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Sample records for earth resources experiment

  1. Skylab experiments. Volume 2: Remote sensing of earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This volume covers the broad area of earth resources in which Skylab experiments will be performed. A brief description of the Skylab program, its objectives, and vehicles is included. Section 1 introduces the concept and historical significance of remote sensing, and discusses the major scientific considerations involved in remotely sensing the earth's resources. Sections 2 through 6 provide a description of the individual earth resource sensors and experiments to be performed. Each description includes a discussion of the experiment background and scientific objectives, the equipment involved, and a discussion of significant experiment performance areas.

  2. Skylab Experiments, Volume 2, Remote Sensing of Earth Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Up-to-date knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling them to broaden their scope of material selection. The second volume emphasizes the sensing of earth resources. The content includes an introduction to the concept and historical…

  3. Skylab earth resources experiment package /EREP/ - Sea surface topography experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.; Marsh, J. G.; Mcgoogan, J. T.; Leitao, C. D.; Vincent, S.; Wells, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    The S-193 Skylab radar altimeter was operated in a round-the-world pass on Jan. 31, 1974. The main purpose of this experiment was to test and 'measure' the variation of the sea surface topography using the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geoid model as a reference. This model is based upon 430,000 satellite and 25,000 ground gravity observations. Variations of the sea surface on the order of -40 to +60 m were observed along this pass. The 'computed' and 'measured' sea surfaces have an rms agreement on the order of 7 m. This is quite satisfactory, considering that this was the first time the sea surface has been observed directly over a distance of nearly 35,000 km and compared to a computed model. The Skylab orbit for this global pass was computed using the Goddard Earth Model (GEM 6) and S-band radar tracking data, resulting in an orbital height uncertainty of better than 5 m over one orbital period.

  4. Flagstaff, Arizona seen in Earth Resources Experiments package

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-01

    SL4-93-067 (16 Nov. 1973-8 Feb. 1974) --- A spectacular winter view of the Flagstaff, Arizona area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiments package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Included in the scene are the San Francisco Mountains, Oak Creek Canyon, Painted Desert and Meteor Crater. The infrared picture depicts in red living vegetation, in white the snow, and in bright blue the water. Major features identified in this photograph are Humphrey's peak, top center, Flagstaff at foot of the peak, Sunset Crater volcanic field with numerous vents and craters right of Flagstaff and Meteor Crater (right center). Within the mountainous areas several clear areas generally rectangular are visible and represent the areas where lumbering has removed the forest. The thin white line extending from left corner to Sunset Crater fields is the power transmission line cleared area. Roads are subdued and are not easily visible. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Skylab S191 visible-infrared spectrometer. [in Earth Resources Experiment Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, T. L.; Juday, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the S191 visible-infrared spectrometer of the Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package - a manually pointed two-channel instrument operating in the reflective (0.4-2.5 micron) and thermal emissive (6-15 micron) regions. A sensor description is provided and attention is given to data quality in the short wavelength and thermal infrared regions.

  6. Nimbus earth resources observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatini, R. R.; Rabchevsky, G. A.; Sissala, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The potential for utilizing data gathered by Nimbus satellites to study the earth surface and its physical properties is illustrated. The Nimbus data applicable to investigations of the earth and its resources, and to the problems of resolution and cloud cover are described. Geological, hydrological, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Applications of the data to other fields, such as cartography, agriculture, forestry, and urban analysis are presented. Relevant information is also given on the Nimbus orbit and experiments; surface and atmospheric effects on HRIR and THIR radiation measurements; and noise problems in the AVCS, IDCS, HRIR, and THIR data.

  7. Mobile Bay, Alabama area seen in Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-01

    SL4-92-300 (February 1974) --- A near vertical view of the Mobile Bay, Alabama area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. North of Mobile the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers join to form the Mobile River. Detailed configuration of the individual stream channels and boundaries can be defined as the Mobile River flows into Mobile Bay, and thence into the Gulf of Mexico. The Mobile River Valley with its numerous stream channels is a distinct light shade in contrast to the dark green shade of the adjacent areas. The red coloration of Mobile Bay reflects the sediment load carried into the Bay by the rivers. Variations in red color indicate sediment load and the current paths within Mobile Bay. The waterly movement of the along shore currents at the mouth of Mobile Bay is shown by the contrasting light blue of the sediment-laden current and the blue of the Gulf predominately. Agricultural areas east and west of Mobile Bay are characterized by a rectangular pattern in green to white shades. Color variations may reflect the type and growth cycle of crops. Agricultural areas (light gray-greens) are also clearly visible in other parts of the photograph. Interstate 10 extends from near Pascagoula, Mississippi eastward through Mobile to the outskirts of Pensacola, Florida. Analysis of the EREP photographic data will be undertaken by the U.S. Corps of Engineers to determine bay dynamic processes. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior's Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. 57198 Photo credit: NASA

  8. The United States earth resources survey program and ERTS experiments benefit highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.

    1974-01-01

    With the launch of the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite in July 1972 a major new tool has become available for decision making in the assessment, exploitation, and management of the earth's resources on a national and international basis. The current status of the earth resources survey program is discussed and the future potential is reviewed. The supportive roles of all stages of the system, including surface, aircraft, and satellite components are noted. Specific cases of application of ERTS data are presented together with a discussion of benefits that might accrue. Need for cooperative, coordinated efforts between participants is emphasized.

  9. Refurbishment of the cryogenic coolers for the Skylab earth resources experiment package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithson, J. C.; Luksa, N. C.

    1975-01-01

    Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) experiments, S191 and S192, required a cold temperature reference for operation of a spectrometer. This cold temperature reference was provided by a subminiature Stirling cycle cooler. However, the failure of the cooler to pass the qualification test made it necessary for additional cooler development, refurbishment, and qualification. A description of the failures and the cause of these failures for each of the coolers is presented. The solutions to the various failure modes are discussed along with problems which arose during the refurbishment program. The rationale and results of various tests are presented. The successful completion of the cryogenic cooler refurbishment program resulted in four of these coolers being flown on Skylab. The system operation during the flight is presented.

  10. NASA to Survey Earth's Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittauer, R. T.

    1971-01-01

    A wide variety of the natural resources of earth and man's management of them will be studied by an initial group of foreign and domestic scientists tentatively chosen by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to analyze data to be gathered by two earth-orbiting spacecraft. The spacecraft are the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-A) and the manned Skylab which will carry an Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). In the United States, the initial experiments will study the feasibility of remote sensing from a satellite in gathering information on ecological problems. The objective of both ERTS and EREP aboard Skylab is to obtain multispectral images of the surface of the earth with high resolution remote sensors and to process and distribute the images to scientific users in a wide variety of disciplines. The ERTS-A, EREP, and Skylab systems are described and their operation is discussed.

  11. Mobile Bay, Alabama area seen in Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Mobile Bay, Alabama area seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in earth orbit. North of Mobile the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers join to form the Mobile River. Detailed configuration of the individual stream channels and boundaries can be defined as the Mobile River flows into Mobile Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico. The Mobile River Valley with its numerous stream channels is a distinct light shade in contrast to the dark green shade of the adjacent areas. The red coloration of Mobile Bay reflects the sediment load carried into the bay by the rivers. The westerly movement of the shore currents at the mouth of Mobile Bay is shown by the contrasting light blue of the sediment-laden current the the blue of the Gulf. Agricultural areas east and west of Mobile Bay are characterized by a rectangular pattern in green to white shades. Color variations may reflect

  12. Mississippi Sound remote sensing study. [NASA Earth Resources Laboratory seasonal experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the Mississippi Sound was initiated in early 1971 by personnel of NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. Four separate seasonal experiments consisting of quasi-synoptic remote and surface measurements over the entire area were planned. Approximately 80 stations distributed throughout Mississippi Sound were occupied. Surface water temperature and secchi extinction depth were measured at each station and water samples were collected for water quality analyses. The surface distribution of three water parameters of interest from a remote sensing standpoint - temperature, salinity and chlorophyll content - are displayed in map form. Areal variations in these parameters are related to tides and winds. A brief discussion of the general problem of radiative measurements of water temperature is followed by a comparison of remotely measured temperatures (PRT-5) to surface vessel measurements.

  13. Skylab program earth resources experiment package: Ground truth data for test sites (SL-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Field measurements were performed at selected ground sites in order to provide comparative calibration measurements of sensors for the Earth Resources Experiment Package. Specifically, the solar radiation (400 to 1300 namometers) and thermal radiation (8-14 micrometers) were measured. Sites employed for the thermal measurements consisted of warm and cold water lakes. The thermal brightness temperature of the lake water, the temperature and humidity profile above the lake, and near surface meteorology (wind speed, pressure, etc.) were measured near the time of overpass. Sites employed for the solar radiation measurements were two desert type sites. Ground measurements consisted of: (1) direct solar radiation - optical depth; (2) diffuse solar radiation; (3) total solar radiation, (4) target directional (normal) reflectance; (5) target hemispherical reflectance; and (6) near surface meteorology.

  14. An Experiment to Evaluate Skylab Earth Resources Sensors for Detection of the Gulf Stream. [Straits of Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator); Gordon, H. R.; Baig, S. R.; Mccaslin, M.; Devivo, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An experiment to evaluate the Skylab earth resources package for observing ocean currents was performed in the Straits of Florida in January 1974. Data from the S190 photographic facility, S191 spectroradiometer and S192 multispectral scanner, were compared with surface observations. The anticyclonic edge of the Gulf Stream could be identified in the Skylab S190A and B photographs, but the cyclonic edge was obscured by clouds. The aircraft photographs were judged not useful for spectral analysis because vignetting caused the blue/green ratios to be dependent on the position in the photograph. The spectral measurement technique could not identify the anticyclonic front, but mass of Florida Bay water which was in the process of flowing into the Straits could be identified and classified. Monte Carlo simulations of the visible spectrum showed that the aerosol concentration could be estimated and a correction technique was devised.

  15. Design of Community Resource Inventories as a Component of Scalable Earth Science Infrastructure: Experience of the Earthcube CINERGI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Grethe, J. S.; Hsu, L.; Malik, T.; Bermudez, L. E.; Gupta, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Whitenack, T.; Ozyurt, I. B.; Condit, C.; Calderon, R.; Musil, L.

    2014-12-01

    EarthCube is envisioned as a cyberinfrastructure that fosters new, transformational geoscience by enabling sharing, understanding and scientifically-sound and efficient re-use of formerly unconnected data resources, software, models, repositories, and computational power. Its purpose is to enable science enterprise and workforce development via an extensible and adaptable collaboration and resource integration framework. A key component of this vision is development of comprehensive inventories supporting resource discovery and re-use across geoscience domains. The goal of the EarthCube CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability) project is to create a methodology and assemble a large inventory of high-quality information resources with standard metadata descriptions and traceable provenance. The inventory is compiled from metadata catalogs maintained by geoscience data facilities, as well as from user contributions. The latter mechanism relies on community resource viewers: online applications that support update and curation of metadata records. Once harvested into CINERGI, metadata records from domain catalogs and community resource viewers are loaded into a staging database implemented in MongoDB, and validated for compliance with ISO 19139 metadata schema. Several types of metadata defects detected by the validation engine are automatically corrected with help of several information extractors or flagged for manual curation. The metadata harvesting, validation and processing components generate provenance statements using W3C PROV notation, which are stored in a Neo4J database. Thus curated metadata, along with the provenance information, is re-published and accessed programmatically and via a CINERGI online application. This presentation focuses on the role of resource inventories in a scalable and adaptable information infrastructure, and on the CINERGI metadata pipeline and its implementation challenges. Key project

  16. Multispectral photography for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenderoth, S.; Yost, E.; Kalia, R.; Anderson, R.

    1972-01-01

    A guide for producing accurate multispectral results for earth resource applications is presented along with theoretical and analytical concepts of color and multispectral photography. Topics discussed include: capabilities and limitations of color and color infrared films; image color measurements; methods of relating ground phenomena to film density and color measurement; sensitometry; considerations in the selection of multispectral cameras and components; and mission planning.

  17. Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

  18. The Earth Resources Data Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Council of State Planning Agencies, in consultation with the National Governor's Association and NASA, initiated the Earth Resources Data Project to encourage the appropriate application of cost-effective science and technology to state natural resources issues and problems. This project was established to provide a focal point for identifying those issues associated with state use of remote sensing and related technology. One project goal is to elevate to the consciousness of state policy and program officials new technologies, such as LANDSAT, by association with major issues to which policy officials are attuned. The project assists the coordination between the states and NASA and promotes communication on those issues. A related project objective is to encourage technical assistance opportunities for states that will promote better use of remote sensing and natural resources data in state programs.

  19. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-C: Land use, marine resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Articles are presented on the utilization of remote sensing data from NASA programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab Earth resources experiment package, and aircraft, as well as from other data acquisition programs. Emphasis is placed on land use and marine resources.

  20. Summer Workshop on Near-Earth Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R. (Editor); Duke, M. B. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The possible large scale use of extraterrestrial resources was addressed, either to construct structures in space or to return to Earth as supplements for terrestrial resources. To that end, various specific recommendations were made by the participants in the summer study on near-Earth resources, held at La Jolla, California, 6 to 13 August, 1977. The Moon and Earth-approaching asteroids were considered. Summaries are included of what is known about their compositions and what needs to be learned, along with recommendations for missions designed to provide the needed data. Tentative schedules for these projects are also offered.

  1. Earth resources-regional transfer activity contracts review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensko, J., Jr.; Daniels, J. L.; Downs, S. W., Jr.; Jones, N. L.; Morton, R. R.; Paludan, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    A regional transfer activity contracts review held by the Earth Resources Office was summarized. Contracts in the earth resources field primarily directed toward applications of satellite data and technology in solution of state and regional problems were reviewed. A summary of the progress of each contract was given in order to share experiences of researchers across a seven state region. The region included Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina. Research in several earth science disciplines included forestry, limnology, water resources, land use, geology, and mathematical modeling. The use of computers for establishment of information retrieval systems was also emphasized.

  2. Self managing experiment resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Ubeda, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Roiser, S.; Charpentier, P.; Graciani, R.

    2014-06-01

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

  3. Earth Resources Laboratory research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The accomplishments of the Earth Resources Laboratory's research and technology program are reported. Sensors and data systems, the AGRISTARS project, applied research and data analysis, joint research projects, test and evaluation studies, and space station support activities are addressed.

  4. EROS: A space program for Earth resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, G.G.; Wiepking, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Within the technology of the space age lies a key to increased knowledge about the resources and environment of the Earth. This key is remote sensing detecting the nature of an object without actually touching it. Although the photographic camera is the most familiar remote-sensing device, other instrument systems, such as scanning radiometers and radar, also can produce photographs and images. On the basis of the potential of this technology, and in response to the critical need for greater knowledge of the Earth and its resources, the Department of the Interior established the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program to gather and use remotely sensed data collected by satellite and aircraft of natural and manmade features on the Earth's surface.

  5. Aviation's role in earth resources surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syvertson, C. A.; Mulholland, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The role of satellites designed to make a wide variety of earth observations is discussed along with the renewed interest in the use of aircraft as platforms for similar and complementary earth resources surveys. Surveys covering the areas of forestry, agriculture, hydrology, oceanography, geology, and geography are included. Aerials surveys equipped for nonphotographic remote sensing and aircraft flights synchronized with satellite observations to provide correlated data are discussed. Photographs are shown to illustrate preliminary results from several of the test sites.

  6. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  7. Earth resources applications of the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite (SEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. S.; Cook, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a four month study to define earth resource applications which are uniquely suited to data collection by a geosynchronous satellite. While such a satellite could also perform many of the functions of ERTS, or its low orbiting successors, those applications were considered in those situations where requirements for timely observation limit the capability of ERTS or EOS. Thus, the application presented could be used to justify a SEOS.

  8. User data dissemination concepts for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, R.; Scott, M.; Mitchell, C.; Torbett, A.

    1976-01-01

    Domestic data dissemination networks for earth-resources data in the 1985-1995 time frame were evaluated. The following topics were addressed: (1) earth-resources data sources and expected data volumes, (2) future user demand in terms of data volume and timeliness, (3) space-to-space and earth point-to-point transmission link requirements and implementation, (4) preprocessing requirements and implementation, (5) network costs, and (6) technological development to support this implementation. This study was parametric in that the data input (supply) was varied by a factor of about fifteen while the user request (demand) was varied by a factor of about nineteen. Correspondingly, the time from observation to delivery to the user was varied. This parametric evaluation was performed by a computer simulation that was based on network alternatives and resulted in preliminary transmission and preprocessing requirements. The earth-resource data sources considered were: shuttle sorties, synchronous satellites (e.g., SEOS), aircraft, and satellites in polar orbits.

  9. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-A: Agriculture, environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A number of papers dealing with the practical application of imagery obtained from remote sensors on LANDSAT satellites, the Skylab Earth resources experiment package, and aircraft to problems in agriculture and the environment were presented. Some of the more important topics that were covered included: range management and resources, environmental monitoring and management, crop growth and inventory, land management, multispectral band scanners, forest management, mapping, marshlands, strip mining, water quality and pollution, ecology.

  10. Earth Observations: Experiences from Various Communication Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2015-04-01

    With Earth observations and the Group of Earth Observations as the common thread, a variety of communication strategies have been applied showcasing the use of Earth observations in geosciences such as climate change, natural hazards, hydrology and more. Based on the experiences from these communication strategies, using communication channels ranging from popular articles in established media, video production, event-based material and social media, lessons have been learned both with respect to the need of capacity, skills, networks, and resources. In general it is not difficult to mobilize geoscientists willing to spend some time on outreach activities. Time for preparing and training is however scarce among scientists. In addition, resources to cover the various aspects of professional science outreach is far from abundant. Among the challenges is the connection between the scientific networks and media channels. Social media competence and capacity are also issues that needs to be addressed more explicitly and efficiently. An overview of the experiences from several types of outreach activities will be given along with some input on possible steps towards improved communication strategies. Steady development of science communication strategies continuously integrating trainging of scientists in use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community.

  11. Lewis Research Center earth resources program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, H.

    1972-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center earth resources program efforts are in the areas of: (1) monitoring and rapid evaluation of water quality; (2) determining ice-type and ice coverage distribution to aid operations in a possible extension of the Great Lakes ice navigation and shipping season; (3) monitoring spread of crop viruses; and (4) extent of damage to strip mined areas as well as success of efforts to rehabilitate such areas for agriculture.

  12. Exploiting Untapped Information Resources in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities

  13. Surveying the earth's resources from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pecora, William T.

    1967-01-01

    Two developments, aerial photography and airborne geophysical surveying techniques, have already increased the rate at which new knowledge of the world's resources can be acquired. But even with far wider use of the tools and techniques already available, the problems that face us are greater than our current ability to solve them. Fortunately, some of the further acceleration required can be obtained through use of remote-sensing devices mounted in high-flying aircraft and earth-orbiting satellites.

  14. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-B: Geology, Information Systems and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A symposium was conducted on the practical applications of earth resources survey technology including utilization and results of data from programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab earth resources experiment package, and aircraft. Topics discussed include geological structure, landform surveys, energy and extractive resources, and information systems and services.

  15. COVER Project and Earth resources research transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Results of research in the remote sensing of natural boreal forest vegetation (the COVER project) are summarized. The study objectives were to establish a baseline forest test site; develop transforms of LANDSAT MSS and TM data for forest composition, biomass, leaf area index, and net primary productivity; and perform tasks required for testing hypotheses regarding observed spectral responses to changes in leaf area index in aspen. In addition, the transfer and documentation of data collected in the COVER project (removed from the Johnson Space Center following the discontinuation of Earth resources research at that facility) is described.

  16. Unsupervised classification of earth resources data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.; Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Cummings, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    A new clustering technique is presented. It consists of two parts: (a) a sequential statistical clustering which is essentially a sequential variance analysis and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. This unsupervised composite technique was employed for automatic classification of two sets of remote multispectral earth resource observations. The classification accuracy by the unsupervised technique is found to be comparable to that by existing supervised maximum liklihood classification technique.

  17. Earth resources data analysis program, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The efforts and findings of the Earth Resources Data Analysis Program are summarized. Results of a detailed study of the needs of EOD with respect to an applications development system (ADS) for the analysis of remotely sensed data, including an evaluation of four existing systems with respect to these needs are described. Recommendations as to possible courses for EOD to follow to obtain a viable ADS are presented. Algorithmic development comprised of several subtasks is discussed. These subtasks include the following: (1) two algorithms for multivariate density estimation; (2) a data smoothing algorithm; (3) a method for optimally estimating prior probabilities of unclassified data; and (4) further applications of the modified Cholesky decomposition in various calculations. Little effort was expended on task 3, however, two reports were reviewed.

  18. Earth resources data analysis program, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Tasks were performed in two areas: (1) systems analysis and (2) algorithmic development. The major effort in the systems analysis task was the development of a recommended approach to the monitoring of resource utilization data for the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Other efforts included participation in various studies concerning the LACIE Project Plan, the utility of the GE Image 100, and the specifications for a special purpose processor to be used in the LACIE. In the second task, the major effort was the development of improved algorithms for estimating proportions of unclassified remotely sensed data. Also, work was performed on optimal feature extraction and optimal feature extraction for proportion estimation.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.

    2004-01-01

    As if classified as a top-secret project, the rare earths have been shrouded in secrecy. The principal ore mineral of the group, bastnäsite, rarely appears in the leading mineralogy texts. The long names of the rare-earth elements and some unusual arrangements of letters, many Scandinavian in origin, may have intimidated even those skilled in phonics. Somewhat obscurely labeled, the rare earths are neither rare nor earths (the historical term for oxides). They are a relatively abundant group of metallic elements that occur in nature as nonmetallic compounds and have hundreds of commercial applications.

  20. Alaska's rare earth deposits and resource potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James C.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Alaska’s known mineral endowment includes some of the largest and highest grade deposits of various metals, including gold, copper and zinc. Recently, Alaska has also been active in the worldwide search for sources of rare earth elements (REE) to replace exports now being limitedby China. Driven by limited supply of the rare earths, combined with their increasing use in new ‘green’ energy, lighting, transportation, and many other technological applications, the rare earth metals neodymium, europium and, in particular, the heavy rare earth elements terbium, dysprosium and yttrium are forecast to soon be in critical short supply (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010).

  1. ``An Earth-Shaking Experience''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2005-03-01

    Last month's annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco drew an estimated 11,000 scientists, teachers, journalists and geophysics groupies. The schedule of talks could be found in a bound volume as thick as a phone book. You never see a geophysicist in ordinary life, but apparently the world is crawling with them. They came to talk about everything from the ozone layer to the big wad of iron at the center of the Earth. Also about other planets. And magnetic fields. Solar wind. Water on Mars. To be at this convention was to be immersed to the eyebrows in scientific knowledge. It is intellectually fashionable to fetishize the unknown, but at AGU, a person will get the opposite feeling-that science is a voracious, relentless and tireless enterprise, and that soon there may not remain on this Earth an unturned stone.

  2. Earth radiation budget experiment software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Computer programming and analysis efforts were carried out in support of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) at NASA/Langley. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment is described as well as data acquisition, analysis and modeling support for the testing of ERBE instruments. Also included are descriptions of the programs developed to analyze, format and display data collected during testing of the various ERBE instruments. Listings of the major programs developed under this contract are located in an appendix.

  3. The first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.

    1973-01-01

    The first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) makes images of the earth's surface in four portions of the electromagnetic spectrum with sufficient spatial resolution and with a minimum of geometric distortions, so that these images may be applied experimentally to the study of geophysical processes relating to earth resources, to the exploration and conservation of these resources, and to the assessments of environmental stresses. During the first six months of operation, ERTS-1 has imaged 6.5 million square kilometers of the earth's surface every day, covering most major land masses and coastal zones as well as both polar regions of this planet. These images as well as the results of their analyses are available to all people throughout the world. Scientific investigators of all countries have been invited to participate in the utilization of ERTS-1 observations. Many of them have already demonstrated the great efficiency, economy, and reliability of making earth surveys from space.

  4. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography lists 579 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.

  5. Earth resources, a continuing bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography lists 541 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  6. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography lists 480 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  7. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography (issue 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography list 580 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  8. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 2-A: Special session presentations. Plenary summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Practical application of earth resources survey data is considered. The utilization and results of data from NASA programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package, and aircraft, as well as other data acquisition programs are included. User services and requirements and applications in land use, agriculture, coastal zone management, and geology are among the topics covered. For Vol. 1A, see N76-17469.

  9. TERSSE. Definition of the total earth resources system for the shuttle era. Volume 9: Earth resources shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alverado, U.

    1975-01-01

    The use of the space shuttle for the Earth Resources Program is discussed. Several problems with respect to payload selection, integration, and mission planning were studied. Each of four shuttle roles in the sortie mode were examined and projected into an integrated shuttle program. Several representative Earth Resources missions were designed which would use the shuttle sortie as a platform and collectively include the four shuttle roles. An integrated flight program based on these missions was then developed for the first two years of shuttle flights. A set of broad implications concerning the uses of the shuttle for Earth Resources studies resulted.

  10. Resources Available for Earth Science Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Eric

    A study of schools was conducted to determine needs of earth science programs, and what, if any, services could effectively be provided by an earth science resource center. Contacts were made with approximately one-half the schools in the Minot State College service region. Discussions were held with administrators and teachers, and facilities at…

  11. Earth resources ground data handling systems for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvleck, E. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Pitts, S. W.; Slye, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The system requirements of an operational data handling system for earth resources in the decade of the 1980's are investigated. Attention is drawn to problems encountered in meeting the stringent agricultural user requirements of that time frame. Such an understanding of requirements is essential not only in designing the ground system that will ultimately handle the data, but also in design studies of the earth resources platform, sensors, and data relay satellites which may be needed.

  12. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography, issue 28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography lists 436 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1, 1980 and December 31, 1980. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  13. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 623 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1983. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  14. Earth Resources: a continuing bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography lists 337 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 31, 1980 and September 30, 1980. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  15. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography (issue 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography lists 480 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1, 1980 and June 30, 1980. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  16. Earth Resources, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography lists 460 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1984. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.

  17. Earth resources: a continuing bibliography, issue 46

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    This bibliography lists 467 reports, articles and other documents introdcued into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1985. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental cultural resources geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.

  18. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography lists 326 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between October 1 and December 31, 1985. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  19. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography lists 475 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1984. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.

  20. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography, issue 46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography lists 467 reports, articles and other documents introdcued into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1985. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental cultural resources geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.

  1. Remote sensing: An inventory of earth's resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N.

    1974-01-01

    The remote sensing capabilities of Landsat are reviewed along with the broad areas of application of the Landsat imagery. The importance of Landsat imagery in urban planning and resources management is stressed.

  2. Earth Resources. A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Airborne microwave Doppler measurements of ocean of Guinea according to ground-based and satellite Coral reef remote sensing applications wave directional...understanding of internal Coral reef remote sensing applications an earth-to-satellite Hadamard transform laser long-path waves in the ocean p 20 A87-32951...classifications of coral reefs , and an are provided and new topographic features that are revealed are autocorrelation technique is being developed to

  3. Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and its Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffries, Craig M.

    1997-01-01

    The Board will provide oversight of the earth science and resource activities within the National Research Council, provide a review of research and public activities in the solid-earth sciences, and provide analyses and recommendations relevant to the supply, delivery, and associated impacts of and issues related to hydrocarbon, metallic, and non-metallic mineral resources. The Board will monitor the status of the earth sciences, assess the health of the disciplines, and identify research opportunities, and will respond to specific agency requests.

  4. The spatial resolving power of earth resources satellites: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The significance of spatial resolving power on the utility of current and future Earth resources satellites is critically discussed and the relative merits of different approaches in defining and estimating spatial resolution are outlined. It is shown that choice of a particular measure of spatial resolution depends strongly on the particular needs of the user. Several experiments have simulated the capabilities of future satellite systems by degradation of aircraft images. Surprisingly, many of these indicated that improvements in resolution may lead to a reduction in the classification accuracy of land cover types using computer assisted methods. However, where the frequency of boundary pixels is high, the converse relationship is found. Use of imagery dependent upon visual interpretation is likely to benefit more consistently from higher resolutions. Extraction of information from images will depend upon several other factors apart from spatial resolving power: these include characteristics of the terrain being sensed, the image processing methods that are applied as well as certain sensor characteristics.

  5. Application of China-Brazil Earth resources satellite in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yuliang; Zhao, Shangmin; Zhen, Liu; Bei, Jia

    2009-03-01

    The launch and successful operation of Chinese-Brazil Earth resources satellite (CBERS-1) in China has accelerated the application of space technology in China. These applications include agriculture, forestry, water conservation, land resources, city planning, environment protection and natural hazards monitoring and so on. The result of these applications provides a scientific basis for government decision making and has created great economic and social benefits in Chinese national economy construction. In this paper we present examples and provide auxiliary documentation of additional applications of the data from Earth resource monitoring.

  6. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-D: Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Conference papers on water resources and management are summarized. Summaries cover land use, flood control and prediction, watersheds and the effects of snow melt, soil moisture content, and the usefulness of satellite remote sensors in detecting ground and surface water.

  7. TURKEY-EARTH RESOURCES (MT.ARARAT)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    SL3-122-2562 (July-September 1973) --- A near vertical view of the border area of Turkey-Iran?Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture was taken by one of the Skylab 3 crewmen using a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera. THE PICTURE SHOULD BE HELD WITH THE MASS OF WHITE CLOUDS ON THE RIGHT SIDE. The lake at the top center edge is Ozero (Lake) Sevan in the USSR?s Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. The other body of water is Iran?s Lake Urmia. The major feature in this photograph can be seen in the upper left corner. Mount Ararat is in Turkey only a few miles from Iran and USSR borders. Yerevan, the capital of Armenian SSR, is located north-northwest of Mount Ararat. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Skylab program. Earth resources experiment package. Sensor performance report. Volume 7 (S190B): SL2, SL3 and SL4 evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The S190B Earth Terrain Camera (ETC) operated acceptably for all of its scheduled EREP passes throughout the SL2 mission. The crew reported no problems in unstowing the camera, changing filters, installing the ETC window in the SAL, or installing the camera onto the window. The ETC was operated for a total of seven times with no failures. The clock on the ETC was checked on DOY 170 (June 19, 1973) and was found to be 30 min. and 58 sec. slower than GMT. The change in time was expected since a similar circumstance was experienced during ETC qualification testing for launch vibration. A leak existed in the seal of the spare magazine to the camera vacuum interface. For EREP passes 08 and 10, black-and-white film EK 3414 (roll no. 82) was installed in this spare magazine. Since there was an audible hiss, the vacuum hose was not connected to the camera. This caused the vacuum platen to be inoperable, resulting in some degradation in resolution for this roll of film. The vegetation of the South American jungle areas proved to be much darker than vegetation found in the United States, and was consequently about 1/2 stop underexposed in all cases.

  9. EarthChem and SESAR: Data Resources and Interoperability for EarthScope Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Walker, D.; Block, K.; Vinay, S.; Ash, J.

    2008-12-01

    Data management within the EarthScope Cyberinfrastructure needs to pursue two goals in order to advance and maximize the broad scientific application and impact of the large volumes of observational data acquired by EarthScope facilities: (a) to provide access to all data acquired by EarthScope facilities, and to promote their use by broad audiences, and (b) to facilitate discovery of, access to, and integration of multi-disciplinary data sets that complement EarthScope data in support of EarthScope science. EarthChem and SESAR, the System for Earth Sample Registration, are two projects within the Geoinformatics for Geochemistry program that offer resources for EarthScope CI. EarthChem operates a data portal that currently provides access to >13 million analytical values for >600,000 samples, more than half of which are from North America, including data from the USGS and all data from the NAVDAT database, a web-accessible repository for age, chemical and isotopic data from Mesozoic and younger igneous rocks in western North America. The new EarthChem GEOCHRON database will house data collected in association with GeoEarthScope, storing and serving geochronological data submitted by participating facilities. The EarthChem Deep Lithosphere Dataset is a compilation of petrological data for mantle xenoliths, initiated in collaboration with GeoFrame to complement geophysical endeavors within EarthScope science. The EarthChem Geochemical Resource Library provides a home for geochemical and petrological data products and data sets. Parts of the digital data in EarthScope CI refer to physical samples such as drill cores, igneous rocks, or water and gas samples, collected, for example, by SAFOD or by EarthScope science projects and acquired through lab-based analysis. Management of sample-based data requires the use of global unique identifiers for samples, so that distributed data for individual samples generated in different labs and published in different papers can be

  10. Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and its activities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR) coordinates, the National Research Council`s advice to the federal government on solid-earth science issues. The board identifies opportunities for advancing basic research and understanding, reports on applications of earth sciences in such areas as disaster mitigation and resource utilization, and analyzes the scientific underpinnings and credibility of earth science information for resource, environmental and other applications and policy decision. Committees operating under the guidance of the Board conducts studies addressing specific issues within the earth sciences. The current committees are as follows: Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data; Mapping Sciences Committee; Committeemore » on Seismology; Committee on Geodesy; Rediscovering Geography Committee; Committee on Research Programs of the US Bureau of Mines. The following recent reports are briefly described: research programs of the US Bureau of Mines, first assessment 1994; Mount Rainier, active cascade volcano; the national geomagnetic initiative; reservoir class field demonstration program; solid-earth sciences and society; data foundation for the national spatial infrastructure; promoting the national spatial data infrastructure through partnerships; toward a coordinated spatial data infrastructure for the nation; and charting a course into the digital era; guidance to the NOAA`s nautical charting mission.« less

  11. Surveys of the earth's resources and environment by satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.; Tiedemann, H.; Bohn, C.

    1975-01-01

    The potential and promise of observing the earth from the vantage point of space is discussed. The systematic surveying of processes and phenomena occurring on the surface of the earth by Landsat 1 and Nimbus 5 is considered to be useful in the following areas: assessment of water resources; mineral and petroleum exploration; land use planning; crop, forest, and rangeland inventory; assessment of flood, earthquake, and other environmental hazards; monitoring coastal processes; environmental effects of industrial effluents and of air pollution; mapping the distribution and types of ice covering the earth's polar caps and global soil moisture distributions.

  12. Resources of Near-Earth Space: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are by theory, experiment, and bench-level testing of small systems, to develop scientifically-sound engineering processes and facility specifications for producing propellants and fuels, construction and shielding materials, and life support substances from the lithospheres and atmospheres of lunar, planetary, and asteroidal bodies. Current emphasis is on the production of oxygen, other usefull gases, metallic, ceramic/composite, and related byproducts from lunar regolith, carbonaceous chrondritic asteroids, and the carbon dioxide rich Martian atmosphere.

  13. A survey of earth resources on Apollo 9 photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1969-01-01

    The types of photography obtained on the Apollo 9 mission and on concurrent flights made by supporting aircraft are described. The need for earth resource surveys and the value of aircraft and spacecraft as the platforms from which to make such surveys are considered along with the rational for using multiband photography and the means by which such photography can be enhanced. Aerial and space photographs are presented and analyzed. The feasibility of conducting earth resource surveys by means of space photography is discussed and results are summarized.

  14. Earth resources data acquisition sensor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grohse, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    The minimum data collection and data processing requirements are investigated for the development of water monitoring systems, which disregard redundant and irrelevant data and process only those data predictive of the onset of significant pollution events. Two approaches are immediately suggested: (1) adaptation of a presently available ambient air monitoring system developed by TVA, and (2) consideration of an air, water, and radiological monitoring system developed by the Georgia Tech Experiment Station. In order to apply monitoring systems, threshold values and maximum allowable rates of change of critical parameters such as dissolved oxygen and temperature are required.

  15. Brand Awareness towards Sustaining Earth's Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Seema

    2015-04-01

    entrepreneurship where we will be developing a business idea with the aim of solving an important social as well as environmental problem along with making reasonable profit from selling of the concerned product. Waste management and environmental pollution is a growing concern in the city. To drive a change in the minds of the people it is important to educate them on the issues to face the stark reality. To achieve this we do re-informing drives to bring a change - a. First and foremost people should depend on renewable energy. b. Limited use of natural resources by including recycling in our daily lives which helps in cutting down of natural resources. For example segregating dry waste from wet waste. c. Taking care and respecting the Nature. Being respectful of the environment goes hand in hand as environmental problems have impacted people on broad scale. As Mahatma Gandhi said, 'Be the change you want to see in the world' it is about making efforts to see a change in the society. It is essential to let people know that every individual's efforts do not go waste but add up to ensure an impactful change.

  16. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 3: Summary reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings and summaries of the earth resources survey symposium, sponsored by the NASA Headquarters Office of Applications and held in Houston, Texas, June 9 to 12, 1975. Topics include the use of remote sensing techniques in agriculture, in geology, for environmental monitoring, for land use planning, and for management of water resources and coastal zones. Details are provided about services available to various users. Significant applications, conclusions, and future needs are also discussed.

  17. The impact of earth resources exploration from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of the earth from satellite systems such as Landsat, Nimbus, and Skylab has demonstrated the potential influence of such observations on a number of major human concerns. These concerns include the management of food, water and fiber resources, the exploration and management of mineral and energy resources, the protection of the environment, the protection of life and property, and improvements in shipping and navigation.

  18. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 4: The Role of the Shuttle in the Earth Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The potential of the space shuttle as a platform for captive earth resources payloads in the sortie mode, and as a launch and services vehicle for automated earth resources spacecraft is examined. The capabilities of the total space transportation system which are pertinent to earth resources sorties and automated spacecraft are included.

  19. The development of machine technology processing for earth resource survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1970-01-01

    The following technologies are considered for automatic processing of earth resources data: (1) registration of multispectral and multitemporal images, (2) digital image display systems, (3) data system parameter effects on satellite remote sensing systems, and (4) data compression techniques based on spectral redundancy. The importance of proper spectral band and compression algorithm selections is pointed out.

  20. On the management and processing of earth resources information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, C. W.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The basic concepts of a recently completed large-scale earth resources information system plan are reported. Attention is focused throughout the paper on the information management and processing requirements. After the development of the principal system concepts, a model system for implementation at the state level is discussed.

  1. Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

  2. Teach the Earth: On-line Resources for Teachers and Teachers of Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    Effective Earth science education depends on excellent teachers: teachers who not only possess a strong grasp of geoscience but are also well-versed in the pedagogic methods they need to connect with their audience. Preparing Earth science teachers is a task no less challenging that also requires strengths in both areas. The Teach the Earth website provides a variety of resources to support preparation of Earth science teachers. Here you can find collections of teaching activities addressing all aspects of the Earth system; discussions of teaching methods linked to examples of their use in geoscience courses; and the Earth Exploration Toolbook, a resource specifically designed for teachers who would like to incorporate data rich activities in their teaching. These resources are suitable for use by teachers, students in courses addressing the methodology of teaching Earth science and science, and faculty designing courses. Faculty working with current and future teachers will find a section on Preparing Teachers to Teach Earth Science with a collection of courses designed specifically to benefit future Earth Science teachers, examples of key activities in these courses, and descriptions of programs for pre-service and in-service teachers. The materials housed in this web-resource demonstrate a wide range of fruitful approaches and exciting opportunities. On the order of 25,000 individuals use the site repeatedly during the year. We estimate that 27 percent of these users are geoscience faculty and 12 percent are teachers. We invite teachers, faculty, researchers, and educators to enhance this resource by contributing descriptions of activities, courses, or programs as a mechanism for sharing their experience with others engaged in similar work.

  3. Investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.; Bayma, R. W.; Evans, M. B.; Zelenka, J. S.; Doss, H. W.; Ferris, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources was conducted during the period from June 1971 to November 1972. The objective of this investigation has been to verify the feasibility of an orbital microwave holographic radar experiment. The primary advantage of microwave hologram radar (MHR) over the side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) is that of aspect or viewing angle; the MHR has a viewing angle identical with that of photography and IR systems. The combination of these systems can thus extend the multispectral analysis concept to span optical through microwave wavelengths. Another advantage is the capacity of the MHR system to generate range contours by operating in a two-frequency mode. It should be clear that along-track resolution of an MHR can be comparable with SLAR systems, but cross-track resolution will be approximately an order of magnitude coarser than the range resolution achievable with an arbitrary SLAR system. An advantage of the MHR over the SLAR is that less average transmitter power is required. This reduction in power results from the much larger receiving apertures associated with MHR systems.

  4. Evaluating Educational Resources for Inclusion in the Dig Texas Instructional Blueprints for Earth & Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, B. E.; Bohls-Graham, E.; Martinez, A. O.; Ellins, K. K.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Stocks, E.; Fox, S.; Kent, M.

    2014-12-01

    Today's instruction in Earth's systems requires thoughtful selection of curricula, and in turn, high quality learning activities that address modern Earth science. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which are intended to guide K-12 science instruction, further demand a discriminating selection process. The DIG (Diversity & Innovation in Geoscience) Texas Instructional Blueprints attempt to fulfill this practice by compiling vetted educational resources freely available online into units that are the building blocks of the blueprints. Each blueprint is composed of 9 three-week teaching units and serves as a scope and sequence for teaching a one-year Earth science course. In the earliest stages of the project, teams explored the Internet for classroom-worthy resources, including laboratory investigations, videos, visualizations, and readings, and submitted the educational resources deemed suitable for the project into the project's online review tool. Each team member evaluated the educational resources chosen by fellow team members according to a set of predetermined criteria that had been incorporated into the review tool. Resources rated as very good or excellent by all team members were submitted to the project PIs for approval. At this stage, approved resources became candidates for inclusion in the blueprint units. Team members tagged approved resources with descriptors for the type of resource and instructional strategy, and aligned these to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Earth and Space Science and the Earth Science Literacy Principles. Each team then assembled and sequenced resources according to content strand, balancing the types of learning experiences within each unit. Once units were packaged, teams then considered how they addressed the NGSS and identified the relevant disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices. In addition to providing a brief overview of the project, this

  5. Earth, Air, Fire, & Water: Resource Guide 6. The Arts and Learning, Interdisciplinary Resources for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ronald T., Ed.

