.S. Geological Survey initiatives greatly influenced the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) development of the Landsat program.As part of the Landsat program, an agreement between NASA and the Geological Survey was signed to provide Landsat archiving and data production capabilities at the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This partnership with NASA began in 1972 and continued until Presidential Directive 54 designated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the Department of Commerce as the manager of U.S. civil operational land remote-sensing activities. NOAA has managed the Landsat program since Fiscal Year 1983, and EROS continues to process, archive, reproduce, and distribute Landsat data under a Memorandum of Understanding between NOAA and the Geological Survey. Archives at the EROS Data Center include over 2 million worldwide Landsat scenes and over 5 million aerial photographs, primarily of U.S. sites. Since the launch of Landsat 1, global imaging of the Earth's surface has become an operational tool for resource exploration and land management. As technology evolved, so did the EROS Program mission. Research and applications efforts began at the EROS Headquarters Office in the Washington metropolitan area in 1966; at the EROS Data Center in 1971; and at the EROS Field Office in Anchorage
The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.
Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.
Makarova, L. N.; Shirochkov, A. V.
It is a well-established fact that the electromagnetic processes of different kind occurring in the near- Earth space produce significant effects in the Earth's atmosphere at all altitudes including the ground surface. There are some indications that these processes could influence at least indirectly the human health conditions. In this study we explore relation between perturbations in the solar wind (dynamics of its density, velocity, intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field) and long- term changes in population of some species of Arctic fauna (lemmings, polar foxes, deers, wolves, elks etc.) It was found out that the best statistical coupling between various Space Weather parameters and the changes in populations of the Arctic fauna species appears when the solar wind dynamic pressure magnitude is taken as one of these parameters. It was shown that the secular variations of the solar UV radiation expressed as the Total Solar Irradiance appears to be a space parameter, showing the best correlation with the changes in population of the Arctic fauna species. Such high correlation coefficients as 0.8 are obtained. It is premature now to discuss exact physical mechanisms, which could explain the obtained relations. A possible mutual dependence of some climatic factors and fauna population in Arctic on the Space Weather parameters is discussed in this connection. Conclusion is made that the electromagnetic fields of space origin is an important factor determining dynamics of population of the Arctic fauna species.
Lubkin, S. H.; Morgan, C.
Harmful algal bloom species have had an increasing ecological impact on the Chesapeake Bay Watershed where they disrupt water chemistry, kill fish and cause human illness. In Virginia, scientists from Virginia Institute of Marine Science and Old Dominion University monitor HABs and their effect on water quality; however, these groups lack a method to monitor HABs in real time. This limits the ability to document associated water quality conditions and predict future blooms. Band reflectance values from Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance data (USGS Earth Explorer) and MODIS Chlorophyll imagery (NOAA CoastWatch) were cross calibrated to create a regression model that calculated concentrations of chlorophyll. Calculations were verified with in situ measurements from the Virginia Estuarine and Coastal Observing System. Imagery produced with the Chlorophyll-A calculation model will allow VIMS and ODU scientists to assess the timing, magnitude, duration and frequency of HABs in Virginia's Chesapeake watershed and to predict the environmental and water quality conditions that favor bloom development.
Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Novaes, R. A.
Since the systematic use of earth surface data collection by orbital sensor systems started in 1972 with the launching of the North American LANDSAT satellite, a great effort has been made to assimilate, develop and transfer remote sensing technology (data acquisition and analysis) in its many applications in Brazil. The availability of sensor systems and existing data is considered approached, as well as those which will soon be available to the Brazilian researchers. The new systems of the LANDSAT-4, of the Columbia space shuttle and of the French satellites of the SPOT series are discussed. Some characteristics of the sensor system for the first Brazilian remote sensing satellite, to be launched by the end of the decade, are presented. Some LANDSAT-4 and SPOT simulation products are shown, emphasizing how the data obtained by these new satellites can be applied.
Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.
Ellefsen, Karl J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Budahn, James R.; Smith, Steven M.; Shah, Anjana K.
The Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States has extensive, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that are enriched in heavy minerals containing titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources. Areas favorable for exploration and development of these resources are being identified by geochemical data, which are supplemented with geological, geophysical, hydrological, and geographical data. The first steps of this analysis have been completed. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium tend to decrease as distance from the Piedmont (which is the likely source of these resources) increases and are moderately correlated with airborne measurements of equivalent thorium concentration. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium are relatively high in those watersheds that adjoin the Piedmont, south of the Cape Fear Arch. Although this relation suggests that the concentrations are related to the watersheds, it may be simply an independent regional trend. The concentration of zirconium is unrelated to the distance from the Piedmont, the equivalent thorium concentration, and the watershed. These findings establish a foundation for more sophisticated analyses using integrated spatial modeling.
Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.; Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Shimada, Masanobu
We describe an experiment to calibrate the optical sensor (OPS) on board the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 with data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). On 27 Aug. 1992 both the OPS and AVIRIS acquired data concurrently over a calibration target on the surface of Rogers Dry Lake, California. The high spectral resolution measurements of AVIRIS have been convolved to the spectral response curves of the OPS. These data in conjunction with the corresponding OPS digitized numbers have been used to generate the radiometric calibration coefficients for the eight OPS bands. This experiment establishes the suitability of AVIRIS for the calibration of spaceborne sensors in the 400 to 2500 nm spectral region.
Trumbull, J. V. A. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. Three Skylab earth resources passes over Puerto Rico and St. Croix on 6 June and 30 November 1973 and 18 January 1974 resulted in color photography and multispectral photography and scanner imagery. Bathymetric and turbid water features are differentiable by use of the multispectral data. Photography allows mapping of coral reefs, offshore sand deposits, areas of coastal erosion, and patterns of sediment transport. Bottom sediment types could not be differentiated. Patterns of bottom dwelling biologic communities are well portrayed but are difficult to differentiate from bathymetric detail. Effluent discharges and oil slicks are readily detected and are differentiated from other phenomena by the persistence of their images into the longer wavelength multispectral bands.
Hart, Robert J.; Vaughan, R. Greg; McDougall, Kristin; Wojtowicz, Todd; Thenkenbail, Prasad
The U.S. Geological Survey’s Flagstaff Science Campus is focused on interdisciplinary study of the Earth and solar system, and has the scientific expertise to detect early environmental changes and provide strategies to minimize possible adverse effects on humanity. The Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) is located in Flagstaff, Arizona, which is situated in the northern part of the State, home to a wide variety of landscapes and natural resources, including (1) young volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, (2) the seven ecological life zones of the San Francisco Peaks, (3) the extensive geologic record of the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon, (4) the Colorado River and its perennial, ephemeral, and intermittent tributaries, and (5) a multitude of canyons, mountains, arroyos, and plains. More than 200 scientists, technicians, and support staff provide research, monitoring, and technical advancements in planetary geology and mapping, biology and ecology, Earth-based geology, hydrology, and changing climate and landscapes. Scientists at the FSC work in collaboration with multiple State, Federal, Tribal, municipal, and academic partners to address regional, national, and global environmental issues, and provide scientific outreach to the general public.
