Science.gov

Sample records for earth sci rev

  1. Rare Earths; The Fraternal Fifteen (Rev.)

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.

    1966-01-01

    Rare earths are a set of 15 elements: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium. They are not rare and not earths; they are metals and quite abundant. They are studied to develop commercial products which are beneficial to mankind, and because some rare earths are important to fission products.

  2. Public Data Set: Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Schlossberg, David J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000287139448); Winz, Gregory R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177627184)

    2016-07-18

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in M.G. Burke et al., 'Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)],' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 079902 (2016).

  3. Erratum: “Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment” [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    DOE PAGES

    Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Bongard, Michael W.; ...

    2016-07-18

    This article corrects an error in M.G. Burke et al., 'Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012) pertaining to ion temperature. The conclusions of this paper are not altered by the revised ion temperature measurements.

  4. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  5. Scalable Earth-observation Analytics for Geoscientists: Spacetime Extensions to the Array Database SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Marius; Lahn, Florian; Pebesma, Edzer; Buytaert, Wouter; Moulds, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Today's amount of freely available data requires scientists to spend large parts of their work on data management. This is especially true in environmental sciences when working with large remote sensing datasets, such as obtained from earth-observation satellites like the Sentinel fleet. Many frameworks like SpatialHadoop or Apache Spark address the scalability but target programmers rather than data analysts, and are not dedicated to imagery or array data. In this work, we use the open-source data management and analytics system SciDB to bring large earth-observation datasets closer to analysts. Its underlying data representation as multidimensional arrays fits naturally to earth-observation datasets, distributes storage and computational load over multiple instances by multidimensional chunking, and also enables efficient time-series based analyses, which is usually difficult using file- or tile-based approaches. Existing interfaces to R and Python furthermore allow for scalable analytics with relatively little learning effort. However, interfacing SciDB and file-based earth-observation datasets that come as tiled temporal snapshots requires a lot of manual bookkeeping during ingestion, and SciDB natively only supports loading data from CSV-like and custom binary formatted files, which currently limits its practical use in earth-observation analytics. To make it easier to work with large multi-temporal datasets in SciDB, we developed software tools that enrich SciDB with earth observation metadata and allow working with commonly used file formats: (i) the SciDB extension library scidb4geo simplifies working with spatiotemporal arrays by adding relevant metadata to the database and (ii) the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) driver implementation scidb4gdal allows to ingest and export remote sensing imagery from and to a large number of file formats. Using added metadata on temporal resolution and coverage, the GDAL driver supports time-based ingestion of

  6. GeoSciGraph: An Ontological Framework for EarthCube Semantic Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Schachne, A.; Condit, C.; Valentine, D.; Richard, S.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2015-12-01

    The CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geosciences Interoperability) project compiles an inventory of a wide variety of earth science resources including documents, catalogs, vocabularies, data models, data services, process models, information repositories, domain-specific ontologies etc. developed by research groups and data practitioners. We have developed a multidisciplinary semantic framework called GeoSciGraph semantic ingration of earth science resources. An integrated ontology is constructed with Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as its upper ontology and currently ingests multiple component ontologies including the SWEET ontology, GeoSciML's lithology ontology, Tematres controlled vocabulary server, GeoNames, GCMD vocabularies on equipment, platforms and institutions, software ontology, CUAHSI hydrology vocabulary, the environmental ontology (ENVO) and several more. These ontologies are connected through bridging axioms; GeoSciGraph identifies lexically close terms and creates equivalence class or subclass relationships between them after human verification. GeoSciGraph allows a community to create community-specific customizations of the integrated ontology. GeoSciGraph uses the Neo4J,a graph database that can hold several billion concepts and relationships. GeoSciGraph provides a number of REST services that can be called by other software modules like the CINERGI information augmentation pipeline. 1) Vocabulary services are used to find exact and approximate terms, term categories (community-provided clusters of terms e.g., measurement-related terms or environmental material related terms), synonyms, term definitions and annotations. 2) Lexical services are used for text parsing to find entities, which can then be included into the ontology by a domain expert. 3) Graph services provide the ability to perform traversal centric operations e.g., finding paths and neighborhoods which can be used to perform ontological operations like

  7. SciDB versus Spark: A Preliminary Comparison Based on an Earth Science Use Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Doan, K.; Oloso, A.

    2015-12-01

    We compare two Big Data technologies, SciDB and Spark, for performance, usability, and extensibility, when applied to a representative Earth science use case. SciDB is a new-generation parallel distributed database management system (DBMS) based on the array data model that is capable of handling multidimensional arrays efficiently but requires lengthy data ingest prior to analysis, whereas Spark is a fast and general engine for large scale data processing that can immediately process raw data files and thereby avoid the ingest process. Once data have been ingested, SciDB is very efficient in database operations such as subsetting. Spark, on the other hand, provides greater flexibility by supporting a wide variety of high-level tools including DBMS's. For the performance aspect of this preliminary comparison, we configure Spark to operate directly on text or binary data files and thereby limit the need for additional tools. Arguably, a more appropriate comparison would involve exploring other configurations of Spark which exploit supported high-level tools, but that is beyond our current resources. To make the comparison as "fair" as possible, we export the arrays produced by SciDB into text files (or converting them to binary files) for the intake by Spark and thereby avoid any additional file processing penalties. The Earth science use case selected for this comparison is the identification and tracking of snowstorms in the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. The identification portion of the use case is to flag all grid cells of the MERRA high-resolution hourly data that satisfies our criteria for snowstorm, whereas the tracking portion connects flagged cells adjacent in time and space to form a snowstorm episode. We will report the results of our comparisons at this presentation.

  8. SciSpark: In-Memory Map-Reduce for Earth Science Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P.; Wilson, B. D.; Whitehall, K. D.; Palamuttam, R. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Shah, S.; Goodman, A.; Burke, W.

    2016-12-01

    We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark under a NASA AIST grant (PI Mattmann). Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based Apache Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk. SciSpark extends Spark to support Earth Science use in three ways: Efficient ingest of N-dimensional geo-located arrays (physical variables) from netCDF3/4, HDF4/5, and/or OPeNDAP URLS; Array operations for dense arrays in scala and Java using the ND4S/ND4J or Breeze libraries; Operations to "split" datasets across a Spark cluster by time or space or both. For example, a decade-long time-series of geo-variables can be split across time to enable parallel "speedups" of analysis by day, month, or season. Similarly, very high-resolution climate grids can be partitioned into spatial tiles for parallel operations across rows, columns, or blocks. In addition, using Spark's gateway into python, PySpark, one can utilize the entire ecosystem of numpy, scipy, etc. Finally, SciSpark Notebooks provide a modern eNotebook technology in which scala, python, or spark-sql codes are entered into cells in the Notebook and executed on the cluster, with results, plots, or graph visualizations displayed in "live widgets". We have exercised SciSpark by implementing three complex Use Cases: discovery and evolution of Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCCs) in storms, yielding a graph of connected components; PDF Clustering of atmospheric state using parallel K-Means; and statistical "rollups" of geo-variables or model-to-obs. differences (i.e. mean, stddev, skewness, & kurtosis) by day, month, season, year, and multi-year. Geo-variables are ingested and split across the cluster using methods on the sciSparkContext object including netCDFVariables() for spatial decomposition and wholeNetCDFVariables() for time-series. The

  9. The Virtual Earth-Solar Observatory of the SCiESMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Luz, V.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX, http://www.sciesmex.unam.mx) started operations in October 2014. The project includes the Virtual Earth-Solar Observatory (VESO, http://www.veso.unam.mx). The VESO is a improved project wich objetive is integrate the space weather instrumentation network from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The network includes the Mexican Array Radiotelescope (MEXART), the Callisto receptor (MEXART), a Neutron Telescope, a Cosmic Ray Telescope. the Schumann Antenna, the National Magnetic Service, and the mexican GPS network (TlalocNet). The VESO facility is located at the Geophysics Institute campus Michoacan (UNAM). We offer the service of data store, real-time data, and quasi real-time data. The hardware of VESO includes a High Performance Computer (HPC) dedicated specially to big data storage.

  10. Publisher’s Note: “Multi-energy x-ray detector calibration for Te and impurity density (nZ) measurements of MCF plasmas” [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 11E320 (2016)

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.; Pablant, N.; Efthimion, P.

    2016-10-17

    Correction Original Article: ISSN: 0034-6748, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, (2016) This article was originally published online on 12 August 2016 with the fourth author’s name listed as “L. Delgado”. It should have been “L. Delgado-Aparicio”. The author’s name appears correctly above. All online versions of the article were corrected on 7 September 2016; the article is correct as it appears in the printed version of the journal.

  11. Open and scalable analytics of large Earth observation datasets: From scenes to multidimensional arrays using SciDB and GDAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Marius; Lahn, Florian; Buytaert, Wouter; Pebesma, Edzer

    2018-04-01

    Earth observation (EO) datasets are commonly provided as collection of scenes, where individual scenes represent a temporal snapshot and cover a particular region on the Earth's surface. Using these data in complex spatiotemporal modeling becomes difficult as soon as data volumes exceed a certain capacity or analyses include many scenes, which may spatially overlap and may have been recorded at different dates. In order to facilitate analytics on large EO datasets, we combine and extend the geospatial data abstraction library (GDAL) and the array-based data management and analytics system SciDB. We present an approach to automatically convert collections of scenes to multidimensional arrays and use SciDB to scale computationally intensive analytics. We evaluate the approach in three study cases on national scale land use change monitoring with Landsat imagery, global empirical orthogonal function analysis of daily precipitation, and combining historical climate model projections with satellite-based observations. Results indicate that the approach can be used to represent various EO datasets and that analyses in SciDB scale well with available computational resources. To simplify analyses of higher-dimensional datasets as from climate model output, however, a generalization of the GDAL data model might be needed. All parts of this work have been implemented as open-source software and we discuss how this may facilitate open and reproducible EO analyses.

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Data Placement to Spark and SciDB with an Earth Science Use Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doan, Khoa; Oloso, Amidu; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Clune, Thomas; Yu, Hongfeng; Nelson, Brian; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact of data placement for two Big Data technologies, Spark and SciDB, with a use case from Earth Science where data arrays are multidimensional. Simultaneously, this investigation provides an opportunity to evaluate the performance of the technologies involved. Two datastores, HDFS and Cassandra, are used with Spark for our comparison. It is found that Spark with Cassandra performs better than with HDFS, but SciDB performs better yet than Spark with either datastore. The investigation also underscores the value of having data aligned for the most common analysis scenarios in advance on a shared nothing architecture. Otherwise, repartitioning needs to be carried out on the fly, degrading overall performance.

  13. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Comments on the use of asymmetric monochromators for x-ray diffraction on a synchrotron source{close_quote}{close_quote} [Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 66}, 2174 (1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Cerrina, F.

    1996-10-01

    In the article {open_quote}{open_quote}Comments on the use of asymmetric monochromators for x-ray diffraction on a synchrotron source,{close_quote}{close_quote} by Colin Nave, Ana Gonzalez, Graham Clark, Sean McSweeney, Stewart Cummings, and Michael Hart, Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 66}, 2174 (1995), paragraph II, the authors{close_quote} unfamiliarity with our modeling codes leads them to claim that our approach to treat bent-asymmetrically cut crystals in ray tracing calculations is incorrect. Since SHADOW is a widely used code, it is important to correct any misunderstandings, and we give here arguments to demonstrate that our approach is perfectly valid, and the arguments used by the authors tomore » criticize our method are based on an unwarranted conclusion extracted from one of our previous articles. We show that SHADOW, when properly run, treats the cases raised exactly. Indeed, their arguments provide a nice benchmark test for verifying the accuracy of SHADOW {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  14. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semiannual Progress Report October 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-04-02

    This report summarizes work carried out by the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) from October 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011. It discusses ESG-CET highlights for the reporting period, overall progress, period goals, and collaborations, and lists papers and presentations. To learn more about our project and to find previous reports, please visit the ESG-CET Web sites: http://esg-pcmdi.llnl.gov/ and/or https://wiki.ucar.edu/display/esgcet/Home. This report will be forwarded to managers in the Department of Energy (DOE) Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), as well as national and international collaborators andmore » stakeholders (e.g., those involved in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES); SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science; the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP); the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)), and also to researchers working on a variety of other climate model and observation evaluation activities. The ESG-CET executive committee consists of Dean N. Williams, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ian Foster, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); and Don Middleton, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The ESG-CET team is a group of researchers and scientists with diverse domain knowledge, whose home institutions include eight laboratories and two universities: ANL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LLNL, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NCAR, Oak Ridge

  15. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  16. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  17. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  18. The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  19. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  20. SciLinks

    Science.gov Websites

    SciLinks Forgot your login? Sign up for FREE access Log In I'm a ... Teacher Student User Name questions and satisfy their curiosity Learn More Sign up for Free Access Sites in the SciLinks program . SciLinks-Targeted, Grade-Specific Web Content for your Books Free web content to extend and expand student

  1. SCI Hazard Report Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

  2. Preface: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, David E.

    2007-09-01

    It takes a village to perform a petascale computation—domain scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computer system vendors, program managers, and support staff—and the village was assembled during 24-28 June 2007 in Boston's Westin Copley Place for the third annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) 2007 Conference. Over 300 registered participants networked around 76 posters, focused on achievements and challenges in 36 plenary talks, and brainstormed in two panels. In addition, with an eye to spreading the vision for simulation at the petascale and to growing the workforce, 115 participants—mostly doctoral students and post-docs complementary to the conferees—were gathered on 29 June 2007 in classrooms of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a full day of tutorials on the use of SciDAC software. Eleven SciDAC-sponsored research groups presented their software at an introductory level, in both lecture and hands-on formats that included live runs on a local BlueGene/L. Computation has always been about garnering insight into the behavior of systems too complex to explore satisfactorily by theoretical means alone. Today, however, computation is about much more: scientists and decision makers expect quantitatively reliable predictions from simulations ranging in scale from that of the Earth's climate, down to quarks, and out to colliding black holes. Predictive simulation lies at the heart of policy choices in energy and environment affecting billions of lives and expenditures of trillions of dollars. It is also at the heart of scientific debates on the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The petascale is barely adequate for such demands and we are barely established at the levels of resolution and throughput that this new scale of computation affords. However, no scientific agenda worldwide is pushing the petascale frontier on all its fronts as vigorously as SciDAC. The breadth of this conference

  3. Preface: SciDAC 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William M., Dr.

    2006-01-01

    : `SciDAC has strengthened the role of high-end computing in furthering science. It is defining whole new fields for discovery.' (SciDAC Review, Spring 2006, p8). Application domains within the SciDAC 2006 conference agenda encompassed a broad range of science including: (i) the DOE core mission of energy research involving combustion studies relevant to fuel efficiency and pollution issues faced today and magnetic fusion investigations impacting prospects for future energy sources; (ii) fundamental explorations into the building blocks of matter, ranging from quantum chromodynamics - the basic theory that describes how quarks make up the protons and neutrons of all matter - to the design of modern high-energy accelerators; (iii) the formidable challenges of predicting and controlling the behavior of molecules in quantum chemistry and the complex biomolecules determining the evolution of biological systems; (iv) studies of exploding stars for insights into the nature of the universe; and (v) integrated climate modeling to enable realistic analysis of earth's changing climate. Associated research has made it quite clear that advanced computation is often the only means by which timely progress is feasible when dealing with these complex, multi-component physical, chemical, and biological systems operating over huge ranges of temporal and spatial scales. Working with the domain scientists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists have continued to develop the discretizations of the underlying equations and the complementary algorithms to enable improvements in solutions on modern parallel computing platforms as they evolve from the terascale toward the petascale regime. Moreover, the associated tremendous growth of data generated from the terabyte to the petabyte range demands not only the advanced data analysis and visualization methods to harvest the scientific information but also the development of efficient workflow strategies which can deal with the data input

  4. Preface: SciDAC 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    On 26-30 June 2005 at the Grand Hyatt on Union Square in San Francisco several hundred computational scientists from around the world came together for what can certainly be described as a celebration of computational science. Scientists from the SciDAC Program and scientists from other agencies and nations were joined by applied mathematicians and computer scientists to highlight the many successes in the past year where computation has led to scientific discovery in a variety of fields: lattice quantum chromodynamics, accelerator modeling, chemistry, biology, materials science, Earth and climate science, astrophysics, and combustion and fusion energy science. Also highlighted were the advances in numerical methods and computer science, and the multidisciplinary collaboration cutting across science, mathematics, and computer science that enabled these discoveries. The SciDAC Program was conceived and funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science. It is the Office of Science's premier computational science program founded on what is arguably the perfect formula: the priority and focus is science and scientific discovery, with the understanding that the full arsenal of `enabling technologies' in applied mathematics and computer science must be brought to bear if we are to have any hope of attacking and ultimately solving today's computational Grand Challenge problems. The SciDAC Program has been in existence for four years, and many of the computational scientists funded by this program will tell you that the program has given them the hope of addressing their scientific problems in full realism for the very first time. Many of these scientists will also tell you that SciDAC has also fundamentally changed the way they do computational science. We begin this volume with one of DOE's great traditions, and core missions: energy research. As we will see, computation has been seminal to the critical advances that have been made in this arena. Of course, to

  5. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  6. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  7. International Space Station Research Plan, Assembly Sequence Rev., F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    muscles ü Higher risk for bone fracture upon return to Earth ü Potential for “slipped discs” ü Diminished ability to quickly respond to emergencies...Office of Biological and Physical Research International Space Station Research Plan Assembly Sequence Rev. F, Aug. 2000l . , . Report...Organization Name(s) and Address(es) NASA, Office of Biological and Physical Research Performing Organization Report Number Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency

  8. Retraction notice to "The Palaeocene Cerro Munro tonalite intrusion (Chubut Province, Argentina): A plutonic remnant of explosive volcanism?"[J. S. Am. Earth Sci. 78C 38-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, C.; Aragón, E.; Castro, A.; Pedreira, R.; Sánchez-Navas, A.; Díaz-Alvarado, J.; D´Eramo, F.; Pinotti, L.; Aguilera, Y.; Cavarozzi, C.; Demartis, M.; Hernando, I. R.; Fuentes, T.

    2017-10-01

    The publisher regrets that an error occurred which led to the premature publication of this paper. This error bears no reflection on the article or its authors. The publisher apologizes to the authors and the readers for this unfortunate error in Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 78C (2017) 38-60, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2017.06.002.

  9. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  10. SciDB and Geoinformatics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The SciDB project took as its design goals a list of features identified as being critical to scientific data management in a survey of working scientists (Stonebraker et al 2009). Earth scientists working with remote sensing data were well represented among those polled so it should come as no surprise that the platform has been embraced by that community. In this talk we focus on work done by researchers at NASA and INPE, and on applications created by commercial data providers in Korea and the United States. For each use-case, we will review the project team's objectives, the nature and quantity of the data involved, the their workload queries. As we discuss each use-case we will describe what is emerging as "best practice" for data management and analysis in this space. M. Stonebraker, J. Becla, D. J. DeWitt, K. T. Lim, D. Maier, O. Ratzesberger, and S. B. Zdonik. Requirements for science data bases and scidb. In CIDR 2009, Fourth Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research, Asilomar, CA, USA, January 4-7, 2009, Online Proceedings, 2009.

  11. Optimized Chemical Probes for REV-ERBα

    PubMed Central

    Trump, Ryan P.; Bresciani, Stefano; Cooper, Anthony W. J.; Tellam, James P.; Wojno, Justyna; Blaikley, John; Orband-Miller, Lisa A.; Kashatus, Jennifer A.; Dawson, Helen C.; Loudon, Andrew; Ray, David; Grant, Daniel; Farrow, Stuart N.; Willson, Timothy M.; Tomkinson, Nicholas C. O.

    2015-01-01

    REV-ERBα has emerged as an important target for regulation of circadian rhythm and its associated physiology. Herein, we report on the optimization of a series of REV-ERBα agonists based on GSK4112 (1) for potency, selectivity, and bioavailability. Potent REV-ERBα agonists 4, 10, 16, and 23 are detailed for their ability to suppress BMAL and IL-6 expression from human cells while also demonstrating excellent selectivity over LXRα. Amine 4 demonstrated in vivo bioavailability after either IV or oral dosing. PMID:23656296

  12. [SciELO: method for electronic publishing].

    PubMed

    Laerte Packer, A; Rocha Biojone, M; Antonio, I; Mayumi Takemaka, R; Pedroso García, A; Costa da Silva, A; Toshiyuki Murasaki, R; Mylek, C; Carvalho Reisl, O; Rocha F Delbucio, H C

    2001-01-01

    It describes the SciELO Methodology Scientific Electronic Library Online for electronic publishing of scientific periodicals, examining issues such as the transition from traditional printed publication to electronic publishing, the scientific communication process, the principles which founded the methodology development, its application in the building of the SciELO site, its modules and components, the tools use for its construction etc. The article also discusses the potentialities and trends for the area in Brazil and Latin America, pointing out questions and proposals which should be investigated and solved by the methodology. It concludes that the SciELO Methodology is an efficient, flexible and wide solution for the scientific electronic publishing.

  13. Orgasm and SCI: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Marcalee; Marson, Lesley

    2018-06-01

    narrative review OBJECTIVES: To determine the percentage of persons with SCI able to achieve orgasm and ejaculation, the associations between ejaculation and orgasm and the subjective and autonomic findings during these events, and the potential benefits with regards to spasticity. Two American medical centers METHODS: Data bases were searched for the terms orgasm and SCI and ejaculation and SCI. Search criteria were human studies published in English from 1990 to 12/2/2016. Approximately 50% of sexually active men and women report orgasmic ability after SCI. There is a relative inability of persons with complete lower motor neuron injuries affecting the sacral segments to achieve orgasm. Time to orgasm is longer in persons with SCIs than able-bodied (AB) persons. With orgasm, elevated blood pressure (BP) occurs after SCI in a similar fashion to AB persons. With penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation, BP elevation is common and prophylaxis is recommended in persons with injuries at T6 and above. Dry orgasm occurs approximately 13% of times in males. Midodrine, vibratory stimulation, clitoral vacuum suction, and 4-aminopyridine may improve orgasmic potential. Depending on level and severity of injury, persons with SCIs can achieve orgasm. Sympathetically mediated changes occur during sexual response with culmination at orgasm. Future research should address benefits of orgasm. Additionally, inherent biases associated with studying orgasm must be considered.

  14. Learning by Creating and Exchanging Objects: The SCY Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Ton; Van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Giemza, Adam; Girault, Isabelle; Hoppe, Ulrich; Kindermann, Jorg; Kluge, Anders; Lazonder, Ard W.; Vold, Vibeke; Weinberger, Armin; Weinbrenner, Stefan; Wichmann, Astrid; Anjewierden, Anjo; Bodin, Marjolaine; Bollen, Lars; D'Ham, Cedric; Dolonen, Jan; Engler, Jan; Geraedts, Caspar; Grosskreutz, Henrik; Hovardas, Tasos; Julien, Rachel; Lechner, Judith; Ludvigsen, Sten; Matteman, Yuri; Meistadt, Oyvind; Naess, Bjorge; Ney, Muriel; Pedaste, Margus; Perritano, Anthony; Rinket, Marieke; Von Schlanbusch, Henrik; Sarapuu, Tago; Schulz, Florian; Sikken, Jakob; Slotta, Jim; Toussaint, Jeremy; Verkade, Alex; Wajeman, Claire; Wasson, Barbara; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Van Der Zanden, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Science Created by You (SCY) is a project on learning in science and technology domains. SCY uses a pedagogical approach that centres around products, called "emerging learning objects" (ELOs) that are created by students. Students work individually and collaboratively in SCY-Lab (the general SCY learning environment) on "missions" that are guided…

  15. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  16. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred

  17. Constraining Initiation and Onset Time of Plate Tectonics on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, G.

    2014-12-01

    The onset time for modern-style plate tectonics is still heavily debated among geoscientists. Proposed timings range from the Phanerozoic to the Hadean. Here I present a new theoretical approach to tackle this question. I combine ideas of nuclear astrophysics and geochronology and apply the concept of sudden nucleosynthesis to calculate so-called nucleogeochronometric Rhenium-Osmium model ages. Sudden nucleosynthesis has been suggested by nuclear theory [1-2] as a possible mechanism for the creation of the heavy isotopes. Hence, this concept may generally be used to identify rapid (r-) neutron-capture process events. For Earth, nucleogeochronometric model age calculations based upon published pyroxenite and komatiite data [3-5] point to an r-process event around 3 Ga. Since the r-process requires high neutron densities and temperatures within seconds, a gravitational core collapse forming at least a part of the inner core is discussed as a possible cause, thus initiating modern-style plate tectonics at that time. This age is in line with an earlier proposed value of 2.7 Ga for an inner core forming event [6], pronounced changes in the magnitude of the geomagnetic field and geological evidence like the onset of extensive plutonism and crust formation starting around the Archean-Proterozoic transition. Besides, results from nucleogeochronometric age calculations for published peridotitic pentlandites [7] lead to corrections as to their previously inconsistent model ages: These are now in good agreement with their Proterozoic 1.43 Ga isochronous regression line, supporting the model. [1] Burbidge et al. (1957) Revs. Mod. Phys. 29, 547 - 650. [2] Hoyle et al. (1960) ApJ 132, 565 - 590. [3] Reisberg et al. (1991) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 105, 196 - 213. [4] Roy-Barman et al. (1996) Chem. Geol. 130, 55 - 64. [5] Luck et al. (1984) Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 68, 205 - 208. [6] Hale (1987) Nature 329, 233 -237. [7] Smit et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 3292 - 3306.

  18. Quicklook overview of model changes in Melcor 2.2: Rev 6342 to Rev 9496

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, Larry L.

    2017-05-01

    MELCOR 2.2 is a significant official release of the MELCOR code with many new models and model improvements. This report provides the code user with a quick review and characterization of new models added, changes to existing models, the effect of code changes during this code development cycle (rev 6342 to rev 9496), a preview of validation results with this code version. More detailed information is found in the code Subversion logs as well as the User Guide and Reference Manuals.

  19. Lessons learned from the recovered heatshield of the USERS REV capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Seiji; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ishii, Nobuaki

    2008-01-01

    The USERS Reentry Vehicle (REV) capsule carried out reentry flight from the low earth orbit and was successfully recovered on the sea in May, 2003. This paper presents the post-flight analysis of the recovered heatshield of REV capsule and summarizes the lessons learned. REV capsule, totally about 670 kg, has the combined shape of the nose hemisphere and the rear cone part, and its size is about 1.5 m in diameter and 1.9 m in length. REV is thermally protected against the aerodynamic heating by the carbon phenolic ablator heatshield. The recovered REV heatshield was scrutinized based on the outside aspect and the cross-sections. In general, the temperature profiles of the heatshield have been compared between the flight data and the prediction. The origin of the surface shallow cracks and slight delamination observed in the heatshield have been investigated based on the flight data and taking account of the ablator internal pyrolysis gas pressure, the thermal stress, and the allowable stress. The heatshield has proven to satisfy thermal protection requirements, and the validity of the designing has been confirmed.

  20. Erratum: "Low vibration laboratory with a single-stage vibration isolation for microscopy applications" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 023703 (2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigtländer, Bert; Coenen, Peter; Cherepanov, Vasily; Borgens, Peter; Duden, Thomas; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The construction and the vibrational performance of a low vibration laboratory for microscopy applications comprising a 100 ton floating foundation supported by passive pneumatic isolators (air springs), which rest themselves on a 200 ton solid base plate is discussed. The optimization of the air spring system lead to a vibration level on the floating floor below that induced by an acceleration of 10 ng for most frequencies. Additional acoustic and electromagnetic isolation is accomplished by a room-in-room concept.

  1. Comment on "A non-primitive origin of near-chondritic Ssbnd Sesbnd Te ratios in mantle peridotites: Implications for the Earth's late accretionary history" by König S. et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 385 (2014) 110-121

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zaicong; Becker, Harry

    2015-05-01

    The abundances and ratios of S, Se and Te in rocks from the Earth's mantle may yield valuable constraints on the partitioning of these chalcophile elements between the mantle and basaltic magmas and on the compositions of these elements in the primitive mantle (PM) (e.g. Wang and Becker, 2013). Recently, König et al. (2014) proposed a model in which the CI chondrite-like Se/Te of mantle lherzolites (Se /Te = 8 ± 2, 1σ) are explained by mixing of sulfide melts with low Se/Te with harzburgites containing supposedly residual sulfides with high Se/Te. In this model sulfide melts and platinum group element (PGE) rich telluride phases with low Se/Te are assumed to have precipitated during refertilization of harzburgites by basic melts to form lherzolites. Because of the secondary nature of these re-enrichment processes, the authors state that abundances and ratios of S, Se and Te in fertile lherzolites cannot reflect the composition of the PM.

  2. A Thermal Evolution Model of the Earth Including the Biosphere, Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2014-12-01

    thermodynamic machinery of planet Earth. Phys. Life Rev. 7, 428-460. [3] Rosing, M .T., et al., 2006. The rise of continents - an essay on the geologic consequences of photosynthesis. Paleogeogr., Paleoclimatol., Paleoecol. 232, 99-113. [4] Sleep, N.H., Bird, D.K., Pope, E., 2012. Paleontology of Earth's mantle. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 40, 277-300.

  3. Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; De la Luz, V.; Corona-Romero, P.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Gonzalez, L. X.; Sergeeva, M. A.; Romero-Hernandez, E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.

    2017-01-01

    Legislative modifications of the General Civil Protection Law in Mexico in 2014 included specific references to space hazards and space weather phenomena. The legislation is consistent with United Nations promotion of international engagement and cooperation on space weather awareness, studies, and monitoring. These internal and external conditions motivated the creation of a space weather service in Mexico. The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX in Spanish) (www.sciesmex.unam.mx) was initiated in October 2014 and is operated by the Institute of Geophysics at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). SCiESMEX became a Regional Warning Center of the International Space Environment Services (ISES) in June 2015. We present the characteristics of the service, some products, and the initial actions for developing a space weather strategy in Mexico. The service operates a computing infrastructure including a web application, data repository, and a high-performance computing server to run numerical models. SCiESMEX uses data of the ground-based instrumental network of the National Space Weather Laboratory (LANCE), covering solar radio burst emissions, solar wind and interplanetary disturbances (by interplanetary scintillation observations), geomagnetic measurements, and analysis of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere (by employing data from local networks of GPS receiver stations).

  4. MadSciNet: The 24-hour exploding laboratory.

    Science.gov Websites

    Page New! Help Improve The Madsci Network Help Support MadSci MAD Head MAD egg Welcome to the laboratory that never sleeps! MadSci Network represents a collective cranium of scientists providing answers Sunday May 27, 2018. Lynn MadSci Network is a non-profit organization operating in partnership with Third

  5. 75 FR 24747 - SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier Operations Division A Wholly Owned Subsidiary of SCI, LLC/ON...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,235] SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier... Adjustment Assistance on October 19, 2009, applicable to workers of SCI LLC/Zener-Rectifier, Operations... Technical Resources were employed on-site at the Phoenix Arizona location of SCI LLC/Zener-Rectifier...

  6. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  7. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your

  8. Web life: Planet SciCast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    So what is the site about? Planet SciCast is an online repository for short films about science - a bit like a science-specific, moderated version of YouTube. As of July 2009, the site hosts over 150 films on topics ranging from CERN's Large Hadron Collider to fun things to do with treacle. New content appears on the site every few weeks, and some films include links to information about related experiments, demos and activities. The site also runs an annual competition aimed at getting more people involved in making science films, with prizes in categories like "best original score" and "best presenter".

  9. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M.

    2015-05-08

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks comparedmore » to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Synthetic REV-ERB agonist treatment reduced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB decreased M1 macrophage polarization. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB increased M2 macrophage polarization.« less

  10. Treatment of Nueropathic Pain after SCI with a Catalytic Oxidoreductant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    reducing inflammation and ROS activation acutely post-SCI in rats and mice. On-going experiments will evaluate additional outcome measures and...NF-kB signaling, and inflammation in the spinal cord acutely post-SCI We have completed approximately 100% of the animal experiments in support of this...in the spinal cord acutely post-SCI. These data are in the final analysis stages. Please see the data to date as described in the task section

  11. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  12. Accretion of Interplanetary Dust Particles by the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Dermott, Stanley F.

    1998-10-01

    Analyses of hypervelocity micrometeoroid impact craters preserved in lunar material and on the panels of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) indicate that each year Earth accretes about 3 × 107kg of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) from the zodiacal cloud (E. Grünet al.1985,Astron. Astrophys.286, 915-924; S. G. Love and D. E. Brownlee, 1993,Science262, 550-553). The size distributions of these lunar and LDEF craters indicate that the mass distribution of IDPs encountering Earth peaks at about 200 μm diameter. This particle-size cutoff may be indicative of collisionally evolved asteroidal dust, where the collisional lifetime of dust particles larger than ∼100 μm is shorter than the time required for their orbits to decay under Poynting-Robertson light drag from the asteroid belt to Earth (B. Å. S. Gustafson, 1994,Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.22, 553-595). Additionally, analyses of IDPs collected from the stratosphere by high-flying aircraft reveal a diversity in chemical composition which is even narrower than that of the meteorites (G. J. Flynn, 1995,Nature376, 114). Together these findings suggest that IDPs present in the atmosphere and our collections may originate from very limited sources in the asteroid belt. The most abundant sources of dust to be unambiguously linked to the zodiacal cloud are the three asteroid families Eos, Themis, and Koronis-the progenitors of the ten-degree and low-latitude dust bands discovered by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite in 1984. We use direct numerical integration of the full equations of motion to model the orbital evolution of dust particles from these three families as well as from other nonfamily asteroids and from the population of known short period comets. Our simulations include gravitational perturbations from the planets, radiation pressure, and solar wind drag. We find that a large, and perhaps the dominant, fraction of the IDPs accreted by Earth comes from the asteroid families Eos, Themis, and

  13. Development and initial evaluation of the SCI-FI/AT

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Alan M.; Slavin, Mary D.; Ni, Pengsheng; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susie; Tate, Denise G.; Fyffe, Denise; Morse, Leslie; Marino, Ralph; Smith, Ian; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the domain structure and calibration of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index for samples using Assistive Technology (SCI-FI/AT) and report the initial psychometric properties of each domain. Design Cross sectional survey followed by computerized adaptive test (CAT) simulations. Setting Inpatient and community settings. Participants A sample of 460 adults with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) stratified by level of injury, completeness of injury, and time since injury. Interventions None Main outcome measure SCI-FI/AT Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item response theory (IRT) analyses identified 4 unidimensional SCI-FI/AT domains: Basic Mobility (41 items) Self-care (71 items), Fine Motor Function (35 items), and Ambulation (29 items). High correlations of full item banks with 10-item simulated CATs indicated high accuracy of each CAT in estimating a person's function, and there was high measurement reliability for the simulated CAT scales compared with the full item bank. SCI-FI/AT item difficulties in the domains of Self-care, Fine Motor Function, and Ambulation were less difficult than the same items in the original SCI-FI item banks. Conclusion With the development of the SCI-FI/AT, clinicians and investigators have available multidimensional assessment scales that evaluate function for users of AT to complement the scales available in the original SCI-FI. PMID:26010975

  14. Development and initial evaluation of the SCI-FI/AT.

    PubMed

    Jette, Alan M; Slavin, Mary D; Ni, Pengsheng; Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S; Heinemann, Allen W; Charlifue, Susie; Tate, Denise G; Fyffe, Denise; Morse, Leslie; Marino, Ralph; Smith, Ian; Williams, Steve

    2015-05-01

    To describe the domain structure and calibration of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index for samples using Assistive Technology (SCI-FI/AT) and report the initial psychometric properties of each domain. Cross sectional survey followed by computerized adaptive test (CAT) simulations. Inpatient and community settings. A sample of 460 adults with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) stratified by level of injury, completeness of injury, and time since injury. None SCI-FI/AT RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item response theory (IRT) analyses identified 4 unidimensional SCI-FI/AT domains: Basic Mobility (41 items) Self-care (71 items), Fine Motor Function (35 items), and Ambulation (29 items). High correlations of full item banks with 10-item simulated CATs indicated high accuracy of each CAT in estimating a person's function, and there was high measurement reliability for the simulated CAT scales compared with the full item bank. SCI-FI/AT item difficulties in the domains of Self-care, Fine Motor Function, and Ambulation were less difficult than the same items in the original SCI-FI item banks. With the development of the SCI-FI/AT, clinicians and investigators have available multidimensional assessment scales that evaluate function for users of AT to complement the scales available in the original SCI-FI.

  15. Evaluation and Management of SCI-Associated Pain.

    PubMed

    Saulino, Michael; Averna, Justin F

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition. Treatment of SCI-related pain is challenging for the treating physician, as normal neural pathways are disrupted. Patients with SCI consistently rate pain as one of the most difficult problems associated with their injury. SCI-related pain can be refractory and complete relief is often not possible. The multidimensional nature of SCI-related pain affects the neural system including autonomic nervous system deregulation and can alter metabolic and biochemical processes throughout the body. Co-morbid psychological illnesses such as depression and adjustment disorder are seen in a significant percentage of patients. Despite a better understanding of the underlying pain mechanisms and advances in procedural, pharmacologic, and non-pharmacologic therapies, treatment of pain after SCI remains elusive. This manuscript reviews the current evidence-based evaluation and management of the SCI patient with the overarching goal of providing appropriate and effective management of their pain. In particular, additional well-designed studies are needed to help elucidate effective treatments for SCI-related neuropathic pain in an effort to help provide these patients with better management of their pain and improve their quality of life.

  16. Atomic scale study of vacancies in Earth's inner core: effect of pressure and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritterbex, S.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic observations of the Earth's inner core [1] remain ambiguously related to mineral physics studies of the inner core stable crystalline iron phase [2,3,4,5]. This makes it difficult to clarify the role of plastic deformation as one of the primary candidates responsible for the observed seismic anisotropy of Earth's inner core. Nonetheless, atomic self-diffusion mechanisms provide a direct link between plastic deformation and the mechanical properties of Earth's inner core stable iron phase(s). Using first-principles density functional based calculation techniques, we have studied the conjugate effect of pressure and chemistry on vacancy diffusion in HCP-, BCC- and FCC-iron by taking into account potential light alloying elements as hydrogen, silicon and sulfur. Our results show that inner core pressure highly inhibits the rate of intrinsic self-diffusion by suppressing defect concentration rather than by effecting the mobility of the defects. Moreover, we found light elements to be able to affect metallic bonding which allows for extrinsic diffusion mechanisms in iron under inner core conditions. The latter clearly enables to enhance defect concentration and hence to enhance the rate of plastic deformation. This suggests that inner core chemistry affects the rheological properties (e.g.viscosity) of iron alloys which finally should match with seismic observations. references: [1] Deuss, A., 2014. Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Earth's inner core. An. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 42, 103-126. [2] Anzellini, S., Dewaele, A., Mezouar, M., Loubeyre, P., Morard, G., 2013. Melting of iron at Earth's inner core boundary based on fast X-ray diffraction. Science 340, 464-466. [3] Godwal, B.K., Gonzales-Cataldo, F., Verma, A.K., Stixrude, L., Jeanloz, R., 2015. Stability of iron crystal structures at 0.3-1.5 TPa. [4] Vocadlo, L., 2007. Ab initio calculations of the elasticity of iron and iron alloys at inner core conditions: evidence for a partially molten inner core

  17. Assembling Large, Multi-Sensor Climate Datasets Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Fetzer, E.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is the world's most ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the A-Train platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over periods of years to decades. However, moving from predominantly single-instrument studies to a multi-sensor, measurement-based model for long-duration analysis of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and data fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another instrument (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the cloud scenes from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over years of AIRS data. To perform such an analysis, one must discover & access multiple datasets from remote sites, find the space/time matchups between instruments swaths and model grids, understand the quality flags and uncertainties for retrieved physical variables, and assemble merged datasets for further scientific and statistical analysis. To meet these large-scale challenges, we are utilizing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data query, access, subsetting, co-registration, mining, fusion, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled ("smart") Grid Workflow system that ties together a peer-to-peer network of computers into an efficient engine for distributed computation. The SciFlo workflow engine enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling remotely-invokable Web Services (SOAP or http GET URLs), native executables, command-line scripts, and Python codes into a distributed computing flow. A scientist visually authors the graph of operation in the VizFlow GUI, or uses a

  18. Assembling Large, Multi-Sensor Climate Datasets Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Fetzer, E.

    2009-04-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is an ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the "A-Train" platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over periods of years to decades. However, moving from predominantly single-instrument studies to a multi-sensor, measurement-based model for long-duration analysis of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and data fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another instrument (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the "cloud scenes" from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over years of AIRS data. To perform such an analysis, one must discover & access multiple datasets from remote sites, find the space/time "matchups" between instruments swaths and model grids, understand the quality flags and uncertainties for retrieved physical variables, assemble merged datasets, and compute fused products for further scientific and statistical analysis. To meet these large-scale challenges, we are utilizing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data query, access, subsetting, co-registration, mining, fusion, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled ("smart") Grid Workflow system that ties together a peer-to-peer network of computers into an efficient engine for distributed computation. The SciFlo workflow engine enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling remotely-invokable Web Services (SOAP or http GET URLs), native executables, command-line scripts, and Python codes into a distributed computing flow. A scientist visually authors the graph of operation in the Viz

  19. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    PubMed Central

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:25800870

  20. Biallelic inactivation of REV7 is associated with Fanconi anemia.

    PubMed

    Bluteau, Dominique; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Clairmont, Connor; Rousseau, Alix; Ceccaldi, Raphael; Dubois d'Enghien, Catherine; Bluteau, Olivier; Cuccuini, Wendy; Gachet, Stéphanie; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Leblanc, Thierry; Socié, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; D'Andrea, Alan D; Soulier, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, chromosome instability, progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), and a strong predisposition to cancer. Twenty FA genes have been identified, and the FANC proteins they encode cooperate in a common pathway that regulates DNA crosslink repair and replication fork stability. We identified a child with severe BMF who harbored biallelic inactivating mutations of the translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) gene REV7 (also known as MAD2L2), which encodes the mutant REV7 protein REV7-V85E. Patient-derived cells demonstrated an extended FA phenotype, which included increased chromosome breaks and G2/M accumulation upon exposure to DNA crosslinking agents, γH2AX and 53BP1 foci accumulation, and enhanced p53/p21 activation relative to cells derived from healthy patients. Expression of WT REV7 restored normal cellular and functional phenotypes in the patient's cells, and CRISPR/Cas9 inactivation of REV7 in a non-FA human cell line produced an FA phenotype. Finally, silencing Rev7 in primary hematopoietic cells impaired progenitor function, suggesting that the DNA repair defect underlies the development of BMF in FA. Taken together, our genetic and functional analyses identified REV7 as a previously undescribed FA gene, which we term FANCV.