    This resource guide is intended to aid practitioners in the design of new curriculum units or the enrichment of existing units by suggesting activities and resources in the topic areas of earth, air, fire, and water. Special projects and trips relating to these topic areas are proposed. A sample arts networking system used to integrate various…

  6. Investigation of transient earth resources phenomena: Continuation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    Calculated sensitivity requirements for an earth resource satellite in a geostationary orbit are reported. Radiance levels at the satellite sensor were computed for twenty top-priority Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite (SEOS) applications. The observation requirements were reviewed and re-evaluated in terms of spectral band definition, spectral signatures of targets and backgrounds, observation time, and site location. With these data and an atmospheric attenuation and scattering model, the total radiances observed by the SEOS sensor were calculated as were the individual components contributed by the target, target variations, and the atmosphere.

  7. MAESTRO: Mathematics and Earth Science Teachers' Resource Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtier, A. M.; Pyle, E. J.; Fichter, L.; Lucas, S.; Jackson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Mathematics and Earth Science Teachers' Resource Organization (MAESTRO) partnership between James Madison University and Harrisonburg City and Page County Public Schools, funded through NSF-GEO. The partnership aims to transform mathematics and Earth science instruction in middle and high schools by developing an integrated mathematics and Earth systems science approach to instruction. This curricular integration is intended to enhance the mathematical skills and confidence of students through concrete, Earth systems-based examples, while increasing the relevance and rigor of Earth science instruction via quantification and mathematical modeling of Earth system phenomena. MAESTRO draws heavily from the Earth Science Literacy Initiative (2009) and is informed by criterion-level standardized test performance data in both mathematics and Earth science. The project has involved two summer professional development workshops, academic year Lesson Study (structured teacher observation and reflection), and will incorporate site-based case studies with direct student involvement. Participating teachers include Grade 6 Science and Mathematics teachers, and Grade 9 Earth Science and Algebra teachers. It is anticipated that the proposed integration across grade bands will first strengthen students' interests in mathematics and science (a problem in middle school) and subsequently reinforce the relevance of mathematics and other sciences (a problem in high school), both in support of Earth systems literacy. MAESTRO's approach to the integration of math and science focuses on using box models to emphasize the interconnections among the geo-, atmo-, bio-, and hydrospheres, and demonstrates the positive and negative feedback processes that connect their mutual evolution. Within this framework we explore specific relationships that can be described both qualitatively and mathematically, using mathematical operations appropriate for each grade level. Site-based case studies

  8. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Smith, G. Louis; Green, Richard N.; Kibler, James F.; Cess, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    During the past 4 years, data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) have been undergoing detailed examination. There is no direct source of groundtruth for the radiation budget. Thus, this validation effort has had to rely heavily upon intercomparisons between different types of measurements. The ERBE SCIENCE Team chose 10 measures of agreement as validation criteria. Late in August 1988, the Team agreed that the data met these conditions. As a result, the final, monthly averaged data products are being archived. These products, their validation, and some results for January 1986 are described. Information is provided on obtaining the data from the archive.

  9. Study of on-board compression of earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habibi, A.

    1975-01-01

    The current literature on image bandwidth compression was surveyed and those methods relevant to compression of multispectral imagery were selected. Typical satellite multispectral data was then analyzed statistically and the results used to select a smaller set of candidate bandwidth compression techniques particularly relevant to earth resources data. These were compared using both theoretical analysis and simulation, under various criteria of optimality such as mean square error (MSE), signal-to-noise ratio, classification accuracy, and computational complexity. By concatenating some of the most promising techniques, three multispectral data compression systems were synthesized which appear well suited to current and future NASA earth resources applications. The performance of these three recommended systems was then examined in detail by all of the above criteria. Finally, merits and deficiencies were summarized and a number of recommendations for future NASA activities in data compression proposed.

  10. Collation of earth resources data collected by ERIM airborne sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Earth resources imagery from nine years of data collection with developmental airborne sensors is cataloged for reference. The imaging sensors include single and multiband line scanners and side-looking radars. The operating wavelengths of the sensors include ultraviolet, visible and infrared band scanners, and X- and L-band radar. Imagery from all bands (radar and scanner) were collected at some sites and many sites had repeated coverage. The multiband scanner data was radiometrically calibrated. Illustrations show how the data can be used in earth resource investigations. References are made to published reports which have made use of the data in completed investigations. Data collection sponsors are identified and a procedure described for gaining access to the data.

  11. Earth resources mission performance studies. Volume 1: Requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The need for a realistic set of earth resources collection requirements to test and maximize the data gathering capabilities of the EOS remote sensor systems is considered. The collection requirements will be derived from established user requirements. In order to confine and bound the requirements study, some baseline assumptions were established. These are: (1) image acquisition is confined to the contiguous United States, (2) the fundamental data users are select participating federal agencies, (3) the acquired data will be applied to generating information necessary or in support of existing federal agency charters, and (4) the most pressing or desired federal agency earth resources data requirements have been defined, suggested, or implied in current available literature.

  12. ERISTAR: Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) have sponsored faculty fellowship programs in systems engineering design for the past several years. During the summer of 1972 four such programs were conducted by NASA, with Auburn University cooperating with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The subject for the Auburn-MSFC design group was ERISTAR, an acronym for Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis and Retrieval, which represents an earth resources information management network of state information centers administered by the respective states and linked to federally administered regional centers and a national center. The considerations for serving the users and the considerations that must be given to processing data from a variety of sources are described. The combination of these elements into a national network is discussed and an implementation plan is proposed for a prototype state information center. The compatibility of the proposed plan with the Department of Interior plan, RALI, is indicated.

  13. Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a survey of earth resources user applications and their data requirements, earth resources multispectral scanner sensor technology, and preprocessing algorithms for correcting the sensor outputs and for data bulk reduction are presented along with a candidate data format. Computational requirements required to implement the data analysis algorithms are included along with a review of computer architectures and organizations. Computer architectures capable of handling the algorithm computational requirements are suggested and the environmental effects of an on-board processor discussed. By relating performance parameters to the system requirements of each of the user requirements the feasibility of on-board processing is determined for each user. A tradeoff analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of results to each of the system parameters. Significant results and conclusions are discussed, and recommendations are presented.

  14. Screening, cataloging and indexing of earth resource aircraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Data obtained from 30 earth resources aircraft missions, flown between September 1, 1973 and September 1, 1974, were screened, cataloged, and indexed using microfilm copy. The manhours required for completing the task are presented, and problems encountered during the project are reported. It is concluded that a cataloging and indexing report of remote sensor data can be prepared on a timely basis for a relatively low cost from microfilm. Recommendations are given in order to further facilitate the task.

  15. 2011 Year in review - Earth Resources Observation and Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center's 2011 Year in Review is an annual report recounting the broad scope of the Center's 2011 accomplishments. The report covers preparations for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) launch, the ever-increasing use of free Landsat data, monitoring the effects of natural hazards, and more to emphasize the importance of innovation in using satellite data to study change over time.

  16. Earth to Orbit Beamed Energy Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    As a means of primary propulsion, beamed energy propulsion offers the benefit of offloading much of the propulsion system mass from the vehicle, increasing its potential performance and freeing it from the constraints of the rocket equation. For interstellar missions, beamed energy propulsion is arguably the most viable in the near- to mid-term. A near-term demonstration showing the feasibility of beamed energy propulsion is necessary and, fortunately, feasible using existing technologies. Key enabling technologies are large area, low mass spacecraft and efficient and safe high power laser systems capable of long distance propagation. NASA is currently developing the spacecraft technology through the Near Earth Asteroid Scout solar sail mission and has signed agreements with the Planetary Society to study the feasibility of precursor laser propulsion experiments using their LightSail-2 solar sail spacecraft. The capabilities of Space Situational Awareness assets and the advanced analytical tools available for fine resolution orbit determination now make it possible to investigate the practicalities of an Earth-to-orbit Beamed Energy eXperiment (EBEX) - a demonstration at delivered power levels that only illuminate a spacecraft without causing damage to it. The degree to which this can be expected to produce a measurable change in the orbit of a low ballistic coefficient spacecraft is investigated. Key system characteristics and estimated performance are derived for a near term mission opportunity involving the LightSail-2 spacecraft and laser power levels modest in comparison to those proposed previously. While the technology demonstrated by such an experiment is not sufficient to enable an interstellar precursor mission, if approved, then it would be the next step toward that goal.

  17. Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

  18. Mission Adaptive Uas Capabilities for Earth Science and Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.; Young, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are important assets for accessing high risk airspace and incorporate technologies for sensor coordination, onboard processing, tele-communication, unconventional flight control, and ground based monitoring and optimization. These capabilities permit adaptive mission management in the face of complex requirements and chaotic external influences. NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of Earth science remote sensing missions directed at the assessment of natural resources and here we describe two resource mapping problems having mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability extensible to other resource assessment challenges. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This constraint exists when collecting imaging spectroscopy data over vegetation for time series analysis or for the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the signal. Furthermore, the primary flight control imperative to minimize tracking error should compromise with the requirement to minimize aircraft motion artifacts in the spatial measurement distribution. A second example involves mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in recent Earth Science missions including the OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for spectral and radiometric reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magnetometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and

  19. Mission Adaptive UAS Platform for Earth Science Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of important Earth science remote sensing missions including several directed at the assessment of natural resources. A key asset for accessing high risk airspace has been the 180 kg class SIERRA UAS platform, providing mission durations of up to 8 hrs at altitudes up to 3 km. Recent improvements to this mission capability are embodied in the incipient SIERRA-B variant. Two resource mapping problems having unusual mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability are explored here. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This challenges the management of resources in the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the ocean color signal. Furthermore, as for all scanning imager applications, the primary flight control priority to fly the UAS directly to the next waypoint should compromise with the requirement to minimize roll and crab effects in the imagery. A second example involves the mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in several recent Earth Science missions including the October 2013 OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for hyperspectral reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magentometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and demanding requirements to manage solar angle, aircraft attitude and flight path orientation, and efficient (directly geo-rectified) surface and sub

  20. Survey of users of earth resources remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Stephan, J. G.; Smail, H. E.; Landis, L.; Ebbert, T. F.

    1976-01-01

    A user survey was conducted to determine current earth resources survey (ERS) data use/user status and recommendations for strengthening use. Only high-altitude aircraft and satellite (primarily LANDSAT) data were included. Emphasis was placed on the private sector/industrial user. Objectives of the survey included: who is using ERS data, how they are using the data, the relative value of current data use as well as obtaining user views as to possible ways of strengthening future ERS data use. The survey results are documented and should provide relevant decision making information for developing future programs of maximum benefit to all end users of satellite ERS data.

  1. Microwave remote sensing from space for earth resource surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The concepts of radar remote sensing and microwave radiometry are discussed and their utility in earth resource sensing is examined. The direct relationship between the character of the remotely sensed data and the level of decision making for which the data are appropriate is considered. Applications of active and a passive microwave sensing covered include hydrology, land use, mapping, vegetation classification, environmental monitoring, coastal features and processes, geology, and ice and snow. Approved and proposed microwave sensors are described and the use of space shuttle as a development platform is evaluated.

  2. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    PubMed

    Westermann, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.

  3. Earth observation for regional scale environmental and natural resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernknopf, R.; Brookshire, D.; Faulkner, S.; Chivoiu, B.; Bridge, B.; Broadbent, C.

    2013-12-01

    Earth observations (EO) provide critical information to natural resource assessment. Three examples are presented: conserving potable groundwater in intense agricultural regions, maximizing ecosystem service benefits at regional scales from afforestation investment and management, and enabling integrated natural and behavioral sciences for resource management and policy analysis. In each of these cases EO of different resolutions are used in different ways to help in the classification, characterization, and availability of natural resources and ecosystem services. To inform decisions, each example includes a spatiotemporal economic model to optimize the net societal benefits of resource development and exploitation. 1) EO is used for monitoring land use in intensively cultivated agricultural regions. Archival imagery is coupled to a hydrogeological process model to evaluate the tradeoff between agrochemical use and retention of potable groundwater. EO is used to couple individual producers and regional resource managers using information from markets and natural systems to aid in the objective of maximizing agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality. The contribution of EO is input to a nitrate loading and transport model to estimate the cumulative impact on groundwater at specified distances from specific sites (wells) for 35 Iowa counties and two aquifers. 2) Land use/land cover (LULC) derived from EO is used to compare biological carbon sequestration alternatives and their provisioning of ecosystem services. EO is used to target land attributes that are more or less desirable for enhancing ecosystem services in two parishes in Louisiana. Ecological production functions are coupled with value data to maximize the expected return on investment in carbon sequestration and other ancillary ecosystem services while minimizing the risk. 3) Environmental and natural resources management decisions employ probabilistic estimates of yet-to-find or yet

  4. Norfolk State University Research Experience in Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, Raj

    2002-01-01

    The truly interdisciplinary nature of Earth System Science lends itself to the creation of research teams comprised of people with different scientific and technical backgrounds. In the annals of Earth System Science (ESS) education, the lack of an academic major in the discipline might be seen as a barrier to the involvement of undergraduates in the overall ESS-enterprise. This issue is further compounded at minority-serving institutions by the rarity of departments dedicated to Atmospheric Science, Oceanography or even the geosciences. At Norfolk State University, a Historically Black College, a six week, NASA-supported, summer undergraduate research program (REESS - Research Experience in Earth System Science) is creating a model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research coupled with a structured education program. The project is part of a wider effort at the University to enhance undergraduate education by identifying specific areas of student weaknesses regarding the content and process of science. A pre- and post-assessment test, which is focused on some fundamental topics in global climate change, is given to all participants as part of the evaluation of the program. Student attitudes towards the subject and the program's approach are also surveyed at the end of the research experience. In 2002, 11 undergraduates participated in REESS and were educated in the informed use of some of the vast remote sensing resources available through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The program ran from June 3rd through July 12, 2002. This was the final year of the project.

  5. Coal fly ash as a resource for rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Franus, Wojciech; Wiatros-Motyka, Małgorzata M; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been recognised as critical raw materials, crucial for many clean technologies. As the gap between their global demand and supply increases, the search for their alternative resources becomes more and more important, especially for the countries which depend highly on their import. Coal fly ash (CFA), which when not utilised is considered waste, has been regarded as the possible source of many elements, including REE. Due to the increase in the energy demand, CFA production is expected to grow, making research into the use of this material a necessity. As Poland is the second biggest coal consumer in the European Union, the authors have studied different coal fly ashes from ten Polish power plants for their rare earth element content. All the fly ashes have a broadly similar distribution of rear earth elements, with light REE being dominant. Most of the samples have REE content relatively high and according to Seredin and Dai (Int J Coal Geol 94: 67-93, 2012) classification can be considered promising REE raw materials.

  6. User data dissemination concepts for earth resources: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, R.; Scott, M.; Mitchell, C.; Torbett, A.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the future capabilities of earth-resources data sensors (both satellite and airborne) and their requirements on the data dissemination network were investigated and optimum ways of configuring this network were determined. The scope of this study was limited to the continental U.S.A. (including Alaska) and to the 1985-1995 time period. Some of the conclusions and recommendations reached were: (1) Data from satellites in sun-synchronous polar orbits (700-920 km) will generate most of the earth-resources data in the specified time period. (2) Data from aircraft and shuttle sorties cannot be readily integrated in a data-dissemination network unless already preprocessed in a digitized form to a standard geometric coordinate system. (3) Data transmission between readout stations and central preprocessing facilities, and between processing facilities and user facilities are most economically performed by domestic communication satellites. (4) The effect of the following factors should be studied: cloud cover, expanded coverage, pricing strategies, multidiscipline missions.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: rare earth elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The article provides information on rare earth elements, which are group of 17 natural metallic elements. The rare earth elements are scandium, yttrium and lanthanides and classified into light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rate earth elements (HREE). The principal ores of the rare earth elements are identified. An overview of China's production of 97 percent of the rare earths in the world is provided. Commercial applications of rare earths are described.

  8. GEOCAB Portal: A gateway for discovering and accessing capacity building resources in Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desconnets, Jean-Christophe; Giuliani, Gregory; Guigoz, Yaniss; Lacroix, Pierre; Mlisa, Andiswa; Noort, Mark; Ray, Nicolas; Searby, Nancy D.

    2017-02-01

    The discovery of and access to capacity building resources are often essential to conduct environmental projects based on Earth Observation (EO) resources, whether they are Earth Observation products, methodological tools, techniques, organizations that impart training in these techniques or even projects that have shown practical achievements. Recognizing this opportunity and need, the European Commission through two FP7 projects jointly with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) teamed up with the Committee on Earth observation Satellites (CEOS). The Global Earth Observation CApacity Building (GEOCAB) portal aims at compiling all current capacity building efforts on the use of EO data for societal benefits into an easily updateable and user-friendly portal. GEOCAB offers a faceted search to improve user discovery experience with a fully interactive world map with all inventoried projects and activities. This paper focuses on the conceptual framework used to implement the underlying platform. An ISO19115 metadata model associated with a terminological repository are the core elements that provide a semantic search application and an interoperable discovery service. The organization and the contribution of different user communities to ensure the management and the update of the content of GEOCAB are addressed.

  9. Earth Day in the Classroom: Mathematics and Science Materials and Resources for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The 25th anniversary of Earth Day is 1995. This issue highlights useful, high quality educational materials and other resources that can be used to discuss environmental issues in the classroom. Activities, resources, and teaching materials in this Earth Day issue include: ATLAS 1: Studying Mysteries in the Earth's Atmosphere; Completing the…

  10. TERSSE. Definition of the total earth resources system for the shuttle era. Volume 10: (TOSS) TERSSE operational system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stow, W. K.; Cheeseman, C.; Dallam, W.; Dietrich, D.; Dorfman, G.; Fleming, R.; Fries, R.; Guard, W.; Jackson, F.; Jankowski, H.

    1975-01-01

    Economic benefits studies regarding the application of remote sensing to resource management and the Total Earth Resources for the Shuttle Era (TERSSE) study to outline the structure and development of future systems are used, along with experience from LANDSAT and LACIE, to define the system performance and economics of an operational Earth Resources system. The system is to be based on current (LANDSAT follow-on) technology and its application to high priority resource management missions, such as global crop inventory. The TERSSE Operational System Study (TOSS) investigated system-level design alternatives using economic performance as the evaluation criterion. As such, the TOSS effort represented a significant step forward in the systems engineering and economic analysis of Earth Resources programs. By parametrically relating engineering design parameters, such as sensor performance details, to the economic benefit mechanisms a new level of confidence in the conclusions concerning the implementation of such systems can be reached.

  11. Analysis research for earth resource information systems - Where do we stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of the state of the technology of earth resources information systems relative to future operational implementation. The importance of recognizing the difference between systems with image orientation and systems with numerical orientation is illustrated in an example concerning the effect of noise on multiband multispectral data obtained in an agricultural experiment. It is suggested that the data system hardware portion of the total earth resources information system be designed in terms of a numerical orientation; it is argued, however, that this choise is entirely compatible with image-oriented analysis tasks. Some aspects of interfacing such an advanced technology with an operational user community in such a way as to accommodate the user's need for flexibility and yet provide the services needed on a cost-effective basis are discussed.

  12. Earth Resources Technology Satellite: US standard catalog No. U-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    To provide dissemination of information regarding the availability of Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) imagery, a U.S. Standard Catalog is published on a monthly schedule. The catalogs identify imagery which has been processed and input to the data files during the preceding month. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the Continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. As a supplement to these catalogs, an inventory of ERTS imagery on 16 millimeter microfilm is available. The catalogs consist of four parts: (1) annotated maps which graphically depict the geographic areas covered by the imagery listed in the current catalog, (2) a computer-generated listing organized by observation identification number (D) with pertinent information on each image, (3) a computer listing of observations organized by longitude and latitude, and (4) observations which have had changes made in their catalog information since the original entry in the data base.

  13. The NASA earth resources spectral information system: A data compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leeman, V.; Earing, D.; Vincent, R. K.; Ladd, S.

    1971-01-01

    The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System and the information contained therein are described. It contains an ordered, indexed compilation of natural targets in the optical region from 0.3 to 45.0 microns. The data compilation includes approximately 100 rock and mineral, 2600 vegetation, 1000 soil, and 60 water spectral reflectance, transmittance, and emittance curves. Most of the data have been categorized by subject, and the curves in those subject areas have been plotted on a single graph. Those categories with too few curves and miscellaneous categories have been plotted as single-curve graphs. Each graph, composite of single, is fully titled to indicate curve source and is indexed by subject to facilitate user retrieval.

  14. Patterns in Crew-Initiated Photography of Earth from ISS - Is Earth Observation a Salutogenic Experience?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Slack, Kelley; Olson, V.; Trenchard, M.; Willis, K.; Baskin, P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation asks the question "Is the observation of earth from the ISS a positive (salutogenic) experience for crew members?"All images are distributed to the public via the "Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov. The objectives of the study are (1) Mine the dataset of Earth Observation photography--What can it tell us about the importance of viewing the Earth as a positive experience for the crewmembers? (2) Quantify extent to which photography was self-initiated (not requested by scientists) (3) Identify patterns photography activities versus scientific requested photography.

  15. Earth and water resources and hazards in Central America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Fary, R.W.; Guffanti, Marianne; Laura, Della; Lee, M.P.; Masters, C.D.; Miller, R.L.; Quinones-Marques, Ferdinand; Peebles, R.W.; Reinemund, J.A.; Russ, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Long-range economic development in Central America will depend in large part on production of indigenous mineral, energy, and water resources and on mitigation of the disastrous effects of geologic and hydrologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods. The region has six world-class metal mines at present as well as additional evidence of widespread mineralization. Systematic investigations using modern mineral exploration techniques should reveal more mineral deposits suitable for development. Widespread evidence of lignite and geothermal resources suggests that intensive studies could identify producible energy sources in most Central American countries. Water supply and water quality vary greatly from country to country. Local problems of ground- and surface-water availability and of contamination create a need for systematic programs to provide better hydrologic data, capital improvements, and management. Disastrous earthquakes have destroyed or severely damaged many cities in Central America. Volcanic eruptions, landslides, mudflows, and floods have devastated most of the Pacific side of Central America at one time or another. A regional approach to earthquake, volcano, and flood-risk analysis and monitoring, using modern technology and concepts, would provide the facilities and means for acquiring knowledge necessary to reduce future losses. All Central American countries need to strengthen institutions and programs dealing with earth and water resources and natural hazards. Some of these needs may be satisfied through existing or pending projects and technical and economic assistance from U.S. or other sources. The need for a comprehensive study of the natural resources of Central America and the requirements for their development is evident. The U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative offers both an excellent opportunity for a regional approach to these pervasive problems and an opportunity for international cooperation.

  16. Improved LANDSAT to give better view of earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The launch data of LANDSAT 3 is announced. The improved capability of the spacecrafts' remote sensors (the return beam vidicon and the multispectral scanner) and application of LANDSAT data to the study of energy supplies, food production, and global large-scale environmental monitoring are discussed along with the piggyback amateur radio communication satellite-OSCAR-D, the plasma Interaction Experiment, and the data collection system onboard LANDSAT 3. An assessment of the utility of LANDSAT multispectral data is given based on the research results to data from studies of LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. Areas studied include agriculture, rangelands, forestry, water resources, environmental and marine resources, environmental and marine resources, cartography, land use, demography, and geological surveys and mineral/petroleum exploration.

  17. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects,more » we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.« less

  18. Celebrating the Earth: Stories, Experiences, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livo, Norma J.

    Young learners are invited to learn about the natural world through engaging activities that encourage the observation, exploration, and appreciation of nature. Weaving together a stimulating tapestry of folktales, personal narratives, and hands-on activities, this book teaches children about the earth and all of its creatures--birds, plants,…

  19. Third Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 Symposium. Volume 1: Technical Presentations, section A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freden, S. C. (Compiler); Mercanti, E. P. (Compiler); Becker, M. A. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Papers presented at the Third Symposium on Significant Results Obtained from the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite covered the areas of: agriculture, forestry, range resources, land use, mapping, mineral resources, geological structure, landform surveys, water resources, marine resources, environment surveys, and interpretation techniques.

  20. Apollo experience report: Earth landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A brief discussion of the development of the Apollo earth landing system and a functional description of the system are presented in this report. The more significant problems that were encountered during the program, the solutions, and, in general, the knowledge that was gained are discussed in detail. Two appendixes presenting a detailed description of the various system components and a summary of the development and the qualification test programs are included.

  1. The Earth is flat when personally significant experiences with the sphericity of the Earth are absent.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-07-01

    Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A simulation was run that calculated respective 3D configurations of the city positions for a wide range of radii of the proposed sphere. People who had personally experienced the Earth as a sphere, at least once in their lifetime, showed a clear optimal solution of the multidimensional scaling (MDS) routine with a mean radius deviating only 8% from the actual radius of the Earth. In contrast, the calculated configurations for people without any personal experience with the Earth as a sphere were compatible with a cognitive concept of a flat Earth. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Magneto-Optical Experiments on Rare Earth Garnet Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, B. K.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments in which inexpensive or standard laboratory equipment is used to measure several macroscopic magnetic properties of thin rare earth garnet films used in the manufacture of magnetic bubble devices. (Author/CS)

  3. Continental shelves as potential resource of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Pourret, Olivier; Tuduri, Johann

    2017-07-19

    The results of this study allow the reassessment of the rare earth elements (REE) external cycle. Indeed, the river input to the oceans has relatively flat REE patterns without cerium (Ce) anomalies, whereas oceanic REE patterns exhibit strong negative Ce anomalies and heavy REE enrichment. Indeed, the processes at the origin of seawater REE patterns are commonly thought to occur within the ocean masses themselves. However, the results from the present study illustrate that seawater-like REE patterns already occur in the truly dissolved pool of river input. This leads us to favor a partial or complete removal of the colloidal REE pool during estuarine mixing by coagulation, as previously shown for dissolved humic acids and iron. In this latter case, REE fractionation occurs because colloidal and truly dissolved pools have different REE patterns. Thus, the REE patterns of seawater could be the combination of both intra-oceanic and riverine processes. In this study, we show that the Atlantic continental shelves could be considered potential REE traps, suggesting further that shelf sediments could potentially become a resource for REE, similar to metalliferous deep sea sediments.

  4. User-based Resource Design in Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luby, M.; Haber, J.; Wittenberg, K.

    2001-12-01

    Reform in the classroom, and certainly in academic publishing, is greatly influenced not only by educational research, but also by direct surveys of students and instructors. This presentation looks at changes to Columbia Earthscape, www.earthscape.org, based on an ongoing series of evaluation and testing measures. Two years ago, the Earthscape project was introduced as a central online resource. It aimed to select and make available authoritative materials from all the disciplines that constitute Earth-system science. Its design harnessed the dynamics of the Web and the interrelatedness of research, education, and public policy. In response to substantial class tests, involving five universities in the United States and abroad, three focus groups of geoscience faculty and librarians, user feedback, internal editorial-board review, and extensive consultation with colleagues in commercial and nonprofit educational publishing, Earthscape is implementing broad changes in design and content. These include arranging the site into sections that correspond to user profiles (scientist, policy-maker, teacher, and student), providing easier search or browsing (by research area, policy content, or lesson concept), and streamlining the presentation of links among our resources. These changes are implemented through more advanced searching capabilities, greater specificity of content metatags, and an overall increase in content from journals, books, and original material. The metatags now include all core geoscience disciplines or a range of pertinent issues (such as climate change, geologic hazards, and pollution). Reflecting the evaluation by librarians, Earthscape's revised interface will permit users to begin with a primary area of interest based on who they are, their "profile." They can then either browse the site's entire holdings in that area, perform searches within each area, or follow the extensive hyperlinks to explore connections to other areas and user needs

  5. Birmingham and central Alabama area seen in Earth Resources Exp. Package

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-01

    SL4-93-153 (February 1974) --- A vertical view of the Birmingham and central Alabama area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photographed taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Illustrated here is the utility of color infrared film in depicting distribution of living vegetation in the 3,600 square mile Birmingham region. The Birmingham industrial complex, with a population of nearly 850,000, is the light gray area nestled in the valley between the northeast-trending ridges that are prominent topographic features in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The narrow ridges and adjacent valleys reflect folded and faulted sedimentary rocks, indicating the complex geological history of the region. Two major rivers and several reservoirs are easily distinguished in this photograph. Bankhand Lake, formed by a dam on the Black Warrior River, appears as bright blue west of Birmingham. Two lakes are formed by dams on the Goosa River east of Birmingham. Federal and state highways appear as thin white lines and are easily identified. Interstate 65 to Montgomery is the prominent white line extending southward from Birmingham. Power line clearings are visible in the center of the picture along the Goosa River, and can be traced northwestward to northern parts of Birmingham. The predominant deep red color of the picture is due to the reflections from living vegetation. In contrast are the light tan areas that commonly occur as rectangular patterns in the east part of the photograph and represent mature agricultural crops or grazing lands. Analysis of the photographic data from the earth terrain camera will be conducted by Dr. H. Jayroe of the Marshall Space Flight Center in developing analytical techniques. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior's Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Earth resources research data facility R and D file. Volume 1: Documentary data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Cumulative listings of the R and D file data are presented. All Earth Resources Program information available at the Manned Spacecraft Center is in Vol. 1. Sensor data collected during flights over NASA test sites and from missions flown by subcontractors supporting the Earth Resources Survey Program are included in Vol. 2.

  7. The Heritage of Earth Science Applications in Policy, Business, and Management of Natural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, M.

    2012-12-01

    Baltimore-Washington metropolitan regions. The earliest direct application of Earth science information to actual decisionmaking began with the use of Landsat data in large-scale government demonstration programs and later, in smaller state and local agency projects. Many of these applications served as experiments to show how to use the data and to test their limitations. These activities served as precursors to more recent applications. Among the newest applications are the use of data to provide essential information to underpin monetary estimates of ecosystem services and the development of "credit" programs for these services. Another example is participatory (citizen science) resource management. This project also identifies the heritage of adoption factors - that is, determinants of the decision to use Earth science data. These factors include previous experience with Earth science data, reliable and transparent validation and verification techniques for new data, the availability and thoroughness of metadata, the ease of access and use of the data products, and technological innovation in computing and software (factors largely outside of the Earth science enterprise but influential in ease of direct use of Earth science data).

  8. Mother Lode: The Untapped Rare Earth Mineral Resources of Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service. Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain, 4. 14 Tse , Pui-Kwan. China’s Rare-Earth Industry...U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1042, 2. Figure 2. Global REO production, 1960-2011. Source: Tse , Pui-Kwan. China’s Rare-Earth...3 compiled from three sources: Tse , Pui-Kwan. China’s Rare-Earth Industry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1042, 4; Areddy, James T

  9. [Application of digital earth technology in research of traditional Chinese medicine resources].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.

  10. Thailand national programme of the earth resources technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabhasri, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments include the identification of a series of active alluvial fans along the margins of the Central Plain, the compilation of crop resources maps of central and eastern Thailand, and evaluation of the Purdue/LARS printout using unsupervised mode of an area near Bangkok. Results from LANDSAT 1 imagery and ground truth survey showed that Thailand existing forest in 1973 covered an area of approximately 37% of total land area. The last countrywide survey using aerial photographs at 1:60,000 scale conducted in 1961 gave the figure of 58%. Experience has shown many advantages of LANDSAT imagery over the conventional aerial photography in locating faults and fractures in the preparation of tectonic maps. Several rock types can also be identified from LANDSAT imagery.

  11. Earth resources survey applications of the space shuttle sortie mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, R. D.; Smith, W. L.; Thomson, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the shuttle sortie mode for earth observation applications was investigated and its feasibility for applied research and instrument development was appraised. The results indicate that the shuttle sortie missions offer unique advantages and that specific aspects of earth applications are particularly suited to the sortie mode.

  12. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that

  13. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument anomaly investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, N. D.; Miller, J. B.; Taylor, L. V.; Lovell, J. B.; Cox, J. W.; Fedors, J. C.; Kopia, L. P.; Holloway, R. M.; Bradley, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an ad-hoc committee investigation of in-Earth orbit operational anomalies noted on two identical Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Scanner instruments on two different spacecraft busses is presented. The anomalies are attributed to the bearings and the lubrication scheme for the bearings. A detailed discussion of the pertinent instrument operations, the approach of the investigation team and the current status of the instruments now in Earth orbit is included. The team considered operational changes for these instruments, rework possibilities for the one instrument which is waiting to be launched, and preferable lubrication considerations for specific space operational requirements similar to those for the ERBE scanner bearings.

  14. Earth Sciences Requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, David E. (Editor); Katzberg, Steve J. (Editor); Wilson, R. Gale (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to further explore and define the earth sciences requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES), a proposed onboard data processor with real-time communications capability intended to support the Earth Observing System (Eos). A review of representative Eos instrument types is given and a preliminary set of real-time data needs has been established. An executive summary is included.

  15. Why Reinvent the Wheel when Earth Science Resources Are Already Available? The GEOTREX and STEGO Resource Banks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    The "issue" of there being only limited time available to teachers for the development of teaching and learning resources has been with us a long time. This article outlines the rationale behind the development of online teaching resources that are freely available on the Earth Science Teachers' Association (ESTA) website and introduces readers to…

  16. The Marine Resources Experiment Program (MAREX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Satellite Ocean Color Science Working Group was established to consider the scientific utility of repeated satellite measurements of ocean color, especially for measuring global ocean chlorophyll and for studying the fate of global primary productivity in the sea. Results of the group's deliberations are presented. The scientific requirements are given for ocean color data from a CZCS follow on sensor in order to address global primary productivity, fishery, and carbon storage problems. Some specific experiments, called the marine resource experiment and designed to determine critical nutrient fluxes, photosynthetic rates, and primary productivity and biomass, are outlined.

  17. The impact of earth resources exploration from space. [technology assessment/LANDSAT satellites -technological forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of Earth Resources Technology Satellites in solving global problems is examined. Topics discussed are: (1) management of food, water, and fiber resources; (2) exploration and management of energy and mineral resources; (3) protection of the environment; (4) protection of life and property; and (5) improvements in shipping and navigation.

  18. An experience of science theatre: Earth Science for children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana; D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    The present paper describes an experience of science theatre addressed to children of primary and secondary school, with the main purpose of explaining the Earth interior while raising awareness about natural hazard. We conducted the experience with the help of a theatrical company specialized in shows for children. Several performances have been reiterated in different context, giving us the opportunity of conducting a preliminary survey with public of different ages, even if the show was conceived for children. Results suggest that science theatre while relying on creativity and emotional learning in transmitting knowledge about the Earth and its hazard has the potential to induce in children a positive attitude towards the risks

  19. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography list 436 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution sytems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  20. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography, with indexes, issue 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography lists 505 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  1. Non-terrestrial resources of economic importance to earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John S.

    1991-01-01

    The status of research on the importation of energy and nonterrestrial materials is reviewed, and certain specific directions for new research are proposed. New technologies which are to be developed include aerobraking, in situ propellant production, mining and beneficiation of extraterresrrial minerals, nuclear power systems, electromagnetic launch, and solar thermal propulsion. Topics discussed include the system architecture for solar power satellite constellations, the return of nonterrestrial He-3 to earth for use as a clean fusion fuel, and the return to earth of platinum-group metal byproducts from processing of nonterrestrial native ferrous metals.

  2. Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J. (Principal Investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  3. The Earth Is Flat when Personally Significant Experiences with the Sphericity of the Earth Are Absent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A…

  4. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists 472 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1974 and September 1974. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory, natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing, and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  5. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography lists 616 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1974 and March 1974. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory, natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  6. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 60)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 485 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1988. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, and instrumentation and sensors.

  7. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 61)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 606 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1989. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, and instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  8. Earth Resources: a Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (Issue 63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 449 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 31, 1989. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, and instrumentation and sensors.

  9. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 59)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 518 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1988. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, and instrumentation and sensors.

  10. Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

  11. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [planning and management of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Churchman, C. W.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, R.; Coulson, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The University of California has been conducting an investigation which seeks to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Most of the work has concentrated on California's water resources, but with some attention being given to other earth resources as well and to the interplay between them and California's water resources.

  12. News from Online: Digging up Earth Day Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldwell, Bernadette A.

    2006-01-01

    The soil science and soil chemistry is incorporated into teaching materials for earth day and beyond. It revealed some of the chemical properties of the soil through color and texture and the chemical processes relevant to soils abound, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles in the soil, acidification of soils through acid deposition, leaching…

  13. Definition of Earth Resource Policy and Management Problems in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchman, C. W.; Clark, I.

    1971-01-01

    Management planning for the California water survey considers the use of satellite and airplane remote sensing information on water-source, -center, and -sink geographies. A model is developed for estimating the social benefit of water resource information and to identify the most important types of resource information relevant to regulatory agencies and the private sector.

  14. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  15. Teaching Earth System Science Using Climate Educational Modules Based on NASA and NOAA Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P. C.; LaDochy, S.; Patzert, W. C.; Willis, J. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) recently developed a set of climate related educational modules to be used by K-12 teachers. These modules incorporate recent NASA and NOAA resources in Earth Science education. In the summer of 2011, these modules were tested by in-service teachers in courses held at several college campuses. At California State University, Los Angeles, we reviewed two climate modules: The Great Ocean Conveyer Belt and Abrupt Climate Change (http://essea.strategies.org/module.php?module_id=148) and Sulfur Dioxide: Its Role in Climate Change (http://essea.strategies.org/module.php?module_id=168). For each module, 4-6 teachers formed a cohort to complete assignments and unit assessments and to evaluate the effectiveness of the module for use in their classroom. Each module presented the teachers with a task that enabled them to research and better understand the science behind the climate related topic. For The Great Ocean Conveyer Belt, teachers are tasked with evaluating the impacts of the slowing or stopping of the thermohaline circulation on climate. In the same module teachers are charged with determining the possibilities of an abrupt climate shift during this century such as happened in the past. For the Sulfur Dioxide module teachers investigated the climate implications of the occurrence of several major volcanic eruptions within a short time period, as well as the feasibility of using sulfates to geoengineer climate change. In completing module assignments, teachers must list what they already know about the topic as well as formulate questions that still need to be addressed. Teachers then model the related interactions between spheres comprising the earth system (atmosphere-lithosphere, for example) to evaluate possible environmental impacts. Finally, teachers applied their research results to create lesson plans for their students. At a time when climate change and global warming are important topics in science

  16. Performance of the cometary experiment MUPUS on the body Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marczewski, W.; Usowicz, B.; Schröer, K.; Seiferlin, K.; Spohn, T.

    2003-04-01

    Thermal experiment MUPUS for the Rosetta mission was extensively experience in field and laboratory conditions to predict its performance under physical processes available on the Earth. The goal was not guessing a cometary material in the ground but available behavior of thermal sensor responses monitoring mass and energy transfer. The processes expected on a comet are different in composition and environmental from those met on the Earth but basically similar in physics. Nature of energy powering the processes is also essentially the same - solar radiation. Several simple laboratory experiments with freezing and thawing with water ice, with mixture of water and oil and water layers strongly diverged by salinity revealed capability of recognition layered structure of the medium under test. More over effects of slow convection and latent heat related to the layers are also observed well. Cometary environment without atmosphere makes process of sublimation dominant. Open air conditions on the Earth may also offer a change of state in matter but between different phases. Learning temperature gradient in snow layers under thawing show that effects stimulated by a cause of daily cycling may be detected thermally. Results from investigations in snow made on Spitzbergen are good proofs on capability of the method. Relevance of thermal effects to heat powered processes of mass transport in the matter of ground is meaningful for the cometary experiment of MUPUS and for Earth sciences much concerned on water, gas and solid matter transport in the terrestrial ground. Results leading to energy balance studied on the Earth surface may be interesting also for the experiment on the comet and are to be discussed.

  17. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; ...

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less

  18. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography lists 434 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1978. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  19. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography lists 273 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1978. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  20. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography lists 418 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1976 and March 1976. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  1. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 62)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 544 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1989. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  2. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 47)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography lists 524 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1985. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.

  3. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography lists 524 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1977 and March 1977. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  4. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 51)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography lists 382 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1986. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  5. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, Issue 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography list 587 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between July 1, and September 30, 1982. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  6. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 57)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 451 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1988. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  7. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 52)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This bibliography lists 454 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1986. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  8. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography lists 337 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between July 1 and September 30, 1978. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  9. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 55)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This bibliography lists 368 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1987. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geographical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  10. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 58)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 500 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1988. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  11. Earth resources. A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography lists 226 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1, 1979 and September 30, 1979. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  12. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography list of 369 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1979 and March 31, 1979 is presented. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  13. Earth resources. A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography lists 345 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1, 1979 and December 31, 1979. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  14. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography lists 492 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1975 and September 1975. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  15. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography lists 775 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1978. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  16. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography lists 494 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1985. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.

  17. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (Issue 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 512 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1983. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  18. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography lists 523 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1986. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  19. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 54)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This bibliography lists 562 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1987. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  20. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 56)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 547 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1987. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  1. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, Issue 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists 651 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1974 and December 1974. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  2. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography lists 423 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1983. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economical analysis.