Landis, Geoffrey A.; LaMarre, C.; Colozza, A.
The Venus atmosphere is a favorable environment for flying powered aircraft. The atmospheric pressure makes flight much easier than on planets such as Mars. Above the clouds, solar energy is available in abundance on Venus, and the slow rotation of Venus allows a solar airplane to be designed for flight within continuous sunlight. The atmosphere between 50 km and 75 km on Venus is one of the most dynamic and interesting regions of the planet. The challenge for a Venus aircraft will be the fierce winds and caustic atmosphere. In order to remain on the sunlit side of Venus, an exploration aircraft will have to be capable of sustained flight at or above the wind speed. An aircraft would be a powerful tool for exploration. By learning how Venus can be so similar to Earth, and yet so different, we will learn to better understand the climate and geological history of the Earth.
Albers, James A.; Zuk, John
Report describes geography and transportation needs of Asian Pacific region, and describes aircraft configurations suitable for region and compares performances. Examines applications of high-speed rotorcraft, vertical/short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft, and short-takeoff-and landing (STOL) aircraft. Configurations benefit commerce, tourism, and development of resources.
Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Farfan-Ale, Jose Arturo; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Lira-Zumbardo, Victor; Najera-Vazquez, Rosario; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Calderon-Martinez, Joaquin; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Morris, Natashia; Coleman, Michael; Moore, Chester G; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars
Novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. Emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. Google Earth) complement existing geographic information system (GIS) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an image of the physical environment. We used freely accessible satellite imagery and a set of feature-making tools included in the software (allowing for production of polygons, lines and points) to generate information for city infrastructure and to display disease data in a dengue decision support system (DDSS) framework. Two cities in Mexico (Chetumal and Merida) were used to demonstrate that a basic representation of city infrastructure useful as a spatial backbone in a DDSS can be rapidly developed at minimal cost. Data layers generated included labelled polygons representing city blocks, lines representing streets, and points showing the locations of schools and health clinics. City blocks were colour-coded to show presence of dengue cases. The data layers were successfully imported in a format known as shapefile into a GIS software. The combination of Google Earth and free GIS software (e.g. HealthMapper, developed by WHO, and SIGEpi, developed by PAHO) has tremendous potential to strengthen overall public health capacity and facilitate decision support system approaches to prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.
Vanvyve, E.; Magontier, P.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Delle Monache, L.; Dickinson, K.
Wind energy is amongst the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the U.S. and could supply up to 20 % of the U.S power production by 2030. An accurate and reliable wind resource assessment for prospective wind farm sites is a challenging task, yet is crucial for evaluating the long-term profitability and feasibility of a potential development. We have developed an accurate and computationally efficient wind resource assessment technique for prospective wind farm sites, which incorporates innovative statistical techniques and the new NASA Earth science dataset MERRA. This technique produces a wind resource estimate that is more accurate than that obtained by the wind energy industry's standard technique, while providing a reliable quantification of its uncertainty. The focus now is on evaluating the socio-economic value of this new technique upon using the industry's standard technique. Would it yield lower financing costs? Could it result in lower electricity prices? Are there further down-the-line positive consequences, e.g. job creation, time saved, greenhouse gas decrease? Ultimately, we expect our results will inform efforts to refine and disseminate the new technique to support the development of the U.S. renewable energy infrastructure. In order to address the above questions, we are carrying out a cost-benefit analysis based on the net present worth of the technique. We will describe this approach, including the cash-flow process of wind farm financing, how the wind resource assessment factors in, and will present current results for various hypothetical candidate wind farm sites.
Galloway, D. L.
Land-level lowering or land subsidence is a consequence of many local- and regional-scale physical, chemical or biologic processes affecting soils and geologic materials. The principal processes can be natural or anthropogenic, and include consolidation or compaction, karst or pseudokarst, hydrocompaction of collapsible soils, mining, oxidation of organic soils, erosive piping, tectonism, and volcanism. In terms of affected area, there are two principal regional-scale anthropogenic processes—compaction of compressible subsurface materials owing to the extraction of subsurface fluids (principally groundwater, oil and gas) and oxidation and compaction accompanying drainage of organic soils—which cause significant hazards related to flooding and infrastructure damage that are amenable to resource management measures. The importance of even small magnitude (< 10 mm/yr) subsidence rates in coastal areas is amplified by its contribution to relative sea-level rise compared to estimated rates of rising eustatic sea levels (2-3 mm/yr) attributed to global climate change. Multi- or interdisciplinary [scientific] studies, including those focused on geodetic, geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, geomechanical, geochemical, and biologic factors, improve understanding of these subsidence processes. Examples include geodetic measurement and analysis techniques, such as Global Positioning System (GPS), Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which have advanced our capabilities to detect, measure and monitor land-surface motion at multiple scales. Improved means for simulating aquifer-system and hydrocarbon-reservoir deformation, and the oxidation and compaction of organic soils are leading to refined predictive capabilities. The role of interdisciplinary earth science in improving the characterization of land subsidence attributed to subsurface fluid withdrawals and the oxidation and compaction of organic soils is
Schellekens, Jaap; Dutra, Emanuel; Martínez-de la Torre, Alberto; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; van Dijk, Albert; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Minvielle, Marie; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Decharme, Bertrand; Eisner, Stephanie; Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina; Peßenteiner, Stefanie; van Beek, Rens; Polcher, Jan; Beck, Hylke; Orth, René; Calton, Ben; Burke, Sophia; Dorigo, Wouter; Weedon, Graham P.
The dataset presented here consists of an ensemble of 10 global hydrological and land surface models for the period 1979-2012 using a reanalysis-based meteorological forcing dataset (0.5° resolution). The current dataset serves as a state of the art in current global hydrological modelling and as a benchmark for further improvements in the coming years. A signal-to-noise ratio analysis revealed low inter-model agreement over (i) snow-dominated regions and (ii) tropical rainforest and monsoon areas. The large uncertainty of precipitation in the tropics is not reflected in the ensemble runoff. Verification of the results against benchmark datasets for evapotranspiration, snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil moisture anomaly and total water storage anomaly using the tools from The International Land Model Benchmarking Project (ILAMB) showed overall useful model performance, while the ensemble mean generally outperformed the single model estimates. The results also show that there is currently no single best model for all variables and that model performance is spatially variable. In our unconstrained model runs the ensemble mean of total runoff into the ocean was 46 268 km3 yr-1 (334 kg m-2 yr-1), while the ensemble mean of total evaporation was 537 kg m-2 yr-1. All data are made available openly through a Water Cycle Integrator portal (WCI, wci.earth2observe.eu), and via a direct http and ftp download. The portal follows the protocols of the open geospatial consortium such as OPeNDAP, WCS and WMS. The DOI for the data is https://doi.org/10.1016/10.5281/zenodo.167070.
Almeida, J. S.; Garcia, E. C.; Santos, M. B.; Fu, P. Z.