  1. Biallelic inactivation of REV7 is associated with Fanconi anemia

    PubMed Central

    Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Clairmont, Connor; Rousseau, Alix; Ceccaldi, Raphael; Dubois d’Enghien, Catherine; Bluteau, Olivier; Cuccuini, Wendy; Gachet, Stéphanie; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Leblanc, Thierry; Socié, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; D’Andrea, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, chromosome instability, progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), and a strong predisposition to cancer. Twenty FA genes have been identified, and the FANC proteins they encode cooperate in a common pathway that regulates DNA crosslink repair and replication fork stability. We identified a child with severe BMF who harbored biallelic inactivating mutations of the translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) gene REV7 (also known as MAD2L2), which encodes the mutant REV7 protein REV7-V85E. Patient-derived cells demonstrated an extended FA phenotype, which included increased chromosome breaks and G2/M accumulation upon exposure to DNA crosslinking agents, γH2AX and 53BP1 foci accumulation, and enhanced p53/p21 activation relative to cells derived from healthy patients. Expression of WT REV7 restored normal cellular and functional phenotypes in the patient’s cells, and CRISPR/Cas9 inactivation of REV7 in a non-FA human cell line produced an FA phenotype. Finally, silencing Rev7 in primary hematopoietic cells impaired progenitor function, suggesting that the DNA repair defect underlies the development of BMF in FA. Taken together, our genetic and functional analyses identified REV7 as a previously undescribed FA gene, which we term FANCV. PMID:27500492

  2. SciBox, an end-to-end automated science planning and commanding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Teck H.; Murchie, Scott L.; Bedini, Peter D.; Steele, R. Josh; Skura, Joseph P.; Nguyen, Lillian; Nair, Hari; Lucks, Michael; Berman, Alice F.; McGovern, James A.; Turner, F. Scott

    2014-01-01

    SciBox is a new technology for planning and commanding science operations for Earth-orbital and planetary space missions. It has been incrementally developed since 2001 and demonstrated on several spaceflight projects. The technology has matured to the point that it is now being used to plan and command all orbital science operations for the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury. SciBox encompasses the derivation of observing sequences from science objectives, the scheduling of those sequences, the generation of spacecraft and instrument commands, and the validation of those commands prior to uploading to the spacecraft. Although the process is automated, science and observing requirements are incorporated at each step by a series of rules and parameters to optimize observing opportunities, which are tested and validated through simulation and review. Except for limited special operations and tests, there is no manual scheduling of observations or construction of command sequences. SciBox reduces the lead time for operations planning by shortening the time-consuming coordination process, reduces cost by automating the labor-intensive processes of human-in-the-loop adjudication of observing priorities, reduces operations risk by systematically checking constraints, and maximizes science return by fully evaluating the trade space of observing opportunities to meet MESSENGER science priorities within spacecraft recorder, downlink, scheduling, and orbital-geometry constraints.

  3. SciFlo: Semantically-Enabled Grid Workflow for Collaborative Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunck, T.; Wilson, B. D.; Raskin, R.; Manipon, G.

    2005-12-01

    SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* standards and the Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable SOAP Services, native executables, local command-line scripts, and python codes into a distributed computing flow (a graph of operators). SciFlo's XML dataflow documents can be a mixture of concrete operators (fully bound operations) and abstract template operators (late binding via semantic lookup). All data objects and operators can be both simply typed (simple and complex types in XML schema) and semantically typed using controlled vocabularies (linked to OWL ontologies such as SWEET). By exploiting ontology-enhanced search and inference, one can discover (and automatically invoke) Web Services and operators that have been semantically labeled as performing the desired transformation, and adapt a particular invocation to the proper interface (number, types, and meaning of inputs and outputs). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out an HTML form or directly authoring the underlying XML dataflow document, and results are returned directly to the scientist's desktop. A Visual Programming tool is also being developed, but it is not required. Once an analysis has been specified for a granule or day of data, it can be easily repeated with different control parameters and over months or years of data. SciFlo uses and preserves semantics, and also generates and infers new semantic annotations. Specifically, the SciFlo engine uses semantic metadata to

  4. The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and the Hayabusa2 Impact Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, T.; Imamura, H.; Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Takagi, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Shirai, K.; Yano, H.; Okamoto, C.

    2017-07-01

    Hayabusa2 is a sample return mission of JAXA launched on 3 December 2014. Hayabusa2 is the successor of Hayabusa, which returned samples from the asteroid Itokawa to the Earth. Although the design of Hayabusa2 follows that of Hayabusa, the former is equipped with some new components. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) is one of those components. The SCI is a compact kinetic impactor designed to remove the asteroid surface regolith locally and create an artificial crater. One of the most important scientific objectives of Hayabusa2 is to investigate the chemical and physical properties of the internal materials and structures of the target body, asteroid Ryugu. Hayabusa2 will attempt to observe the resultant crater with some scientific instruments and to get samples from around the crater. High kinetic energy is required to create a meaningful crater, however, the impact system design needs to fit within strict constraints. Complicated functions, such as a guidance and control system, are not permitted. A special type of shaped charge is used for the acceleration of the impactor of the SCI in order to make system simpler. Using this explosion technique makes it possible to accelerate the impactor very quickly and to hit the asteroid without a guidance system. However, the impact operation will be complicated because the explosive is very powerful and it scatters high-speed debris at the detonation. This paper describes an overview of the SCI system, the results of the development testing and an outline of the impact experiment of the Hayabusa2 mission.

  5. Clean Cities Conference to Rev Up Alternative Fuels Market

    Science.gov Websites

    Cities Conference to Rev Up Alternative Fuels Market For more information contact: George Douglas , 303-275-4096 email: George Douglas Golden, Colo., Jan. 26, 2001 - Cleaner air and greater energy

  6. REV-ERB and ROR nuclear receptors as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Kojetin, Douglas J.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear receptors REV-ERB (consisting of REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs; consisting of RORα, RORβ and RORγ) are involved in many physiological processes, including regulation of metabolism, development and immunity as well as the circadian rhythm. The recent characterization of endogenous ligands for these former orphan nuclear receptors has stimulated the development of synthetic ligands and opened up the possibility of targeting these receptors to treat several diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, autoimmunity and cancer. This Review focuses on the latest developments in ROR and REV-ERB pharmacology indicating that these nuclear receptors are druggable targets and that ligands targeting these receptors may be useful in the treatment of several disorders. PMID:24577401

  7. People Interview: Using sci-fi to promote physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    INTERVIEW Using sci-fi to promote physics Robert Flack, a research fellow at University College London, talks to David Smith about science writing and the consequences for physicists of books like Angels and Demons.

  8. What Are the Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... potential risk factors for persons with SCI) Functional electrical stimulation for assistance with restoration of neuromuscular function, ... A-Z Topics Rehabilitation Medicine Rehabilitative and Assistive Technology Pediatric Injury NICHD News and Features Focus on ...

  9. Collaborative Science Using Web Services and the SciFlo Grid Dataflow Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Yunck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* &Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client &server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  10. Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Rev-erbα Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Mang, Géraldine M; La Spada, Francesco; Emmenegger, Yann; Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Albrecht, Urs; Franken, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep. EEG/EMG signals were recorded in Rev-erbα knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates during baseline, sleep deprivation, and recovery. Cortical gene expression measurements after sleep deprivation were contrasted to baseline. Although baseline sleep/wake duration was remarkably similar, KO mice showed an advance of the sleep/wake distribution relative to the light-dark cycle. After sleep onset in baseline and after sleep deprivation, both EEG delta power (1-4 Hz) and sleep consolidation were reduced in KO mice indicating a slower increase of homeostatic sleep need during wakefulness. This slower increase might relate to the smaller increase in theta and gamma power observed in the waking EEG prior to sleep onset under both conditions. Indeed, the increased theta activity during wakefulness predicted delta power in subsequent NREM sleep. Lack of Rev-erbα increased Bmal1, Npas2, Clock, and Fabp7 expression, confirming the direct regulation of these genes by REV-ERBα also in the brain. Our results add further proof to the notion that clock genes are involved in sleep homeostasis. Because accumulating evidence directly links REV-ERBα to dopamine signaling the altered homeostatic regulation of sleep reported here are discussed in that context. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Erratum: Correction to: Water in the Earth's Interior: Distribution and Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Schönbächler, Maria; Busemann, Henner; Karato, Shun-Ichiro

    2017-10-01

    Correction to: Space Sci Rev DOI: 10.1007/s11214-017-0387-z This article has been corrected. Figure 3 was initially published with erroneous axis titles in Fig. 3B and 3D where the x axis should be Cpx H2O, instead of Grt H2O.

  12. Proflavine acts as a Rev inhibitor by targeting the high-affinity Rev binding site of the Rev responsive element of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Eric S; Chang, Chia-en; Gilson, Michael K; Marino, John P

    2003-07-08

    Rev is an essential regulatory HIV-1 protein that binds the Rev responsive element (RRE) within the env gene of the HIV-1 RNA genome, activating the switch between viral latency and active viral replication. Previously, we have shown that selective incorporation of the fluorescent probe 2-aminopurine (2-AP) into a truncated form of the RRE sequence (RRE-IIB) allowed the binding of an arginine-rich peptide derived from Rev and aminoglycosides to be characterized directly by fluorescence methods. Using these fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, proflavine has been identified, through a limited screen of selected small heterocyclic compounds, as a specific and high-affinity RRE-IIB binder which inhibits the interaction of the Rev peptide with RRE-IIB. Direct and competitive 2-AP fluorescence binding assays reveal that there are at least two classes of proflavine binding sites on RRE-IIB: a high-affinity site that competes with the Rev peptide for binding to RRE-IIB (K(D) approximately 0.1 +/- 0.05 microM) and a weaker binding site(s) (K(D) approximately 1.1 +/- 0.05 microM). Titrations of RRE-IIB with proflavine, monitored using (1)H NMR, demonstrate that the high-affinity proflavine binding interaction occurs with a 2:1 (proflavine:RRE-IIB) stoichiometry, and NOEs observed in the NOESY spectrum of the 2:1 proflavine.RRE-IIB complex indicate that the two proflavine molecules bind specifically and close to each other within a single binding site. NOESY data further indicate that formation of the 2:1 proflavine.RRE-IIB complex stabilizes base pairing and stacking within the internal purine-rich bulge of RRE-IIB in a manner analogous to what has been observed in the Rev peptide.RRE-IIB complex. The observation that proflavine competes with Rev for binding to RRE-IIB by binding as a dimer to a single high-affinity site opens the possibility for rational drug design based on linking and modifying it and related compounds.

  13. Improvements in geothermometry. Final technical report. Rev

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.; Dibble, W.; Parks, G.

    1982-08-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth geothermometers are useful for estimating geothermal reservoir temperatures, though a general theoretical basis has yet to be established and experimental calibration needs improvement. Equilibrium cation exchange between feldspars provided the original basis for the Na-K and Na-K-Ca geothermometers (Fournier and Truesdell, 1973), but theoretical, field and experimental evidence prove that neither equilibrium nor feldspars are necessary. Here, evidence is summarized in support of these observations, concluding that these geothermometers can be expected to have a surprisingly wide range of applicability, but that the reasons behind such broad applicability are not yet understood. Early experimental work provedmore » that water-rock interactions are slow at low temperatures, so experimental calibration at temperatures below 150/sup 0/ is impractical. Theoretical methods and field data were used instead for all work at low temperatures. Experimental methods were emphasized for temperatures above 150/sup 0/C, and the simplest possible solid and solution compositions were used to permit investigation of one process or question at a time. Unexpected results in experimental work prevented complete integration of the various portions of the investigation.« less

  14. The chemical evolution of Earth's emerged crust inferred from titanium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greber, N. D.; Dauphas, N.; Bekker, A.; Ptáček, M. P.; Bindeman, I. N.; Hofmann, A.

    2017-12-01

    -component mixing model to reconstruct the relative proportions of felsic, mafic, and komatiitic lithologies and the average chemical composition of Earth's emerged crust through time. [1] T. M. Harrison (2009), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 37, 479-505; [2] M. Tang et al. (2016), Science 351, 372-375.; [3] N. D. Greber, et al. (2017), GCA 213, 534-552.

  15. Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Rev-erbα Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Géraldine M.; La Spada, Francesco; Emmenegger, Yann; Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen A.; Albrecht, Urs; Franken, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep. Methods: EEG/EMG signals were recorded in Rev-erbα knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates during baseline, sleep deprivation, and recovery. Cortical gene expression measurements after sleep deprivation were contrasted to baseline. Results: Although baseline sleep/wake duration was remarkably similar, KO mice showed an advance of the sleep/wake distribution relative to the light-dark cycle. After sleep onset in baseline and after sleep deprivation, both EEG delta power (1–4 Hz) and sleep consolidation were reduced in KO mice indicating a slower increase of homeostatic sleep need during wakefulness. This slower increase might relate to the smaller increase in theta and gamma power observed in the waking EEG prior to sleep onset under both conditions. Indeed, the increased theta activity during wakefulness predicted delta power in subsequent NREM sleep. Lack of Rev-erbα increased Bmal1, Npas2, Clock, and Fabp7 expression, confirming the direct regulation of these genes by REV-ERBα also in the brain. Conclusions: Our results add further proof to the notion that clock genes are involved in sleep homeostasis. Because accumulating evidence directly links REV-ERBα to dopamine signaling the altered homeostatic regulation of sleep reported here are discussed in that context. Citation: Mang GM, La Spada F, Emmenegger Y, Chappuis S, Ripperger JA, Albrecht U, Franken P. Altered sleep homeostasis in Rev

  16. Sci-Hub provides access to nearly all scholarly literature

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ariel Rodriguez; Levernier, Jacob G; Munro, Thomas Anthony; McLaughlin, Stephen Reid; Greshake Tzovaras, Bastian

    2018-01-01

    The website Sci-Hub enables users to download PDF versions of scholarly articles, including many articles that are paywalled at their journal’s site. Sci-Hub has grown rapidly since its creation in 2011, but the extent of its coverage has been unclear. Here we report that, as of March 2017, Sci-Hub’s database contains 68.9% of the 81.6 million scholarly articles registered with Crossref and 85.1% of articles published in toll access journals. We find that coverage varies by discipline and publisher, and that Sci-Hub preferentially covers popular, paywalled content. For toll access articles, we find that Sci-Hub provides greater coverage than the University of Pennsylvania, a major research university in the United States. Green open access to toll access articles via licit services, on the other hand, remains quite limited. Our interactive browser at https://greenelab.github.io/scihub allows users to explore these findings in more detail. For the first time, nearly all scholarly literature is available gratis to anyone with an Internet connection, suggesting the toll access business model may become unsustainable. PMID:29424689

  17. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  18. Sci-Hub provides access to nearly all scholarly literature.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, Daniel S; Romero, Ariel Rodriguez; Levernier, Jacob G; Munro, Thomas Anthony; McLaughlin, Stephen Reid; Greshake Tzovaras, Bastian; Greene, Casey S

    2018-03-01

    The website Sci-Hub enables users to download PDF versions of scholarly articles, including many articles that are paywalled at their journal's site. Sci-Hub has grown rapidly since its creation in 2011, but the extent of its coverage has been unclear. Here we report that, as of March 2017, Sci-Hub's database contains 68.9% of the 81.6 million scholarly articles registered with Crossref and 85.1% of articles published in toll access journals. We find that coverage varies by discipline and publisher, and that Sci-Hub preferentially covers popular, paywalled content. For toll access articles, we find that Sci-Hub provides greater coverage than the University of Pennsylvania, a major research university in the United States. Green open access to toll access articles via licit services, on the other hand, remains quite limited. Our interactive browser at https://greenelab.github.io/scihub allows users to explore these findings in more detail. For the first time, nearly all scholarly literature is available gratis to anyone with an Internet connection, suggesting the toll access business model may become unsustainable. © 2018, Himmelstein et al.

  19. Implication of altered autonomic control for orthostatic tolerance in SCI.

    PubMed

    Wecht, Jill Maria; Bauman, William A

    2018-01-01

    Neural output from the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are integrated to appropriately control cardiovascular responses during routine activities of daily living including orthostatic positioning. Sympathetic control of the upper extremity vasculature and the heart arises from the thoracic cord between T1 and T5, whereas splanchnic bed and lower extremity vasculature receive sympathetic neural input from the lower cord between segments T5 and L2. Although the vasculature is not directly innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system, the SA node is innervated by post-ganglionic vagal nerve fibers via cranial nerve X. Segmental differences in sympathetic cardiovascular innervation highlight the effect of lesion level on orthostatic cardiovascular control following spinal cord injury (SCI). Due to impaired sympathetic cardiovascular control, many individuals with SCI, particularly those with lesions above T6, are prone to orthostatic hypotension (OH) and orthostatic intolerance (OI). Symptomatic OH, which may result in OI, is a consequence of episodic reductions in cerebral perfusion pressure and the symptoms may include: dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea, blurred vision, ringing in the ears, headache and syncope. However, many, if not most, individuals with SCI who experience persistent and episodic hypotension and OH do not report symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and therefore do not raise clinical concern. This review will discuss the mechanism underlying OH and OI following SCI, and will review our knowledge to date regarding the prevalence, consequences and possible treatment options for these conditions in the SCI population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Binding and thermodynamics of REV peptide-ctDNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamics of DNA-ligand binding is important as it provides useful information to understand the details of binding processes. HIV-1 REV response element (RRE) located in the env coding region of the viral genome is reported to be well conserved across different HIV-1 isolates. In this study, the binding characteristics of Calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and REV peptide from HIV-1 were investigated using spectroscopic (UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD)) and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) techniques. Thermal stability and ligand binding properties of the ctDNA revealed that native ctDNA had a T m of 75.5 °C, whereas the ctDNA-REV peptide complex exhibited an incremental shift in the T m by 8 °C, indicating thermal stability of the complex. CD data indicated increased ellipticity due to large conformational changes in ctDNA molecule upon binding with REV peptide and two binding stoichiometric modes are apparent. The ctDNA experienced condensation due to large conformational changes in the presence of REV peptide and positive B→Ψ transition was observed at higher molar charge ratios. Fluorescence studies performed at several ligand concentrations revealed a gradual decrease in the fluorescence intensity of EtBr-bound ctDNA in response to increasing ligand concentrations. The fluorescence data further confirmed two stoichiometric modes of binding for ctDNA-REV peptide complex as previously observed with CD studies. The binding enthalpies were determined using ITC in the temperature range of 293 K-308 K. The ITC binding isotherm was exothermic at all temperatures examined, with low ΔH values indicating that the ctDNA-REV peptide interaction is driven largely by entropy. The heat capacity change (ΔC p ) was insignificant, an unusual finding in the area of DNA-peptide interaction studies. The variation in the values obtained for ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG with temperature further suggests that ctDNA-REV peptide interaction is entropically

  1. Publishing datasets with eSciDoc and panMetaDocs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.

    2012-04-01

    publishing scientific datasets as electronic data supplements to research papers. Publication of research manuscripts has an already well established workflow that shares junctures with other processes and involves several parties in the process of dataset publication. Activities of the author, the reviewer, the print publisher and the data publisher have to be coordinated into a common data publication workflow. The case of data publication at GFZ Potsdam displays some specifics, e.g. the DOIDB webservice. The DOIDB is a proxy service at GFZ for the DataCite [4] DOI registration and its metadata store. DOIDB provides a local summary of the dataset DOIs registered through GFZ as a publication agent. An additional use case for the DOIDB is its function to enrich the datacite metadata with additional custom attributes, like a geographic reference in a DIF record. These attributes are at the moment not available in the datacite metadata schema but would be valuable elements for the compilation of data catalogues in the earth sciences and for dissemination of catalogue data via OAI-PMH. [1] http://www.escidoc.org , eSciDoc, FIZ Karlruhe, Germany [2] http://panmetadocs.sf.net , panMetaDocs, GFZ Potsdam, Germany [3] http://metaworks.pangaea.de , panMetaWorks, Dr. R. Huber, MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany [4] http://www.datacite.org

  2. Asteroids and Meteorites from Venus? Only the Earth Goddess Knows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dones, Henry; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Alvarellos, José L.

    2018-04-01

    No meteorites from Venus have been found; indeed, some find theirexistence unlikely because of the perceived difficulty of launchingrocks at speeds above 10 km/s and traversing the planet's 93 baratmosphere. [1] Nonetheless, we keep hope alive, since cosmochemistssay they can identify Cytherean meteorites, should candidates be found[2]. Gladman et al. [3] modeled the exchange of impact ejecta betweenthe terrestrial planets, but did not consider meteorites launched fromVenus in any detail. At the time of Gladman's work, no asteroids thatremained entirely within Earth's orbit were known. 14 suchEarth-interior objects with good orbits have now been discovered, andare known as Atiras, for the Pawnee goddess of the Earth. The largestknown member of the class is 163693 Atira, a binary whose componentshave diameters of approximately 4.8 and 1 km. Discovery of Atiras isvery incomplete because they can only be seen at small solarelongations [4]. Greenstreet et al. [5] modeled the orbitaldistribution of Atiras from main-belt asteroidal and cometary sourceregions, while Ribeiro et al. [6] mapped the stability region ofhypothetical Atiras and integrated the orbits of clones of 12 realAtiras for 1 million years. 97% of the clones survived for 1 Myrimpact with Venus was the most common fate of those that met theirends. We have performed orbital integrations of 1000 clones of each ofthe known Atiras, and of hypothetical ejecta that escape Venus afterasteroid impacts, for 10-100 Myr. The latter calculations usetechniques like those of Alvarellos et al. [7] and Zahnle et al. [8]for transfer amongst Jupiter's galilean satellites. Our goals are toestimate the fraction of Atiras that are ejecta launched from Venus,the time spent in space by hypothetical meteorites from Venus, and therate at which such meteorites strike the Earth.[1] Gilmore M., et al (2017). Space Sci. Rev. 212, 1511. [2] JourdanF., Eroglu E. (2017). MAPS 52, 884. [3] Gladman B.J., etal. (1996). Science 271, 1387. [4

  3. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by themore » Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.« less

  4. Combined SCI and TBI: Recovery of forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is retarded by contralateral traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ipsilateral TBI balances the effects of SCI on paw placement

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoo; Lin, Amity; Ma, Xiaokui; McKenna, Stephen L.; Creasey, Graham H.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Beattie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion (estimates range from 16–74%) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the combination often produces difficulties in planning and implementing rehabilitation strategies and drug therapies. For example, many of the drugs used to treat SCI may interfere with cognitive rehabilitation, and conversely drugs that are used to control seizures in TBI patients may undermine locomotor recovery after SCI. The current paper presents an experimental animal model for combined SCI and TBI to help drive mechanistic studies of dual diagnosis. Rats received a unilateral SCI (75 kdyn) at C5 vertebral level, a unilateral TBI (2.0 mm depth, 4.0 m/s velocity impact on the forelimb sensori-motor cortex), or both SCI + TBI. TBI was placed either contralateral or ipsilateral to the SCI. Behavioral recovery was examined using paw placement in a cylinder, grooming, open field locomotion, and the IBB cereal eating test. Over 6 weeks, in the paw placement test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced a profound deficit that failed to recover, but SCI + ipsilateral TBI increased the relative use of the paw on the SCI side. In the grooming test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced worse recovery than either lesion alone even though contralateral TBI alone produced no observable deficit. In the IBB forelimb test, SCI + contralateral TBI revealed a severe deficit that recovered in 3 weeks. For open field locomotion, SCI alone or in combination with TBI resulted in an initial deficit that recovered in 2 weeks. Thus, TBI and SCI affected forelimb function differently depending upon the test, reflecting different neural substrates underlying, for example, exploratory paw placement and stereotyped grooming. Concurrent SCI and TBI had significantly different effects on outcomes and recovery, depending upon laterality of the two lesions. Recovery of function after cervical SCI was retarded by the addition of a moderate TBI in the

  5. Combined SCI and TBI: recovery of forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is retarded by contralateral traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ipsilateral TBI balances the effects of SCI on paw placement.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoo; Lin, Amity; Ma, Xiaokui; McKenna, Stephen L; Creasey, Graham H; Manley, Geoffrey T; Ferguson, Adam R; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Beattie, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    A significant proportion (estimates range from 16 to 74%) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the combination often produces difficulties in planning and implementing rehabilitation strategies and drug therapies. For example, many of the drugs used to treat SCI may interfere with cognitive rehabilitation, and conversely drugs that are used to control seizures in TBI patients may undermine locomotor recovery after SCI. The current paper presents an experimental animal model for combined SCI and TBI to help drive mechanistic studies of dual diagnosis. Rats received a unilateral SCI (75 kdyn) at C5 vertebral level, a unilateral TBI (2.0 mm depth, 4.0 m/s velocity impact on the forelimb sensori-motor cortex), or both SCI+TBI. TBI was placed either contralateral or ipsilateral to the SCI. Behavioral recovery was examined using paw placement in a cylinder, grooming, open field locomotion, and the IBB cereal eating test. Over 6weeks, in the paw placement test, SCI+contralateral TBI produced a profound deficit that failed to recover, but SCI+ipsilateral TBI increased the relative use of the paw on the SCI side. In the grooming test, SCI+contralateral TBI produced worse recovery than either lesion alone even though contralateral TBI alone produced no observable deficit. In the IBB forelimb test, SCI+contralateral TBI revealed a severe deficit that recovered in 3 weeks. For open field locomotion, SCI alone or in combination with TBI resulted in an initial deficit that recovered in 2 weeks. Thus, TBI and SCI affected forelimb function differently depending upon the test, reflecting different neural substrates underlying, for example, exploratory paw placement and stereotyped grooming. Concurrent SCI and TBI had significantly different effects on outcomes and recovery, depending upon laterality of the two lesions. Recovery of function after cervical SCI was retarded by the addition of a moderate TBI in the contralateral

  6. Women's Sexual Health and Reproductive Function After SCI.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Frédérique; Alexander, Marcalee; McLain, Amie B Jackson

    2017-01-01

    Sexual function and to a lesser extent reproduction are often disrupted in women with spinal cord injuries (SCI), who must be educated to better understand their sexual and reproductive health. Women with SCI are sexually active; they can use psychogenic or reflexogenic stimulation to obtain sexual pleasure and orgasm. Treatment should consider a holistic approach using autonomic standards to describe remaining sexual function and to assess both genital function and psychosocial factors. Assessment of genital function should include thoracolumbar dermatomes, vulvar sensitivity (touch, pressure, vibration), and sacral reflexes. Self-exploration should include not only clitoral stimulation, but also stimulation of the vagina (G spot), cervix, and nipples conveyed by different innervation sources. Treatments may consider PDE5 inhibitors and flibanserin on an individual basis, and secondary consequences of SCI should address concerns with spasticity, pain, incontinence, and side effects of medications. Psychosocial issues must be addressed as possible contributors to sexual dysfunctions (eg, lower self-esteem, past sexual history, depression, dating habits). Pregnancy is possible for women with SCI; younger age at the time of injury and at the time of pregnancy being significant predictors of successful pregnancy, along with marital status, motor score, mobility, and occupational scores. Pregnancy may decrease the level of functioning (eg, self-care, ambulation, upper-extremity tasks), may involve complications (eg, decubitus ulcers, weight gain, urological complications), and must be monitored for postural hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia. Taking into consideration the physical and psychosocial determinants of sexuality and childbearing allows women with SCI to achieve positive sexual and reproductive health.

  7. Women's Sexual Health and Reproductive Function After SCI

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Marcalee; McLain, Amie B. (Jackson)

    2017-01-01

    Sexual function and to a lesser extent reproduction are often disrupted in women with spinal cord injuries (SCI), who must be educated to better understand their sexual and reproductive health. Women with SCI are sexually active; they can use psychogenic or reflexogenic stimulation to obtain sexual pleasure and orgasm. Treatment should consider a holistic approach using autonomic standards to describe remaining sexual function and to assess both genital function and psychosocial factors. Assessment of genital function should include thoracolumbar dermatomes, vulvar sensitivity (touch, pressure, vibration), and sacral reflexes. Self-exploration should include not only clitoral stimulation, but also stimulation of the vagina (G spot), cervix, and nipples conveyed by different innervation sources. Treatments may consider PDE5 inhibitors and flibanserin on an individual basis, and secondary consequences of SCI should address concerns with spasticity, pain, incontinence, and side effects of medications. Psychosocial issues must be addressed as possible contributors to sexual dysfunctions (eg, lower self-esteem, past sexual history, depression, dating habits). Pregnancy is possible for women with SCI; younger age at the time of injury and at the time of pregnancy being significant predictors of successful pregnancy, along with marital status, motor score, mobility, and occupational scores. Pregnancy may decrease the level of functioning (eg, self-care, ambulation, upper-extremity tasks), may involve complications (eg, decubitus ulcers, weight gain, urological complications), and must be monitored for postural hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia. Taking into consideration the physical and psychosocial determinants of sexuality and childbearing allows women with SCI to achieve positive sexual and reproductive health. PMID:29339874

  8. Discontinuous ventilator weaning of patients with acute SCI.

    PubMed

    Füssenich, Wout; Hirschfeld Araujo, Sven; Kowald, Birgitt; Hosman, Allard; Auerswald, Marc; Thietje, Roland

    2018-05-01

    Retrospective, single centre cohort study. To determine factors associated with ventilator weaning success and failure in patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI); determine length of time and attempts required to wean from the ventilator successfully and determine the incidence of pneumonia. BG Klinikum Hamburg, Level 1 trauma centre, SCI Department, Germany. From 2010 until 2017, 165 consecutive patients with cervical SCI, initially dependent on a ventilator, were included and weaned discontinuously via tracheal cannula. Data related to anthropometric details, neurological injury, respiratory outcomes, and weaning parameters were prospectively recorded in a database and retrospectively analysed. Seventy-nine percent of all patients were successfully weaned from ventilation. Average duration of the complete weaning process was 37 days. Ninety-one percent of the successfully weaned patients completed this on first attempt. Age (>56 years), level of injury (C4 and/or above), vital capacity (<1500 ml), obesity (>25 kg/m 2 ), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly decreased the chance of successful weaning. These factors also correlated with a higher number of weaning attempts. High level of injury, older age, and reduced vital capacity also increased the duration of the weaning process. Patients with low vital capacity and concurrent therapy with Baclofen and Dantrolene showed higher rates of pneumonia. We conclude that mentioned factors are associated with weaning outcome and useful for clinical recommendations and patient counselling. These data further support the complexity of ventilator weaning in the SCI population due to associated complications, therefore we recommend conducting weaning of patients with SCI on intensive or intermediate care units (ICU/IMCU) in specialised centres.

  9. Effects of Composition and Iron Spin State on the Structural Transition of (Mg,Fe)CO3 in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.; Huang, S. C.; Wei, C. M.; Hsing, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Iron-bearing magnesium carbonates (Mg,Fe)CO3 are believed the major carbon carriers in the Earth's deep lower mantle; they may play a crucial role in the Earth's deep carbon cycle. Knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of these carbonates is thus essential for our understanding of the mantle's role in global carbon cycle. Experiments have shown that (Mg,Fe)CO3 ferromagnesite (calcite structure) can be stable up to 80-100 GPa. At 45-50 GPa, ferromangsite undergoes a high-spin to low-spin transition, accompanied by a volume reduction and elastic anomalies. Starting ~100 GPa, ferromagnesite goes through a complicated structural transition. The detail of this transition and the atomic structures of high-pressure (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases are still highly debated. Experimental observations and theoretical results are inconsistent so far. In experiments, several distinct high-pressure (Mg,Fe)CO3 structures have been reported, including a P21/c phase [1] and a Pmm2 phase [2]. In theory, a C2/m phase [3] and a P-1 phase [4] have been suggested, while the Pmm2 phase is not found. One possible reason for such a discrepancy is that all available theoretical calculations so far are based on pure MgCO3, while experimental works are performed using (Mg,Fe)CO3 with high iron concentration ( > 50%). Clearly, the concentration of iron and the possible iron spin crossover can significantly affect the stability of these high-pressure (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases. Here, we use density functional theory + self-consistent Hubbard U (DFT+Usc) calculations to study this structural transition. The effects of composition and iron spin state on these (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases are also discussed. Our results can be expected to provide insightful information for better understanding the Earth's deep carbon cycle.[1] E. Boulard et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5184 (2011).[2] J. Liu et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 7640 (2015). [3] A. R. Oganov et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 273, 38 (2008). [4] C. J. Pickard and

  10. Corrigendum to "Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America" [Quat. Sci. Rev. 123 (2015) 231-246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.

    2016-09-01

    When this paper was first published online, the authors mistyped the species name Capsicum chinense (a chili pepper species) in two of the four instances where it was mentioned in the above article. This typographic error does not change the results of the reported study. However, due to the potential implications of the findings on Capsicum spp., the correct paragraphs are printed below:

  11. The Implementation Challenge and the Learning Health System for SCI Initiative.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2017-02-01

    The paper introduces the special issue by linking the International Spinal Cord Injury (InSCI) Community Survey study to the Learning Health System for SCI Initiative (LHS-SCI). The LHS-SCI was designed to respond to the implementation challenge of bringing about policy reform in light of the targeted policy recommendations of World Health Organization's International Perspectives on SCI report as well as the call for action of WHO's Global Disability Action Plan. The paper reviews the components of LHS-SCI relevant to internationally comparable information, a theory of change to guide for action, and the tools for evidence-informed policy. The interplay between persons, their health needs, and the societal response to those needs provides the foundation for the organization of the LHS-SCI Initiative. Moreover, as the other articles in this special issue describe in detail, the rationale, conceptualization, and study design of the InSCI study are also informed by the rationale, and mission, of the LHS for SCI Initiative. The LHS-SCI, and the implementation challenge that motivates it, is responsible for the design of the InSCI study and the overall mission of LHS-SCI to continuously improve the lived experience of people living with SCI around the world through an international evidence- and rights-informed research and policy reform effort.

  12. REV-ERB and ROR: therapeutic targets for treating myopathies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Ryan D.; Flaveny, Colin A.

    2017-08-01

    Muscle is primarily known for its mechanical roles in locomotion, maintenance of posture, and regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. There are numerous medical conditions that adversely affect muscle, myopathies that disrupt muscle development, regeneration and protein turnover to detrimental effect. Skeletal muscle is also a vital secretory organ that regulates thermogenesis, inflammatory signaling and directs context specific global metabolic changes in energy substrate preference on a daily basis. Myopathies differ in the causative factors that drive them but share common features including severe reduction in quality of life and significantly increased mortality all due irrefutably to the loss of muscle mass. Thus far clinically viable approaches for preserving muscle proteins and stimulating new muscle growth without unwanted side effects or limited efficacy has been elusive. Over the last few decades, evidence has emerged through in vitro and in vivo studies that suggest the nuclear receptors REV-ERB and ROR might modulate pathways involved in myogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Hinting that REV-ERB and ROR might be targeted to treat myopathies. However there is still a need for substantial investigation into the roles of these nuclear receptors in in vivo rodent models of degenerative muscle diseases and acute injury. Although exciting, REV-ERB and ROR have somewhat confounding roles in muscle physiology and therefore more studies utilizing in vivo models of skeletal muscle myopathies are needed. In this review we highlight the molecular forces driving some of the major degenerative muscular diseases and showcase two promising molecular targets that may have the potential to treat myopathies: ROR and REV-ERB.

  13. Fitness and Independence after SCI: Defining Meaningful Change and Thresholds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Quality of life after SCI/D is depends more on...determine if low fitness is limiting transfer ability. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal Cord Injury, Fitness, Independence, Quality of Life 16. SECURITY... quality of life . Examples include: • data or databases; • physical collections; • audio or video products; • software; • models; • educational aids

  14. Emotional Intelligence in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    PubMed Central

    SABERI, Hooshang; GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a devastating situation. Spinal Cord Injury affects functional, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of patients’ lives. The ability to accomplish and explicate the one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions to spread over appropriate information for confirming thoughts and actions is defined as emotional intelligence (EI). The goal of this study was to evaluate depression and EI in SCI patients in comparison with healthy subjects. Methods: One-hundred-ten patients with SCI and 80 healthy subjects between Aug 2014 and Aug 2015 were enrolled. The study was conducted in Imam Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). All data were analyzed using SPSS. Data were presented as Mean±SD for continuous or frequencies for categorical variables. Continuous variables compared by means of independent sample t-test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Mean age of patients was 28.7 and mean age of controls was 30.2 yr. Spinal cord injury in 20 (18.3%) were at cervical level, in 83 (75.4%) were thoracic and in 7 (6.3%) were lumbar. Mean values of independence, stress tolerance, self-actualization, emotional Self-Awareness, reality testing, Impulse Control, flexibility, responsibility, and assertiveness were significantly different between cases and controls. Mean values of stress tolerance, optimism, self-regard, and responsibility were significantly different between three groups with different injury level. Most scales were not significantly different between male and female cases. Conclusion: Emotional intelligence should be considered in SCI cases as their physical and psychological health is affected by their illness. PMID:28560199

  15. Online Registries for Researchers: Using ORCID and SciENcv.

    PubMed

    Vrabel, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) registry helps resolve name ambiguity by assigning persistent unique identifiers that automatically link to a researcher's publications, grants, and other activities. This article provides an overview of ORCID and its benefits, citing several examples of its use in cancer and nursing journals. The article also briefly describes My NCBI and the Science Experts Network Curriculum Vitae (SciENcv) and its connection to ORCID.

  16. Emotional Intelligence in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Saberi, Hooshang; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2017-05-01

    Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a devastating situation. Spinal Cord Injury affects functional, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of patients' lives. The ability to accomplish and explicate the one's own and other's feelings and emotions to spread over appropriate information for confirming thoughts and actions is defined as emotional intelligence (EI). The goal of this study was to evaluate depression and EI in SCI patients in comparison with healthy subjects. One-hundred-ten patients with SCI and 80 healthy subjects between Aug 2014 and Aug 2015 were enrolled. The study was conducted in Imam Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). All data were analyzed using SPSS. Data were presented as Mean±SD for continuous or frequencies for categorical variables. Continuous variables compared by means of independent sample t -test. P -values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Mean age of patients was 28.7 and mean age of controls was 30.2 yr. Spinal cord injury in 20 (18.3%) were at cervical level, in 83 (75.4%) were thoracic and in 7 (6.3%) were lumbar. Mean values of independence, stress tolerance, self-actualization, emotional Self-Awareness, reality testing, Impulse Control, flexibility, responsibility, and assertiveness were significantly different between cases and controls. Mean values of stress tolerance, optimism, self-regard, and responsibility were significantly different between three groups with different injury level. Most scales were not significantly different between male and female cases. Emotional intelligence should be considered in SCI cases as their physical and psychological health is affected by their illness.

  17. HamSCI: The Ham Radio Science Citizen Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frissell, N. A.; Moses, M. L.; Earle, G. D.; McGwier, R. W.; Miller, E. S.; Kaeppler, S. R.; Silver, H. W.; Ceglia, F.; Pascoe, D.; Sinanis, N.; Smith, P.; Williams, R.; Shovkoplyas, A.; Gerrard, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Amateur (or "ham") radio operators are individuals with a non-pecuniary interest in radio technology, engineering, communications, science, and public service. They are licensed by their national governments to transmit on amateur radio frequencies. In many jurisdictions, there is no age requirement for a ham radio license, and operators from diverse backgrounds participate. There are more than 740,000 hams in the US, and over 3 million (estimated) worldwide. Many amateur communications are conducted using transionospheric links and thus affected by space weather and ionospheric processes. Recent technological advances have enabled the development of automated ham radio observation networks (e.g. the Reverse Beacon Network, www.reversebeacon.net) and specialized operating modes for the study of weak-signal propagation. The data from these networks have been shown to be useful for the study of ionospheric processes. In order to connect professional researchers with the volunteer-based ham radio community, HamSCI (Ham Radio Science Citizen Investigation, www.hamsci.org) has been established. HamSCI is a platform for publicizing and promoting projects that are consistent with the following objectives: (1) Advance scientific research and understanding through amateur radio activities. (2) Encourage the development of new technologies to support this research. (3) Provide educational opportunities for the amateur community and the general public. HamSCI researchers are working with the American Radio Relay League (ARRL, www.arrl.org) to publicize these objectives and recruit interested hams. The ARRL is the US national organization for amateur radio with a membership of over 170,000 and a monthly magazine, QST. HamSCI is currently preparing to support ionospheric research connected to the 21 Aug 2017 Total Solar Eclipse by expanding coverage of the Reverse Beacon Network and organizing a large-scale ham radio operating event ("QSO Party") to generate data during the

  18. Treatment of Neuropathic Pain after SCI with a Catalytic Oxidoreductant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Ashcraft,1 Ping Fan,4 Dewhirst, M. W.,1 David S. Warner,2 Zeljko Vujaskovic,4 Ines Batinic-Haberle1 and Ivan Spasojevic,6* Departments of Radiation...Subcontract project management and oversee the mouse SCI induction OTHER FUNDING SUPPORT DUKE NAME IVAN SPASOJEVICK, PH.D. PROJECT ROLE CO-I...Fan,4 Dewhirst, M. W.,1 David S. Warner,2 Zeljko Vujaskovic,4 Ines Batinic-Haberle1 and Ivan Spasojevic,6* Departments of Radiation Oncology,1

  19. REV, A BRET-Based Sensor of ERK Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chanjuan; Peter, Marion; Bouquier, Nathalie; Ollendorff, Vincent; Villamil, Ignacio; Liu, Jianfeng; Fagni, Laurent; Perroy, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Networks of signaling molecules are activated in response to environmental changes. How are these signaling networks dynamically integrated in space and time to process particular information? To tackle this issue, biosensors of single signaling pathways have been engineered. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based biosensors have proven to be particularly efficient in that matter due to the high sensitivity of this technology to monitor protein–protein interactions or conformational changes in living cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) are ubiquitously expressed and involved in many diverse cellular functions that might be encoded by the strength and spatio-temporal pattern of ERK activation. We developed a BRET-based sensor of ERK activity, called Rluc8-ERKsubstrate-Venus (REV). As expected, BRET changes of REV were correlated with ERK phosphorylation, which is required for its kinase activity. In neurons, the nature of the stimuli determines the strength, the location, or the moment of ERK activation, thus highlighting how acute modulation of ERK may encode the nature of initial stimulus to specify the consequences of this activation. This study provides evidence for suitability of REV as a new biosensor to address biological questions. PMID:23908646

  20. Towards magnetic sounding of the Earth's core by an adjoint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Jackson, A.; Livermore, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    determining the entire trajectory of Earth's geodynamo system. [1] A. Fournier, G. Hulot, D. Jault, W. Kuang, A. Tangborn, N. Gillet, E. Canet, J. Aubert, and F. Lhuillier. An introduction to data assimilation and predictability in geomagnetism. Space. Sci. Rev., 155:247-291, 2010. [2] G. A. Glatzmaier and P. H. Roberts. A three-dimensional convective dynamo solution with rotating and finitely conducting inner core and mantle. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 91:63-75, 1995. [3] J. B. Taylor. The magneto-hydrodynamics of a rotating fluid and the earth's dynamo problem. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 274(1357):274-283, 1963. [4] K. Li, A. Jackson, and P. W. Livermore. Variational data assimilation for the initial value dynamo problem. Phys. Rev. E, 84:056321, 2011.