  3. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 576 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between October 1 and December 31, 1982. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  4. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 53)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This bibliography lists 604 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1 and March 31, 1987. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  5. Grid systems for Earth radiation budget experiment applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial coordinate transformations are developed for several global grid systems of interest to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. The grid boxes are defined in terms of a regional identifier and longitude-latitude indexes. The transformations associate longitude with a particular grid box. The reverse transformations identify the center location of a given grid box. Transformations are given to relate the rotating (Earth-based) grid systems to solar position expressed in an inertial (nonrotating) coordinate system. The FORTRAN implementations of the transformations are given, along with sample input and output.

  6. Data collection system: Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, S. (Editor); Ryan, P. T. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Subjects covered at the meeting concerned results on the overall data collection system including sensors, interface hardware, power supplies, environmental enclosures, data transmission, processing and distribution, maintenance and integration in resources management systems.

  7. The Lifecycle of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Data Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kenneth R.; McKinney, Richard A.; Smith, Timothy B.; Rank, Robert

    2004-01-01

    A major endeavor of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is to acquire, process, archive and distribute data from Earth observing satellites in support of a broad set of science research and applications in the U. S. and abroad. NASA policy directives specifically call for the agency to collect, announce, disseminate and archive all scientific and technical data resulting from NASA and NASA-funded research. During the active life of the satellite missions, while the data products are being created, validated and refined, a number of NASA organizations have the responsibility for data and information system functions. Following the completion of the missions, the responsibility for the long-term stewardship of the ocean and atmospheric, and land process data products transitions to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), respectively. Ensuring that long-term satellite data be preserved to support global climate change studies and other research topics and applications presents some major challenges to NASA and its partners. Over the last several years, with the launch and operation of the EOS satellites and the acquisition and production of an unprecedented volume of Earth science data, the importance of addressing these challenges has been elevated. The lifecycle of NASA's Earth science data has been the subject of several agency and interagency studies and reports and has implications and effects on agency charters, policies and budgets and on their data system's requirements, implementation plans and schedules. While much remains to be done, considerable progress has been made in understanding and addressing the data lifecycle issues.

  8. AGI's Earth Science Week and Education Resources Network: Connecting Teachers to Geoscience Organizations and Classroom Resources that Support NGSS Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robeck, E.; Camphire, G.; Brendan, S.; Celia, T.

    2016-12-01

    There exists a wide array of high quality resources to support K-12 teaching and motivate student interest in the geosciences. Yet, connecting teachers to those resources can be a challenge. Teachers working to implement the NGSS can benefit from accessing the wide range of existing geoscience resources, and from becoming part of supportive networks of geoscience educators, researchers, and advocates. Engaging teachers in such networks can be facilitated by providing them with information about organizations, resources, and opportunities. The American Geoscience Institute (AGI) has developed two key resources that have great value in supporting NGSS implement in these ways. Those are Earth Science Week, and the Education Resources Network in AGI's Center for Geoscience and Society. For almost twenty years, Earth Science Week, has been AGI's premier annual outreach program designed to celebrate the geosciences. Through its extensive web-based resources, as well as the physical kits of posters, DVDs, calendars and other printed materials, Earth Science Week offers an array of resources and opportunities to connect with the education-focused work of important geoscience organizations such as NASA, the National Park Service, HHMI, esri, and many others. Recently, AGI has initiated a process of tagging these and other resources to NGSS so as to facilitate their use as teachers develop their instruction. Organizing Earth Science Week around themes that are compatible with topics within NGSS contributes to the overall coherence of the diverse array of materials, while also suggesting potential foci for investigations and instructional units. More recently, AGI has launched its Center for Geoscience and Society, which is designed to engage the widest range of audiences in building geoscience awareness. As part of the Center's work, it has launched the Education Resources Network (ERN), which is an extensive searchable database of all manner of resources for geoscience

  9. Calculation of coal resources using ARC/INFO and Earth Vision; methodology for the National Coal Resource Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, L.N.; Biewick, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents a comparison of two methods of resource calculation that are being used in the National Coal Resource Assessment project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Tewalt (1998) discusses the history of using computer software packages such as GARNET (Graphic Analysis of Resources using Numerical Evaluation Techniques), GRASS (Geographic Resource Analysis Support System), and the vector-based geographic information system (GIS) ARC/INFO (ESRI, 1998) to calculate coal resources within the USGS. The study discussed here, compares resource calculations using ARC/INFO* (ESRI, 1998) and EarthVision (EV)* (Dynamic Graphics, Inc. 1997) for the coal-bearing John Henry Member of the Straight Cliffs Formation of Late Cretaceous age in the Kaiparowits Plateau of southern Utah. Coal resource estimates in the Kaiparowits Plateau using ARC/INFO are reported in Hettinger, and others, 1996.

  10. Technical Information Resource on Rare Earth Elements Now Available to Public and Private Sector Stakeholders

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new EPA technical information resource, “Rare Earth Elements: A Review of Production, Processing, Recycling, and Associated Environmental Issues” has been produced as an introductory resource for those interested in learning more about REE mining and alternatives to meet demand...

  11. Reviews Book: The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Resource: Down2Earth Equipment: Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Book: Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book: Heart of Darkness Book: The Long Road to Stockholm Book: The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Equipment: TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Dip into this useful and accessible guide to quantum theory Down2Earth Astronomical-science resource enables students to pursue real, hands-on science, whatever the weather Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Students enjoy the novelty factor of versatile, affordable kit Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book of experiments would make good supplementary material Heart of Darkness: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Invisible Universe Accessible and distinctive account of cosmology impresses The Long Road to Stockholm: The Story of MRI—An Autobiography Fascinating book tells personal and scientific stories side by side WORTH A LOOK The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Entertaining and well-written essays offer insights and anecdotes TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Challenging interface gives this kit a steep learning curve, but once overcome, results are good WEB WATCH Light-beam app game leaves little impression, while astronomy and astrophysics projects provide much-needed resources

  12. Earth resources instrumentation for the Space Station Polar Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Martin J.; Vane, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    The spacecraft and payloads of the Space Station Polar Platform program are described in a brief overview. Present plans call for one platform in a descending morning-equator-crossing orbit at 824 km and two or three platforms in ascending afternoon-crossing orbits at 542-824 km. The components of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) and NOAA payloads are listed in tables and briefly characterized, and data-distribution requirements and the mission development schedule are discussed. A drawing of the platform, a graph showing the spectral coverage of the EOS instruments, and a glossary of acronyms are provided.

  13. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    supports approximately 40 USGS research specialists who utilize cooperative agreements with universities, industry, and other governmental agencies to support their collaborative research and information exchange. Scientists of the WMERSC study how and where non-fuel mineral resources form and are concentrated in the earth's crust, where mineral resources might be found in the future, and how mineral materials interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Natural systems (ecosystems) are complex - our understanding of how ecosystems operate requires collecting and synthesizing large amounts of geologic, geochemical, biologic, hydrologic, and meteorological information. Scientists in the Center strive to understand the interplay of various processes and how they affect the structure, composition, and health of ecosystems. Such understanding, which is then summarized in publicly available reports, is used to address and solve a wide variety of issues that are important to society and the economy. WMERSC scientists have extensive national and international experience in these scientific specialties and capabilities - they have collaborated with many Federal, State, and local agencies; with various private sector organizations; as well as with foreign countries and organizations. Nearly every scientific and societal challenge requires a different combination of scientific skills and capabilities. With their breadth of scientific specialties and capabilities, the scientists of the WMERSC can provide scientifically sound approaches to a wide range of societal challenges and issues. The following sections describe examples of important issues that have been addressed by scientists in the Center, the methods employed, and the relevant conclusions. New directions are inevitable as societal needs change over time. Scientists of the WMERSC have a diverse set of skills and capabilities and are proficient in the collection and integration of

  14. Rare Earths Supply Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Murkowski, Lisa [R-AK

    2010-06-22

    Senate - 09/30/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-750. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Earth resources mission performance studies. Volume 2: Simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Simulations were made at three month intervals to investigate the EOS mission performance over the four seasons of the year. The basic objectives of the study were: (1) to evaluate the ability of an EOS type system to meet a representative set of specific collection requirements, and (2) to understand the capabilities and limitations of the EOS that influence the system's ability to satisfy certain collection objectives. Although the results were obtained from a consideration of a two sensor EOS system, the analysis can be applied to any remote sensing system having similar optical and operational characteristics. While the category related results are applicable only to the specified requirement configuration, the results relating to general capability and limitations of the sensors can be applied in extrapolating to other U.S. based EOS collection requirements. The TRW general purpose mission simulator and analytic techniques discussed in this report can be applied to a wide range of collection and planning problems of earth orbiting imaging systems.

  16. Supporting Instruction By Defining Conceptual Relevance Of Materials: Alignment Of Resources To An Earth Systems Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menicucci, A. J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental, geological, and climatological sciences are important facets of physical science education. However, it is often difficult for educators to acquire the necessary resources to facilitate content explanations, and demonstration of the conceptual links between individual lessons. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley is aligning new and existing Earth systems educational resources that are high-quality, interactive and inquiry based. Learning resources are organized by the UGC framework topics (Causes of Change, How the Earth System Works, and Measurable Changes), and focus on exploring topic relationships. Resources are currently aligned with both the UGC framework and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), facilitating broad utility among K-16 educators. The overarching goal of the UGC Project is to provide the necessary resources that guide the construction of coherent, interdisciplinary instructional units. These units can be reinforced through system models, providing visual learning scaffolds for assessments of student content knowledge. Utilizing the central framework of UGC alleviates the long-standing problem of creating coherent instructional units from multiple learning resources, each organized and categorized independently across multiple platforms that may not provide explicit connections among Earth science subjects UGC topic cross listing of learning modules establishes conceptual links. Each resource is linked across several Earth system components, facilitating exploration of relationships and feedbacks between processes. Cross listed topics are therefore useful for development of broad picture learning goals via targeted instructional units. We also anticipate cultivating summaries of the explicit conceptual links explored in each resource from both current teachers and content specialists. Insructional units currated and aligned under the UGC

  17. Linking earth science informatics resources into uninterrupted digital value chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Robert; Angreani, Rini; Cox, Simon; Fraser, Ryan; Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens; Rankine, Terry; Robertson, Jess; Vote, Josh

    2015-04-01

    The CSIRO Mineral Resources Flagship was established to tackle medium- to long-term challenges facing the Australian mineral industry across the value chain from exploration and mining through mineral processing within the framework of an economically, environmentally and socially sustainable minerals industry. This broad portfolio demands collaboration and data exchange with a broad range of participants and data providers across government, research and industry. It is an ideal environment to link geoscience informatics platforms to application across the resource extraction industry and to unlock the value of data integration between traditionally discrete parts of the minerals digital value chain. Despite the potential benefits, data integration remains an elusive goal within research and industry. Many projects use only a subset of available data types in an integrated manner, often maintaining the traditional discipline-based data 'silos'. Integrating data across the entire minerals digital value chain is an expensive proposition involving multiple disciplines and, significantly, multiple data sources both internal and external to any single organisation. Differing vocabularies and data formats, along with access regimes to appropriate analysis software and equipment all hamper the sharing and exchange of information. AuScope has addressed the challenge of data exchange across organisations nationally, and established a national geosciences information infrastructure using open standards-based web services. Federated across a wide variety of organisations, the resulting infrastructure contains a wide variety of live and updated data types. The community data standards and infrastructure platforms that underpin AuScope provide important new datasets and multi-agency links independent of software and hardware differences. AuScope has thus created an infrastructure, a platform of technologies and the opportunity for new ways of working with and integrating

  18. JSC earth resources data analysis capabilities available to EOD revision B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A list and summary description of all Johnson Space Center electronic laboratory and photographic laboratory capabilities available to earth resources division personnel for processing earth resources data are provided. The electronic capabilities pertain to those facilities and systems that use electronic and/or photographic products as output. The photographic capabilities pertain to equipment that uses photographic images as input and electronic and/or table summarizes processing steps. A general hardware description is presented for each of the data processing systems, and the titles of computer programs are used to identify the capabilities and data flow.

  19. The NASA earth resources spectral information system: A data compilation, second supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System (ERSIS) and the information contained therein are described. It is intended for use as a second supplement to the NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation, NASA CR-31650-24-T, May 1971. The current supplement includes approximately 100 rock and mineral, and 375 vegetation directional reflectance spectral curves in the optical region from 0.2 to 22.0 microns. The data were categorized by subject and each curve plotted on a single graph. Each graph is fully titled to indicate curve source and indexed by subject to facilitate user retrieval from ERSIS magnetic tape records.

  20. Delivery of extraterrestrial amino acids to the primitive Earth. Exposure experiments in Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Barbier, B; Bertrand, M; Boillot, F; Chabin, A; Chaput, D; Henin, O; Brack, A

    1998-06-01

    A large collection of micrometeorites has been recently extracted from Antarctic old blue ice. In the 50 to 100 micrometers size range, the carbonaceous micrometeorites represent 80% of the samples and contain 2% of carbon. They might have brought more carbon to the surface of the primitive Earth than that involved in the present surficial biomass. Amino acids such as "-amino isobutyric acid have been identified in these Antarctic micrometeorites. Enantiomeric excesses of L-amino acids have been detected in the Murchison meteorite. A large fraction of homochiral amino acids might have been delivered to the primitive Earth via meteorites and micrometeorites. Space technology in Earth orbit offers a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of amino acids required for the development of primitive life when they are exposed to space conditions, either free or associated with tiny mineral grains mimicking the micrometeorites. Our objectives are to demonstrate that porous mineral material protects amino acids in space from photolysis and racemization (the conversion of L-amino acids into a mixture of L- and D-molecules) and to test whether photosensitive amino acids derivatives can polymerize in mineral grains under space conditions. The results obtained in BIOPAN-1 and BIOPAN-2 exposure experiments on board unmanned satellite FOTON are presented.

  1. RESOURCESAT-2: a mission for Earth resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Rao, M.; Gupta, J. P.; Rattan, Ram; Thyagarajan, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has established an operational Remote sensing satellite system by launching its first satellite, IRS-1A in 1988, followed by a series of IRS spacecraft. The IRS-1C/1D satellites with their unique combination of Payloads have taken a lead position in the Global remote sensing scenario. Realising the growing User demands for the "Multi" level approach in terms of Spatial, Spectral, Temporal and Radiometric resolutions, ISRO identified the Resourcesat as a continuity as well as improved RS Satellite. The Resourcesat-1 (IRS-P6) was launched in October 2003 using PSLV launch vehicle and it is in operational service. Resourcesat-2 is its follow-on Mission scheduled for launch in 2008. Each Resourcesat satellite carries three Electro-optical cameras as its payload - LISS-3, LISS-4 and AWIFS. All the three are multi-spectral push-broom scanners with linear array CCDs as Detectors. LISS-3 and AWIFS operate in four identical spectral bands in the VIS-NIR-SWIR range while LISS-4 is a high resolution camera with three spectral bands in VIS-NIR range. In order to meet the stringent requirements of band-to-band registration and platform stability, several improvements have been incorporated in the mainframe Bus configuration like wide field Star trackers, precision Gyroscopes, on-board GPS receiver etc,. The Resourcesat data finds its application in several areas like agricultural crop discrimination and monitoring, crop acreage/yield estimation, precision farming, water resources, forest mapping, Rural infrastructure development, disaster management etc,. to name a few. A brief description of the Payload cameras, spacecraft bus elements and operational modes and few applications are presented.

  2. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Experiments for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marone, Matt

    2005-01-01

    In situ resource utilization can best be described as living off the land. In our case the land is the planet Mars. ISRU is based on the idea that some fraction of the consumables, life support and propellant materials do not have to be flown from earth. Rather, they can be manufactured or extracted from resources already present on Mars. The primary resources on Mars are the atmosphere, polar caps and regolith. The atmosphere of Mars is mostly carbon dioxide as shown in the table below. The proportion of oxygen on the other hand is quite small. Still, there is quite a bit of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere, but it is unfortunately tied up with carbon. Thus, one of the goals of ISRU is the separation of breathable oxygen from the carbon dioxide. Several means of separation have been proposed. We have begun experiments on another approach for production of oxygen with carbon monoxide as a useful by product. Our work on a CO2 separator is described later in this report. Regolith melting is another means of obtaining materials. Two materials of interest are iron and silicon. Iron oxide is plentiful on Mars and is of obvious importance for structural components. Silicon is the foundation of solid state devices. Power generation on Mars may be accomplished using silicon solar cells. There is discussion of the feasibility of in situ production of solar cells. This would require a means of extracting silicon from the regolith. We have conducted several experiments concerning melting and glassification of the Mars soil simulant. Other summer faculty fellows have tried various means of processing the stimulant material. These include furnace melting, microwave melting and laser ablation. We have conducted several furnace melting experiments in both air and carbon dioxide environments. We have also carried out experiments to test spark melting in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. These experiments suggest the possibility of using arc melting in a reducing atmosphere. It is

  3. Thailand national programme of the Earth Resources Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheosakul, P. (Principal Investigator); Sabhasri, S.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Intensive interpretation of ERTS-1 scenes covering agricultural regions near Bangkok, backed up by ground surveys and low altitude reconnaissance flights, has established that the major agricultural crops of Thailand can be positively differentiated, and in most cases identified, after some experience has been gained, by examination of ERTS-1 imagery. A country-wide survey of remaining forest cover will be completed during 1974. MSS band 5 and band 7 and white positive transparencies were found to be the most desirable medium for identification of geological structure. The Royal Irrigation Department conducted a pilot study to examine the possibility of determining water reservoir capacity from surface area measurements derived from ERTS-1 images.

  4. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanner radiometric calibration results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Gibson, M. A.; Thomas, Susan; Meekins, Jeffrey L.; Mahan, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometers are producing measurements of the incoming solar, earth/atmosphere-reflected solar, and earth/atmosphere-emitted radiation fields with measurement precisions and absolute accuracies, approaching 1 percent. ERBE uses thermistor bolometers as the detection elements in the narrow-field-of-view scanning radiometers. The scanning radiometers can sense radiation in the shortwave, longwave, and total broadband spectral regions of 0.2 to 5.0, 5.0 to 50.0, and 0.2 to 50.0 micrometers, respectively. Detailed models of the radiometers' response functions were developed in order to design the most suitable calibration techniques. These models guided the design of in-flight calibration procedures as well as the development and characterization of a vacuum-calibration chamber and the blackbody source which provided the absolute basis upon which the total and longwave radiometers were characterized. The flight calibration instrumentation for the narror-field-of-view scanning radiometers is presented and evaluated.

  5. NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory - Seventeen years of using remotely sensed satellite data in land applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cashion, Kenneth D.; Whitehurst, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    The activities of the Earth Resources Laboratoy (ERL) for the past seventeen years are reviewed with particular reference to four typical applications demonstrating the use of remotely sensed data in a geobased information system context. The applications discussed are: a fire control model for the Olympic National Park; wildlife habitat modeling; a resource inventory system including a potential soil erosion model; and a corridor analysis model for locating routes between geographical locations. Some future applications are also discussed.

  6. Advanced Systems Map, Monitor, and Manage Earth's Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    SpecTIR LLC, headquartered in Reno, Nevada, is recognized for innovative sensor design, on-demand hyperspectral data collection, and image-generating products for business, academia, and national and international governments. SpecTIR's current vice president of business development has brought a wealth of NASA-related research experience to the company, as the former principal investigator on a NASA-sponsored hyperspectral crop-imaging project. This project, made possible through a Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) contract with Goddard Space Flight Center, aimed to enhance airborne hyperspectral sensing and ground-truthing means for crop inspection in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Areas of application for such technology include precision farming and irrigation; oil, gas, and mineral exploration; pollution and contamination monitoring; wetland and forestry characterization; water quality assessment; and submerged aquatic vegetation mapping. Today, SpecTIR maintains its relationship with Goddard through programs at the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland, and at the U.S. Department of Agriculture campus in Beltsville, Maryland. Additionally, work continues on the integration of hyperspectral data with LIDAR systems and other commercial-off-the-shelf technologies.

  7. Explaining Earths Energy Budget: CERES-Based NASA Resources for K-12 Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K.; Marvel, M. T.; Ruhlman, K.; LaPan, J.; Lewis, P.; Madigan, J.; Oostra, D.; Taylor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Among atmospheric scientists, the importance of the Earth radiation budget concept is well understood. Papers have addressed the topic for over 100 years, and the large Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (among others), with its multiple on-orbit instruments, is working hard to quantify the details of its various parts. In education, Earth's energy budget is a concept that generally appears in middle school and Earth science curricula, but its treatment in textbooks leaves much to be desired. Students and the public hold many misconceptions, and very few people have an appreciation for the importance of this energy balance to the conditions on Earth. More importantly, few have a correct mental model that allows them to make predictions and understand the effect of changes such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. As an outreach element of the core CERES team at NASA Langley, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, educators, graphic artists, writers, and web developers has been developing and refining graphics and resources to explain the Earth's Energy budget over the last few decades. Resources have developed through an iterative process involving ongoing use in front of a variety of audiences, including students and teachers from 3rd to 12th grade as well as public audiences.

  8. Results of the Compensated Earth-Moon-Earth Retroreflector Laser Link (CEMERLL) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K. E.; Leatherman, P. R.; Cleis, R.; Spinhirne, J.; Fugate, R. Q.

    1997-01-01

    Adaptive optics techniques can be used to realize a robust low bit-error-rate link by mitigating the atmosphere-induced signal fades in optical communications links between ground-based transmitters and deep-space probes. Phase I of the Compensated Earth-Moon-Earth Retroreflector Laser Link (CEMERLL) experiment demonstrated the first propagation of an atmosphere-compensated laser beam to the lunar retroreflectors. A 1.06-micron Nd:YAG laser beam was propagated through the full aperture of the 1.5-m telescope at the Starfire Optical Range (SOR), Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, to the Apollo 15 retroreflector array at Hadley Rille. Laser guide-star adaptive optics were used to compensate turbulence-induced aberrations across the transmitter's 1.5-m aperture. A 3.5-m telescope, also located at the SOR, was used as a receiver for detecting the return signals. JPL-supplied Chebyshev polynomials of the retroreflector locations were used to develop tracking algorithms for the telescopes. At times we observed in excess of 100 photons returned from a single pulse when the outgoing beam from the 1.5-m telescope was corrected by the adaptive optics system. No returns were detected when the outgoing beam was uncompensated. The experiment was conducted from March through September 1994, during the first or last quarter of the Moon.

  9. Feasibility of mining lunar resources for earth use: Circa 2000 AD. Volume 2: Technical discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, K.; Arno, R. D.; Alexander, A. D.; Slye, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The technologies and systems required to establish the mining base, mine, refine, and return lunar resources to earth are discussed. Gross equipment requirements, their weights and costs are estimated and documented. The operational requirements are analyzed and tabulated. Diagrams of equipment and processing facilities are provided.

  10. Skylab Earth Resource Experiment Package critical design review. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An outline of the conference for reviewing the design of the EREP is presented. Systems design for review include: tape recorder, support equipment, view finder/tracking, support hardware, and control and display panel.

  11. Earth-to-Orbit Beamed Energy eXperiment (EBEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    As a means of primary propulsion, beamed energy propulsion offers the benefit of offloading much of the propulsion system mass from the vehicle, increasing its potential performance and freeing it from the constraints of the rocket equation. For interstellar missions, beamed energy propulsion is arguably the most viable in the near- to mid-term. A near-term demonstration showing the feasibility of beamed energy propulsion is necessary and, fortunately, feasible using existing technologies. Key enabling technologies are 1) large area, low mass spacecraft and 2) efficient and safe high power laser systems capable of long distance propagation. NASA is currently developing the spacecraft technology through the Near Earth Asteroid Scout solar sail mission and has signed agreements with the Planetary Society to study the feasibility of precursor laser propulsion experiments using their LightSail-2 solar sail spacecraft. The capabilities of Space Situational Awareness assets and the advanced analytical tools available for fine resolution orbit determination now make it possible to investigate the practicalities of an Earth-to-orbit Beamed Energy eXperiment (EBEX) - a demonstration at delivered power levels that only illuminate a spacecraft without causing damage to it. The degree to which this can be expected to produce a measurable change in the orbit of a low ballistic coefficient spacecraft is investigated. Key system characteristics and estimated performance are derived for a near term mission opportunity involving the LightSail-2 spacecraft and laser power levels modest in comparison to those proposed previously. A more detailed investigation of accessing LightSail-2 from Santa Rosa Island on Eglin Air Force Base on the United States coast of the Gulf of Mexico is provided to show expected results in a specific case. While the technology demonstrated by such an experiment is not sufficient to enable an interstellar precursor mission, it is a first step toward that

  12. Near-Earth Asteroid Prospector and the Commercial Development of Space Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Jim

    1998-01-01

    With the recent bad news that there may be little or no budget money for NASA to continue funding programs aimed at the human exploration of space beyond Earth's orbit, it becomes even more important for other initiatives to be considered. SpaceDev is the world' s first commercial space exploration company, and enjoys the strong support of Dan Goldin, Wes Huntress, Carl Pilcher, Alan Ladwig, and others at NASA headquarters. SpaceDev is also supported by such scientists as Jim Arnold, Paul Coleman, John Lewis, Steve Ostro, and many others. Taxpayers cannot be expected to carry the entire burden of exploration, construction, and settlement. The private sector must be involved, and the SpaceDev Near Earth Asteroid Prospector (NEAP) venture may provide a good example of how governments and the private sector can cooperate to accomplish these goals. SpaceDev believes that the utilization of in situ resources will take place on near-Earth asteroids before the Moon or Mars because many NEOs are energetically closer than the Moon or Mars and have a highly concentrated composition. SpaceDev currently expects to perform the following three missions: NEAP (science data gathering); NEAP 2, near-Earth asteroid or short-term comet sample return mission; and NEAP 3, in situ fuel production or resource extraction and utilization. These missions could pioneer the way for in situ resources for construction.

  13. Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and Its Activities -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. de Souza, Ph.D. Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

    2003-09-26

    The Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR) provided oversight of the earth sciences and resources activities with the National Research Council (NRC). The Board reviewed research and public activities in the earth sciences; undertook analyses relevant to the discovery, supply, delivery, waste disposal and associated impacts and issues related to hydrocarbon, metallic, and nonmetallic mineral resources; and monitored the status of the earth sciences, assessed the health of the disciplines, identified research opportunities, and responded to specific agency requests for advice. These tasks were conducted by distinguished volunteers and NRC staff members that are representative of the breadth andmore » depth of the earth sciences and resources disciplines (e.g., ecology, geophysics, geochemistry, geobiology, hydrology, geography, geographic information science, materials science, mineral resources and mining, energy resources, paleontology, visualization, remote sensing, geophysical data and information). Each year the Board held two meetings. Most recently at the May 2003 Board meeting, the main topic of discussion was Coordination of Geospatial Data in the Era of the Department of Homeland Security. Speakers were Steven Cooper, DHS; Barry Napier, FEMA; Bill Shinar, VGIN; Barbara Ryan, USGS; and Hank Garie, DOI. Other topics were Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and New Opportunities in the Geology Discipline (Pat Leahy, USGS); Challenges to Understanding Biological Change in a Fluid Landscape (Sue Haseltine, USGS); and GIS and Remote Sensing at the USDA (Rodney Brown, USDA). The Board and the AGI also held a Leadership Forum. At the October 2003 Board meeting in Irvine, California, the Board plans to discuss earth resource issues, develop a white paper on the future directions of the Board, and review two of its standing committees--Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics, and the Committee on Geological and Geotechnical Engineering

  14. The Community Resource Person's Guide for Experience-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Ruth Fredine; Douglas, Marcia

    The booklet is a guide for community resource people who have agreed to share their job experiences with high school students involved in experience-based learning programs. The programs allow students to observe and participate in the daily routines required in careers they may wish to pursue. Resource people can use this booklet to determine how…

  15. The Role of Earth Observations in "Valuing" Resources and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAuley, M.

    2007-12-01

    A wide range of decisionmakers and analysts, including government and industry resource managers, financial lenders and insurers, ecologists, conservationists, and economists have long struggled with how to ascribe "value" to environmental resources. Despite other differences among these experts, all agree that accurate measures of the physical status of resources are essential as a basis for valuation. Earth observations from space offer some of these measures and as a result, are becoming an essential component of valuation-oriented resource management. This paper illustrates the use of earth observations in two growing applications: payments for environmental services and index insurance for livestock and agriculture. These applications are taking place both in the United States and in an increasing number of other countries. The paper also highlights issues of concern about these uses of earth observations, including short- and long-term availability of data and quality of data. These concerns call into question the viability of building valuation approaches upon a mere assumption of data supply.

  16. Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (1970-1973 Supplement): A Literature Survey with Indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This literature survey cites 4930 reports, articles and other documents that were announced between March 1970 and December 1973 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or in International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). This publication supplements Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (NASA-SP-7036) that cited documents announced between January 1962 and February 1970. Beginning in 1974, a quarterly publication, Earth Resources, A Continuing Bibliography (NASA-SP-7041) was initiated. The first issue, NASA-SP-7041(01), was published in June covering the document announced between January 1974 and March 1974. The coverage includes documents related to the identification and evaluation by means of sensors in spacecraft and aircraft of vegetation, minerals, and other natural resources, and the techniques and potentialities of surveying and keeping up-to-date inventories of such riches. It encompasses studies of such natural phenomena as earthquakes, volcanoes, ocean currents and magnetic fields; and such cultural phenomena as cities, transportation networks, and irrigation systems. Descriptions of the components and use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation, their subsystems, observational procedures, signature and analyses and interpretive techniques for gathering data are also included. Reports generated under NASA's Earth Resources Survey Program and announced during the period covered by this bibliography are included.

  17. The Earth Gravitational Model 1996: The NCCS: Resource for Development, Resource for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For centuries, men have attempted to understand the climate system through observations obtained from Earth's surface. These observations yielded preliminary understanding of the ocean currents, tides, and prevailing winds using visual observation and simple mechanical tools as their instruments. Today's sensitive, downward-looking radar systems, called altimeters, onboard satellites can measure globally the precise height of the ocean surface. This surface is largely that of the equipotential gravity surface, called the geoid - the level surface to which the oceans would conform if there were no forces acting on them apart from gravity, as well as having a significant 1-2- meter-level signal arising from the motion of the ocean's currents.

  18. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  19. The Nasa earth resources spectral information system: A data compilation, first supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leeman, V.

    1972-01-01

    The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System and the information contained therein are described. It is intended to be used as a supplement to the NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation, N72-28366. This supplement includes approximately 500 rock and mineral, 100 soil, and 30 vegetation bidirectional and directional reflectance, transmittance, emittance, and degree-of-polarization curves in the optical region from 0.2 to 22.0 microns. The data have been categorized by subject and each curve plotted on a single graph. For some rocks and minerals, all curves of the same type, differing only in particle size, have been plotted on one grid as a composite plot. Each graph, composite or single, is fully titled to indicate curve source and is indexed by subject to facilitate user retrieval.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), seen in the Space Station Processing Facility, was designed and built by the Boeing Co. at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. WORF will be delivered to the International Space Station and placed in the rack position in front of the Destiny lab window, providing locations for attaching cameras, multi-spectral scanners and other instruments. WORF will support a variety of scientific and commercial experiments in areas of Earth systems and processes, global ecological changes in Earth’s biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and climate system, Earth resources, natural hazards, and education. After installation, it will become a permanent focal point for Earth Science research aboard the space station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), seen in the Space Station Processing Facility, was designed and built by the Boeing Co. at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. WORF will be delivered to the International Space Station and placed in the rack position in front of the Destiny lab window, providing locations for attaching cameras, multi-spectral scanners and other instruments. WORF will support a variety of scientific and commercial experiments in areas of Earth systems and processes, global ecological changes in Earth’s biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and climate system, Earth resources, natural hazards, and education. After installation, it will become a permanent focal point for Earth Science research aboard the space station.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility check out the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), designed and built by the Boeing Co. at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. WORF will be delivered to the International Space Station and placed in the rack position in front of the Destiny lab window, providing locations for attaching cameras, multi-spectral scanners and other instruments. WORF will support a variety of scientific and commercial experiments in areas of Earth systems and processes, global ecological changes in Earth’s biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and climate system, Earth resources, natural hazards, and education. After installation, it will become a permanent focal point for Earth Science research aboard the space station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility check out the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), designed and built by the Boeing Co. at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. WORF will be delivered to the International Space Station and placed in the rack position in front of the Destiny lab window, providing locations for attaching cameras, multi-spectral scanners and other instruments. WORF will support a variety of scientific and commercial experiments in areas of Earth systems and processes, global ecological changes in Earth’s biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and climate system, Earth resources, natural hazards, and education. After installation, it will become a permanent focal point for Earth Science research aboard the space station.

  2. NGSS aligned Earth science resources and professional development programs from the Exploratorium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Exploratorium is a museum of science, art and human perception located in San Francisco, CA. The Exploratorium has been offering resources and professional development to primary and secondary teachers since 1972. We focus on inquiry based, hands-on learning, with an emphasis on Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) implementation. This brief, invited presentation will feature the programs and online resources developed by the Exploratorium's "Institute for Inquiry" and "Teacher Institute" that may help formal and informal educators engage, implement and promote three dimensional learning in the Earth Sciences.

  3. A study of Minnesota forests and lakes using data from earth resources technology satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This project is to foster and develop new applications of remote sensing under an interdisciplinary effort. Seven reports make up the specific projects presently being conducted throughout the State of Minnesota in cooperation with several agencies and municipalities. These are included under the general headings of: (1) applications of aerial photography and ERTS-1 data to agricultural, forest, and water resources management; (2) classification and dynamics of water and wetland resources of Minnesota; (3) studies of Lake Superior Bay; and (4) feasibility of detecting major air pollutants by earth-oriented satellite-borne sensors.

  4. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  5. Use of data from space for earth resources exploration and management in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoreaux, P. E.; Henry, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    The University of Alabama, the Geological Survey of Alabama, and the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center are involved in an interagency, interdisciplinary effort to use remotely sensed, multispectral observations to yield improved and timely assessment of earth resources and environmental quality in Alabama. It is the goal of this effort to interpret these data and provide them in a format which is meaningful to and readily usable by agencies, industries, and individuals who are potential users throughout the State.

  6. EarthCube as an information resource marketplace; the GEAR Project conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Zaslavsky, I.; Gupta, A.; Valentine, D.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience Architecture for Research (GEAR) is approaching EarthCube design as a complex and evolving socio-technical federation of systems. EarthCube is intended to support the science research enterprise, for which there is no centralized command and control, requirements are a moving target, the function and behavior of the system must evolve and adapt as new scientific paradigms emerge, and system participants are conducting research that inherently implies seeking new ways of doing things. EarthCube must address evolving user requirements and enable domain and project systems developed under different management and for different purposes to work together. The EC architecture must focus on creating a technical environment that enables new capabilities by combining existing and newly developed resources in various ways, and encourages development of new resource designs intended for re-use and interoperability. In a sense, instead of a single architecture design, GEAR provides a way to accommodate multiple designs tuned to different tasks. This agile, adaptive, evolutionary software development style is based on a continuously updated portfolio of compatible components that enable new sub-system architecture. System users make decisions about which components to use in this marketplace based on performance, satisfaction, and impact metrics collected continuously to evaluate components, determine priorities, and guide resource allocation decisions by the system governance agency. EC is designed as a federation of independent systems, and although the coordinator of the EC system may be named an enterprise architect, the focus of the role needs to be organizing resources, assessing their readiness for interoperability with the existing EC component inventory, managing dependencies between transient subsystems, mechanisms of stakeholder engagement and inclusion, and negotiation of standard interfaces, rather than actual specification of components. Composition of

  7. Image processing techniques and applications to the Earth Resources Technology Satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polge, R. J.; Bhagavan, B. K.; Callas, L.

    1973-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite system is studied, with emphasis on sensors, data processing requirements, and image data compression using the Fast Fourier and Hadamard transforms. The ERTS-A system and the fundamentals of remote sensing are discussed. Three user applications (forestry, crops, and rangelands) are selected and their spectral signatures are described. It is shown that additional sensors are needed for rangeland management. An on-board information processing system is recommended to reduce the amount of data transmitted.

  8. TERRA Education and Public Outreach: Bringing Earth Science Resources to the Public, Students, Educators, and Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, N.; Thome, K. J.; Bounoua, L.; Owen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Leaping advances in the capability to accurately measure global atmospheric and surficial conditions from space have created an abundance of educationally relevant images, discoveries, and products. In attempt to fully utilize these abundant resources, TERRA has allocated a portion of its mission toward education and public outreach. From highly interactive websites allowing users to view the latest satellite images and discoveries, to partnerships with museums encouraging enhanced primary and secondary scholastic experiences, TERRA has successfully applied a multifaceted range of tools to aid in the furthering of education for students, educators, scientists, and the general public. This presentation aims to increase publicity regarding these many methods of outreach, and to highlight particular outreach success stories. With the increasing emphasis on STEM education in current school systems, the invaluable resources and opportunities that TERRA provides for young scientists have become a necessity and will continue to help inspire the next generation of Earth Scientists.

  9. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  10. CINERGI: Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, Ilya; Bermudez, Luis; Grethe, Jeffrey; Gupta, Amarnath; Hsu, Leslie; Lehnert, Kerstin; Malik, Tanu; Richard, Stephen; Valentine, David; Whitenack, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Organizing geoscience data resources to support cross-disciplinary data discovery, interpretation, analysis and integration is challenging because of different information models, semantic frameworks, metadata profiles, catalogs, and services used in different geoscience domains, not to mention different research paradigms and methodologies. The central goal of CINERGI, a new project supported by the US National Science Foundation through its EarthCube Building Blocks program, is to create a methodology and assemble a large inventory of high-quality information resources capable of supporting data discovery needs of researchers in a wide range of geoscience domains. The key characteristics of the inventory are: 1) collaboration with and integration of metadata resources from a number of large data facilities; 2) reliance on international metadata and catalog service standards; 3) assessment of resource "interoperability-readiness"; 4) ability to cross-link and navigate data resources, projects, models, researcher directories, publications, usage information, etc.; 5) efficient inclusion of "long-tail" data, which are not appearing in existing domain repositories; 6) data registration at feature level where appropriate, in addition to common dataset-level registration, and 7) integration with parallel EarthCube efforts, in particular focused on EarthCube governance, information brokering, service-oriented architecture design and management of semantic information. We discuss challenges associated with accomplishing CINERGI goals, including defining the inventory scope; managing different granularity levels of resource registration; interaction with search systems of domain repositories; explicating domain semantics; metadata brokering, harvesting and pruning; managing provenance of the harvested metadata; and cross-linking resources based on the linked open data (LOD) approaches. At the higher level of the inventory, we register domain-wide resources such as domain

  11. Mission Preparation Program for Exobiological Experiments in Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Guenther; Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra

    The ESA facilities EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-E on board of the the International Space Station ISS provide the technology for exposing chemical and biological samples in a controlled manner to outer space parameters, such as high vacuum, intense radiation of galactic and solar origin and microgravity. EXPOSE-E has been attached to the outer balcony of the European Columbus module of the ISS in Febraury 2008 and will stay for about 1 year in space, EXPOSE-R will be attached to the Russian Svezda module of the ISS in fall 2008. The EXPOSE facilities are a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to Space Environment (ROSE concortium). The results from the EXPOSE missions will give new insights into the survivability of terrestrial organisms in space and will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.To test the compatibility of the different biological and chemical systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. It resulted in several experiment verification tests EVTs and an experiment sequence test EST that were conducted in the carefully equipped and monitored planetary and space simulation facilities PSI of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at DLR in Cologne, Germany. These ground based pre-flight studies allow the investigation of a much wider variety of samples and the selection of the most promising organisms for the flight experiment. The procedure and results of these EVT tests and EST will be presented. These results are an essential prerequisite for the success of the EXPOSE missions and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results gained during the simulation experiments demonstrated mission

  12. Boosting Scientific Exploitation of Sentinel Data: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Johannes; Stowasser, Rainer; Wotawa, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Christian; Federspiel, Christian; Nortarnicola, Claudia; Zebisch, Marc; Boresch, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The scientific exploitation of earth observation (EO) data is becoming increasingly challenging for many reasons. The first reason is the sheer magnitude of the data generated by the latest generation of EO sensors. While in the past scientific users were confronted with data volumes in the order of tens to hundreds of Gigabytes, nowadays data volumes of several Terabyte have to be handled. Very soon, tens to hundreds of Terabyte up to Petabytes will become the norm for continental- to global scale applications. The second reason is data complexity. Modern EO sensor technology is pushed towards the physical limits, making it necessary to understand each part of the measurement process and any unwanted interferences with significant detail. Last but not least, today's higher scientific standards will exert pressure on the EO community to engage in more extensive computations: While in the past it has often been sufficient to perform a scientific experiment with one single algorithm on a limited test data set, nowadays this is not an attractive scenario anymore. Today it is expected that algorithms are not only being tested with data sets of significant size but also that algorithms are compared with competing algorithms. In some applications, like e.g. in climate change assessments, it is even required that any subtle trends depicted by the data are carefully checked by using an ensemble of EO data retrieval algorithms. The scientific community has already started to respond to these increasingly demanding requirements. Firstly, one can find a growing number of EO research teams that are capable of processing Terabyte large data sets with multiple algorithms in-house. To arrive at this point these research teams have invested significantly in their computing capabilities and focused their work on selected sensor technologies and/or application domains. Secondly, spurred by international funding programmes such as the one of the European Commission, one can observe

  13. Indexing, screening, coding and cataloging of earth resources aircraft mission data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Tasks completed are as follows: (1) preparation of large Area Crop Inventory experiment for data base entry;(2) preparation of Earth Observations Aircraft Flight summary reports for publication; (3) updating of the aircraft mission index coverage map and Ames aircraft flight map; (4) Prepared of Earth Observation Helicopter Flight reports for publication; and (5) indexing of LANDSAT imagery. (6) formulation of phase 3 biowindows 1, 2, 3, and 4 listings by country, footprint, and acqusition dates; (7) preparation of flight summary reports; and (8) preparation of an Alaska state index coverage map.