This paper details the approach adopted and applied on the thermal vacuum tests campaign of the CBERS Flight Model #2 spacecraft, successfully performed at the Integration and Tests Laboratory - LIT, National Institute for Space Research - INPE, in São José dos Campos, SP, from September 7th to 28th, 2001. Measuring approximately 1.8 x 2.0 x 2.2m, weighting 1,500kg and carrying three cameras as the main payload, this spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in China and it will be orbiting the Earth at 778km as part of its remote sensing mission profile. Exploring the capabilities of LIT's 3m x 3m thermal vacuum chamber in terms of appropriately selecting and adjusting its cold shroud temperatures and also some low cost heat input/sink techniques, the spacecraft was adequately disjoined at its service and payload model interface in such a way that each part could physically fit inside the T/V chamber one at a time. Assuring all the necessary functional and test cabling interconnection between the two models through the chamber walls for the proper spacecraft electrical operations as an integrated system, specific thermal test techniques were applied in order to obtain the required hot and cold acceptance levels of temperature at the spacecraft subsystems and structural surfaces, as a consequence of the simulated thermal conditioning from the distinct orbital configurations. These thermal simulation techniques consisted of a combination of skin-heaters, the thermal vacuum chamber main shrouds and dedicated LN2 cold plates, effectively leading to reliable and very satisfactory testing methodology results. Taking more than 350 hours and having 67 people directly involved, including teams from both Brazil and China, this test can be considered as a very important accomplishment in terms of distinct technique of spacecraft testing and also in terms of the satisfactory working relationship between two quite different cultures.
There were 87 instruments described that are used in earth observation, with an additional 51 instruments containing references to programs and their major functions. These instruments were selected from such sources as: (1) earth observation flight program, (2) operational satellite improvement programs, (3) advanced application flight experiment program, (4) shuttle experiment definition program, and (5) earth observation aircraft program.
Pieters, Carle M.
Science and technology applications for the Moon have not fully kept pace with technical advancements in sensor development and analytical information extraction capabilities. Appropriate unanswered questions for the Moon abound, but until recently there has been little motivation to link sophisticated technical capabilities with specific measurement and analysis projects. Over the last decade enormous technical progress has been made in the development of (1) CCD photometric array detectors; (2) visible to near-infrared imaging spectrometers; (3)infrared spectroscopy; (4) high-resolution dual-polarization radar imaging at 3.5, 12, and 70 cm; and equally important (5) data analysis and information extraction techniques using compact powerful computers. Parts of each of these have been tested separately, but there has been no programmatic effort to develop and optimize instruments to meet lunar science and resource assessment needs (e.g., specific wavelength range, resolution, etc.) nor to coordinate activities so that the symbiotic relation between different kinds of data can be fully realized. No single type of remotely acquired data completely characterizes the lunar environment, but there has been little opportunity for integration of diverse advanced sensor data for the Moon. Two examples of technology concepts for lunar measurements are given. Using VIS/near-IR spectroscopy, the mineral composition of surface material can be derived from visible and near-infrared radiation reflected from the surface. The surface and subsurface scattering properties of the Moon can be analyzed using radar backscattering imaging.
Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.; Aderhold, K.; Frassetto, A.
The Alaska Transportable Array deployment is completely installed, totaling 280 stations, with 194 new stations and 86 existing stations, 28 of those upgraded with new sensor emplacement. We briefly summarize the deployment of this seismic network, describe the added meteorological instruments and soil temperature gauges, and review our expectations for operation and demobilization. Curation of data from the contiguous Lower-48 States deployment of Transportable Array (>1800 stations, 2004-2015) has continued with the few gaps in real-time data replaced by locally archived files as well as minor adjustments in metadata. We highlight station digests that provide more detail on the components and settings of individual stations, documentation of standard procedures used throughout the deployment and other resources available online. In cooperation with IRIS DMC, a copy of the complete TA archive for the Lower-48 period has been transferred to a local disk to experiment with data access and software workflows that utilize most or all of the seismic timeseries, in contrast to event segments. Assembling such large datasets reliably - from field stations to a well managed data archive to a user's workspace - is complex. Sharing a curated and defined data volume with researchers is a potentially straightforward way to make data intensive analyses less difficult. We note that data collection within the Lower-48 continues with 160 stations of the N4 network operating at increased sample rates (100 sps) as part of the CEUSN, as operational support transitions from NSF to USGS.
DLESE Teaching Box Pilot Project: Developing a Replicable Model for Collaboratively Creating Innovative Instructional Sequences Using Exemplary Resources in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE)
Before the advent of digital libraries, it was difficult for teachers to find suitable high-quality resources to use in their teaching. Digital libraries such as DLESE have eased the task by making high quality resources more easily accessible and providing search mechanisms that allow teachers to 'fine tune' the criteria over which they search. Searches tend to return lists of resources with some contextualizing information. However, teachers who are teaching 'out of discipline' or who have minimal training in science often need additional support to know how to use and sequence them. The Teaching Box Pilot Project was developed to address these concerns, bringing together educators, scientists, and instructional designers in a partnership to build an online framework to fully support innovative units of instruction about the Earth system. Each box integrates DLESE resources and activities, teaching tips, standards, concepts, teaching outcomes, reviews, and assessment information. Online templates and best practice guidelines are being developed that will enable teachers to create their own boxes or customize existing ones. Two boxes have been developed so far, one on weather for high school students, and one on the evidence for plate tectonics for middle schoolers. The project has met with significant enthusiasm and interest, and we hope to expand it by involving individual teachers, school systems, pre-service programs, and universities in the development and use of teaching boxes. A key ingredient in the project's success has been the close collaboration between the partners, each of whom has brought unique experiences, perspectives, knowledge, and skills to the project. This first effort involved teachers in the San Francisco Bay area, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, San Francisco State University, U.S. Geological Survey, and DLESE. This poster will allow participants to explore one of the teaching boxes. We will discuss how the boxes were
DISCOVER-AQ Aircraft insitu TraceGas Data (ICT) Project Title: N/A Platform: NASA ... Relevant Documents: DISCOVER-AQ - Airborne Science Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth ...
Buxner, Sanlyn; Shupla, C.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.
The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum has helped to create two tools that are designed to help scientists and higher-education science faculty make stronger connections with their audiences: EarthSpace, an education clearinghouse for the undergraduate classroom; and NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau, an online portal to help bring science - and scientists - to the public. Are you looking for Earth and space science higher education resources and materials? Come explore EarthSpace, a searchable database of undergraduate classroom materials for faculty teaching Earth and space sciences at both the introductory and upper division levels! In addition to classroom materials, EarthSpace provides news and information about educational research, best practices, and funding opportunities. All materials submitted to EarthSpace are peer reviewed, ensuring that the quality of the EarthSpace materials is high and also providing important feedback to authors. Your submission is a reviewed publication! Learn more, search for resources, join the listserv, sign up to review materials, and submit your own at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace. Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker’s Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. The information input into the database will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All Earth and space scientists funded by NASA - and/or engaged in active research using NASA’s science - are invited to become part of the Scientist Speaker’s Bureau. Submit your information into the short form at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.
This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accidentmore » is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.« less
Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.
Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.; Heiss, K. P.