  1. User Instructions for the Systems Assessment Capability, Rev. 1, Computer Codes Volume 3: Utility Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Lopresti, Charles A.

    2004-09-14

    This document contains detailed user instructions for a suite of utility codes developed for Rev. 1 of the Systems Assessment Capability. The suite of computer codes for Rev. 1 of Systems Assessment Capability performs many functions.

  2. Nuclear Export Signal Masking Regulates HIV-1 Rev Trafficking and Viral RNA Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Ryan T; Aligeti, Mounavya; Pocock, Ginger M; Higgins, Christina A; Sherer, Nathan M

    2017-02-01

    HIV-1's Rev protein forms a homo-oligomeric adaptor complex linking viral RNAs to the cellular CRM1/Ran-GTP nuclear export machinery through the activity of Rev's prototypical leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). In this study, we used a functional fluorescently tagged Rev fusion protein as a platform to study the effects of modulating Rev NES identity, number, position, or strength on Rev subcellular trafficking, viral RNA nuclear export, and infectious virion production. We found that Rev activity was remarkably tolerant of diverse NES sequences, including supraphysiological NES (SNES) peptides that otherwise arrest CRM1 transport complexes at nuclear pores. Rev's ability to tolerate a SNES was both position and multimerization dependent, an observation consistent with a model wherein Rev self-association acts to transiently mask the NES peptide(s), thereby biasing Rev's trafficking into the nucleus. Combined imaging and functional assays also indicated that NES masking underpins Rev's well-known tendency to accumulate at the nucleolus, as well as Rev's capacity to activate optimal levels of late viral gene expression. We propose that Rev multimerization and NES masking regulates Rev's trafficking to and retention within the nucleus even prior to RNA binding. HIV-1 infects more than 34 million people worldwide causing >1 million deaths per year. Infectious virion production is activated by the essential viral Rev protein that mediates nuclear export of intron-bearing late-stage viral mRNAs. Rev's shuttling into and out of the nucleus is regulated by the antagonistic activities of both a peptide-encoded N-terminal nuclear localization signal and C-terminal nuclear export signal (NES). How Rev and related viral proteins balance strong import and export activities in order to achieve optimal levels of viral gene expression is incompletely understood. We provide evidence that multimerization provides a mechanism by which Rev transiently masks its NES peptide

  3. Nuclear Export Signal Masking Regulates HIV-1 Rev Trafficking and Viral RNA Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Ryan T.; Aligeti, Mounavya; Pocock, Ginger M.; Higgins, Christina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1's Rev protein forms a homo-oligomeric adaptor complex linking viral RNAs to the cellular CRM1/Ran-GTP nuclear export machinery through the activity of Rev's prototypical leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). In this study, we used a functional fluorescently tagged Rev fusion protein as a platform to study the effects of modulating Rev NES identity, number, position, or strength on Rev subcellular trafficking, viral RNA nuclear export, and infectious virion production. We found that Rev activity was remarkably tolerant of diverse NES sequences, including supraphysiological NES (SNES) peptides that otherwise arrest CRM1 transport complexes at nuclear pores. Rev's ability to tolerate a SNES was both position and multimerization dependent, an observation consistent with a model wherein Rev self-association acts to transiently mask the NES peptide(s), thereby biasing Rev's trafficking into the nucleus. Combined imaging and functional assays also indicated that NES masking underpins Rev's well-known tendency to accumulate at the nucleolus, as well as Rev's capacity to activate optimal levels of late viral gene expression. We propose that Rev multimerization and NES masking regulates Rev's trafficking to and retention within the nucleus even prior to RNA binding. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infects more than 34 million people worldwide causing >1 million deaths per year. Infectious virion production is activated by the essential viral Rev protein that mediates nuclear export of intron-bearing late-stage viral mRNAs. Rev's shuttling into and out of the nucleus is regulated by the antagonistic activities of both a peptide-encoded N-terminal nuclear localization signal and C-terminal nuclear export signal (NES). How Rev and related viral proteins balance strong import and export activities in order to achieve optimal levels of viral gene expression is incompletely understood. We provide evidence that multimerization provides a mechanism by which Rev transiently masks

  4. Mutational definition of functional domains within the Rev homolog encoded by human endogenous retrovirus K.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, H P; Wiegand, H L; Yang, J; Cullen, B R

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear export of the incompletely spliced mRNAs encoded by several complex retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is dependent on a virally encoded adapter protein, termed Rev in HIV-1, that directly binds both to a cis-acting viral RNA target site and to the cellular Crm1 export factor. Human endogenous retrovirus K, a family of ancient endogenous retroviruses that is not related to the exogenous retrovirus HIV-1, was recently shown to also encode a Crm1-dependent nuclear RNA export factor, termed K-Rev. Although HIV-1 Rev and K-Rev display little sequence identity, they share the ability not only to bind to Crm1 and to RNA but also to form homomultimers and shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. We have used mutational analysis to identify sequences in the 105-amino-acid K-Rev protein required for each of these distinct biological activities. While mutations in K-Rev that inactivate any one of these properties also blocked K-Rev-dependent nuclear RNA export, several K-Rev mutants were comparable to wild type when assayed for any of these individual activities yet nevertheless defective for RNA export. Although several nonfunctional K-Rev mutants acted as dominant negative inhibitors of K-Rev-, but not HIV-1 Rev-, dependent RNA export, these were not defined by their inability to bind to Crm1, as is seen with HIV-1 Rev. In total, this analysis suggests a functional architecture for K-Rev that is similar to, but distinct from, that described for HIV-1 Rev and raises the possibility that viral RNA export mediated by the approximately 25 million-year-old K-Rev protein may require an additional cellular cofactor that is not required for HIV-1 Rev function.

  5. UV-induced reversion of his4 frameshift mutations in rad6, rev1, and rev3 mutants of yeast.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C W; O'Brien, T; Bond, J

    1984-01-01

    The UV-induced reversion of two his4 frameshift alleles was much reduced in rad6 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an observation that is consistent with the hypothesis that RAD6 function is required for the induction of all types of genetic alteration in misrepair mutagenesis. The reversion of these his4 alleles, together with two others of the same type, was also reduced in rev1 and rev3 mutant strains; in these, however, the extent of the reduction varied considerably with test allele used, in a manner analogous to the results in these strains for base repair substitution test alleles. The general features of UV-induced frameshift and substitution mutagenesis therefore appear quite similar, indicating that they may depend on related processes. If this conclusion is correct, greater attention must be given to integrating models which account for the production of nucleotide additions and deletions into those concerning misrepair mutagenesis.

  6. SciDAC GSEP: Gyrokinetic Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhihong

    Energetic particle (EP) confinement is a key physics issue for burning plasma experiment ITER, the crucial next step in the quest for clean and abundant energy, since ignition relies on self-heating by energetic fusion products (α-particles). Due to the strong coupling of EP with burning thermal plasmas, plasma confinement property in the ignition regime is one of the most uncertain factors when extrapolating from existing fusion devices to the ITER tokamak. EP population in current tokamaks are mostly produced by auxiliary heating such as neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) heating. Remarkable progress in developing comprehensive EP simulationmore » codes and understanding basic EP physics has been made by two concurrent SciDAC EP projects GSEP funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES), which have successfully established gyrokinetic turbulence simulation as a necessary paradigm shift for studying the EP confinement in burning plasmas. Verification and validation have rapidly advanced through close collaborations between simulation, theory, and experiment. Furthermore, productive collaborations with computational scientists have enabled EP simulation codes to effectively utilize current petascale computers and emerging exascale computers. We review here key physics progress in the GSEP projects regarding verification and validation of gyrokinetic simulations, nonlinear EP physics, EP coupling with thermal plasmas, and reduced EP transport models. Advances in high performance computing through collaborations with computational scientists that enable these large scale electromagnetic simulations are also highlighted. These results have been widely disseminated in numerous peer-reviewed publications including many Phys. Rev. Lett. papers and many invited presentations at prominent fusion conferences such as the biennial International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fusion Energy Conference and the annual meeting

  7. Self-consistent formation of continents on early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Breuer, Doris; Dehant, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    and applied rheology. Furthermore, our first results indicate that continents can stabilize plate tectonics, analogous to the results obtained by [5]. The model will be further developed to treat hydration and dehydration of oceanic crust as well as subduction of carbonates to allow for a self-consistent 3D model of early Earth including a direct link between interior and atmosphere via both outgassing [6] and regassing. References [1] Ward, P.D. and Brownlee, D. (2000), Rare Earth, Springer. [2] Hüttig, C. and Stemmer, K. (2008), PEPI, 171(1-4):137-146. [3] Plesa, A.-C., Tosi, N. and Hüttig, C. (2013), in: Integrated Information and Computing Systems for Natural, Spatial, and Social Sciences, IGI Global, 302-323. [4] Arndt, N.T. and Nisbet, E.G. (2012), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40:521-549. [5] Rolf, T. and Tackley, P.J. (2011), GRL, 38:L18301. [6] Noack, L., Breuer, D. and Spohn, T. (2012), Icarus, 217(2):484-498.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas

    Science.gov Websites

    New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  9. 76 FR 10395 - BreconRidge Manufacturing Solutions, Now Known as Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Solutions, Now Known as Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Design and Manufacturing, a Subsidiary of Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services... Manufacturing Solutions, now known as Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic...

  10. RNA helicase MOV10 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev to facilitate Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export of viral mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Zhang, Yijun

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits multiple host factors during its replication. The REV/RRE-dependent nuclear export of unspliced/partially spliced viral transcripts needs the assistance of host proteins. Recent studies have shown that MOV10 overexpression inhibited HIV-1 replication at various steps. However, the endogenous MOV10 was required in certain step(s) of HIV-1 replication. In this report, we found that MOV10 potently enhances the nuclear export of viral mRNAs and subsequently increases the expression of Gag protein and other late products through affecting the Rev/RRE axis. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. The DEAG-boxmore » of MOV10 was required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export and the DEAG-box mutant showed a dominant-negative activity. Our data propose that HIV-1 utilizes the anti-viral factor MOV10 to function as a co-factor of Rev and demonstrate the complicated effects of MOV10 on HIV-1 life cycle. - Highlights: • MOV10 can function as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev. • MOV10 facilitates Rev/RRE-dependent transport of viral mRNAs. • MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. • The DEAG-box of MOV10 is required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent export.« less

  11. GENESIS SciFlo: Choreographing Interoperable Web Services on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi- instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  12. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  13. NMR Structure and Dynamics of the C-terminal Domain from Human Rev1 and its Complex with Rev1 Interacting Region of DNA Polymerase η

    PubMed Central

    Pozhidaeva, Alexandra; Pustovalova, Yulia; D'Souza, Sanjay; Bezsonova, Irina; Walker, Graham C.; Korzhnev, Dmitry M.

    2013-01-01

    Rev1 is a translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerase essential for DNA damage tolerance in eukaryotes. In the process of TLS stalled high-fidelity replicative DNA polymerases are temporarily replaced by specialized TLS enzymes that can bypass sites of DNA damage (lesions), thus allowing replication to continue or postreplicational gaps to be filled. Despite its limited catalytic activity, human Rev1 plays a key role in TLS by serving as a scaffold that provides an access of Y-family TLS polymerases polη, ι, and κ to their cognate DNA lesions and facilitates their subsequent exchange to polζ that extends the distorted DNA primer-template. Rev1 interaction with the other major human TLS polymerases, polη, ι, κ and the regulatory subunit Rev7 of polζ, is mediated by Rev1 C-terminal domain (Rev1-CT). We used NMR spectroscopy to determine the spatial structure of the Rev1-CT domain (residues 1157-1251) and its complex with Rev1 interacting region (RIR) from polη (residues 524-539). The domain forms a four-helix bundle with a well-structured N-terminal β-hairpin docking against helices 1 and 2, creating a binding pocket for the two conserved Phe residues of the RIR motif that upon binding folds into an α-helix. NMR spin-relaxation and NMR relaxation dispersion measurements suggest that free Rev1-CT and Rev1-CT/polη-RIR complex exhibit μs-ms conformational dynamics encompassing the RIR binding site, which might facilitate selection of the molecular configuration optimal for binding. These results offer new insights into the control of TLS in human cells by providing a structural basis for understanding the recognition of the Rev1-CT by Y-family DNA polymerases. PMID:22691049

  14. Behaviour of Rare Earth Elements during the Earth's core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Pierre; Bouhifd, Mohamed Ali; Boyet, Maud; Hammouda, Tahar; Manthilake, Geeth

    2017-04-01

    presence of water during the formation of metallic core of terrestrial planets is very plausible [e.g. 6-8]. References [1] Pack et al. (2004) Science 303, 997-1000. [2] Crozaz and Lundberg (1995) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59, 3817-3831. [3] Gannoun et al. (2011) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 3269-3289. [4] Bouhifd et al. (2015) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 413, 158-166. [5] Wohlers and Wood (2015) Nature 520, 337-340. [6] Marty (2012) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 313-314, 56-66. [7] Morbidelli et al. (2000) Meteor. Planet. Sci. 1320, 1309-1320. [8] Sarafian et al. (2014 Science 346, 623-626.

  15. Orthostatic Responses to Anticholinesterase Inhibition in Persons with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Wecht, Jill M.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Azarelo, Frank; Bauman, William A.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (Ach) is the pre-synaptic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system. Increased pre-synaptic Ach may augment post-synaptic release of norepinephrine thereby increasing systemic blood pressure (BP). The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the hemodynamic effect of pyridostigmine bromide (PYRIDO: 60 mg), an Ach inhibitor (AchI), compared to no-drug (NO-D) during head-up tilt (HUT) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondarily we aimed to determine the effects of PYRIDO compared to NO-D on symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) and adverse event reporting (AE). Ten individuals with SCI (C4–C7) were studied on 2 occasions: visit 1) NO-D and visit 2) PYRIDO. On each visit subjects underwent a progressive HUT maneuver to 15°, 25°, 35° for 5 minutes at each angle and 45 minutes at 45°. Supine and orthostatic heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP & DBP) were monitored and symptoms of OI and AE recorded. Supine hemodynamics did not differ between the trials. The significant fall in SBP during the NO-D trial was diminished with PYRIDO and five subjects had an increased DBP during HUT with PYRIDO compared to the NO-D trial. Individuals that responded to PYRIDO with an increase in orthostatic BP had significantly lower resting HR than non-responders (p<0.01), which suggests increased levels of pre-synaptic Ach. Subjective symptoms of OI and AE reporting did not differ between the two trials. These preliminary data suggest that PYRIDO is safe and may be effective at ameliorating the orthostatic fall in BP in select individuals with SCI. PMID:25916633

  16. Psychological defense mechanisms among individuals with SCI with adjustment disorder.

    PubMed

    Yazdanshenas Ghazwin, Manijeh; Tavakoli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Latifi, Sahar; Saberi, Hooshang; Derakhshanrad, Nazi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Sadeghi, Majid; Emami Razavi, Seyed-Hassan; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Ghodsi, Seyed-Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    The used psychological defense styles among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) with adjustment disorders (AJD) have not yet been described. In the present investigation, the prevalence of AJD among people with SCI has been estimated and the pattern of used defense styles has been identified. Cross-sectional investigation. A tertiary rehabilitation center in Iran. Individuals referred to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center were invited to participate in a screening interview. AJD was diagnosed based on DSM-V criteria. Those with AJD diagnosis were scheduled for another interview to assess defense mechanisms. Demographic and injury-related variables were recorded. Defense mechanisms were assessed by the 40-item version of the Defense-Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). Among 114 participants, 32 (28%) were diagnosed with AJD among whom 23 subjects attended the second interview. Mean age and time since injury were 29.57 ± 9.29 years and 11.70 ± 6.34 months, respectively. The majority of patients were using idealization defense mechanism (91.3%). In the second and third place, passive aggression (87.0%) and somatization (82.6%) defense mechanisms were observed, respectively. Neurotic style was dominantly used (11.52 ± 2.26). Sex, marital status, educational level, cause of the injury and injury level were not related to defense style (P: 0.38, 0.69, 0.88, 0.73, and P: 0.32, respectively). Prevalence of AJD is estimated to be 28% among individuals with SCI. The most prevalent defense style was neurotic and the dominant used defense mechanism was "idealization." The role of demographic and injury-related variables in determining the used defense mechanisms was insignificant.

  17. Circadian clock component REV-ERBα controls homeostatic regulation of pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pariollaud, Marie; Gibbs, Julie E; Hopwood, Thomas W; Brown, Sheila; Begley, Nicola; Vonslow, Ryan; Poolman, Toryn; Guo, Baoqiang; Saer, Ben; Jones, D Heulyn; Tellam, James P; Bresciani, Stefano; Tomkinson, Nicholas Co; Wojno-Picon, Justyna; Cooper, Anthony Wj; Daniels, Dion A; Trump, Ryan P; Grant, Daniel; Zuercher, William; Willson, Timothy M; MacDonald, Andrew S; Bolognese, Brian; Podolin, Patricia L; Sanchez, Yolanda; Loudon, Andrew Si; Ray, David W

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies reveal that airway epithelial cells are critical pulmonary circadian pacemaker cells, mediating rhythmic inflammatory responses. Using mouse models, we now identify the rhythmic circadian repressor REV-ERBα as essential to the mechanism coupling the pulmonary clock to innate immunity, involving both myeloid and bronchial epithelial cells in temporal gating and determining amplitude of response to inhaled endotoxin. Dual mutation of REV-ERBα and its paralog REV-ERBβ in bronchial epithelia further augmented inflammatory responses and chemokine activation, but also initiated a basal inflammatory state, revealing a critical homeostatic role for REV-ERB proteins in the suppression of the endogenous proinflammatory mechanism in unchallenged cells. However, REV-ERBα plays the dominant role, as deletion of REV-ERBβ alone had no impact on inflammatory responses. In turn, inflammatory challenges cause striking changes in stability and degradation of REV-ERBα protein, driven by SUMOylation and ubiquitination. We developed a novel selective oxazole-based inverse agonist of REV-ERB, which protects REV-ERBα protein from degradation, and used this to reveal how proinflammatory cytokines trigger rapid degradation of REV-ERBα in the elaboration of an inflammatory response. Thus, dynamic changes in stability of REV-ERBα protein couple the core clock to innate immunity.

  18. Circulating sclerostin is elevated in short-term and reduced in long-term SCI

    PubMed Central

    Battaglino, Ricardo A.; Sudhakar, Supreetha; Lazzari, Antonio; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes profound bone loss due to muscle paralysis resulting in the inability to walk. Sclerostin, a Wnt signaling pathway antagonist produced by osteocytes, is a potent inhibitor of bone formation. Short-term studies in rodent models have demonstrated increased sclerostin in response to mechanical unloading that is reversed with reloading. Although sclerostin inhibition has been proposed as a potential therapy for bone loss, it is not known if sclerostin levels vary with duration of SCI in humans. We analyzed circulating sclerostin in 155 men with varying degrees of SCI who were 1 year or more post-injury. We report that sclerostin levels are greatest in subjects with short-term SCI (≤ 5 years post-injury) and decrease significantly over the first 5 years post-injury. There was no association between sclerostin and injury duration in subjects with long-term SCI (> 5 years post-injury). In subjects with long-term SCI, sclerostin levels were positively associated with lower extremity bone density and bone mineral content. These data suggest that sclerostin levels in SCI are initially increased after SCI in response to mechanical unloading. This response is time-limited and as bone loss progresses, circulating sclerostin is lowest in subjects with severe osteoporosis. These findings support a dual role for sclerostin after SCI: a therapeutic target in acute SCI, and a biomarker of osteoporosis severity in chronic SCI. PMID:22575440

  19. Psychometric evaluation of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI.

    PubMed

    Soler, M D; Cruz-Almeida, Y; Saurí, J; Widerström-Noga, E G

    2013-07-01

    Postal surveys. To confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI (MPI-SCI-S, Multidimensional Pain Inventory in the SCI population) and to test its internal consistency and construct validity in a Spanish population. Guttmann Institute, Barcelona, Spain. The MPI-SCI-S along with Spanish measures of pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory), functional independence (Functional Independence Measure), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), locus of control (Multidimensional health Locus of Control), support (Functional Social Support Questionnaire (Duke-UNC)), psychological well-being (Psychological Global Well-Being Index) and demographic/injury characteristics were assessed in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and chronic pain (n=126). Confirmatory factor analysis suggested an adequate factor structure for the MPI-SCI-S. The internal consistency of the MPI-SCI-S subscales ranged from acceptable (r=0.66, Life Control) to excellent (r=0.94, Life Interference). All MPI-SCI-S subscales showed adequate construct validity, with the exception of the Negative and Solicitous Responses subscales. The Spanish version of the MPI-SCI is adequate for evaluating chronic pain impact following SCI in a Spanish-speaking population. Future studies should include additional measures of pain-related support in the Spanish-speaking SCI population.

  20. Sensitivity of the SCI-FI/AT in Individuals With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Tamra; Slavin, Mary; Kisala, Pamela; Ni, Pengsheng; Heinemann, Allen W; Charlifue, Susan; Fyffe, Denise C; Marino, Ralph J; Morse, Leslie R; Worobey, Lynn A; Tate, Denise; Rosenblum, David; Zafonte, Ross; Tulsky, David; Jette, Alan M

    2018-03-31

    To examine the ability of the Spinal Cord Injury-Functional Index/Assistive Technology (SCI-FI/AT) measure to detect change in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Multisite longitudinal (12-mo follow-up) study. Nine SCI Model Systems programs. Adults (N=165) with SCI enrolled in the SCI Model Systems database. Not applicable. SCI-FI/AT computerized adaptive test (CAT) (Basic Mobility, Self-Care, Fine Motor Function, Wheelchair Mobility, and/or Ambulation domains) completed at discharge from rehabilitation and 12 months after SCI. For each domain, effect size estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for subgroups with paraplegia and tetraplegia. The demographic characteristics of the sample were as follows: 46% (n=76) individuals with paraplegia, 76% (n=125) male participants, 57% (n=94) used a manual wheelchair, 38% (n=63) used a power wheelchair, 30% (n=50) were ambulatory. For individuals with paraplegia, the Basic Mobility, Self-Care, and Ambulation domains of the SCI-FI/AT detected a significantly large amount of change; in contrast, the Fine Motor Function and Wheelchair Mobility domains detected only a small amount of change. For those with tetraplegia, the Basic Mobility, Fine Motor Function, and Self-Care domains detected a small amount of change whereas the Ambulation item domain detected a medium amount of change. The Wheelchair Mobility domain for people with tetraplegia was the only SCI-FI/AT domain that did not detect significant change. SCI-FI/AT CAT item banks detected an increase in function from discharge to 12 months after SCI. The effect size estimates for the SCI-FI/AT CAT vary by domain and level of lesion. Findings support the use of the SCI-FI/AT CAT in the population with SCI and highlight the importance of multidimensional functional measures. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  2. A Model of Volcanic Outgassing for Earth's Early Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaliwal, J. K.; Kasting, J. F.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We build on historical paradigms of volcanic degassing [1] to account for non-linear relations among C-O-H-S volatiles, their speciation, solubility and concentrations in magmatic melts, and the resulting contribution to atmospheric volatile inventories. We focus on the build-up of greenhouse-relevant carbon species (CO2 and CH4) and molecular oxygen to better understand the environments of early life and the Great Oxygenation Event [2,3,4]. The mantle is an important reservoir of C-O-H-S volatiles [5], and melt concentrations depend on temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. We present a preliminary chemical model that simulates volatile concentrations released into the Earth's atmosphere at 1 bar, or pressures corresponding to the early Earth prior to 2.4 Ga. We maintain redox balance in the system using H+ [2, 6] because the melt oxidation state evolves with volatile melt concentrations [7] and affects the composition of degassed compounds. For example, low fO2 in the melt degasses CO, CH4, H2S and H2 while high fO2 yields CO2, SO2 and H2O [1,8,9]. Our calculations incorporate empirical relations from experimental petrology studies [e.g., 10, 11] to account for inter-dependencies among volatile element solubility trends. This model has implications for exploring planetary atmospheric evolution and potential greenhouse effects on Venus and Mars [12]­, and possibly exoplanets. A future direction of this work would be to link this chemical degassing model with different tectonic regimes [13] to account for degassing and ingassing, such as during subduction. References: [1] Holland, H. D. (1984) The chemical evolution of the atmosphere and oceans [2] Kasting, J. F. (2013) Chem. Geo. 362, 13-25 [3] Kasting, J.F. (1993) Sci. 259, 920-926 [4] Duncan, M.S. & Dasgupta, R. (2017) Nat. Geoscience 10, 387-392. [5] Hier-Majumder, S. & Hirschmann, M.M. (2017) G3, doi: 10.1002/2017GC006937 [6] Gaillard, F. et al. (2003) GCA 67, 2427- 2441 [7] Moussalam, Y. et al. (2014

  3. The Nuclear Receptor Rev-erbα Controls Circadian Thermogenic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Everett, Logan J.; Loro, Emanuele; Briggs, Erika R.; Bugge, Anne; Hou, Catherine; Ferrara, Christine; Seale, Patrick; Pryma, Daniel A.; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2013-01-01

    Circadian oscillation of body temperature is a basic, evolutionary-conserved feature of mammalian biology1. Additionally, homeostatic pathways allow organisms to protect their core temperatures in response to cold exposure2. However, the mechanism responsible for coordinating daily body temperature rhythm and adaptability to environmental challenges is unknown. Here we show that the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα, a powerful transcriptional repressor, links circadian and thermogenic networks through the regulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mice exposed to cold fare dramatically better at 5 AM (Zeitgeber time 22) when Rev-erbα is barely expressed than at 5 PM (ZT10) when Rev-erbα is abundant. Deletion of Rev-erbα markedly improves cold tolerance at 5 PM, indicating that overcoming Rev-erbα-dependent repression is a fundamental feature of the thermogenic response to cold. Physiological induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) by cold temperatures is preceded by rapid down-regulation of Rev-erbα in BAT. Rev-erbα represses UCP1 in a brown adipose cell-autonomous manner and BAT UCP1 levels are high in Rev-erbα-null mice even at thermoneutrality. Genetic loss of Rev-erbα also abolishes normal rhythms of body temperature and BAT activity. Thus, Rev-erbα acts as a thermogenic focal point required for establishing and maintaining body temperature rhythm in a manner that is adaptable to environmental demands. PMID:24162845

  4. Human REV3 DNA Polymerase Zeta Localizes to Mitochondria and Protects the Mitochondrial Genome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupendra; Li, Xiurong; Owens, Kjerstin M; Vanniarajan, Ayyasamy; Liang, Ping; Singh, Keshav K

    2015-01-01

    To date, mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) is the only polymerase known to be present in mammalian mitochondria. A dogma in the mitochondria field is that there is no other polymerase present in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate localization of REV3 DNA polymerase in the mammalian mitochondria. We demonstrate localization of REV3 in the mitochondria of mammalian tissue as well as cell lines. REV3 associates with POLG and mitochondrial DNA and protects the mitochondrial genome from DNA damage. Inactivation of Rev3 leads to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced OXPHOS activity, and increased glucose consumption. Conversely, inhibition of the OXPHOS increases expression of Rev3. Rev3 expression is increased in human primary breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Inactivation of Rev3 decreases cell migration and invasion, and localization of Rev3 in mitochondria increases survival and the invasive potential of cancer cells. Taken together, we demonstrate that REV3 functions in mammalian mitochondria and that mitochondrial REV3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cells.

  5. Circulating sclerostin is elevated in short-term and reduced in long-term SCI.

    PubMed

    Battaglino, Ricardo A; Sudhakar, Supreetha; Lazzari, Antonio A; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R

    2012-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes profound bone loss due to muscle paralysis resulting in the inability to walk. Sclerostin, a Wnt signaling pathway antagonist produced by osteocytes, is a potent inhibitor of bone formation. Short-term studies in rodent models have demonstrated increased sclerostin in response to mechanical unloading that is reversed with reloading. Although sclerostin inhibition has been proposed as a potential therapy for bone loss, it is not known if sclerostin levels vary with duration of SCI in humans. We analyzed circulating sclerostin in 155 men with varying degrees of SCI who were 1 year or more post-injury. We report that sclerostin levels are greatest in subjects with short-term SCI (≤5 years post-injury) and decrease significantly over the first 5 years post-injury. There was no association between sclerostin and injury duration in subjects with long-term SCI (>5 years post-injury). In subjects with long-term SCI, sclerostin levels were positively associated with lower extremity bone density and bone mineral content. These data suggest that sclerostin levels are initially increased after SCI in response to mechanical unloading. This response is time-limited and as bone loss progresses, circulating sclerostin is lowest in subjects with severe osteoporosis. These findings support a dual role for sclerostin after SCI: a therapeutic target in acute SCI, and a biomarker of osteoporosis severity in chronic SCI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Overview of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Tate, Denise G.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susan; Kirshblum, Steve C.; Fyffe, Denise; Gershon, Richard; Spungen, Ann M.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Z. Kalpakjian, Claire; W. Choi, Seung; Jette, Alan M.; Forchheimer, Martin; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Context/Objective The Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system was developed to address the shortage of relevant and psychometrically sound patient reported outcome (PRO) measures available for clinical care and research in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Using a computer adaptive testing (CAT) approach, the SCI-QOL builds on the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) initiative. This initial manuscript introduces the background and development of the SCI-QOL measurement system. Greater detail is presented in the additional manuscripts of this special issue. Design Classical and contemporary test development methodologies were employed. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with SCI and clinicians through interviews, focus groups, and cognitive debriefing. Item pools were field tested in a multi-site sample (n = 877) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Initial reliability and validity testing was performed in a new sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 245). Setting Five Model SCI System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center across the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Interventions n/a Outcome Measures n/a Results The SCI-QOL consists of 19 item banks, including the SCI-Functional Index banks, and 3 fixed-length scales measuring physical, emotional, and social aspects of health-related QOL (HRQOL). Conclusion The SCI-QOL measurement system consists of psychometrically sound measures for individuals with SCI. The manuscripts in this special issue provide evidence of the reliability and initial validity of this measurement system. The SCI-QOL also links to other measures designed for a general medical population. PMID:26010962

  7. Overview of the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Victorson, David; Tate, Denise G; Heinemann, Allen W; Charlifue, Susan; Kirshblum, Steve C; Fyffe, Denise; Gershon, Richard; Spungen, Ann M; Bombardier, Charles H; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Choi, Seung W; Jette, Alan M; Forchheimer, Martin; Cella, David

    2015-05-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system was developed to address the shortage of relevant and psychometrically sound patient reported outcome (PRO) measures available for clinical care and research in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Using a computer adaptive testing (CAT) approach, the SCI-QOL builds on the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) initiative. This initial manuscript introduces the background and development of the SCI-QOL measurement system. Greater detail is presented in the additional manuscripts of this special issue. Classical and contemporary test development methodologies were employed. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with SCI and clinicians through interviews, focus groups, and cognitive debriefing. Item pools were field tested in a multi-site sample (n=877) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Initial reliability and validity testing was performed in a new sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n=245). Five Model SCI System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center across the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. n/a n/a The SCI-QOL consists of 19 item banks, including the SCI-Functional Index banks, and 3 fixed-length scales measuring physical, emotional, and social aspects of health-related QOL (HRQOL). The SCI-QOL measurement system consists of psychometrically sound measures for individuals with SCI. The manuscripts in this special issue provide evidence of the reliability and initial validity of this measurement system. The SCI-QOL also links to other measures designed for a general medical population.

  8. The impact of SciDAC on US climate change research and the IPCCAR4

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, Michael

    2005-07-08

    SciDAC has invested heavily in climate change research. We offer a candid opinion as to the impact of the DOE laboratories' SciDAC projects on the upcoming Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. As a result of the direct importance of climate change to society, climate change research is highly coordinated at the international level. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is charged with providing regular reports on the state of climate change research to government policymakers. These reports are the product of thousands of scientists efforts. A series of reviews involving both scientists and policymakersmore » make them among the most reviewed documents produced in any scientific field. The high profile of these reports acts a driver to many researchers in the climate sciences. The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) is scheduled to be released in 2007. SciDAC sponsored research has enabled the United States climate modeling community to make significant contributions to this report. Two large multi-Laboratory SciDAC projects are directly relevant to the activities of the IPCC. The first, entitled ''Collaborative Design and Development of the Community Climate System Model for Terascale Computers'', has made important software contributions to the recently released third version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3.0) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. This is a multi-institutional project involving Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The original principal investigators were Robert Malone and John B. Drake. The current principal investigators are Phil Jones and John B. Drake. The second project, entitled ''Earth System Grid II: Turning Climate Datasets into

  9. Structural Basis for the Interaction of Mutasome Assembly Factor REV1 with Ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Cui, Gaofeng; Botuyan, Maria Victoria; Mer, Georges

    2018-05-18

    REV1 is an evolutionarily conserved translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerase and an assembly factor key for the recruitment of other TLS polymerases to DNA damage sites. REV1-mediated recognition of ubiquitin in the proliferative cell nuclear antigen is thought to be the trigger for TLS activation. Here we report the solution NMR structure of a 108-residue fragment of human REV1 encompassing the two putative ubiquitin-binding motifs UBM1 and UBM2 in complex with ubiquitin. While in mammals UBM1 and UBM2 are both required for optimal association of REV1 with replication factories after DNA damage, we show that only REV1 UBM2 binds ubiquitin. Structure-guided mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae further highlights the importance of UBM2 for REV1-mediated mutagenesis and DNA damage tolerance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of the SciBar cosmic ray telescope (SciCRT) toward the detection of high-energy solar neutrons in solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Yoshinori; Nagai, Yuya; Itow, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Yutaka; Sako, Takashi; Lopez, Diego; Itow, Tsukasa; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kozai, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Shibata, Shoichi; Oshima, Akitoshi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Watanabe, Kyoko; Koi, Tatsumi; Valdés-Galicia, Jose Francisco; González, Luis Xavier; Ortiz, Ernesto; Musalem, Octavio; Hurtado, Alejandro; Garcia, Rocio; Anzorena, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    We plan to observe solar neutrons at Mt. Sierra Negra (4,600 m above sea level) in Mexico using the SciBar detector. This project is named the SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT). The main aims of the SciCRT project are to observe solar neutrons to study the mechanism of ion acceleration on the surface of the sun and to monitor the anisotropy of galactic cosmic-ray muons. The SciBar detector, a fully active tracker, is composed of 14,848 scintillator bars, whose dimension is 300 cm × 2.5 cm × 1.3 cm. The structure of the detector enables us to obtain the particle trajectory and its total deposited energy. This information is useful for the energy reconstruction of primary neutrons and particle identification. The total volume of the detector is 3.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.7 m. Since this volume is much larger than the solar neutron telescope (SNT) in Mexico, the detection efficiency of the SciCRT for neutrons is highly enhanced. We performed the calibration of the SciCRT at Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) located at 2,150 m above sea level in Mexico in 2012. We installed the SciCRT at Mt. Sierra Negra in April 2013 and calibrated this detector in May and August 2013. We started continuous observation in March 2014. In this paper, we report the detector performance as a solar neutron telescope and the current status of the SciCRT.

  11. Clinical interpretation of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index (SCI-FI).

    PubMed

    Fyffe, Denise; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Slavin, Mary; Kisala, Pamela; Ni, Pengsheng; Kirshblum, Steven C; Tulsky, David S; Jette, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    To provide validation of functional ability levels for the Spinal Cord Injury - Functional Index (SCI-FI). Cross-sectional. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital and community settings. A sample of 855 individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury enrolled in 6 rehabilitation centers participating in the National Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems Network. Not Applicable. Spinal Cord Injury-Functional Index (SCI-FI). Cluster analyses identified three distinct groups that represent low, mid-range and high SCI-FI functional ability levels. Comparison of clusters on personal and other injury characteristics suggested some significant differences between groups. These results strongly support the use of SCI-FI functional ability levels to document the perceived functional abilities of persons with SCI. Results of the cluster analysis suggest that the SCI-FI functional ability levels capture function by injury characteristics. Clinical implications regarding tracking functional activity trajectories during follow-up visits are discussed.

  12. Measurement of Bone: Diagnosis of SCI-Induced Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Leslie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a rapid loss of bone mass, resulting in severe osteoporosis and a 5- to 23-fold increase in fracture risk. Despite the seriousness of fractures in SCI, there are multiple barriers to osteoporosis diagnosis and wide variations in treatment practices for SCI-induced osteoporosis. Methods: We review the biological and structural changes that are known to occur in bone after SCI in the context of promoting future research to prevent or reduce risk of fracture in this population. We also review the most commonly used methods for assessing bone after SCI and discuss the strengths, limitations, and clinical applications of each method. Conclusions: Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of bone mineral density may be used clinically to detect changes in bone after SCI, 3-dimensional methods such as quantitative CT analysis are recommended for research applications and are explained in detail. PMID:26689691

  13. Measurement of Bone: Diagnosis of SCI-Induced Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk Prediction.

    PubMed

    Troy, Karen L; Morse, Leslie R

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a rapid loss of bone mass, resulting in severe osteoporosis and a 5- to 23-fold increase in fracture risk. Despite the seriousness of fractures in SCI, there are multiple barriers to osteoporosis diagnosis and wide variations in treatment practices for SCI-induced osteoporosis. We review the biological and structural changes that are known to occur in bone after SCI in the context of promoting future research to prevent or reduce risk of fracture in this population. We also review the most commonly used methods for assessing bone after SCI and discuss the strengths, limitations, and clinical applications of each method. Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of bone mineral density may be used clinically to detect changes in bone after SCI, 3-dimensional methods such as quantitative CT analysis are recommended for research applications and are explained in detail.

  14. eSciMart: Web Platform for Scientific Software Marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, A. P.; Demichev, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we suggest a design of a web marketplace where users of scientific application software and databases, presented in the form of web services, as well as their providers will have presence simultaneously. The model, which will be the basis for the web marketplace is close to the customer-to-customer (C2C) model, which has been successfully used, for example, on the auction sites such as eBay (ebay.com). Unlike the classical model of C2C the suggested marketplace focuses on application software in the form of web services, and standardization of API through which application software will be integrated into the web marketplace. A prototype of such a platform, entitled eSciMart, is currently being developed at SINP MSU.

  15. Contributions to the NUCLEI SciDAC-3 Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Scott; Nazarewicz, Witek

    This is the Final Report for Michigan State University for the NUCLEI SciDAC-3 project. The NUCLEI project, as defined by the scope of work, has developed, implemented and run codes for large-scale computations of many topics in low-energy nuclear physics. Physics studied included the properties of nuclei and nuclear decays, nuclear structure and reactions, and the properties of nuclear matter. The computational techniques used included Configuration Interaction, Coupled Cluster, and Density Functional methods. The research program emphasized areas of high interest to current and possible future DOE nuclear physics facilities, including ATLAS at ANL and FRIB at MSU (nuclear structuremore » and reactions, and nuclear astrophysics), TJNAF (neutron distributions in nuclei, few body systems, and electroweak processes), NIF (thermonuclear reactions), MAJORANA and FNPB (neutrinoless double-beta decay and physics beyond the Standard Model), and LANSCE (fission studies).« less

  16. Low Temperature Power Coating (LTPC) Phase 2 Laboratory Test Plan and Procedures for PACAF (Rev D)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-03-20

    Δa*, LTPC Phase II Laboratory Test Plan and Procedures Rev D (CDRL A004) BATTELLE | 20 March 2018 | 6 Δb* and ΔE will be calculated post ...BATTELLE | CONTRACT NUMBER: FA8532-17-C-0008 (CDRL A004) LTPC Phase II Laboratory Test Plan and Procedures (Rev D) Prepared by... Test Plan and Procedures Rev D (CDRL A004) BATTELLE | 20 March 2018 | i List of Acronyms AGE Aircraft Ground Equipment ASTM American

  17. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0387 TITLE: Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI... Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0387 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen Sprigle, PhD...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Pressure ulcers (PU) are the most costly secondary complication following an SCI. In addition to the

  18. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen Sprigle, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Georgia Tech Research...Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0387 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Pressure ulcers (PU) are the most costly secondary complication following an SCI. In addition to the medical costs

  19. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  20. The translesion polymerase Rev3L in the tolerance of alkylating anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Roos, Wynand Paul; Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; Tsaryk, Roman; Güvercin, Fatma; de Wind, Niels; Kaina, Bernd

    2009-10-01

    Temozolomide and fotemustine, representing methylating and chloroethylating agents, respectively, are used in the treatment of glioma and malignant melanoma. Because chemoresistance of these tumors is a common phenomenon, identification of the underlying mechanisms is needed. Here we show that Rev3L, the catalytic subunit of the translesion DNA polymerase zeta, mediates resistance to both temozolomide and fotemustine. Rev3L knockout cells are hypersensitive to both agents. It is remarkable that cells heterozygous for Rev3L showed an intermediate sensitivity. Rev3L is not involved in the tolerance of the toxic O6-methylguanine lesion. However, a possible role of Rev3L in the tolerance of O6-chloroethylguanine or the subsequently formed N1-guanine-N3-cytosine interstrand cross-link is shown. Rev3L had no influence on base excision repair (BER) of the N-alkylation lesions but is very likely to be involved in the tolerance of N-alkylations or apurinic/apyrimidinic sites originating from them. We also show that Rev3L exerts its protective effect in replicating cells and that loss of Rev3L leads to a significant increase in DNA double-strand breaks after temozolomide and fotemustine treatment. These data show that Rev3L contributes to temozolomide and fotemustine resistance, thus acting in concert with O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, BER, mismatch repair, and double-strand break repair in defense against simple alkylating anticancer drugs.

  1. ScienceDirect through SciVerse: a new way to approach Elsevier.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Jason

    2011-01-01

    SciVerse is the new combined portal from Elsevier that services their ScienceDirect collection, SciTopics, and their Scopus database. Using SciVerse to access ScienceDirect is the specific focus of this review. Along with advanced keyword searching and citation searching options, SciVerse also incorporates a very useful image search feature. The aim seems to be not only to create an interface that provides broad functionality on par with other database search tools that many searchers use regularly but also to create an open platform that could be changed to respond effectively to the needs of customers.

  2. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Choi, Seung W.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a self-reported measure of the subjective impact of pressure ulcers on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) as part of the SCI quality of life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration testing, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item response theory-based psychometric analysis. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale. Results 189 individuals with traumatic SCI who experienced a pressure ulcer within the past 7 days completed 30 items related to pressure ulcers. CFA confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. IRT analyses were conducted. A constrained Graded Response Model with a constant slope parameter was used to estimate item thresholds for the 12 retained items. Conclusions The 12-item SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale is unique in that it is specifically targeted to individuals with spinal cord injury and at every stage of development has included input from individuals with SCI. Furthermore, use of CFA and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The scale may be administered in its entirety or as a 7-item “short form” and is available for both research and clinical practice. PMID:26010965

  3. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale and short form.