  14. Science support for the Earth radiation budget experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The work undertaken as part of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) included the following major components: The development and application of a new cloud retrieval scheme to assess errors in the radiative fluxes arising from errors in the ERBE identification of cloud conditions. The comparison of the anisotropy of reflected sunlight and emitted thermal radiation with the anisotropy predicted by the Angular Dependence Models (ADM's) used to obtain the radiative fluxes. Additional studies included the comparison of calculated longwave cloud-free radiances with those observed by the ERBE scanner and the use of ERBE scanner data to track the calibration of the shortwave channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Major findings included: the misidentification of cloud conditions by the ERBE scene identification algorithm could cause 15 percent errors in the shortwave flux reflected by certain scene types. For regions containing mixtures of scene types, the errors were typically less than 5 percent, and the anisotropies of the shortwave and longwave radiances exhibited a spatial scale dependence which, because of the growth of the scanner field of view from nadir to limb, gave rise to a view zenith angle dependent bias in the radiative fluxes.

  15. DREAM: Distributed Resources for the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Advanced Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    The data associated with climate research is often generated, accessed, stored, and analyzed on a mix of unique platforms. The volume, variety, velocity, and veracity of this data creates unique challenges as climate research attempts to move beyond stand-alone platforms to a system that truly integrates dispersed resources. Today, sharing data across multiple facilities is often a challenge due to the large variance in supporting infrastructures. This results in data being accessed and downloaded many times, which requires significant amounts of resources, places a heavy analytic development burden on the end users, and mismanaged resources. Working across U.S. federal agencies, international agencies, and multiple worldwide data centers, and spanning seven international network organizations, the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has begun to solve this problem. Its architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes that are independently administered yet united by common federation protocols and application programming interfaces. However, significant challenges remain, including workflow provenance, modular and flexible deployment, scalability of a diverse set of computational resources, and more. Expanding on the existing ESGF, the Distributed Resources for the Earth System Grid Federation Advanced Management (DREAM) will ensure that the access, storage, movement, and analysis of the large quantities of data that are processed and produced by diverse science projects can be dynamically distributed with proper resource management. This system will enable data from an infinite number of diverse sources to be organized and accessed from anywhere on any device (including mobile platforms). The approach offers a powerful roadmap for the creation and integration of a unified knowledge base of an entire ecosystem, including its many geophysical, geographical, social, political, agricultural, energy, transportation, and cyber aspects. The

  16. Towards Designing an Integrated Earth Observation System for the Provision of Solar Energy Resource and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackouse, Paul W., Jr.; Renne, D.; Beyer, H.-G.; Wald, L.; Meyers, R.; Perez, R.; Suri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The GEOSS strategic plan specifically targets the area of improved energy resource management due to the importance of these to the economic and social viability of every nation of the world. With the world s increasing demand for energy resources, the need for new alternative energy resources grows. This paper overviews a new initiative within the International Energy Agency that addresses needs to better manage and develop solar energy resources worldwide. The goal is to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information of the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface in easily-accessible formats and understandable quality metrics. The scope of solar resource assessment information includes historic data sets and currently derived data products using satellite imagery and other means. Thus, this new task will address the needs of the solar energy sector while at the same time will serve as a model that satisfies GEOSS objectives and goals.

  17. Earth Sciences as a Vehicle for Gifted Education--The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Phillip J.; Chan, Lung Sang; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The development and delivery of an Earth-science-focused short course designed to prepare Hong Kong students for university level study is described. Earth sciences provide an inspirational and challenging context for learning and teaching in Hong Kong's increasingly skills-based curriculum. (Contains 3 figures and 4 online resources.)

  18. Applying the Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP) framework to cultural resources in the national parks

    Treesearch

    William Valliere; Robert Manning

    2003-01-01

    The National Park Service has developed the Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP) framework for addressing carrying capacity in the National Parks. This framework has been successfully applied to natural and recreational resources in diverse units of the National Park System. However, most units of the National Park System also contain significant cultural...

  19. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tanushree; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Uchimiya, Minori; Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Deep, Akash; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2016-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and 'smart' electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficient REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Tanushree

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficientmore » REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes.« less

  1. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  2. Earth Science Resource Teachers: A Mentor Program for NASA's Explorer Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireton, F.; Owens, A.; Steffen, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    Each year, the NASA Explorer Schools (NES) program establishes a three-year partnership between NASA and 50 school teams, consisting of teachers and education administrators from diverse communities across the country. While partnered with NASA, NES teams acquire and use new teaching resources and technology tools for grades 4 - 9 using NASA's unique content, experts and other resources. Schools in the program are eligible to receive funding (pending budget approval) over the three-year period to purchase technology tools that support science and mathematics instruction. Explorer School teams attend a one-week summer institute at one of NASA's field centers each summer. The weeklong institutes are designed to introduce the teachers and administrators to the wealth of NASA information and resources available and to provide them with content background on NASA's exploration programs. During the 2004 summer institutes at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) the National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) entered into a pilot program with NES to test the feasibility of master teachers serving as mentors for the NES teams. Five master teachers were selected as Earth Science Resource Teachers (ESRT) from an application pool and attended the NES workshop at GSFC. During the workshop they participated in the program along side the NES teams which provided the opportunity for them to meet the teams and develop a rapport. Over the next year the ESRT will be in communication with the NES teams to offer suggestions on classroom management, content issues, classroom resources, and will be able to assist them in meeting the goals of NES. This paper will discuss the planning, selection, participation, outcomes, costs, and suggestions for future ESRT mentorship programs.

  3. Student Web Use, Columbia Earthscape, and Their Implications for Online Earth Science Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, J.; Luby, M.; Wittenberg, K.

    2002-12-01

    For three years, Columbia Earthscape, www.earthscape.org, has served as a test bed for the development and evaluation of Web-based geoscience education. Last fall (EOS Trans. AGU, 82(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract ED11A-11, 2001), we described how librarian, scientist, instructor, and student feedback led to sweeping changes in interface and acquisitions. Further assessment has looked at the value of a central online resource for Earth-system science education in light of patterns of study. Columbia Earthscape aimed to create an authoritative resource that reflects the interconnectedness of the Internet, of the disciplines of Earth-systems science, and of research, education, and public policy. Evaluation thus has three parts. The editors and editorial advisory board have evaluated projects for the site for accuracy and relevance to the project?s original context of Earth issues and topical mini-courses. Second, our research sought patterns of student use and library acquisition of Internet sources. Last, we asked if and how students benefit from Columbia Earthscape. We found, first, that while libraries are understandably reluctant to add online resources to strained budgets, almost all students work online; they vary almost solely in personal Web use. Second, Web use does not discourage use of print. Third, researchers often search Columbia Earthscape, but students, especially in schools, prefer browsing by topic of interest. Fourth, if they did not have this resource, most would surf, but many feel lost on the Web, and few say they can judge the quality of materials they used. Fifth, students found Columbia Earthscape helpful, relevant, and current, but most often for its research and policy materials. Many commented on issue-related collections original to Columbia Earthscape. While indeed we intended our Classroom Models and Sample Syllabi primarily as aids to instructor course design, we conclude, first, that students stick anyway to assigned materials and

  4. Laboratory experiments on liquid fragmentation during Earth's core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landeau, M.; Deguen, R.; Olson, P.

    2013-12-01

    Buoyancy-driven fragmentation of one liquid in another immiscible liquid likely occurred on a massive scale during the formation of the Earth, when dense liquid metal blobs were released within deep molten silicate magma oceans. Another example of this phenomenon is the sudden release of petroleum into the ocean during the Deepwater Horizon disaster (Gulf of Mexico, 2010). We present experiments on the instability and fragmentation of blobs of a heavy liquid released into a lighter immiscible liquid. During the fragmentation process, we observe deformation of the released fluid, formation of filamentary structures, capillary instability, and eventually drop formation. We find that, at low and intermediate Weber numbers (which measures the importance of inertia versus surface tension), the fragmentation regime mainly results from the competition between a Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the roll-up of a vortex ring. At sufficiently high Weber numbers (the relevant regime for core formation), the fragmentation process becomes turbulent. The large-scale flow then behaves as a turbulent vortex ring or a turbulent thermal: it forms a coherent structure whose shape remains self-similar during the fall and which grows by turbulent entrainment of ambient fluid. An integral model based on the entrainment assumption, and adapted to buoyant vortex rings with initial momentum, is consistent with our experimental data. This indicates that the concept of turbulent entrainment is valid for non-dispersed immiscible fluids at large Weber and Reynolds numbers. Series of photographs, turbulent fragmentation regime, time intervals of about 0.2 s. Portions (red boxes) have been magnified (on the right).

  5. Land Use Planning Experiment for Introductory Earth Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetter, C. W., Jr.; Hoffman, James I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an activity which incorporates topographic map interpretation, soils analysis, hydrogeology, and local geology in a five-week series of exercises for an introductory college earth science class. (CP)

  6. Earth resources data systems design: S192 instrument measurements and characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and characteristics of the S192 instrument for use with the earth resources data systems are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) multispectral scanner measurements, (2) measurement characteristics, (3) calibration and aligment, (4) operating modes, and (5) time tagging and references. The S192 will obtain high spatial resolution, quantitative line scan imagery data of the radiation reflected and emitted by selected test sites in up to 13 spectral bands of visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  7. AGU Pathfinder: Career and Professional Development Resources for Earth and Space Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwell, D. E.; Asher, P. M.; Hankin, E. R.; Janick, N. G.; Marasco, L.

    2017-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is committed to inspiring and educating present and future generations of diverse, innovative, and creative Earth and space scientists. To meet our commitment, AGU provides career and educational resources, webinars, mentoring, and support for students and professionals at each level of development to reduce barriers to achievement and to promote professional advancement. AGU is also working with other organizations and educational institutions to collaborate on projects benefiting the greater geoscience community. The presentation will include an overview of current Pathfinder efforts, collaborative efforts, and an appeal for additional partnerships.

  8. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

  9. Patterns in Crew-Initiated Photography of Earth from ISS - Is Earth Observation a Salutogenic Experience?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Olson, Valerie A.; Trenchard, Mike; Willis, Kim; Baskin, Pam; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2006-01-01

    To provide for the well-being of crewmembers on future exploration missions, understanding how space station crewmembers handle the inherently stressful isolation and confinement during long-duration missions is important. A recent retrospective survey of previously flown astronauts found that the most commonly reported psychologically enriching aspects of spaceflight had to do with their Perceptions of Earth. Crewmembers onboard the International Space Station (ISS) photograph Earth through the station windows. Some of these photographs are in response to requests from scientists on the ground through the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload. Other photographs taken by crewmembers have not been in response to these formal requests. The automatically recorded data from the camera provides a dataset that can be used to test hypotheses about factors correlated with self-initiated crewmember photography. The present study used objective in-flight data to corroborate the previous questionnaire finding and to further investigate the nature of voluntary Earth-Observation activity. We examined the distribution of photographs with respect to time, crew, and subject matter. We also determined whether the frequency fluctuated in conjunction with major mission events such as vehicle dockings, and extra-vehicular activities (EVAs, or spacewalks), relative to the norm for the relevant crew. We also examined the influence of geographic and temporal patterns on frequency of Earth photography activities. We tested the hypotheses that there would be peak photography intensity over locations of personal interest, and on weekends. From December 2001 through October 2005 (Expeditions 4-11) crewmembers took 144,180 photographs of Earth with time and date automatically recorded by the camera. Of the time-stamped photographs, 84.5% were crew-initiated, and not in response to CEO requests. Preliminary analysis indicated some phasing in patterns of photography during the course of a

  10. New developments in ground probing radar for Earth resource mapping and planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattermole, P. J.; Junkin, G.; Finkelstein, M. I.; Kingsley, S. P.

    1992-07-01

    Ground probing radar is a well established technique for locating buried objects and has found application in resource mapping. The development of this technology for the Mars exploration programme has lead to lightweight systems with potential applications for investigating shallow geological structures on Earth, Mars and Venus. Recent advances in ground probing radar technology for planetary exploration include the development of single-antenna systems with improved beam focussing into the ground and a move to lower frequencies which considerably extends the depth penetration in dry ground. These systems are designed for mobility and could form the basis of autonomous mapping systems for terrestrial exploration. Such systems would be particularly valuable for water resource surveying in arid and semi-arid regions, where there is a need to have lightweight instrumentation that can be moved into sometimes inhospitable terrain.

  11. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 2. [remote sensors and data acquisition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Reports, articles, and other documents announced between April and June 1974 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR), and International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA) are cited. Documents related to the identification and evaluation by means of sensors in spacecraft and aircraft of vegetation, minerals, and other natural resources, and the techniques and potentialities of surveying and keeping up-to-date inventories of such riches are included along with studies of such natural phenomena as earthquakes, volcanoes, ocean currents, and magnetic fields; and such cultural phenomena as cities, transportation networks, and irrigation systems. The components and use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation, their subsystems, observational procedures, signature and analyses and interpretive techniques for gathering data are, described. All reports generated under NASA's Earth Resources Survey Program for the time period covered are included.

  12. The application of airborne imaging radars (L and X-band) to earth resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.; Shuchman, R. A.; Bryan, M. L.; Larson, R. W.; Liskow, C. L.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    A multiplexed synthetic aperture Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) that simultaneously images the terrain with X-band (3.2 cm) and L-band (23.0 cm) radar wavelengths was developed. The Feasibility of using multiplexed SLAR to obtain useful information for earth resources purposes. The SLAR imagery, aerial photographs, and infrared imagery are examined to determine the qualitative tone and texture of many rural land-use features imaged. The results show that: (1) Neither X- nor L-band SLAR at moderate and low depression angles can directly or indirectly detect pools of water under standing vegetation. (2) Many of the urban and rural land-use categories present in the test areas can be identified and mapped on the multiplexed SLAR imagery. (3) Water resources management can be done using multiplexed SLAR. (4) Drainage patterns can be determined on both the X- and L-band imagery.

  13. Earth resources requirements Skylab missions SL-1/SL-2, SL-3, and SL-4. Appendix B: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Earth resources requirements to be investigated by Skylab missions 1 through 4 are presented tabularly. Areas to be investigated include: (1) agriculture, range, and forestry; (2) geology; (3) continental water resources; (4) ocean investigations; (5) atmospheric investigations; (6) coastal zones, shoals, and bays; (7) remote sensing techniques; and (8) cartography.

  14. Interaction of Students' Academic Background and Support Levels in a Resource-Based Learning Environment on Earth's Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Wing Mui Winnie; Kong, Siu Cheung

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to study how a resource-based learning environment (RBLE) helps primary students develop better understanding of the Earth's movement. One objective of the study is to establish an RBLE by creating authentic contexts, selecting appropriate resources, designing relevant tools and adopting necessary scaffolds. The other objective…

  15. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  16. Mission requirements for a manned earth observatory. Volume 1, task 1: Experiment selection, definition, and documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Information related to proposed earth observation experiments for shuttle sortie missions (SSM) in the 1980's is presented. The step-wise progression of study activities and the development of the rationale that led to the identification, selection, and description of earth observation experiments for SSM are listed. The selected experiments are described, defined, and documented by individual disciplines. These disciplines include: oceanography; meteorology; agriculture, forestry, and rangeland; geology; hydrology; and environmental impact.

  17. Exploiting Dark Information Resources to Create New Value Added Services to Study Earth Science Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Li, Xiang; Bugbee, Kaylin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two research applications exploiting unused metadata resources in novel ways to aid data discovery and exploration capabilities. The results based on the experiments are encouraging and each application has the potential to serve as a useful standalone component or service in a data system. There were also some interesting lessons learned while designing the two applications and these are presented next.

  18. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  19. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  20. Evaluating Career Development Resources: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Retention of geoscientists throughout the professional pipeline is especially challenging in the case of groups that are already underrepresented in science, including racial minorities and women. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) is a professional network of early-career female geoscientists that provides its members with a variety of career resources, through both informal, online and in-person networking and formal career development workshops. The group’s members are of diverse nationalities and racial/ethnic backgrounds, of various age cohorts and career stages, but primarily graduate students, postdocs, and early-career researchers. With funding from an NSF ADVANCE grant to ESWN, we have conducted a detailed survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young geoscientists. The survey data provide information about members’ personal and professional situations, their professional development needs, and obstacles they face as young women scientists. ESWN members indicated a variety of areas of professional growth that would advance their scientific careers, but at all career stages, members chose expanding their professional networks as among their top career needs. Professional networking has established benefits for retention of people from groups underrepresented in science, including women: it introduces young scientists to career best practices and advancement opportunities, provides access to role models, and creates a sense of community. ESWN members strongly indicate that their professional networks benefited from their involvement with the Network. The community aspect of network-building is especially important for people from underrepresented groups, as they often feel alone due to the lack of role models. The intimate character of the ESWN discussion list greatly contributes to its members’ sense of community. Moreover, personal concerns and professional success are

  1. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using NASA Data Resources and Integrated Educational Strategies to Promote Authentic Research in the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graffi, Paige Valderrama; Stefanov, William; Willis, Kim; Runco, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Teachers in today s classrooms are bound by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can they gain skills and confidence to replace units or individual activities with curriculum that incorporates project and inquiry-based learning and promotes authentic research in the classroom? The key to promoting classroom authentic research experiences lies in educator professional development that is structured around teacher needs. The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program is a new geosciences program based at the NASA Johnson Space Center designed to engage, inspire and educate teachers and students in grades 5-14. The program promotes authentic research experiences for classrooms and uses strategies that will help NASA reach its education goals while still allowing educators to teach required standards. Teachers will have access to experts in terrestrial and planetary remote sensing and geoscience; this will enhance their use of content, structure, and relevant experiences to gain the confidence and skills they need to actively engage students in authentic research experiences. Integrated and powerful educational strategies are used to build skills and confidence in teachers. The strategies are as follows: 1) creating Standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources as ready-to-use materials that can be modified by teachers to fit their unique classroom situation; 2) providing ongoing professional development opportunities that focus on active experiences using curricular materials, inquiry-based techniques and expanding content knowledge; 3) connecting science experts to classrooms to deepen content knowledge and provide relevance to classroom activities and real world applications; 4) facilitating students sharing research with their peers and scientists reinforcing their active participation and contributions to research. These components of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program will be enhanced by providing exciting and

  2. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using NASA data resources and integrated educational strategies to promote authentic research in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.

    2009-12-01

    Teachers in today’s classrooms are bound by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can they gain skills and confidence to replace units or individual activities with curriculum that incorporates project and inquiry-based learning and promotes authentic research in the classroom? The key to promoting classroom authentic research experiences lies in educator professional development that is structured around teacher needs. The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program is a new geosciences program based at the NASA Johnson Space Center designed to engage, inspire and educate teachers and students in grades 5-14. The program promotes authentic research experiences for classrooms and uses strategies that will help NASA reach its education goals while still allowing educators to teach required standards. Teachers will have access to experts in terrestrial and planetary remote sensing and geoscience; this will enhance their use of content, structure, and relevant experiences to gain the confidence and skills they need to actively engage students in authentic research experiences. Integrated and powerful educational strategies are used to build skills and confidence in teachers. The strategies are as follows: 1) creating Standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources as ready-to-use materials that can be modified by teachers to fit their unique classroom situation; 2) providing ongoing professional development opportunities that focus on active experiences using curricular materials, inquiry-based techniques and expanding content knowledge; 3) connecting science experts to classrooms to deepen content knowledge and provide relevance to classroom activities and real world applications; 4) facilitating students sharing research with their peers and scientists reinforcing their active participation and contributions to research. These components of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program will be enhanced by providing exciting and

  3. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are considered to be highly "critical" by the European Commission [1], owing to the concentration of global supply [2] and their use in a wide range of emerging technologies (e.g. smart phones, electric cars and wind turbines). The main source of REE is the mineral bastnäsite, which is primarily extracted from carbonatites. Alternative resources of REE have been identified in a variety of other environments such as alluvial placers, bauxites and ore tailings. The EURARE project (www.eurare.eu), funded by the European Commission, aims to improve understanding of potential REE resources in Europe with the overall objective of establishing the basis for a European REE industry. As a part of this project, alternative sources of rare earth elements in Europe are being considered. REE have been identified as being particularly enriched in karst-bauxites and hence in the red muds generated as a waste product from the processing of these bauxites to alumina through the Bayer process [3]. Karst-bauxites are widely distributed with deposits known across the Mediterranean and with intermittent exploitation occurring over many decades. REE become concentrated in the bauxite deposits by the bauxitisation process and are retained due to the geochemical barrier created by the limestone bedrock below. This can result in several processes, including the crystallisation of authigenic REE-bearing minerals, the accumulation of residual phases and the adsorption of ions onto clays and other mineral surfaces [4]. Red muds produced from alumina processing represent a potentially important concentration of REE as it has been demonstrated that the REE pass through the alumina extraction process into the waste, and the total REE concentrations are typically enriched by a factor of two compared with the original bauxite ore [5]. Bauxites and red muds from the Parnassus Ghiona region of Greece [6] and the Seydişehir-Akseki region of Turkey have been assessed as

  4. Resource Exploration Approaches on Mars Using Multidisciplinary Earth-based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrick, D. Y.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Smart, K. J.

    2005-12-01

    Water is the most important Martian exploration target - key to finding evidence of past life and providing a crucial resource for future exploration. Water is thought to be present in vapor, liquid, and ice phases on Mars. Except for ice in polar regions, little direct evidence of current surface accumulation of water has been found. Existing research has addressed potential source areas, including meteoric water, glacial ice, and volcanic centers and areas of discharge such as large paleo-outflow channels. Missing from these analyses is characterization of migration pathways of water in the subsurface from sources to discharge areas, and the present distribution of water. It has been estimated that ~90% of the global inventory of water on Mars resides in the subsurface. Targeting potential subsurface accumulations has relied primarily on theoretical modeling and geomorphic analysis. While global scale thermal modeling and analysis of the stability of ground ice provide important constraints on potential locations of large deposits of ice or liquid water, these studies have not accounted for variations in stratigraphy and structure that may strongly influence local distribution. Depth to water or ice on Mars is thought to be controlled primarily by latitude and elevation. However, the distribution of outflow channels clearly indicates that structural, stratigraphic, and geomorphic features all play important roles in determining past and present distribution of water and ice on Mars as they do on Earth. Resource exploration and extraction is a multi-billion dollar industry on Earth that has developed into a highly sophisticated enterprise with constantly improving exploration technologies. Common to all successful exploration programs, whether for hydrocarbons or water, is detailed analysis and integration of all available geologic, geophysical and remotely sensed data. The primary issues for identification and characterization of water or hydrocarbon resource

  5. Exploiting multicore compute resources in the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, J. E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Hernández, J. M.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    CMS has developed a strategy to efficiently exploit the multicore architecture of the compute resources accessible to the experiment. A coherent use of the multiple cores available in a compute node yields substantial gains in terms of resource utilization. The implemented approach makes use of the multithreading support of the event processing framework and the multicore scheduling capabilities of the resource provisioning system. Multicore slots are acquired and provisioned by means of multicore pilot agents which internally schedule and execute single and multicore payloads. Multicore scheduling and multithreaded processing are currently used in production for online event selection and prompt data reconstruction. More workflows are being adapted to run in multicore mode. This paper presents a review of the experience gained in the deployment and operation of the multicore scheduling and processing system, the current status and future plans.

  6. Earth resources technology satellite /ERTS/ data collection and transmission buoys for inland, neritic and oceanic waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, W. S.; Yen, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    As a result of a consortium of several industries and organizations, an economical, versatile, and stable data collection and transmission buoy has been designed, developed, and deployed to gather and transmit water quality data to a ground receiving station at three-minute intervals and to the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as it passes over the deployed buoy every 12 hours. The buoy system, designed for both fresh and salt water application, gathers data inclusive of temperature measurement, conductivity, relative acidity, dissolved oxygen, current speed, and direction. The mechanical design philosophy used to determine and satisfy boundary conditions involving stability, ease of deployment, servicing and maintenance, minimal manufacturing costs, and fresh and salt water installation capability is discussed. The development of peripheral handling equipment and anchoring systems is described.

  7. Earth Resources Technology Satellite data collection project, ERTS - Bolivia. [thematic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite program of Bolivia has developed a multidisciplinary project to carry out investigations in cartography and to prepare various thematic maps. In cartography, investigations are being carried out with the ERTS-1 images and with existing maps, to determine their application to the preparation of new cartographic products on one hand and on the other to map those regions where the cartography is still deficient. The application of the MSS images to the geological mapping has given more than satisfactory results. Working with conventional photointerpretation, it has been possible to prepare regional geological maps, tectonic maps, studies relative to mining, geomorphological maps, studies relative to petroleum exploration, volcanological maps and maps of hydrologic basins. In agriculture, the ERTS images are used to study land classification and forest and soils mapping.

  8. The precision-processing subsystem for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapelle, W. E.; Bybee, J. E.; Bedross, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the precision processor, a subsystem in the image-processing system for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS). This processor is a special-purpose image-measurement and printing system, designed to process user-selected bulk images to produce 1:1,000,000-scale film outputs and digital image data, presented in a Universal-Transverse-Mercator (UTM) projection. The system will remove geometric and radiometric errors introduced by the ERTS multispectral sensors and by the bulk-processor electron-beam recorder. The geometric transformations required for each input scene are determined by resection computations based on reseau measurements and image comparisons with a special ground-control base contained within the system; the images are then printed and digitized by electronic image-transfer techniques.

  9. Development of bubble memory recorder onboard Japan Earth Resources Satellite-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Tsunehiko; Ishida, Chu; Ochiai, Kiyoshi; Nozue, Tatsuhiro; Tachibana, Kyozo; Yoshida, Kazutoshi

    The Bubble Memory Recorder (BMR) developed for use on the Earth Resources Satellite is described in terms of its design, capabilities, and functions. The specifications of the BMR are given listing memory capacity, functions, and interface types for data, command, and telemetry functions. The BMR has an emergency signal interface to provide contingency recording, and a satellite-separation signal interface can be turned on automatically by signal input. Data are stored in a novolatile memory device so that the memory is retained during power outages. The BMR is characterized by a capability for random access, nonvolatility, and a solid-state design that is useful for space operations since it does not disturb spacecraft attitude.

  10. Building Capacity to Use NASA Earth Observations in the Water Resource Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Crepps, G.; Clayton, A.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program builds capacity to use and apply NASA Earth observations to address environmental concerns around the globe. The DEVELOP model builds capacity in both participants (students, recent graduates, and early and transitioning career professionals) who conduct the projects and partners (decision and policy makers) who are recipients of project methodologies and results. Projects focus on a spectrum of thematic topics, including water resource management which made up 30% of the DEVELOP FY2017 portfolio. During this period, DEVELOP conducted water-focused feasibility studies in collaboration with 22 partners across 13 U.S. states and five countries. This presentation will provide an overview of needs identified, DEVELOP's response, data sources, challenges, and lessons learned.

  11. Feasibility study of scanning celestial Attitude System (SCADS) for Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Scanning Celestial Attitude Determination System (SCADS) during Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) missions to compute an accurate spacecraft attitude by use of stellar measurements is considered. The spacecraft is local-vertical-stabilized. A heuristic discussion of the SCADS concept is first given. Two concepts are introduced: a passive system which contains no moving parts, and an active system in which the reticle is caused to rotate about the sensor's axis. A quite complete development of the equations of attitude motions is then given. These equations are used to generate the true attitude which in turn is used to compute the transit times of detectable stars and to determine the errors associated with the SCADS attitude. A more complete discussion of the analytical foundation of SCADS concept and its use for the geometries particular to this study, as well as salient design parameters for the passive and active systems are included.

  12. ERISTAR: Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval administrative report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, R. I.; Obrien, J. F., Jr.; Lueg, R. E.; Cox, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The 1972 Systems Engineering program at Marshall Space Flight Center where 15 participants representing 15 U.S. universities, 1 NASA/MSFC employee, and another specially assigned faculty member, participated in an 11-week program is discussed. The Fellows became acquainted with the philosophy of systems engineering, and as a training exercise, used this approach to produce a conceptional design for an Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval System. The program was conducted in three phases; approximately 3 weeks were devoted to seminars, tours, and other presentations to subject the participants to technical and other aspects of the information management problem. The second phase, 5 weeks in length, consisted of evaluating alternative solutions to problems, effecting initial trade-offs and performing preliminary design studies and analyses. The last 3 weeks were occupied with final trade-off sessions, final design analyses and preparation of a final report and oral presentation.

  13. The first Earth Resources Technology Satellite - Nearly two years of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.

    1974-01-01

    A brief status report is given of the ERTS-1 satellite system as of June, 1974, and some applications of the ERTS-1 images are discussed. The multispectral images make it possible to identify or measure the quality and composition of water, the potential water content of snow, the moisture and possible composition of soils, the types and state of vegetation cover, and factors relating to stresses on the environment. The orthographic view of the earth provided by the satellite makes it possible to rapidly produce thematic maps, on a scale of 1:250,000, of most areas of the world. The regular, repetitive coverage provided by ERTS-1 every 18 days is important in areas such as water-supply and flood-damage studies. The use of ERTS-1 imagery for land-use planning, wetlands surveying, assessing marine resources, and observing processes such as desertification in the African Sahel is discussed.

  14. Let's Talk About Water: Film as a Resource to Engage Audiences Around Earth Science Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, E.; Hooper, R. P.; Lilienfeld, L.

    2017-12-01

    Connecting a diverse audience to science can be challenging. Scientists generally publish their findings in ways that are not easily accessible to audiences outside of the science community and translating findings for wider consumption requires a mindful balance of generalization and accuracy. In response to these communication challenges, the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) developed the Let's Talk About Water (LTAW) program as a formula for hosting successful events for Earth Science education. The program uses film as a bridge to open a discussion between scientists and the audience. In this setting, films are powerful educational tools because they use storytelling to engage audiences emotionally, which creates relatable, teachable moments. Originally designed to bring awareness to water issues, the formula can easily be applied to increase literacy on climate change and other critical Earth Science issues facing society. This presentation will discuss the LTAW event formula and the resources that CUAHSI has available to support event organizers in the development of their own LTAW events.

  15. Integration and Exposure of Large Scale Computational Resources Across the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, D.; Maxwell, T. P.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.; Chaudhary, A.; Ames, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the size of remote sensing observations and model output data grows, the volume of the data has become overwhelming, even to many scientific experts. As societies are forced to better understand, mitigate, and adapt to climate changes, the combination of Earth observation data and global climate model projects is crucial to not only scientists but to policy makers, downstream applications, and even the public. Scientific progress on understanding climate is critically dependent on the availability of a reliable infrastructure that promotes data access, management, and provenance. The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has created such an environment for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). ESGF provides a federated global cyber infrastructure for data access and management of model outputs generated for the IPCC Assessment Reports (AR). The current generation of the ESGF federated grid allows consumers of the data to find and download data with limited capabilities for server-side processing. Since the amount of data for future AR is expected to grow dramatically, ESGF is working on integrating server-side analytics throughout the federation. The ESGF Compute Working Team (CWT) has created a Web Processing Service (WPS) Application Programming Interface (API) to enable access scalable computational resources. The API is the exposure point to high performance computing resources across the federation. Specifically, the API allows users to execute simple operations, such as maximum, minimum, average, and anomalies, on ESGF data without having to download the data. These operations are executed at the ESGF data node site with access to large amounts of parallel computing capabilities. This presentation will highlight the WPS API, its capabilities, provide implementation details, and discuss future developments.

  16. Earth System Grid II (ESG): Turning Climate Model Datasets Into Community Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Middleton, D.; Foster, I.; Nevedova, V.; Kesselman, C.; Chervenak, A.; Bharathi, S.; Drach, B.; Cinquni, L.; Brown, D.; Strand, G.; Fox, P.; Garcia, J.; Bernholdte, D.; Chanchio, K.; Pouchard, L.; Chen, M.; Shoshani, A.; Sim, A.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution, long-duration simulations performed with advanced DOE SciDAC/NCAR climate models will produce tens of petabytes of output. To be useful, this output must be made available to global change impacts researchers nationwide, both at national laboratories and at universities, other research laboratories, and other institutions. To this end, we propose to create a new Earth System Grid, ESG-II - a virtual collaborative environment that links distributed centers, users, models, and data. ESG-II will provide scientists with virtual proximity to the distributed data and resources that they require to perform their research. The creation of this environment will significantly increase the scientific productivity of U.S. climate researchers by turning climate datasets into community resources. In creating ESG-II, we will integrate and extend a range of Grid and collaboratory technologies, including the DODS remote access protocols for environmental data, Globus Toolkit technologies for authentication, resource discovery, and resource access, and Data Grid technologies developed in other projects. We will develop new technologies for (1) creating and operating "filtering servers" capable of performing sophisticated analyses, and (2) delivering results to users. In so doing, we will simultaneously contribute to climate science and advance the state of the art in collaboratory technology. We expect our results to be useful to numerous other DOE projects. The three-year R&D program will be undertaken by a talented and experienced team of computer scientists at five laboratories (ANL, LBNL, LLNL, NCAR, ORNL) and one university (ISI), working in close collaboration with climate scientists at several sites.

  17. Experimenting with Sensor Webs Using Earth Observing 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing 1 ( EO-1) satellite was launched November 21, 2000 as a one year technology validation mission. After an almost flawless first year of operations, EO-1 continued to operate in a test bed d e to validate additional technologies and concepts that will be applicable to future sensor webs. A sensor web is a group of sensors, whether space-based, ground-based or air plane-based which act in a collaborative autonomous manner to produce more value than would otherwise result from the individual observations.

  18. Using Immersive Visualizations to Improve Decision Making and Enhancing Public Understanding of Earth Resource and Climate Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

    2008-12-01

    New visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. We have impacted the community through topical policy presentations at both state and city levels, adult education classes at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS), and public lectures at DMNS. We have constructed three-dimensional models from well data and surface observations which allow policy makers to better understand the distribution of groundwater in sandstone aquifers of the Denver Basin. Our presentations to local governments in the Denver metro area have allowed resource managers to better project future ground water depletion patterns, and to encourage development of alternative sources. DMNS adult education classes on water resources, geography, and regional geology, as well as public lectures on global issues such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion, have utilized the visualizations developed from these research models. In addition to presenting GIS models in traditional lectures, we have also made use of the immersive display capabilities of the digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium at DMNS. The real-time Uniview visualization application installed at Gates was designed for teaching astronomy, but it can be re-purposed for displaying our model datasets in the context of the Earth's surface. The 17-meter diameter dome of the Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience---similar to virtual reality CAVEs employed by the oil exploration industry---that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend

  19. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  20. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit and/or on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  1. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  2. Soil warming response: field experiments to Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd-Brown, K. E.; Bradford, M.; Wieder, W. R.; Crowther, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The soil carbon response to climate change is extremely uncertain at the global scale, in part because of the uncertainty in the magnitude of the temperature response. To address this uncertainty we collected data from 48 soil warming manipulations studies and examined the temperature response using two different methods. First, we constructed a mixed effects model and extrapolated the effect of soil warming on soil carbon stocks under anticipated shifts in surface temperature during the 21st century. We saw significant vulnerability of soil carbon stocks, especially in high carbon soils. To place this effect in the context of anticipated changes in carbon inputs and moisture shifts, we applied a one pool decay model with temperature sensitivities to the field data and imposed a post-hoc correction on the Earth system model simulations to integrate the field with the simulated temperature response. We found that there was a slight elevation in the overall soil carbon losses, but that the field uncertainty of the temperature sensitivity parameter was as large as the variation in the among model soil carbon projections. This implies that model-data integration is unlikely to constrain soil carbon simulations and highlights the importance of representing parameter uncertainty in these Earth system models to inform emissions targets.

  3. Livingstone Model-Based Diagnosis of Earth Observing One Infusion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing One satellite, launched in November 2000, is an active earth science observation platform. This paper reports on the progress of an infusion experiment in which the Livingstone 2 Model-Based Diagnostic engine is deployed on Earth Observing One, demonstrating the capability to monitor the nominal operation of the spacecraft under command of an on-board planner, and demonstrating on-board diagnosis of spacecraft failures. Design and development of the experiment, specification and validation of diagnostic scenarios, characterization of performance results and benefits of the model- based approach are presented.

  4. Big Earth Data: the Film, the Experience, and some Thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, P.

    2016-12-01

    Scientists have to get out of the ivory tower and tell society, which ultimately finances them, about their work, their results, and implications, be they good or bad. This is commonly accepted ethics. But how would you "tell society" at large what you are doing? Scientific work typically is difficult to confer to lay people, and finding suitable simplifications and paraphrasings requires considerable effort. Estimating societal implications is dangerous as swimming with sharks, some of which are your own colleagues. Media tend to be not always interested - unless results are particularly spectacular, well, in a press sense. Again, sharks are luring. All this makes informing the public a tedious, time-consuming task which tends to receive not much appreciation in tenure negotiations where indexed publications are the first and foremost measure.As part of the EU funded EarthServer initiative we tried it. Having promised a "video about the project" we found it boring to do another 10 minute repetition from the grant contract and started aiming at a full TV documentary explaining "Big Earth Data" to the interested citizens. It took more than one year to convince a TV producing company and TV stations that this is not another feature about the beauty of nature or catastrophies, but a bout human insight from computer-supported sifting through all those observations and simulations available. After they got the gist they were fully on board and supported financially with a substantial amount. The final 53 minutes "Big Earth Data" movie was broadcast in February 2015 in German and French (English version available from ). Several smaller spin-off features originated around it, such as an uptake of the theme (and material) in a popular German science TV series.Of course, this is but one contribution and cannot be made a continuous activity. In the talk we want to present and discuss the "making of" from a scientist's perspective, highlighting the ups and downs in the

  5. Big Earth Data: the Film, the Experience, and some Thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, P.; Hoenig, H.

    2015-12-01

    Scientists have to get out of the ivory tower and tell society, which ultimately finances them, about their work, their results, and implications, be they good or bad. This is commonly accepted ethics. But how would you "tell society" at large what you are doing? Scientific work typically is difficult to confer to lay people, and finding suitable simplifications and paraphrasings requires considerable effort. Estimating societal implications is dangerous as swimming with sharks, some of which are your own colleagues. Media tend to be not always interested - unless results are particularly spectacular, well, in a press sense. Again, sharks are luring. All this makes informing the public a tedious, time-consuming task which tends to receive not much appreciation in tenure negotiations where indexed publications are the first and foremost measure.As part of the EU funded EarthServer initiative we tried it. Having promised a "video about the project" we found it boring to do another 10 minute repetition from the grant contract and started aiming at a full TV documentary explaining "Big Earth Data" to the interested citizens. It took more than one year to convince a TV producing company and TV stations that this is not another feature about the beauty of nature or catastrophies, but about human insight from computer-supported sifting through all those observations and simulations available. After they got the gist they were fully on board and supported financially with a substantial amount. The final 53 minutes "Big Earth Data" movie was broadcast in February 2015 in German and French (English version available from ). Several smaller spin-off features originated around it, such as an uptake of the theme (and material) in a popular German science TV series.Of course, this is but one contribution and cannot be made a continuous activity. In the talk we want to present and discuss the "making of" from a scientist's perspective, highlighting the ups and downs in the

  6. The Blueprint for Change: A National Strategy to Enhance Access to Earth and Space Science Education Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.; Barstow, D.

    2001-12-01

    Enhancing access to high quality science education resources for teachers, students, and the general public is a high priority for the earth and space science education communities. However, to significantly increase access to these resources and promote their effective use will require a coordinated effort between content developers, publishers, professional developers, policy makers, and users in both formal and informal education settings. Federal agencies, academic institutions, professional societies, informal science centers, the Digital Library for Earth System Education, and other National SMETE Digital Library Projects are anticipated to play key roles in this effort. As a first step to developing a coordinated, national strategy for developing and delivering high quality earth and space science education resources to students, teachers, and the general public, 65 science educators, scientists, teachers, administrators, policy makers, and business leaders met this June in Snowmass, Colorado to create "Earth and Space Science Education 2010: A Blueprint for Change". The Blueprint is a strategy document that will be used to guide Earth and space science education reform efforts in grades K-12 during the next decade. The Blueprint contains specific goals, recommendations, and strategies for coordinating action in the areas of: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development, Curriculum and Materials, Equity and Diversity, Assessment and Evaluation, Public Policy and Systemic Reform, Public and Informal Education, Partnerships and Collaborations, and Technology. If you develop, disseminate, or use exemplary earth and space science education resources, we invite you to review the Blueprint for Change, share it with your colleagues and local science educators, and join as we work to revolutionize earth and space science education in grades K-12.

  7. Only One Earth: United Nations Environmental Sabbath/Earth Rest Day, June 1-3, 1990. [Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Program, New York, NY.

    This publication was assembled with the idea of assisting religious leaders in all denominations to conduct services which would relate to the healing of Planet Earth in conjunction with the first United Nations Environmental Sabbath during June, 1990. Part I is introductory, in nature, and contains factual data concerning the following…

  8. A Research Experience for Undergraduates on Sustainable Land and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbotten, D. M.; Berthelote, A. R.; Myrbo, A.; Ito, E.; Howes, T.

    2011-12-01

    A new research experience for undergraduates is being piloted which supports student involvement in management of land and water resources with sustainability as the major focus. Working on two Native American reservations (Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, and Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of Flathead Reservation) and in conjunction with local tribal colleges, we particularly focus on management of tribal land and water resources. In this way we work to both increase the involvement of Native American students in the geosciences and support ethical partnerships for research on Native lands. Students also have the opportunity to work experimentally at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory in conjunction with the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics.

  9. In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment for the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Fries, M.; Love, S.; Sellar, R. G.; Voecks, G.; Wilson, D.