An overview of the ERTS program is given to determine the magnitude of the benefits that can be reasonably expected to flow from an Earth Resources Survey (ERS) Program, and to assess the benefits foregone in the event of a one or two-year gap in ERS services. An independent evaluation of the benefits attributable to ERS-derived information in key application areas is presented. These include two case studies in agriculture-distribution, production and import/export, and one study in water management. The cost-effectiveness of satellites in an ERS system is studied by means of a land cover case study. The annual benefits achieveable from an ERS system are measured by the in-depth case studies to be in the range of $430 to $746 million. Benefits foregone in the event of a one-year gap in ERS service are estimated to be $147 to $220 million and $274 to $420 million for a two-year gap in ERS service.
Holm, Thomas M.; Draeger, William C.; Risty, Ronald R.
For decades federal and state agencies have been collecting regional, continental, and global Earth observations data acquired by satellites, aircraft, and other information-gathering systems. These data include photographic and digital remotely sensed images of the Earth's surface, as well as earth science, cartographic, and geographic data. Since 1973, the U.S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has been a data management, production, dissemination, and research center for these data. Currently, the Data Center holds over 10 million satellite images and aerial photographs, in photographic and digital formats. Users are able to place inquiries and orders for these holdings via a nationwide computer network. In addition to cataloging the data stored in its archives, the Data Center provides users with rapid access to information on many data collections held by other facilities.
Gregory, G. L.; Lee, R. B., III; Mathis, J. J., Jr.
The Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume Study (SEV-UPS) utilizes remote sensors and satellite platforms to monitor the Earth's environment and resources. SEV-UPS focuses on the application of specific remote sensors to the monitoring and study of specific air quality problems. The 1979 SEV-UPS field program was conducted with specific objectives: (1) to provide correlative data to evaluate the Laser Absorption spectrometer ozone remote sensors; (2) to demonstrate the utility of the sensor for the study of urban ozone problems; (3) to provide additional insights into air quality phenomena occuring in Southeastern Virginia; and (4) to compare measurement results of various in situ measurement platforms. The field program included monitoring from 12 surface stations, 4 aircraft, 2 tethered balloons, 2 radiosonde release sites, and numerous surface meteorological observation sites. The aircraft monitored 03, NO, NOX, Bscat, temperature, and dewpoint temperature.
The EarthExplorer trifold provides basic information for on-line access to remotely-sensed data from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) client/server interface allows users to search and download aerial photography, satellite data, elevation data, land-cover products, and digitized maps. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.
ER-2 tail number 706, was one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft were platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They were also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation.
McInnis, Noel; And Others
Three separate papers from the Project are included in this document. One of these, by the Center staff, is entitled "Potentials of the Spaceship Earth Metaphor". It discusses static, dynamic, and analogic representations of spaceship earth and their educational value. A second paper, "Some Resources for Introducing Environmental…
A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.
Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey; Lyons, Valerie
Planetary exploration may be enhanced by the use of aircraft for mobility. This paper reviews the development of aircraft for planetary exploration missions at NASA and reviews the power and propulsion options for planetary aircraft. Several advanced concepts for aircraft exploration, including the use of in situ resources, the possibility of a flexible all-solid-state aircraft, the use of entomopters on Mars, and the possibility of aerostat exploration of Titan, are presented.
Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)
A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.
Brosius, C. A.; Gervin, J. C.; Ragusa, J. M.
A text book on remote sensing, as part of the earth resources Skylab programs, is presented. The fundamentals of remote sensing and its application to agriculture, land use, geology, water and marine resources, and environmental monitoring are summarized.
Bentley, Robert D.; Iles, R. H. A.; Jones, J. B. L.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.
The Earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic radiation that can be either galactic or solar in origin. At aircraft altitudes, the radiation levels are much higher than at sea level and recent European legislation has classified aircrew as radiation workers. University College London is working with Virgin Atlantic Airways on a 3 year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It will also try to determine whether solar flare activity can cause significant enhancement to the predicted doses.
Andrews, J.; Stevenson, P.
The economic value of ERS information in the resource management area of extensive use of living resources, forestry, wildlife, and rangeland, is determined. Timber and forage resources are quantitatively evaluated. It is shown that these resources have economic value in the tens of billions of dollars, but the economic benefits of improved management of the forests and rangelands are not limited to efficiency in the production of these commercial resources. Multiple-use values including watershed, wildlife, and recreation are also involved.
Colozza, Anthony J.
The preliminary design requirements of a long endurance aircraft capable of flight within the Martian environment was determined. Both radioisotope/heat engine and PV solar array power production systems were considered. Various cases for each power system were analyzed in order to determine the necessary size, weight and power requirements of the aircraft. The analysis method used was an adaptation of the method developed by Youngblood and Talay of NASA-Langley used to design a high altitude earth based aircraft. The analysis is set up to design an aircraft which, for the given conditions, has a minimum wingspan and maximum endurance parameter. The results showed that, for a first approximation, a long endurance aircraft is feasible within the Martian environment. The size and weight of the most efficient solar aircraft were comparable to the radioisotope powered one.
Billings, Charles E.
Aircraft automation is examined and its effects on flight crews. Generic guidelines are proposed for the design and use of automation in transport aircraft, in the hope of stimulating increased and more effective dialogue among designers of automated cockpits, purchasers of automated aircraft, and the pilots who must fly those aircraft in line operations. The goal is to explore the means whereby automation may be a maximally effective tool or resource for pilots without compromising human authority and with an increase in system safety. After definition of the domain of the aircraft pilot and brief discussion of the history of aircraft automation, a concept of human centered automation is presented and discussed. Automated devices are categorized as a control automation, information automation, and management automation. The environment and context of aircraft automation are then considered, followed by thoughts on the likely future of automation of that category.
Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...
Tarnopolskiy, V. I.
Widely used remote probing methods, and especially the multispectral method, for studying the earth from aerospace platforms necessitate the systematization and accumulation of data on the relationships between remote observations and measured parameters and characteristic properties and conditions of phenomena on the earth's surface. Data were presented on the optical characteristics of natural objects which arise during observations of these objects over a wide spectral interval which encompasses solar radiation reflected by the object as well as the object's inherent thermal radiation. The influence of the earth's atmosphere on remote measurements and several problems in simulation and calculation are discussed.
Rogers, John James William; Feiss, P. Geoffrey
People and the Earth examines the numerous ways in which this planet enhances and limits our lifestyles. Written with wit and remarkable insight, and illustrated with numerous case histories, it provides a balanced view of the complex environmental issues facing our civilization. The authors look at the geologic restrictions on our ability to withdraw resources--food, water, energy, and minerals--from the earth, the effect human activity has on the earth, and the lingering damage caused by natural disasters. People and the Earth examines the basic components of our interaction with this planet, provides a lucid, scientific discussion of each issue, and speculates on what the future may hold. It provides the fundamental concepts that will enable us to make wise and conscientious choices on how to live our day-to-day lives. People and the Earth is an ideal introductory textbook and will also appeal to anyone concerned with our evolving relationship to the earth.
Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. ALTAIR/PREDATOR B -- General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator testbed aircraft to validate a variety of command and control technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Ten-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 84 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of those basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.