    PubMed

    Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S; Choi, Seung W; Kirshblum, Steven C

    2015-05-01

    To develop a self-reported measure of the subjective impact of pressure ulcers on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) as part of the SCI quality of life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration testing, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item response theory-based psychometric analysis. Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale. 189 individuals with traumatic SCI who experienced a pressure ulcer within the past 7 days completed 30 items related to pressure ulcers. CFA confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. IRT analyses were conducted. A constrained Graded Response Model with a constant slope parameter was used to estimate item thresholds for the 12 retained items. The 12-item SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale is unique in that it is specifically targeted to individuals with spinal cord injury and at every stage of development has included input from individuals with SCI. Furthermore, use of CFA and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The scale may be administered in its entirety or as a 7-item "short form" and is available for both research and clinical practice.

  4. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: A New Age for Planetarium Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Huggins, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy education received a huge boost from the Space Program in the 1960's and early 1970's as evidenced by a large increase in school planetariums built nationwide at that time. But with the waning of manned explorations so also went the push for astronomy in the schools, and many school planetariums are underutilized or not used at all. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new Fulldome Curriculum that has been developed specifically for the Spitz SciDome digital planetarium powered by Starry Night. It is now possible to teach astronomical concepts in new and exciting ways and present topics that were extremely difficult to convey to lay audiences in the past. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is that, since it uses Starry Night as its astronomical engine, students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home using the PC or Mac version and then simply load them onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for the class on the dome. Additionally, the instructor can create artificial bodies to pose "What if” scenarios, for example, "What would the Moon look like if it didn't rotate synchronously?", or "What would the analemma look like if the Earth's orbit were circular and not an ellipse?" Topics covered in the series include The Moon, Seasons, Coordinate Systems, Roemer's Method of Measuring the Speed of Light, Analemmas in the Solar System, Precession, Mimas and the Cassini Division, Halley's Comet in 1910, Dog Days, Galactic Distributions of Celestial Bodies, Retrograde Paths of Mars, Mercury's Orbit and the Length of the Mercurian Day, Altitude of the North Celestial Pole, Why Polaris Appears Mostly Stationary, Circumpolar Contellations, Planet Definition, Scale of the Solar System, Stonehenge, The Changing Aspect of Saturn's Appearance and Scorpio's Claws.

  5. Methodology for the development and calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Gershon, Richard; Heinemann, Allen W.; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and conceptually grounded patient reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Individual interviews (n = 44) and focus groups (n = 65 individuals with SCI and n = 42 SCI clinicians) were used to select key domains for inclusion and to develop PRO items. Verbatim items from other cutting-edge measurement systems (i.e. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL) were included to facilitate linkage and cross-population comparison. Items were field tested in a large sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 877). Dimensionality was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Local item dependence and differential item functioning were assessed, and items were calibrated using the item response theory (IRT) graded response model. Finally, computer adaptive tests (CATs) and short forms were administered in a new sample (n = 245) to assess test-retest reliability and stability. Participants and Procedures A calibration sample of 877 individuals with traumatic SCI across five SCI Model Systems sites and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center completed SCI-QOL items in interview format. Results We developed 14 unidimensional calibrated item banks and 3 calibrated scales across physical, emotional, and social health domains. When combined with the five Spinal Cord Injury – Functional Index physical function banks, the final SCI-QOL system consists of 22 IRT-calibrated item banks/scales. Item banks may be administered as CATs or short forms. Scales may be administered in a fixed-length format only. Conclusions The SCI-QOL measurement system provides SCI researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive, relevant and psychometrically robust system for measurement of physical-medical, physical-functional, emotional, and social outcomes. All SCI-QOL instruments are freely available on Assessment CenterSM. PMID:26010963

  6. Methodology for the development and calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W; Gershon, Richard; Heinemann, Allen W; Cella, David

    2015-05-01

    To develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and conceptually grounded patient reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Individual interviews (n=44) and focus groups (n=65 individuals with SCI and n=42 SCI clinicians) were used to select key domains for inclusion and to develop PRO items. Verbatim items from other cutting-edge measurement systems (i.e. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL) were included to facilitate linkage and cross-population comparison. Items were field tested in a large sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n=877). Dimensionality was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Local item dependence and differential item functioning were assessed, and items were calibrated using the item response theory (IRT) graded response model. Finally, computer adaptive tests (CATs) and short forms were administered in a new sample (n=245) to assess test-retest reliability and stability. A calibration sample of 877 individuals with traumatic SCI across five SCI Model Systems sites and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center completed SCI-QOL items in interview format. We developed 14 unidimensional calibrated item banks and 3 calibrated scales across physical, emotional, and social health domains. When combined with the five Spinal Cord Injury--Functional Index physical function banks, the final SCI-QOL system consists of 22 IRT-calibrated item banks/scales. Item banks may be administered as CATs or short forms. Scales may be administered in a fixed-length format only. The SCI-QOL measurement system provides SCI researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive, relevant and psychometrically robust system for measurement of physical-medical, physical-functional, emotional, and social outcomes. All SCI-QOL instruments are freely available on Assessment CenterSM.

  7. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  8. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  9. NREL Fuels and Engines R&D Revs Up Vehicle Efficiency, Performance (Text

    Science.gov Websites

    Version) | News | NREL Fuels and Engines R&D Revs Up Vehicle Efficiency, Performance (Text Version) NREL Fuels and Engines R&D Revs Up Vehicle Efficiency, Performance (Text Version) NREL's combustion to the evolution of how fuels interact with engine and vehicle design. This is a text version of

  10. Biological Characterization of CVRM2-BAC, A Recombinant CV1988 Virus Containing an REV LTR Insertion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has been previously reported that avian retroviruses, i.e. avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticoloendotheliosis virus (REV), integrate in the Marek’s disease virus genome affecting MDV pathogenicity. RM-2 is an attenuated serotype 1 MDV virus generated by insertion of the REV LTR in the genome of...

  11. RevManHAL: towards automatic text generation in systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Torres Torres, Mercedes; Adams, Clive E

    2017-02-09

    Systematic reviews are a key part of healthcare evaluation. They involve important painstaking but repetitive work. A major producer of systematic reviews, the Cochrane Collaboration, employs Review Manager (RevMan) programme-a software which assists reviewers and produces XML-structured files. This paper describes an add-on programme (RevManHAL) which helps auto-generate the abstract, results and discussion sections of RevMan-generated reviews in multiple languages. The paper also describes future developments for RevManHAL. RevManHAL was created in Java using NetBeans by a programmer working full time for 2 months. The resulting open-source programme uses editable phrase banks to envelop text/numbers from within the prepared RevMan file in formatted readable text of a chosen language. In this way, considerable parts of the review's 'abstract', 'results' and 'discussion' sections are created and a phrase added to 'acknowledgements'. RevManHAL's output needs to be checked by reviewers, but already, from our experience within the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group (200 maintained reviews, 900 reviewers), RevManHAL has saved much time which is better employed thinking about the meaning of the data rather than restating them. Many more functions will become possible as review writing becomes increasingly automated.

  12. Molecular interaction between K-Ras and H-REV107 in the Ras signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang Woo; Jeong, Mi Suk; Jang, Se Bok

    2017-09-16

    Ras proteins are small GTPases that serve as master moderators of a large number of signaling pathways involved in various cellular processes. Activating mutations in Ras are found in about one-third of cancers. H-REV107, a K-Ras binding protein, plays an important role in determining K-Ras function. H-REV107 is a member of the HREV107 family of class II tumor suppressor genes and a growth inhibitory Ras target gene that suppresses cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Expression of H-REV107 was strongly reduced in about 50% of human carcinoma cell lines. However, the specific molecular mechanism by which H-REV107 inhibits Ras is still unknown. In the present study, we suggest that H-REV107 forms a strong complex with activating oncogenic mutation Q61H K-Ras from various biochemical binding assays and modeled structures. In addition, the interaction sites between K-Ras and H-REV107 were predicted based on homology modeling. Here, we found that some structure-based mutants of the K-Ras disrupted the complex formation with H-REV107. Finally, a novel molecular mechanism describing K-Ras and H-REV107 binding is suggested and insights into new K-Ras effector target drugs are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 19626 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc. AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant a partially exclusive license to SciTech Medical...

  14. Exploring Student and Supervisor Interaction during the SciPro Thesis Process: Two Use Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Preben; Hansson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Common problems identified by students during their interaction with supervisors are too little instructions as well as infrequent and insufficient supervisor feedback. The SciPro system has been developed to tackle these problems. This paper describes, analyzes and discusses the interaction between students and supervisors using the SciPro…

  15. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  16. What Makes Things Happen? Study Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  17. The Cross-Cultural Societal Response to SCI: Health and Related Systems.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Diana; Gross-Hemmi, Mirja H

    2017-02-01

    The Learning Health System for Spinal Cord Injury (LHS-SCI) is an initiative aligned with the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Disability Action Plan. Based on the outcomes of this initiative, countries will be able to shape their health systems to better respond to the needs of persons with SCI. This paper describes and compares the macroeconomic situation and societal response to SCI across 27 countries from all 6 WHO regions that will participate in the LHS-SCI initiative. A concurrent mixed-methods study was conducted to identify key indicators that describe the situation of persons with SCI, the general societal response, the health and rehabilitation system, and the experience for a SCI person after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. A strong correlation was found between the efficiency of a healthcare system and the amount a country invests in health. Higher availability of resources does not necessarily imply that unrestricted access to the healthcare system is warranted. Variations in the health systems were found for various domains of the health and rehabilitation systems. The evaluation and comparative analysis of the societal response to SCI raise the awareness of the need of more standardized data to identify current needs and gaps in the quality and access to SCI-specific health system.

  18. Close Encounters of the Best Kind: The Latest Sci-Fi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzel, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Not only is science fiction alive and well--it's flourishing. From the big screen (howdy, Wall-E) to the big books (like Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games, which has attracted loads of prepublication praise), 2008 has been a great year for sci-fi. Publishers have released truckloads of new sci-fi titles this year, but what's particularly…

  19. NetSciEd: Network Science and Education for the Interconnected World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayama, Hiroki; Cramer, Catherine; Sheetz, Lori; Uzzo, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    This short article presents a summary of the NetSciEd (Network Science and Education) initiative that aims to address the need for curricula, resources, accessible materials, and tools for introducing K-12 students and the general public to the concept of networks, a crucial framework in understanding complexity. NetSciEd activities include (1)…

  20. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  1. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  2. "Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Launch of a Major European Outreach Programme Seven of Europe's leading Research Organizations [1] launch joint outreach programme for the European Science and Technology Week at the Technopolis Museum in Brussels on 22 March. Their aim is to show Europeans how today's society couldn't be without fundamental research . Could you imagine life without mobile phones, cars, CD players, TV, refrigerators, computers, the internet and the World Wide Web, antibiotics, vitamins, anaesthetics, vaccination, heating, pampers, nylon stockings, glue, bar codes, metal detectors, contact lenses, modems, laser printers, digital cameras, gameboys, play stations...? Technology is everywhere and used by everyone in today's society, but how many Europeans suspect that without studies on the structure of the atom, lasers would not exist, and neither would CD players? Most do not realise that most things they couldn't be without have required years of fundamental research . To fill this knowledge gap, the leading Research Organizations in Europe [1], with the support of the research directorate of the European Commission, have joined forces to inform Europeans how technology couldn't be without science, and how science can no longer progress without technology. The project is called...... Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! invites Europeans to vote online in a survey to identify the top ten technologies they can't live without. It will show them through a dynamic and entertaining Web space where these top technologies really come from, and it will reveal their intimate links with research. Teaching kits will be developed to explain to students how their favourite gadgets actually work, and how a career in science can contribute to inventions that future generations couldn't be without. The results of the survey will be presented as a series of quiz shows live on the Internet during the Science Week, from 4 to 10 November. Sci-tech - Couldn't be without

  3. STARtorialist: Astronomy Outreach via Fashion, Sci-Fi, & Pop Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Ash, Summer

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical images in the public domain have increasingly been used as inspiration and patterns for clothing, accessories, and home decor. These 'AstroFashion' items are as diverse as DIY projects, handmade and boutique products, mass-produced commercial items, and haute couture. STARtorialist is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of these products with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the images. The blog also includes sci-fi, space, and science-related aspects of popular culture. Each post features images and descriptions of the products, and often where/how we found them and/or the people wearing them, with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. The popularity of each post is evident in the number of 'notes', including 'faves' (personal bookmarks) and 'reblogs' (shares with other users). Since launching the blog in December 2013, with an average of one post per day, we've attracted hundreds of followers on Tumblr and Twitter and thousands of notes on Tumblr. We will present our most popular posts and recommend how education, outreach, and press offices can add Tumblr to their social media repertoire.

  4. Data Container Study for Handling array-based data using Hive, Spark, MongoDB, SciDB and Rasdaman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Hu, F.; Yang, J.; Yu, M.; Yang, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience communities have come up with various big data storage solutions, such as Rasdaman and Hive, to address the grand challenges for massive Earth observation data management and processing. To examine the readiness of current solutions in supporting big Earth observation, we propose to investigate and compare four popular data container solutions, including Rasdaman, Hive, Spark, SciDB and MongoDB. Using different types of spatial and non-spatial queries, datasets stored in common scientific data formats (e.g., NetCDF and HDF), and two applications (i.e. dust storm simulation data mining and MERRA data analytics), we systematically compare and evaluate the feature and performance of these four data containers in terms of data discover and access. The computing resources (e.g. CPU, memory, hard drive, network) consumed while performing various queries and operations are monitored and recorded for the performance evaluation. The initial results show that 1) the popular data container clusters are able to handle large volume of data, but their performances vary in different situations. Meanwhile, there is a trade-off between data preprocessing, disk saving, query-time saving, and resource consuming. 2) ClimateSpark, MongoDB and SciDB perform the best among all the containers in all the queries tests, and Hive performs the worst. 3) These studied data containers can be applied on other array-based datasets, such as high resolution remote sensing data and model simulation data. 4) Rasdaman clustering configuration is more complex than the others. A comprehensive report will detail the experimental results, and compare their pros and cons regarding system performance, ease of use, accessibility, scalability, compatibility, and flexibility.

  5. RevBayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models and an Interactive Model-Specification Language

    PubMed Central

    Höhna, Sebastian; Landis, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive language called Rev. Rev is similar to the R language and the BUGS model-specification language, and should be easy to learn for most users. The strength of RevBayes is the simplicity with which one can design, specify, and implement new and complex models. Fortunately, this tremendous flexibility does not come at the cost of slower computation; as we demonstrate, RevBayes outperforms competing software for several standard analyses. Compared with other programs, RevBayes has fewer black-box elements. Users need to explicitly specify each part of the model and analysis. Although this explicitness may initially be unfamiliar, we are convinced that this transparency will improve understanding of phylogenetic models in our field. Moreover, it will motivate the search for improvements to existing methods by brazenly exposing the model choices that we make to critical scrutiny. RevBayes is freely available at http://www.RevBayes.com. [Bayesian inference; Graphical models; MCMC; statistical phylogenetics.] PMID:27235697

  6. The orphan receptor Rev-erbα gene is a target of the circadian clock pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Triqueneaux, Gérard; Thenot, Sandrine; Kakizawa, Tomoko; Antoch, Marina P; Safi, Rachid; Takahashi, Joseph S; Delaunay, Franck; Laudet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Rev-erbα is a ubiquitously expressed orphan nuclear receptor which functions as a constitutive transcriptional repressor and is expressed in vertebrates according to a robust circadian rhythm. We report here that two Rev-erbα mRNA isoforms, namely Rev-erbα1 and Rev-erbα2, are generated through alternative promoter usage and that both show a circadian expression pattern in an in vitro system using serum-shocked fibroblasts. Both promoter regions P1 (Rev-erbα1) and P2 (Rev-erbα2) contain several E-box DNA sequences, which function as response elements for the core circadian-clock components: CLOCK and BMAL1. The CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimer stimulates the activity of both P1 and P2 promoters in transient transfection assay by 3–6-fold. This activation was inhibited by the overexpression of CRY1, a component of the negative limb of the circadian transcriptional loop. Critical E-box elements were mapped within both promoters. This regulation is conserved in vertebrates since we found that the CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimer also regulates the zebrafish Rev-erbα gene. In line with these data Rev-erbα circadian expression was strongly impaired in the livers of Clock mutant mice and in the pineal glands of zebrafish embryos treated with Clock and Bmal1 antisense oligonucleotides. Together these data demonstrate that CLOCK is a critical regulator of Rev-erbα circadian gene expression in evolutionarily distant vertebrates and suggest a role for Rev-erbα in the circadian clock output. PMID:15591021

  7. RevBayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models and an Interactive Model-Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Höhna, Sebastian; Landis, Michael J; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Lartillot, Nicolas; Moore, Brian R; Huelsenbeck, John P; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-07-01

    Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive language called Rev. Rev is similar to the R language and the BUGS model-specification language, and should be easy to learn for most users. The strength of RevBayes is the simplicity with which one can design, specify, and implement new and complex models. Fortunately, this tremendous flexibility does not come at the cost of slower computation; as we demonstrate, RevBayes outperforms competing software for several standard analyses. Compared with other programs, RevBayes has fewer black-box elements. Users need to explicitly specify each part of the model and analysis. Although this explicitness may initially be unfamiliar, we are convinced that this transparency will improve understanding of phylogenetic models in our field. Moreover, it will motivate the search for improvements to existing methods by brazenly exposing the model choices that we make to critical scrutiny. RevBayes is freely available at http://www.RevBayes.com [Bayesian inference; Graphical models; MCMC; statistical phylogenetics.]. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  8. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Panelists pose for a group photo at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  9. Rev-erb beta regulates the Srebp-1c promoter and mRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Sathiya N.; Lau, Patrick; Crowther, Lisa M.

    2009-10-30

    The nuclear hormone receptor, Rev-erb beta operates as a transcriptional silencer. We previously demonstrated that exogenous expression of Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E in skeletal muscle cells increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. We validated these in vitro observations by injection of an expression vector driving Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E expression into mouse tibialis muscle that resulted in increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. Paradoxically, Rev-erb{beta} siRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells repressed Srebp-1c expression, and indicated that Rev-erb{beta} expression was necessary for Srebp-1c expression. ChIP analysis demonstrated that Rev-erb{beta} was recruited to the Srebp-1c promoter. Moreover, Rev-erb{beta} trans-activated the Srebp-1c promoter, in contrast, Rev-erb{beta} efficiently repressed the Rev-erb{alpha} promoter, amore » previously characterized target gene. Finally, treatment with the Rev-erb agonist (hemin) (i) increased the trans-activation of the Srebp-1c promoter by Rev-erb{beta}; and (ii) increased Rev-erb{beta} and Srebp-1c mRNA expression. These data suggest that Rev-erb{beta} has the potential to activate gene expression, and is a positive regulator of Srebp-1c, a regulator of lipogenesis.« less

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. On crewmember's Flickr page - Look straight down into an aurora.

  12. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-07

    ISS040-E-008174 (7 June 2014) --- Layers of Earth's atmosphere, brightly colored as the sun rises, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-02

    ISS040-E-006817 (2 June 2014) --- Intersecting the thin line of Earth's atmosphere, International Space Station solar array wings are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  14. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  15. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  19. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-10-24

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  1. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  2. RNA helicase MOV10 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev to facilitate Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export of viral mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Zhang, Yijun; Geng, Guannan; Liang, Juanran; Li, Yingniang; Chen, Jingliang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits multiple host factors during its replication. The REV/RRE-dependent nuclear export of unspliced/partially spliced viral transcripts needs the assistance of host proteins. Recent studies have shown that MOV10 overexpression inhibited HIV-1 replication at various steps. However, the endogenous MOV10 was required in certain step(s) of HIV-1 replication. In this report, we found that MOV10 potently enhances the nuclear export of viral mRNAs and subsequently increases the expression of Gag protein and other late products through affecting the Rev/RRE axis. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. The DEAG-box of MOV10 was required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export and the DEAG-box mutant showed a dominant-negative activity. Our data propose that HIV-1 utilizes the anti-viral factor MOV10 to function as a co-factor of Rev and demonstrate the complicated effects of MOV10 on HIV-1 life cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-16

    ISS024-E-006136 (16 June 2010) --- Polar mesospheric clouds, illuminated by an orbital sunrise, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric, or noctilucent (?night shining?), clouds are observed from both Earth?s surface and in orbit by crew members aboard the space station. They are called night-shining clouds as they are usually seen at twilight. Following the setting of the sun below the horizon and darkening of Earth?s surface, these high clouds are still briefly illuminated by sunlight. Occasionally the ISS orbital track becomes nearly parallel to Earth?s day/night terminator for a time, allowing polar mesospheric clouds to be visible to the crew at times other than the usual twilight due to the space station altitude. This unusual photograph shows polar mesospheric clouds illuminated by the rising, rather than setting, sun at center right. Low clouds on the horizon appear yellow and orange, while higher clouds and aerosols are illuminated a brilliant white. Polar mesospheric clouds appear as light blue ribbons extending across the top of the image. These clouds typically occur at high latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and at fairly high altitudes of 76?85 kilometers (near the boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere atmospheric layers). The ISS was located over the Greek island of Kos in the Aegean Sea (near the southwestern coastline of Turkey) when the image was taken at approximately midnight local time. The orbital complex was tracking northeastward, nearly parallel to the terminator, making it possible to observe an apparent ?sunrise? located almost due north. A similar unusual alignment of the ISS orbit track, terminator position, and seasonal position of Earth?s orbit around the sun allowed for striking imagery of polar mesospheric clouds over the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

  4. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  5. The Rise of Oxygen in the Earth's Atmosphere Controlled by the Efficient Subduction of Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, M. S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2017-12-01

    atmospheric oxygen observed in the Archean [4]. [1] Dasgupta (2013) Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75, 183-229. [2] Duncan and Dasgupta (2017) Nat. Geosci. 10, 387-392. [3] Galvez et al. (2013) Nat. Geosci. 6, 473-477. [4] Anbar et al. (2007) Sci. 317, 1903-1906.

  6. Length of stay and medical stability for spinal cord-injured patients on admission to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital: a comparison between a model SCI trauma center and non-SCI trauma center.

    PubMed

    Ploumis, A; Kolli, S; Patrick, M; Owens, M; Beris, A; Marino, R J

    2011-03-01

    Retrospective database review. To compare lengths of stay (LOS), pressure ulcers and readmissions to the acute care hospital of patients admitted to the inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) from a model spinal cord injury (SCI) trauma center or from a non-SCI acute hospital. Only sparse data exist comparing the status of patients admitted to IRF from a model SCI trauma center or from a non-SCI acute hospital. Acute care, IRF and total LOS were compared between patients transferred to IRF from the SCI center (n=78) and from non-SCI centers (n=131). The percentages of pressure ulcers on admission to IRF and transfer back to acute care were also compared. Patients admitted to IRF from the SCI trauma center (SCI TC) had significantly shorter (P=0.01) acute care LOS and total LOS compared with patients admitted from non-SCI TCs. By neurological category, acute-care LOS was less for all groups admitted from the SCI center, but statistically significant only for tetraplegia. There was no significant difference in the incidence of readmissions to acute care from IRF. More patients from non-SCI centers (34%) than SCI centers (12%) had pressure ulcers (P<0.001). Acute care in organized SCI TCs before transfer to IRF can significantly lower acute-care LOS or total LOS and incidence of pressure ulcers compared with non-SCI TCs. Patients admitted to IRF from SCI TCs are no more likely to be sent back to an acute hospital than those from non-SCI TCs.

  7. Tamavidin 2-REV: an engineered tamavidin with reversible biotin-binding capability.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Sofuku, Kozue; Tsunashima, Masako

    2013-03-10

    A biotin-binding protein with reversible biotin-binding capability is of great technical value in the affinity purification of biotinylated biomolecules. Although several proteins, chemically or genetically modified from avidin or streptavidin, with reversible biotin-binding have been reported, they have been problematic in one way or another. Tamavidin 2 is a fungal protein similar to avidin and streptavidin in biotin-binding. Here, a mutein, tamavidin 2-REV, was engineered from tamavidin 2 by replacing the serine at position 36 (S36) with alanine. S36 is thought to form a hydrogen bond with biotin in tamavidin 2/biotin complexes and two hydrogen bonds with V38 within the protein. Tamavidin 2-REV bound to biotin-agarose and was eluted with excess free biotin at a neutral pH. In addition, the model substrate biotinylated bovine serum albumin was efficiently purified from a crude extract from Escherichia coli by means of single-step affinity chromatography with tamavidin 2-REV-immobilized resin. Tamavidin 2-REV thus demonstrated reversible biotin-binding capability. The Kd value of tamavidin 2-REV to biotin was 2.8-4.4×10(-7)M.Tamavidin 2-REV retained other convenient characteristics of tamavidin 2, such as high-level expression in E. coli, resistance to proteases, and a neutral isoelectric point, demonstrating that tamavidin 2-REV is a powerful tool for the purification of biotinylated biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. HIV-1 Rev expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli: purification, polymerization, and conformational properties.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, P T; Stahl, S J; Payton, M A; Venkatesan, S; Misra, M; Steven, A C

    1991-07-30

    The high-level expression of HIV-1 Rev in Escherichia coli is described. Protein in crude bacterial extracts was dissociated from bound nucleic acid with urea. A simple purification and renaturation protocol, monitored by circular dichroism, is described which results in high yields of pure protein. The purified protein binds with high affinity to the Rev-responsive element mRNA and has nativelike spectroscopic properties. The protein exhibits concentration-dependent self-association as judged by analytical ultracentrifugation and gel filtration measurements. Purified Rev showed reversible heat-induced aggregation over the temperature range 0-30 degrees C. This hydrophobic-driven and nonspecific protein association was inhibited by low concentrations of sulfate ions. Rev solutions at greater than 80 micrograms/mL, incubated at 0-4 degrees C, slowly polymerized to form long hollow fibers of 20-nm diameter. Filament formation occurs at a lower protein concentration and more rapidly in the presence of Rev-responsive mRNA. The nucleic acid containing filaments are about 8 nm in diameter and up to 0.4 micron in length. On the basis of physical properties of the purified protein, we have suggested that in the nucleus of infected cells, Rev binding to the Rev-responsive region of env mRNA may be followed by helical polymerization of the protein which results in coating of the nucleic acid. Coated nucleic acid could be protected from splicing in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm.

  9. Detection of abnormal muscle activations during walking following spinal cord injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Low, K H; McGregor, Alison H; Tow, Adela

    2013-04-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI participants were given assistance from physiotherapists, if required, while they were walking. In agreement with other research, larger cadence and smaller step length and swing phase of SCI gait were observed as a result of muscle weakness and resultant gait instability. Muscle activation patterns of seven major leg muscles were collected. The EMG signal was processed by the RMS in frequency domain to represent the muscle activation power, and the distribution of muscle activation was compared between healthy and SCI participants. The alternations of muscle activation within the phases of the gait cycle are highlighted to facilitate our understanding of the underlying muscular activation following SCI. Key differences were observed (p-value=0.0006) in the reduced activation of tibialis anterior (TA) in single stance phase and rectus femoris (RF) in swing phase (p-value=0.0011). We can then conclude that the proposed assessment approach of gait provides valuable information that can be used to target and define therapeutic interventions and their evaluation; hence impacting the functional outcome of SCI individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ComSciCon: The Communicating Science Workshop for Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nathan; Drout, Maria; Kohler, Susanna; Cook, Ben; ComSciCon Leadership Team

    2018-01-01

    ComSciCon (comscicon.com) is a national workshop series organized by graduate students, for graduate students, focused on leadership and training in science communication. Our goal is to empower young scientists to become leaders in their field, propagating appreciation and understanding of research results to broad and diverse audiences. ComSciCon attendees meet and interact with professional communicators, build lasting networks with graduate students in all fields of science and engineering from around the country, and write and publish original works. ComSciCon consists of both a flagship national conference series run annually for future leaders in science communication, and a series of regional and specialized workshops organized by ComSciCon alumni nationwide. We routinely receive over 1000 applications for 50 spots in our national workshop. Since its founding in 2012, over 300 STEM graduate students have participated in the national workshop, and 23 local spin-off workshops have been organized in 10 different locations throughout the country. This year, ComSciCon is working to grow as a self-sustaining organization by launching as an independent 501(c)(3) non-profit. In this poster we will discuss the ComSciCon program and methods, our results to date, potential future collaborations between ComSciCon and AAS, and how you can become involved.

  11. Earth Processes: Reading the Isotopic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Asish; Hart, Stan

    Publication of this monograph will coincide, to a precision of a few per mil, with the centenary of Henri Becquerel's discovery of "radiations actives" (C. R. Acad. Sci., Feb. 24, 1896). In 1896 the Earth was only 40 million years old according to Lord Kelvin. Eleven years later, Boltwood had pushed the Earth's age past 2000 million years, based on the first U/Pb chemical dating results. In exciting progression came discovery of isotopes by J. J. Thomson in 1912, invention of the mass spectrometer by Dempster (1918) and Aston (1919), the first measurement of the isotopic composition of Pb (Aston, 1927) and the final approach, using Pb-Pb isotopic dating, to the correct age of the Earth: close—2.9 Ga (Gerling, 1942), closer—3.0 Ga (Holmes, 1949) and closest—4.50 Ga (Patterson, Tilton and Inghram, 1953).

  12. Can FES-rowing mediate bone mineral density in SCI: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, R S; McCarthy, I D; Gall, A; Stock, C G; Shippen, J; Andrews, B J

    2014-11-01

    A single case study. To compare proximal tibia trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) of a participant with complete spinal cord injury (SCI), long-termed functional electrical stimulation-rowing (FES-R) trained, with previously reported SCI and non-SCI group norms. To estimate lower limb joint contact forces (JCFs) in the FES-R trained participant. UK University and orthopaedic hospital research centre. Bilateral proximal tibial trabecular BMD of the FES-R trained participant was measured using peripheral quantitative computerised tomography, and the data were compared with SCI and non-SCI groups. An instrumented four-channel FES-R system was used to measure the lower limb JCFs in the FES-R trained participant. Structurally, proximal tibial trabecular BMD was higher in the FES-R trained participant compared with the SCI group, but was less than the non-SCI group. Furthermore, left (184.7 mg cm(-3)) and right (160.7 mg cm(-3)) BMD were well above the threshold associated with non-traumatic fracture. The knee JCFs were above the threshold known to mediate BMD in SCI, but below threshold at the hip and ankle. As pathological fractures predominate in the distal femur and proximal tibia in chronic SCI patients, the fact that the FES-R trained participant's knee JCFs were above those known to partially prevent bone loss, suggests that FES-R training may provide therapeutic benefit. Although the elevated bilateral proximal tibial BMD of the FES-R participant provides circumstantial evidence of osteogenesis, this single case precludes any statement on the clinical significance. Further investigations are required involving larger numbers and additional channels of FES to increase loading at the hip and ankle.

  13. Spinal Cord Injury Clinical Registries: Improving Care across the SCI Care Continuum by Identifying Knowledge Gaps.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Marcel F; Cheng, Christiana L; Fallah, Nader; Santos, Argelio; Atkins, Derek; Humphreys, Suzanne; Rivers, Carly S; White, Barry A B; Ho, Chester; Ahn, Henry; Kwon, Brian K; Christie, Sean; Noonan, Vanessa K

    2017-10-15

    Timely access and ongoing delivery of care and therapeutic interventions is needed to maximize recovery and function after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI). To ensure these decisions are evidence-based, access to consistent, reliable, and valid sources of clinical data is required. The Access to Care and Timing Model used data from the Rick Hansen SCI Registry (RHSCIR) to generate a simulation of healthcare delivery for persons after tSCI and to test scenarios aimed at improving outcomes and reducing the economic burden of SCI. Through model development, we identified knowledge gaps and challenges in the literature and current health outcomes data collection throughout the continuum of SCI care. The objectives of this article were to describe these gaps and to provide recommendations for bridging them. Accurate information on injury severity after tSCI was hindered by difficulties in conducting neurological assessments and classifications of SCI (e.g., timing), variations in reporting, and the lack of a validated SCI-specific measure of associated injuries. There was also limited availability of reliable data on patient factors such as multi-morbidity and patient-reported measures. Knowledge gaps related to structures (e.g., protocols) and processes (e.g., costs) at each phase of care have prevented comprehensive evaluation of system performance. Addressing these knowledge gaps will enhance comparative and cost-effectiveness evaluations to inform decision-making and standards of care. Recommendations to do so were: standardize data element collection and facilitate database linkages, validate and adopt more outcome measures for SCI, and increase opportunities for collaborations with stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury Clinical Registries: Improving Care across the SCI Care Continuum by Identifying Knowledge Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christiana L.; Fallah, Nader; Santos, Argelio; Atkins, Derek; Humphreys, Suzanne; Rivers, Carly S.; White, Barry A.B.; Ho, Chester; Ahn, Henry; Kwon, Brian K.; Christie, Sean; Noonan, Vanessa K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Timely access and ongoing delivery of care and therapeutic interventions is needed to maximize recovery and function after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI). To ensure these decisions are evidence-based, access to consistent, reliable, and valid sources of clinical data is required. The Access to Care and Timing Model used data from the Rick Hansen SCI Registry (RHSCIR) to generate a simulation of healthcare delivery for persons after tSCI and to test scenarios aimed at improving outcomes and reducing the economic burden of SCI. Through model development, we identified knowledge gaps and challenges in the literature and current health outcomes data collection throughout the continuum of SCI care. The objectives of this article were to describe these gaps and to provide recommendations for bridging them. Accurate information on injury severity after tSCI was hindered by difficulties in conducting neurological assessments and classifications of SCI (e.g., timing), variations in reporting, and the lack of a validated SCI-specific measure of associated injuries. There was also limited availability of reliable data on patient factors such as multi-morbidity and patient-reported measures. Knowledge gaps related to structures (e.g., protocols) and processes (e.g., costs) at each phase of care have prevented comprehensive evaluation of system performance. Addressing these knowledge gaps will enhance comparative and cost-effectiveness evaluations to inform decision-making and standards of care. Recommendations to do so were: standardize data element collection and facilitate database linkages, validate and adopt more outcome measures for SCI, and increase opportunities for collaborations with stakeholders from diverse backgrounds. PMID:28745934

  15. Comparative habitability of the Earth, Venus and Mars in the young solar system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.

    2008-09-01

    contrast, is chilly oxidised permafrost where kinetics alone would make life difficult. Venus has achieved sustainable equilibrium, where equilibrium, being the opposite of life, equals death. Geologically, how and why did this happen? Earth was not necessarily the Goldilocks planet, neither too warm not too cold. But it did have a degree of locally-accessible disequilibrium, to sustain early life. Life itself, especially the enzyme rubisco, that mediates carbon transfer from air to organism, then actively managed to rework the surface of Earth. From the moment life began, it remade its house to maintain habitability. Life, if ever present on Mars, may have simply died from lack of resources. Any life on Venus would have died of dehydration or by being cooked. However, terraforming may now be worth attempting on both planets: as on Earth it may be self-sustaining, even after the terraforming species becomes extinct. [1] Nisbet, E.G. Zahnle, K., Gersimov, M., Helbert, J., Jaumann, R., Hofmann, B., Benzerara, K, Westall, F., Spc. Sci. Rev. (2007), 129, 79-121.

  16. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  17. Astronomical Data Processing Using SciQL, an SQL Based Query Language for Array Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Scheers, B.; Kersten, M.; Ivanova, M.; Nes, N.

    2012-09-01

    SciQL (pronounced as ‘cycle’) is a novel SQL-based array query language for scientific applications with both tables and arrays as first class citizens. SciQL lowers the entrance fee of adopting relational DBMS (RDBMS) in scientific domains, because it includes functionality often only found in mathematics software packages. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of SciQL for astronomical data processing using examples from the Transient Key Project of the LOFAR radio telescope. In particular, how the LOFAR light-curve database of all detected sources can be constructed, by correlating sources across the spatial, frequency, time and polarisation domains.

  18. Novel Target for Ameliorating Pain and Other Problems after SCI: Spontaneous Activity in Nociceptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    pretest , post -SCI, and post -TRPV1 intervention). Mechanical hypersensitivity was tested with a single series of cal- ibrated von Frey filaments (Stoelting... test sequence ( pretest , post -SCI, postinjection) [F(2,17) = 11.37; P = 0.007] and drug treat- ment [F(1,11) = 10.70; P = 0.008], with latencies for...revealed a significant effect of the test sequence ( pretest , post -SCI, post -ODN) [F(2,18) = 22.78; P < 0.0001] and ODN treatment [F(1,9) = 11.03; P

  19. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Panelists discuss how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist, Planetary Science Institute, moderates a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  1. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    An audience member asks the panelists a question at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. a Study on the Document Information Service of the National Agricultural Library for Agricultural Sci-Tech Innovation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qian; Meng, Xianxue

    This paper presents the significant function of the Chinese National Agricultural Library (CNAL) in the agricultural sci-tech innovation system in China, analyses the development of collection and service in the CNAL, explores the challenge towards sustain and develop information services for the agricultural sci-tech research and innovation, at last proposes the strategy for sci-tech document information service development.

  3. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...] Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride... CFR 314.161)). FDA may not approve an ANDA that does not refer to a listed drug. REV-EYES (dapiprazole...

  4. 75 FR 27840 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0080] NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3...: ``NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for General... the existing guidance contained in Supplement 3 to NUREG- 0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, ``Criteria for...

  5. Data publication and sharing using the SciDrive service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Dmitry; Medvedev, D.; Szalay, A. S.; Plante, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the last years progress in scientific data storage, still remains the problem of public data storage and sharing system for relatively small scientific datasets. These are collections forming the “long tail” of power log datasets distribution. The aggregated size of the long tail data is comparable to the size of all data collections from large archives, and the value of data is significant. The SciDrive project's main goal is providing the scientific community with a place to reliably and freely store such data and provide access to it to broad scientific community. The primary target audience of the project is astoromy community, and it will be extended to other fields. We're aiming to create a simple way of publishing a dataset, which can be then shared with other people. Data owner controls the permissions to modify and access the data and can assign a group of users or open the access to everyone. The data contained in the dataset will be automaticaly recognized by a background process. Known data formats will be extracted according to the user's settings. Currently tabular data can be automatically extracted to the user's MyDB table where user can make SQL queries to the dataset and merge it with other public CasJobs resources. Other data formats can be processed using a set of plugins that upload the data or metadata to user-defined side services. The current implementation targets some of the data formats commonly used by the astronomy communities, including FITS, ASCII and Excel tables, TIFF images, and YT simulations data archives. Along with generic metadata, format-specific metadata is also processed. For example, basic information about celestial objects is extracted from FITS files and TIFF images, if present. A 100TB implementation has just been put into production at Johns Hopkins University. The system features public data storage REST service supporting VOSpace 2.0 and Dropbox protocols, HTML5 web portal, command-line client and Java

  6. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-08

    Workers at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville prepared for a news media showing of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-1 (GOES-1). GOES-1 was the first in a new generation of weather satellites deployed above Earth. It was the first 3-axis, body-stabilized meteorological satellite to be used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA. These features allowed GOES-1 to continuously monitor the Earth, rather than viewing it just five percent of the time as was the case with spin-stabilized meteorological satellites. GOES-1 also has independent imaging and sounding instruments which can operate simultaneously yet independently. As a result, observations provided by each instrument will not be interrupted. The imager produces visual and infrared images of the Earth's surface, oceans, cloud cover and severe storm development, while the prime sounding products include vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and layer mean moisture.

  7. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-02

    This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-23

    ISS024-E-016042 (23 Aug. 2010) --- This night time view captured by one of the Expedition 24 crew members aboard the International Space Station some 220 miles above Earth is looking southward from central Romania over the Aegean Sea toward Greece and it includes Thessaloniki (near center), the larger bright mass of Athens (left center), and the Macedonian capital of Skopje (lower right). Center point coordinates of the area pictured are 46.4 degrees north latitude and 25.5 degrees east longitude. The picture was taken in August and was physically brought back to Earth on a disk with the return of the Expedition 25 crew in November 2010.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070412 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 panorama featuring wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. (Note: south is at the top of the frame). The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Parts of Oregon and Washington are included in the scene. Mt. Jefferson, Three Sisters and Mt. St. Helens are all snow-capped and visible in the photo, and the Columbia River can also be delineated.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070424 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Lightning has been given as the cause of the Ochoco Complex fires in the Ochoco National Forest in central Oregon. The complex has gotten larger since this photo was taken.

  11. Earth observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-04

    ISS040-E-129950 (4 Sept. 2014) --- In this photograph. taken by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, the orange spot located in the very center is the sun, which appears to be sitting on Earth's limb. At far right, a small bright spot is believed to be a reflection from somewhere in the camera system or something on the orbital outpost. When the photographed was exposed, the orbital outpost was flying at an altutude of 226 nautical miles above a point near French Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean.

  12. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-13

    This panoramic view of Hurricane Charley was photographed by the Expedition 9 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on August 13, 2004, at a vantage point just north of Tampa, Florida. The small eye was not visible in this view, but the raised cloud tops near the center coincide roughly with the time that the storm began to rapidly strengthen. The category 2 hurricane was moving north-northwest at 18 mph packing winds of 105 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  13. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-11

    This image hosts a look at the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm topped the western Caribbean Sea on Saturday, September 11, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, the category 5 storm sustained winds in the eye of the wall that were reported at about 160 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  14. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-15

    Except for a small portion of the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, fills this image over the northern Gulf of Mexico. As the downgraded category 4 storm approached landfall on the Alabama coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the ISS at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  15. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-15

    This image hosts a look into the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm approached landfall on the central Gulf coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph as the downgraded category 4 storm approached the Alabama coast. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  16. Sci-Hub: What Librarians Should Know and Do about Article Piracy.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of journal articles has driven many researchers to turn to a new way of getting access: "pirate" article sites. Sci-Hub, the largest and best known of these sites, currently offers instant access to more than 58 million journal articles. Users attracted by the ease of use and breadth of the collection may not realize that these articles are often obtained using stolen credentials and downloading them may be illegal. This article will briefly describe Sci-Hub and how it works, the legal and ethical issues it raises, and the problems it may cause for librarians. Librarians should be aware of Sci-Hub and the ways it may change their patrons' expectations. They should also understand the risks Sci-Hub can pose to their patrons and their institutions.