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) represents a unique opportunity to perform in-situ testing of concepts that could lead to full-scale exploitation of asteroids for their valuable resources [1]. This paper describes a concept for an astronautoperated "suitcase" experiment to would demonstrate asteroid volatile extraction using a solar-heated oven and integral cold trap in a configuration scalable to full-size asteroids. Conversion of liberated water into H2 and O2 products would also be demonstrated through an integral processing and storage unit. The plan also includes development of a local prospecting system consisting of a suit-mounted multi-spectral imager to aid the crew in choosing optimal samples, both for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and for potential return to Earth.

  10. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [water and forest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    Progress and results of an integrated study of California's water resources are discussed. The investigation concerns itself primarily with the usefulness of remote sensing of relation to two categories of problems: (1) water supply; and (2) water demand. Also considered are its applicability to forest management and timber inventory. The cost effectiveness and utility of remote sensors such as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite for water and timber management are presented.

  11. Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacefield, James Anderson

    Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of responding teachers were found to be properly certified to teach the subject; most had been trained for teaching life science. Approximately one-half had never had a course in geology, astronomy, or meteorology--the three primary components of the typical earth science course. Of 32 earth science topics suggested for possible additional inservice workshops, teachers responding to the Logue and Lacefield survey selected Alabama and Southeastern geology as the topic of greatest interest and need. As an alternative to conventional inservice training, an illustrated book on Alabama geologic history was developed for publication. Its purpose was to supply an ongoing, usable geologic reference for Alabama earth science teachers and their students and to promote greater understanding of Alabama geology by the public in general. Entitled Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: The Half-Billion Year Record of Change in the State's Life and Landscape, the 82-page book (included as appendix) explains how geologic history is reconstructed using evidence from rocks, surveys the major sets of sedimentary rocks found within the state, details what each means in terms of ancient environment, and describes how Alabama's present landscape can be interpreted to reflect past geologic changes. The resource includes nearly 200 color photographs and graphics and 12 pages of fossil identification guides illustrating the most common fossil organisms found within the state. A selected group of professional geologists and earth science educators evaluated the book for scientific accuracy, format, presentation of content, and

  12. A major light rare-earth element (LREE) resource in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, southern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Horton, Forrest; Buttleman, Kim; Scott, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in world demand for the rare-earth elements (REEs) has expanded the search for new REE resources. We document two types of light rare-earth element (LREE)-enriched rocks in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of southern Afghanistan: type 1 concordant seams of khanneshite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce) within banded barite-strontianite alvikite, and type 2 igneous dikes of coarse-grained carbonatite, enriched in fluorine or phosphorus, containing idiomorphic crystals of khanneshite-(Ce) or carbocernaite. Type 1 mineralized barite-strontianite alvikite averages 22.25 wt % BaO, 4.27 wt % SrO, and 3.25 wt % ∑ LREE2O3 (sum of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd oxides). Type 2 igneous dikes average 14.51 wt % BaO, 5.96 wt % SrO, and 3.77 wt % ∑ LREE2O3. A magmatic origin is clearly indicated for the type 2 LREE-enriched dikes, and type 1 LREE mineralization probably formed in the presence of LREE-rich hydrothermal fluid. Both types of LREE mineralization may be penecontemporaneous, having formed in a carbonate-rich magma in the marginal zone of the central vent, highly charged with volatile constituents (i.e., CO2, F, P2O5), and strongly enriched in Ba, Sr, and the LREE. Based on several assumptions, and employing simple geometry for the zone of LREE enrichment, we estimate that at least 1.29 Mt (million metric tonnes) of LREE2O3 is present in this part of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex.

  13. Geology and market-dependent significance of rare earth element resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simandl, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    China started to produce rare earth elements (REEs) in the 1980s, and since the mid-1990s, it has become the dominant producer. Rare earth element export quotas first introduced by the Chinese government in the early 2000s were severely reduced in 2010 and 2011. This led to strong government-created disparity between prices within China and the rest of the world. Industrialized countries identified several REEs as strategic metals. Because of rapid price increases of REE outside of China, we have witnessed a world-scale REE exploration rush. The REE resources are concentrated in carbonatite-related deposits, peralkaline igneous rocks, pegmatites, monazite ± apatite veins, ion adsorption clays, placers, and some deep ocean sediments. REE could also be derived as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production, U processing, mining of Ti-Zr-bearing placers, and exploitation of Olympic Dam subtype iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits. Currently, REEs are produced mostly from carbonatite-related deposits, but ion adsorption clay deposits are an important source of heavy REE (HREE). Small quantities of REE are derived from placer deposits and one peralkaline intrusion-related deposit. The ideal REE development targets would be located in a politically stable jurisdiction with a pro-mining disposition such as Canada and Australia. REE grade, HREE/light REE (LREE) ratio of the mineralization, tonnage, mineralogy, and permissive metallurgy are some of the key technical factors that could be used to screen potential development projects. As REEs are considered strategic metals from economic, national security, and environmental points of view, technical and economic parameters alone are unlikely to be used in REE project development decision-making. Recycling of REE is in its infancy and unless legislated, in the short term, it is not expected to contribute significantly to the supply of REE.

  14. Managing coastal area resources by stated choice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W.

    2010-02-01

    In many coastal regions, oil spills can be considered as one of the most important and certainly the most noticeable forms of marine pollution. Efficient contingency management responding to oil spills on waters, which aims at minimizing pollution effects on coastal resources, turns out to be critically important. Such a decision making highly depends on the importance attributed to different coastal economic and ecological resources. Economic uses can, in principal, be addressed by standard measures such as value added. However, there is a missing of market in the real world for natural goods. Coastal resources such as waters and beach cannot be directly measured in money terms, which increases the risk of being neglected in a decision making process. This paper evaluates these natural goods of coastal environment in a hypothetical market by employing stated choice experiments. Oil spill management practice in German North Sea is used as an example. Results from a pilot survey show that during a combat process, beach and eider ducks are of key concerns for households. An environmental friendly combat option has to be a minor cost for households. Moreover, households with less children, higher monthly income and a membership of environmental organization are more likely to state that they are willing to pay for combat option to prevent coastal resources from an oil pollution. Despite that choice experiments require knowledge of designing questionnaire and statistical skills to deal with discrete choices and conducting a survey is time consumed, the results have important implications for oil spill contingency management. Overall, such a stated preference method can offer useful information for decision makers to consider coastal resources into a decision making process and can further contribute to finding a cost-effective oil preventive measure, also has a wide application potential in the field of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).

  15. Development of online instructional resources for Earth system science education: An example of current practice from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shaochun; Xu, Shijin; Lu, Xiancai

    2009-06-01

    Educators around the world are striving to make science more accessible and relevant to students. Online instructional resources have become an integral component of tertiary science education and will continue to grow in influence and importance over the coming decades. A case study in the iterative improvement of the online instructional resources provided for first-year undergraduates taking " Introductory Earth System Science" at Nanjing University in China is presented in this paper. Online instructional resources are used to conduct a student-centered learning model in the domain of Earth system science, resulting in a sustainable online instructional framework for students and instructors. The purpose of our practice is to make Earth system science education more accessible and exciting to students, changing instruction from a largely textbook-based teacher-centered approach to a more interactive and student-centered approach, and promoting the integration of knowledge and development of deep understanding by students. Evaluation on learning performance and learning satisfaction is conducted to identify helpful components and perception based on students' learning activities. The feedbacks indicate that the use of online instructional resources has positive impacts on mitigating Earth system science education challenges, and has the potential to promote deep learning.

  16. Photographic consulting services to the Earth Resources program. [using aerial photography as a tool for scientific measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The recommendations, procedures, and techniques are summarized which provided by the Kodak Apparatus Division to the Ames Research Center to support the Earth Resources Aircraft Program at that facility. Recommendations, procedures, and calibration data are included for sensitometry, densitometry, laboratory cleanliness, and determination of camera exposure. Additional comments are made regarding process control procedures and general laboratory operations.

  17. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 3: Mission and System Requirements for the Total Earth Resources System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Resource management missions to be performed by TERSSE are described. Mission and user requirements are defined along with information flows developed for each major resource management mission. Other topics discussed include: remote sensing platforms, remote sensor requirements, ground system architecture, and such related issues as cloud cover, resolution, orbit mechanics, and aircraft versus satellite.

  18. Manifestations of the rotation and gravity of the Earth in high-energy physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.

    2016-08-01

    The inertial (due to rotation) and gravitational fields of the Earth affect the motion of an elementary particle and its spin dynamics. This influence is not negligible and should be taken into account in high-energy physics experiments. Earth's influence is manifest in perturbations in the particle motion, in an additional precession of the spin, and in a change of the constitutive tensor of the Maxwell electrodynamics. Bigger corrections are oscillatory, and their contributions average to zero. Other corrections due to the inhomogeneity of the inertial field are not oscillatory but they are very small and may be important only for the storage ring electric dipole moment experiments. Earth's gravity causes the Newton-like force, the reaction force provided by a focusing system, and additional torques acting on the spin. However, there are no observable indications of the electromagnetic effects due to Earth's gravity.

  19. Third Earth Resources Technology Satellite Symposium. Volume 3: Discipline summary reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freden, S. C. (Compiler); Mercanti, E. P. (Compiler); Friedman, D. B. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Presentations at the conference covered the following disciplines: (1) agriculture, forestry, and range resources; (2) land use and mapping; (3) mineral resources, geological structure, and landform surveys; (4) water resources; (5) marine resources; (6) environment surveys; and (7) interpretation techniques.

  20. Study of the effect of cloud inhomogeneity on the earth radiation budget experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.

    1988-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is the most recent and probably the most intensive mission designed to gather precise measurements of the Earth's radiation components. The data obtained from ERBE is of great importance for future climatological studies. A statistical study reveals that the ERBE scanner data are highly correlated and that instantaneous measurements corresponding to neighboring pixels contain almost the same information. Analyzing only a fraction of the data set when sampling is suggested and applications of this strategy are given in the calculation of the albedo of the Earth and of the cloud-forcing over ocean.

  1. The Earth Resources Observation Systems data center's training technical assistance, and applications research activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturdevant, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDO, administered by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, provides remotely sensed data to the user community and offers a variety of professional services to further the understanding and use of remote sensing technology. EDC reproduces and sells photographic and electronic copies of satellite images of areas throughout the world. Other products include aerial photographs collected by 16 organizations, including the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Primary users of the remotely sensed data are Federal, State, and municipal government agencies, universities, foreign nations, and private industries. The professional services available at EDC are primarily directed at integrating satellite and aircraft remote sensing technology into the programs of the Department of the Interior and its cooperators. This is accomplished through formal training workshops, user assistance, cooperative demonstration projects, and access to equipment and capabilities in an advanced data analysis laboratory. In addition, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, universities, and the general public can get assistance from the EDC Staff. Since 1973, EDC has contributed to the accelerating growth in development and operational use of remotely sensed data for land resource problems through its role as educator and by conducting basic and applied remote sensing applications research. As remote sensing technology continues to evolve, EDC will continue to respond to the increasing demand for timely information on remote sensing applications. Questions most often asked about EDC's research and training programs include: Who may attend an EDC remote sensing training course? Specifically, what is taught? Who may cooperate with EDC on remote sensing projects? Are interpretation services provided on a service basis? This report attempts to define the goals and

  2. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Research in remote sensing of agriculture, earth resources, and man's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Research performed on NASA and USDA remote sensing projects are reviewed and include: (1) the 1971 Corn Blight Watch Experiment; (2) crop identification; (3) soil mapping; (4) land use inventories; (5) geologic mapping; and (6) forest and water resources data collection. The extent to which ERTS images and airborne data were used is indicated along with computer implementation. A field and laboratory spectroradiometer system is described together with the LARSYS software system, both of which were widely used during the research. Abstracts are included of 160 technical reports published as a result of the work.

  4. Review of Low Earth Orbital (LEO) flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Santosmason, B.; Visentine, J.; Kuminecz, J.

    1987-01-01

    The atomic oxygen flux exposure experiments flown on Space Shuttle flights STS-5 and STS-8 are described along with the results of measurements made on hardware returned from the Solar Maximum repair mission (Space Shuttle flight 41-C). In general, these experiments have essentially provided for passive exposure of samples to oxygen fluences of approximately 1 to 3.5 x 10(20) atoms/sq cm. Atmospheric density is used to derive fluence and is dependent on solar activity, which has been on the decline side of the 11-year cycle. Thus, relatively low flight altitudes of less than 300 km were used to acquire these exposures. After exposure, the samples were analyzed using various methods ranging from mass loss to extensive scanning electron microscopy and surface analysis techniques. Results are summarized and implications for the space station are discussed.

  5. Earth Resources Technology Satellite: Non-US standard catalog No. N-13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    To provide dissemination of information regarding the availability of Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) imagery, a Non-U.S. Standard Catalog is published on a monthly schedule. The catalogs identify imagery which has been processed and input to the data files during the preceding month. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering all areas except that of the United States, Hawaii, and Alaska. Imagery adjacent to the Continental U.S. and Alaska borders will normally appear in the U.S. Standard Catalog. As a supplement to these catalogs, an inventory of ERTS imagery on 16 millimeter microfilm is available. The catalogs consist of four parts: (1) annotated maps which graphically depict the geographic areas covered by the imagery listed in the current catalog, (2) a computer-generated listing organized by observation identification number (ID) with pertinent information for each image, (3) a computer listing of observations organized by longitude and latitude, and (4) observations which have had changes made in their catalog information since the original entry in the data base.

  6. NASA Wavelength: A Full Spectrum of NASA Resources for Earth and Space Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Schwerin, T. G.; Peticolas, L. M.; Porcello, D.; Kansa, E.; Shipp, S. S.; Bartolone, L.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have developed a digital library--NASAWavelength.org--that enables easy discovery and retrieval of thousands of resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio. The system has been developed based on best practices in the architecture and design of web-based information systems. The design style and philosophy emphasize simple, reusable data and services that facilitate the free flow of data across systems. The primary audiences for NASA Wavelength are STEM educators (K-12, higher education and informal education) as well as scientists, education and public outreach professionals who work with K-12, higher education, and informal education. A NASA Wavelength strandmap service features the 19 AAAS strandmaps that are most relevant to NASA science; the service also generates all of the 103 AAAS strandmaps with content from the Wavelength collection. These maps graphically and interactively provide connections between concepts as well as illustrate how concepts build upon one another across grade levels. New features have been developed for this site based on user feedback, including list-building so that users can create and share individual collections within Wavelength. We will also discuss potential methods for integrating the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into the search and discovery tools on NASA Wavelength.

  7. The first earth resources technology satellite nearly two years of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.

    1974-01-01

    A brief status report on the performance of the ERTS-1, and an overview of the applications derived from the images are presented. The ERTS-1 spacecraft, sensor and picture processing systems have continued to perform almost flawlessly since August 1972. Registered, multispectral images of all major land masses of the earth, both polar and some oceanic regions are continuously made, covering daily an area of about 5 million square kilometers. The systematic repetition of these observations, which were made over most parts of the world at least once every season, and the high accuracy of thematic mapping that can be obtained from the images, have resulted in many applications that have immense potential benefits for developing countries. Among these applications are the detection and accurate mensuration of surface water; the identification and mensuration of forests, rangeland, crops and soils; the monitoring and mapping of water quality, wildlife habitats and of the effects of land use practices on food and water resources; the assessment of flooding and earthquake hazards; and the facilitation of mineral exploration.

  8. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  9. Production Experiences with the Cray-Enabled TORQUE Resource Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Ezell, Matthew A; Maxwell, Don E; Beer, David

    High performance computing resources utilize batch systems to manage the user workload. Cray systems are uniquely different from typical clusters due to Cray s Application Level Placement Scheduler (ALPS). ALPS manages binary transfer, job launch and monitoring, and error handling. Batch systems require special support to integrate with ALPS using an XML protocol called BASIL. Previous versions of Adaptive Computing s TORQUE and Moab batch suite integrated with ALPS from within Moab, using PERL scripts to interface with BASIL. This would occasionally lead to problems when all the components would become unsynchronized. Version 4.1 of the TORQUE Resource Manager introducedmore » new features that allow it to directly integrate with ALPS using BASIL. This paper describes production experiences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the new TORQUE software versions, as well as ongoing and future work to improve TORQUE.« less

  10. Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource for rare-earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kitamura, Kenichi; Ohta, Junichiro; Toda, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Takuya; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2011-08-01

    World demand for rare-earth elements and the metal yttrium--which are crucial for novel electronic equipment and green-energy technologies--is increasing rapidly. Several types of seafloor sediment harbour high concentrations of these elements. However, seafloor sediments have not been regarded as a rare-earth element and yttrium resource, because data on the spatial distribution of these deposits are insufficient. Here, we report measurements of the elemental composition of over 2,000 seafloor sediments, sampled at depth intervals of around one metre, at 78 sites that cover a large part of the Pacific Ocean. We show that deep-sea mud contains high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium at numerous sites throughout the eastern South and central North Pacific. We estimate that an area of just one square kilometre, surrounding one of the sampling sites, could provide one-fifth of the current annual world consumption of these elements. Uptake of rare-earth elements and yttrium by mineral phases such as hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite seems to be responsible for their high concentration. We show that rare-earth elements and yttrium are readily recovered from the mud by simple acid leaching, and suggest that deep-sea mud constitutes a highly promising huge resource for these elements.

  11. Rare earth element mineralogy, geochemistry, and preliminary resource assessment of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Buttleman, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    There is increased concern about the future availability of rare earth elements (REE) because of China's dominance as the supplier of more than 95 percent of world REE output, their decision to restrict exports of rare earth products, and the rapid increase in world-wide consumption of rare earth product. As a result, countries such as the United States, Japan, and member nations of the European Union face a future of tight supplies and high prices for rare earth products unless other sources of REE are found and developed (Long and others, 2010; U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, p. 128-129, 184-185). We report and describe a significant new deposit of light rare earth elements (LREE), estimated at 1 Mt, within the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of south Afghanistan. The potential resource is located in a remote and rugged part of the igneous complex in a region previously identified by Soviet geologists in the 1970s. This report reviews the geologic setting of LREE deposit, presents new geochemical data documenting the grade of LREE mineralization, briefly describes the mineralogy and mineralogical associations of the deposit, and presents a preliminary estimate of LREE resources based on our current understanding of the geology.

  12. Potential Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiments and Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from failures not possible with delivery of spares and consumables from Earth alone. While lunar ISRU has significant potential for mass, cost, and risk reduction for human lunar missions, it has never been demonstrated before in space. To demonstrate that ISRU can meet mission needs and to increase confidence in incorporating ISRU capabilities into mission architectures, terrestrial laboratory and analog field testing along with robotic precursor missions are required. A stepwise approach with international collaboration is recommended. This paper will outline the role of ISRU in future lunar missions, and define the approach and possible experiments to increase confidence in ISRU applications for future human lunar exploration

  13. Revealing the Earth's mantle from the tallest mountains using the Jinping Neutrino Experiment.

    PubMed

    Šrámek, Ondřej; Roskovec, Bedřich; Wipperfurth, Scott A; Xi, Yufei; McDonough, William F

    2016-09-09

    The Earth's engine is driven by unknown proportions of primordial energy and heat produced in radioactive decay. Unfortunately, competing models of Earth's composition reveal an order of magnitude uncertainty in the amount of radiogenic power driving mantle dynamics. Recent measurements of the Earth's flux of geoneutrinos, electron antineutrinos from terrestrial natural radioactivity, reveal the amount of uranium and thorium in the Earth and set limits on the residual proportion of primordial energy. Comparison of the flux measured at large underground neutrino experiments with geologically informed predictions of geoneutrino emission from the crust provide the critical test needed to define the mantle's radiogenic power. Measurement at an oceanic location, distant from nuclear reactors and continental crust, would best reveal the mantle flux, however, no such experiment is anticipated. We predict the geoneutrino flux at the site of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment (Sichuan, China). Within 8 years, the combination of existing data and measurements from soon to come experiments, including Jinping, will exclude end-member models at the 1σ level, define the mantle's radiogenic contribution to the surface heat loss, set limits on the composition of the silicate Earth, and provide significant parameter bounds for models defining the mode of mantle convection.

  14. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 2: An Assessment of the Current State-of-the-Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Results of a state-of-the-art assessment of technology areas which affect the Earth Resources Program are presented along with a functional description of the basic earth resources system. Major areas discussed include: spacecraft flight hardware, remote sensors, data processing techniques and hardware, user models, user interfaces, and operations technology.

  15. Earth Observation in Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, Stephane

    Several national and international initiatives, both from the private or the institutional sectors, arised to address the sustainable development of the extractive industry and the reduction of its environmental footprint. Meanwhile, the extractive industry is facing increasing environmental and societal pressures, being regulatory or not, during all phases of a project, from exploration to exploitation and closure. The social acceptability of a project is among the major key issues to be dealt with. The EO-MINERS project (Earth Observation for Monitoring and Observing Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation) is a newly EU funded Research and Technological Development project started in February 2010. EO-MINERS scientific and technical objectives are to: i) assess policy requirements at macro (public) and micro (mining companies) levels and define environmental, socio-economic, societal and sustainable development criteria and indicators to be possibly dealt using EO (Earth Observation); ii) use existing EO knowledge and carry out new developments on demonstration sites to further demonstrate the capabilities of integrated EO-based methods and tools in monitoring, managing and contributing reducing the environmental and societal footprints of the extractive industry during all phases of a mining project, from the exploration to the exploitation and closure stages; iii) contribute making reliable and objective information about affected ecosystems, populations and societies, to serve as a basis for a sound "trialogue" between industrialists, governmental organisations and stakeholders. EO-MINERS also is designed to embed the outcomes of the project firmly in the GEO process through a review the existing GEO Tasks covering the 9 societal benefit and 5 transverse areas defined by GEO work plan 2007-2009. This analysis will be used to identify synergies and gaps between EO-MINERS and GEO, with the aim of mapping mining and

  16. Modeling and characterization of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) nonscanner and scanner sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Taylor, Deborah B.

    1989-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is making high-absolute-accuracy measurements of the reflected solar and Earth-emitted radiation as well as the incoming solar radiation from three satellites: ERBS, NOAA-9, and NOAA-10. Each satellite has four Earth-looking nonscanning radiometers and three scanning radiometers. A fifth nonscanner, the solar monitor, measures the incoming solar radiation. The development of the ERBE sensor characterization procedures are described using the calibration data for each of the Earth-looking nonscanners and scanners. Sensor models for the ERBE radiometers are developed including the radiative exchange, conductive heat flow, and electronics processing for transient and steady state conditions. The steady state models are used to interpret the sensor outputs, resulting in the data reduction algorithms for the ERBE instruments. Both ground calibration and flight calibration procedures are treated and analyzed. The ground and flight calibration coefficients for the data reduction algorithms are presented.

  17. Design of experiment for earth rotation and baseline parameter determination from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermanis, A.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of recovering earth rotation and network geometry (baseline) parameters are emphasized. The numerical simulated experiments performed are set up in an environment where station coordinates vary with respect to inertial space according to a simulated earth rotation model similar to the actual but unknown rotation of the earth. The basic technique of VLBI and its mathematical model are presented. The parametrization of earth rotation chosen is described and the resulting model is linearized. A simple analysis of the geometry of the observations leads to some useful hints on achieving maximum sensitivity of the observations with respect to the parameters considered. The basic philosophy for the simulation of data and their analysis through standard least squares adjustment techniques is presented. A number of characteristic network designs based on present and candidate station locations are chosen. The results of the simulations for each design are presented together with a summary of the conclusions.

  18. GeoBrain for Facilitating Earth Science Education in Higher-Education Institutes--Experience and Lessons-learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, M.; di, L.

    2007-12-01

    Data integration and analysis are the foundation for the scientific investigation in Earth science. In the past several decades, huge amounts of Earth science data have been collected mainly through remote sensing. Those data have become the treasure for Earth science research. Training students how to discover and use the huge volume of Earth science data in research become one of the most important trainings for making a student a qualified scientist. Being developed by a NASA funded project, the GeoBrain system has adopted and implemented the latest Web services and knowledge management technologies for providing innovative methods in publishing, accessing, visualizing, and analyzing geospatial data and in building/sharing geoscience knowledge. It provides a data-rich online learning and research environment enabled by wealthy data and information available at NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Students, faculty members, and researchers from institutes worldwide can easily access, analyze, and model with the huge amount of NASA EOS data just like they possess such vast resources locally at their desktops. Although still in development, the GeoBrain system has been operational since 2005. A number of education materials have been developed for facilitating the use of GeoBrain as a powerful education tool for Earth science education at both undergraduate and graduate levels. Thousands of online higher-education users worldwide have used GeoBrain services. A number of faculty members in multiple universities have been funded as GeoBrain education partners to explore the use of GeoBrain in the classroom teaching and student research. By summarizing and analyzing the feedbacks from the online users and the education partners, this presentation presents the user experiences on using GeoBrain in Earth science teaching and research. The feedbacks on classroom use of GeoBrain have demonstrated that GeoBrain is very useful for

  19. Constructing a Cross-Domain Resource Inventory: Key Components and Results of the EarthCube CINERGI Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Malik, T.; Hsu, L.; Gupta, A.; Grethe, J. S.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Lehnert, K. A.; Bermudez, L. E.; Ozyurt, I. B.; Whitenack, T.; Schachne, A.; Giliarini, A.

    2015-12-01

    While many geoscience-related repositories and data discovery portals exist, finding information about available resources remains a pervasive problem, especially when searching across multiple domains and catalogs. Inconsistent and incomplete metadata descriptions, disparate access protocols and semantic differences across domains, and troves of unstructured or poorly structured information which is hard to discover and use are major hindrances toward discovery, while metadata compilation and curation remain manual and time-consuming. We report on methodology, main results and lessons learned from an ongoing effort to develop a geoscience-wide catalog of information resources, with consistent metadata descriptions, traceable provenance, and automated metadata enhancement. Developing such a catalog is the central goal of CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability), an EarthCube building block project (earthcube.org/group/cinergi). The key novel technical contributions of the projects include: a) development of a metadata enhancement pipeline and a set of document enhancers to automatically improve various aspects of metadata descriptions, including keyword assignment and definition of spatial extents; b) Community Resource Viewers: online applications for crowdsourcing community resource registry development, curation and search, and channeling metadata to the unified CINERGI inventory, c) metadata provenance, validation and annotation services, d) user interfaces for advanced resource discovery; and e) geoscience-wide ontology and machine learning to support automated semantic tagging and faceted search across domains. We demonstrate these CINERGI components in three types of user scenarios: (1) improving existing metadata descriptions maintained by government and academic data facilities, (2) supporting work of several EarthCube Research Coordination Network projects in assembling information resources for their domains

  20. Passive exposure of Earth radiation budget experiment components. LDEF experiment AO-147: Post-flight examinations and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The flight spare sensors of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment of the Nimbus 6 and 7 missions were flown aboard the LDEF. The preliminary post retrieval examination and test results are presented here for the sensor windows and filters, the thermopile sensors and a cavity radiometer.

  1. High-resolution Earth-based lunar radar studies: Applications to lunar resource assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, N. J. S.; Campbell, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    The lunar regolith will most likely be a primary raw material for lunar base construction and resource extraction. High-resolution radar observations of the Moon provide maps of radar backscatter that have intensity variations generally controlled by the local slope, material, and structural properties of the regolith. The properties that can be measured by the radar system include the dielectric constant, density, loss tangent, and wavelength scale roughness. The radar systems currently in operation at several astronomical observatories provide the ability to image the lunar surface at spatial resolutions approaching 30 m at 3.8 cm and 12.6 cm wavelengths and approximately 500 m at 70 cm wavelength. The radar signal penetrates the lunar regolith to a depth of 10-20 wavelengths so the measured backscatter contains contributions from the vacuum-regolith interface and from wavelength-scale heterogeneities in the electrical properties of the subsurface material. The three wavelengths, which are sensitive to different scale structures and scattering volumes, provide complementary information on the regolith properties. Aims of the previous and future observations include (1) analysis of the scattering properties associated with fresh impact craters, impact crater rays, and mantled deposits; (2) analysis of high-incidence-angle observations of the lunar mare to investigate measurement of the regolith dielectric constant and hence porosity; (3) investigation of interferometric techniques using two time-delayed observations of the same site, observations that require a difference in viewing geometry less than 0.05 deg and, hence, fortuitous alignment of the Earth-Moon system when visible from Arecibo Observatory.

  2. Storms in Space: Bringing NASA Earth-Sun Science Educational Resources to Hearing- Impaired Students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, K.; Sindt, M.; Jahn, J.

    2007-12-01

    Using assistive technology, children with hearing loss can actively participate in the hearing world. However, to develop the necessary skills, hearing-impaired students need to be immersed in a language-rich environment which compensates for the lack of "incidental" learning that typifies the language acquisition of their peers with typical hearing. For any subject matter taught in class, this means that the conceptual and language framework of the topic has to be provided in addition to regular class materials. In a collaboration between the Sunshine Cottage School for Deaf Children and the Southwest Research Institute, we are exploring how NASA-developed educational resources covering Space Science topics can be incorporated successfully in blended classrooms containing children with hearing loss and those with typical hearing in grades 3-5. Utilizing the extensive routine language monitoring performed at Sunshine Cottage, student progress is directly monitored during the year as well as from year to year. This allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of the resources used. Since all instruction at Sunshine Cottage is auditory-oral, our experiences in using those materials can be fed back directly into mainstream classrooms of the same grade levels.

  3. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  4. Accelerated Capacity Development in Water Resources Education: the experiences of the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamirew, T.; Mekonnen, G.; Viglione, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia recently recognises that the water resources development is the major entry point in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Water in Ethiopia plays a key role in the Water-Energy-Food-nexus. Over 98% of the electricity in the country is generated using hydropower and yet about 2000 MW has been developed. Out of the 3.5 Mha potentially irrigable land, only 0.25 Mha has been developed to date. Access to drinking water supply coverage is among the lowest in the world. One of the limiting factors in harnessing the resource base is the absence of water professionals to face the fast growing demand in education, research, development in the water sector. Recognising this, in collaboration with University of Connecticut of the United States, Addis Ababa University launched the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR) by enrolling 18 PhD and 24 MSc students. The program is unique in that much of the course instructors are coming from US and European Universities, but deliver courses together with Ethiopian collaborators. This is supposed to facilitate knowledge and experience transfer from the US/EU scientist to Ethiopian counterparts. The theses/dissertations are designed to focus on Ethiopia's immediate hydrological problems on selected basins, and will be coordinated by three advisors for each PhD - one from US/EU, one from Ethiopian Universities, and one water professional from the sector. We report here the lessons learned in setting up the EIWR institute and the education program.

  5. Data analysis and software support for the Earth radiation budget experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, W.; Natarajan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Computer programming and data analysis efforts were performed in support of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) at NASA/Langley. A brief description of the ERBE followed by sections describing software development and data analysis for both prelaunch and postlaunch instrument data are presented.

  6. An Experience of Science Theatre to Introduce Earth Interior and Natural Hazards to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana; D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes an experience of science theatre addressed to children of primary and secondary school, with the main purpose of making them acquainted with a topic, the interior of the Earth, largely underestimated in compulsory school curricula worldwide. A not less important task was to encourage a positive attitude towards natural…

  7. Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Cumulative non-US standard catalog, 23 July 1972 - 23 July 1973. Volume 1: Observation ID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A catalog containing data pertaining to the imagery acquired by the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) from its date of launch, July 23, 1972 through the first year of activity is presented. The catalog supersedes the previous catalog which supplied data available through May 1973. Two listings of the imagery are included: (1) an observation identifications listing and (2) a listing of the imagery based on geographical location, the coordinate listing.

  8. Through-the-earth communication: Experiment results from Billie Mine and Mississippi Chemical Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buettner, H. M.; Didwall, E. M.; Bukofzer, D. C.

    1988-06-01

    As part of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) effort to evaluate Through-the-Earth Communication (TEC) as an option for military communication systems, experiments were conducted involving transmission, reception, and performance monitoring of digital electromagnetic communication signals propagating through the earth. The two experiments reported on here not only demonstrated that TEC is useful for transmissions at digital rates above a few bits per second, but also provided data on performance parameters with which to evaluate TEC in various military applications. The most important aspect of these experiments is that the bit error rate (BER) is measured rather than just estimated from purely analytic developments. By measuring this important parameter, not only has more credibility been lent to the proof of concept goals of the experiment, but also a means for judging the effects of assumptions in BER theoretical models has been provided.

  9. Inflated concepts for the earth science geostationary platform and an associated flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friese, G.

    1992-01-01

    Large parabolic reflectors and solar concentrators are of great interest for microwave transmission, solar powered rockets, and Earth observations. Collector subsystems have been under slow development for a decade. Inflated paraboloids have a great weight and package volume advantage over mechanically erected systems and, therefore, have been receiving greater attention recently. The objective of this program was to produce a 'conceptual definition of an experiment to assess in-space structural damping characteristics and effects of the space meteoroid environment upon structural integrity and service life of large inflatable structures.' The flight experiment was to have been based upon an inflated solar concentration, but much of that was being done on other programs. To avoid redundancy, the Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESGP) was selected as a focus mission for the experiment. Three major areas were studied: the ESGP reflector configuration; flight experiment; and meteoroids.

  10. J-Earth: An Essential Resource for Terrestrial Remote Sensing and Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, S.; Rupp, J.; Cheeseman, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Prashad, L. C.; Dickenshied, S.; Anwar, S.; Noss, D.; Murray, K.

    2011-12-01

    There is a need for a software tool that has the ability to display and analyze various types of earth science and social data through a simple, user-friendly interface. The J-Earth software tool has been designed to be easily accessible for download and intuitive use, regardless of the technical background of the user base. This tool does not require courses or text books to learn to use, yet is powerful enough to allow a more general community of users to perform complex data analysis. Professions that will benefit from this tool range from geologists, geographers, and climatologists to sociologists, economists, and ecologists as well as policy makers. J-Earth was developed by the Arizona State University Mars Space Flight Facility as part of the JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) suite of open-source tools. The program is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) application used for viewing and processing satellite and airborne remote sensing data. While the functionality of JMARS has historically focused on the research needs of the planetary science community, J-Earth has been designed for a much broader Earth-based user audience. NASA instrument products accessible within J-Earth include data from ASTER, GOES, Landsat, MODIS, and TIMS. While J-Earth contains exceptionally comprehensive and high resolution satellite-derived data and imagery, this tool also includes many socioeconomic data products from projects lead by international organizations and universities. Datasets used in J-Earth take the form of grids, rasters, remote sensor "stamps", maps, and shapefiles. Some highly demanded global datasets available within J-Earth include five levels of administrative/political boundaries, climate data for current conditions as well as models for future climates, population counts and densities, land cover/land use, and poverty indicators. While this application does share the same powerful functionality of JMARS, J-Earth's apperance is

  11. Urban fifth graders' connections-making between formal earth science content and their lived experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brkich, Katie Lynn

    2014-03-01

    Earth science education, as it is traditionally taught, involves presenting concepts such as weathering, erosion, and deposition using relatively well-known examples—the Grand Canyon, beach erosion, and others. However, these examples—which resonate well with middle- and upper-class students—ill-serve students of poverty attending urban schools who may have never traveled farther from home than the corner store. In this paper, I explore the use of a place-based educational framework in teaching earth science concepts to urban fifth graders and explore the connections they make between formal earth science content and their lived experiences using participant-driven photo elicitation techniques. I argue that students are able to gain a sounder understanding of earth science concepts when they are able to make direct observations between the content and their lived experiences and that when such direct observations are impossible they make analogies of appearance, structure, and response to make sense of the content. I discuss additionally the importance of expanding earth science instruction to include man-made materials, as these materials are excluded traditionally from the curriculum yet are most immediately available to urban students for examination.

  12. On-orbit characterizations of Earth Radiation Budget Experiment broadband shortwave active cavity radiometer sensor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Wilson, Robert S.; Smith, G. Louis; Bush, Kathryn A.; Thomas, Susan; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Paden, Jack

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) missions were designed to monitor long-term changes in the earth radiation budget components which may cause climate changes. During the October 1984 through September 2004 period, the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS)/ERBE nonscanning active cavity radiometers (ACR) were used to monitor long-term changes in the earth radiation budget components of the incoming total solar irradiance (TSI), earth-reflected TSI, and earth-emitted outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). The earth-reflected total solar irradiances were measured using broadband shortwave fused, waterless quartz (Suprasil) filters and ACR"s that were covered with a black paint absorbing surface. Using on-board calibration systems, 1984 through 1999, long-term ERBS/ERBE ACR sensor response changes were determined from direct observations of the incoming TSI in the 0.2-5 micrometer shortwave broadband spectral region. During the October 1984 through September 1999 period, the ERBS shortwave sensor responses were found to decrease as much as 8.8% when the quartz filter transmittances decreased due to direct exposure to TSI. On October 6, 1999, the on-board ERBS calibration systems failed. To estimate the 1999-2004, ERBS sensor response changes, the 1984-1997 NOAA-9, and 1986-1995 NOAA-10 Spacecraft ERBE ACR responses were used to characterize response changes as a function of exposure time. The NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 ACR responses decreased as much as 10% due to higher integrated TSI exposure times. In this paper, for each of the ERBS, NOAA-9, and NOAA-10 Spacecraft platforms, the solar calibrations of the ERBE sensor responses are described as well as the derived ERBE sensor response changes as a function of TSI exposure time. For the 1984-2003 ERBS data sets, it is estimated that the calibrated ERBE earth-reflected TSI measurements have precisions approaching 0.2 Watts-per-squared-meter at satellite altitudes.

  13. Flow experience and the mobilization of attentional resources.

    PubMed

    de Sampaio Barros, Marcelo Felipe; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M; Trevelin, Luis Carlos; Radel, Rémi

    2018-05-07

    The present study attempts to better identify the neurophysiological changes occurring during flow experience and how this can be related to the mobilization of attentional resources. Self-reports of flow (using a flow feelings scale) and attention (using thought probes), autonomic activity (heart rate, heart rate variability, and breathing rate), and cerebral oxygenation (using near-infrared spectroscopy) in two regions of the frontoparietal attention network (right lateral frontal cortex and right inferior parietal lobe) were measured during the practice of two simple video games (Tetris and Pong) played at different difficulty conditions (easy, optimal, hard, or self-selected). Our results indicated that an optimal level of difficulty, compared with an easy or hard level of difficulty led to greater flow feelings and a higher concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in the regions of the frontoparietal network. The self-selected, named autonomy condition did not lead to more flow feelings than the optimal condition; however, the autonomy condition led to greater sympathetic activity (reduced heart rate variability and greater breathing rate) and higher activation of the frontoparietal regions. Our study suggests that flow feelings are highly connected to the mobilization of attentional resources, and all the more in a condition that promotes individuals' choice and autonomy.

  14. Monitoring of computing resource utilization of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, David; Dimitrov, Gancho; Vukotic, Ilija; Aidel, Osman; Schaffer, Rd; Albrand, Solveig

    2012-12-01

    Due to the good performance of the LHC accelerator, the ATLAS experiment has seen higher than anticipated levels for both the event rate and the average number of interactions per bunch crossing. In order to respond to these changing requirements, the current and future usage of CPU, memory and disk resources has to be monitored, understood and acted upon. This requires data collection at a fairly fine level of granularity: the performance of each object written and each algorithm run, as well as a dozen per-job variables, are gathered for the different processing steps of Monte Carlo generation and simulation and the reconstruction of both data and Monte Carlo. We present a system to collect and visualize the data from both the online Tier-0 system and distributed grid production jobs. Around 40 GB of performance data are expected from up to 200k jobs per day, thus making performance optimization of the underlying Oracle database of utmost importance.

  15. Servicing and Deployment of National Resources in Sun-Earth Libration Point Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Beckman, Mark; Mar, Greg C.; Mesarch, Michael; Cooley, Steven; Leete, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft travel between the Sun-Earth system, the Earth-Moon system, and beyond has received extensive attention recently. The existence of a connection between unstable regions enables mission designers to envision scenarios of multiple spacecraft traveling cheaply from system to system, rendezvousing, servicing, and refueling along the way. This paper presents examples of transfers between the Sun-Earth and Earth-Moon systems using a true ephemeris and perturbation model. It shows the (Delta)V costs associated with these transfers, including the costs to reach the staging region from the Earth. It explores both impulsive and low thrust transfer trajectories. Additionally, analysis that looks specifically at the use of nuclear power in libration point orbits and the issues associated with them such as inadvertent Earth return is addressed. Statistical analysis of Earth returns and the design of biased orbits to prevent any possible return are discussed. Lastly, the idea of rendezvous between spacecraft in libration point orbits using impulsive maneuvers is addressed.

  16. Radiation Information for Designing and Interpreting Biological Experiments Onboard Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straume, T.; Slaba, T.; Bhattacharya, S.; Braby, L. A.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in flying biological experiments beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) to measure biological responses potentially relevant to those expected during a human mission to Mars. Such experiments could be payloads onboard precursor missions, including unmanned private-public partnerships, as well as small low-cost spacecraft (satellites) designed specifically for biosentinel type missions. Designing such experiments requires knowledge of the radiation environment and its interactions with both the spacecraft and the experimental payload. Information is provided here that is useful for designing such experiments.

  17. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  18. Studying the Earth's Environment from Space: Computer Laboratory Exercised and Instructor Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; Alfultis, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Studying the Earth's Environment From Space is a two-year project to develop a suite of CD-ROMs containing Earth System Science curriculum modules for introductory undergraduate science classes. Lecture notes, slides, and computer laboratory exercises, including actual satellite data and software, are being developed in close collaboration with Carla Evans of NASA GSFC Earth Sciences Directorate Scientific and Educational Endeavors (SEE) project. Smith and Alfultis are responsible for the Oceanography and Sea Ice Processes Modules. The GSFC SEE project is responsible for Ozone and Land Vegetation Modules. This document constitutes a report on the first year of activities of Smith and Alfultis' project.