Hermance, J. F.
The reconnaissance phase of using satellite observtions to studying electromagnetic induction in the solid earth is summarized. Several points are made: (1) satellite data apparently suffer far less from the effects of near surface lateral heterogeneities in the earth than do ground-based data; (2) zonal ionospheric currents during the recovery phase of major magnetic storms appear to be minimal, at least in the dawn and dusk sectors wher MAGSAT was flown; hence the internal contributions that satellites observe during these times is in fact due primarily to induction in the Earth with little or no contribution from ionospheric currents; and (3) the interpretation of satellite data in terms of primitive electromagnetic response functions, while grossly over-simplified, results in a surprisingly well-resolved radius for an equivalent super-conductor representing the conductivity region of the Earth's interior (5,370 + or - 120 km).
Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)
Model simulations show that induction in a spherical Earth by distant magnetospheric sources can contribute magnetic field fluctuations at MAGSAT altitudes which are 30 to 40 percent of the external field amplitudes. When the characteristic dimensions (e.g. depth of penetration, etc) of a particular situations are small compared with the Earth's radius, the Earth can be approximated by a plane horizontal half space. In this case, electromagnetic energy is reflected with close to 100 percent efficiency from the Earth's surface. This implies that the total horizontal field is twice the source field when the source is above the satellite, but is reduced to values which are much smaller than the source field when the source is below the satellite. This latter effect tends to enhance the signature of gross electrical discontinuities in the lithosphere when observed at satellite altitudes.
Fisher, John J.
Describes util satellite photography, satellite remote sensing, and high altitude aircraft photography for teaching environmental and ecological aspects of earth science at the secondary or college levels. (SL)
Williams, L. J.
Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.
Maddalon, D. V.
Questions concerning the energy efficiency of aircraft compared to ground transport are considered, taking into account as energy intensity the energy consumed per passenger statute mile. It is found that today's transport aircraft have an energy intensity potential comparable to that of ground modes. Possibilities for improving the energy density are also much better in the case of aircraft than in the case of ground transportation. Approaches for potential reductions in aircraft energy consumption are examined, giving attention to steps for increasing the efficiency of present aircraft and to reductions in energy intensity obtainable by the introduction of new aircraft utilizing an advanced technology. The use of supercritical aerodynamics is discussed along with the employment of composite structures, advances in propulsion systems, and the introduction of very large aircraft. Other improvements in fuel economy can be obtained by a reduction of skin-friction drag and a use of hydrogen fuel.
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2.17 Section 2.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2.17 Section 2.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2.17 Section 2.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are...
Alexander, A. D., III
Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.
Mace, Thomas H.
This slide presentation reviews the Airborne Science Program and the platforms used for conducting investigations for the Earth System Science. Included is a chart that shows some of the aircraft and the operational altitude and the endurance of the aircraft, views of the Dryden Aircraft Operation Facility, and some of the current aircraft that the facility operates, and the varieties of missions that are flown and the type of instrumentation. Also included is a chart showing the attributes of the various aircraft (i.e., duration, weight for a payload, maximum altitude, airspeed and range) for comparison
... earth station applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System... transmitting earth stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service may file on FCC Form 312EZ if all of the following... band; (ii) The earth station(s) will not be installed or operated on ships, aircraft, or other moving...
Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)
An algorithm was developed to address the problem of electromagnetic coupling of ionospheric current systems to both a homogeneous Earth having finite conductivity, and to an Earth having gross lateral variations in its conductivity structure, e.g., the ocean-land interface. Typical results from the model simulation for ionospheric currents flowing parallel to a representative geologic discontinuity are shown. Although the total magnetic field component at the satellite altitude is an order of magnitude smaller than at the Earth's surface (because of cancellation effects from the source current), the anomalous behavior of the satellite observations as the vehicle passes over the geologic contact is relatively more important pronounced. The results discriminate among gross lithospheric structures because of difference in electrical conductivity.
ESCAPE SYSTEMS, *TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, ESCAPE SYSTEMS, CIVIL AVIATION, STATISTICAL DATA, AIRCRAFT DOORS, EVACUATION, MORTALITY RATE, ADULTS , CHILDREN, SEX, AIRCRAFT FIRES, AIRCRAFT CABINS, FEMALES, BEHAVIOR.
Assurance Sciences - Reliability and Maintainability, 1969. Livers , Paul J., PREDICTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF FAILURE RATES (PROF 200) PROGRAMMING MANUAL...0CDC V3. -gr om In 0 0 V -40 LU -cc00L I- W! - OPC -i40 cc-4 qr - CA IL- 0cc 41 C3 C-1 I I=IJ o M c ccL) - In. r-c 0 0C LLA- Iii "" -c Ok CD 0D co- CUs
Meeson, Blanche W.
Workshop for middle and high school teachers to enhance their knowledge of the Earth as a system. NASA data and materials developed by teachers (all available via the Internet) will be used to engage participants in hands-on, investigative approaches to the Earth system. All materials are ready to be applied in pre-college classrooms. Remotely-sensed data will be used in combination with familiar resources, such as maps, to examine global climate change.
Organizers and volunteers for Kennedy Space Center’s Earth Day celebration gather for a photo at the NASA Exchange raffle booth. From left to right are Jeanne Ryba, Environmental Sustainability program specialist; Robert Smith, Earth Day volunteer; and Natasha Darre, Cultural Resources Specialist. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.
Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.
Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.
... GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.4..., helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or waters...
... GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.4..., helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or waters...
... REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS..., seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered... person, material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands...
... GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.4..., helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or waters...
Wallace, R.; Boyer, M. F.
These direct measurements are in fair agreement with computations made using a program which considers both basic cosmic ray atmospheric physics and the focusing effect of the earth's magnetic field. These measurements also agree with those made at supersonic jet aircraft altitudes in Rb-57 aircraft. It is concluded that experiments and theory show that the doses received at conventional jet aircraft altitudes are slightly higher than those encountered in supersonic flights at much higher altitudes.
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project on New England water resources during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)
Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)
Efforts continue in the development of a computer program for looking at the coupling of finite dimensioned source fields with a laterally heterogeneous Earth. An algorithm for calculating a time-varying reference field using ground-based magnetic observatory data is also under development as part of the production of noise-free estimates of global electromagnetic response functions using Magsat data.
Colozza, Anthony J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Reed, Brian D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Loyselle, Patricia L.
The capabilities and performance of an aircraft depends greatly on the ability of the propulsion system to provide thrust. Since the beginning of powered flight, performance has increased in step with advancements in aircraft propulsion systems. These advances in technology from combustion engines to jets and rockets have enabled aircraft to exploit our atmospheric environment and fly at altitudes near the Earth's surface to near orbit at speeds ranging from hovering to several times the speed of sound. One of the main advantages of our atmosphere for these propulsion systems is the availability of oxygen. Getting oxygen basically "free" from the atmosphere dramatically increases the performance and capabilities of an aircraft. This is one of the reasons our present-day aircraft can perform such a wide range of tasks. But this advantage is limited to Earth; if we want to fly an aircraft on another planetary body, such as Mars, we will either have to carry our own source of oxygen or use a propulsion system that does not require it. The Mars atmosphere, composed mainly of carbon dioxide, is very thin. Because of this low atmospheric density, an aircraft flying on Mars will most likely be operating, in aerodynamical terms, within a very low Reynolds number regime. Also, the speed of sound within the Martian environment is approximately 20 percent less than it is on Earth. The reduction in the speed of sound plays an important role in the aerodynamic performance of both the aircraft itself and the components of the propulsion system, such as the propeller. This low Reynolds number-high Mach number flight regime is a unique flight environment that is very rarely encountered here on Earth.