  17. SciServer Compute brings Analysis to Big Data in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Medvedev, Dmitry; Lemson, Gerard; Souter, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    SciServer Compute uses Jupyter Notebooks running within server-side Docker containers attached to big data collections to bring advanced analysis to big data "in the cloud." SciServer Compute is a component in the SciServer Big-Data ecosystem under development at JHU, which will provide a stable, reproducible, sharable virtual research environment.SciServer builds on the popular CasJobs and SkyServer systems that made the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archive one of the most-used astronomical instruments. SciServer extends those systems with server-side computational capabilities and very large scratch storage space, and further extends their functions to a range of other scientific disciplines.Although big datasets like SDSS have revolutionized astronomy research, for further analysis, users are still restricted to downloading the selected data sets locally - but increasing data sizes make this local approach impractical. Instead, researchers need online tools that are co-located with data in a virtual research environment, enabling them to bring their analysis to the data.SciServer supports this using the popular Jupyter notebooks, which allow users to write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the server with the data (extensions to Matlab and other languages are planned). We have written special-purpose libraries that enable querying the databases and other persistent datasets. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files. Communication between the various components of the SciServer system is managed through SciServer‘s new Single Sign-on Portal.We have created a number of demos to illustrate the capabilities of SciServer Compute, including Python and R scripts

  18. [Construction of Rev-erbβ gene knockout HEK293 cell line with CRISPR/Cas9 system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Weifeng; Zhao, Junli; Yang, Peiyan; Ma, Rui; Xia, Haibin

    2016-11-01

    Objective To prepare Rev-erbβ knockout HEK293 cells using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) gene editing technology. Methods The knock-in or knockout of Rev-erbβ gene could be realized by single-guide RNA (sgRNA)-mediated Cas9 cutting of target DNA, and followed by DNA homologous recombination or non-homologous end joining-mediated DNA repair. Firstly, four sgRNAs were designed for Rev-erbβ gene. The sgRNA1 and sgRNA2 with the higher activity were respectively used to construct pCMV-hCas9-U6-Rev-erbβ sgRNA1 and pCMV-hCas9-U6-Rev-erbβ sgRNA2. Then, pCMV-hCas9-U6-Rev-erbβ sgRNA1, pCMV-hCas9-U6-Rev-erbβ sgRNA2 and pAd5-E1/hRev-erbβ donor plasmid vectors were co-transfected into HEK293 cells. Through drug screening, cloning and sequencing, the Rev-erbβ gene-knockout HEK293 (Rev-erbβ -/- ) cell lines were obtained with one chain integrated with exogenous gene fragment and the other chain for deletion mutants. Finally, the HEK293 (Rev-erbβ -/- ) cell lines (C3-6) was detected with real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. Results Expression of Rev-erbβ mRNA and protein was undetectable in HEK293 Rev-erbβ -/- cell line. Conclusion Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, the HEK293 Rev-erbβ -/- cell line has been successfully constructed, which would provide an effective tool for the study on the function of Rev-erbβ.

  19. Pharmacological Targeting the REV-ERBs in Sleep/Wake Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Ariadna; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Roberts, Amanda J.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock maintains appropriate timing for a wide range of behaviors and physiological processes. Circadian behaviors such as sleep and wakefulness are intrinsically dependent on the precise oscillation of the endogenous molecular machinery that regulates the circadian clock. The identical core clock machinery regulates myriad endocrine and metabolic functions providing a link between sleep and metabolic health. The REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are nuclear receptors that are key regulators of the molecular clock and have been successfully targeted using small molecule ligands. Recent studies in mice suggest that REV-ERB-specific synthetic agonists modulate metabolic activity as well as alter sleep architecture, inducing wakefulness during the light period. Therefore, these small molecules represent unique tools to extensively study REV-ERB regulation of sleep and wakefulness. In these studies, our aim was to further investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting the REV-ERBs for regulation of sleep by characterizing efficacy, and optimal dosing time of the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Applying different experimental paradigms in mice, our studies establish that SR9009 does not lose efficacy when administered more than once a day, nor does tolerance develop when administered once a day over a three-day dosing regimen. Moreover, through use of a time response paradigm, we determined that although there is an optimal time for administration of SR9009 in terms of maximal efficacy, there is a 12-hour window in which SR9009 elicited a response. Our studies indicate that the REV-ERBs are potential therapeutic targets for treating sleep problems as those encountered as a consequence of shift work or jet lag. PMID:27603791

  20. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  1. Whole body vibration (WBV) following spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats: Timing of intervention.

    PubMed

    Manthou, Marilena; Abdulla, Diana Saad Yousif; Pavlov, Stoyan Pavlov; Jansen, Ramona; Bendella, Habib; Nohroudi, Klaus; Stein, Gregor; Meyer, Carolin; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Behram Kandemir, Yasemin; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Semler, Oliver; Schoenau, Eckhard; Dunlop, Sarah; Angelov, Doychin Nikolov

    2017-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI), exercise training provides a wide range of benefits and promotes activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Whole body vibration (WBV) in SCI patients improves walking and spasticity as well as bone and muscle mass. However, little is known about the effects of timing or frequency of intervention. To determine which WBV-onset improves locomotor and bladder functions and influences synaptic plasticity beneficially. SCI was followed by WBV starting 1, 7, 14, 28 days after injury (WBV1, WBV7, etc.) and continued for 12 weeks. Intact animals and those receiving SCI but no WBV (No WBV), SCI plus WBV twice daily (2×WBV) and SCI followed by passive hindlimb flexion-extension (PFE) served as controls. Locomotor [BBB rating, foot stepping angle (FSA) and rump-height index (RHI)] as well as bladder function were determined at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks. Following perfusion fixation at 12 weeks, lesion volume and immunofluorescence for astrogliosis (GFAP), microglia (IBA1) and synaptic vesicles (synaptophysin, SYN) were determined. Compared to the No WBV group, the WB7 and WBV14 groups showed significantly faster speeds of BBB score recovery though this effect was temporary. Considering RHI we detected a sustained improvement in the WBV14 and PFE groups. Bladder function was better in the WBV14, WBV28, 2×WBV and PFE groups. Synaptophysin levels improved in response to WBV7 and WBV14, but worsened after WBV28 in parallel to an increased IBA1 expression. Correlation- and principal components analysis revealed complex relationships between behavioural (BBB, FSA, RHI) and morphological (GFAP, IBA1, SYN) measurements. WBV started 14 days after SCI provides the most benefit (RHI, bladder); starting at 1day after SCI provides no benefit and starting at 28 days may be detrimental. Increasing the intensity of WBV to twice daily did not provide additional benefit.

  2. SCI peer health coach influence on self-management with peers: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Skeels, S E; Pernigotti, D; Houlihan, B V; Belliveau, T; Brody, M; Zazula, J; Hasiotis, S; Seetharama, S; Rosenblum, D; Jette, A

    2017-11-01

    A process evaluation of a clinical trial. To describe the roles fulfilled by peer health coaches (PHCs) with spinal cord injury (SCI) during a randomized controlled trial research study called 'My Care My Call', a novel telephone-based, peer-led self-management intervention for adults with chronic SCI 1+ years after injury. Connecticut and Greater Boston Area, MA, USA. Directed content analysis was used to qualitatively examine information from 504 tele-coaching calls, conducted with 42 participants with SCI, by two trained SCI PHCs. Self-management was the focus of each 6-month PHC-peer relationship. PHCs documented how and when they used the communication tools (CTs) and information delivery strategies (IDSs) they developed for the intervention. Interaction data were coded and analyzed to determine PHC roles in relation to CT and IDS utilization and application. PHCs performed three principal roles: Role Model, Supporter, and Advisor. Role Model interactions included CTs and IDSs that allowed PHCs to share personal experiences of managing and living with an SCI, including sharing their opinions and advice when appropriate. As Supporters, PHCs used CTs and IDSs to build credible relationships based on dependability and reassuring encouragement. PHCs fulfilled the unique role of Advisor using CTs and IDSs to teach and strategize with peers about SCI self-management. The SCI PHC performs a powerful, flexible role in promoting SCI self-management among peers. Analysis of PHC roles can inform the design of peer-led interventions and highlights the importance for the provision of peer mentor training.

  3. FES-Rowing versus Zoledronic Acid to Improve BoneHealth in SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT There is no established treatment to prevent bone loss or to induce new bone formation following SCI, although the... no established treatment to prevent bone loss or to induce new bone formation following SCI. The goal of this clinical trial -- FES-Rowing versus...Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No . 0704-0188 Public

  4. RevEcoR: an R package for the reverse ecology analysis of microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaofei; Li, Fei; Bo, Xiaochen

    2016-07-29

    All species live in complex ecosystems. The structure and complexity of a microbial community reflects not only diversity and function, but also the environment in which it occurs. However, traditional ecological methods can only be applied on a small scale and for relatively well-understood biological systems. Recently, a graph-theory-based algorithm called the reverse ecology approach has been developed that can analyze the metabolic networks of all the species in a microbial community, and predict the metabolic interface between species and their environment. Here, we present RevEcoR, an R package and a Shiny Web application that implements the reverse ecology algorithm for determining microbe-microbe interactions in microbial communities. This software allows users to obtain large-scale ecological insights into species' ecology directly from high-throughput metagenomic data. The software has great potential for facilitating the study of microbiomes. RevEcoR is open source software for the study of microbial community ecology. The RevEcoR R package is freely available under the GNU General Public License v. 2.0 at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RevEcoR/ with the vignette and typical usage examples, and the interactive Shiny web application is available at http://yiluheihei.shinyapps.io/shiny-RevEcoR , or can be installed locally with the source code accessed from https://github.com/yiluheihei/shiny-RevEcoR .

  5. Discrete Functions of Nuclear Receptor Rev-erbα Couple Metabolism to the Clock

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Fang, Bin; Emmett, Matthew J.; Damle, Manashree; Sun, Zheng; Feng, Dan; Armour, Sean M.; Remsberg, Jarrett R.; Jager, Jennifer; Soccio, Raymond E.; Steger, David J.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Circadian and metabolic physiology are intricately intertwined, as illustrated by Rev-erbα, a transcription factor (TF) that functions both as a core repressive component of the cell autonomous clock and as a regulator of metabolic genes. Here we show that Rev-erbα modulates the clock and metabolism by different genomic mechanisms. Clock control requires Rev-erbα to bind directly to the genome at its cognate sites, where it competes with activating ROR TFs. By contrast, Rev-erbα regulates metabolic genes primarily by recruiting the HDAC3 corepressor to sites to which it is tethered by cell type-specific transcription factors. Thus, direct competition between Rev-erbα and ROR TFs provides a universal mechanism for self-sustained control of molecular clock across all tissues, whereas Rev-erbα utilizes lineage-determining factors to convey a tissue-specific epigenomic rhythm that regulates metabolism tailored to the specific need of that tissue. PMID:26044300

  6. GENE REGULATION. Discrete functions of nuclear receptor Rev-erbα couple metabolism to the clock.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Fang, Bin; Emmett, Matthew J; Damle, Manashree; Sun, Zheng; Feng, Dan; Armour, Sean M; Remsberg, Jarrett R; Jager, Jennifer; Soccio, Raymond E; Steger, David J; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2015-06-26

    Circadian and metabolic physiology are intricately intertwined, as illustrated by Rev-erbα, a transcription factor (TF) that functions both as a core repressive component of the cell-autonomous clock and as a regulator of metabolic genes. Here, we show that Rev-erbα modulates the clock and metabolism by different genomic mechanisms. Clock control requires Rev-erbα to bind directly to the genome at its cognate sites, where it competes with activating ROR TFs. By contrast, Rev-erbα regulates metabolic genes primarily by recruiting the HDAC3 co-repressor to sites to which it is tethered by cell type-specific transcription factors. Thus, direct competition between Rev-erbα and ROR TFs provides a universal mechanism for self-sustained control of the molecular clock across all tissues, whereas Rev-erbα uses lineage-determining factors to convey a tissue-specific epigenomic rhythm that regulates metabolism tailored to the specific need of that tissue. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Institutional profile: the national Swedish academic drug discovery & development platform at SciLifeLab.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Per I; Sandberg, Kristian; Sakariassen, Kjell S

    2017-06-01

    The Science for Life Laboratory Drug Discovery and Development Platform (SciLifeLab DDD) was established in Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden, in 2014. It is one of ten platforms of the Swedish national SciLifeLab which support projects run by Swedish academic researchers with large-scale technologies for molecular biosciences with a focus on health and environment. SciLifeLab was created by the coordinated effort of four universities in Stockholm and Uppsala: Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Uppsala University, and has recently expanded to other Swedish university locations. The primary goal of the SciLifeLab DDD is to support selected academic discovery and development research projects with tools and resources to discover novel lead therapeutics, either molecules or human antibodies. Intellectual property developed with the help of SciLifeLab DDD is wholly owned by the academic research group. The bulk of SciLifeLab DDD's research and service activities are funded from the Swedish state, with only consumables paid by the academic research group through individual grants.

  8. Differential Impact and Use of a Telehealth Intervention by Persons with MS or SCI.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Hannah W; Ni, Pensheng; Houlihan, Bethlyn V; Jette, Alan M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare outcomes and patterns of engaging with a telehealth intervention (CareCall) by adult wheelchair users with severe mobility limitations with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) or spinal cord injury (SCI). The design of this study is a secondary analysis from a pilot randomized controlled trial with 106 participants with SCI and 36 participants with MS. General linear model results showed that an interaction between baseline depression score and study group significantly predicted reduced depression at 6 mos for subjects with both diagnoses (P = 0.01). For those with MS, CareCall increased participants' physical independence (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in skin integrity were found between study groups for subjects with either diagnosis. All participants were similarly satisfied with CareCall, although those with MS engaged in almost double the amount of calls per person than those with SCI (P = 0.005). Those with SCI missed more calls (P < 0.001) and required more extensive support from a nurse (P = 0.006) than those with MS. An interactive telephone intervention was effective in reducing depression in adult wheelchair users with either MS or SCI, and in increasing health care access and physical independence for those with a diagnosis of MS. Future research should aim to enhance the efficacy of such an intervention for participants with SCI.

  9. Clinical interpretation of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index (SCI-FI)

    PubMed Central

    Fyffe, Denise; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Slavin, Mary; Kisala, Pamela; Ni, Pengsheng; Kirshblum, Steven C.; Tulsky, David S.; Jette, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To provide validation of functional ability levels for the Spinal Cord Injury – Functional Index (SCI-FI). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation hospital and community settings. Participants: A sample of 855 individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury enrolled in 6 rehabilitation centers participating in the National Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems Network. Interventions: Not Applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Spinal Cord Injury-Functional Index (SCI-FI). Results: Cluster analyses identified three distinct groups that represent low, mid-range and high SCI-FI functional ability levels. Comparison of clusters on personal and other injury characteristics suggested some significant differences between groups. Conclusions: These results strongly support the use of SCI-FI functional ability levels to document the perceived functional abilities of persons with SCI. Results of the cluster analysis suggest that the SCI-FI functional ability levels capture function by injury characteristics. Clinical implications regarding tracking functional activity trajectories during follow-up visits are discussed. PMID:26781769

  10. Neuropathic pain and SCI: Identification and treatment strategies in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Maya N; Cushing, Timothy R; Carlson, Gregory D; Chang, Eric Y

    2018-01-15

    Pain is a common complication in patients following spinal cord injury (SCI), with studies citing up to 80% of patients reporting some form of pain. Neuropathic pain (NP) makes up a substantial percentage of all pain symptoms in patients with SCI and is often complex. Given the high prevalence of NP in patients with SCI, proper identification and treatment is imperative. Indeed, identification of pain subtypes is a vital step toward determining appropriate treatment. A variety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments can be undertaken including antiepileptics, tricyclic antidepressants, opioids, transcranial direct current stimulation, and invasive surgical procedures. Despite all the available treatment options and advances in the field of SCI medicine, providing adequate treatment of NP after SCI continues to be challenging. It is therefore extremely important for clinicians to have a strong foundation in the identification of SCI NP, as well as an understanding of appropriate treatment options. Here, we highlight the definitions and classification tools available for NP identification, and discuss current treatment options. We hope that this will not only provide a better understanding of NP for physicians in various subspecialties, but that it will also help guide future research on this subject. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Using the autonomic standards to assess orthostatic hypotension in persons with SCI: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wecht, Jill M; Wilson, James; Previnaire, Jean-Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a complex and unique syndrome of medical issues related to disruption of somatic and autonomic pathways. Among these impaired control of blood pressure (BP) can significantly impede patients' activities of daily living. The International Standards for the Assessment of Autonomic Function after SCI (ISAFSCI) is used to document the impact of SCI on resting BP (abnormal if below 90 mmHg) and the presence or absence of orthostatic hypotension (OH), defined as a symptomatic or asymptomatic decrease in BP (>/=20/10 mmHg) upon moving to an upright position. Case 1 documents the adverse influence of prescribed medications (antidepressants for neuropathic pain) on OH; case 2 describes the influence of bladder management on cardiovascular instability (autonomic dysreflexia and subsequent OH); case 3 describes the association between spasticity and OH; case 4 describes OH associated with a Valsalva maneuver. Impaired control of BP can stem from a combination of medical issues and autonomic dysfunction in persons with SCI. Management strategies for OH will vary depending on the stage of the SCI, the root cause of the OH and other confounding medical conditions. Non-pharmacological treatment should be considered as a first line of intervention and consideration should be given to cessation of potentially contributory medications prior to implementing pharmaceutical interventions. The systematic use of ISAFSCI by clinicians is recommended to document BP irregularities and to describe the effects of treatment strategies aimed at improving BP control in the SCI population.

  12. www.elearnSCI.org: a global educational initiative of ISCoS.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, H S; Harvey, L A; Muldoon, S; Chaudhary, S; Arora, M; Brown, D J; Biering-Sorensen, F; Wyndaele, J J; Charlifue, S; Horsewell, J; Ducharme, S; Green, D; Simpson, D; Glinsky, J; Weerts, E; Upadhyay, N; Aito, S; Wing, P; Katoh, S; Kovindha, A; Krassioukov, A; Weeks, C; Srikumar, V; Reeves, R; Siriwardane, C; Hasnan, N; Kalke, Y B; Lanig, I

    2013-03-01

    To develop a web-based educational resource for health professionals responsible for the management of spinal cord injury (SCI). The resource:www.elearnSCI.org is comprised of seven learning modules, each subdivided into various submodules. Six of the seven modules address the educational needs of all disciplines involved in comprehensive SCI management. The seventh module addresses prevention of SCI. Each submodule includes an overview, activities, self-assessment questions and references. Three hundred and thirty-two experts from The International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and various affiliated societies from 36 countries were involved in developing the resource through 28 subcommittees. The content of each submodule was reviewed and approved by the Education and Scientific Committees of ISCoS and finally by an Editorial Committee of 23 experts. The content of the learning modules is relevant to students and to new as well as experienced SCI healthcare professionals. The content is applicable globally, has received consumer input and is available at no cost. The material is presented on a website underpinned by a sophisticated content-management system, which allows easy maintenance and ready update of all the content. The resource conforms to key principles of e-learning, including appropriateness of curriculum, engagement of learners, innovative approaches, effective learning, ease of use, inclusion, assessment, coherence, consistency, transparency, cost effectiveness and feedback. www.elearnSCI.org provides a cost effective way of training healthcare professionals that goes beyond the textbook and traditional face-to-face teaching.

  13. Institutional profile: the national Swedish academic drug discovery & development platform at SciLifeLab

    PubMed Central

    Arvidsson, Per I; Sandberg, Kristian; Sakariassen, Kjell S

    2017-01-01

    The Science for Life Laboratory Drug Discovery and Development Platform (SciLifeLab DDD) was established in Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden, in 2014. It is one of ten platforms of the Swedish national SciLifeLab which support projects run by Swedish academic researchers with large-scale technologies for molecular biosciences with a focus on health and environment. SciLifeLab was created by the coordinated effort of four universities in Stockholm and Uppsala: Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Uppsala University, and has recently expanded to other Swedish university locations. The primary goal of the SciLifeLab DDD is to support selected academic discovery and development research projects with tools and resources to discover novel lead therapeutics, either molecules or human antibodies. Intellectual property developed with the help of SciLifeLab DDD is wholly owned by the academic research group. The bulk of SciLifeLab DDD's research and service activities are funded from the Swedish state, with only consumables paid by the academic research group through individual grants. PMID:28670468

  14. SciReader enables reading of medical content with instantaneous definitions.

    PubMed

    Gradie, Patrick R; Litster, Megan; Thomas, Rinu; Vyas, Jay; Schiller, Martin R

    2011-01-25

    A major problem patients encounter when reading about health related issues is document interpretation, which limits reading comprehension and therefore negatively impacts health care. Currently, searching for medical definitions from an external source is time consuming, distracting, and negatively impacts reading comprehension and memory of the material. SciReader was built as a Java application with a Flex-based front-end client. The dictionary used by SciReader was built by consolidating data from several sources and generating new definitions with a standardized syntax. The application was evaluated by measuring the percentage of words defined in different documents. A survey was used to test the perceived effect of SciReader on reading time and comprehension. We present SciReader, a web-application that simplifies document interpretation by allowing users to instantaneously view medical, English, and scientific definitions as they read any document. This tool reveals the definitions of any selected word in a small frame at the top of the application. SciReader relies on a dictionary of ~750,000 unique Biomedical and English word definitions. Evaluation of the application shows that it maps ~98% of words in several different types of documents and that most users tested in a survey indicate that the application decreases reading time and increases comprehension. SciReader is a web application useful for reading medical and scientific documents. The program makes jargon-laden content more accessible to patients, educators, health care professionals, and the general public.

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-10

    ISS040-E-091158 (10 Aug. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members 225 nautical miles above Earth onboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to record this image of Hawke's Bay, New Zealand on Aug. 10, 2014. Napier and the bay area's most populous area are at bottom center of the frame.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-13

    ISS036-E-007619 (13 June 2013) --- To a crew member aboard the International Space Station, the home planet is seen from many different angles and perspectives, as evdenced by this Expedition 36 image of Earth's atmophere partially obscured by one of the orbital outpost's solar panels.

  17. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. Docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft are visible. On crewmember's Flickr page - The Moon, about to dive into a glowing ocean of green᥿9.

  19. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-21

    Earth observation taken during night pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message this is labeled as : Tehran, Iran. Lights along the coast of the Caspian Sea visible through clouds. July 21.

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-19

    ISS036-E-002224 (21 May 2013) --- The sun is captured in a "starburst" mode over Earth's horizon by one of the Expedition 36 crew members as the orbital outpost was above a point in southwestern Minnesota on May 21, 2013.

  1. Earth Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy

    Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…

  2. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-03-29

    Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is a tethered date collecting satellite and is intended to demonstrate a versatile and economical way of delivering smaller payloads to higher orbits or downward toward Earth's atmosphere. 19th Navstar Global Positioning System Satellite mission joined with previously launched satellites used for navigational purposes and geodite studies. These satellites are used commercially as well as by the military.

  3. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-14

    ISS040-E-011868 (14 June 2014) --- The dark waters of the Salton Sea stand out against neighboring cultivation and desert sands in the middle of the Southern California desert, as photographed by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station on June 14, 2014.

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: From southernmost point of orbit over the South Pacific- all clouds seemed to be leading to the South Pole.

  5. Earth Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63282 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Area of Indian Ocean, just east of the island of Madagascar, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 15th revolution of Earth. Land mass at top of picture is the Malagasy Republic (Madagascar). Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  6. Rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015354 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at lower left) were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015355 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at bottom center) were recorded in a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-03

    ISS036-E-015292 (3 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 3-4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station. This image was recorded on July 3.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015342 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015335 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  12. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of the U.S. Lab and PMM are also visible.

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038117 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.2 degrees west longitude.

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038114 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.3 degrees west longitude.

  15. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-18

    ISS042E006751 (11/08/2014) --- Earth observation taken from the International Space Station of the coastline of the United Arab Emirates. The large wheel along the coast center left is "Jumeirah" Palm Island, with a conference center, hotels, recreation areas and a large marine zoo.

  16. Earth Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-08

    NASA Galileo spacecraft took this image of Earth moon on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the image is the Tycho impact basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00405

  17. Earth's horizon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-30

    S114-E-6076 (30 July 2005) --- The blackness of space and Earth’s horizon form the backdrop for this view of the extended Space Shuttle Discovery’s remote manipulator system (RMS) robotic arm while docked to the International Space Station during the STS-114 mission.

  18. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-09

    ISS024-E-014071 (9 Sept. 2010) --- This striking panoramic view of the southwestern USA and Pacific Ocean is an oblique image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member looking outwards at an angle from the International Space Station (ISS). While most unmanned orbital satellites view Earth from a nadir perspective?in other words, collecting data with a ?straight down? viewing geometry?crew members onboard the space station can acquire imagery at a wide range of viewing angles using handheld digital cameras. The ISS nadir point (the point on Earth?s surface directly below the spacecraft) was located in northwestern Arizona, approximately 260 kilometers to the east-southeast, when this image was taken. The image includes parts of the States of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California together with a small segment of the Baja California, Mexico coastline at center left. Several landmarks and physiographic features are readily visible. The Las Vegas, NV metropolitan area appears as a gray region adjacent to the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range (both covered by white clouds). The Grand Canyon, located on the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, is visible (lower left) to the east of Las Vegas with the blue waters of Lake Mead in between. The image also includes the Mojave Desert, stretching north from the Salton Sea (left) to the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The Sierra Nevada range is roughly 640 kilometers long (north-south) and forms the boundary between the Central Valley of California and the adjacent Basin and Range. The Basin and Range is so called due to the pattern of long linear valleys separated by parallel linear mountain ranges ? this landscape, formed by extension and thinning of Earth?s crust, is particularly visible at right.

  19. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Shawn Domagal-Goldman, Research Space Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Phoebe Cohen, Professor of Geosciences, Williams College, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  1. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Christopher House, Professor of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Dawn Sumner, Professor of Geology, UC Davis, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Timothy Lyons, Professor of Biogeochemistry, UC Riverside, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  4. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  5. Targeting Translational Successes through CANSORT-SCI: Using Pet Dogs To Identify Effective Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah A; Granger, Nicolas; Olby, Natasha J; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Jeffery, Nick D; Tipold, Andrea; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Stein, Veronika M; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J; Blight, Andrew R; Grossman, Robert G; Basso, D Michele; Levine, Jonathan M

    2017-06-15

    Translation of therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) from laboratory to clinic has been historically challenging, highlighting the need for robust models of injury that more closely mirror the human condition. The high prevalence of acute, naturally occurring SCI in pet dogs provides a unique opportunity to evaluate expeditiously promising interventions in a population of animals that receive diagnoses and treatment clinically in a manner similar to persons with SCI, while adhering to National Institutes of Health guidelines for scientific rigor and transparent reporting. In addition, pet dogs with chronic paralysis are often maintained long-term by their owners, offering a similarly unique population for study of chronic SCI. Despite this, only a small number of studies have used the clinical dog model of SCI. The Canine Spinal Cord Injury Consortium (CANSORT-SCI) was recently established by a group of veterinarians and basic science researchers to promote the value of the canine clinical model of SCI. The CANSORT-SCI group held an inaugural meeting November 20 and 21, 2015 to evaluate opportunities and challenges to the use of pet dogs in SCI research. Key challenges identified included lack of familiarity with the model among nonveterinary scientists and questions about how and where in the translational process the canine clinical model would be most valuable. In light of these, we review the natural history, outcome, and available assessment tools associated with canine clinical SCI with emphasis on their relevance to human SCI and the translational process.

  6. Targeting Translational Successes through CANSORT-SCI: Using Pet Dogs To Identify Effective Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Nicolas; Olby, Natasha J.; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Jeffery, Nick D.; Tipold, Andrea; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S.; da Costa, Ronaldo C.; Stein, Veronika M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.; Blight, Andrew R.; Grossman, Robert G.; Basso, D. Michele; Levine, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Translation of therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) from laboratory to clinic has been historically challenging, highlighting the need for robust models of injury that more closely mirror the human condition. The high prevalence of acute, naturally occurring SCI in pet dogs provides a unique opportunity to evaluate expeditiously promising interventions in a population of animals that receive diagnoses and treatment clinically in a manner similar to persons with SCI, while adhering to National Institutes of Health guidelines for scientific rigor and transparent reporting. In addition, pet dogs with chronic paralysis are often maintained long-term by their owners, offering a similarly unique population for study of chronic SCI. Despite this, only a small number of studies have used the clinical dog model of SCI. The Canine Spinal Cord Injury Consortium (CANSORT-SCI) was recently established by a group of veterinarians and basic science researchers to promote the value of the canine clinical model of SCI. The CANSORT-SCI group held an inaugural meeting November 20 and 21, 2015 to evaluate opportunities and challenges to the use of pet dogs in SCI research. Key challenges identified included lack of familiarity with the model among nonveterinary scientists and questions about how and where in the translational process the canine clinical model would be most valuable. In light of these, we review the natural history, outcome, and available assessment tools associated with canine clinical SCI with emphasis on their relevance to human SCI and the translational process. PMID:28230415

  7. Games and Simulations for Climate, Weather and Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    We will demonstrate several interactive, computer-based simulations, games, and other interactive multimedia. These resources were developed for weather, climate, atmospheric science, and related Earth system science education. The materials were created by the UCAR Center for Science Education. These materials have been disseminated via our web site (SciEd.ucar.edu), webinars, online courses, teacher workshops, and large touchscreen displays in weather and Sun-Earth connections exhibits in NCAR's Mesa Lab facility in Boulder, Colorado. Our group has also assembled a web-based list of similar resources, especially simulations and games, from other sources that touch upon weather, climate, and atmospheric science topics. We'll briefly demonstrate this directory. More info available at: scied.ucar.edu/events/agu-2014-games-simulations-sessions

  8. The population of natural Earth satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Jedicke, Robert

    2012-03-01

    We have for the first time calculated the population characteristics of the Earth’s irregular natural satellites (NESs) that are temporarily captured from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. The steady-state NES size-frequency and residence-time distributions were determined under the dynamical influence of all the massive bodies in the Solar System (but mainly the Sun, Earth, and Moon) for NEOs of negligible mass. To this end, we compute the NES capture probability from the NEO population as a function of the latter’s heliocentric orbital elements and combine those results with the current best estimates for the NEO size-frequency and orbital distribution. At any given time there should be at least one NES of 1-m diameter orbiting the Earth. The average temporarily-captured orbiter (TCO; an object that makes at least one revolution around the Earth in a co-rotating coordinate system) completes (2.88 ± 0.82) rev around the Earth during a capture event that lasts (286 ± 18) d. We find a small preference for capture events starting in either January or July. Our results are consistent with the single known natural TCO, 2006 RH120, a few-meter diameter object that was captured for about a year starting in June 2006. We estimate that about 0.1% of all meteors impacting the Earth were TCOs.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070439 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above a point on Earth located at 48.0 degrees north latitude and 116.9 degrees west longitude when the image was exposed. The state of Washington is especially affected by the fires, many of which have been blamed on lightning. This particular fire was part of the Carlton Complex Fire, located near the city of Brewster in north central Washington. The reservoir visible near the center of the image is Banks Lake.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-081008 (25 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station, flying 225 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of the Tifernine dunes and the Tassili Najjer Mountains in Algeria. The area is about 800 miles south, southeast of Algiers, the capital of Algeria. The dunes are in excess of 1,000 feet in height.

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-15

    ISS040-E-063578 (15 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, flying some 225 nautical miles above the Caribbean Sea in the early morning hours of July 15, photographed this north-looking panorama that includes parts of Cuba, the Bahamas and Florida, and even runs into several other areas in the southeastern U.S. The long stretch of lights to the left of center frame gives the shape of Miami.

  12. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-28

    ISS028-E-006059 (28 May 2011) --- One of the Expedition 28 crew members, photographing Earth images onboard the International Space Station while docked with the space shuttle Endeavour and flying at an altitude of just under 220 miles, captured this frame of the Salton Sea. The body of water, easily identifiable from low orbit spacecraft, is a saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault. The agricultural area is within the Coachella Valley.

  13. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    In July 1990, the Marshall Space Flight Center, in a joint project with the Department of Defense/Air Force Space Test Program, launched the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) using an Atlas I launch vehicle. The mission was designed to study the effects of artificial ion clouds produced by chemical releases on the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to monitor the effects of space radiation environment on sophisticated electronics.

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-27

    ISS028-E-009979 (27 June 2011) --- The Massachusetts coastline is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. The Crew Earth Observations team at NASA Johnson Space Center sends specific ground targets for photography up to the station crew on a daily basis, but sometimes the crew takes imagery on their own of striking displays visible from orbit. One such display, often visible to the ISS crew due to their ability to look outwards at angles between 0 and 90 degrees, is sunglint on the waters of Earth. Sunglint is caused by sunlight reflecting off of a water surface?much as light reflects from a mirror?directly towards the observer. Roughness variations of the water surface scatter the light, blurring the reflection and producing the typical silvery sheen of the sunglint area. The point of maximum sunglint is centered within Cape Cod Bay, the body of water partially enclosed by the ?hook? of Cape Cod in Massachusetts (bottom). Cape Cod was formally designated a National Seashore in 1966. Sunglint off the water provides sharp contrast with the coastline and the nearby islands of Martha?s Vineyard and Nantucket (lower left), both popular destinations for tourists and summer residents. To the north, rocky Cape Ann extends out into the Atlantic Ocean; the border with New Hampshire is located approximately 30 kilometers up the coast. Further to the west, the eastern half of Long Island, New York is visible emerging from extensive cloud cover over the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern States. Persistent storm tracks had been contributing to record flooding along rivers in the Midwest at the time this image was taken in late June 2011. Thin blue layers of the atmosphere, contrasted against the darkness of space, are visible extending along the Earth?s curvature at top.

  15. The Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Physical Health and Functioning.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle A; Reed, Karla S; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Background : Research has shown that employment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is related to health and functioning, with physical health and functioning after SCI frequently identified as a primary barrier to employment. Objective: To examine the relationship between employment and behaviors associated with the management of physical health and functioning as described by individuals with SCI who have been employed post injury. Methods: A qualitative approach using 6 focus groups at 2 sites included 44 participants with SCI who had worked at some time post injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were created based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. A semi-structured interview format asked questions about personal, environmental, and policy-related factors influencing employment after SCI. Groups were recorded, transcribed, and entered into NVivo before coding by 2 reviewers. Results: Within the area of behaviors and management of physical health and functioning, 4 overlapping themes were identified: (1) relearning your own body and what it can do; (2) general health and wellness behaviors; (3) communication, education, and advocacy; and (4) secondary conditions and aging. Specific themes articulate the many types of behaviors individuals must master and their impact on return to work as well as on finding, maintaining, and deciding to leave employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successfully employed after injury must learn how to perform necessary behaviors to manage health and function in a work environment. The decision to leave employment often appears to be associated with secondary complications and other conditions that occur as persons with SCI age.

  16. Cloudy Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds). Read more here: 1.usa.gov/1P6lbMU Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-02

    ISS028-E-020276 (2 Aug. 2011) --- This photograph of polar mesospheric clouds was acquired at an altitude of just over 202 nautical miles (about 322 kilometers) in the evening hours (03:19:54 Greenwich Mean Time) on Aug. 2, 2011, as the International Space Station was passing over the English Channel. The nadir coordinates of the station were 49.1 degrees north latitude and 5.5 degrees west longitude. Polar mesospheric clouds (also known as noctilucent, or ?night-shining? clouds) are transient, upper atmospheric phenomena that are usually observed in the summer months at high latitudes (greater than 50 degrees) of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They appear bright and cloudlike while in deep twilight. They are illuminated by sunlight when the lower layers of the atmosphere are in the darkness of Earth?s shadow. The horizon of Earth appears at the bottom of the image, with some layers of the lower atmosphere already illuminated by the rising sun. The higher, bluish-colored clouds look much like wispy cirrus clouds, which can be found as high as 60,000 feet (18 kilometers) in the atmosphere. However noctilucent clouds, as seen here, are observed in the mesosphere at altitudes of 250,000 to 280,000 feet (about 76 to 85 kilometers). Astronaut observations of polar mesospheric clouds over northern Europe in the summer are not uncommon.

  18. Detectability Factors for Earth-based Imaging of the LCROSS Ejecta Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Schotte, Jonathan M.; Temme, Ruth L.; Chanover, Nancy J.

    2017-10-01

    NASA’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission delivered a kinetic impactor into Cabeus Crater on 9 October 2009 [1, 2]. Observing campaigns from Earth-based telescopes at multiple facilities attempted to obtain temporally-resolved imaging of the ejecta plume [3], but no Earth-based imaging detections were reported until 2013 after processing images with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) filtering [4]. Subsequently, PCA filtering has revealed plume detections in two additional cameras and also confirmed a non-detection from one telescope [5, 6]. This combination of detection and non-detection data is useful in determining the criteria for detectability in future observations of transient events. The goal of this work is to identify factors contributing to detectability and to establish thresholds applicable to the LCROSS event. We take the data containing detections and then degrade a specific factor in them until the plume is no longer detectable. These derived thresholds for factors (e.g., scattered light, temporal resolution, spatial resolution, field of view, and signal-to-noise of the illuminated foreground of Cabeus) can be compared to the properties of the actual non-detection data to identify problems specific to its observing conditions or observational setup. The percent differences between the thresholds and both the detection data and non-detection data may also reveal the relative importance of these detectability factors. This work was supported by NASA’s Lunar Data Analysis Program through grant number NNX15AP92G. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.References: [1] Colaprete, A. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 463-468. [2] Schultz, P. H. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 468-472. [3] Heldmann, J. L. et al. (2012) Space Sci. Rev., 167:93-140, doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9759-y. [4] Strycker, P. D. et al. (2013) Nat. Commun., 4

  19. A Comparison of Global Indexing Schemes to Facilitate Earth Science Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griessbaum, N.; Frew, J.; Rilee, M. L.; Kuo, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in database technology have led to systems optimized for managing petabyte-scale multidimensional arrays. These array databases are a good fit for subsets of the Earth's surface that can be projected into a rectangular coordinate system with acceptable geometric fidelity. However, for global analyses, array databases must address the same distortions and discontinuities that apply to map projections in general. The array database SciDB supports enormous databases spread across thousands of computing nodes. Additionally, the following SciDB characteristics are particularly germane to the coordinate system problem: SciDB efficiently stores and manipulates sparse (i.e. mostly empty) arrays. SciDB arrays have 64-bit indexes. SciDB supports user-defined data types, functions, and operators. We have implemented two geospatial indexing schemes in SciDB. The simplest uses two array dimensions to represent longitude and latitude. For representation as 64-bit integers, the coordinates are multiplied by a scale factor large enough to yield an appropriate Earth surface resolution (e.g., a scale factor of 100,000 yields a resolution of approximately 1m at the equator). Aside from the longitudinal discontinuity, the principal disadvantage of this scheme is its fixed scale factor. The second scheme uses a single array dimension to represent the bit-codes for locations in a hierarchical triangular mesh (HTM) coordinate system. A HTM maps the Earth's surface onto an octahedron, and then recursively subdivides each triangular face to the desired resolution. Earth surface locations are represented as the concatenation of an octahedron face code and a quadtree code within the face. Unlike our integerized lat-lon scheme, the HTM allow for objects of different size (e.g., pixels with differing resolutions) to be represented in the same indexing scheme. We present an evaluation of the relative utility of these two schemes for managing and analyzing MODIS swath data.

  20. Contributions of individual domains to function of the HIV-1 Rev response element.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Ina P; Thappeta, Yashna; Fan, Lixin; Ramirez-Valdez, Edric A; Smith, Sean; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2017-08-16

    The HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) is a 351-base element in unspliced and partially spliced viral RNA; binding of the RRE by the viral Rev protein induces nuclear export of RRE-containing RNAs, as required for virus replication. It contains one long, imperfect double helix (domain I), one branched domain (domain II) containing a high-affinity Rev-binding site, and two or three additional domains. We previously reported that the RRE assumes an "A" shape in solution and suggested that the location of the Rev binding sites in domains I and II, opposite each other on the two legs of the A, is optimal for Rev binding and explains Rev's specificity for RRE-containing RNAs. Using SAXS and a quantitative functional assay, we have now analyzed a panel of RRE mutants. All the results support the essential role of the A shape for RRE function. Moreover, they suggest that the distal portion of domain I and the three crowning domains all contribute to the maintenance of the A shape. Domains I and II are necessary and sufficient for substantial RRE function, provided they are joined by a flexible linker that allows the two domains to face each other. IMPORTANCE Retroviral replication requires that some of the viral RNAs transcribed in the cell nucleus be exported to the cytoplasm without being spliced. To achieve this, HIV-1 encodes a protein, Rev, which binds to a complex, highly structured element within viral RNA, the Rev Response Element (RRE), and escorts RRE-containing RNAs from the nucleus. We previously reported that the RRE is "A"-shaped and suggested that this architecture, with the 2 legs opposite one another, can explain the specificity of Rev for the RRE. We have analyzed the functional contributions of individual RRE domains, and now report that several domains contribute, with some redundancy, to maintenance of the overall RRE shape. The data strongly support the hypothesis that the opposed placement of the 2 legs is essential for RRE function. Copyright © 2017

  1. Contributions of Individual Domains to Function of the HIV-1 Rev Response Element

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, Ina P.; Thappeta, Yashna; Fan, Lixin; Ramirez-Valdez, Edric A.; Smith, Sean; Wang, Yun-Xing

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) is a 351-base element in unspliced and partially spliced viral RNA; binding of the RRE by the viral Rev protein induces nuclear export of RRE-containing RNAs, as required for virus replication. It contains one long, imperfect double helix (domain I), one branched domain (domain II) containing a high-affinity Rev-binding site, and two or three additional domains. We previously reported that the RRE assumes an “A” shape in solution and suggested that the location of the Rev binding sites in domains I and II, opposite each other on the two legs of the A, is optimal for Rev binding and explains Rev's specificity for RRE-containing RNAs. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and a quantitative functional assay, we have now analyzed a panel of RRE mutants. All the results support the essential role of the A shape for RRE function. Moreover, they suggest that the distal portion of domain I and the three crowning domains all contribute to the maintenance of the A shape. Domains I and II are necessary and sufficient for substantial RRE function, provided they are joined by a flexible linker that allows the two domains to face each other. IMPORTANCE Retroviral replication requires that some of the viral RNAs transcribed in the cell nucleus be exported to the cytoplasm without being spliced. To achieve this, HIV-1 encodes a protein, Rev, which binds to a complex, highly structured element within viral RNA, the Rev response element (RRE), and escorts RRE-containing RNAs from the nucleus. We previously reported that the RRE is “A” shaped and suggested that this architecture, with the 2 legs opposite one another, can explain the specificity of Rev for the RRE. We have analyzed the functional contributions of individual RRE domains and now report that several domains contribute, with some redundancy, to maintenance of the overall RRE shape. The data strongly support the hypothesis that the opposed placement of the 2 legs

  2. B23/nucleophosmin interacts with bovine immunodeficiency virus Rev protein and facilitates viral replication.

    PubMed

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Marchand, Claude; Archambault, Denis

    2018-02-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Rev shuttling protein contains nuclear/nucleolar localization signals and nuclear import/export mechanisms that are novel among lentivirus Rev proteins. Several viral proteins localize to the nucleolus, which may play a role in processes that are essential to the outcome of viral replication. Although BIV Rev localizes to the nucleoli of transfected/infected cells and colocalizes with one of its major proteins, nucleophosmin (NPM1, also known as B23), the role of the nucleolus and B23 in BIV replication remains to be determined. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that BIV Rev interacts with nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 in cells. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology, we show that depletion of B23 expression inhibits virus production by BIV-infected cells, indicating that B23 plays an important role in BIV replication. The interaction between Rev and B23 may represent a potential new target for the development of antiviral drugs against lentiviruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Psychological Health and Health Management.