  19. Magnetic shielding in a low temperature torsion pendulum experiment. [superconducting cylinders for attenuation earth field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of ether drift experiment searches for anomalous torques on a permanent magnet. A torsion pendulum is used at liquid helium temperature, so that superconducting cylinders can be used to shield magnetic fields. Lead shields attenuate the earth's field, while Nb-Sn shields fastened to the pendulum contain the fields of the magnet. The paper describes the technique by which the earth's field can be reduced below 0.0001 G while simultaneously the moment of the magnet can be reduced by a factor 7 x 10 to the 4th.

  20. Radiative Energy Budget Studies Using Observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, R.; Shie, M.; Olson, R.; Collimore, C.; Friedman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Our research activities under this NASA grant have focused on two broad topics associated with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE): (1) the role of clouds and the surface in modifying the radiative balance; and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of the earth's radiation budget. Each of these broad topics is discussed separately in the text that follows. The major points of the thesis are summarized in section 3 of this report. Other dissertation focuses on deriving the radiation budget over the TOGA COARE region.

  1. Miniature Tunable Laser Spectrometers for Quantifying Atmospheric Trace Gases, Water Resources, Earth Back-Contamination, and In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Chris; Blacksberg, Jordana; Flesch, Greg; Keymeulen, Didier; Christensen, Lance; Forouhar, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    The Tunable Laser Spectrometers (TLS) technique has seen wide applicability in gas measurement and analysis for atmospheric analysis, industrial, commercial and health monitoring and space applications. In Earth science using balloons and aircraft over 2 decades, several groups (JPL, NASA Langley & Ames, NOAA, Harvard U., etc) have demonstrated the technique for ozone hole studies, lab kinetics measurements, cloud physics and transport, climate change in the ice record. The recent availability of high-power (mW) room temperature lasers (TDL, IC, QC) has enabled miniaturized, high-sensitivity spectrometers for industry and space (1) Mars, Titan, Venus, Saturn, Moon (2) Commercial isotope ratio spectrometers are replacing bulkier, complex isotope ratio mass spectrometers.

  2. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth system models - Part 1: Problem definition and representation of water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have caused various changes to the Earth system, and hence the interconnections between human activities and the Earth system should be recognized and reflected in models that simulate Earth system processes. One key anthropogenic activity is water resource management, which determines the dynamics of human-water interactions in time and space and controls human livelihoods and economy, including energy and food production. There are immediate needs to include water resource management in Earth system models. First, the extent of human water requirements is increasing rapidly at the global scale and it is crucial to analyze the possible imbalance between water demands and supply under various scenarios of climate change and across various temporal and spatial scales. Second, recent observations show that human-water interactions, manifested through water resource management, can substantially alter the terrestrial water cycle, affect land-atmospheric feedbacks and may further interact with climate and contribute to sea-level change. Due to the importance of water resource management in determining the future of the global water and climate cycles, the World Climate Research Program's Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (WRCP-GEWEX) has recently identified gaps in describing human-water interactions as one of the grand challenges in Earth system modeling (GEWEX, 2012). Here, we divide water resource management into two interdependent elements, related firstly to water demand and secondly to water supply and allocation. In this paper, we survey the current literature on how various components of water demand have been included in large-scale models, in particular land surface and global hydrological models. Issues of water supply and allocation are addressed in a companion paper. The available algorithms to represent the dominant demands are classified based on the demand type, mode of simulation and underlying modeling assumptions. We discuss

  3. Cross-Cultural Field Experiences in Earth and Social Sciences for Chilean and American Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, J.; Russell, M.; Fuentes, B.; Riffo, A.; Link, T. E.; Caamaño, D.; King, R.; Barra, R.

    2017-12-01

    the plans of both countries. This project is an example of the value of supplemental field experiences in graduate education, as it stimulated conversations on earth science subjects that transcend disciplines, cultures, and scales, and provided students a practicum for applying interdisciplinary research techniques.

  4. Earth Sciences: Curriculum Resources and Activities for School Librarians and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Amy; Richer, Janet; Weckman, Janet

    This book provides resources to teachers and librarians for creating thematic units on specific topics targeting grades K-8. Each topic includes key concepts, comprehensive teaching resources, teaching resources (nonfiction children's literature), reading selections (fiction children's literature), science activities, creative writing and art…

  5. Remote Sensing of Earth Resources: A literature survey with indexes (1970 - 1973 supplement). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between March 1970 and December 1973 are presented in the following areas: agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  6. Earth orbital experiment program and requirements study, volume 1, sections 1 - 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A reference manual for planners of manned earth-orbital research activity is presented. The manual serves as a systems approach to experiment and mission planning based on an integrated consideration of candidate research programs and the appropriate vehicle, mission, and technology development requirements. Long range goals and objectives for NASA activities during the 1970 to 1980 time period are analyzed. The useful and proper roles of manned and automated spacecraft for implementing NASA experiments are described. An integrated consideration of NASA long range goals and objectives, the system and mission requirements, and the alternative implementation plans are developed. Specific areas of investigation are: (1) manned space flight requirements, (2) space biology, (3) spaceborne astronomy, (4) space communications and navigation, (5) earth observation, (6) supporting technology development requirements, (7) data management system matrices, (8) instrumentation matrices, and (9) biotechnology laboratory experiments.

  7. New Web Services for Broader Access to National Deep Submergence Facility Data Resources Through the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, V. L.; Grange, B.; Morton, J. J.; Soule, S. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-12-01

    The National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) operates the Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV) Alvin, the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason, and the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry. These vehicles are deployed throughout the global oceans to acquire sensor data and physical samples for a variety of interdisciplinary science programs. As part of the EarthCube Integrative Activity Alliance Testbed Project (ATP), new web services were developed to improve access to existing online NDSF data and metadata resources. These services make use of tools and infrastructure developed by the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) and enable programmatic access to metadata and data resources as well as the development of new service-driven user interfaces. The Alvin Frame Grabber and Jason Virtual Van enable the exploration of frame-grabbed images derived from video cameras on NDSF dives. Metadata available for each image includes time and vehicle position, data from environmental sensors, and scientist-generated annotations, and data are organized and accessible by cruise and/or dive. A new FrameGrabber web service and service-driven user interface were deployed to offer integrated access to these data resources through a single API and allows users to search across content curated in both systems. In addition, a new NDSF Dive Metadata web service and service-driven user interface was deployed to provide consolidated access to basic information about each NDSF dive (e.g. vehicle name, dive ID, location, etc), which is important for linking distributed data resources curated in different data systems.

  8. The ClearEarth Project: Preliminary Findings from Experiments in Applying the CLEARTK NLP Pipeline and Annotation Tools Developed for Biomedicine to the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, R.; Thessen, A.; Jenkins, C. J.; Palmer, M.; Myers, S.; Ramdeen, S.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to quickly find, easily use and effortlessly integrate data from a variety of sources is a grand challenge in Earth sciences, one around which entire research programs have been built. A myriad of approaches to tackling components of this challenge have been demonstrated, often with some success. Yet finding, assessing, accessing, using and integrating data remains a major challenge for many researchers. A technology that has shown promise in nearly every aspect of the challenge is semantics. Semantics has been shown to improve data discovery, facilitate assessment of a data set, and through adoption of the W3C's Linked Data Platform to have improved data integration and use at least for data amenable to that paradigm. Yet the creation of semantic resources has been slow. Why? Amongst a plethora of other reasons, it is because semantic expertise is rare in the Earth and Space sciences; the creation of semantic resources for even a single discipline is labor intensive and requires agreement within the discipline; best practices, methods and tools for supporting the creation and maintenance of the resources generated are in flux; and the human and financial capital needed are rarely available in the Earth sciences. However, other fields, such as biomedicine, have made considerable progress in these areas. The NSF-funded ClearEarth project is adapting the methods and tools from these communities for the Earth sciences in the expectation that doing so will enhance progress and the rate at which the needed semantic resources are created. We discuss progress and results to date, lessons learned from this adaptation process, and describe our upcoming efforts to extend this knowledge to the next generation of Earth and data scientists.

  9. Frequency band justifications for passive sensors, 1 to 10 GHz. [for monitoring earth resources and the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensor systems operating in the microwave region of the frequency spectrum provide information unobtainable with basic imaging techniques such as photography, television, or multispectral imaging. The frequency allocation requirements for passive microwave sensors used in the earth exploration satellite and space research services are presented for: (1) agriculture, forestry, and range resources; (2) land use survey and mapping: (3) water resources; (4) weather and climate; (5) environmental quality; and (6) marine resources, estuarine and oceans. Because measurements are required simultaneously in multiple frequency bands to adequately determine values of some phenomena, the relationships between frequency bands are discussed. The various measurement accuracies, dynamic range, resolutions and frequency needs are examined. A band-by-band summary of requirements, unique aspects, and sharing analyses of the required frequency bands is included.

  10. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California based on ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Thorley, G. A.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, V. R.; Wildman, W. E.; Huntington, G. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Results of an integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data are presented. Areas of investigation cover (1) regional agricultural surveys; (2) solving water resource management problems; (3) resource management in Northern California using ERTS-1 data; (4) analysis of river meanders; (5) assessment and monitoring change in west side of the San Joaquin Valley and central coastal zone of state; (6) assessment and monitoring of changes in Southern California environment; (7) digital handling and processing of ERTS-1 data; (8) use of ERTS-1 data in educational and applied research programs of the Agricultural Extension Service; and (9) identification, classification, and mapping of salt affected soils.

  11. Use of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to calibrate the optical sensor on board the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.; Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Shimada, Masanobu

    1993-01-01

    We describe an experiment to calibrate the optical sensor (OPS) on board the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 with data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). On 27 Aug. 1992 both the OPS and AVIRIS acquired data concurrently over a calibration target on the surface of Rogers Dry Lake, California. The high spectral resolution measurements of AVIRIS have been convolved to the spectral response curves of the OPS. These data in conjunction with the corresponding OPS digitized numbers have been used to generate the radiometric calibration coefficients for the eight OPS bands. This experiment establishes the suitability of AVIRIS for the calibration of spaceborne sensors in the 400 to 2500 nm spectral region.

  12. Skylab program earth resouces experiment package. Volume 4: Sensor performance evaluation (S193 R/S). [radiometer/scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the sensor performance evaluation of the 13.9 GHz radiometer/scatterometer, which was part of the earth resources experiment package on Skylab. Findings are presented in the areas of housekeeping parameters, antenna gain and scanning performance, dynamic range, linearity, precision, resolution, stability, integration time, and transmitter output. Supplementary analyses covering performance anomalies, data stream peculiarities, aircraft sensor data comparisons, scatterometer saturation characteristics, and RF heating effects are reported. Results of the evaluation show that instrument performance was generally as expected, but capability degradations were observed to result from three major anomalies. Conclusions are drawn from the evaluation results, and recommendations for improving the effectiveness of a future program are offered. An addendum describes the special evaluation techniques developed and applied in the sensor performance evaluation tasks.

  13. An Invitation to Kitchen Earth Sciences, an Example of MISO Soup Convection Experiment in Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, K.; Kumagai, I.; Davaille, A.

    2008-12-01

    In recent frontiers of earth sciences such as computer simulations and large-scale observations/experiments involved researchers are usually remote from the targets and feel difficulty in having a sense of touching the phenomena in hands. This results in losing sympathy for natural phenomena particularly among young researchers, which we consider a serious problem. We believe the analog experiments such as the subjects of "kitchen earth sciences" proposed here can be a remedy for this. Analog experiments have been used as an important tool in various research fields of earth science, particularly in the fields of developing new ideas. The experiment by H. Ramberg by using silicone pate is famous for guiding concept of the mantle dynamics. The term, "analog" means something not directly related to the target of the research but in analogical sense parallel comparison is possible. The advantages of the analog experiments however seem to have been overwhelmed by rapid progresses of computer simulations. Although we still believe in the present-day meaning, recently we are recognizing another aspect of its significance. The essence of "kitchen earth science" as an analog experiment is to provide experimental setups and materials easily from the kitchen, by which everyone can start experiments and participate in the discussion without special preparations because of our daily-experienced matter. Here we will show one such example which can be used as a heuristic subject in the classrooms at introductory level of earth science as well as in lunch time break of advanced researchers. In heated miso soup the fluid motion can be easily traced by the motion of miso "particles". At highly heated state immiscible part of miso convects with aqueous fluid. At intermediate heating the miso part precipitates to form a sediment layer at the bottom. This layered structure is destroyed regularly by the instability caused by accumulated heat in the miso layer as a bursting. By showing

  14. Peru Water Resources: Integrating NASA Earth Observations into Water Resource Planning and Management in Perus La Libertad Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Steentofte, Catherine; Holbrook, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries often struggle with providing water security and sanitation services to their populations. An important aspect of improving security and sanitation is developing a comprehensive understanding of the country's water budget. Water For People, a non-profit organization dedicated to providing clean drinking water, is working with the Peruvian government to develop a water budget for the La Libertad region of Peru which includes the creation of an extensive watershed management plan. Currently, the data archive of the necessary variables to create the water management plan is extremely limited. Implementing NASA Earth observations has bolstered the dataset being used by Water For People, and the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration) model has allowed for the estimation of the evapotranspiration values for the region. Landsat 8 imagery and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard Terra were used to derive the land cover information, and were used in conjunction with local weather data of Cascas from Peru's National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI). Python was used to combine input variables and METRIC model calculations to approximate the evapotranspiration values for the Ochape sub-basin of the Chicama River watershed. Once calculated, the evapotranspiration values and methodology were shared Water For People to help supplement their decision support tools in the La Libertad region of Peru and potentially apply the methodology in other areas of need.

  15. Effects of atmospheric aerosols on scattering reflected visible light from earth resource features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, K. E.; Tschantz, B. A.; Davis, W. T.

    1972-01-01

    The vertical variations in atmospheric light attenuation under ambient conditions were identified, and a method through which aerial photographs of earth features might be corrected to yield quantitative information about the actual features was provided. A theoretical equation was developed based on the Bouguer-Lambert extinction law and basic photographic theory.

  16. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rare earths elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for the emerging green (low-carbon) energy technologies and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at a compound annual rate of 5% by 2020. Such high growth rate would require a steady supply base of REEs in the long ru...

  17. Feasibility of mining lunar resources for earth use: Circa 2000 AD. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, K.; Arno, R. D.; Alexander, A. D.; Slye, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining lunar minerals for terrestrial uses is examined. Preliminary results gave indications that it will not be economically feasible to mine, refine, and transport lunar materials to Earth for consumption. A broad systems approach was used to analyze the problem. It was determined that even though the procedure was not economically advisable, the concept for the operations is technically sound.

  18. Research in remote sensing of agriculture, earth resources, and man's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported for several projects involving the utilization of LANDSAT remote sensing capabilities. Areas under study include crop inventory, crop identification, crop yield prediction, forest resources evaluation, land resources evaluation and soil classification. Numerical methods for image processing are discussed, particularly those for image enhancement and analysis.

  19. Earth at Rest. Aesthetic Experience and Students' Grounding in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østergaard, Edvin

    2017-07-01

    Focus of this article is the current situation characterized by students' de-rootedness and possible measures to improve the situation within the frame of education for sustainable development. My main line of argument is that science teachers can practice teaching in such a way that students are brought in deeper contact to the environment. I discuss efforts to promote aesthetic experience in science class and in science teacher education. Within a wide range of definitions, my main understanding of aesthetic experience is that of pre-conceptual experience, relational to the environment and incorporated in students' embodied knowledge. I ground the idea of Earth at rest in Husserl's phenomenological philosophy and Heidegger's notion of science' deprivation of the world. A critique of the ontological reversal leads to an ontological re-reversal that implies giving lifeworld experience back its value and rooting scientific concepts in students' everyday lives. Six aspects of facilitating grounding in sustainability-oriented science teaching and teacher education are highlighted and discussed: students' everyday knowledge and experience, aesthetic experience and grounding, fostering aesthetic sensibility, cross-curricular integration with art, ontological and epistemological aspects, and belongingness and (re-)connection to Earth. I conclude that both science students and student-teachers need to practice their sense of caring and belonging, as well as refining their sensibility towards the world. With an intension of educating for a sustainable development, there is an urgent need for a critical discussion in science education when it comes to engaging learners for a sustainable future.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-fiscal year 2010 annual report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. The work of the Center is shaped by the earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management, and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote-sensing-based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet, and where possible exceed, the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2010. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by EROS staff or by visiting our web site at http://eros.usgs.gov. We welcome comments and follow-up questions on any aspect of this Annual Report and invite any of our customers or partners to contact us at their convenience. To

  1. Experiences in Bridging the Gap Between Science and Decision Making at NASAs GSFC Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempler, S.; Teng, W.; Friedl, L.; Lynnes, C.

    2008-12-01

    In recognizing the significance of NASA remote sensing Earth science data in monitoring and better understanding our planet's natural environment, NASA has implemented the 'Decision Support Through Earth Science Research Results' program to solicit "proposals that develop and demonstrate innovative and practicable applications of NASA Earth science observations and research"that focus on improving decision making activities", as stated in the NASA ROSES-2008, A.18 solicitation. This very successful program has yielded several monitoring, surveillance, and decision support systems through collaborations with benefiting organizations in the areas of agriculture, air quality, disaster management, ecosystems, public health, water resources, and aviation weather. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has participated in this program on two projects (one complete, one ongoing), and has had opportune ad hoc collaborations gaining much experience in the formulation, management, development, and implementation of decision support systems utilizing NASA Earth science data. Coupling this experience with the GES DISC's total understanding and vast experience regarding Earth science missions and resulting data and information, including data structures, data usability and interpretation, data interoperability, and information management systems, the GES DISC is in the unique position to more readily identify challenges that come with bringing science data to decision makers. These challenges consist of those that can be met within typical science data usage frameworks, as well as those challenges that arise when utilizing science data for previously unplanned applications, such as decision support systems. The purpose of this presentation is to share GES DISC decision support system project experiences in regards to system sustainability, required data quality (versus timeliness), data provider understanding how

  2. Passive exposure of Earth radiation budget experiment components LDEF experiment AO-147: Post-flight examinations and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The Passive Exposure of Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Components (PEERBEC) experiment of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission was composed of sensors and components associated with the measurement of the earth radiation budget (ERB) from satellites. These components included the flight spare sensors from the ERB experiment which operated on Nimbus 6 and 7 satellites. The experiment components and materials as well as the pertinent background and ancillary information necessary for the understanding of the intended mission and the results are described. The extent and timing of the LDEF mission brought the exposure from solar minimum between cycles 21 and 22 through the solar maximum of cycle 22. The orbital decay, coupled with the events of solar maximum, caused the LDEF to be exposed to a broader range of space environmental effects than were anticipated. The mission spanned almost six years concurrent with the 12 year (to date) Nimbus 7 operations. Preliminary information is presented on the following: (1) the changes in transmittance experienced by the interference filters; (2) the results of retesting of the thermopile sensors, which appear to be relatively unaffected by the exposure; and (3) the results of the recalibration of the APEX cavity radiometer. The degradation and recovery of the filters of the Nimbus 7 ERB are also discussed relative to the apparent atomic oxygen cleaning which also applies to the LDEF.

  3. The Mini-Earth facility and present status of habitation experiment program.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    The history of construction of the CEEF (the Mini-Earth), the configuration and scale of the CEEF are initially described. The effective usable areas in plant cultivation and animal holding and habitation modules and the accommodation equipment installed in each module are also explained. Mechanisms of the material circulation systems belonging to each module and subsystems in each material circulation system are introduced. Finally the results of pre-habitation experiments conducted until the year 2004 for clarifying the requirements in order to promote final closed habitation experiments are shown. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  4. Earth's core-mantle boundary - Results of experiments at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knittle, Elise; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments document that liquid iron reacts chemically with silicates at high pressures (above 2.4 x 10 to the 10th Pa) and temperatures. In particular, (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite, the most abundant mineral of earth's lower mantle, is expected to react with liquid iron to produce metallic alloys (FeO and FeSi) and nonmetallic silicates (SiO2 stishovite and MgSiO3 perovskite) at the pressures of the core-mantle boundary, 14 x 10 to the 10th Pa. The experimental observations, in conjunction with seismological data, suggest that the lowermost 200 to 300 km of earth's mantle, the D-double-prime layer, may be an extremely heterogeneous region as a result of chemical reactions between the silicate mantle and the liquid iron alloy of earth's core. The combined thermal-chemical-electrical boundary layer resulting from such reactions offers a plausible explanation for the complex behavior of seismic waves near the core-mantle boundary and could influence earth's magnetic field observed at the surface.

  5. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 15, October 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography lists 387 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1 and September 30, 1977. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  6. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 5, October 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists 601 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1975 and March 1975. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  7. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 8, April 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography lists 351 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1975 and December 1975. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution system, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  8. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 16, January 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography lists 543 reports, articles, and other documents introduced onto the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1 and December 31, 1977. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  9. Earth Resources. A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 34, July 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography lists 567 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between April 1, and June 30, 1982. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  10. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 29, April 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography lists 308 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1981 and March 31, 1981. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  11. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 10, August 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography lists 506 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1976 and June 1976. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  12. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 12, January 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography lists 526 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between October 1976 and December 1976. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  13. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 6, December 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists 484 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1975 and June 1975. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  14. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 22, July 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography lists 390 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between 1 April 1979 and 30 June 1979. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  15. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 11, October 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography lists 714 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1976 and September 1976. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  16. Earth Resources. A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 25, April 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The bibliography lists 380 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1980 and March 31, 1990. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  17. An investigation of ESSA 7 radiation data for use in long-term earth energy experiments, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of an investigation of ESSA 7 satellite radiation data for use in long-term earth energy experiments. Satellite systems for performing long-term earth radiation balance measurements over geographical areas, hemispheres, and the entire earth for periods of 10 to 30 years are examined. The ESSA 7 satellite employed plate and cone radiometers to measure earth albedo and emitted radiation. Each instrument had a black and white radiometer which discriminated the components of albedo and emitted radiation. Earth measurements were made continuously from ESSA 7 for ten months. The ESSA 7 raw data is processed to a point where it can be further analyzed for: (1) development of long-term earth energy experiments; and (2) document climate trends.

  18. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    University of California investigations to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques have concentrated on the water resources of the state. The studies consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships.

  19. Third Earth Resources Technology Satellite Symposium. Volume 2: Summary of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freden, S. C. (Editor); Mercanti, E. P. (Editor); Friedman, D. B. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Summaries are provided of significant results taken from presentations at the symposium along with some typical examples of the applications of ERTS-1 data for solving resources management problems at the national, state, and local levels.

  20. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  1. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  3. Implications for Core Formation of the Earth from High Pressure-Temperature Au Partitioning Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Sharp, T. G.; Hervig, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    Siderophile elements in the Earth.s mantle are depleted relative to chondrites. This is most pronounced for the highly siderophile elements (HSEs), which are approximately 400x lower than chondrites. Also remarkable is the relative chondritic abundances of the HSEs. This signature has been interpreted as representing their sequestration into an iron-rich core during the separation of metal from silicate liquids early in the Earth's history, followed by a late addition of chondritic material. Alternative efforts to explain this trace element signature have centered on element partitioning experiments at varying pressures, temperatures, and compositions (P-T-X). However, first results from experiments conducted at 1 bar did not match the observed mantle abundances, which motivated the model described above, a "late veneer" of chondritic material deposited on the earth and mixed into the upper mantle. Alternatively, the mantle trace element signature could be the result of equilibrium partitioning between metal and silicate in the deep mantle, under P-T-X conditions which are not yet completely identified. An earlier model determined that equilibrium between metal and silicate liquids could occur at a depth of approximately 700 km, 27(plus or minus 6) GPa and approximately 2000 (plus or minus 200) C, based on an extrapolation of partitioning data for a variety of moderately siderophile elements obtained at lower pressures and temperatures. Based on Ni-Co partitioning, the magma ocean may have been as deep as 1450 km. At present, only a small range of possible P-T-X trace element partitioning conditions has been explored, necessitating large extrapolations from experimental to mantle conditions for tests of equilibrium models. Our primary objective was to reduce or remove the additional uncertainty introduced by extrapolation by testing the equilibrium core formation hypothesis at P-T-X conditions appropriate to the mantle.

  4. Determining Appropriate Coupling between User Experiences and Earth Science Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Pilone, D.; Newman, D. J.; Mitchell, A. E.; Goff, T. D.; Baynes, K.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System ClearingHOuse (ECHO) is a format agnostic metadata repository supporting over 3000 collections and 100M granules. ECHO exposes FTP and RESTful Data Ingest APIs in addition to both SOAP and RESTful search and order capabilities. Built on top of ECHO is a human facing search and order web application named Reverb. Reverb exposes ECHO's capabilities through an interactive, Web 2.0 application designed around searching for Earth Science data and downloading or ordering data of interest. ECHO and Reverb have supported the concept of Earth Science data services for several years but only for discovery. Invocation of these services was not a primary capability of the user experience. As more and more Earth Science data moves online and away from the concept of data ordering, progress has been made in making on demand services available for directly accessed data. These concepts have existed through access mechanisms such as OPeNDAP but are proliferating to accommodate a wider variety of services and service providers. Recently, the EOSDIS Service Interface (ESI) was defined and integrated into the ECS system. The ESI allows data providers to expose a wide variety of service capabilities including reprojection, reformatting, spatial and band subsetting, and resampling. ECHO and Reverb were tasked with making these services available to end-users in a meaningful and usable way that integrated into its existing search and ordering workflow. This presentation discusses the challenges associated with exposing disparate service capabilities while presenting a meaningful and cohesive user experience. Specifically, we'll discuss: - Benefits and challenges of tightly coupling the user interface with underlying services - Approaches to generic service descriptions - Approaches to dynamic user interfaces that better describe service capabilities while minimizing application coupling - Challenges associated with traditional WSDL / UDDI style service

  5. Earthdata 3.0: A Unified Experience and Platform for Earth Science Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plofchan, P.; McLaughlin, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) as a multitude of websites and applications focused on serving the Earth Science community's extensive data needs. With no central user interface, theme, or mechanism for accessing that data, interrelated systems are confusing and potentially disruptive in users' searches for EOSDIS data holdings. In an effort to bring consistency across these systems, an effort was undertaken to develop Earthdata 3.0: a complete information architecture overhaul of the Earthdata website, a significant update to the Earthdata user experience and user interface, and an increased focus on searching across EOSDIS data holdings, including those housed and made available through DAAC websites. As part of this effort, and in a desire to unify the user experience across related websites, the Earthdata User Interface (EUI) was developed. The EUI is a collection of responsive design components and layouts geared toward creating websites and applications within the Earthdata ecosystem. Each component and layout has been designed specifically for Earth science-related projects which eliminates some of the complexities of building a website or application from the ground up. Its adoption will ensure both consistent markup and a unified look and feel for end users, thereby increasing usability and accessibility. Additionally, through the user of a Google Search Appliance, custom Clojure code, and in cooperation with DAACs, Earthdata 3.0 presents a variety of search results upon a user's keyword(s) entry. These results are not just textual links, but also direct links to downloadable datasets, visualizations of datasets and collections of data, and related articles and videos for further research. The end result of the development of the EUI and the enhanced multi-response type search is a consistent and usable platform for Earth scientists and users to navigate and locate data to further their research.

  6. Teacher Resource Book for Population Pressure in Indonesia, Problems of Industrialization in Eurasia, Power Blocs in Eurasia. Man on the Earth Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Angus

    This teacher's resource book is a guide to three intermediate texts about Eurasia entitled Population Pressure in Indonesia, Problems of Industrialization in Eurasia, and Power Blocs in Eurasia. The texts are part of the series, Man on the Earth, which probes broad-based issues confronting mankind. The resource book distinguishes 18 major concepts…

  7. Earth's copper resources estimated from tectonic diffusion of porphyry copper deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, Stephen E.; Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    2008-03-01

    Improved estimates of global mineral endowments are relevantto issues ranging from strategic planning to global geochemicalcycling. We have used a time-space model for the tectonic migrationof porphyry copper deposits vertically through the crust tocalculate Earth's endowment of copper in mineral deposits. Themodel relies only on knowledge of numbers and ages of porphyrycopper deposits, Earth's most widespread and important sourceof copper, in order to estimate numbers of eroded and preserveddeposits in the crust. Model results indicate that ~125,895 porphyrycopper deposits were formed during Phanerozoic time, that only~47,789 of these remain at various crustal depths, and that thesecontain ~1.7 x 1011 tonnes (t) of copper. Assuming that othertypes of copper deposits behave similarly in the crust and haveabundances proportional to their current global production yieldsan estimate of 3 x 1011 t for total global copper resourcesat all levels in Earth's crust. Thus, ~0.25% of the copper inthe crust has been concentrated into deposits through Phanerozoictime, and about two-thirds of this has been recycled by upliftand erosion. The amount of copper in deposits above 3.3 km,a likely limit of future mining, could supply current worldmine production for 5500 yr, thus quantifying the highly unusualand nonrenewable nature of mineral deposits.

  8. An operational earth resources satellite system: The LANDSAT follow-on program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    The LANDSATS 1 and 2 have demonstrated the role of remote sensing from satellite in research, development, and operational activities essential to the better management of our resources. Hundreds of agricultural, geological, hydrological, urban land use, and other investigations have raised the question of the development of an operational system providing continuous, timely data. The LANDSAT Follow-on Study addressed the economics, technological performance, and design of a system in transition from R and D to operations. Economic benefits were identified; and a complete system from sensors to the ultilization in forecasting crop production, oil and mineral exploration, and water resources management was designed.

  9. IsoNose - Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - A new Marie Curie Initial Training Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Bouman, Caludia; Kamber, Balz; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Gorbushina, Anna; James, Rachael; Oelkers, Eric; Tesmer, Maja; Ashton, John

    2015-04-01

    The Marie Curie Initial Training Network »Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - IsoNose« is an alliance of eight international partners and five associated partners from science and industry. The project is coordinated at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and will run until February 2018. In the last 15 years advances in novel mass-spectrometric methods have opened opportunities to identify "isotopic fingerprints" of virtually all metals and to make use of the complete information contained in these fingerprints. The understanding developed with these new tools will ultimately guide the exploitation of Earth surface environments. However, progress in bringing these methods to end-users depends on a multi transfer of knowledge between (1) isotope Geochemistry and Microbiology, Environmental Sciences (2), Economic Geology and (3) instrument developers and users in the development of user-friendly and new mass spectrometric methods. IsoNose will focus on three major Earth surface resources: soil, water and metals. These resources are currently being exploited to an unprecedented extent and their efficient management is essential for future sustainable development. Novel stable isotope techniques will disclose the processes generating (e.g. weathering, mineral ore formation) and destroying (e.g. erosion, pollution) these resources. Within this field the following questions will be addressed and answered: - How do novel stable isotope signatures characterize weathering processes? - How do novel stable isotope signatures trace water transport? - How to use novel stable isotope as environmental tracers? - How to use novel stable isotope for detecting and exploring metal ores? - How to improve analytical capabilities and develop robust routine applications for novel stable isotopes? Starting from the central questions mentioned above the IsoNose activities are organized in five scientific work packages: 1

  10. Comparison of the measured and predicted response of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment active cavity radiometer during solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Tira, N. E.; Lee, Robert B., III; Keynton, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment consists of an array of radiometric instruments placed in earth orbit by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to monitor the longwave and visible components of the earth's radiation budget. Presented is a dynamic electrothermal model of the active cavity radiometer used to measure the earth's total radiative exitance. Radiative exchange is modeled using the Monte Carlo method and transient conduction is treated using the finite element method. Also included is the feedback circuit which controls electrical substitution heating of the cavity. The model is shown to accurately predict the dynamic response of the instrument during solar calibration.

  11. Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (1970 - 1973 supplement): A literature survey with indexes. Section 2: Indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Documents related to the identification and evaluation by means of sensors in spacecraft and aircraft of vegetation, minerals, and other natural resources, and the techniques and potentialities of surveying and keeping up-to-date inventories of such riches are cited. These documents were announced in the NASA scientific and technical information system between March 1970 and December 1973.

  12. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Hazel

    1978-01-01

    A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

  13. ERTS-B (Earth Resources Technology Satellite). [spacecraft design remote sensor description, and technology utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mission plans and objectives of the ERTS 2 Satellite are presented. ERTS 2 follow-on investigations in various scientific disciplines including agriculture, meteorology, land-use, geology, water resources, oceanography, and environment are discussed. Spacecraft design and its sensors are described along with the Delta launch vehicle and launch operations. Applications identified from ERTS 1 investigations are summarized.

  14. A purely local experiment - Poynting and the mean density of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, Isobel

    1999-06-01

    These days John Henry Poynting is best known for his association with the Poynting vector, which describes the flow of energy in an electromagnetic field, and little is known of his life or work. Yet in the 1890s he caught the popular imagination as `the man who weighed the Earth'. His experiment, using a novel method with a common balance, was part of a heroic tradition, gained him Cambridge University's Adams Prize, and set new standards of precision. Yet in performing this experiment, Poynting seemed to step outside the traditions of late nineteenth century Cambridge University where he was educated, and it is probably significant that he was a Unitarian throughout his life. This paper examines Poynting's experiment and his interpretation of it in the context of the rest of his life and work.

  15. A Geograns update. New experiences to teach earth sciences to students older than 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Pinazo, S.

    2009-04-01

    How to teach earth science to students that have access to the university after the age of 55 is a challenge due to the different background of the students. They ranged from those with only basic education (sometimes they finished school at the age of 9) to well educate students such as university professors, physicians or engineers. Students older than 55 are enrolled in what is called the university programme NauGran project at the University of Valencia. They follow diverse topics, from health science to Arts. Since 2006 the Department of Geography and the NauGran project developed the Club for Geographers and Walkers called Geograns. The objective is to teach Earth Science in the field as a strategy to improve the knowledge of the students with a direct contact with the territory. This initiative reached a successful contribution by the students, with 70 students registered. The successful strategy we have developed since then is to base our teaching on field work. Every lecture is related to some visits to the field. A pre-excursion lecture introduces the key questions of the study site (hydrology, geology, botany, geomorphology…). During the field work we review all the topics and the students are encouraged to ask and discuss any of the topics studied. Finally, a post-excursion lecture is given to review the acquired knowledge. During the last academic year 2007-2008 the excursion focussed on: (i) energy sources: problems and solutions, with visit to nuclear, wind and hydraulic power stations; (i) human disturbances and humankind as landscaper, with visits to wetlands, river gorges and Iberian settlements; and (iii) human activities and economical resources, with visits to vineyards and wineries and orange fields devoted to organic farming. This is being a positive strategy to teach Earth Science to a wide and heterogeneous group of students, as they improve their knowledge with a direct contact with the landscape, other colleagues and teachers in the

  16. Classroom and Field Experiments for Florida's Environmental Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jim

    This booklet is intended to help teachers in Florida manage the growing interest in environmental education. Fourteen experiments are grouped into the environmental areas of the water cycle, groundwater, water pollution, waste and water treatment, air pollution, and field experiments. Experiments include demonstrations of the water cycle, the…

  17. An experiment to study energetic particle fluxes in and beyond the earth's outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.; Lin, R. P.; Paoli, R. J.; Parks, G. K.; Lin, C. S.; Reme, H.; Bosqued, J. M.; Martel, F.; Cotin, F.; Cros, A.

    1978-01-01

    This experiment is designed to take advantage of the ISEE Mother/Daughter dual spacecraft system to study energetic particle phenomena in the earth's outer magnetosphere and beyond. Large geometric factor fixed voltage electrostatic analyzers and passively cooled semiconductor detector telescopes provide high time resolution coverage of the energy range from 1.5 to 300 keV for both ions and electrons. Essentially identical instrumentation is placed on the two spacecraft to separate temporal from spatial effects in the observed particle phenomena.

  18. Leveraging Earth Observations to Improve Data Resolution and Tracking of Sustainable Development Goals in Water Resources and Public Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Nusrat, F.; Hasan, M. A.; Fallatah, O.

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the world population and is projected to rise substantially, affecting safe water and sanitation access globally. The recently released WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) 2017 report on global water and sanitation access paints a grim picture across the planet; approximately 30% people worldwide, or 2.1 billion, still lack access to safe, readily available clean water, and 60% people worldwide, or 4.5 billion ppl, lack safely managed sanitation. Meanwhile, demand for water and competition for water resources are sharply rising amid growing uncertainty of climate change and its impacts on water resources. The United Nations Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for substantially increasing water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensuring sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, providing clean water and sanitation for all, increasing international cooperation over transboundary surface and groundwater resources (under Goal 6), as well as ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, and end the epidemics of neglected tropical and water-borne diseases (under Goal 3). Data availability in developing regions, especially at the appropriate resolution in both space and time, has been a recurring problem for various technological and institutional reasons. Earth observation techniques provide the most cost-effective and encompassing tool to monitor these regions, large transboundary river basins and aquifer systems, and water resources vulnerabilities to climate change around the globe. University of Rhode Island, with US and international collaborators, is using earth observations to develop tools to analyze, monitor and support decision-makers to track their progress towards SDGs with better data resolution and accuracy. Here, we provide case studies on 1) providing safe water and sanitation access South Asia through safe water

  19. Trade-off analysis of modes of data handling for earth resources (ERS), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Data handling requirements are reviewed for earth observation missions along with likely technology advances. Parametric techniques for synthesizing potential systems are developed. Major tasks include: (1) review of the sensors under development and extensions of or improvements in these sensors; (2) development of mission models for missions spanning land, ocean, and atmosphere observations; (3) summary of data handling requirements including the frequency of coverage, timeliness of dissemination, and geographic relationships between points of collection and points of dissemination; (4) review of data routing to establish ways of getting data from the collection point to the user; (5) on-board data processing; (6) communications link; and (7) ground data processing. A detailed synthesis of three specific missions is included.

  20. An operational earth resources satellite system - The Landsat follow-on program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    The Landsats 1 and 2 have demonstrated the role of remote sensing from satellite in research, development, and operational activities essential to the better management of our resources. Hundreds of agricultural, geological, hydrological, urban land use, and other investigations have raised the question of the development of an operational system providing continuous, timely data. The Landsat follow-on study addressed the economics, technological performance, and design of a system in transition from R&D to operations. Economic benefits were identified; and a complete system from sensors to the utilization in forecasting crop production, oil and mineral exploration, water resources management was designed. Benefits-to-costs ratio in present-worth dollars is at least 4:1.

  1. First decadal lunar results from the Moon and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Grant

    2018-03-01

    A need to gain more confidence in computer model predictions of coming climate change has resulted in greater analysis of the quality of orbital Earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements being used today to constrain, validate, and hence improve such simulations. These studies conclude from time series analysis that for around a quarter of a century, no existing satellite ERB climate data record is of a sufficient standard to partition changes to the Earth from those of un-tracked and changing artificial instrumentation effects. This led to the creation of the Moon and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (MERBE), which instead takes existing decades old climate data to a higher calibration standard using thousands of scans of Earth's Moon. The Terra and Aqua satellite ERB climate records have been completely regenerated using signal-processing improvements, combined with a substantial increase in precision from more comprehensive in-flight spectral characterization techniques. This study now builds on previous Optical Society of America work by describing new Moon measurements derived using accurate analytical mapping of telescope spatial response. That then allows a factor of three reduction in measurement noise along with an order of magnitude increase in the number of retrieved independent lunar results. Given decadal length device longevity and the use of solar and thermal lunar radiance models to normalize the improved ERB results to the International System of Units traceable radiance scale of the "MERBE Watt," the same established environmental time series analysis techniques are applied to MERBE data. They evaluate it to perhaps be of sufficient quality to immediately begin narrowing the largest of climate prediction uncertainties. It also shows that if such Terra/Aqua ERB devices can operate into the 2020s, it could become possible to halve these same uncertainties decades sooner than would be possible with existing or even planned new observing systems.

  2. CIM-EARTH: Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, I.; Elliott, J.; Munson, T.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E. J.; Sanstad, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    We report here on the development of an open source software framework termed CIM-EARTH that is intended to aid decision-making in climate and energy policy. Numerical modeling in support of evaluating policies to address climate change is difficult not only because of inherent uncertainties but because of the differences in scale and modeling approach required for various subcomponents of the system. Economic and climate models are structured quite differently, and while climate forcing can be assumed to be roughly global, climate impacts and the human response to them occur on small spatial scales. Mitigation policies likewise can be applied on scales ranging from the better part of a continent (e.g. a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S.) to a few hundred km (e.g. statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes). Both spatial and time resolution requirements can be challenging for global economic models. CIM-EARTH is a modular framework based around dynamic general equilibrium models. It is designed as a community tool that will enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of both mitigation policies and unchecked climate change. Modularity enables both integration of highly resolved component sub-models for energy and other key systems and also user-directed choice of tradeoffs between e.g. spatial, sectoral, and time resolution. This poster describes the framework architecture, the current realized version, and plans for future releases. As with other open-source models familiar to the climate community (e.g. CCSM), deliverables will be made publicly available on a regular schedule, and community input is solicited for development of new features and modules.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. As part of the USGS Geography Discipline, EROS contributes to the Land Remote Sensing (LRS) Program, the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program, and the National Geospatial Program (NGP), as well as our Federal partners and cooperators. The work of the Center is shaped by the Earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote sensing based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet and/or exceed the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2009. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by

  4. Assessing Faculty Perceptions of Free Educational Resources: One Institution's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Providing financial incentives to faculty who adopt free educational resources in place of traditional textbooks is becoming more common in U.S. higher education institutions. The University of Mississippi (UM) offered liberal arts instructors the opportunity to apply for internal funding to replace one traditional textbook in their classroom with…

  5. Helping HELP with limited resources: the Luquillo experience

    Treesearch

    F.N. Scatena; JR Ortiz-Zayas; J.F. Blanco-Libreros

    2008-01-01

    By definition the HELP approach involves the active participation of individuals from a wide range of disciplines and backgrounds, including representatives of industry, academics, natural resource managers, and local officials and community leaders. While there is considerable enthusiasm and support for the integrated HELP approach, a central problem for all HELP...