The requirement of unmanned aircraft systems in civil areas is growing. However, provisioning of flight efficiency and safety of unmanned aircraft has critical requirements on wireless communication spectrum resources. Current researches mainly focus on spectrum availability. In this paper, the unmanned aircraft system communication models, including the coverage model and data rate model, and two coexistence analysis procedures, i. e. the interference and noise ratio criterion and frequency-distance-direction criterion, are proposed to analyze spectrum requirements and interference results of the civil unmanned aircraft systems at low altitudes. In addition, explicit explanations are provided. The proposed coexistence analysis criteria are applied to assess unmanned aircraft systems' uplink and downlink interference performances and to support corresponding spectrum planning. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed assessments and analysis procedures satisfy requirements of flexible spectrum accessing and safe coexistence among multiple unmanned aircraft systems.
Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd
A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.
Botteri, Benito P.
During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.
The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program.
Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Wofsy, Steve; Kley, Dieter; Zhadin, Evgeny A.; Johnson, Colin; Weisenstein, Debra; Prather, Michael J.; Wuebbles, Donald J.
The possibility that the current fleet of subsonic aircraft may already have caused detectable changes in both the troposphere and stratosphere has raised concerns about the impact of such operations on stratospheric ozone and climate. Recent interest in the operation of supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere has heightened such concerns. Previous assessments of impacts from proposed supersonic aircraft were based mostly on one-dimensional model results although a limited number of multidimensional models were used. In the past 15 years, our understanding of the processes that control the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases has changed dramatically. This better understanding was achieved through accumulation of kinetic data and field observations as well as development of new models. It would be beneficial to start examining the impact of subsonic aircraft to identify opportunities to study and validate the mechanisms that were proposed to explain the ozone responses. The two major concerns are the potential for a decrease in the column abundance of ozone leading to an increase in ultraviolet radiation at the ground, and redistribution of ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere leading to changes in the Earth's climate. Two-dimensional models were used extensively for ozone assessment studies, with a focus on responses to chlorine perturbations. There are problems specific to the aircraft issues that are not adequately addressed by the current models. This chapter reviews the current status of the research on aircraft impact on ozone with emphasis on immediate model improvements necessary for extending our understanding. The discussion will be limited to current and projected commercial aircraft that are equipped with air-breathing engines using conventional jet fuel. The impacts are discussed in terms of the anticipated fuel use at cruise altitude.
Lang, T. J.; Guy, N.
Open source software toolkits have been developed and applied to diagnose in-cloud turbulence in the vicinity of Earth science research aircraft, via analysis of ground-based Doppler radar data. Based on multiple retrospective analyses, these toolkits show promise for detecting significant turbulence well prior to cloud penetrations by research aircraft. A pilot study demonstrated the ability to provide mission scientists turbulence estimates in near real time during an actual field campaign, and thus these toolkits are recommended for usage in future cloud-penetrating aircraft field campaigns.
Yocum, M.; Foushee, C.
Cockpit resource management which is a multifaceted concept is outlined. The system involves the effective coordination of many resources: aircraft systems, company, air traffic control, equipment, navigational aids, documents, and manuals. The main concept, however, is group interaction. Problems which arise from lack of coordination, decision making, and lack of communication are pointed out. Implementation by the regional airline industry of cockpit resource management, designed to deal with human interactions problems in the most cost effective manner, is discussed.
Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)
This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.
ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.
Lietzke, K. R.
The economic benefits of an ERS system in the area of industrial resources are discussed. Contributions of ERTS imagery to the improvement of shipping routes, detection of previously unknown and potentially active faults in construction areas, and monitoring industrial pollution are described. Due to lack of economic research concerning the subject of ERS applications in this resource area the benefit estimations reported are regarded as tentative and preliminary.
Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.
The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.
Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.
Reference book summarizes current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and means available to designers and operators to protect against effects. Book is available because of increasing use of nonmetallic materials in aircraft structural components and use of electronic equipment for control of critical flight operations and navigation.
This quiz is designed to help a pilot meet his or her aircraft. Although no attempt is made to cover in depth all of the information contained in the typical Pilot's Operating Handbook (POH), Owner's Manual (OM), or Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), the ...
Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)
Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.
Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)
The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.
Richardson, J.; Labbe, M.; Belala, Y.; Leduc, Vincent
The requirement for improving aircraft utilization and responsiveness in airlift operations has been recognized for quite some time by the Canadian Forces. To date, the utilization of scarce airlift resources has been planned mainly through the employment of manpower-intensive manual methods in combination with the expertise of highly qualified personnel. In this paper, we address the problem of facilitating the load planning process for military aircraft cargo planes through the development of a computer-based system. We introduce TALBAS (Transport Aircraft Loading and BAlancing System), a knowledge-based system designed to assist personnel involved in preparing valid load plans for the C130 Hercules aircraft. The main features of this system which are accessible through a convivial graphical user interface, consists of the automatic generation of valid cargo arrangements given a list of items to be transported, the user-definition of load plans and the automatic validation of such load plans.
For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.
Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.
Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.
Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.
A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283
Gratz, N G; Steffen, R; Cocksedge, W
A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.
This resource for teachers of elementary age students provides a foundation for building a life-long interest in the U.S. space program. It begins with a basic understanding of man's attempt to conquer the air, then moves on to how we expanded into near-Earth space for our benefit. Students learn, through hands-on experiences, from projects…
Pultorak, Robert W.
Describes a self-paced undergraduate environmental science course focusing on a theme that earth is similar to a spaceship inasmuch as: (1) both possess finite room and resources, and (2) living things are dependent upon life-support systems for continued survival. Includes a list of laboratory and learning activities. (DS)
Reining, P. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. Repetitively derived multispectral band imagery from ERTS-1 is now available for many parts of the earth's land surface and represents major new data sources for anthropological work in habitat, land use, and settlement patterns. A completed first step test of ERTS-1 data is available in carrying capacity estimates for Mossi, Hausa, and Sonrai sites derived from: (1) field work; (2) aerial photography; and (3) ERTS-1. Data can test more than one carrying capacity formula.
Schertler, Ronald J.
Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…
Anderson, James G.