    PubMed

    Reed, Karla S; Meade, Michelle A; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employment and psychological health and health management as described by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who were employed at least once following injury. Methods: A qualitative approach used 6 focus groups at 2 sites with 44 participants who were at least 10 years post SCI. All had been employed at some point since injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were delineated based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. Group sessions followed a semi-structured interview format with questions about personal, environmental, and policy related factors influencing employment following SCI. All group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded into conceptual categories to identify topics, themes, and patterns. Inferences were drawn about their meaning. NVivo 10 software using the constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Narratives discussed the relationship between employment and psychological and emotional health and health management. Four themes were identified: (1) adjustment and dealing with emotional reactions, (2) gaining self-confidence, (3) preventing burnout, and (4) attitudes and perspectives. Most themes reflected issues that varied based on severity of injury as well as stage of employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successful in working following injury must determine how to perform the behaviors necessary to manage their health and prevent emotional or physical complications. The emotional consequences of SCI must be recognized and addressed and specific behaviors enacted in order to optimize employment outcomes.

  5. Elasticity of the Earth's Lower Mantle Minerals at High Pressures: Implications to Understanding Seismic Observations of the Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. F.; Yang, J.; Fu, S.

    2017-12-01

    elasticity results are applied to advance our understanding of seismic structures, mineralogical models, and geodynamic processes of the deep Earth's interior. References: 1Yang et al., Sci. Rep., 2015; 2Fu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2017; 3Yang et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2016; 4Wu et al., Nature Comm., 2017.

  6. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-11

    ISS024-E-014233 (11 Sept. 2010) --- A smoke plume near the northern Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. This broad view of the north coast of the Caspian Sea shows a smoke plume (left) and two river deltas (bottom and lower right). The larger delta is that of the Volga River which appears prominently here in sunglint (light reflected off a water surface back towards the observer), and the smaller less prominent delta is that of the Ural River. Wide angle, oblique views ? taken looking outward at an angle, rather than straight down towards Earth ? such as this give an excellent impression of how crew members onboard the space station view Earth. For a sense of scale, the Caucasus Mts. (across the Caspian, top right) are approximately 1,100 kilometers to the southwest of the International Space Station?s nadir point location ? the point on Earth directly underneath the spacecraft ? at the time this image was taken. The smoke plume appears to be sourced in the dark-toned coastal marsh vegetation along the outer fringe of the Ural River delta, rather than in a city or at some oil storage facility. Although even small fires produce plumes that are long and bright and thus easily visible from space, the density of the smoke in this plume, and its 350-kilometer length across the entire north lobe of the Caspian Sea, suggest it was a significant fire. The smoke was thick enough nearer the source to cast shadows on the sea surface below. Lines mark three separate pulses of smoke, the most recent, nearest the source, extending directly south away from the coastline (lower left). With time, plumes become progressively more diffuse. The oldest pulse appears to be the thinnest, casting no obvious shadows (center left).

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-20

    ISS047e069406 (04/20/2016) ---Earth observation image taken by the Expedition 47 crew aboard the International Space Station. This is an oblique south-looking view of the main Bahama island chain. Cuba is across the entire top of the image, the Florida Peninsula on the right margin. In the Bahamas, the main Andros island is just distinguishable under cloud upper left of center. Under less cloud is the Abaco Islands in the foreground (middle of pic nearest camera left of center.)

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018729 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are just below center frame on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    ISS040-E-005979 (29 May 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to photograph this image from 222 nautical miles above Earth showing Harris County and Galveston County, Texas plus several other surrounding counties, including a long stretch along the Gulf of Mexico (bottom left). The entirety of Galveston Bay is visible at bottom center. Just below center lies the 1625-acre site of NASA's Johnson Space Center, one of the training venues for all space station crew members and the nearby long-time area of residence for NASA astronauts.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-31

    ISS036-E-027014 (31 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Eastern Europe on July 31, 2013, took this night picture looking toward the Mediterranean Sea, which almost blends into the horizon. Also visible are the Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Parts of the following countries are among those visible as well: Greece, Italy, Sicily, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Albania. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a number of stars in the late July sky. A solar array panel is visible in the darkness on the right side of the frame.

  11. Earth Explorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Explorer Web site provides access to millions of land-related products, including the following: Satellite images from Landsat, advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), and Corona data sets. Aerial photographs from the National Aerial Photography Program, NASA, and USGS data sets.  Digital cartographic data from digital elevation models, digital line graphs, digital raster graphics, and digital orthophoto quadrangles. USGS paper maps Digital, film, and paper products are available, and many products can be previewed before ordering.

  12. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-24

    A Delta II rocket carrying the Geomagnetic Tail Lab (GEOTAIL) spacecraft lifts off at Launch Complex 17, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a cloud-dappled sky. This liftoff marks the first Delta launch under the medium expendable launch vehicle services contract between NASA and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co. The GEOTAIL mission, a joint US/Japanese project, is the first in a series of five satellites to study the interactions between the Sun, the Earth's magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belts.

  13. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-31

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft embarks on a journey that will culminate in a close encounter with an asteroid. The launch of NEAR inaugurates NASA's irnovative Discovery program of small-scale planetary missions with rapid, lower-cost development cycles and focused science objectives. NEAR will rendezvous in 1999 with the asteroid 433 Eros to begin the first long-term, close-up look at an asteroid's surface composition and physical properties. NEAR's science payload includes an x-ray/gamma ray spectrometer, an near-infrared spectrograph, a laser rangefinder, a magnetometer, a radio science experiment and a multi-spectral imager.

  14. Herbal Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Subtle vegetation changes are visible in this year-long visualization. Large-scale patterns vary with seasons, but the local variations in green are also sensitive precipitation, drought and fire. High values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, represent dense green functioning vegetation and low NDVI values represent sparse green vegetation or vegetation under stress from limiting conditions, such as drought. The visualization was created from a year’s worth of data from April 2012 to April 2013. The information was sent back to Earth from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-17

    ISS036-E-009405 (17 June 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station, some 240 miles above Earth, used a 50mm lens to record this oblique nighttime image of a large part of the nation’s second largest state in area, including the four largest metropolitan areas in population. The extent of the metropolitan areas is easily visible at night due to city and highway lights. The largest metro area, Dallas-Fort Worth, often referred to informally as the Metroplex, is the heavily cloud-covered area at the top center of the photo. Neighboring Oklahoma, on the north side of the Red River, less than 100 miles to the north of the Metroplex, appears to be experiencing thunderstorms. The Houston metropolitan area, including the coastal city of Galveston, is at lower right. To the east near the Texas border with Louisiana, the metropolitan area of Beaumont-Port Arthur appears as a smaller blotch of light, also hugging the coast of the Texas Gulf. Moving inland to the left side of the picture one can delineate the San Antonio metro area. The capital city of Austin can be seen to the northeast of San Antonio. This and hundreds of thousands of other Earth photos taken by astronauts and cosmonauts over the past 50 years are available on http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-06

    ISS028-E-014782 (6 July 2011) --- The Shoemaker (formerly Teague) Impact Structure, located in Western Australia in a drainage basin south of the Waldburg Range, presents an other-worldly appearance in this detailed photograph recorded from onboard the International Space Station on July 6. The Shoemaker impact site is approximately 30 kilometers in diameter, and is clearly defined by concentric ring structures formed in sedimentary rocks (brown to dark brown, image center) that were deformed by the impact event approximately 1630 million years ago, according to the Earth Impact Database. Several saline and ephemeral lakes?Nabberu, Teague, Shoemaker, and numerous smaller ponds?occupy the land surface between the concentric ring structures. Differences in color result from both water depth and suspended sediments, with some bright salt crusts visible around the edges of smaller ponds (image center The Teague Impact Structure was renamed Shoemaker in honor of the late Dr. Eugene M. Shoemaker, a pioneer in the field of impact crater studies and planetary geology, and founder of the Astrogeology Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The image was recorded with a digital still camera using a 200 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  17. Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    PubMed Central

    Benkirane, A.; Idrissi, A.H. El; Doumbia, A.; de Balogh, K.

    2014-01-01

    A field trial was conducted in a camel brucellosis-free herd to evaluate antibody response to the Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels and assess shedding of the vaccine strain in milk. Twenty eight camels were divided into four groups according to their age and vaccination route. Groups A (n=3) and B (n=3) consisted of non-pregnant lactating female camels, vaccinated through subcutaneous and conjunctival routes, respectively. Groups C (n=10) consisted of 8-11 months old calves vaccinated through conjunctival route. The rest of the herd (n=12) composed of female and young camels were not vaccinated and were considered as the control group. Each animal from groups A, B and C was given the recommended dose of 2 × 109 colony forming units of Rev.1 vaccine irrespective of age or route of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from all the animals at the time of vaccination and at weekly, bi-weekly and monthly interval until 32 weeks post vaccination and from controls at weeks 8 and 24. The serological tests used were modified Rose Bengal Test, sero-agglutination test, and an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Milk samples were collected from all vaccinated female camels and tested for the presence of Rev.1 vaccine strain. Most vaccinated animals started to show an antibody response at week 2 and remained positive until week 16. By week 20 post-vaccination all animals in the three groups were tested negative for Brucella antibodies. Bacteriological analysis of milk samples did not allow any isolation of Brucella melitensis. All samples were found Brucella negative in PCR analysis. The results of this study indicate that the Rev.1 vaccine induces seroconversion in camels. Rev.1 vaccine strain is not excreted in the milk of camels. These findings are promising as to the safe use of the Rev.1 vaccine in camels. PMID:26623347

  18. Does the CDC Definition of Fever Accurately Predict Inflammation and Infection in Persons With SCI?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Lee, Shuko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia and septicemia have the greatest impact on reduced life expectancy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Fever is often the first presenting symptom of infection or inflammation. Thermoregulatory dysfunction in persons with SCI may preclude a typical febrile response to infection or inflammation and thus delay diagnostic workup. Objective: To determine the core temperature of persons with SCI in the setting of infection or inflammation and the frequency with which it meets criteria for the CDC definition of fever (>100.4°F). Methods: Retrospective review of hospitalized SCI patients over 5 years with a diagnosis of infection or inflammation (DI), defined by serum leukocytosis. In this study, 458 persons with paraplegia (PP) and 483 persons with tetraplegia (TP) had 4,191 DI episodes. Aural temperatures (Tau) on the day of DI, 7 days prior, and 14 days afterwards were abstracted from medical records. Main outcome measures were average Tau at DI, frequency of temperatures >100.4°F at DI, and average baseline temperatures before and after DI. Results: Average Tau at DI was 98.2°F (±1.5) and 98.2°F (±1.4) in the TP and PP groups, respectively, with only 11.6% to 14% of DI resulting in Tau >100.4°F. Baseline temperatures ranged from 97.9°F (±0.7) to 98.0°F (±0.8). Conclusion: SCI persons with leukocytosis infrequently mount a fever as defined by the CDC, and baseline temperatures were subnormal (<98.6°F). Thermoregulatory dysfunction likely accounts for these findings. Tau >100.4°F is not a sensitive predictor of infection or inflammation in persons with SCI. Clinicians should be vigilant for alternative symptoms of infection and inflammation in these patients, so diagnostic workup is not delayed. PMID:29339867

  19. Pediatric SCI/D caregiver mental health and family dynamics in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Sarah T; Perrin, Paul B; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Otálvaro, Nadezda Yulieth Méndez; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between family dynamics and the mental health of caregivers of youth with spinal cord injuries/disorders (SCI/D) caregivers from Colombia, South America. It was hypothesized that lower family functioning would be associated with poorer caregiver mental health. A cross-sectional study of self-report data collected from caregivers through the Hospital Universatario Hernando Moncaleano Perdomo in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty caregivers of children with SCI/D from Nevia, Colombia who were a primary caregiver for ≥3 months, providing care for an individual who was ≥6 months post-injury/diagnosis, familiar with the patient's history, and without neurological or psychiatric conditions. Caregivers' average age was 41.30 years (SD = 10.98), and 90% were female. Caregivers completed Spanish versions of instruments assessing their own mental health and family dynamics. Family dynamics explained 43.2% of the variance in caregiver burden and 50.1% of the variance in satisfaction with life, although family dynamics were not significantly associated with caregiver depression in the overall analysis. Family satisfaction was the only family dynamics variable to yield a significant unique association with any index of caregiver mental health (satisfaction with life). If similar findings emerge in future intervention research, interventions for pediatric SCI/D caregivers in Colombia and other similar global regions could benefit from including techniques to improve family dynamics, especially family satisfaction, given the strong potentially reciprocal connection between these dynamics and caregiver mental health. The degree of disability resulting from SCI/D can vary greatly depending on the severity and level of the lesion, though permanent impairment is often present that profoundly impacts both physical and psychological functioning. Very little is known about the impact of pediatric SCI/D in developing countries, despite the high rates of

  20. Implementing Connected Component Labeling as a User Defined Operator for SciDB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oloso, Amidu; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Clune, Thomas; Brown, Paul; Poliakov, Alex; Yu, Hongfeng

    2016-01-01

    We have implemented a flexible User Defined Operator (UDO) for labeling connected components of a binary mask expressed as an array in SciDB, a parallel distributed database management system based on the array data model. This UDO is able to process very large multidimensional arrays by exploiting SciDB's memory management mechanism that efficiently manipulates arrays whose memory requirements far exceed available physical memory. The UDO takes as primary inputs a binary mask array and a binary stencil array that specifies the connectivity of a given cell to its neighbors. The UDO returns an array of the same shape as the input mask array with each foreground cell containing the label of the component it belongs to. By default, dimensions are treated as non-periodic, but the UDO also accepts optional input parameters to specify periodicity in any of the array dimensions. The UDO requires four stages to completely label connected components. In the first stage, labels are computed for each subarray or chunk of the mask array in parallel across SciDB instances using the weighted quick union (WQU) with half-path compression algorithm. In the second stage, labels around chunk boundaries from the first stage are stored in a temporary SciDB array that is then replicated across all SciDB instances. Equivalences are resolved by again applying the WQU algorithm to these boundary labels. In the third stage, relabeling is done for each chunk using the resolved equivalences. In the fourth stage, the resolved labels, which so far are "flattened" coordinates of the original binary mask array, are renamed with sequential integers for legibility. The UDO is demonstrated on a 3-D mask of O(1011) elements, with O(108) foreground cells and O(106) connected components. The operator completes in 19 minutes using 84 SciDB instances.

  1. Does the CDC Definition of Fever Accurately Predict Inflammation and Infection in Persons With SCI?

    PubMed

    Trbovich, Michelle; Li, Carol; Lee, Shuko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia and septicemia have the greatest impact on reduced life expectancy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Fever is often the first presenting symptom of infection or inflammation. Thermoregulatory dysfunction in persons with SCI may preclude a typical febrile response to infection or inflammation and thus delay diagnostic workup. Objective: To determine the core temperature of persons with SCI in the setting of infection or inflammation and the frequency with which it meets criteria for the CDC definition of fever (>100.4°F). Methods: Retrospective review of hospitalized SCI patients over 5 years with a diagnosis of infection or inflammation (DI), defined by serum leukocytosis. In this study, 458 persons with paraplegia (PP) and 483 persons with tetraplegia (TP) had 4,191 DI episodes. Aural temperatures (T au ) on the day of DI, 7 days prior, and 14 days afterwards were abstracted from medical records. Main outcome measures were average T au at DI, frequency of temperatures >100.4°F at DI, and average baseline temperatures before and after DI. Results: Average T au at DI was 98.2°F (±1.5) and 98.2°F (±1.4) in the TP and PP groups, respectively, with only 11.6% to 14% of DI resulting in T au >100.4°F. Baseline temperatures ranged from 97.9°F (±0.7) to 98.0°F (±0.8). Conclusion: SCI persons with leukocytosis infrequently mount a fever as defined by the CDC, and baseline temperatures were subnormal (<98.6°F). Thermoregulatory dysfunction likely accounts for these findings. T au >100.4°F is not a sensitive predictor of infection or inflammation in persons with SCI. Clinicians should be vigilant for alternative symptoms of infection and inflammation in these patients, so diagnostic workup is not delayed.

  2. Spinal Cord Injury Community Survey: Understanding the Needs of Canadians with SCI.

    PubMed

    Noreau, Luc; Noonan, Vanessa K; Cobb, John; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of literature regarding service needs of people with SCI living in the community. Better assessment of expressed and met and unmet needs would help in the development of effective service delivery. From a national SCI Community Survey in Canada, the aim was to identify the most critical service needs of people living in the community at least 1 year post discharge from rehabilitation and the support they received to meet their needs. Data were collected mainly through a secure Web site and encompassed demographics, personal and household income, an SCI severity measure, and an SCI community needs measure containing information on 13 SCI-related needs. A total of 1,549 persons with SCI (traumatic lesion, n = 1,137; nontraumatic lesion, n = 412) across Canada completed the survey. Most critical needs for community integration were expressed by a substantial proportion of survey participants, but significantly more expressed and met needs were reported by persons with a traumatic than a nontraumatic lesion. Personal and environmental characteristics influenced the probability of expressing and meeting needs (eg, severity of injury and household income). Help and support to meet expressed needs were received from government agencies, community organizations, and friends or family. Better assessment of expressed and met or unmet needs for services remains a challenge but will serve as a tool to optimize service delivery in the community. Environmental barriers to services, particularly the process of getting needs met and associated costs, remain an issue that requires a reconsideration of some aspects of access to services.

  3. SCI Hospital in Home Program: Bringing Hospital Care Home for Veterans With Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Madaris, Linda L; Onyebueke, Mirian; Liebman, Janet; Martin, Allyson

    2016-01-01

    The complex nature of spinal cord injury (SCI) and the level of care required for health maintenance frequently result in repeated hospital admissions for recurrent medical complications. Prolonged hospitalizations of persons with SCI have been linked to the increased risk of hospital-acquired infections and development or worsening pressure ulcers. An evidence-based alternative for providing hospital-level care to patients with specific diagnoses who are willing to receive that level of care in the comfort of their home is being implemented in a Department of Veterans Affairs SCI Home Care Program. The SCI Hospital in Home (HiH) model is similar to a patient-centered interdisciplinary care model that was first introduced in Europe and later tested as part of a National Demonstration and Evaluation Study through Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and School of Public Health. This was funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The objectives of the program are to support veterans' choice and access to patient-centered care, reduce the reliance on inpatient medical care, allow for early discharge, and decrease medical costs. Veterans with SCI who are admitted to the HiH program receive daily oversight by a physician, daily visits by a registered nurse, access to laboratory services, oxygen, intravenous medications, and nursing care in the home setting. In this model, patients may typically access HiH services either as an "early discharge" from the hospital or as a direct admit to the program from the emergency department or SCI clinic. Similar programs providing acute hospital-equivalent care in the home have been previously implemented and are successfully demonstrating decreased length of stay, improved patient access, and increased patient satisfaction.

  4. Documentation of preventive care for pressure ulcers initiated during annual evaluations in SCI

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective Community-acquired pressure ulcers (PrUs) are a frequent cause of hospitalization of Veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) recommends that SCI annual evaluations include assessment of PrU risk factors, a thorough skin inspection and sharing of recommendations for PrU prevention strategies. We characterized consistency of preventive skin care during annual evaluations for Veterans with SCI as a first step in identifying strategies to more actively promote PrU prevention care in other healthcare encounters. Design/setting/participants Retrospective cross-sectional observational design, including review of electronic medical records for 206 Veterans with SCI admitted to 2 VA SCI centers from January-December, 2011. Outcome measures Proportion of applicable skin health elements documented (number of applicable elements/skin health elements documented). Results Our sample was primarily white (78%) male (96.1%), and mean age = 61 years. 40% of participants’ were hospitalized for PrU treatment, with a mean of 294 days (median = 345 days) from annual evaluation to the index admission. On average, Veterans received an average of 75.5% (IQR 68-86%) of applicable skin health elements. Documentation of applicable skin health elements was significantly higher during inpatient vs. outpatient annual evaluations (mean elements received = 80.3% and 64.3%, respectively, P > 0.001). No significant differences were observed in documentation of skin health elements by Veterans at high vs. low PrU risk. Conclusion Additional PrU preventive care in the VHA outpatient setting may increase identification and detection of PrU risk factors and early PrU damage for Veterans with SCI in the community, allowing for earlier intervention. PMID:26763668

  5. Valproic Acid Arrests Proliferation but Promotes Neuronal Differentiation of Adult Spinal NSPCs from SCI Rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Weihua; Yuan, Jichao; Huang, Lei; Xiang, Xin; Zhu, Haitao; Chen, Fei; Chen, Yanyan; Lin, Jiangkai; Feng, Hua

    2015-07-01

    Although the adult spinal cord contains a population of multipotent neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) exhibiting the potential to replace neurons, endogenous neurogenesis is very limited after spinal cord injury (SCI) because the activated NSPCs primarily differentiate into astrocytes rather than neurons. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, exerts multiple pharmacological effects including fate regulation of stem cells. In this study, we cultured adult spinal NSPCs from chronic compressive SCI rats and treated with VPA. In spite of inhibiting the proliferation and arresting in the G0/G1 phase of NSPCs, VPA markedly promoted neuronal differentiation (β-tubulin III(+) cells) as well as decreased astrocytic differentiation (GFAP(+) cells). Cell cycle regulator p21(Cip/WAF1) and proneural genes Ngn2 and NeuroD1 were increased in the two processes respectively. In vivo, to minimize the possible inhibitory effects of VPA to the proliferation of NSPCs as well as avoid other neuroprotections of VPA in acute phase of SCI, we carried out a delayed intraperitoneal injection of VPA (150 mg/kg/12 h) to SCI rats from day 15 to day 22 after injury. Both of the newborn neuron marker doublecortin and the mature neuron marker neuron-specific nuclear protein were significantly enhanced after VPA treatment in the epicenter and adjacent segments of the injured spinal cord. Although the impaired corticospinal tracks had not significantly improved, Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores in VPA treatment group were better than control. Our study provide the first evidence that administration of VPA enhances the neurogenic potential of NSPCs after SCI and reveal the therapeutic value of delayed treatment of VPA to SCI.

  6. Documentation of preventive care for pressure ulcers initiated during annual evaluations in SCI.

    PubMed

    Guihan, Marylou; Murphy, Deidre; Rogers, Thea J; Parachuri, Ramadevi; Sae Richardson, Michael; Lee, Kenneth K; Bates-Jensen, Barbara M

    2016-05-01

    Community-acquired pressure ulcers (PrUs) are a frequent cause of hospitalization of Veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) recommends that SCI annual evaluations include assessment of PrU risk factors, a thorough skin inspection and sharing of recommendations for PrU prevention strategies. We characterized consistency of preventive skin care during annual evaluations for Veterans with SCI as a first step in identifying strategies to more actively promote PrU prevention care in other healthcare encounters. Retrospective cross-sectional observational design, including review of electronic medical records for 206 Veterans with SCI admitted to 2 VA SCI centers from January-December, 2011. Proportion of applicable skin health elements documented (number of applicable elements/skin health elements documented). Our sample was primarily white (78%) male (96.1%), and mean age = 61 years. 40% of participants' were hospitalized for PrU treatment, with a mean of 294 days (median = 345 days) from annual evaluation to the index admission. On average, Veterans received an average of 75.5% (IQR 68-86%) of applicable skin health elements. Documentation of applicable skin health elements was significantly higher during inpatient vs. outpatient annual evaluations (mean elements received = 80.3% and 64.3%, respectively, P > 0.001). No significant differences were observed in documentation of skin health elements by Veterans at high vs. low PrU risk. Additional PrU preventive care in the VHA outpatient setting may increase identification and detection of PrU risk factors and early PrU damage for Veterans with SCI in the community, allowing for earlier intervention.

  7. REV-ERBs agonism suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss partially via FABP4 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Song, Chao; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Wei; Dong, Yonghui; Zhao, Liming; Liu, Huiyong; Guan, Hanfeng; Li, Feng

    2018-01-22

    REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are transcription repressors and circadian regulators. Previous investigations have shown that REV-ERBs repress the expression of target genes, including MMP9 and CX3CR1, in macrophages. Because MMP9 and CX3CR1 reportedly participate in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis, we inferred that REV-ERBs might play a role in osteoclastogenesis. In the present study, we found that the REV-ERBα level decreased significantly during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). REV-ERBα knockdown by small interfering RNA in BMMs resulted in the enhanced formation of osteoclasts, whereas REV-ERBβ knockdown showed no effect on osteoclast differentiation. Moreover, the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Intraperitoneal SR9009 administration prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss; this effect was accompanied by decreased serum RANKL and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen levels and increased osteoprotegerin levels. Further investigation revealed that NF-κB and MAPK activation and nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1, and c-fos expression were suppressed by SR9009. The level of reactive oxygen species was also decreased by SR9009, with NADPH oxidase subunits also being down-regulated. In addition, an expression microarray showed that FABP4, an intracellular lipid-binding protein, was up-regulated by REV-ERB agonism. BMS309403, an inhibitor of FABP4, partially prevented the suppression of osteoclastogenesis by SR9009 through stabilizing phosphorylation of p65. To summarize, our results proved that the REV-ERB agonism inhibited osteoclastogenesis partially via FABP4 up-regulation.-Song, C., Tan, P., Zhang, Z., Wu, W., Dong, Y., Zhao, L., Liu, H., Guan, H., Li, F. REV-ERBs agonism suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss partially via FABP4 upregulation.

  8. Unprecedented NES non-antagonistic inhibitor for nuclear export of Rev from Sida cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Kaneko, Masafumi; Shiomi, Atsushi; Yang, Guang-Ming; Yamaura, Toshiaki; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-03-15

    Bioassay-guided separation from the MeOH extract of the South American medicinal plant Sida cordifolia resulted in isolation of (10E,12Z)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (1) as an unprecedented NES non-antagonistic inhibitor for nuclear export of Rev. This mechanism of action was established by competitive experiment by the biotinylated probe derived from leptomycin B, the known NES antagonistic inhibitor. Additionally, structure-activity relationship analysis by use of the synthesized analogs clarified cooperation of several functionalities in the Rev-export inhibitory activity of 1. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Final Report for DOE Project: Portal Web Services: Support of DOE SciDAC Collaboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Thomas, PI; Geoffrey Fox, Co-PI; Gannon, D

    2007-10-01

    Grid portals provide the scientific community with familiar and simplified interfaces to the Grid and Grid services, and it is important to deploy grid portals onto the SciDAC grids and collaboratories. The goal of this project is the research, development and deployment of interoperable portal and web services that can be used on SciDAC National Collaboratory grids. This project has four primary task areas: development of portal systems; management of data collections; DOE science application integration; and development of web and grid services in support of the above activities.

  10. SciServer: An Online Collaborative Environment for Big Data in Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Souter, Barbara; Lemson, Gerard; Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr

    2017-01-01

    For the past year, SciServer Compute (http://compute.sciserver.org) has offered access to big data resources running within server-side Docker containers. Compute has allowed thousands of researchers to bring advanced analysis to big datasets like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and others, while keeping the analysis close to the data for better performance and easier read/write access. SciServer Compute is just one part of the SciServer system being developed at Johns Hopkins University, which provides an easy-to-use collaborative research environment for astronomy and many other sciences.SciServer enables these collaborative research strategies using Jupyter notebooks, in which users can write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the same server as the data. We have written special-purpose libraries for querying, reading, and writing data. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files.SciServer Compute’s virtual research environment has grown with the addition of task management and access control functions, allowing collaborators to share both data and analysis scripts securely across the world. These features also open up new possibilities for education, allowing instructors to share datasets with students and students to write analysis scripts to share with their instructors. We are leveraging these features into a new system called “SciServer Courseware,” which will allow instructors to share assignments with their students, allowing students to engage with big data in new ways.SciServer has also expanded to include more datasets beyond the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A part of that growth has been the addition of the SkyQuery component, which allows for simple, fast

  11. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwei; Kaplan, Nicole; Newman, Greg; Scarpino, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org), a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research.

  12. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwei; Kaplan, Nicole; Newman, Greg; Scarpino, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org), a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research. PMID:26492521

  13. Sulfur Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  14. Rev1 Recruits Ung to Switch Regions and Enhances dU Glycosylation for Immunoglobulin Class Switch DNA Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Hong; White, Clayton A.; Thomas, Lisa M.; Mai, Thach; Li, Guideng; Xu, Zhenming; Zhang, Jinsong; Casali, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY By diversifying the biological effector functions of antibodies, class switch DNA recombination (CSR) plays a critical role in the maturation of the immune response. It is initiated by AID-mediated dC deamination, yielding dUs, and dU glycosylation by Ung in antibody switch (S) region DNA. Here we showed that the translesion DNA synthesis polymerase Rev1 directly interacted with Ung and targeted in an AID-dependent and Ung-independent fashion the S regions undergoing CSR. Rev1–/– Ung+/+ B cells reduced Ung recruitment to S regions, DNA-dU glycosylation and CSR. This together with an S region spectrum of mutations similar to that of Rev1+/+ Ung–/– B cells suggested that Rev1 operated in the same pathway as Ung, as emphasized by further decreased CSR in Rev1–/– Msh2–/– B cells. Rescue of CSR in Rev1–/– B cells by a catalytically inactive Rev1 mutant showed that the important role of Rev1 in CSR is mediated by Rev1 scaffold, not enzymatic function. PMID:23140944

  15. [Analysis of the citation of the articles published in National Journal of Andrology by SCI periodicals from 2002 to 2008].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Science Citation Index (SCI) is one of the world's most important and influential information retrieval systems. Today Web of Science covers over 9000 international and regional journals and book series in every field of natural sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities. More and more Chinese periodicals have been cited by SCI. This paper briefly introduces the SCI database and its selection process and analyzes the citation of the articles published in National Journal of Andrology (NJA) by SCI journals from 2002 to 2008, aiming to provide some information for the internationalization of NJA.

  16. Cloudy Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds).

  17. Earth observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-31

    ISS040-E-113700 (31 Aug. 2014) --- This panorama view, photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station, shows tan-colored dust of a major dust storm obscuring the Persian Gulf and the its northern shoreline. Strong north winds often blow in summer, churning up dust from the entire length of the desert surfaces of the Tigris and Euphrates valleys (top left). Dust partly obscures the hundreds of kilometers of Iraq’s light-green agricultural lands along these rivers (left). A line of thunderstorms is being set off by the Zagros Mountains of Iran (right), with the setting sun casting long shadows from the thunderheads. Space station crews see sixteen sunrises and sunsets every day from low Earth orbit. Here the crew captured dusk in a darkening Iranian landscape (right).

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018725 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring most of the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are in lower right portion of the image on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  19. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-29

    ISS036-E-025908 (29 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Africa, took this night picture of Sicily (center frame) and much of Italy (frame left to frame center) on July 29, 2013. The Stretto de Messina, which separates Sicily from Italy, is near frame center. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a scenic horizon with a number of stars in the late July sky. Barely visible in the darkness, part of the long arm of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 runs diagonally through the right one-third of the image.

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-15

    ISS028-E-017123 (16 July 2011) --- Separate atmospheric optical phenomena were captured in this electronic still photograph from the Inernational Space Station. The thin greenish band stretching along the Earth's horizon is airglow; light emitted by the atmosphere from a layer about 30 kilometers thick and about 100 kilometers in altitude. The predominant emission in airglow is the green 5577 Angstrom wavelength light from atomic oxygen atoms. Airglow is always and everywhere present in the atmosphere; it results from the recombination of molecules that have been broken apart by solar radiation during the day. But airglow is so faint that it can only be seen at night by looking "edge on" at the emission layer, such as the view astronauts and cosmonauts have in orbit. The second phenomenon is the appearnce of Aurora Australis.

  1. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-22

    ISS042E007131 (11/22/2014) — Astronauts aboard the International Space Station captured this image of a huge crater in Africa on Nov. 22, 2014. This is the Richat Structure in northwestern Mauritania, otherwise known as the “Eye of the Sahara.” Scientists are still deciding whether this was formed by a subterranean volcano or impact from a large meteor. Deep in the Sahara Desert it is nearly a perfect circle, it is 1.2 miles (1.9 kilometers) wide, and sports a rim 330 feet (100 meters) tall. The crater sits in a vast plain of rocks so ancient they were deposited hundreds of millions of years before the first dinosaurs walked the Earth.

  2. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-13

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft undergoing preflight preparation in the Spacecraft Assembly Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). NEAR will perform two critical mission events - Mathilde flyby and the Deep-Space maneuver. NEAR will fly-by Mathilde, a 38-mile (61-km) diameter C-type asteroid, making use of its imaging system to obtain useful optical navigation images. The primary science instrument will be the camera, but measurements of magnetic fields and mass also will be made. The Deep-Space Maneuver (DSM) will be executed about a week after the Mathilde fly-by. The DSM represents the first of two major burns during the NEAR mission of the 100-pound bi-propellant (Hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide) thruster. This maneuver is necessary to lower the perihelion distance of NEAR's trajectory. The DSM will be conducted in two segments to minimize the possibility of an overburn situation.

  3. Interaction between the Rev1 C-terminal Domain and the PolD3 Subunit of Polζ Suggests a Mechanism of Polymerase Exchange upon Rev1/Polζ-Dependent Translesion Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pustovalova, Yulia; Magalhães, Mariana T. Q.; D’Souza, Sanjay; Rizzo, Alessandro A.; Korza, George; Walker, Graham C.; Korzhnev, Dmitry M.

    2016-01-01

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) is a mutagenic branch of cellular DNA damage tolerance that enables bypass replication over DNA lesions carried out by specialized low-fidelity DNA polymerases. The replicative bypass of most types of DNA damage is performed in a two-step process of Rev1/Polζ-dependent TLS. In the first step, a Y-family TLS enzyme, typically Polη, Polι or Polκ, inserts a nucleotide across DNA lesion. In the second step, a four-subunit B-family DNA polymerase Polζ (Rev3/Rev7/PolD2/PolD3 complex) extends the distorted DNA primer-template. The coordinated action of error-prone TLS enzymes is regulated through their interactions with the two scaffold proteins, the sliding clamp PCNA and the TLS polymerase Rev1. Rev1 interactions with all other TLS enzymes are mediated by its C-terminal domain (Rev1-CT), which can simultaneously bind the Rev7 subunit of Polζ and Rev1-interacting regions (RIRs) from Polη, Polι or Polκ. In this work, we identified a previously unknown RIR motif in the C-terminal part of PolD3 subunit of Polζ whose interaction with the Rev1-CT is among the tightest mediated by RIR motifs. Three-dimensional structure of the Rev1-CT/PolD3-RIR complex determined by NMR spectroscopy revealed a structural basis for the relatively high affinity of this interaction. The unexpected discovery of PolD3-RIR motif suggests a mechanism of 'inserter' to 'extender' DNA polymerase switch upon Rev1/Polζ-dependent TLS, in which the PolD3-RIR binding to the Rev1-CT (i) helps displace the 'inserter' Polη, Polι or Polκ from its complex with Rev1, and (ii) facilitates assembly of the four-subunit 'extender' Polζ through simultaneous interaction of Rev1-CT with Rev7 and PolD3 subunits. PMID:26982350

  4. 48 CFR 53.301-18 - SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations. 53.301-18 Section 53.301-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... for Quotations. EC01MY91.002 [60 FR 34763, July 3, 1995] ...

  5. Did Rev-1 small ruminants vaccination helped improve cattle brucellosis prevalence status in Algeria?

    PubMed

    Kardjadj, Moustafa

    2017-12-01

    In 2006, the Algerian authorities started the Rev-1 vaccination of sheep and goats; consequently, there was a significant improvement of small ruminant brucellosis sanitary status. In this paper, we attempt to study the effect of Rev-1 small ruminants' vaccination on cattle brucellosis prevalence in Algeria. Our results showed an overall cattle herd seroprevalence of 12% (9 positive herds of 75). The risk factor analysis using a logistic regression model indicated that the presence of small ruminants along with cattle in the herd (mixed herds) decreased the odds for brucellosis seropositivity by 1.69 [95% CI 0.54-2.84; P = 0.042] compared to the cattle herds only. Likewise, the present study showed that the presence of Rev-1 vaccinated small ruminants in the herd decreased also the odds for brucellosis seropositivity by 4.10 [95% CI 3.20-5.00; P = 0.003] compared to other herds. This result lead to the assumption that the small ruminants Rev-1 vaccination diminish Brucella microbisme pressure in the mixed herds and help decrease the cattle brucellosis prevalence in these herds.

  6. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Brucella melitensis Vaccine Strain Rev 1 and a Virulent Strain, 16M

    PubMed Central

    Eschenbrenner, Michel; Wagner, Mary Ann; Horn, Troy A.; Kraycer, Jo Ann; Mujer, Cesar V.; Hagius, Sue; Elzer, Philip; DelVecchio, Vito G.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Brucella consists of bacterial pathogens that cause brucellosis, a major zoonotic disease characterized by undulant fever and neurological disorders in humans. Among the different Brucella species, Brucella melitensis is considered the most virulent. Despite successful use in animals, the vaccine strains remain infectious for humans. To understand the mechanism of virulence in B. melitensis, the proteome of vaccine strain Rev 1 was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and compared to that of virulent strain 16M. The two strains were grown under identical laboratory conditions. Computer-assisted analysis of the two B. melitensis proteomes revealed proteins expressed in either 16M or Rev 1, as well as up- or down-regulation of proteins specific for each of these strains. These proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. It was found that certain metabolic pathways may be deregulated in Rev 1. Expression of an immunogenic 31-kDa outer membrane protein, proteins utilized for iron acquisition, and those that play a role in sugar binding, lipid degradation, and amino acid binding was altered in Rev 1. PMID:12193611

  7. Comparative proteome analysis of Brucella melitensis vaccine strain Rev 1 and a virulent strain, 16M.

    PubMed

    Eschenbrenner, Michel; Wagner, Mary Ann; Horn, Troy A; Kraycer, Jo Ann; Mujer, Cesar V; Hagius, Sue; Elzer, Philip; DelVecchio, Vito G

    2002-09-01

    The genus Brucella consists of bacterial pathogens that cause brucellosis, a major zoonotic disease characterized by undulant fever and neurological disorders in humans. Among the different Brucella species, Brucella melitensis is considered the most virulent. Despite successful use in animals, the vaccine strains remain infectious for humans. To understand the mechanism of virulence in B. melitensis, the proteome of vaccine strain Rev 1 was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and compared to that of virulent strain 16M. The two strains were grown under identical laboratory conditions. Computer-assisted analysis of the two B. melitensis proteomes revealed proteins expressed in either 16M or Rev 1, as well as up- or down-regulation of proteins specific for each of these strains. These proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. It was found that certain metabolic pathways may be deregulated in Rev 1. Expression of an immunogenic 31-kDa outer membrane protein, proteins utilized for iron acquisition, and those that play a role in sugar binding, lipid degradation, and amino acid binding was altered in Rev 1.

  8. Erratum: Binary neutron stars with arbitrary spins in numerical relativity [Phys. Rev. D 92, 124012 (2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacik, Nick; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Haas, Roland; Ossokine, Serguei; Kaplan, Jeff; Muhlberger, Curran; Duez, Matt D.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    The code used in [Phys. Rev. D 92, 124012 (2015)] erroneously computed the enthalpy at the center of the neutron stars. Upon correcting this error, density oscillations in evolutions of rotating neutron stars are significantly reduced (from ˜20 % to ˜0.5 % ). Furthermore, it is possible to construct neutron stars with faster rotation rates.

  9. REV7 counteracts DNA double-strand break resection and impacts PARP inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guotai; Yuan, Jingsong; Mistrik, Martin; Bouwman, Peter; Bartkova, Jirina; Gogola, Ewa; Warmerdam, Daniël; Barazas, Marco; Jaspers, Janneke E.; Watanabe, Kenji; Pieterse, Mark; Kersbergen, Ariena; Sol, Wendy; Celie, Patrick H. N.; Schouten, Philip C.; van den Broek, Bram; Salman, Ahmed; Nieuwland, Marja; de Rink, Iris; de Ronde, Jorma; Jalink, Kees; Boulton, Simon J.; Chen, Junjie; van Gent, Dik C.; Bartek, Jiri; Jonkers, Jos; Borst, Piet; Rottenberg, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Summary Error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is achieved by homologous recombination (HR), and BRCA1 is an important factor for this repair pathway1. In the absence of BRCA1-mediated HR, administration of PARP inhibitors induces synthetic lethality of tumor cells of patients with breast or ovarian cancers2,3. Despite the benefit of this tailored therapy, drug resistance can occur by HR restoration4. Genetic reversion of BRCA1-inactivating mutations can be the underlying mechanism of drug resistance, but this does not explain resistance in all cases5. In particular, little is known about BRCA1-independent restoration of HR. Here, we show that loss of REV7 (also known as MAD2L2) re-establishes CtIP-dependent end resection of DSBs in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to HR restoration and PARP inhibitor resistance, reversed by ATM kinase inhibition. REV7 is recruited to DSBs in a manner dependent on the H2AX-MDC1-RNF8-RNF168-53BP1 chromatin pathway, and appears to block HR and promote end joining in addition to its regulatory role in DNA damage tolerance6. Finally, we establish that REV7 blocks DSB resection to promote non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Our results reveal an unexpected critical function of REV7 downstream of 53BP1 in coordinating pathological DSB repair pathway choices in BRCA1-deficient cells. PMID:25799992

  10. Circadian Amplitude Regulation via FBXW7-Targeted REV-ERBα Degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuan; Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Han, Xuemei; Cho, Han; Chong, Ling-Wa; Lamia, Katja; Liu, Sihao; Atkins, Annette R; Banayo, Ester; Liddle, Christopher; Yu, Ruth T; Yates, John R; Kay, Steve A; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M

    2016-06-16

    Defects in circadian rhythm influence physiology and behavior with implications for the treatment of sleep disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer. Although core regulatory components of clock rhythmicity have been defined, insight into the mechanisms underpinning amplitude is limited. Here, we show that REV-ERBα, a core inhibitory component of clock transcription, is targeted for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the F-box protein FBXW7. By relieving REV-ERBα-dependent repression, FBXW7 provides an unrecognized mechanism for enhancing the amplitude of clock gene transcription. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of REV-ERBα is necessary for FBXW7 recognition. Moreover, targeted hepatic disruption of FBXW7 alters circadian expression of core clock genes and perturbs whole-body lipid and glucose levels. This CDK1-FBXW7 pathway controlling REV-ERBα repression defines an unexpected molecular mechanism for re-engaging the positive transcriptional arm of the clock, as well as a potential route to manipulate clock amplitude via small molecule CDK1 inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Segregation of Clock and Non-Clock Regulatory Functions of REV-ERB.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew A; Burris, Thomas P

    2015-08-04

    The molecular clock is a master controller of circadian cellular processes that affect growth, metabolic homeostasis, and behavior. A report in Science by Zhang et al. (2015) redefines our understanding of how Rev-erba acts as an internal feedback inhibitor that modulates activity of the core clock while simultaneously regulating tissue-specific metabolic processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterial susceptibility patterns in patients with spinal cord injury and disorder (SCI/D): an opportunity for customized stewardship tools.