  6. A Comparison of Web Resource Access Experiments: Planning for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jane

    This paper reports on research that compared five leading experiments that aim to improve access to the growing number of information resources on the World Wide Web. The objective was to identify characteristics of success and considerations for improvement in experiments providing access to Web resources via bibliographic control methods. The…

  7. Our Man-Made Environment. A Collection of Experiences, Resources and Suggested Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group for Environmental Education, Philadelphia, PA.

    This collection of activities, experiences, and resources focuses on the man-made environment. The activities and resources were compiled to facilitate a program based upon the teacher's and student's own living experiences in their own environment. The goals of the program are to develop the individual's awareness of his environment and…

  8. Beyond Earth's Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    This resource for teachers of elementary age students provides a foundation for building a life-long interest in the U.S. space program. It begins with a basic understanding of man's attempt to conquer the air, then moves on to how we expanded into near-Earth space for our benefit. Students learn, through hands-on experiences, from projects…

  9. Haze production rates in super-Earth and mini-Neptune atmosphere experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; He, Chao; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Marley, Mark S.; Morley, Caroline V.; Moses, Julianne I.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Vuitton, Véronique

    2018-04-01

    Numerous Solar System atmospheres possess photochemically generated hazes, including the characteristic organic hazes of Titan and Pluto. Haze particles substantially impact atmospheric temperature structures and may provide organic material to the surface of a world, potentially affecting its habitability. Observations of exoplanet atmospheres suggest the presence of aerosols, especially in cooler (<800 K), smaller (<0.3× Jupiter's mass) exoplanets. It remains unclear whether the aerosols muting the spectroscopic features of exoplanet atmospheres are condensate clouds or photochemical hazes1-3, which is difficult to predict from theory alone4. Here, we present laboratory haze simulation experiments that probe a broad range of atmospheric parameters relevant to super-Earth- and mini-Neptune-type planets5, the most frequently occurring type of planet in our galaxy6. It is expected that photochemical haze will play a much greater role in the atmospheres of planets with average temperatures below 1,000 K (ref. 7), especially those planets that may have enhanced atmospheric metallicity and/or enhanced C/O ratios, such as super-Earths and Neptune-mass planets8-12. We explored temperatures from 300 to 600 K and a range of atmospheric metallicities (100×, 1,000× and 10,000× solar). All simulated atmospheres produced particles, and the cooler (300 and 400 K) 1,000× solar metallicity (`H2O-dominated' and CH4-rich) experiments exhibited haze production rates higher than our standard Titan simulation ( 10 mg h-1 versus 7.4 mg h-1 for Titan13). However, the particle production rates varied greatly, with measured rates as low as 0.04 mg h-1 (for the case with 100× solar metallicity at 600 K). Here, we show that we should expect great diversity in haze production rates, as some—but not all—super-Earth and mini-Neptune atmospheres will possess photochemically generated haze.

  10. Haze production rates in super-Earth and mini-Neptune atmosphere experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; He, Chao; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Marley, Mark S.; Morley, Caroline V.; Moses, Julianne I.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Vuitton, Véronique

    2018-03-01

    Numerous Solar System atmospheres possess photochemically generated hazes, including the characteristic organic hazes of Titan and Pluto. Haze particles substantially impact atmospheric temperature structures and may provide organic material to the surface of a world, potentially affecting its habitability. Observations of exoplanet atmospheres suggest the presence of aerosols, especially in cooler (<800 K), smaller (<0.3× Jupiter's mass) exoplanets. It remains unclear whether the aerosols muting the spectroscopic features of exoplanet atmospheres are condensate clouds or photochemical hazes1-3, which is difficult to predict from theory alone4. Here, we present laboratory haze simulation experiments that probe a broad range of atmospheric parameters relevant to super-Earth- and mini-Neptune-type planets5, the most frequently occurring type of planet in our galaxy6. It is expected that photochemical haze will play a much greater role in the atmospheres of planets with average temperatures below 1,000 K (ref. 7), especially those planets that may have enhanced atmospheric metallicity and/or enhanced C/O ratios, such as super-Earths and Neptune-mass planets8-12. We explored temperatures from 300 to 600 K and a range of atmospheric metallicities (100×, 1,000× and 10,000× solar). All simulated atmospheres produced particles, and the cooler (300 and 400 K) 1,000× solar metallicity (`H2O-dominated' and CH4-rich) experiments exhibited haze production rates higher than our standard Titan simulation ( 10 mg h-1 versus 7.4 mg h-1 for Titan13). However, the particle production rates varied greatly, with measured rates as low as 0.04 mg h-1 (for the case with 100× solar metallicity at 600 K). Here, we show that we should expect great diversity in haze production rates, as some—but not all—super-Earth and mini-Neptune atmospheres will possess photochemically generated haze.

  11. A study of Minnesota forests and lakes using data from Earth Resources Technology Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Highlights of research and practical benefits are discussed for the following projects which utilized ERTS 1 data to provide municipal, state, federal, and industrial users with environmental resource information for the state of Minnesota: (1) forest disease detection and control; (2) evaluation of water quality by remote sensing techniques; (3) forest vegetation classification and management; (4) detection of saline soils in the Red River Valley; (5) snowmelt flood prediction; (6) remote sensing applications to hydrology; (7) Rice Creek watershed project; (8) water quality in Lake Superior and the Duluth Superior Harbor; and (9) determination of Lake Superior currents from turbidity patterns.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Thaumatin Crystals Grown on Earth and in Microgravity. Experiment 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Joseph D.; Lorber, Bernard; Giege, Richard; Koszelak, Stanley; Day, John; Greenwood, Aaron; McPherson, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    The protein thaumatin was studied as a model macromolecule for crystallization in microgravity environment experiments conducted on two U.S. Space Shuttle missions (second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) and Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)). In this investigation we evaluated and compared the quality of space- and Earth-grown thaumatin crystals using x-ray diffraction analysis and characterized them according to crystal size, diffraction resolution limit, and mosaicity. Two different approaches for growing thaumatin crystals in the microgravity environment, dialysis and liquid-liquid diffusion, were employed as a joint experiment by our two investigative teams. Thaumatin crystals grown under a microgravity environment were generally larger in volume with fewer total crystals. They diffracted to significantly higher resolution and with improved diffraction properties as judged by relative Wilson plots. The mosaicity for space-grown crystals was significantly less than for those grown on Earth. Increasing concentrations of protein in the crystallization chambers under microgravity lead to larger crystals. The data presented here lend further support to the idea that protein crystals of improved quality can be obtained in a microgravity environment.

  13. The Brazilian wide field imaging camera (WFI) for the China/Brazil earth resources satellite: CBERS 3 and 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaduto, L. C. N.; Carvalho, E. G.; Modugno, R. G.; Cartolano, R.; Evangelista, S. H.; Segoria, D.; Santos, A. G.; Stefani, M. A.; Castro Neto, J. C.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the optical system developed for the Wide Field imaging Camera - WFI that will be integrated to the CBERS 3 and 4 satellites (China Brazil Earth resources Satellite). This camera will be used for remote sensing of the Earth and it is aimed to work at an altitude of 778 km. The optical system is designed for four spectral bands covering the range of wavelengths from blue to near infrared and its field of view is +/-28.63°, which covers 866 km, with a ground resolution of 64 m at nadir. WFI has been developed through a consortium formed by Opto Electrônica S. A. and Equatorial Sistemas. In particular, we will present the optical analysis based on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) obtained during the Engineering Model phase (EM) and the optical tests performed to evaluate the requirements. Measurements of the optical system MTF have been performed using an interferometer at the wavelength of 632.8nm and global MTF tests (including the CCD and signal processing electronic) have been performed by using a collimator with a slit target. The obtained results showed that the performance of the optical system meets the requirements of project.

  14. Marine phosphorites as potential resources for heavy rare earth elements and yttrium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James; Koschinsky, Andrea; Mikesell, Mariah; Mizell, Kira; Glenn, Craig R.; Wood, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM) and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm) and high heavy REY (HREY) complements (mean 49%), while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm), and very high HREY complements (mean 60%). The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.

  15. Studying Earth's Environment From Space: Classroom and Laboratory Activities with Instructor Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Standard, text-book based learning for earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences has been limited by the unavailability of quantitative teaching materials. While a descriptive presentation, in a lecture format, of discrete satellite images is often adequate for high school classrooms, this is seldom the case at the undergraduate level. In order to address these concerns, a series of numerical exercises for the Macintosh was developed for use with satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature, pigment and sea ice concentration data. Using a modified version of NIH Image, to analyze actual satellite data, students are able to better understand ocean processes, such as circulation, upwelling, primary production, and ocean/atmosphere coupling. Graphical plots, image math, and numerical comparisons are utilized to substantiate temporal and spatial trends in sea surface temperature and ocean color. Particularly for institutions that do not offer a program in remote sensing, the subject matter is presented as modular units, each of which can be readily incorporated into existing curricula. These materials have been produced in both CD-ROM and WWW format, making them useful for classroom or lab setting. Depending upon the level of available computer support, graphics can be displayed directly from the CD-ROM, or as a series of color view graphs for standard overhead projection.

  16. Forecasting the impact of an 1859-caliber superstorm on geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellites: Transponder resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenwald, Sten F.; Green, James L.

    2007-06-01

    We calculate the economic impact on the existing geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellite population of an 1859-caliber superstorm event were it to occur between 2008 and 2018 during the next solar activity cycle. From a detailed model for transponder capacity and leasing, we have investigated the total revenue loss over the entire solar cycle, as a function of superstorm onset year and intensity. Our Monte Carlo simulations of 1000 possible superstorms, of varying intensity and onset year, suggest that the minimum revenue loss could be of the order of 30 billion. The losses would be larger than this if more that 20 satellites are disabled, if future launch rates do not keep up with the expected rate of retirements, or if the number of spare transponders falls below ˜30%. Consequently, revenue losses can be significantly reduced below 30 billion if the current satellite population undergoes net growth beyond 300 units during Solar Cycle 24 and a larger margin of unused transponders is maintained.

  17. Visual Earth observation performance in the space environment. Human performance measurement 4: Flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, John F.; Whiteley, James D.; Hawker, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of secondary payloads have flown on the Space Transportation System (STS) since its first flight in the 1980's. These experiments have typically addressed specific issues unique to the zero-gravity environment. Additionally, the experiments use the experience and skills of the mission and payload specialist crew members to facilitate data collection and ensure successful completion. This paper presents the results of the Terra Scout experiment, which flew aboard STS-44 in November 1991. This unique Earth Observation experiment specifically required a career imagery analyst to operate the Spaceborne Direct-View Optical System (SpaDVOS), a folded optical path telescope system designed to mount inside the shuttle on the overhead aft flight deck windows. Binoculars and a small telescope were used as backup optics. Using his imagery background, coupled with extensive target and equipment training, the payload specialist was tasked with documenting the following: (1) the utility of the equipment; (2) his ability to acquire and track ground targets; (3) the level of detail he could discern; (4) the atmospheric conditions; and (5) other in-situ elements which contributed to or detracted from his ability to analyze targets. Special emphasis was placed on the utility of a manned platform for research and development of future spaceborne sensors. The results and lessons learned from Terra Scout will be addressed including human performance and equipment design issues.

  18. Characteristics of the Nordic Seas overflows in a set of Norwegian Earth System Model experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2016-08-01

    Global ocean models with an isopycnic vertical coordinate are advantageous in representing overflows, as they do not suffer from topography-induced spurious numerical mixing commonly seen in geopotential coordinate models. In this paper, we present a quantitative diagnosis of the Nordic Seas overflows in four configurations of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) family that features an isopycnic ocean model. For intercomparison, two coupled ocean-sea ice and two fully coupled (atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice) experiments are considered. Each pair consists of a (non-eddying) 1° and a (eddy-permitting) 1/4° horizontal resolution ocean model. In all experiments, overflow waters remain dense and descend to the deep basins, entraining ambient water en route. Results from the 1/4° pair show similar behavior in the overflows, whereas the 1° pair show distinct differences, including temperature/salinity properties, volume transport (Q), and large scale features such as the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The volume transport of the overflows and degree of entrainment are underestimated in the 1° experiments, whereas in the 1/4° experiments, there is a two-fold downstream increase in Q, which matches observations well. In contrast to the 1/4° experiments, the coarse 1° experiments do not capture the inclined isopycnals of the overflows or the western boundary current off the Flemish Cap. In all experiments, the pathway of the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water is misrepresented: a major fraction of the overflow proceeds southward into the West European Basin, instead of turning westward into the Irminger Sea. This discrepancy is attributed to excessive production of Labrador Sea Water in the model. The mean state and variability of the Nordic Seas overflows have significant consequences on the response of the AMOC, hence their correct representations are of vital importance in global ocean and climate modelling.

  19. Benchmark Shock Tube Experiments for Radiative Heating Relevant to Earth Re-Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandis, A. M.; Cruden, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed spectrally and spatially resolved radiance has been measured in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility for conditions relevant to high speed entry into a variety of atmospheres, including Earth, Venus, Titan, Mars and the Outer Planets. The tests that measured radiation relevant for Earth re-entry are the focus of this work and are taken from campaigns 47, 50, 52 and 57. These tests covered conditions from 8 km/s to 15.5 km/s at initial pressures ranging from 0.05 Torr to 1 Torr, of which shots at 0.1 and 0.2 Torr are analyzed in this paper. These conditions cover a range of points of interest for potential fight missions, including return from Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and Mars. The large volume of testing available from EAST is useful for statistical analysis of radiation data, but is problematic for identifying representative experiments for performing detailed analysis. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to select a subset of benchmark test data that can be considered for further detailed study. These benchmark shots are intended to provide more accessible data sets for future code validation studies and facility-to-facility comparisons. The shots that have been selected as benchmark data are the ones in closest agreement to a line of best fit through all of the EAST results, whilst also showing the best experimental characteristics, such as test time and convergence to equilibrium. The EAST data are presented in different formats for analysis. These data include the spectral radiance at equilibrium, the spatial dependence of radiance over defined wavelength ranges and the mean non-equilibrium spectral radiance (so-called 'spectral non-equilibrium metric'). All the information needed to simulate each experimental trace, including free-stream conditions, shock time of arrival (i.e. x-t) relation, and the spectral and spatial resolution functions, are provided.

  20. A study of the usefulness of Skylab EREP data for earth resources studies in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, B. P.; Benson, M. L.; Borough, C. J.; Myers, B. J.; Maffi, C. E.; Simpson, C. J.; Perry, W. J.; Burns, K. L.; Shepherd, J.; Beattie, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In subhumid, vegetated areas, S190B photography: (1) has a potentially operational role in detecting lineaments in 1:100,000 scale geological mapping and in major civil engineering surveys; (2) is of limited value for regional lithological mapping at 1:500,000 scale; and (3) provided much useful synoptic information and some detailed information of direct value to the mapping of nonmineral natural resources such as vegetation, land soil, and water. In arid, well exposed areas, S190B photography could be used: (1) with a limited amount of field traverses, to produce reliable 1:500,000 scale geological maps of sedimentary sequences; (2) to update superficial geology on 1:250,000 scale maps; and (3) together with the necessary field studies, to prepare landform, soil, and vegetation maps at 1:1,000,000 scale. Skylab photography was found to be more useful than LANDSAT images for small scale mapping of geology and land types, and for the revision of topographic maps at 1:100,000 scale, because of superior spatial resolution and stereoscopic coverage.

  1. The United States Polar Rock Repository: A geological resource for the Earth science community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grunow, Annie M.; Elliot, David H.; Codispoti, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) is a U. S. national facility designed for the permanent curatorial preservation of rock samples, along with associated materials such as field notes, annotated air photos and maps, raw analytic data, paleomagnetic cores, ground rock and mineral residues, thin sections, and microfossil mounts, microslides and residues from Polar areas. This facility was established by the Office of Polar Programs at the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to minimize redundant sample collecting, and also because the extreme cold and hazardous field conditions make fieldwork costly and difficult. The repository provides, along with an on-line database of sample information, an essential resource for proposal preparation, pilot studies and other sample based research that should make fieldwork more efficient and effective. This latter aspect should reduce the environmental impact of conducting research in sensitive Polar Regions. The USPRR also provides samples for educational outreach. Rock samples may be borrowed for research or educational purposes as well as for museum exhibits.

  2. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reviews educational resources for classroom teachers. Resources include books, films, journals, science project guides, and public TV weather briefings. Addresses for obtaining the materials are provided. (MA)

  3. MSFC integrated experiments preliminary report. [for the Skylab program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments are described and their preliminary results are reported. The types of experiments described include medical, earth resources, space physics, space manufacturing, and spacecraft design.

  4. The UAH Spinning Terrella Experiment: A Laboratory Analog for the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, R. B.; Gallagher, D. L.; Craven, P. D.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The UAH Spinning Terrella Experiment has been modified to include the effect of a second magnet. This is a simple laboratory demonstration of the well-known double-dipole approximation to the Earth's magnetosphere. In addition, the magnet has been biassed $\\sim$-400V which generates a DC glow discharge and traps it in a ring current around the magnet. This ring current is easily imaged with a digital camera and illustrates several significant topological properties of a dipole field. In particular, when the two dipoles are aligned, and therefore repel, they emulate a northward IMF Bz magnetosphere. Such a geometry traps plasma in the high latitude cusps as can be clearly seen in the movies. Likewise, when the two magnets are anti-aligned, they emulate a southward IMF Bz magnetosphere with direct feeding of plasma through the x-line. We present evidence for trapping and heating of the plasma, comparing the dipole-trapped ring current to the cusp-trapped population. We also present a peculiar asymmetric ring current produced in by the plasma at low plasma densities. We discuss the similarities and dissimilarities of the laboratory analog to the collisionless Earth plasma, and implications for the interpretation of IMAGE data.

  5. Composition of the earth's atmosphere by shock-layer radiometry during the PAET entry probe experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, E. E.; Arnold, J. O.; Page, W. A.; Reynolds, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A determination of the composition of the earth's atmosphere obtained from onboard radiometer measurements of the spectra emitted from the bow shock layer of a high-speed entry probe is reported. The N2, O2, CO2, and noble gas concentrations in the earth's atmosphere were determined to good accuracy by this technique. The results demonstrate unequivocally the feasibility of determining the composition of an unknown planetary atmosphere by means of a multichannel radiometer viewing optical emission from the heated atmospheric gases in the region between the bow shock wave and the vehicle surface. The spectral locations in this experiment were preselected to enable the observation of CN violet, N2(+) first negative and atomic oxygen emission at 3870, 3910, and 7775 A, respectively. The atmospheric gases were heated and compressed by the shock wave to a peak temperature of about 6100 K and a corresponding pressure of 0.4 atm. Complete descriptions of the data analysis technique and the onboard radiometer and its calibration are given.

  6. Partitioning experiments in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell: volatile content in the Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Jephcoat, Andrew P; Bouhifd, M Ali; Porcelli, Don

    2008-11-28

    The present state of the Earth evolved from energetic events that were determined early in the history of the Solar System. A key process in reconciling this state and the observable mantle composition with models of the original formation relies on understanding the planetary processing that has taken place over the past 4.5Ga. Planetary size plays a key role and ultimately determines the pressure and temperature conditions at which the materials of the early solar nebular segregated. We summarize recent developments with the laser-heated diamond anvil cell that have made possible extension of the conventional pressure limit for partitioning experiments as well as the study of volatile trace elements. In particular, we discuss liquid-liquid, metal-silicate (M-Sil) partitioning results for several elements in a synthetic chondritic mixture, spanning a wide range of atomic number-helium to iodine. We examine the role of the core as a possible host of both siderophile and trace elements and the implications that early segregation processes at deep magma ocean conditions have for current mantle signatures, both compositional and isotopic. The results provide some of the first experimental evidence that the core is the obvious replacement for the long-sought, deep mantle reservoir. If so, they also indicate the need to understand the detailed nature and scale of core-mantle exchange processes, from atomic to macroscopic, throughout the age of the Earth to the present day.

  7. Environmental optimization and shielding for NMR experiments and imaging in the earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Favre, B; Bonche, J P; Meheir, H; Peyrin, J O

    1990-02-01

    For many years, a number of laboratories have been working on the applications of very low field NMR. In 1985, our laboratory presented the first NMR images using the earth's magnetic field. However, the use of this technique was limited by the weakness of the signal and the disturbing effects of the environment on the signal-to-noise ratio and on the homogeneity of the static magnetic field. Therefore experiments has to be performed in places with low environmental disturbances, such as open country or large parks. In 1986, we installed a new station in Lyon, in the town's hostile environment. Good NMR signals can now be obtained (with a signal-to-noise ratio better than 200 and a time constant T2 better than 3s for 200-mnl water samples and at a temperature of about 40 degrees C). We report the terrace roof of our faculty building. Gradient coils were used to correct the local inhomogeneities of the earth's magnetic field. We show FIDs and MR images of water-filled tubes made with or without these improvements.

  8. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  9. Extracting land use information from the earth resources technology satellite data by conventional interpretation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vegas, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure for obtaining land use data from satellite imagery by the use of conventional interpretation methods is presented. The satellite is described briefly, and the advantages of various scales and multispectral scanner bands are discussed. Methods for obtaining satellite imagery and the sources of this imagery are given. Equipment used in the study is described, and samples of land use maps derived from satellite imagery are included together with the land use classification system used. Accuracy percentages are cited and are compared to those of a previous experiment using small scale aerial photography.

  10. Shuttle imaging radar views the Earth from Challenger: The SIR-B experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Cimino, J. B.; Holt, B.; Ruzek, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    In October 1984, SIR-B obtained digital image data of about 6.5 million km2 of the Earth's surface. The coverage is mostly of selected experimental test sites located between latitudes 60 deg north and 60 deg south. Programmed adjustments made to the look angle of the steerable radar antenna and to the flight attitude of the shuttle during the mission permitted collection of multiple-incidence-angle coverage or extended mapping coverage as required for the experiments. The SIR-B images included here are representative of the coverage obtained for scientific studies in geology, cartography, hydrology, vegetation cover, and oceanography. The relations between radar backscatter and incidence angle for discriminating various types of surfaces, and the use of multiple-incidence-angle SIR-B images for stereo measurement and viewing, are illustrated with examples. Interpretation of the images is facilitated by corresponding images or photographs obtained by different sensors or by sketch maps or diagrams.

  11. Science Results from Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE): Energetic Particle Distribution in Near Earth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinlin

    2013-04-01

    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) is a 3-unit (10cm x 10cm x 30cm) CubeSat mission funded by the National Science Foundation, launched into a low-Earth, polar orbit on 13 September 2012 as a secondary payload under NASA's Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa) program. The science objectives of CSSWE are to investigate the relationship of the location, magnitude, and frequency of solar flares to the timing, duration, and energy spectrum of solar energetic particles reaching Earth, and to determine the precipitation loss and the evolution of the energy spectrum of trapped radiation belt electrons. CSSWE contains a single science payload, the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), which is a miniaturization of the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) built at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics for NASA/Van Allen Probes mission, which consists of two identical spacecraft, launched 30 August 2012, that traverse the heart of the radiation belts in a low inclination orbit. CSSWE's REPTile is designed to measure the directional differential flux of protons ranging from 10 to 40 MeV and electrons from 0.5 to >3.3 MeV. The commissioning phase was completed and REPTile was activated on 4 October 2012. The data are very clean, far exceeding expectations! A number of engineering challenges had to be overcome to achieve such clean measurements under the mass and power limits of a CubeSat. The CSSWE is also an ideal class project, providing training for the next generation of engineers and scientists over the full life-cycle of a satellite project.

  12. OER, Resources for Learning--Experiences from an OER Project in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossiannilsson, Ebba S. I.; Creelman, Alastair M.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to share experience from a Swedish project on the introduction and implementation of Open Educational Resources (OER) in higher education with both national and international perspectives. The project, "OER--resources for learning", was part of the National Library of Sweden Open Access initiative and aimed at exploring, raising…

  13. Students' Everyday Knowledge and Experiences as Resources in Educational Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silseth, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I analyze teachers' use of students' everyday knowledge and experiences as resources for learning in educational dialogues. By analyzing video data of teachers' attempts to contextualize instruction in naturalistic settings in a lower secondary school, I examine how teachers use such resources to support and guide student…

  14. Geo-Semantic Framework for Integrating Long-Tail Data and Model Resources for Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Often, scientists and small research groups collect data, which target to address issues and have limited geographic or temporal range. A large number of such collections together constitute a large database that is of immense value to Earth Science studies. Complexity of integrating these data include heterogeneity in dimensions, coordinate systems, scales, variables, providers, users and contexts. They have been defined as long-tail data. Similarly, we use "long-tail models" to characterize a heterogeneous collection of models and/or modules developed for targeted problems by individuals and small groups, which together provide a large valuable collection. Complexity of integrating across these models include differing variable names and units for the same concept, model runs at different time steps and spatial resolution, use of differing naming and reference conventions, etc. Ability to "integrate long-tail models and data" will provide an opportunity for the interoperability and reusability of communities' resources, where not only models can be combined in a workflow, but each model will be able to discover and (re)use data in application specific context of space, time and questions. This capability is essential to represent, understand, predict, and manage heterogeneous and interconnected processes and activities by harnessing the complex, heterogeneous, and extensive set of distributed resources. Because of the staggering production rate of long-tail models and data resulting from the advances in computational, sensing, and information technologies, an important challenge arises: how can geoinformatics bring together these resources seamlessly, given the inherent complexity among model and data resources that span across various domains. We will present a semantic-based framework to support integration of "long-tail" models and data. This builds on existing technologies including: (i) SEAD (Sustainable Environmental Actionable Data) which supports curation

  15. 1999-2003 Shortwave Characterizations of Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS)/Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Broadband Active Cavity Radiometer Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, George L.; Wong, Takmeng

    2008-01-01

    From October 1984 through May 2005, the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS/ )/Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)ERBE nonscanning active cavity radiometers (ACR) were used to monitor long-term changes in the earth radiation budget components of the incoming total solar irradiance (TSI), earth-reflected TSI, and earth-emitted outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). From September1984 through September 1999, using on-board calibration systems, the ERBS/ERBE ACR sensor response changes, in gains and offsets, were determined from on-orbit calibration sources and from direct observations of the incoming TSI through calibration solar ports at measurement precision levels approaching 0.5 W/sq m , at satellite altitudes. On October 6, 1999, the onboard radiometer calibration system elevation drive failed. Thereafter, special spacecraft maneuvers were performed to observe cold space and the sun in order to define the post-September 1999 geometry of the radiometer measurements, and to determine the October 1999-September 2003 ERBS sensor response changes. Analyses of these special solar and cold space observations indicate that the radiometers were pointing approximately 16 degrees away from the spacecraft nadir and on the anti-solar side of the spacecraft. The special observations indicated that the radiometers responses were stable at precision levels approaching 0.5 W/sq m . In this paper, the measurement geometry determinations and the determinations of the radiometers gain and offset are presented, which will permit the accurate processing of the October 1999 through September 2003 ERBE data products at satellite and top-of-the-atmosphere altitudes.

  16. Pairing Essential Climate Science with Sustainable Energy Information: the "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuginow, E.; Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.

    2010-12-01

    considerable challenge of supplying clean energy to a growing population. Additional scenes have been filmed in Brazil, Spain, China, Morocco, Scotland, and across America, including at the National Renewable Energy Lab. in Denver, CO, and New Orleans. Program 3 (presently untitled and targeted for 2012) will feature American communities seeking to increase energy efficiency and minimize carbon emissions. The Fall 2010 AGU presentation will include video clips from the series, initial findings from focus groups (coordinated by project evaluator, Rockman Et Al) as to what information has been found most compelling to potential audiences, and a description of plans being developed by the project's science center partners in San Diego CA, Portland OR, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Fort Worth TX and Raleigh NC. "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" is an experiment to determine the effectiveness of these activities to reach audiences who, according to surveys, have actually become less convinced of anthropogenic climate change, while remaining supportive of investments in advancing clean energy opportunities.

  17. Lessons Learned in the Livingstone 2 on Earth Observing One Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Shulman, Seth

    2005-01-01

    The Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis software is a reusable diagnostic tool for monitoring complex systems. In 2004, L2 was integrated with the JPL Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) and deployed on-board Goddard's Earth Observing One (EO-1) remote sensing satellite, to monitor and diagnose the EO-1 space science instruments and imaging sequence. This paper reports on lessons learned from this flight experiment. The goals for this experiment, including validation of minimum success criteria and of a series of diagnostic scenarios, have all been successfully net. Long-term operations in space are on-going, as a test of the maturity of the system, with L2 performance remaining flawless. L2 has demonstrated the ability to track the state of the system during nominal operations, detect simulated abnormalities in operations and isolate failures to their root cause fault. Specific advances demonstrated include diagnosis of ambiguity groups rather than a single fault candidate; hypothesis revision given new sensor evidence about the state of the system; and the capability to check for faults in a dynamic system without having to wait until the system is quiescent. The major benefits of this advanced health management technology are to increase mission duration and reliability through intelligent fault protection, and robust autonomous operations with reduced dependency on supervisory operations from Earth. The work-load for operators will be reduced by telemetry of processed state-of-health information rather than raw data. The long-term vision is that of making diagnosis available to the onboard planner or executive, allowing autonomy software to re-plan in order to work around known component failures. For a system that is expected to evolve substantially over its lifetime, as for the International Space Station, the model-based approach has definite advantages over rule-based expert systems and limit-checking fault protection systems, as these do not

  18. Hyperspectral Imaging of Forest Resources: The Malaysian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Hasmadi, I.; Kamaruzaman, J.

    2008-08-01

    Remote sensing using satellite and aircraft images are well established technology. Remote sensing application of hyperspectral imaging, however, is relatively new to Malaysian forestry. Through a wide range of wavelengths hyperspectral data are precisely capable to capture narrow bands of spectra. Airborne sensors typically offer greatly enhanced spatial and spectral resolution over their satellite counterparts, and able to control experimental design closely during image acquisition. The first study using hyperspectral imaging for forest inventory in Malaysia were conducted by Professor Hj. Kamaruzaman from the Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia in 2002 using the AISA sensor manufactured by Specim Ltd, Finland. The main objective has been to develop methods that are directly suited for practical tropical forestry application at the high level of accuracy. Forest inventory and tree classification including development of single spectral signatures have been the most important interest at the current practices. Experiences from the studies showed that retrieval of timber volume and tree discrimination using this system is well and some or rather is better than other remote sensing methods. This article reviews the research and application of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing for forest survey and assessment in Malaysia.

  19. OGUMI—A new mobile application to conduct common-pool resource experiments in continuous time

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    OGUMI is an Android-based open source mobile application for conducting Common-Pool Resource Experiments, Choice Experiments, and Questionnaires in the field, in the laboratory, and online. A main feature of OGUMI is its capacity to capture real-time changes in human behaviour in response to a dynamically varying resource. OGUMI is simple (for example, likewise other existing software, it does not require expertise in behavioural game theory), stable, and extremely flexible with respect to the user-resource model running in the background. Here we present the motivation for the development of OGUMI and we discuss its main features with an example application. PMID:28582457

  20. OGUMI-A new mobile application to conduct common-pool resource experiments in continuous time.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Gunnar; Kulesz, Micaela M; Nissen, Dennis; Merico, Agostino

    2017-01-01

    OGUMI is an Android-based open source mobile application for conducting Common-Pool Resource Experiments, Choice Experiments, and Questionnaires in the field, in the laboratory, and online. A main feature of OGUMI is its capacity to capture real-time changes in human behaviour in response to a dynamically varying resource. OGUMI is simple (for example, likewise other existing software, it does not require expertise in behavioural game theory), stable, and extremely flexible with respect to the user-resource model running in the background. Here we present the motivation for the development of OGUMI and we discuss its main features with an example application.

  1. How to Communicate Near Earth Objects with the Public - Klet Observatory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticha, Jana; Tichy, Milos; Kocer, Michal

    2015-08-01

    Near-Earth Object (NEO) research is counted among the most popular parts of communicating astronomy with the public. Increasing research results in the field of Near-Earth Objects as well as impact hazard investigations cause growing interest among general public and media. Furthermore NEO related issues have outstanding educational value. So thus communicating NEO detection, NEO characterization, possible impact effects, space missions to NEOs, ways of mitigation and impact warnings with the public and media belong to the most important tasks of scientists and research institutions.Our institution represents an unique liaison of the small professional research institution devoted especially to NEO studies (the Klet Observatory, Czech Republic) and the educational and public outreach branch (the Observatory and Planetarium Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic). This all has been giving us an excellent opportunity for bringing NEO information to wider audience. We have been obtaining a wide experience in communicating NEOs with the public more than twenty years.There is a wide spectrum of public outreach tools aimed to NEO research and hazard. As the most useful ones we consider two special on-line magazines (e-zins) devoted to asteroids (www.planetky.cz) and comets (www.komety.cz) in Czech language, educational multimedia presentations for schools at different levels in planetarium, summer excursions for wide public just at the Klet Observatory on the top of the Klet mountain, public lectures, meetings and exhibitions. It seems to be very contributing and favoured by public to have opportunities for more or less informal meetings just with NEO researchers from time to time. Very important part of NEO public outreach consists of continuous contact with journalists and media including press releases, interviews, news, periodical programs. An increasing role of social media is taken into account through Facebook and Twitter profiles.The essential goal of all mentioned NEO

  2. Earth analog image digitization of field, aerial, and lab experiment studies for Planetary Data System archiving.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.; Nelson, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    A portion of the earth analog image archive at the Ronald Greeley Center for Planetary Studies (RGCPS)-the NASA Regional Planetary Information Facility at Arizona State University-is being digitized and will be added to the Planetary Data System (PDS) for public use. This will be a first addition of terrestrial data to the PDS specifically for comparative planetology studies. Digitization is separated into four tasks. First is the scanning of aerial photographs of volcanic and aeolian structures and flows. The second task is to scan field site images taken from ground and low-altitude aircraft of volcanic structures, lava flows, lava tubes, dunes, and wind streaks. The third image set to be scanned includes photographs of lab experiments from the NASA Planetary Aeolian Laboratory wind tunnels, vortex generator, and of wax models. Finally, rare NASA documents are being scanned and formatted as PDF files. Thousands of images are to be scanned for this project. Archiving of the data will follow the PDS4 standard, where the entire project is classified as a single bundle, with individual subjects (i.e., the Amboy Crater volcanic structure in the Mojave Desert of California) as collections. Within the collections, each image is considered a product, with a unique ID and associated XML document. Documents describing the image data, including the subject and context, will be included with each collection. Once complete, the data will be hosted by a PDS data node and available for public search and download. As one of the first earth analog datasets to be archived by the PDS, this project could prompt the digitizing and making available of historic datasets from other facilities for the scientific community.

  3. Alaska's Secondary Science Teachers and Students Receive Earth Systems Science Knowledge, GIS Know How and University Technical Support for Pre- College Research Experiences: The EDGE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Prakash, A.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska's secondary school teachers are increasingly required to provide Earth systems science (ESS) education that integrates student observations of local natural processes related to rapid climate change with geospatial datasets and satellite imagery using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. Such skills are also valued in various employment sectors of the state where job opportunities requiring Earth science and GIS training are increasing. University of Alaska's EDGE (Experiential Discoveries in Geoscience Education) program has provided training and classroom resources for 3 cohorts of inservice Alaska science and math teachers in GIS and Earth Systems Science (2005-2007). Summer workshops include geologic field experiences, GIS instruction, computer equipment and technical support for groups of Alaska high school (HS) and middle school (MS) science teachers each June and their students in August. Since 2005, EDGE has increased Alaska science and math teachers' Earth science content knowledge and developed their GIS and computer skills. In addition, EDGE has guided teachers using a follow-up, fall online course that provided more extensive ESS knowledge linked with classroom standards and provided course content that was directly transferable into their MS and HS science classrooms. EDGE teachers were mentored by University faculty and technical staff as they guided their own students through semester-scale, science fair style projects using geospatial data that was student- collected. EDGE program assessment indicates that all teachers have improved their ESS knowledge, GIS knowledge, and the use of technology in their classrooms. More than 230 middle school students have learned GIS, from EDGE teachers and 50 EDGE secondary students have conducted original research related to landscape change and its impacts on their own communities. Longer-term EDGE goals include improving student performance on the newly implemented (spring 2008) 10th grade

  4. Parental experience of family resources in single-parent families having a child with cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, I-Chen; Mu, Pei-Fan; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the essence of family experiences in terms of family resources and how these assist a single-parent caring for a child with cancer. When families face stresses caused by cancer, they need to readjust their roles, interactive patterns and relationships, both inside and outside the family. During the adaptation process, family resources may assist recovery from stress and a return to equilibrium. Most research has emphasised the support resources available to two-parent families during the treatment process. There is a lack of information on the experiences of single-parent families and their available resources together with the functions and roles played by family resources during the adjustment process. Qualitative. Five major themes were identified: (i) facing the disease with courage; (ii) hope kindled by professionals; (iii) constructing parental role ability; (iv) assisting the children to live with the illness; and (v) family flexibility. The results of the current study demonstrate that single-parent families with a child suffering from cancer employ family resources to assist family adjustment and to maintain family function/equilibrium. These results explain the dynamic interactions between the multiple levels of resources available to the family. The study results provide evidence-based information that identifies the nature of family resources in single-parent families and describes how these resources can be applied to assist the families.

  5. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 8: User's Mission and System Requirements Data (appendix A of Volume 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A computer printout is presented of the mission requirement for the TERSSE missions and their associated user tasks. The data included in the data base represents a broad-based attempt to define the amount, extent, and type of information needed for an earth resources management program in the era of the space shuttle. An effort was made to consider all aspects of remote sensing and resource management; because of its broad scope, it is not intended that the data be used without verification for in-depth studies of particular missions and/or users. The data base represents the quantitative structure necessary to define the TERSSE architecture and requirements, and to an overall integrated view of the earth resources technology requirements of the 1980's.

  6. Understanding Coupled Earth-Surface Processes through Experiments and Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Kim, W.

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, both numerical models and experiments have been purposefully designed to ';isolate' singular components or certain processes of a larger mountain to deep-ocean interconnected source-to-sink (S2S) transport system. Controlling factors driven by processes outside of the domain of immediate interest were treated and simplified as input or as boundary conditions. Increasingly, earth surface processes scientists appreciate feedbacks and explore these feedbacks with more dynamically coupled approaches to their experiments and models. Here, we discuss key concepts and recent advances made in coupled modeling and experimental setups. In addition, we emphasize challenges and new frontiers to coupled experiments. Experiments have highlighted the important role of self-organization; river and delta systems do not always need to be forced by external processes to change or develop characteristic morphologies. Similarly modeling f.e. has shown that intricate networks in tidal deltas are stable because of the interplay between river avulsions and the tidal current scouring with both processes being important to develop and maintain the dentritic networks. Both models and experiment have demonstrated that seemingly stable systems can be perturbed slightly and show dramatic responses. Source-to-sink models were developed for both the Fly River System in Papua New Guinea and the Waipaoa River in New Zealand. These models pointed to the importance of upstream-downstream effects and enforced our view of the S2S system as a signal transfer and dampening conveyor belt. Coupled modeling showed that deforestation had extreme effects on sediment fluxes draining from the catchment of the Waipaoa River in New Zealand, and that this increase in sediment production rapidly shifted the locus of offshore deposition. The challenge in designing coupled models and experiments is both technological as well as intellectual. Our community advances to make numerical model coupling more

  7. Active and passive multispectral scanner for earth resources applications: An advanced applications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Peterson, L. M.; Thomson, F. J.; Work, E. A.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an experimental airborne multispectral scanner to provide both active (laser illuminated) and passive (solar illuminated) data from a commonly registered surface scene is discussed. The system was constructed according to specifications derived in an initial programs design study. The system was installed in an aircraft and test flown to produce illustrative active and passive multi-spectral imagery. However, data was not collected nor analyzed for any specific application.

  8. Skylab program earth resources experiment package sensor performance evaluation, volume 1, (S190A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results of S190A sensor performance evaluation are summarized based on data presented by all contributors to the sensor performance evaluation interim reports. Techniques used in sensor performance evaluation are discussed. Topics discussed include: performance degradation identified during the Skylab missions, S190A and EREP system anomalies that affected S190A performance, and the performance achieved, in terms of pertinent S190A parameters. Additional analyses include final performance analyses completed after submittal of the SL4 interim sensor performance evaluation reports, including completion of detailed analyses of basic performance parameters initiated during the interim report periods and consolidation analyses to reduce independent mission data (SL2, SL3, and SL4) to determine overall performance realized during all three Skylab missions.

  9. Earth-satellite propagation above GHz: Papers from the 1972 spring URSI session on experiments utilizing the ATS-5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, L. J. (Compiler)

    1972-01-01

    Papers are reported from the Special Session on Earth-Satellite Propagation Above 10 GHz, presented at The 1972 Spring Meeting of the United States National Committee, International Union of Radio Science, April 1972, Washington, D. C. This session was devoted to propagation measurements associated with the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-5), which provided the first operational earth-space links at frequencies above 15 GHz. A comprehensive summary is presented of the major results of the ATS-5 experiment measurements and related radiometric, radar and meteorological studies. The papers are organized around seven selected areas of interest, with the results of the various investigators combined into a single paper presented by a principal author for that area. A comprehensive report is provided on the results of the ATS-5 satellite to earth transmissions. A complete list of published reports and presentations related to the ATS-5 Millimeter Wave Experiment is included.