Using observations from balloon-borne instruments and aircraft-borne instruments the investigation arrived at the following developments.: (1) Determination of the dominant catalytic cycles that destroy ozone in the lower stratosphere; (2) The partial derivatives of the rate limiting steps are observables in the lower stratosphere; (3) Recognition that the "Low NOx" condition is the regime that holds the greatest potential for misjudgement of Ozone loss rates; (4) Mapping of the Bromine radical contribution to the ozone destruction rate in the lower stratosphere; (5) Observation of OH, HO2 and ClO in the plume of the Concorde SST in the stratosphere; (6) Determination of the diurnal behavior of OH in the lower stratosphere; (7) Observed OH and H02 in the Troposphere and the interrelationship between Ozone and OH, HO2, CO and NO; (8) Analysis of the Catalytic Production of Ozone and Reactions that Couple OH and H02 in the Troposphere; (9) The continuing development of the understanding of the Tropopause temperatures, water vapor mixing ratios, and vertical advection and the mixing in of mid-latitude air; (10) Performed Multiple Tracer Analyses as a diagnostic of water vapor intrusion into the "Middle World" (i.e., the lowermost stratsophere); (11) Flight testing of a new instrument for the In Situ detection of ClON02 from the ER-2; (12) Laser induced fluorescence detection of NO2. There is included an in depth discussion of each of these developments and observations.
Vanderplaats, G. N.
Application of numerical optimization techniques to automated conceptual aircraft design is examined. These methods are shown to be a general and efficient way to obtain quantitative information for evaluating alternative new vehicle projects. Fully automated design is compared with traditional point design methods and time and resource requirements for automated design are given. The NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program (ACSYNT) is described with special attention to calculation of the weight of a vehicle to fly a specified mission. The ACSYNT procedures for automatically obtaining sensitivity of the design (aircraft weight, performance and cost) to various vehicle, mission, and material technology parameters are presented. Examples are used to demonstrate the efficient application of these techniques.
Hahn, Andrew S.
Geometric modeling of aircraft during the Conceptual design phase is very different from that needed for the Preliminary or Detailed design phases. The Conceptual design phase is characterized by the rapid, multi-disciplinary analysis of many design variables by a small engineering team. The designer must walk a line between fidelity and productivity, picking tools and methods with the appropriate balance of characteristics to achieve the goals of the study, while staying within the available resources. Identifying geometric details that are important, and those that are not, is critical to making modeling and methodology choices. This is true for both the low-order analysis methods traditionally used in Conceptual design as well as the highest-order analyses available. This paper will highlight some of Conceptual design's characteristics that drive the designer s choices as well as modeling examples for several aircraft configurations using the open source version of the Vehicle Sketch Pad (Open VSP) aircraft Conceptual design geometry modeler.
Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen
Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007
Forest and range resource scientists were among the first to recognize the potential of aircraft and satellite remote sensing for management of timber, forage, water, and wildlife resource. Today, data from a variety of sensor systems are being put to practical use for inventorying, monitoring, and assessing forest and range resources. In the future, improved sensor systems providing new kinds of data will be available. Likewise, new types of data handling and processing systems can be anticipated. Among the new or anticipated aircraft and satellite systems and/or data are National High-Altitude Photograph II, U. S. Geological Survey-acquired Side-Looking Airborne Radar, the Landsat thematic mapper, the National Oceanic Resolution Radiometer, the French Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite, the European Space Agency Earth Resources Satellite, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Large Format Camera and Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A, -B, and -C), and a variety of other systems in existence or planned by the Soviets, Japanese, Canadians, Chinese, Brazilians, Indonesians, and other. Application examples are presented that illustrate uses of 1-kilometer-resolution AVHRR data, 80-meter Landsat multispectral scanner data, 30-meter Landsat thematic mapper data, and 10-meter SPOT-simulator data. These examples address fire fuel monitoring, land cover mapping, rangeland assessment, and soils landscape mapping.
An area that teachers often find difficult to make interesting is the earth science component of the science curriculum. This may be for a variety of reasons, such as lack of knowledge, lack of ideas or lack of resources. This article outlines ideas and activities that have been developed by the Earth Science Teachers' Association (ESTA) primary…
Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Seal, Robert R.; McCafferty, Anne E.
The greatest environmental challenges associated with carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits center on the associated uranium and thorium. Considerable uncertainty exists around the toxicity of rare earth elements and warrants further investigation. The acid-generating potential of carbonatites and peralkaline intrusion-related deposits is low due to the dominance of carbonate minerals in carbonatite deposits, the presence of feldspars and minor calcite within the alkaline intrusion deposits, and only minor quantities of potentially acid-generating sulfides. Therefore, acid-drainage issues are not likely to be a major concern associated with these deposits. Uranium has the potential to be recovered as a byproduct, which would mitigate some of its environmental effects. However, thorium will likely remain a waste-stream product that will require management since progress is not being made towards the development of thorium-based nuclear reactors in the United States or other large scale commercial uses. Because some deposits are rich in fluorine and beryllium, these elements may be of environmental concern in certain locations.
Swirski, Hani; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet
Can questions sent to Open-Educational-Resource (OER) websites such as Ask-An-Expert serve as indicators for students' interest in science? This issue was examined using an online questionnaire which included an equal number of questions about the topics "space" and "nutrition" randomly selected from three different sources: a…
Miles, R.; Fawkes, G.
The economic value of an ERS system in the resource area of atmosphere is determined. Benefits which arise from air pollution and cloud observations correlated to ground stations are discussed along with cost savings associated with air pollution monitoring by satellite. Social benefits due to more precise knowledge of the effects of pollution are presented.
George, Gail, Ed.
These resource materials are a part of a larger plan for groundwater education, as detailed in the Iowa Groundwater Education Strategy. The six units are arranged in priority order. The first unit covers the basics of groundwater and hydrogeology in Iowa. The other five units cover Iowa's groundwater issues in priority order, as outlined in the…
Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.
A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.
Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W
A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.
Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.
Dettmar, Klaus Uwe; Kruse, Juergen; Loebert, Gerhard
In addition to the measures aiming at improving the probability of survival for an aircraft, including aircraft performance, flight profile selection, efficient electronic warfare equipment, and self protection weapons, it is shown that an efficient measure consists of reducing aircraft signature (radar, infrared, acoustic, visual) in connection with the use of signature avionics. The American 'stealth' aircrafts are described as examples.
Spitzer, C. R.
This paper reviews recent studies of all-electric aircraft that use electric-only secondary power and flight critical fly-by-wire flight controls, and brings to the attention of the power system designer the intrinsic advantages of such aircraft. The all-electric aircraft is made possible by the development of rare earth magnet materials and fault tolerant systems technologies. Recent studies have shown all-electric aircraft to be more efficient than conventional designs and offer substantial operating costs reductions. Compared to present aircraft, an all-electric transport can save at least 10 percent in fuel burn. The cornerstone of an all-electric aircraft is the electric secondary power system. This paper reviews the major features of flight critical electric secondary power systems. Research required to lay the foundation for an all-electric aircraft is briefly discussed.
Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.
over the poles. The system consists of a constellation of 4 geostationary satellites covering the earth and delivering its signals to the aircraft at S band (2.52 -2.67 GHz). The S-band spectrum is ideal for this application since it is allocated on a primary basis by the ITU for global broadcast service. The AirTV service is expected to begin in 2004 and should be unencumbered by adjacent satellite interference due to near completion of the ITU coordination process. Each satellite will deliver four 20 Mbps QPSK data streams consisting of multiplexed compressed digital video channels and IP data over the full global beam coverage. The 80 Mbps capacity of each satellite will provide approximately 60 video channels while still allocating 40 Mbits to data services. The combined constellation capacity of 320 Mbits will significantly exceed the capacity of any similar existing or currently planned global satellite system. In addition, the simplicity of the 4-satellite approach is the most cost effective means to deliver high bandwidth globally. Return links, which are required for internet service, will be provided through the existing Inmarsat Aero-H system already onboard virtually all long haul aircraft and will provide return data rates from the aircraft as high as 432 kbps. integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) assembly. The phased array antenna, a key technology element, is being developed by AirTV's strategic partner, CMC Electronics. This antenna is a scaled version of CMC's Inmarsat Aero H antenna and is capable of scanning to 5 degrees above the horizon. Wide angle scanning up to 85 degrees from zenith is necessary for aircraft traversing the northernmost latitudes on transoceanic routes. AirTV has designed both the satellite coverage and aircraft antenna performance to ensure that high signal quality is maintained along all non-polar airline routes. AirTV will be the future of aeronautical broadband delivery. It has been designed specifically for global services and
Kornhauser, A. L.; Wilson, L. B.
Potential economic benefits obtainable from a state-of-the-art ERS system in the resource area of intensive use of living resources, agriculture, are studied. A spectrum of equal capability (cost saving), increased capability, and new capability benefits are quantified. These benefits are estimated via ECON developed models of the agricultural marketplace and include benefits of improved production and distribution of agricultural crops. It is shown that increased capability benefits and new capability benefits result from a reduction of losses due to disease and insect infestation given ERS's capability to distinguish crop vigor and from the improvement in world trade negotiations given ERS's worldwide surveying capability.
Ebert, D. H.; Chase, P. E.; Dye, J.; Fahline, W. C.; Johnson, R. H.
The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument on a small local-user data processing facility was studied. User data requirements were examined to determine the unique system rquirements for a low cost ground system (LCGS) compatible with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system. Candidate concepts were defined for the LCGS and preliminary designs were developed for selected concepts. The impact of a conical scan MSS versus a linear scan MSS was evaluated for the selected concepts. It was concluded that there are valid user requirements for the LCGS and, as a result of these requirements, the impact of the conical scanner is minimal, although some new hardware development for the LCGS is necessary to handle conical scan data.
Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve
The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.
Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)
Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.
A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.
Some basic problems connected with attempts to increase the size and capacity of transport aircraft are discussed. According to the square-cubic law, the increase in structural weight is proportional to the third power of the increase in the linear dimensions of the aircraft when geomettric similarity is maintained, while the surface area of the aircraft increases according to the second power. A consequence is that the fraction of useful weight will decrease as aircraft increase in size. However, in flying-wing designs in which the whole load on the wing is proportional to the distribution of lifting forces, the total bending moment on the wing will be sharply reduced, enabling lighter construction. Flying wings may have an ultimate capacity of 3000 passengers.
Bennett, Charles L.
A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.
Warner, Edward P
There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.
Iliff, Kenneth W.
The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.
Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.
Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.
Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.
In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.
The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, November, 1996.
This report summarizes the development of a robotic system designed to assist aircraft inspectors by remotely deploying non-destructive inspection (NDI) sensors and acquiring, processing, and storing inspection data. Carnegie Mellon University studie...
Ungar, S. G.
The causes and effects of distortion in aircraft scanner data are reviewed and an approach to reduce distortions by modelling the effect of aircraft motion on the scanner scene is discussed. With the advent of advanced satellite borne scanner systems, the geometric and radiometric correction of aircraft scanner data has become increasingly important. Corrections are needed to reliably simulate observations obtained by such systems for purposes of evaluation. It is found that if sufficient navigational information is available, aircraft scanner coordinates may be related very precisely to planimetric ground coordinates. However, the potential for a multivalue remapping transformation (i.e., scan lines crossing each other), adds an inherent uncertainty, to any radiometric resampling scheme, which is dependent on the precise geometry of the scan and ground pattern.
Lewis, John S.
There are three types of possible asteroidal materials that appear to be attractive for exploitation: (1) volatiles, (2) free metals, and (3) bulk dirt. Because some of the near-Earth asteroids are energetically more accessible than the Moon (require a round-trip total change in velocity less than 9 km/sec, though the trip time would be measured in years not days), such an asteroid might be chosen as the source of any useful material, even if that material was also available on the Moon. Provided that the asteroid was minable, it might therefore be chosen as the source of bulk dirt needed for shielding in low Earth orbit (LEO) or elsewhere in near-Earth space. And the near-Earth asteroids may offer materials that are rare or absent on the surface of the Moon. The relationship between asteroids and meteorites is discussed. A brief overview of the entire range of meteorite compositions, with emphasis on the occurrence of interesting resources is presented. Focus is on materials useful in space, especially volatiles, metals, and raw dirt. Those few materials that may have sufficiently high market value to be worth returning to Earth will be mentioned.
aircraft to a defense electronics, systems integration and information technology company.39 Northrop Grumman no longer seeks a position as a prime...between the military and civil market . Though also upgrading the H-1 helicopter series for the USMC, Bell has mortgaged its future on tiltrotor technology ...business in export dollars, the industry has been forced to look for new markets as worldwide aircraft sales have dropped. Because the U.S. national
Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.
The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.
It has been called the world's greatest piggyback ride: a space shuttle, atop a Boeing 747 jet aircraft. But this is no ordinary 747, this is the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft...the SCA. This specially modified jumbo jet was not only a taxi service for the shuttle, but also helped in the development of the shuttle itself. In 30 years of flying, the majestic image of a spacecraft joined to the SCA, became a symbol of American invention and ingenuity.
Horne, Douglas Favel
Current aircraft-production techniques are surveyed and illustrated with extensive drawings, diagrams, and photographs. The history of the British aircraft industry is reviewed, and individual chapters are devoted to Al alloys; steels, Ni alloys, and Ti alloys; metal-cutting machinery; welding and brazing; surface treatments; protective treatments; sheet-metal working; nonmetallic materials; assembly; inspection and testing; and production estimates, production planning, and CAD/CAM.
Wingrove, R. C.
This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.
NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is dedicated to understanding the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment. The goals of ESE are: (1) Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system using NASA's unique vantage points of space, aircraft, and in situ platforms; (2) Disseminate information about the Earth system; and (3) Enable the productive use of ESE science and technology in the public and private sectors. ESE has embraced the NASA Administrator's better, faster, cheaper paradigm for Earth observing missions. We are committed to launch the next generation of Earth Observing System (EOS) missions at a substantially lower cost than the EOS first series. Strategic investment in advanced instrument, spacecraft, and information system technologies is essential to accomplishing ESE's research goals in the coming decades. Advanced technology will play a major role in shaping the ESE fundamental and applied research program of the future. ESE has established an Earth science technology development program with the following objectives: (1) To accomplish ESE space-based and land-based program elements effectively and efficiently; and (2) To enable ESE's fundamental and applied research programs goals as stated in the NASA Strategic Plan.
Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.