    PubMed

    Suda, K J; Patel, U C; Sabzwari, R; Cao, L; Ramanathan, S; Hill, J N; Evans, C T

    2016-11-01

    Retrospective observational study of bacterial susceptibilities in Veterans with SCI/D as compared to a general patient population. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the prevalence and susceptibility of bacteria isolated from spinal cord injury and disorder (SCI/D) patients as compared with a general patient population and determine whether a SCI/D-specific antibiogram, a report of bacterial susceptibilities used to guide empiric antibiotic selection, would be a useful stewardship tool. Veterans Affairs Medical Center located in Cook county, IL, USA. Microbiology reports from 1 October 2012 to 30 September 2013 were compiled into a SCI/D-specific antibiogram and compared to a non-SCI/D antibiogram. Persons with positive cultures and SCI/D were younger and had a higher Charlson Index as compared to non-SCI/D patients (P<0.0001 for both). Five thousand one hundred and thirty-one unique isolate cultures were evaluated (SCI/D=23.0%). Frequencies of pathogens isolated in SCI/D and non-SCI/D differed. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurred more frequently in SCI/D (27.8% vs 55.4%; P<0.0001). Gram-negatives had generally lower susceptibilities in SCI/D and a higher frequency of organisms producing extended-spectrum Beta-lactamases (17.6% vs 5.0%; P<0.0001), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (2.4% vs 0.5%; P<0.0001), carbapenem resistance (7.6% vs 2.4%; P<0.0001) and isolates resistant to ⩾3 antibiotic classes (60.7% vs 28.0%; P=0.0001). Different pathogens with poorer susceptibilities are isolated in SCI/D. Thus an SCI/D-specific antibiogram reflective of resistance patterns in these patients may increase the appropriateness of empiric antibiotic selection. The frequency of multi-drug resistant organisms in cultures obtained from patients with SCI/D is worrisome.

  13. Identification of Small Molecule Translesion Synthesis Inhibitors That Target the Rev1-CT/RIR Protein-Protein Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sail, Vibhavari; Rizzo, Alessandro A; Chatterjee, Nimrat; Dash, Radha C; Ozen, Zuleyha; Walker, Graham C; Korzhnev, Dmitry M; Hadden, M Kyle

    2017-07-21

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) is an important mechanism through which proliferating cells tolerate DNA damage during replication. The mutagenic Rev1/Polζ-dependent branch of TLS helps cancer cells survive first-line genotoxic chemotherapy and introduces mutations that can contribute to the acquired resistance so often observed with standard anticancer regimens. As such, inhibition of Rev1/Polζ-dependent TLS has recently emerged as a strategy to enhance the efficacy of first-line chemotherapy and reduce the acquisition of chemoresistance by decreasing tumor mutation rate. The TLS DNA polymerase Rev1 serves as an integral scaffolding protein that mediates the assembly of the active multiprotein TLS complexes. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between the C-terminal domain of Rev1 (Rev1-CT) and the Rev1-interacting region (RIR) of other TLS DNA polymerases play an essential role in regulating TLS activity. To probe whether disrupting the Rev1-CT/RIR PPI is a valid approach for developing a new class of targeted anticancer agents, we designed a fluorescence polarization-based assay that was utilized in a pilot screen for small molecule inhibitors of this PPI. Two small molecule scaffolds that disrupt this interaction were identified, and secondary validation assays confirmed that compound 5 binds to Rev1-CT at the RIR interface. Finally, survival and mutagenesis assays in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells treated with cisplatin and ultraviolet light indicate that these compounds inhibit mutagenic Rev1/Polζ-dependent TLS in cells, validating the Rev1-CT/RIR PPI for future anticancer drug discovery and identifying the first small molecule inhibitors of TLS that target Rev1-CT.

  14. A pilot study examining correlates of body image among women living with SCI.

    PubMed

    Bassett, R L; Martin Ginis, K A; Buchholz, A C

    2009-06-01

    Cross-sectional pilot study. To explore correlates of body image among women with spinal cord injury (SCI), within the framework of Cash's cognitive behavioral model of body image. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Women with SCI (N=11, 64% with tetraplegia) reported their functional and appearance body image (Adult Body Satisfaction Questionnaire). A 3-day recall of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), three measures of body composition (that is, weight, waist circumference, body fat) and several demographic variables were assessed as potential correlates. Appearance satisfaction was negatively correlated with all three measures of body composition and positively correlated with years postinjury. Functional satisfaction was positively correlated with years postinjury, and negatively correlated with various LTPA variables. Functional and appearance body image may improve with time following SCI. Body composition may impact satisfaction with physical appearance for some women. The negative relationship between LTPA and functional satisfaction merits further examination, as functional dissatisfaction may motivate individuals to engage in certain types and intensities of LTPA. Correlates of body image differ between appearance and functional satisfaction. Future research should examine appearance and functional satisfaction separately among women with SCI.

  15. SciJourn is magic: construction of a science journalism community of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Celeste R.

    2017-06-01

    This article is the first to describe the discoursal construction of an adolescent community of practice (CoP) in a non-school setting. CoPs can provide optimal learning environments. The adolescent community centered around science journalism and positioned itself dichotomously in relationship to school literacy practices. The analysis focuses on recordings from a panel-style research interview from an early implementation of the Science Literacy Through Science Journalism (SciJourn) project. Researchers trained high school students participating in a youth development program to write science news articles. Students engaged in the authentic practices of professional science journalists, received feedback from a professional editor, and submitted articles for publication. I used a fine-grained critical discourse analysis of genre, discourse, and style to analyze student responses about differences between writing in SciJourn and in school. Students described themselves as agentic in SciJourn and passive in school, using an academic writing discourse of deficit to describe schooling experiences. They affiliated with and defined a SciJourn CoP, constructing positive journalistic identities therein. Educators are encouraged to develop similar CoPs. The discursive features presented may be used to monitor the development of communities of practice in a variety of settings.

  16. Valproic acid improves locomotion in vivo after SCI and axonal growth of neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lei; Han, Xiang; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xin; Dong, Qiang

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have found that valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor, improves outcomes in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). The study here aimed to further illuminate the neuroprotective effects of VPA against SCI, both in vivo and in vitro. First, spinal cord injury was performed in rats using NYU impactor. Delayed VPA injection (8 h following SCI) significantly accelerated locomotor recovery. VPA therapy also suppressed SCI-induced hypoacetylation of histone and promoted expressions of BDNF and GDNF. Next, the influence of VPA on axonal growth inhibited by a myelin protein was tested. Neurons from embryonic spinal cord or hippocampus were cultured on plates coated with Nogo-A peptide, and escalating concentrations of VPA were added into the cultures. VPA treatment, in a concentration dependent manner, allowed neurons to overcome Nogo-A inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Meanwhile, VPA exposure increased the level of histone acetylation and expression of BDNF in spinal neurons. Cumulatively, these findings indicate that VPA is possibly a promising medication and deserves translational trials for spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calibration of the soil conditioning index (SCI) to soil organic carbon in the southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prediction of soil organic C sequestration with adoption of various conservation agricultural management approaches is needed to meet the emerging market for environmental services provided by agricultural land stewardship. The soil conditioning index (SCI) is a relatively simple model used by the ...

  18. A Program Design To Motivate Individuals with SCI for Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotzin, Martha

    The report compares a skin care education program with a standard rehabilitation program to determine whether the program improved the self care motivations of spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegic and quadriplegic inpatients (N=42). Study findings suggest that the skin care educational program was successful in changing patients' thinking about…

  19. Research Report for GeSci Meta-Review of ICT in Education: Phase Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBaron, John; McDonough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This second phase of a comprehensive meta-review of educational ICT research and practice addresses global developments reflected in the research and development literature appearing since 2006. Completed in April 2009, the Phase One (P1) report comprised a synopsis of research related to GeSci's five thematic inquiry priorities. Preliminary…

  20. MySci Advisors: Establishing a Peer-Mentoring Program for First Year Science Student Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Would you like to help your students adjust to university life? Perhaps you are simply interested in allowing them to feel more integrated into a department right from the start of their first year? These were the types of issues that we were hoping to address when we founded the MySci Advisors Program, a peer-mentoring group for first year…

  1. The SciELO Open Access: A Gold Way from the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Abel L.

    2009-01-01

    Open access has long emphasized access to scholarly materials. However, open access can also mean access to the means of producing visible and recognized journals. This issue is particularly important in developing and emergent countries. The SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library On-line) project, first started in Brazil and, shortly afterward, in…

  2. Looking at Life. Teacher's Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  3. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory SciDAC-2 Closeout Report Indiana University Component

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, Steven Arthur; DeTar, Carleton; Tousaint, Doug

    This is the closeout report for the Indiana University portion of the National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory project supported by the United States Department of Energy under the SciDAC program. It includes information about activities at Indian University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Utah, as those three universities coordinated their activities.

  4. SciEthics Interactive: Science and Ethics Learning in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan; Pierlott, Matthew; Kahn, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Learning in immersive 3D environments allows students to collaborate, build, and interact with difficult course concepts. This case study examines the design and development of the TransGen Island within the SciEthics Interactive project, a National Science Foundation-funded, 3D virtual world emphasizing learning science content in the context of…

  5. What Makes Things Happen? Teacher's Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. Ertapenem-associated neurotoxicity in the Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) population: a case series.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ursula C; Fowler, Mallory A

    2017-09-06

    Context Ertapenem, a broad spectrum carbapenem antibiotic, is used often in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients due to increased risk factors for multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections in this population. Neurotoxicity, specifically seizures, due to ertapenem is a known adverse effect and has been described previously. Other manifestations such as delirium and visual hallucinations have rarely been reported, and no literature, to the best of our knowledge, specifically describes these effects solely in the SCI population. Findings Four cases of mental status changes and hallucinations in SCI patients attributed to ertapenem therapy are described. Onset of symptoms began between one and six days following initiation of ertapenem and resolved between two to 42 days following discontinuation. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, a probable relationship exists between the adverse events and ertapenem for three out of the four cases. Possible overestimation of renal function and hypoalbuminemia may be contributing factors to the noted adverse reactions. Conclusion/Clinical Relevance The cases described highlight the importance of recognizing ertapenem-associated hallucinations in SCI patients. The population is particularly vulnerable due to risk factors for MDR infections necessitating ertapenem use, possible overestimation of renal function, and a high prevalence of hypoalbuminemia.

  7. Impact of an implanted neuroprosthesis on community ambulation in incomplete SCI.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Lisa M; Kobetic, Rudolf; Pinault, Gilles; Foglyano, Kevin M; Bailey, Stephanie N; Selkirk, Stephen; Triolo, Ronald J

    2018-03-01

    Test the effect of a multi-joint control with implanted electrical stimulation on walking after spinal cord injury (SCI). Single subject research design with repeated measures. Hospital-based biomechanics laboratory and user assessment of community use. Female with C6 AIS C SCI 30 years post injury. Lower extremity muscle activation with an implanted pulse generator and gait training. Walking speed, maximum distance, oxygen consumption, upper extremity (UE) forces, kinematics and self-assessment of technology. Short distance walking speed at one-year follow up with or without stimulation was not significantly different from baseline. However, average walking speed was significantly faster (0.22 m/s) with stimulation over longer distances than volitional walking (0.12 m/s). In addition, there was a 413% increase in walking distance from 95 m volitionally to 488 m with stimulation while oxygen consumption and maximum upper extremity forces decreased by 22 and 16%, respectively. Stimulation also produced significant (P ≤ 0.001) improvements in peak hip and knee flexion, ankle angle at foot off and at mid-swing. An implanted neuroprosthesis enabled a subject with incomplete SCI to walk longer distances with improved hip and knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion resulting in decreased oxygen consumption and UE support. Further research is required to determine the robustness, generalizability and functional implications of implanted neuroprostheses for community ambulation after incomplete SCI.

  8. Stepping responses to treadmill perturbations vary with severity of motor deficits in human SCI.

    PubMed

    Chu, Virginia Way Tong; Hornby, T George; Schmit, Brian D

    2018-04-18

    In this study, we investigated the responses to tread perturbations during human stepping on a treadmill. Our approach was to test the effects of perturbations to a single leg using a split-belt treadmill in healthy participants and in participants with varying severity of spinal cord injury (SCI). We recruited 11 people with incomplete SCI and 5 noninjured participants. As participants walked on an instrumented treadmill, the belt on one side was stopped or accelerated briefly during mid to late stance. A majority of participants initiated an unnecessary swing when the treadmill was stopped in mid stance, although the likelihood of initiating a step was decreased in participants with more severe SCI. Accelerating or decelerating one belt of the treadmill during stance altered the characteristics of swing. We observed delayed swing initiation when the belt was decelerated (i.e. the hip was in a more flexed position at time of swing) and advanced swing initiation with acceleration (i.e. hip extended at swing initiation). Further, the timing and leg posture of heel strike appeared to remain constant, reflected by a sagittal plane hip angle at heel strike that remained the same regardless of the perturbation. In summary, our results supported the current understanding of the role of sensory feedback and central drive in the control of stepping in participants with incomplete SCI and noninjured participants. In particular, the observation of unnecessary swing during a stop perturbation highlights the interdependence of central and sensory drive in walking control.

  9. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert

    2013-04-20

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems had high priority within DOE SC at the start of the second phase of the SciDAC program, SciDAC-2, as it continues to do so today. Achieving expected levels of performance on high-end computing (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing architectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, the University of Southern California?s Information Sciences Institute organized the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineeringmore » of high profile applications. Within PERI, USC?s primary research activity was automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity was spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and was based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other recent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our other major component was application engagement, to which we devoted approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with SciDAC-2 applications. This report is a summary of the overall results of the USC PERI effort.« less

  10. A Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania (SCI-K): preliminary validity and reliability testing.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won; McCabe, James S

    2006-06-01

    Kleptomania presents difficulties in diagnosis for clinicians. This study aimed to develop and test a DSM-IV-based diagnostic instrument for kleptomania. To assess for current kleptomania the Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania (SCI-K) was administered to 112 consecutive subjects requesting psychiatric outpatient treatment for a variety of disorders. Reliability and validity were determined. Classification accuracy was examined using the longitudinal course of illness. The SCI-K demonstrated excellent test-retest (Phi coefficient = 0.956 (95% CI = 0.937, 0.970)) and inter-rater reliability (phi coefficient = 0.718 (95% CI = 0.506, 0.848)) in the diagnosis of kleptomania. Concurrent validity was observed with a self-report measure using DSM-IV kleptomania criteria (phi coefficient = 0.769 (95% CI = 0.653, 0.850)). Discriminant validity was observed with a measure of depression (point biserial coefficient = -0.020 (95% CI = -0.205, 0.166)). The SCI-K demonstrated both high sensitivity and specificity based on longitudinal assessment. The SCI-K demonstrated excellent reliability and validity in diagnosing kleptomania in subjects presenting with various psychiatric problems. These findings require replication in larger groups, including non-psychiatric populations, to examine their generalizability. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Measurement properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Functional Index (SCI-FI) short forms.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Allen W; Dijkers, Marcel P; Ni, Pengsheng; Tulsky, David S; Jette, Alan

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Functional Index (SCI-FI) short forms (basic mobility, self-care, fine motor, ambulation, manual wheelchair, and power wheelchair) based on internal consistency; correlations between short forms banks, full item bank forms, and a 10-item computer adaptive test version; magnitude of ceiling and floor effects; and test information functions. Cross-sectional cohort study. Six rehabilitation hospitals in the United States. Individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury (N=855) recruited from 6 national Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems facilities. Not applicable. SCI-FI full item bank, 10-item computer adaptive test, and parallel short form scores. The SCI-FI short forms (with separate versions for individuals with paraplegia and tetraplegia) demonstrate very good internal consistency, group-level reliability, excellent correlations between short forms and scores based on the total item bank, and minimal ceiling and floor effects (except ceiling effects for persons with paraplegia on self-care, fine motor, and power wheelchair ability and floor effects for persons with tetraplegia on self-care, fine motor, and manual wheelchair ability). The test information functions are acceptable across the range of scores where most persons in the sample performed. Clinicians and researchers should consider the SCI-FI short forms when computer adaptive testing is not feasible. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Research progress from the SCI Model Systems (SCIMS): An interactive discussion on future directions.

    PubMed

    Boninger, Michael L; Field-Fote, Edelle C; Kirshblum, Steven C; Lammertse, Daniel P; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Hudson, Lesley; Heinemann, Allen W

    2018-03-01

    To describe current and future directions in spinal cord injury (SCI) research. The SCI Model Systems (SCIMS) programs funded by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) during the 2011 to 2016 cycle provided abstracts describing findings from current research projects. Discussion among session participants generated ideas for research opportunities. Pre-conference workshop before the 2016 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) annual meeting. A steering committee selected by the SCIMS directors that included the moderators of the sessions at the ASIA pre-conference workshop, researchers presenting abstracts during the session, and the audience of over 100 attending participants in the pre-conference workshop. Group discussion followed presentations in 5 thematic areas of (1) Demographics and Measurement; (2) Functional Training; (3) Psychosocial Considerations; (4) Assistive Technology; and (5) Secondary Conditions. The steering committee reviewed and summarized discussion points on future directions for research and made recommendations for research based on the discussion in each of the five areas. Significant areas in need of research in SCI remain, the goal of which is continued improvement in the quality of life of individuals with SCI.

  13. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Final report], September 1, 1991--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E.; Diaz, O.; Cox, J.

    1994-12-31

    The program of SciTech Clubs for Girls and its progress are described. This is a program that promotes the learning of science and mathematics by girls in the age range of 9 to 13 years through the process of building exhibits and learning from local professionals. A list of exhibits and a critique of the program are given.

  14. FES-Rowing versus Zoledronic Acid to Improve Bone Health in SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    although the risk is high in this population of osteoporosis -related bone fracture. This study aims to learn if the severe osteoporosis in lower... Osteoporosis , FES-rowing, zoledronic acid, exercise, bone health 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...9 Introduction Serious spinal cord injury (SCI) causes osteoporosis in the lower extremities, significantly increasing

  15. Microlithography and resist technology information at your fingertips via SciFinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konuk, Rengin; Macko, John R.; Staggenborg, Lisa

    1997-07-01

    Finding and retrieving the information you need about microlithography and resist technology in a timely fashion can make or break your competitive edge in today's business environment. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) provides the most complete and comprehensive database of the chemical literature in the CAplus, REGISTRY, and CASREACT files including 13 million document references, 15 million substance records and over 1.2 million reactions. This includes comprehensive coverage of positive and negative resist formulations and processing, photoacid generation, silylation, single and multilayer resist systems, photomasks, dry and wet etching, photolithography, electron-beam, ion-beam and x-ray lithography technologies and process control, optical tools, exposure systems, radiation sources and steppers. Journal articles, conference proceedings and patents related to microlithography and resist technology are analyzed and indexed by scientific information analysts with strong technical background in these areas. The full CAS database, which is updated weekly with new information, is now available at your desktop, via a convenient, user-friendly tool called 'SciFinder.' Author, subject and chemical substance searching is simplified by SciFinder's smart search features. Chemical substances can be searched by chemical structure, chemical name, CAS registry number or molecular formula. Drawing chemical structures in SciFinder is easy and does not require compliance with CA conventions. Built-in intelligence of SciFinder enables users to retrieve substances with multiple components, tautomeric forms and salts.

  16. SciELO, Scientific Electronic Library Online, a Database of Open Access Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghini, Rogerio

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses SciELO, a scientific journal database operating in 14 countries. It covers over 1000 journals providing open access to full text and table sets of scientometrics data. In Brazil it is responsible for a collection of nearly 300 journals, selected along 15 years as the best Brazilian periodicals in natural and social sciences.…

  17. Particles in Action. Teacher's Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  18. Understanding Quality of Life in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury Via SCI-Related Needs and Secondary Complications.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Shane N; Noreau, Luc; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that can predict greater quality of life (QoL) is important for adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), given that they report lower levels of QoL than the general population. To build a conceptual model linking SCI-related needs, secondary complications, and QoL in adults with SCI. Prior to testing the conceptual model, we aimed to develop and evaluate the factor structure for both SCI-related needs and secondary complications. Individuals with a traumatic SCI (N = 1,137) responded to an online survey measuring 13 SCI-related needs, 13 secondary complications, and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire to assess QoL. The SCI-related needs and secondary complications were conceptualized into factors, tested with a confirmatory factor analysis, and subsequently evaluated in a structural equation model to predict QoL. The confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor model for SCI related needs, χ(2)(61, N = 1,137) = 250.40, P <.001, comparative fit index (CFI) = .93, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .05, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = .04, and for 11 of the 13 secondary complications, χ(2)(44, N = 1,137) = 305.67, P < .001, CFI = .91, RMSEA = .060, SRMR = .033. The final 2 secondary complications were kept as observed constructs. In the structural model, both vital and personal development unmet SCI-related needs (β = -.22 and -.20, P < .05, respectively) and the neuro-physiological systems factor (β = -.45, P < .05) were negatively related with QoL. Identifying unmet SCI-related needs of individuals with SCI and preventing or managing secondary complications are essential to their QoL.

  19. Not just quantity: gluteus maximus muscle characteristics in able-bodied and SCI individuals--implications for tissue viability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gary A; Bogie, Kath M

    2013-08-01

    Some individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) remain pressure ulcer (PU) free whilst others experience a recurring cycle of tissue breakdown. Detailed analysis of gluteal muscle characteristics may provide insights to local tissue viability variability. The study hypothesis was that SCI individuals have altered muscle composition compared to able-bodied (AB). Ten AB and ten SCI received a supine pelvic CT scan, with contrast. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and overall muscle volume were derived using image analysis. Gluteal muscle tissue type was classified at the S2/S3 sacral vertebrae midpoint, the superior greater trochanters margin (GT) and the inferior ischial tuberosities margin (IT) using the linear transformation Hounsfield Unit scale. SCI gluteal CSA was less than for AB throughout the muscle, with the greatest relative atrophy at the IT (48%). Average AB gluteal volume was nearly double SCI. Eight SCI had over 20% infiltrative adipose tissue, three with over 50%. SCI gluteal CSA and intramuscular fat infiltration were significantly negatively correlated (p < 0.05). SCI IT axial slices showed less lean muscle and higher intramuscular fat infiltration than more proximally (p < 0.05). SCI gluteal muscle characteristics were indicative of impaired tissue viability. SCI disuse muscle atrophy was anticipated; the analytic approach further indicated that intramuscular atrophy was not uniform. SCI muscle composition showed increased proportions of both low density muscle and adipose tissue. CT scan with contrast is effective for gluteal muscle characterization. This assessment technique may contribute to determination of personalized risk for PU development and other secondary complications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. SciSpark's SRDD : A Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset for Multidimensional Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamuttam, R. S.; Wilson, B. D.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; McGibbney, L. J.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We have developed SciSpark, a robust Big Data framework, that extends ApacheTM Spark for scaling scientific computations. Apache Spark improves the map-reduce implementation in ApacheTM Hadoop for parallel computing on a cluster, by emphasizing in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and relying on lazy evaluation. Central to Spark is the Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD), an in-memory distributed data structure that extends the functional paradigm provided by the Scala programming language. However, RDDs are ideal for tabular or unstructured data, and not for highly dimensional data. The SciSpark project introduces the Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset (sRDD), a distributed-computing array structure which supports iterative scientific algorithms for multidimensional data. SciSpark processes data stored in NetCDF and HDF files by partitioning them across time or space and distributing the partitions among a cluster of compute nodes. We show usability and extensibility of SciSpark by implementing distributed algorithms for geospatial operations on large collections of multi-dimensional grids. In particular we address the problem of scaling an automated method for finding Mesoscale Convective Complexes. SciSpark provides a tensor interface to support the pluggability of different matrix libraries. We evaluate performance of the various matrix libraries in distributed pipelines, such as Nd4jTM and BreezeTM. We detail the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from model grids. These

  1. Molecular typing of Brucella melitensis endemic strains and differentiation from the vaccine strain Rev-1.

    PubMed

    Noutsios, Georgios T; Papi, Rigini M; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Minas, Anastasios; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2012-03-01

    In the present study forty-four Greek endemic strains of Br. melitensis and three reference strains were genotyped by Multi locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat (ML-VNTR) analysis based on an eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence that was revealed in eight loci of Br. melitensis genome. The forty-four strains were discriminated from the vaccine strain Rev-1 by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The ML-VNTR analysis revealed that endemic, reference and vaccine strains are genetically closely related, while most of the loci tested (1, 2, 4, 5 and 7) are highly polymorphic with Hunter-Gaston Genetic Diversity Index (HGDI) values in the range of 0.939 to 0.775. Analysis of ML-VNTRs loci stability through in vitro passages proved that loci 1 and 5 are non stable. Therefore, vaccine strain can be discriminated from endemic strains by allele's clusters of loci 2, 4, 6 and 7. RFLP and DGGE were also employed to analyse omp2 gene and reveled different patterns among Rev-1 and endemic strains. In RFLP, Rev-1 revealed three fragments (282, 238 and 44 bp), while endemic strains two fragments (238 and 44 bp). As for DGGE, the electrophoretic mobility of Rev-1 is different from the endemic strains due to heterologous binding of DNA chains of omp2a and omp2b gene. Overall, our data show clearly that it is feasible to genotype endemic strains of Br. melitensis and differentiate them from vaccine strain Rev-1 with ML-VNTR, RFLP and DGGE techniques. These tools can be used for conventional investigations in brucellosis outbreaks.

  2. Science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations: a novel method to scaffold science learning.

    PubMed

    Peffer, Melanie E; Beckler, Matthew L; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students' self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study.

  3. Science Classroom Inquiry (SCI) Simulations: A Novel Method to Scaffold Science Learning

    PubMed Central

    Peffer, Melanie E.; Beckler, Matthew L.; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students’ self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study. PMID:25786245

  4. Looking into Pandora's Box: The Content of Sci-Hub and its Usage.

    PubMed

    Greshake, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growth of Open Access, potentially illegally circumventing paywalls to access scholarly publications is becoming a more mainstream phenomenon. The web service Sci-Hub is amongst the biggest facilitators of this, offering free access to around 62 million publications. So far it is not well studied how and why its users are accessing publications through Sci-Hub. By utilizing the recently released corpus of Sci-Hub and comparing it to the data of  ~28 million downloads done through the service, this study tries to address some of these questions. The comparative analysis shows that both the usage and complete corpus is largely made up of recently published articles, with users disproportionately favoring newer articles and 35% of downloaded articles being published after 2013. These results hint that embargo periods before publications become Open Access are frequently circumnavigated using Guerilla Open Access approaches like Sci-Hub. On a journal level, the downloads show a bias towards some scholarly disciplines, especially Chemistry, suggesting increased barriers to access for these. Comparing the use and corpus on a publisher level, it becomes clear that only 11% of publishers are highly requested in comparison to the baseline frequency, while 45% of all publishers are significantly less accessed than expected. Despite this, the oligopoly of publishers is even more remarkable on the level of content consumption, with 80% of all downloads being published through only 9 publishers. All of this suggests that Sci-Hub is used by different populations and for a number of different reasons, and that there is still a lack of access to the published scientific record. A further analysis of these openly available data resources will undoubtedly be valuable for the investigation of academic publishing.

  5. Spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation: systematic analysis of communication from the biopsychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Naomi A

    2015-07-02

    Communication is powerful predictor of health-related quality of life and overall well-being, yet its role in promoting rehabilitation outcomes in spinal cord injury (SCI) is rarely mentioned. This article systematically analyzes and synthesizes literature from multiple disciplines according to a biopsychosocial perspective, providing an evidence base for clinical practice and clear direction for future research. Systematic literature review and analysis, incorporating mapping to International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) codes. In total 4338 entries were retrieved from CINAHL, PsychInfo, Medline, PubMed and SpeechBite databases for the period 1990-2014. A total of 115 treatment and observational studies (quantitative and qualitative) detailed aspects of communication according to structure, function, activity, participation and environmental factors; evident of the complex interactions between communicative function with daily living after SCI. Communication is a relative strength in SCI, key to empowerment, independence, social interaction, and well-being, yet its potential to enhance SCI rehabilitation outcomes remains largely underexplored and untapped. Through elucidating interactions between communication and functioning, the adapted ICF framework affords clinicians and researchers insight into areas of intervention most likely to result in widespread gains. Conscious consideration should be given to the role of communication, within an integrative, strengths-based, multidisciplinary approach to clinical practice and future research. Implications for Rehabilitation Communication fosters empowerment, independence and greater participation in life roles; recognized as a powerful predictor of health-related quality of life and overall well-being. The ICF framework elucidates influences to communicative function, and components which are influenced by communication, providing valuable insight for clinicians and researchers

  6. Antidepressants Are Effective in Decreasing Neuropathic Pain After SCI: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Swati; Guy, Stacey; Lam, Tracey; Teasell, Robert; Loh, Eldon

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review and assess the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for neuropathic pain among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). A systematic search was conducted using multiple databases for relevant articles published from 1980 to April 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving antidepressant treatment of neuropathic pain with ≥ 3 individuals and ≥ 50% of study population with SCI were included. Two independent reviewers selected studies based on inclusion criteria and then extracted data. Pooled analysis using Cohen's d to calculate standardized mean difference, standard error, and 95% confidence interval for primary (pain) and other secondary outcomes was conducted. Four RCTs met inclusion criteria. Of these, 2 studies assessed amitriptyline, 1 trazadone, and 1 duloxetine among individuals with neuropathic SCI pain. A small effect was seen in the effectiveness of antidepressants in decreasing pain among individuals with SCI (standardized mean difference = 0.34 ± 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.62; P = .02). A number needed to treat of 3.4 for 30% or more pain relief was found by pooling 2 studies. Of these, significantly higher risk of experiencing constipation (risk ratio [RR] = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.09-2.78; P = .02) and dry mouth (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.85; P = .02) was found amongst individuals receiving antidepressant treatment compared to those in the control group. The current meta-analysis demonstrates that antidepressants are effective in reducing neuropathic SCI pain. However, this should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of studies. Further evaluation of long-term therapeutic options may be required.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-30

    ISS040E112662 (08/30/2014) ---- Cancún, Mexico. A long lens was used by astronauts aboard the International Space Station to take this image, and it highlights many natural and built features. The street pattern of Mexico’s tourist mecca, Cancún, contrasts with the waterways of the marinas that open into the bay and the lagoons. Brilliant blue water over coral reefs contrast with the dark waters of inland lagoons. The reefs are the second largest reef system on Earth, and draw tourists from all over the world. The wide, well developed beach on the gulf coast (image upper right) is the result of vigorous wave energy; the white sand makes the beach easily visible from space. But wave energy is reduced along Cancún’s protected shoreline (image center) and the beaches are thin or non-existant. Fair-weather cumulus clouds are scattered across the image top left. To shoot crisp mages with long lenses, astronaut photographers must learn to brace themselves against the ISS bulkhead to prevent any slight shaking that would blur or “smear” the picture. Counterintuitively, they then need to move the camera carefully retaining the target at the same point in the viewfinder (the landscape moves across the viewfinder quickly with long lenses). This is called tracking the target and requires good coordination by the photographer—again, to prevent blurring. Shorter lenses do not require this skill because the image appears to pass more slowly across the viewfinder.

  8. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-20

    ISS024-E-015121 (20 Sept. 2010) --- Twitchell Canyon Fire in central Utah is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS). The Twitchell Canyon Fire near central Utah?s Fishlake National Forest is reported to have an area of approximately 13,383 hectares (approximately 134 square kilometers, or 33,071 acres). This detailed image shows smoke plumes generated by several fire spots close to the southwestern edge of the burned area. The fire was started by a lightning strike on July 20, 2010. Whereas many of the space station images of Earth are looking straight down (nadir), this photograph was exposed at an angle. The space station was located over a point approximately 509 kilometers (316 miles) to the northeast, near the Colorado/Wyoming border, at the time the image was taken on Sept. 20. Southwesterly winds were continuing to extend smoke plumes from the fire to the northeast. While the Twitchell Canyon region is sparsely populated, Interstate Highway 15 is visible at upper left.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    ISS040-E-088891 (5 Aug. 2014) --- Thunderheads near Borneo, Indonesia are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station. Late afternoon sun casts long shadows from high thunderhead anvils over southern Borneo. Crews aboard the space station have recently concentrated on panoramic views of clouds?taken with lenses similar to the focal length of the human eye. These images reveal the kinds of views crews see -- huge areas of the planet, with a strong three-dimensional sense of what it is like to fly 350 kilometers above Earth. Winds usually blow in different directions at different altitudes. High-altitude winds are clearly sweeping the tops off the many tallest thunderclouds, generating long anvils of diffuse cirrus plumes that trail south. At low levels, ?streets? of white dots -- fair-weather cumulus clouds -- are aligned with west-moving winds (lower left). Small smoke plumes from forest fires onshore are also aligned west. Storm formation near the horizon -- more than 1,000 kilometers away (center) -- is assisted by air currents rising over the central mountains of Borneo.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-14

    ISS037-E-011470 (14 Oct. 2013) --- Man-made archipelagos near Dubai, United Arab Emirates, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 37 crew member on the International Space Station, flying at approximately 220 miles above Earth. The municipality of Dubai is the largest city of the Persian Gulf emirate of the same name, and has built a global reputation for large-scale developments and architectural works. Among the most visible of these developments -- particularly from the perspective of astronauts onboard the space station -- are three man-made archipelagos. The two Palm Islands -- Palm Jumeirah (right) and Palm Jebel Ali (out of frame further to the right) -- appear as stylized palm trees when viewed from above. The World Islands (center frame) evoke a rough map of the world from an air- or space-borne perspective. The Palm Jumeirah project began in 2001 and required more than 50 million cubic meters of dredged sand to raise the islands above the Persian Gulf sea level. Construction of the Palm Jumeirah islands was completed in 2006; for several years now they have been developed for residential and commercial housing and infrastructure. Creation of the World Islands was begun in 2003 and completed in 2008, using 320 million cubic meters of sand and 37 million tons of rock for the surrounding 27 kilometer-long protective breakwater.

  11. Increasing specialty care access through use of an innovative home telehealth-based spinal cord injury disease management protocol (SCI DMP).

    PubMed

    Woo, Christine; Seton, Jacinta M; Washington, Monique; Tomlinson, Suk C; Phrasavath, Douangmala; Farrell, Karen R; Goldstein, Barry

    2016-01-01

    A spinal cord injury disease management protocol (SCI DMP) was developed to address the unique medical, physical, functional, and psychosocial needs of those living with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). The SCI DMP was piloted to evaluate DMP clinical content and to identify issues for broader implementation across the Veterans Affairs (VA) SCI System of Care. Thirty-three patients with SCI/D from four VA SCI centers participated in a 6-month pilot. Patients received customized SCI DMP questions through a data messaging device (DMD). Nurse home telehealth care coordinators (HTCC) monitored responses and addressed clinical alerts daily. One site administered the Duke Severity of Illness (DUSOI) Checklist and Short Form-8 (SF-8™) to evaluate the changes in comorbidity severity and health-related quality of life while on the SCI DMP. Patients remained enrolled an average of 116 days, with a mean response rate of 56%. The average distance between patient's home and their VA SCI center was 59 miles. Feedback on SCI DMP content and the DMD included requests for additional clinical topics, changes in administration frequency, and adapting the DMD for functional impairments. Improvement in clinical outcomes was seen in a subset of patients enrolled on the SCI DMP. SCI HTCCs and patients reported that the program was most beneficial for newly injured patients recently discharged from acute rehabilitation that live far from specialty SCI care facilities. SCI DMP content changes and broader implementation strategies are currently being evaluated based on lessons learned from the pilot.

  12. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  13. REV-ERB-ALPHA circadian gene variant associates with obesity in two independent populations: Mediterranean and North American

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the solid connection between REV-ERB and obesity, the information about whether genetic variations at this locus may be associated with obesity traits is scarce. Therefore our objective was to study the association between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 and obesity in two independent populations. ...

  14. 75 FR 69741 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Rev. Proc. 2007-99 (RP-127367-07), 9100 Relief Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    .... Proc. 2007-99 (RP- 127367-07), 9100 Relief Under Sections 897 and 1445 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Rev. Proc. 2007-99 (RP-127367-07), 9100 Relief Under...: Rev. Proc. 2007-99 (RP-127367-07), 9100 Relief Under Sections 897 and 1445. OMB Number: 1545-2098...

  15. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  16. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  17. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  18. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  19. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  20. Forces. 'O' Level Study Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udwin, Martin

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…

  1. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  2. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  4. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  5. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  6. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-21

    ISS036-E-011034 (21 June 2013) --- The Salton Trough is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. The Imperial and Coachella Valleys of southern California – and the corresponding Mexicali Valley and Colorado River Delta in Mexico – are part of the Salton Trough, a large geologic structure known to geologists as a graben or rift valley that extends into the Gulf of California. The trough is a geologically complex zone formed by interaction of the San Andreas transform fault system that is, broadly speaking, moving southern California towards Alaska; and the northward motion of the Gulf of California segment of the East Pacific Rise that continues to widen the Gulf of California by sea-floor spreading. According to scientists, sediments deposited by the Colorado River have been filling the northern rift valley (the Salton Trough) for the past several million years, excluding the waters of the Gulf of California and providing a fertile environment – together with irrigation—for the development of extensive agriculture in the region (visible as green and yellow-brown fields at center). The Salton Sea, a favorite landmark of astronauts in low Earth orbit, was formed by an irrigation canal rupture in 1905, and today is sustained by agricultural runoff water. A wide array of varying landforms and land uses in the Salton Trough are visible from space. In addition to the agricultural fields and Salton Sea, easily visible metropolitan areas include Yuma, AZ (lower left); Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico (center); and the San Diego-Tijuana conurbation on the Pacific Coast (right). The approximately 72-kilometer-long Algodones Dunefield is visible at lower left.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-10

    ISS032-E-006129 (10 July 2012) --- Flooding in Krymsk in the Krasnodar region of southern Russia is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 32 crew member on the International Space Station. On the night of July 7, 2012 a major storm dumped more than a foot of water on the southern Russian area of Krasnodar, near the Black Sea. The resulting flood was likened to a tsunami, and to date, more than 170 people died, most from the city of Krymsk. The Moscow times reports that more than 19,000 people lost everything. This image taken by cosmonauts aboard the space station shows the city of Krymsk. The tan-colored areas indicate some of the regions that were flooded; the color is probably due to the mud and debris that were left by the floodwaters. Krymsk is located in the western foothills on the northern slope of the Caucasus Mountains?a range that stretches between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The vast amount of rain quickly overwhelmed the small river channels that flow northward from the mountains to the Russian lowlands and the Kuban River; Krymsk, located on one of those tributaries, was directly in the pathway of the flash flood. As part of the international partner agreement to use the International Space Station to benefit humanity, crew members and other Earth observing instruments provide best-effort support to the International Disaster Charter (IDC) when it is activated by collecting imagery of areas on the ground impacted by natural events such as the flooding in Krymsk. This image was acquired July 10, 2012 in response to the IDC activation.

  8. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-02

    ISS028-E-006687 (2 June 2011) --- Estuaries on the northwestern coast of Madagascar are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. Regions where fresh water flowing in rivers and salt water from the seas and oceans mix are called estuaries, and they are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on Earth. This photograph highlights two estuaries located along the northwestern coastline of the island of Madagascar. The Mozambique Channel (top) separates Madagascar from the southeastern coast of Africa. Bombetoka Bay (upper left) is fed by the Betsiboka River and is a frequent subject of astronaut photography due to its striking red floodplain sediments. Mahajamba Bay (right) is fed by several rivers including the Mahajamba and Sofia Rivers; like the Betsiboka, the floodplains of these rivers also contain reddish sediments eroded from their basins upstream. The brackish (mix of fresh and salty water) conditions found in most estuaries host unique plant and animal species adapted to live in such environments. Mangroves in particular are a common plant species found in and around Madagascar estuaries, and Bombetoka Bay contains some of the largest remaining stands. Estuaries also host abundant fish and shellfish species ? many of which need access to freshwater for a portion of their life cycles ? and these in turn support local and migratory bird species that prey on them. However, human activities such as urban development, overfishing, and increased sediment loading from erosion of upriver highlands threaten the ecosystem health of the estuaries. In particular, the silt deposits in Bombetoka Bay at the mouth of the Betsiboka River have been filling in the bay.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

  10. Identification of Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine-strain genetic markers: Towards understanding the molecular mechanism behind virulence attenuation.

    PubMed

    Issa, Mohammad Nouh; Ashhab, Yaqoub

    2016-09-22

    Brucella melitensis Rev.1 is an avirulent strain that is widely used as a live vaccine to control brucellosis in small ruminants. Although an assembled draft version of Rev.1 genome has been available since 2009, this genome has not been investigated to characterize this important vaccine. In the present work, we used the draft genome of Rev.1 to perform a thorough genomic comparison and sequence analysis to identify and characterize the panel of its unique genetic markers. The draft genome of Rev.1 was compared with genome sequences of 36 different Brucella melitensis strains from the Brucella project of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The comparative analyses revealed 32 genetic alterations (30 SNPs, 1 single-bp insertion and 1 single-bp deletion) that are exclusively present in the Rev.1 genome. In silico analyses showed that 9 out of the 17 non-synonymous mutations are deleterious. Three ABC transporters are among the disrupted genes that can be linked to virulence attenuation. Out of the 32 mutations, 11 Rev.1 specific markers were selected to test their potential to discriminate Rev.1 using a bi-directional allele-specific PCR assay. Six markers were able to distinguish between Rev.1 and a set of control strains. We succeeded in identifying a panel of 32 genome-specific markers of the B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine strain. Extensive in silico analysis showed that a considerable number of these mutations could severely affect the function of the associated genes. In addition, some of the discovered markers were able to discriminate Rev.1 strain from a group of control strains using practical PCR tests that can be applied in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural Killer (NK) Cell Functionality after human Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): protocol of a prospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Laginha, Inês; Kopp, Marcel A; Druschel, Claudia; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Brommer, Benedikt; Hellmann, Rick C; Watzlawick, Ralf; Ossami-Saidi, Ramin-Raul; Prüss, Harald; Failli, Vieri; Meisel, Christian; Liebscher, Thomas; Prilipp, Erik; Niedeggen, Andreas; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Grittner, Ulrike; Piper, Sophie K; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Killig, Monica; Romagnani, Chiara; Schwab, Jan M

    2016-09-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells comprise the main components of lymphocyte-mediated nonspecific immunity. Through their effector function they play a crucial role combating bacterial and viral challenges. They are also thought to be key contributors to the systemic spinal cord injury-induced immune-deficiency syndrome (SCI-IDS). SCI-IDS increases susceptibility to infection and extends to the post-acute and chronic phases after SCI. The prospective study of NK cell function after traumatic SCI was carried out in two centers in Berlin, Germany. SCI patients and control patients with neurologically silent vertebral fracture also undergoing surgical stabilization were enrolled. Furthermore healthy controls were included to provide reference data. The NK cell function was assessed at 7 (5-9) days, 14 days (11-28) days, and 10 (8-12) weeks post-trauma. Clinical documentation included the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale (AIS), neurological level of injury, infection status, concomitant injury, and medications. The primary endpoint of the study is CD107a expression by NK cells (cytotoxicity marker) 8-12 weeks following SCI. Secondary endpoints are the NK cell's TNF-α and IFN-γ production by the NK cells 8-12 weeks following SCI. The protocol of this study was developed to investigate the hypotheses whether i) SCI impairs NK cell function throughout the post-acute and sub-acute phases after SCI and ii) the degree of impairment relates to lesion height and severity. A deeper understanding of the SCI-IDS is crucial to enable strategies for prevention of infections, which are associated with poor neurological outcome and elevated mortality. DRKS00009855 .