  10. An Experiment on Enforcement Strategies for Managing a Local Environment Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James J.; Cardenas, Juan-Camilo

    2004-01-01

    Managing local environmental resources with moderately enforced government regulations can often be counterproductive, whereas nonbinding communications can be remarkably effective. The authors describe a classroom experiment that illustrates these points. The experiment is rich in its institutional settings and highlights the challenges that…

  11. DLESE Teaching Box Pilot Project: Developing a Replicable Model for Collaboratively Creating Innovative Instructional Sequences Using Exemplary Resources in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingroff, M.

    2004-12-01

    Before the advent of digital libraries, it was difficult for teachers to find suitable high-quality resources to use in their teaching. Digital libraries such as DLESE have eased the task by making high quality resources more easily accessible and providing search mechanisms that allow teachers to 'fine tune' the criteria over which they search. Searches tend to return lists of resources with some contextualizing information. However, teachers who are teaching 'out of discipline' or who have minimal training in science often need additional support to know how to use and sequence them. The Teaching Box Pilot Project was developed to address these concerns, bringing together educators, scientists, and instructional designers in a partnership to build an online framework to fully support innovative units of instruction about the Earth system. Each box integrates DLESE resources and activities, teaching tips, standards, concepts, teaching outcomes, reviews, and assessment information. Online templates and best practice guidelines are being developed that will enable teachers to create their own boxes or customize existing ones. Two boxes have been developed so far, one on weather for high school students, and one on the evidence for plate tectonics for middle schoolers. The project has met with significant enthusiasm and interest, and we hope to expand it by involving individual teachers, school systems, pre-service programs, and universities in the development and use of teaching boxes. A key ingredient in the project's success has been the close collaboration between the partners, each of whom has brought unique experiences, perspectives, knowledge, and skills to the project. This first effort involved teachers in the San Francisco Bay area, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, San Francisco State University, U.S. Geological Survey, and DLESE. This poster will allow participants to explore one of the teaching boxes. We will discuss how the boxes were

  12. The Kickstart of the Age of the Earth Race: Revisiting the Experiment of the Comte de Buffon at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincelli, M. M.; Prat, M. R.; Lescano, G. M.; Formichella, M. del C.; Brustle, M.; Otranto, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the first experiment ever done to determine the age of the Earth is revisited. The benefits of its application at primary and secondary school levels are presented and discussed. In particular, emphasis is placed on the advantage of facing students with the challenges that scientists have had to overcome during the past three…

  13. Spatial autocorrelation of radiation measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment: Scene inhomogeneity and reciprocity violation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Roger

    1994-01-01

    The spatial autocorrelation functions of broad-band longwave and shortwave radiances measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are analyzed as a function of view angle in an investigation of the general effects of scene inhomogeneity on radiation. For nadir views, the correlation distance of the autocorrelation function is about 900 km for longwave radiance and about 500 km for shortwave radiance, consistent with higher degrees of freedom in shortwave reflection. Both functions rise monotonically with view angle, but there is a substantial difference in the relative angular dependence of the shortwave and longwave functions, especially for view angles less than 50 deg. In this range, the increase with angle of the longwave functions is found to depend only on the expansion of pixel area with angle, whereas the shortwave functions show an additional dependence on angle that is attributed to the occlusion of inhomogeneities by cloud height variations. Beyond a view angle of about 50 deg, both longwave and shortwave functions appear to be affected by cloud sides. The shortwave autocorrelation functions do not satisfy the principle of directional reciprocity, thereby proving that the average scene is horizontally inhomogeneous over the scale of an ERBE pixel (1500 sq km). Coarse stratification of the measurements by cloud amount, however, indicates that the average cloud-free scene does satisfy directional reciprocity on this scale.

  14. GEOSTEP: A gravitation experiment in Earth-orbiting satellite to test the Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, R.

    2003-10-01

    Testing the Equivalence Principle has been recognized by the scientific community as a short-term prime objective for fundamental physics in space. In 1994, a Phase 0/A study of the GEOSTEP mission has been initiated by CNES in order to design a space experiment to test the Equivalence Principle to an accuracy of 10 -17, with the constraint to be compatible with the small versatile platform PROTEUS under study. The GEOSTEP payload comprises a set of four differential accelerometers placed at cryogenic temperature on board a drag-free, 3-axis stabilized satellite in low-Earth orbit. Each accelerometer contains a pair of test masses A-A, A-B, A-C, B-C (inner mass - outer mass) made of three different materials A, B, C with decreasing densities. The accelerometer concept is the fully electrostatic levitation and read-out device proposed by ONERA, called SAGE (Space Accelerometer for Gravitation Experiment). The drag-free and attitude control system (DFACS) is monitored by the common-mode data of the accelerometers along their three axes, while the possible violation signal is detected by the differential-mode data along the longitudinal sensitive axis. The cryostat is a single chamber supercritical Helium dewar designed by CEA. Helium boiling off from the dewar feeds a set of proportional gas thrusters performing the DFACS. Error analysis and data processing preparation is managed by OCA/CERGA. The satellite will be on a 6 am - 6 pm near-polar, near-circular, Sun-synchronous orbit, at an altitude of 600 to 900 km, depending on the atmospheric density at the time of launch. GEOSTEP could be launched in 2002; the nominal mission duration is at least four months.

  15. Investigation of Strategies to Promote Effective Teacher Professional Development Experiences in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation serves as a call to geoscientists to share responsibility with K-12 educators for increasing Earth science literacy. When partnerships are created among K-12 educators and geoscientists, the synergy created can promote Earth science literacy in students, teachers, and the broader community. The research described here resulted in…

  16. Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education: Activities in Support of Earth, Oceans and Atmospheric Sciences Faculty, and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.; Singer, J.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF offers funding programs that support geoscience education spanning atmospheric, oceans, and Earth sciences, as well as environmental science, climate change and sustainability, and research on learning. The 'Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education' (RTUGeoEd) is an NSF Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES) Type 2 special project aimed at supporting college-level geoscience faculty at all types of institutions. The project's goals are to carry out activities and create digital resources that encourage the geoscience community to submit proposals that impact their courses and classroom infrastructure through innovative changes in instructional practice, and contribute to making transformative changes that impact student learning outcomes and lead to other educational benefits. In the past year information sessions were held during several national and regional professional meetings, including the GSA Southeastern and South-Central Section meetings. A three-day proposal-writing workshop for faculty planning to apply to the TUES program was held at the University of South Florida - Tampa. During the workshop, faculty learned about the program and key elements of a proposal, including: the need to demonstrate awareness of prior efforts within and outside the geosciences and how the proposed project builds upon this knowledge base; need to fully justify budget and role of members of the project team; project evaluation and what matters in selecting a project evaluator; and effective dissemination practices. Participants also spent time developing their proposal benefitting from advice and feedback from workshop facilitators. Survey data gathered from workshop participants point to a consistent set of challenges in seeking grant support for a desired educational innovation, including poor understanding of the educational literature, of available funding programs, and of learning assessment and project evaluation. Many also noted

  17. Challenges associated with tracking resources allocation for reproductive health in sub-Saharan African countries: the UNFPA/NIDI resource flows project experience.

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle M; Beekink, Erik; Maina, Beatrice W

    2015-05-05

    Universal access to reproductive health services entails strengthening health systems, but requires significant resource commitments as well as efficient and effective use of those resources. A number of international organizations and governments in developing countries are putting efforts into tracking the flow of health resources in order to inform resource mobilization and allocation, strategic planning, priority setting, advocacy and general policy making. The UNFPA/NIDI-led Resource Flows Project ("The UNFPA/NIDI RF Project") has conducted annual surveys since 1997 to monitor progress achieved by developing countries in implementing reproductive health financial targets. This commentary summarizes the Project experiences and challenges in gathering data on allocation of resources for reproductive health at the domestic level in sub-Saharan African countries. One key lesson learnt from the Project experience is the need for strengthening tracking mechanisms in sub-Saharan African countries and making information on reproductive health resources and expenditures available, in particular the private sector resources.

  18. PanEurasian Experiment (PEEX): Modelling Platform for Earth System Observations and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Mahura, Alexander; Penenko, Vladimir; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    models, analysing scenarios, inverse modelling, modelling based on measurement needs and processes; • Model validation by remote sensing data and assimilation of satellite observations to constrain models to better understand processes, e.g., emissions and fluxes with top-down modelling; • Geophysical/ chemical model validation with experiments at various spatial and temporal scales. Added value of the comprehensive multi-platform observations and modeling; network of monitoring stations with the capacity to quantify those interactions between neighboring areas ranging from the Arctic and the Mediterranean to the Chinese industrial areas and the Asian steppes is needed. For example, apart from development of Russian stations in the PEEX area a strong co-operation with surrounding research infrastructures in the model of ACTRIS network needs to be established in order to obtain a global perspective of the emissions transport, transformation and ageing of pollutants incoming and exiting the PEEX area. The PEEX-MP aims to simulate and predict the physical aspects of the Earth system and to improve understanding of the bio-geochemical cycles in the PEEX domain, and beyond. The environmental change in this region implies that, from the point-of-view of atmospheric flow, the lower boundary conditions are changing. This is important for applications with immediate relevance for society, such as numerical weather prediction. The PEEX infrastructure will provide a unique view to the physical properties of the Earth surface, which can be used to improve assessment and prediction models. This will directly benefit citizens of the North in terms of better early warning of hazardous events, for instance. On longer time-scales, models of the bio-geochemical cycles in the PEEX domain absolutely need support from the new monitoring infra-structure to better measure and quantify soil and vegetation properties. In the most basic setup, the atmospheric and oceanic Global Circulation

  19. Innovating the Experience of Peer Learning and Earth Science Education in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoates, J. S.; Hanano, D. W.; Weis, D.; Bilenker, L.; Sherman, S. B.; Gilley, B.

    2017-12-01

    development of professional skills in three key areas: (1) project and time management, (2) teamwork and communication, and (3) critical thinking and problem-solving. The MAGNET experience with peer learning represents a model that can readily be adapted for future field instruction in the Earth Sciences.

  20. Providing Authentic Research Experiences for Pre-Service Teachers through UNH's Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, R. K.; Furman, T.; Porter, W.; Darwish, A.; Graham, K.; Bryce, J.; Brown, D.; Finkel, L.; Froburg, E.; Guertin, L.; Hale, S. R.; Johnson, J.; von Damm, K.

    2007-12-01

    The University of New Hampshire's Transforming Earth System Science Education (UNH TESSE) project is designed to enrich the education and professional development of in-service and pre-service teachers, who teach or will teach Earth science curricula. As part of this program, pre-service teachers participated in an eight- week summer Research Immersion Experience (RIE). The main goal of the RIE is to provide authentic research experiences in Earth system science for teachers early in their careers in an effort to increase future teachers` comfort and confidence in bringing research endeavors to their students. Moreover, authentic research experiences for teachers will complement teachers` efforts to enhance inquiry-based instruction in their own classrooms. Eighteen pre-service teachers associated with our four participating institutions - Dillard University (4), Elizabeth City State University (4), Pennsylvania State University (5), and University of New Hampshire (UNH) (5) participated in the research immersion experience. Pre-service teachers were matched with a faculty mentor who advised their independent research activities. Each pre-service teacher was expected to collect and analyze his or her own data to address their research question. Some example topics researched by participants included: processes governing barrier island formation, comparison of formation and track of hurricanes Hugo and Katrina, environmental consequences of Katrina, numerical models of meander formation, climatic impacts on the growth of wetland plants, and the visual estimation of hydrothermal vent properties. Participants culminated their research experience with a public presentation to an audience of scientists and inservice teachers.

  1. The World's Largest Experiment Manipulating Solar Energy Input To Earth Resumed In 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    Small amounts of solar-ultraviolet-energy absorbing gases such as ozone, SO2, and NO2 play an unusually large role warming the atmosphere. A mere 3 to 8 ppmv ozone at elevations of 15 to 50 km and associated exothermic chemical reactions warm the atmosphere >50oC, forming the stratosphere. All three molecules have an asymmetric top shape that, unlike linear molecules of CO2, forms a permanent electromagnetic dipole enhancing interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Planck’s postulate (Energy = a constant times frequency) implies that solar ultraviolet energy strongly absorbed by SO2 is 43 times greater than infrared energy radiated by earth and strongly absorbed by CO2. Solar energy in the blue visible spectrum and ultraviolet causes electronic transitions and an absorption spectrum that is a continuum, absorbing far more energy per unit gas than spectral line absorption of infrared energy caused by rotational and vibrational transitions. Absorption of electromagnetic energy by atmospheric gases increases rapidly with increasing frequency, an observation not accounted for by the use of specific heat in atmospheric models to link energy flux with temperature. While SO2 in the stratosphere is oxidized to a sulfuric acid aerosol that reflects sunlight, cooling the earth, SO2 in the troposphere is oxidized much more slowly than commonly assumed. Well-documented concentrations of tens of ppbv SO2 emitted by humans burning fossil fuels, especially coal, in northern mid-latitudes are contemporaneous, with suitable time delays for warming the ocean, with increased global warming during the 20th century, greatest by nearly a factor of two in the northern hemisphere. A decrease by 18% of anthropogenic SO2 emissions between 1979 and 2000 aimed at reducing acid rain had the unintended effect of reducing the global mean rate of temperature increase to zero by 1998. By 2003, global SO2 emissions began to rise sharply due to the rapid increase in number of new coal

  2. The Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Scientific Experiment for Understanding the Earth-Atmosphere Coupled System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Xu, X.; Chen, F.; Guo, X.; Zheng, X.; Liu, L. P.; Hong, Y.; Li, Y.; La, Z.; Peng, H.; Zhong, L. Z.; Ma, Y.; Tang, S. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, H.; Li, Y. H.; Zhang, Q.; Hu, Z.; Sun, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Dong, L.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Y.; Yan, X.; Xiao, A.; Wan, W.; Zhou, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Third Tibetan Plateau atmospheric scientific experiment (TIPEX-III) was initiated jointly by the China Meteorological Administration, the National Natural Scientific Foundation, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This paper presents the background, scientific objectives, and overall experimental design of TIPEX-III. It was designed to conduct an integrated observation of the earth-atmosphere coupled system over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) from land surface, planetary boundary layer (PBL), troposphere, and stratosphere for eight to ten years by coordinating ground- and air-based measurement facilities for understanding spatial heterogeneities of complex land-air interactions, cloud-precipitation physical processes, and interactions between troposphere and stratosphere. TIPEX-III originally began in 2014, and is ongoing. It established multiscale land-surface and PBL observation networks over the TP and a tropospheric meteorological radiosonde network over the western TP, and executed an integrated observation mission for cloud-precipitation physical features using ground-based radar systems and aircraft campaigns and an observation task for atmospheric ozone, aerosol, and water vapor. The archive, management, and share policy of the observation data are also introduced herein. Some TIPEX-III data have been preliminarily applied to analyze the features of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, cloud-precipitation physical processes, and atmospheric water vapor and ozone over the TP, and to improve the local precipitation forecast. Furthermore, TIPEX-III intends to promote greater scientific and technological cooperation with international research communities and broader organizations. Scientists working internationally are invited to participate in the field campaigns and to use the TIPEX-III data for their own research.

  3. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  4. Optimal trajectories for the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment. Part 1: Equations of motion in an Earth-fixed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Zhao, Z. G.; Lee, W. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) is discussed. The AFE refers to the study of the free flight of an autonomous spacecraft, shuttle-launched and shuttle-recovered. Its purpose is to gather atmospheric entry environmental data for use in designing aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV). It is assumed that: (1) the spacecraft is a particle of constant mass; (2) the Earth is rotating with constant angular velocity; (3) the Earth is an oblate planet, and the gravitational potential depends on both the radial distance and the latitude (harmonics of order higher than four are ignored); and (4) the atmosphere is at rest with respect to the Earth. Under these assumptions, the equations of motion for hypervelocity atmospheric flight (which can be used not only for AFE problems, but also for AOT problems and space shuttle problems) are derived in an Earth-fixed system. Transformation relations are supplied which allow one to pass from quantities computed in an Earth-fixed system to quantities computed in an inertial system, and vice versa.

  5. Resources

    Science.gov Websites

    Science Programs Applied Energy Programs Civilian Nuclear Energy Programs Laboratory Directed Research Service Academies Research Associates (SARA) Postdocs, Students Employee, Retiree Resources Benefits New

  6. Rare Earth Element Partition Coefficients from Enstatite/Melt Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwandt, Craig S.; McKay, Gordon A.

    1997-01-01

    Enstatite (En(80)Fs(19)Wo(01)) was synthesized from a hypersthene normative basaltic melt doped at the same time with La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb and Lu. The rare earth element concentrations were measured in both the basaltic glass and the enstatite. Rare earth element concentrations in the glass were determined by electron microprobe analysis with uncertainties less than two percent relative. Rare earth element concentrations in enstatite were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry with uncertainties less than five percent relative. The resulting rare earth element partition signature for enstatite is similar to previous calculated and composite low-Ca pigeonite signatures, but is better defined and differs in several details. The partition coefficients are consistent with crystal structural constraints.

  7. Laboratory experiments on the impact disruption of iron meteorites at temperature of near-Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Takekuni; Nakamura, Akiko M.; Takabe, Ayana; Okamoto, Takaya; Sangen, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Sunao; Liu, Xun; Mashimo, Tsutomu

    2014-10-01

    Iron meteorites and some M-class asteroids are generally understood to be fragments that were originally part of cores of differentiated planetesimals or part of local melt pools on primitive bodies. The parent bodies of iron meteorites may have formed in the terrestrial planet region, from which they were then scattered into the main belt (Bottke, W.F., Nesvorný, D., Grimm, R.E., Morbidelli, A., O'Brien, D.P. [2006]. Nature 439, 821-824). Therefore, a wide range of collisional events at different mass scales, temperatures, and impact velocities would have occurred between the time when the iron was segregated and the impact that eventually exposed the iron meteorites to interplanetary space. In this study, we performed impact disruption experiments of iron meteorite specimens as projectiles or targets at room temperature to increase understanding of the disruption process of iron bodies in near-Earth space. Our iron specimens (as projectiles or targets) were almost all smaller in size than their counterparts (as targets or projectiles, respectively). Experiments of impacts of steel specimens were also conducted for comparison. The fragment mass distribution of the iron material was different from that of rocks. In the iron fragmentation, a higher percentage of the mass was concentrated in larger fragments, probably due to the ductile nature of the material at room temperature. The largest fragment mass fraction f was dependent not only on the energy density but also on the size d of the specimen. We assumed a power-law dependence of the largest fragment mass fraction to initial peak pressure P0 normalized by a dynamic strength, Y, which was defined to be dependent on the size of the iron material. A least squares fit to the data of iron meteorite specimens resulted in the following relationship: f∝∝d, indicating a large size dependence of f. Additionally, the deformation of the iron materials in high-velocity shots was found to be most significant when the

  8. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energymore » policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.« less

  9. Resource allocation and budgetary mechanisms for decentralized health systems: experiences from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Green, A; Ali, B; Naeem, A; Ross, D

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies key political and technical issues involved in the development of an appropriate resource allocation and budgetary system for the public health sector, using experience gained in the Province of Balochistan, Pakistan. The resource allocation and budgetary system is a critical, yet often neglected, component of any decentralization policy. Current systems are often based on historical incrementalism that is neither efficient nor equitable. This article describes technical work carried out in Balochistan to develop a system of resource allocation and budgeting that is needs-based, in line with policies of decentralization, and implementable within existing technical constraints. However, the development of technical systems, while necessary, is not a sufficient condition for the implementation of a resource allocation and decentralized budgeting system. This is illustrated by analysing the constraints that have been encountered in the development of such a system in Balochistan.

  10. Resource allocation and budgetary mechanisms for decentralized health systems: experiences from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A.; Ali, B.; Naeem, A.; Ross, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies key political and technical issues involved in the development of an appropriate resource allocation and budgetary system for the public health sector, using experience gained in the Province of Balochistan, Pakistan. The resource allocation and budgetary system is a critical, yet often neglected, component of any decentralization policy. Current systems are often based on historical incrementalism that is neither efficient nor equitable. This article describes technical work carried out in Balochistan to develop a system of resource allocation and budgeting that is needs-based, in line with policies of decentralization, and implementable within existing technical constraints. However, the development of technical systems, while necessary, is not a sufficient condition for the implementation of a resource allocation and decentralized budgeting system. This is illustrated by analysing the constraints that have been encountered in the development of such a system in Balochistan. PMID:10994286

  11. When study abroad experience fails to deliver: The internal resources threshold effect

    PubMed Central

    Sunderman, Gretchen; Kroll, Judith F.

    2009-01-01

    Some second language (L2) learners return from study abroad experiences with seemingly no change in their L2 ability. In this study we investigate whether a certain level of internal cognitive resources is necessary in order for individuals to take full advantage of the study abroad experience. Specifically, we examined the role of working memory resources in lexical comprehension and production for learners who had or had not studied abroad. Participants included native English learners of Spanish. Participants completed a translation recognition task and a picture-naming task. The results suggest that individuals who lack a certain threshold of working memory resources are unable to benefit from the study abroad context in terms of being able to produce accurately in the L2. PMID:19714256

  12. Teaching the African-American Experience in the Palmetto State. Educator Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This resource guide for teaching the African-American experience in South Carolina's public schools is designed to serve as a supplement to the "South Carolina Social Studies Curriculum Standards." Focusing on the history and culture of Africa and African-Americans within the specific context of the state's curriculum standards and…

  13. Exploring the effect of experience use history and place bonding on resource substitution

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Wynveen; Gerard T. Kyle; William E. Hammitt; James D. Absher

    2008-01-01

    Although place bonding has been a prominent aspect of human dimensions research for over 25 years, there remains a need to understand the construct's behavioral implications. One area that has received attention is the relationship between experience-use history (EUH), place bonding, and resource substitution. To further examine the relationships among these...

  14. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  15. Piloting a Global Collaborative Experiment to Determine your Place on the Planet and the Circumference of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; Paniwozik, R. L.; Wallace, P.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the laboratory component in Bush Physics for the 21st Century, a distance delivered physics course geared toward rural and Indigenous students in Alaska, students determine their village location on earth from simple sun angle measurements at local-noon during the spring equinox. Students measure the length of the sun shadow cast by a rod mounted on a horizontal surface, over short time intervals on or near the spring equinox during mid-day. Local-noon occurs when the sun is the highest and its corresponding shadow the shortest. Local noon, when expressed in Universal Time, can be directly converted to the local longitude in degrees. Local latitude in degrees, is obtained from the local-noon shadow length on the spring equinox and simple trigonometry. As an added bonus, using data from different sites, students can collaborate to approximate the circumference of the earth from their measurements. In the spirit of Eratosthenes, students envision an earth-sized pie wedge cut from a polar great-circle where the curve of the wedge on the earth's surface is the North-South distance between two often road-less sites (determined using Google Earth, a map or a globe), and the angle of the wedge is the difference between the site latitudes. The earth's circumference is calculated from this wedge. In 2012 with the aim of including Indigenous groups from other regions of the planet, we expanded this experiment to include teams from Japan, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and New Zealand. We present our results from this pilot year.

  16. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Scheiman, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of post-flight performance testing of the solar cells flown on the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment are reported. Comparison of post-flight current-voltage characteristics with similar pre-flight data revealed little or no change in solar cell conversion efficiency, confirming the reliability and endurance of space photovoltaic cells. This finding is in agreement with the lack of significant physical changes in the solar cells despite nearly six years in the low Earth orbit environment.

  17. The kickstart of the age of the Earth race: revisiting the experiment of the Comte de Buffon at school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincelli, M. M.; Prat, M. R.; Lescano, G. M.; Formichella, M. del C.; Brustle, M.; Otranto, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the first experiment ever done to determine the age of the Earth is revisited. The benefits of its application at primary and secondary school levels are presented and discussed. In particular, emphasis is placed on the advantage of facing students with the challenges that scientists have had to overcome during the past three centuries to reach our present knowledge in contrast to the mere transmission of the latest facts.

  18. The Global Non-Holonomity of the Rotating Space of the Earth Affects Hafele-Keating Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabounski, Dmitri; Borissova, Larissa

    2013-04-01

    The deviation of time registered in the ``around-the-world clocks experiment'' (Hafele J. and Keating R., Science, 14 July 1972, 166-170) is originally explained due to: 1) General Relativity (gravitation is lower at the flying airplane's altitude); 2) Special Relativity (the airplane's speed and the Earth's rotation). However as was shown in the 1940's by Schouten and then Zelmanov, if the observer cannot be moved to the rotation-free frame, the space rotation is a non-vanishing effect of General Relativity, and is due to the non-holonomity of space (the non-orthogonality of the three-space to the lines of time). This is the case of Hafele-Keating experiment (the Earth's rotation cannot be stopped). We thus constructed the metric of the real space of the Earth which bears the gravitational field and rotation. We then proved that this metric satisfies Einstein's equations. Finally, an exact formula is deduced for Hafele-Keating experiment. Despite a hundred nanoseconds of the time correction, and the use of the GPS navigation, the obtained result is useful in the case where is no the GPS connexion, in a long-term submarine travel for instance.

  19. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  20. EarthScope's Transportable Array: Status of the Alaska Deployment and Guide to Resources for Lower48 Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.; Aderhold, K.; Frassetto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska Transportable Array deployment is completely installed, totaling 280 stations, with 194 new stations and 86 existing stations, 28 of those upgraded with new sensor emplacement. We briefly summarize the deployment of this seismic network, describe the added meteorological instruments and soil temperature gauges, and review our expectations for operation and demobilization. Curation of data from the contiguous Lower-48 States deployment of Transportable Array (>1800 stations, 2004-2015) has continued with the few gaps in real-time data replaced by locally archived files as well as minor adjustments in metadata. We highlight station digests that provide more detail on the components and settings of individual stations, documentation of standard procedures used throughout the deployment and other resources available online. In cooperation with IRIS DMC, a copy of the complete TA archive for the Lower-48 period has been transferred to a local disk to experiment with data access and software workflows that utilize most or all of the seismic timeseries, in contrast to event segments. Assembling such large datasets reliably - from field stations to a well managed data archive to a user's workspace - is complex. Sharing a curated and defined data volume with researchers is a potentially straightforward way to make data intensive analyses less difficult. We note that data collection within the Lower-48 continues with 160 stations of the N4 network operating at increased sample rates (100 sps) as part of the CEUSN, as operational support transitions from NSF to USGS.

  1. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  2. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  3. Resource Letter SPE-1: Single-Photon Experiments in the Undergraduate Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, Enrique J.

    2014-11-01

    This Resource Letter lists undergraduate-laboratory adaptations of landmark optical experiments on the fundamentals of quantum physics. Journal articles and websites give technical details of the adaptations, which offer students unique hands-on access to testing fundamental concepts and predictions of quantum mechanics. A selection of the original research articles that led to the implementations is included. These developments have motivated a rethinking of the way quantum mechanics is taught, so this Resource Letter also lists textbooks that provide these new approaches.

  4. Potential Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiments and Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from failures not possible with delivery of spares and consumables from Earth alone. The concept of lunar ISRU has been considered and studied for decades, and scientists and engineers were theorizing and even testing concepts for how to extract oxygen from lunar soil even before the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon. There are four main areas where ISRU can significantly impact how human missions to the Moon will be performed: mission consumable production, civil engineering and construction, energy production, storage, and transfer, and manufacturing and repair. The area that has the greatest impact on mission mass, hardware design and selection, and mission architecture is mission consumable production, in particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, and fuel cell reagents. Mission consumable production allows for refueling and reuse of spacecraft, increasing power production and storage, and increased capabilities and failure tolerance for crew life support. The other three areas allow for decreased mission risk due to radiation and plume damage, alternative power systems, and failure recover capabilities while also enabling infrastructure growth over Earth delivered assets. However, while lunar ISRU has significant potential for mass, cost, and risk reduction for human lunar missions, it has never been demonstrated before in space. To demonstrate that ISRU can meet mission needs and to increase confidence in incorporating ISRU capabilities into mission

  5. An integrated study of earth resources in the State of California using remote sensing techniques. [supply, demand, and impact of California water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.

  6. 8 years of experience in international, interdisciplinary and structured doctoral training in Earth system modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Antje; Stevens, Bjorn; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    The mission of the International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling (IMPRS-ESM) is to provide a high quality, modern and structured graduate education to students pursuing a doctoral degree in Earth system modelling. In so doing, the IMPRS-ESM also strives to advance the emerging discipline (or cross-discipline) of Earth system modelling; to provide a framework for attracting the most talented and creative young women and men from around the world to pursue their doctoral education in Germany; to provide advanced as well as specialized academic training and scientific guidance to doctoral students; to encourage academic networking and publication of research results; to better integrate doctoral research at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) with education and research at the University of Hamburg and other cooperating institutions. Core elements are rigorous selection of doctoral students, effective academic supervision, advanced academic training opportunities and interdisciplinary communication as well as administrative support. IMPRS-ESM graduates have been recognized with a variety of awards. 85% of our alumni continue a career in research. In this presentation we review the challenges for an interdisciplinary PhD program in Earth system sciences and the types of routines we have implemented to surmount them as well as key elements that we believe contribute to the success of our doctoral program.

  7. Earth System Modeling and Field Experiments in the Arctic-Boreal Zone - Report from a NASA Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, Piers; Rienecker Michele; Randall, David; Frolking, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Early climate modeling studies predicted that the Arctic Ocean and surrounding circumpolar land masses would heat up earlier and faster than other parts of the planet as a result of greenhouse gas-induced climate change, augmented by the sea-ice albedo feedback effect. These predictions have been largely borne out by observations over the last thirty years. However, despite constant improvement, global climate models have greater difficulty in reproducing the current climate in the Arctic than elsewhere and the scatter between projections from different climate models is much larger in the Arctic than for other regions. Biogeochemical cycle (BGC) models indicate that the warming in the Arctic-Boreal Zone (ABZ) could lead to widespread thawing of the permafrost, along with massive releases of CO2 and CH4, and large-scale changes in the vegetation cover in the ABZ. However, the uncertainties associated with these BGC model predictions are even larger than those associated with the physical climate system models used to describe climate change. These deficiencies in climate and BGC models reflect, at least in part, an incomplete understanding of the Arctic climate system and can be related to inadequate observational data or analyses of existing data. A workshop was held at NASA/GSFC, May 22-24 2012, to assess the predictive capability of the models, prioritize the critical science questions; and make recommendations regarding new field experiments needed to improve model subcomponents. This presentation will summarize the findings and recommendations of the workshop, including the need for aircraft and flux tower measurements and extension of existing in-situ measurements to improve process modeling of both the physical climate and biogeochemical cycle systems. Studies should be directly linked to remote sensing investigations with a view to scaling up the improved process models to the Earth System Model scale. Data assimilation and observing system simulation

  8. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 5: Inland water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzler, E.; Peterson, W.; Putnam, M.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of an ERTS system in the area of inland water resources management is investigated. Benefits are attributed to new capabilities for managing inland water resources in the field of power generation, agriculture, and urban water supply. These benefits are obtained in the area of equal capability (cost savings) and increased capability (equal budget), and are estimated by applying conservative assumptions to Federal budgeting information, Congressional appropriation hearings, and ERTS technical capabilities.

  9. An assessment of student experiences and learning based on a novel undergraduate e-learning resource.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Clarke, F; Fleming, P S

    2016-08-12

    Purpose/objectives The aims of this study were to describe the development of a novel e-learning resource and to assess its impact on student learning experiences and orthodontic knowledge.Methods Thirty-two 4th year dental undergraduate students at Queen Mary University of London were randomly allocated to receive electronic access to e-learning material covering various undergraduate orthodontic topics over a 6-week period. Thirty-one control students were not given access during the study period. All students were asked to complete electronic quizzes both before (T0) and after (T1) the study period and a general questionnaire concerning familiarity with e-learning. The test group also completed a user satisfaction questionnaire at T1. Two focus groups were also undertaken to explore learners' experiences and suggestions in relation to the resource.Results The mean quiz result improved by 3.9% and 4.5% in the control and test groups, respectively. An independent t-test, however, demonstrated a lack of statistical significance in knowledge gain between control and test groups (P = 0.941). The qualitative feedback indicated that students believed that use of the resource enhanced knowledge and basic understanding with students expressing a wish to ingrain similar resources in other areas of undergraduate teaching.Conclusions Use of the novel orthodontic e-resource by 4th year undergraduate students over a 6-week period did not result in a significant improvement in subject knowledge. However, the e-learning has proven popular among undergraduates and the resources will continue to be refined.

  10. Resource Handbook--Space Beyond the Earth. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; space. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four units: 1) the sun, earth, and moon; 2) stars and planets; 3) exploring space; 4) man's existence in space. Each unit includes initiatory and developmental activities. There are also sections on evaluation, vocabulary,…

  11. Climate in Earth history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  12. Analysis of Interactivity and Autonomy of Existing Digital Educational Resources: The Case of Life and Earth Sciences in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettazarini, Said

    2017-01-01

    The educational policy in Morocco is aimed at promoting the wide use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education and the adoption of interactive and autonomous digital resources for distance teaching and self-learning. The objective of this research is to evaluate the suitability of the existing digital educational resources for…

  13. Soil and crop management experiments in the Laboratory Biosphere: an analogue system for the Mars on Earth(R) facility.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, S; Nelson, M; Alling, A; Allen, J P

    2005-01-01

    During the years 2002 and 2003, three closed system experiments were carried out in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The program involved experimentation of "Hoyt" Soy Beans, (experiment #1) USU Apogee Wheat (experiment #2) and TU-82-155 sweet potato (experiment #3) using a 5.37 m2 soil planting bed which was 30 cm deep. The soil texture, 40% clay, 31% sand and 28% silt (a clay loam), was collected from an organic farm in New Mexico to avoid chemical residues. Soil management practices involved minimal tillage, mulching, returning crop residues to the soil after each experiment and increasing soil biota by introducing worms, soil bacteria and mycorrhizae fungi. High soil pH of the original soil appeared to be a factor affecting the first two experiments. Hence, between experiments #2 and #3, the top 15 cm of the soil was amended using a mix of peat moss, green sand, humates and pumice to improve soil texture, lower soil pH and increase nutrient availability. This resulted in lowering the initial pH of 8.0-6.7 at the start of experiment #3. At the end of the experiment, the pH was 7.6. Soil nitrogen and phosphorus has been adequate, but some chlorosis was evident in the first two experiments. Aphid infestation was the only crop pest problem during the three experiments and was handled using an introduction of Hyppodamia convergens. Experimentation showed there were environmental differences even in this 1200 cubic foot ecological system facility, such as temperature and humidity gradients because of ventilation and airflow patterns which resulted in consequent variations in plant growth and yield. Additional humidifiers were added to counteract low humidity and helped optimize conditions for the sweet potato experiment. The experience and information gained from these experiments are being applied to the future design of the Mars On Earth(R) facility (Silverstone et al., Development and research program for a soil

  14. Soil and crop management experiments in the Laboratory Biosphere: An analogue system for the Mars on Earth ® facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.

    During the years 2002 and 2003, three closed system experiments were carried out in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The program involved experimentation of "Hoyt" Soy Beans, (experiment #1) USU Apogee Wheat (experiment #2) and TU-82-155 sweet potato (experiment #3) using a 5.37 m 2 soil planting bed which was 30 cm deep. The soil texture, 40% clay, 31% sand and 28% silt (a clay loam), was collected from an organic farm in New Mexico to avoid chemical residues. Soil management practices involved minimal tillage, mulching, returning crop residues to the soil after each experiment and increasing soil biota by introducing worms, soil bacteria and mycorrhizae fungi. High soil pH of the original soil appeared to be a factor affecting the first two experiments. Hence, between experiments #2 and #3, the top 15 cm of the soil was amended using a mix of peat moss, green sand, humates and pumice to improve soil texture, lower soil pH and increase nutrient availability. This resulted in lowering the initial pH of 8.0-6.7 at the start of experiment #3. At the end of the experiment, the pH was 7.6. Soil nitrogen and phosphorus has been adequate, but some chlorosis was evident in the first two experiments. Aphid infestation was the only crop pest problem during the three experiments and was handled using an introduction of Hyppodamia convergens. Experimentation showed there were environmental differences even in this 1200 cubic foot ecological system facility, such as temperature and humidity gradients because of ventilation and airflow patterns which resulted in consequent variations in plant growth and yield. Additional humidifiers were added to counteract low humidity and helped optimize conditions for the sweet potato experiment. The experience and information gained from these experiments are being applied to the future design of the Mars On Earth ® facility (Silverstone et al., Development and research program for a soil

  15. Loss of Resources and Hurricane Experience as Predictors of Postpartum Depression Among Women in Southern Louisiana

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Matthew; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background After a natural disaster, mental disorders often become a long-term public health concern. Previous studies under smaller-scale natural disaster conditions suggest loss of psychosocial resources is associated with psychological distress. Methods We examined the occurrence of depression 6 and 12 months postpartum among 208 women residing in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, who were pregnant during or immediately after Hurricane Katrina's landfall. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of both tangible/financial and nontangible (psychosocial) loss of resources (LOR) on the outcome of depression, measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). We also investigated the influence on depression of individuals' hurricane experience through a Hurricane Experience Score (HES) that includes such factors as witnessing death, contact with flood waters, and injury to self or family members. Results Both tangible and nontangible LOR were associated with depression cross-sectionally and prospectively. Severe hurricane exposure (high HES) was also associated with depression. Regression analysis showed LOR-associated depression was explained almost entirely by nontangible rather than tangible factors. Consistent with COR theory, however, nontangible LOR explained some of the association between severe hurricane exposure and depression in our models. A similar result was seen prospectively for depression at 12 months, even controlling for depression symptoms at 6 months. Conclusions These results suggest the need for preventive measures aimed at preserving psychosocial resources to reduce the long-term effects of disasters. PMID:20438305

  16. Creating the Public Connection: Interactive Experiences with Real-Time Earth and Space Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, Patricia H.; Ledley, Tamara S.; Sumners, Carolyn; Wyatt, Ryan

    1995-01-01

    The Houston Museum of Natural Sciences is less than two miles from Rice University, a major hub on the Internet. This project links these two institutions so that NASA real-time data and imagery can flow via Rice to the Museum where it reaches the public in the form of planetarium programs, computer based interactive kiosks, and space and Earth science problem solving simulation. Through this program at least 200,000 visitors annually (including every 4th and 7th grader in the Houston Independent School District) will have direct exposure to the Earth and space research being conducted by NASA and available over the Internet. Each information conduit established between Rice University and the Houston Museum of Natural Science will become a model for public information dissemination that can be replicated nationally in museums, planetariums, Challenger Centers, and schools.

  17. Geodesy and gravity experiment in earth orbit using a superconducting gravity gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    A superconducting gravity gradiometer is under development with NASA support for space application. It is planned that a sensitive three-axis gravity gradiometer will be flown in a low-altitude (about 160 km) polar orbit in the 1990's for the purpose of obtaining a high-resolution gravity map of the earth. The large twice-an-orbit term in the harmonic expansion of gravity coming from the oblateness of the earth can be analyzed to obtain a precision test of the inverse square law at a distance of 100-1000 km. In this paper, the design, operating principle, and performance of the superconducting gravity gradiometer are described. The concept of a gravity-gradiometer mission (GGM), which is in an initial stage of development is discussed. In particular, requirements that such a mission imposes on the design of the cryogenic spacecraft will be addressed.

  18. TRAPPED PROTON FLUXES AT LOW EARTH ORBITS MEASURED BY THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Barbarino, G. C.

    2015-01-20

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above ∼70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350 ÷ 610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra, and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes, placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be usedmore » to validate current trapped particle radiation models.« less

  19. Job Resources, Physician Work Engagement, and Patient Care Experience in an Academic Medical Setting.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, Renée A; Lases, Lenny S S; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2017-10-01

    Physician work engagement is associated with better work performance and fewer medical errors; however, whether work-engaged physicians perform better from the patient perspective is unknown. Although availability of job resources (autonomy, colleague support, participation in decision making, opportunities for learning) bolster work engagement, this relationship is understudied among physicians. This study investigated associations of physician work engagement with patient care experience and job resources in an academic setting. The authors collected patient care experience evaluations, using nine validated items from the Dutch Consumer Quality index in two academic hospitals (April 2014 to April 2015). Physicians reported job resources and work engagement using, respectively, the validated Questionnaire on Experience and Evaluation of Work and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The authors conducted multivariate adjusted mixed linear model and linear regression analyses. Of the 9,802 eligible patients and 238 eligible physicians, respectively, 4,573 (47%) and 185 (78%) participated. Physician work engagement was not associated with patient care experience (B = 0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.02 to 0.03; P = .669). However, learning opportunities (B = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.52; P = .019) and autonomy (B = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.51; P = .004) were positively associated with work engagement. Higher physician work engagement did not translate into better patient care experience. Patient experience may benefit from physicians who deliver stable quality under varying levels of work engagement. From the physicians' perspective, autonomy and learning opportunities could safeguard their work engagement.

  20. Total solar irradiance values determined using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Gibson, Michael A.; Natarajan, Sudha

    1988-01-01

    During the October 1984 through January 1988 period, the ERBE solar monitors on the NASA Earth Radiation Satellite and on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA 9 and NOAA 10 spacecraft were used to obtain mean total solar irradiance values of 1365, 1365, and 1363 W/sq m, respectively. Secular variations in the solar irradiance have been observed, and they appear to be correlated with solar activity.