  12. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011843 (24 June 2013) --- Gravity waves and sunglint on Lake Superior are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. From the vantage point of the space station, crew members frequently observe Earth atmospheric and surface phenomena in ways impossible to view from the ground. Two such phenomena?gravity waves and sunglint?are illustrated in this photograph of northeastern Lake Superior. The Canadian Shield of southern Ontario (bottom) is covered with extensive green forest canopy typical of early summer. Offshore, and to the west and southwest of Pukaskwa National Park several distinct sets of parallel cloud bands are visible. Gravity waves are produced when moisture-laden air encounters imbalances in air density, such as might be expected when cool air flows over warmer air; this can cause the flowing air to oscillate up and down as it moves, causing clouds to condense as the air rises (cools) and evaporate away as the air sinks (warms). This produces parallel bands of clouds oriented perpendicular to the wind direction. The orientation of the cloud bands visible in this image, parallel to the coastlines, suggests that air flowing off of the land surfaces to the north is interacting with moist, stable air over the lake surface, creating gravity waves. The second phenomenon?sunglint?effects the water surface around and to the northeast of Isle Royale (upper right). Sunglint is caused by light reflection off a water surface; some of the reflected light travels directly back towards the observer, resulting in a bright mirror-like appearance over large expanses of water. Water currents and changes in surface tension (typically caused by presence of oils or surfactants) alter the reflective properties of the water, and can be highlighted by sunglint. For example, surface water currents are visible to the east of Isle Royale that are oriented similarly to the gravity waves ? suggesting that they too

  13. Computers (Rev.)

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, William R

    1967-01-01

    This booklet relates how wires, transistors, and human ingenuity are combined to produce machines that surpass all the calculating prodigies that ever lived in speed, accuracy, and stamina, though perhaps not in the matter of mystery.

  14. Corrigendum to "Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania)-Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe" [Quat. Sci. Rev. 154C (2016) 130-142

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, C.; Kels, H.; Hambach, U.; Schulte, P.; Protze, J.; Eckmeier, E.; Marković, S. B.; Klasen, N.; Lehmkuhl, F.

    2018-05-01

    In the article 'Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania)-Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe' (Zeeden et al., 2016) we employed rock magnetic and grain size proxy data in combination with OSL- and correlative age models. The data and dating is combined to discuss glacial-interglacial paleoclimate variability in an Eurasian context. This dataset was also interpreted regarding the dust source in the eastern Carpathian (Middle Danube) Basin.

  15. Simultaneous alloy-silicate fractionation of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur at high pressures and temperatures: Implications for establishing the volatile budget of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewal, D. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Sun, C.; Tsuno, K.

    2017-12-01

    could have simultaneously satisfied C-N-S abundances and ratios in BSE along with setting up the stage of for the presence of NH3 and HCN in the Earth's early atmosphere via MO degassing. [1] Zahnle et al. (2007) Space Sci. Rev. [2] Marty (2012) EPSL. [3] Dasgupta et al. (2013) GCA. [4] Hirschmann (2016) AM. [5] Dalou et al. (2017) EPSL. [6] Li et al. (2016) Nat. Geosci.

  16. The REV-ERBs and RORs: molecular links between circadian rhythms and lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Laura A; Kojetin, Douglas J; Burris, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts spanning the past two decades have established a clear link between nuclear receptor function, regulation of the circadian clock and lipid homeostasis. As such, this family of receptors represents an important area of research. Recent advances in the field have identified two nuclear receptor subfamilies, the REV-ERBs and the ‘retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors’ (RORs), as critical regulators of the circadian clock with significant roles in lipid homeostasis. In this review, the latest information garnered from cutting-edge research on these two nuclear receptor subfamilies will be discussed. Through direct targeting of the REV-ERBs and RORs with synthetic ligands, generation of novel tools aimed at characterizing their function in vivo have been developed, which may lead to novel therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:21526899

  17. SCiP at 35: an idiosyncratic history of the society for computers in psychology.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Christopher R

    2006-05-01

    SCiP history may be divided into three eras: the Paleozoic (1971-1982), the Mesozoic (1982-1994), and the Cenozoic (1994-present). Following a list of Secretary-Treasurers, a list of all SCiP Presidents is provided in Table 1. Next I present personal highlights, including the first symposium on psychology and the World-Wide Web; David Rumelhart's mathematical explanation of connectionism; and Stevan Hamad's discussion of "freeing" the journal literature. I observe that a small conference is becoming more intimate and that much of our mission involves figuring out how to conduct high-quality scientific research with consumer-grade electronics. I argue that we are an increasingly international organization, that graduate students are welcome, and that we should become more inclusive in the areas of gender and ethnicity and should make membership more meaningful I conclude by looking ahead and attempting to predict the future.

  18. Haloarcula marismortui (Volcani) sp. nov., nom. rev., an extremely halophilic bacterium from the Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, A.; Ginzburg, M.; Ginzburg, B. Z.; Hochstein, L. I.; Volcani, B. E.

    1990-01-01

    An extremely halophilic red archaebacterium isolated from the Dead Sea (Ginzburg et al., J. Gen. Physiol. 55: 187-207, 1970) belongs to the genus Haloarcula and differs sufficiently from the previously described species of the genus to be designated a new species; we propose the name Haloarcula marismortui (Volcani) sp. nov., nom. rev. because of the close resemblance of this organism to "Halobacterium marismortui," which was first described by Volcani in 1940. The type strain is strain ATCC 43049.

  19. Does spirituality facilitate adjustment and resilience among individuals and families after SCI?

    PubMed

    Jones, Kate; Simpson, Grahame Kenneth; Briggs, Lynne; Dorsett, Pat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to investigate the role of spirituality in facilitating adjustment and resilience after spinal cord injury (SCI) for the individual with SCI and their family members. METHOD-DATA SOURCES: Peer reviewed journals were identified using PsychInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and Sociological Abstracts search engines. After duplicates were removed, 434 abstracts were screened applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selected 28 studies were reviewed in detail and grouped according to methodological approach. Of the 28 studies relating to spirituality and related meaning-making constructs, 26 addressed the adjustment of the individual with SCI alone. Only two included family members as participants. Quantitative studies demonstrated that spirituality was positively associated with life satisfaction, quality of life, mental health and resilience. The utilisation of meaning-making and hope as coping strategies in the process of adjustment were highlighted within the qualitative studies. Clinical implications included recommendations that spirituality and meaning-making be incorporated in assessment and interventions during rehabilitation. The use of narratives and peer support was also suggested. Spirituality is an important factor in adjustment after SCI. Further research into the relationship between spirituality, family adjustment and resilience is needed. Higher levels of spirituality were associated with improved quality of life, life satisfaction, mental health, and resilience for individuals affected by spinal cord injury. Health professionals can enhance the role that spirituality plays in spinal rehabilitation by incorporating the spiritual beliefs of individuals and their family members into assessment and intervention. By drawing upon meaning-making tools, such as narrative therapy, incorporating peer support, and assisting clients who report a decline in spirituality, health professionals can provide additional support

  20. Improvement in Student Science Proficiency Through InSciEd Out

    PubMed Central

    Sonju, James D.; Leicester, Jean E.; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J.; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K–8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5th and 8th grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools. PMID:23244687

  1. A cable-driven locomotor training system for restoration of gait in human SCI.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Hornby, T George; Landry, Jill M; Roth, Heidi; Schmit, Brian D

    2011-02-01

    A novel cable-driven robotic locomotor training system was developed to provide compliant assistance/resistance forces to the legs during treadmill training in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Eleven subjects with incomplete SCI were recruited to participate in two experiments to test the feasibility of the robotic gait training system. Specifically, 10 subjects participated in one experimental session to test the characteristics of the robotic gait training system and one subject participated in repeated testing sessions over 8 weeks with the robotic device to test improvements in locomotor function. Limb kinematics were recorded in one experiment to evaluate the system characteristics of the cable-driven locomotor trainer and the overground gait speed and 6 min walking distance were evaluated at pre, 4 and 8 weeks post treadmill training of a single subject as well. The results indicated that the cable driven robotic gait training system improved the kinematic performance of the leg during treadmill walking and had no significant impact on the variability of lower leg trajectory, suggesting a high backdrivability of the cable system. In addition, results from a patient with incomplete SCI indicated that prolonged robotic gait training using the cable robot improved overground gait speed. Results from this study suggested that a cable driven robotic gait training system is effective in improving leg kinematic performance, yet allows variability of gait kinematics. Thus, it seems feasible to improve the locomotor function in human SCI using this cable driven robotic system, warranting testing with a larger group of patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhihong

    2013-12-18

    During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDACmore » GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.« less

  3. Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Jen; Lee, Kuan H; Murphy, Lauren; Garraway, Sandra M; Grau, James W

    2016-11-01

    Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. The current study provides evidence that spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord, recapitulating an earlier developmental state wherein GABA has an excitatory effect. In spinally transected rats, noxious electrical stimulation and inflammation induce enhanced mechanical reactivity (EMR), a behavioral index of nociceptive sensitization. Pretreatment with the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline blocked these effects. Peripheral application of an irritant (capsaicin) also induced EMR. Both the induction and maintenance of this effect were blocked by bicuculline. Cellular indices of central sensitization [c-fos expression and ERK phosphorylation (pERK)] were also attenuated. In intact (sham operated) rats, bicuculline had the opposite effect. Pretreatment with a GABA agonist (muscimol) attenuated nociceptive sensitization in intact, but not spinally injured, rats. The effect of SCI on GABA function was linked to a reduction in the Cl - transporter, KCC2, leading to a reduction in intracellular Cl - that would attenuate GABA-mediated inhibition. Pharmacologically blocking the KCC2 channel (with i.t. DIOA) in intact rats mimicked the effect of SCI. Conversely, a pharmacological treatment (bumetanide) that should increase intracellular Cl - levels blocked the effect of SCI. The results suggest that GABAergic neurons drive, rather than inhibit, the development of nociceptive sensitization after spinal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) affects nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Jen; Lee, Kuan H; Grau, James W

    2017-02-01

    Noxious stimulation can induce a lasting increase in neural excitability within the spinal cord (central sensitization) that can promote pain and disrupt adaptive function (maladaptive plasticity). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to regulate the development of plasticity and has been shown to impact the development of spinally-mediated central sensitization. The latter effect has been linked to an alteration in GABA-dependent inhibition. Prior studies have shown that, in spinally transected rats, exposure to regular (fixed spaced) stimulation can counter the development of maladaptive plasticity and have linked this effect to an up-regulation of BDNF. Here it is shown that application of the irritant capsaicin to one hind paw induces enhanced mechanical reactivity (EMR) after spinal cord injury (SCI) and that the induction of this effect is blocked by pretreatment with fixed spaced shock. This protective effect was eliminated if rats were pretreated with the BDNF sequestering antibody TrkB-IgG. Intrathecal (i.t.) application of BDNF prevented, but did not reverse, capsaicin-induced EMR. BDNF also attenuated cellular indices (ERK and pERK expression) of central sensitization after SCI. In uninjured rats, i.t. BDNF enhanced, rather than attenuated, capsaicin-induced EMR and ERK/pERK expression. These opposing effects were related to a transformation in GABA function. In uninjured rats, BDNF reduced membrane-bound KCC2 and the inhibitory effect of the GABA A agonist muscimol. After SCI, BDNF increased KCC2 expression, which would help restore GABAergic inhibition. The results suggest that SCI transforms how BDNF affects GABA function and imply that the clinical usefulness of BDNF will depend upon the extent of fiber sparing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SCI Survey to Determine Pressure Ulcer Vulnerability in the Outpatient Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    of transportation, mobility, caregiver status, bowel and bladder continence, level of education , mental health status or illicit drug use. Key...coded a number of variables. For example, we created a new variable: “Good Nutrition ”, reflecting nutritional status using the recorded albumin and...no difference in age, level of education or marital status and presence of PrUs. Violence as the etiology of SCI was more common among those with ≥ 1

  6. Development of an Implantable Pudendal Nerve Stimulator To Restore Bladder Function in Humans After SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    new version of the stimulator will be manufactured and tested again. This design-build-test cycle will be repeated multiple times during the second...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-C-0066 TITLE: Development of an Implantable Pudendal Nerve Stimulator To Restore Bladder Function in Humans After SCI...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  7. DoD Information Security Program and Protection of Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-21

    collateral, special access program, SCI, and controlled unclassified information ( CUI ) within an overarching DoD Information Security Program...classified, safeguarded, and declassified in accordance with References (c), (d), and DoD Manual 5200.01 (Reference (i)). CUI will be identified...Information will not be classified, continue to be maintained as classified, or fail to be declassified, or be designated CUI under any circumstances in

  8. GeoSciML v3.0 - a significant upgrade of the CGI-IUGS geoscience data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, O.; Duclaux, G.; Boisvert, E.; Cipolloni, C.; Cox, S.; Laxton, J.; Letourneau, F.; Richard, S.; Ritchie, A.; Sen, M.; Serrano, J.-J.; Simons, B.; Vuollo, J.

    2012-04-01

    GeoSciML version 3.0 (http://www.geosciml.org), released in late 2011, is the latest version of the CGI-IUGS* Interoperability Working Group geoscience data interchange standard. The new version is a significant upgrade and refactoring of GeoSciML v2 which was released in 2008. GeoSciML v3 has already been adopted by several major international interoperability initiatives, including OneGeology, the EU INSPIRE program, and the US Geoscience Information Network, as their standard data exchange format for geoscience data. GeoSciML v3 makes use of recently upgraded versions of several Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO data transfer standards, including GML v3.2, SWE Common v2.0, and Observations and Measurements v2 (ISO 19156). The GeoSciML v3 data model has been refactored from a single large application schema with many packages, into a number of smaller, but related, application schema modules with individual namespaces. This refactoring allows the use and future development of modules of GeoSciML (eg; GeologicUnit, GeologicStructure, GeologicAge, Borehole) in smaller, more manageable units. As a result of this refactoring and the integration with new OGC and ISO standards, GeoSciML v3 is not backwardly compatible with previous GeoSciML versions. The scope of GeoSciML has been extended in version 3.0 to include new models for geomorphological data (a Geomorphology application schema), and for geological specimens, geochronological interpretations, and metadata for geochemical and geochronological analyses (a LaboratoryAnalysis-Specimen application schema). In addition, there is better support for borehole data, and the PhysicalProperties model now supports a wider range of petrophysical measurements. The previously used CGI_Value data type has been superseded in favour of externally governed data types provided by OGC's SWE Common v2 and GML v3.2 data standards. The GeoSciML v3 release includes worked examples of best practice in delivering geochemical

  9. Thermal History of Planetary Objects: From Asteroids to super-Earths, from plate-tectonics to life (Runcorn-Florensky Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Tilman

    2013-04-01

    planets - like the Earth - the volatile budget matters for the interior evolution. With plate tectonics, large-scale volatile cycles are invoked. On the Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. A model is presented that includes mantle convection, mantle water vapor degassing at mid-oceanic ridges and regassing through subduction zones, continental crust formation and erosion and water storage and transport in a porous oceanic crust that includes hydrous mineral phases. The biosphere enters the model through its effect on continental erosion and through a reduction of the activation barrier to metamorphic reactions (e.g., Kim et al., 2004) in sediment layers. An abiotic world is found to have a much drier mantle than the present Earth but may have a similar surface coverage by continents. The reduced rate of continental crust production on the abiotic world would be balanced by a reduced rate of continent erosion. Through the effect of water on the mantle rheology, the biotic world would tend to be tectonically more active and have a more rapid long-term carbon-silicate cycle. J. Kim, H. Dong, J. Seabaugh, S. W. Newell, D. D. Eberl, Science 303, 830-832, 2004 N. H. Sleep, D. K. Bird, E. Pope, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 40, 277-300, 2012 M. T. Rosing, D. K. Bird, N. H. Sleep, W. Glassley, F. Albarede, Paleo3 232, 90-113, 2006

  10. Scientific Objectives of Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and Deployable Camera 3 Digital (DCAM3-D): Observation of an Ejecta Curtain and a Crater Formed on the Surface of Ryugu by an Artificial High-Velocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Saiki, T.; Kadono, T.; Takagi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okamoto, C.; Yano, H.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakazawa, S.; Hirata, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Imamura, H.; Ogawa, K.; Sakatani, N.; Iijima, Y.; Honda, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sawada, H.

    2017-07-01

    The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) equipped on Hayabusa2 was developed to produce an artificial impact crater on the primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 162173 Ryugu (Ryugu) in order to explore the asteroid subsurface material unaffected by space weathering and thermal alteration by solar radiation. An exposed fresh surface by the impactor and/or the ejecta deposit excavated from the crater will be observed by remote sensing instruments, and a subsurface fresh sample of the asteroid will be collected there. The SCI impact experiment will be observed by a Deployable CAMera 3-D (DCAM3-D) at a distance of ˜1 km from the impact point, and the time evolution of the ejecta curtain will be observed by this camera to confirm the impact point on the asteroid surface. As a result of the observation of the ejecta curtain by DCAM3-D and the crater morphology by onboard cameras, the subsurface structure and the physical properties of the constituting materials will be derived from crater scaling laws. Moreover, the SCI experiment on Ryugu gives us a precious opportunity to clarify effects of microgravity on the cratering process and to validate numerical simulations and models of the cratering process.

  11. Biophysical Characterization of Nucleophosmin Interactions with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rev and Herpes Simplex Virus US11

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Kazem; Moll, Jens M.; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Hain, Anika; Dvorsky, Radovan; Amin, Ehsan; Lenders, Michael; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Howe, Sebastian; Smits, Sander H. J.; Hengel, Hartmut; Schmitt, Lutz; Münk, Carsten; Brunsveld, Luc; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1, also known as B23, numatrin or NO38) is a pentameric RNA-binding protein with RNA and protein chaperon functions. NPM1 has increasingly emerged as a potential cellular factor that directly associates with viral proteins; however, the significance of these interactions in each case is still not clear. In this study, we have investigated the physical interaction of NPM1 with both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) US11, two functionally homologous proteins. Both viral proteins show, in mechanistically different modes, high affinity for a binding site on the N-terminal oligomerization domain of NPM1. Rev, additionally, exhibits low-affinity for the central histone-binding domain of NPM1. We also showed that the proapoptotic cyclic peptide CIGB-300 specifically binds to NPM1 oligomerization domain and blocks its association with Rev and US11. Moreover, HIV-1 virus production was significantly reduced in the cells treated with CIGB-300. Results of this study suggest that targeting NPM1 may represent a useful approach for antiviral intervention. PMID:26624888

  12. Chimeric RNase H–Competent Oligonucleotides Directed to the HIV-1 Rev Response Element

    PubMed Central

    Prater, Chrissy E.; Saleh, Anthony D.; Wear, Maggie P.; Miller, Paul S.

    2007-01-01

    Chimeric oligo-2′-O-methylribonucleotides containing centrally located patches of contiguous 2′-deoxyribonucleotides and terminating in a nuclease resistant 3′-methylphosphonate internucleotide linkage were prepared. The oligonucleotides were targeted to the 3′-side of HIV Rev response element (RRE) stem-loop IIB RNA, which is adjacent to the high affinity Rev protein binding site and is critical to virus function. Thermal denaturation experiments showed that chimeric oligonucleotides form very stable duplexes with a complementary single-stranded RNA, and gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that they bind with high affinity and specificity to RRE stem-loop II RNA (KD approximately 200 nM). The chimeric oligonucleotides promote RNase H-mediated hydrolysis of RRE stem-loop II RNA and have half lives exceeding 24 h when incubated in cell culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum. One of the chimeric oligonucleotides inhibited RRE mediated expression of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) approximately 60% at a concentration of 300 nM in HEK 293T cells co-transfected with p-RRE/CAT and p-Rev mammalian expression vectors. PMID:17566743

  13. Exercise therapy and recovery after SCI: evidence that shows early intervention improves recovery of function

    PubMed Central

    Brown, AK; Woller, SA; Moreno, G; Grau, JW; Hook, MA

    2011-01-01

    Study design This was designed as an experimental study. Objectives Locomotor training is one of the most effective strategies currently available for facilitating recovery of function after an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). However, there is still controversy regarding the timing of treatment initiation for maximal recovery benefits. To address this issue, the present study compares the effects of exercise initiated in the acute and secondary phase of SCI. Setting Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA. Methods Rats received a moderate spinal contusion injury and began an exercise program 1 (D1-EX) or 8 days (D8-EX) later. They were individually placed into transparent exercise balls for 60 min per day, for 14 consecutive days. Control rats were placed in exercise balls that were rendered immobile. Motor and sensory recovery was assessed for 28 days after injury. Results The D1-EX rats recovered significantly more locomotor function (BBB scale) than controls and D8-EX rats. Moreover, analyses revealed that rats in the D8-EX group had significantly lower tactile reactivity thresholds compared with control and D1-EX rats, and symptoms of allodynia were not reversed by exercise. Rats in the D8-EX group also had significantly larger areas of damage across spinal sections caudal to the injury center compared with the D1-EX group. Conclusion These results indicate that implementing an exercise regimen in the acute phase of SCI maximizes the potential for recovery of function. PMID:21242998

  14. Comparing NetCDF and SciDB on managing and querying 5D hydrologic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haicheng; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-11-01

    Efficiently extracting information from high dimensional hydro-meteorological modelling datasets requires smart solutions. Traditional methods are mostly based on files, which can be edited and accessed handily. But they have problems of efficiency due to contiguous storage structure. Others propose databases as an alternative for advantages such as native functionalities for manipulating multidimensional (MD) arrays, smart caching strategy and scalability. In this research, NetCDF file based solutions and the multidimensional array database management system (DBMS) SciDB applying chunked storage structure are benchmarked to determine the best solution for storing and querying 5D large hydrologic modelling dataset. The effect of data storage configurations including chunk size, dimension order and compression on query performance is explored. Results indicate that dimension order to organize storage of 5D data has significant influence on query performance if chunk size is very large. But the effect becomes insignificant when chunk size is properly set. Compression of SciDB mostly has negative influence on query performance. Caching is an advantage but may be influenced by execution of different query processes. On the whole, NetCDF solution without compression is in general more efficient than the SciDB DBMS.

  15. Family dynamics and psychosocial functioning in children with SCI/D from Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Nicolais, Christina J.; Perrin, Paul B.; Panyavin, Ivan; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the connections between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Participants were recruited from communities in Neiva, Colombia. Participants Thirty children with SCI/D and their primary caregiver participated. Children were between 8 and 17 years of age, and had sustained their injury at least six months prior to data collection. Interventions NA. Outcome measures Participating children completed measures assessing their own psychosocial functioning (Children's Depression Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-2, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), and their primary caregiver completed measures of family dynamics (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale- Fourth Edition, Family Communication Scale, Family Assessment Device- General Functioning, Family Satisfaction Scale, Relationship-Focused Coping Scale). Results A correlation matrix showed a number of significant bivariate correlations between child and family variables, and three multiple regressions showed that family satisfaction, empathy, and flexibility significantly explained 27% of the variance in child worry; family satisfaction and communication explained 18% of the variance in child social anxiety; and family cohesion and communication explained 23% of the variance in child emotional functioning. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of rehabilitation professionals considering the association between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with SCI/D when working with this population. PMID:25582185

  16. [SciELO: A cooperative project for the dissemination of science].

    PubMed

    Bojo Canales, C; Fraga Medín, C; Hernández Villegas, S; Primo Peña, E

    2009-10-01

    The article describes the SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) model for the electronic publication and dissemination of scientific journals, its origin and evolution, methodology, components, services and potential, and its implantation in Spain. It consists of thirteen participant countries with eight certified web portals, with another 5 under development and another two thematic ones. In February 2009 Scielo.org had 611 magazines and 195,789 articles of which 46% were about health sciences. Spain became a project member in 1999 and launched the SciELO web portal in 2001, as well as 4 magazines. It currently has 39 titles in the field of Health Sciences; one of which is the Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria, which joined the project in 2007 and which currently has 6 issues from 2007 and 2008 available. This makes it one of the most important open access initiatives existing. The report concludes by stating that the SciELO model contributes to the development of research and science by offering an effective and efficient method of promoting and increasing the dissemination of scientific publications in Latin America.

  17. [Analysis on acupuncture literature in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2007].

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Tian, Li-xin; Guo, Yi

    2009-06-01

    To grasp the international developing tendency of acupuncture research and provide some references for promoting acupuncture and moxibustion internationalization process, the articles about acupuncture in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2007 were retrieved by adopting the retrieval tactics on line in combination with database searching. Results indicate that 257 articles about acupuncture had been retrived from the SCI Web databases. These articles were published in 125 journals respectively, most of which were Euramerican journals. Among these journals, the impact factor of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 25. 547, is the highest one. It is shown that the impact factors of the SCI periodicals, in which acupuncture articles embodied are increased, the quality of these articles are improved obviously and the types of the articles are various in 2007, but there is obvious difference in the results of these studies due to the difference of experimental methods, the subjects of these experiments and acupuncture manipulations. Therefore, standardization of many problems arising from the researches on acupuncture is extremely imminent.

  18. Differences in the use of everyday technology among persons with MCI, SCI and older adults without known cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Kottorp, Anders; Wallin, Anders; Nordlund, Arto; Björklund, Eva; Melin, Ilse; Pernevik, Anette; Rosenberg, Lena; Nygård, Louise

    2017-07-01

    To use valid subjective reports sensible to cognitive decline is vital to identify very early signs of dementia development. Use of everyday technology (ET) has been shown to be sensitive to differentiate adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from controls, but the group with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) has not yet been examined. This study aims to investigate and compare self-perceived ability in ET use and number of ETs reported as actually used in a sample of older adults with SCI, MCI, and older adults with no known cognitive impairment, i.e. Older adults with MCI (n = 29), SCI ( n = 26), and controls (n = 30) were interviewed with the short version of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (S-ETUQ) to capture self-perceived ability in ET use and number of ETs used. To generate individual measures of ability to use ET, Rasch analysis was used. The measures were then compared group-wise using ANCOVA. The numbers of ETs used were compared group-wise with ANOVA. Controls versus SCI and MCI differed significantly regarding ETs reported as used, but not SCI versus MCI. Similarly, in ability to use ET, controls versus SCI and MCI differed significantly but not SCI versus MCI. The significantly lower numbers of ETs reported as actually used and the lower ability in SCI and MCI groups compared to controls suggest that ET use is affected already in very minor cognitive decline. This indicates that self-reported ET use based on the S-ETUQ is sensitive to detect changes already in SCI.

  19. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  20. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  1. NASA Earth Day 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-22

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students who attended the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA sponsored the Earth Day event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. SciNews: Incorporating Science Current Events in 21st Century Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMaggio, E.

    2011-12-01

    Middle school students are instructed with the aid of textbooks, lectures, and activities to teach topics that satisfy state standards. However, teaching materials created to convey standard-aligned science concepts often leave students asking how the content relates to their lives and why they should be learning it. Conveying relevance is important for student learning and retention, especially in science where abstract concepts can often be incorrectly perceived as irrelevant. One way to create an educational link between classroom content and everyday life is through the use of scientific current events. Students read, hear, and watch media coverage of natural events (such as the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan), but do not necessarily relate the scientific information from media sources to classroom studies. Taking advantage of these brief 'teachable moments'--when student interest is high--provides a valuable opportunity to make classroom-to-everyday life associations and to incorporate inquiry based learning. To address this need, I create pre-packaged current event materials for middle to high school teachers that align to state standards, and which are short, effective, and easy to implement in the classroom. Each lesson takes approximately 15-30 minutes to implement, allowing teachers time to facilitate brief but meaningful discussions. I assemble materials within approximately one week of the regional or global science event, consisting of short slide shows, maps, videos, pictures, and real-time data. I use a listserv to send biweekly emails to subscribed instructors containing the current event topic and a link to download the materials. All materials are hosted on the Arizona State University Education Outreach SciNews website (http://sese.asu.edu/teacher-resources) and are archived. Currently, 285 educators subscribe to the SciNews listserv, representing 36 states and 19 countries. In order to assess the effectiveness and usefulness of Sci

  3. Potent Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by an Intracellular Anti-Rev Single-Chain Antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lingxun; Bagasra, Omar; Laughlin, Mark A.; Oakes, Joseph W.; Pomerantz, Roger J.

    1994-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has a complex life cycle, which has made it a difficult target for conventional therapeutic modalities. A single-chain antibody moiety, directed against the HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which rescues unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus of infected cells, has now been developed. This anti-Rev single-chain construct (SFv) consists of both light and heavy chain variable regions of an anti-Rev monoclonal antibody, which, when expressed intracellularly within human cells, potently inhibits HIV-1 replication. This intracellular SFv molecule is demonstrated to specifically antagonize Rev function. Thus, intracellular SFv expression, against a retroviral regulatory protein, may be useful as a gene therapeutic approach to combat HIV-1 infections.

  4. Dynamical Correlation In Some Liquid Alkaline Earth Metals Near Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakore, B. Y.; Suthar, P. H.; Khambholja, S. G.; Gajjar, P. N.; Jani, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    The study of dynamical variables: velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) and power spectrum of liquid alkaline earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba) have been presented based on the static harmonic well approximation. The effective interatomic potential for liquid metals is computed using our well recognized model potential with the exchange correlation functions due to Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru and Utsumi, Farid et al. and Sarkar et al. It is observed that the VACF computed using Sarkar et al. gives the good agreement with available molecular dynamics simulation (MD) results [Phys Rev. B 62, 14818 (2000)]. The shoulder of the power spectrum depends upon the type of local field correlation function used.

  5. Involvement of the Clock Gene Rev-erb alpha in the Regulation of Glucagon Secretion in Pancreatic Alpha-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Elaine; Marroquí, Laura; Figueroa, Ana Lucia C.; Merino, Beatriz; Fernandez-Ruiz, Rebeca; Nadal, Angel; Burris, Thomas P.; Gomis, Ramon; Quesada, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of pancreatic clock genes impairs pancreatic beta-cell function, leading to the onset of diabetes. Despite the importance of pancreatic alpha-cells in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and in diabetes pathophysiology, nothing is known about the role of clock genes in these cells. Here, we identify the clock gene Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion. Rev-erb alpha down-regulation by siRNA (60–70% inhibition) in alphaTC1-9 cells inhibited low-glucose induced glucagon secretion (p<0.05) and led to a decrease in key genes of the exocytotic machinery. The Rev-erb alpha agonist GSK4112 increased glucagon secretion (1.6 fold) and intracellular calcium signals in alphaTC1-9 cells and mouse primary alpha-cells, whereas the Rev-erb alpha antagonist SR8278 produced the opposite effect. At 0.5 mM glucose, alphaTC1-9 cells exhibited intrinsic circadian Rev-erb alpha expression oscillations that were inhibited by 11 mM glucose. In mouse primary alpha-cells, glucose induced similar effects (p<0.001). High glucose inhibited key genes controlled by AMPK such as Nampt, Sirt1 and PGC-1 alpha in alphaTC1-9 cells (p<0.05). AMPK activation by metformin completely reversed the inhibitory effect of glucose on Nampt-Sirt1-PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha. Nampt inhibition decreased Sirt1, PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha mRNA expression (p<0.01) and glucagon release (p<0.05). These findings identify Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion via AMPK/Nampt/Sirt1 pathway. PMID:23936124

  6. Development of a Small Molecule P2X7R Antagonist as a Treatment for Acute SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    in isolated spinal astrocytes and microglia, concentrating on P2X7R activity -dependent transcription. In year 1, we established the injury...astroglia and microglia in response to SCI. Besides defining the effects of P2X7R activation and its blockade on phenotype-specific gene expression...injury (SCI) in isolated spinal astrocytes and microglia, concentrating on P2X7R activity - dependent transcription. In year 1, we established the injury

  7. An international age- and gender-controlled model for the Spinal Cord Injury Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI).

    PubMed

    Scivoletto, Giorgio; Glass, Clive; Anderson, Kim D; Galili, Tal; Benjamin, Yoav; Front, Lilach; Aidinoff, Elena; Bluvshtein, Vadim; Itzkovich, Malka; Aito, Sergio; Baroncini, Ilaria; Benito-Penalva, Jesùs; Castellano, Simona; Osman, Aheed; Silva, Pedro; Catz, Amiram

    2015-01-01

    Background. A quadratic formula of the Spinal Cord Injury Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI) has previously been published. This formula was based on a model of Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM95), the 95th percentile of the SCIM III values, which correspond with the American Spinal Injury Association Motor Scores (AMS) of SCI patients. Objective. To further develop the original formula. Setting. Spinal cord injury centers from 6 countries and the Statistical Laboratory, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. Methods. SCIM95 of 661 SCI patients was modeled, using a quantile regression with or without adjustment for age and gender, to calculate SCI-ARMI values. SCI-ARMI gain during rehabilitation and its correlations were examined. Results. A new quadratic SCIM95 model was created. This resembled the previously published model, which yielded similar SCIM95 values in all the countries, after adjustment for age and gender. Without this adjustment, however, only 86% of the non-Israeli SCIM III observations were lower than those SCIM95 values (P < .0001). Adding the variables age and gender to the new model affected the SCIM95 value significantly (P < .04). Adding country information did not add a significant effect (P > .1). SCI-ARMI gain was positive (38.8 ± 22 points, P < .0001) and correlated weakly with admission age and AMS. Conclusions. The original quadratic SCI-ARMI formula is valid for an international population after adjustment for age and gender. The new formula considers more factors that affect functional ability following SCI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Clinical Trial of AC105 (Mg/PEG) for Treatment of Acute Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    glycol with a molecular weight of 3350 Daltons ( PEG 3350 ), is manufactured by Dow Chemical Company and complies with NF, FCC and EurPh requirements...Mg/ PEG ) for Treatment of Acute Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew Blight, PhD RECIPIENT: Acorda Therapeutics...of AC105 (Mg/ PEG ) for Treatment of Acute Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  9. HIV-1 Rev protein specifies the viral RNA export pathway by suppressing TAP/NXF1 recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Ichiro; Mabuchi, Naoto; Ohno, Mutsuhito

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear RNA export pathways in eukaryotes are often linked to the fate of a given RNA. Therefore, the choice of export pathway should be well-controlled to avoid an unfavorable effect on gene expression. Although some RNAs could be exported by more than one pathway, little is known about how the choice is regulated. This issue is highlighted when the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein induces the export of singly spliced and unspliced HIV-1 transcripts. How these RNAs are exported is not well understood because such transcripts should have the possibility of utilizing CRM1-dependent export via Rev or cellular TAP/NXF1-dependent export via the transcription/export (TREX) complex, or both. Here we found that Rev suppressed TAP/NXF1-dependent export of model RNA substrates that recapitulated viral transcripts. In this effect, Rev interacted with the cap-binding complex and inhibited the recruitment of the TREX complex. Thus, Rev controls the identity of the factor occupying the cap-proximal region that determines the RNA export pathway. This ribonucleoprotein remodeling activity of Rev may favor viral gene expression. PMID:24753416

  10. The regulatory effect of electro-acupuncture on the expression of NMDA receptors in a SCI rat model.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wen-Zhan; Chen, Wen-Ci; Xia, Wan; He, Rong; Hu, Jie; Jiang, Ming-Chen; Jiang, Song-He

    2017-05-15

    In early spinal cord injury (SCI), glutamate receptors, including N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs), are over-stimulated by excessively released glutamate. The enhanced activity of NMDARs may cause cell death by overloading calcium (Ca 2+ ) into cells based on their high permeability to Ca 2+ . Studies in SCI animals have shown that treatment with electro-acupuncture (EA) is able to reduce cell death and to improve functional recovery. One possible mechanism of this neuroprotective effect is that EA has regulatory effect on NMDARs. To test whether EA could protect the spinal cord after SCI by decreasing the expression levels of NR1 and NR2A. We conducted EA treatment on a rat SCI model produced with a New York University (NYU) Impactor and measured hindlimb locomotor function by Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale (BBB Scale). The expression of NR1 and NR2, the subunits of NMDARs, in the injured spinal cord was measured by Immunofluorescence stainings, western blot and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Our results showed that two days after the SCI the expression of NR1 and NR2 were dramatically enhanced at both protein and mNRA levels, which were significantly reduced by EA treatment at two specific acupoints, Dazhui (DU14) and Mingmen (DU4). EA is a potential therapeutic method for treating early SCI in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MicroRNA-146a Contributes to SCI Recovery via Regulating TRAF6 and IRAK1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jinsong; Wang, Jiafeng; Zhou, Yulan; Yan, Shouquan; Li, Keshen; Lin, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-146a participates in spinal cord injury (SCI) recovery. Until recently, how miRNA-146a participates in SCI remained unclear. In this study, we tried to explore the roles of miRNA-146a in the recovery of SCI using a rat model. The expression of the probable target genes of miRNA-146a (including IRAK1 and TARF6) as well as proinflammation cytokines were measured until 7 days after surgery in the three groups (sham group, SCI group, and miRNA-146a antagomir injection group). Also, the animals' motivations were estimated using Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) during the whole experiment. A luciferase assay was performed to demonstrate that miRNA-146a could directly target the mRNAs of IRAK1 and TRAF6 . Our experiments indicate that miRNA-146a inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion by suppressing IRAK1 and TRAF6 expression in the SCI model. In contrast, miRNA-146a may be upregulated by inflammatory mediators via the IRAK1 / TRAF6 pathway in the spinal cord. As a negative feedback element, miRNA-146a could make sure that the expression of IRAK1 - and TRAF6 -mediated genes was under tight control. Thus, miRNA-146a may serve as a novel therapeutic target for SCI interventions.

  12. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  13. Creating a Community Coalition to Prevent Childhood Obesity in Yakima County, Washington: Rev It Up! 2008

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jessica; Bindler, Ruth C.; Miller, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Background One-third of the US population is obese, and childhood obesity has tripled since the late 1970s. Childhood obesity is a significant health issue requiring interventions on individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, and policy levels. Community coalitions offer successful strategies for engaging community partners with health improvement goals. Community Context In 2008, Yakima County, an agricultural community in eastern Washington, was ranked the eighth fattest city in the United States. Recognizing the obesity problem, the Yakima Health District (YHD) established 2 objectives: to decrease rates of childhood obesity in Yakima County and to recruit and establish a community coalition of key stakeholders and experts to help address the problem. Methods The YHD spearheaded a movement to create a community coalition. The coalition applied for and received state and federal grants. In September 2008, the YHD held the first recruitment event for Rev It Up!, its community-based effort to address the obesity problem in Yakima. YHD invited the Washington State Department of Health to advise the coalition-building and action-planning process. Outcome The community coalition achieved 5 of 7 objectives, including developing a common vision, creating an advisory committee, and conducting a community inventory, prioritization process, and action plan. However, unexpected public health challenges in the YHD delayed coalition efforts. Interpretation Creating the Rev It Up! coalition met a community need and engaged community partners. Some potential partners were dissuaded by the 6-month period required to establish the coalition. Rev It Up! continues as a community effort to reduce rates of obesity in Yakima County. PMID:22765932

  14. Impact of SciELO and MEDLINE indexing on submissions to Jornal de Pediatria.

    PubMed

    Blank, Danilo; Buchweitz, Claudia; Procianoy, Renato S

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of SciELO and MEDLINE indexing on the number of articles submitted to Jornal de Pediatria. Analysis of total article submission, submission of articles from foreign countries and acceptance figures in the following periods: stage I - pre-website (Jan 2000-Mar 2001); stage II - website (Apr 2001-Jul 2002); stage III - SciELO (Aug 2002-Aug 2003); stage IV - MEDLINE (Sep 2003-Dec 2004). There was a significant trend toward linear increase in the number of submissions along the study period (p = 0.009). The number of manuscripts submitted in stages I through IV was 184, 240, 297, and 482, respectively. The number of submissions was similar in stages I and II (p = 0.148), but statistically higher in Stage III (p < 0.001 vs. Stage I and p = 0.006 vs. Stage II) and Stage IV (p < 0.001 vs. stages I and II, and p < 0.05 vs. stage III). The rate of article acceptance decreased during the study period. The number of original articles published has been stable since the 2001 March/April issue (n = 10), when the journal reached a printed page limit, leading to stricter judgment criteria and a relative decrease in acceptance rate. The number of foreign submissions in stages I through IV was 1, 2, zero and 17, respectively, with p < 0.001 for the comparison of stage IV with previous stages. SciELO indexing was associated with an increase in Brazilian manuscript submissions to Jornal de Pediatria, whereas MEDLINE indexing led to an increase in both Brazilian and foreign submissions.

  15. SciDAC-Data, A Project to Enabling Data Driven Modeling of Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mubarak, M.; Ding, P.; Aliaga, L.

    The SciDAC-Data project is a DOE funded initiative to analyze and exploit two decades of information and analytics that have been collected by the Fermilab Data Center on the organization, movement, and consumption of High Energy Physics data. The project will analyze the analysis patterns and data organization that have been used by the NOvA, MicroBooNE, MINERvA and other experiments, to develop realistic models of HEP analysis workflows and data processing. The SciDAC-Data project aims to provide both realistic input vectors and corresponding output data that can be used to optimize and validate simulations of HEP analysis. These simulations aremore » designed to address questions of data handling, cache optimization and workflow structures that are the prerequisites for modern HEP analysis chains to be mapped and optimized to run on the next generation of leadership class exascale computing facilities. We will address the use of the SciDAC-Data distributions acquired from Fermilab Data Center’s analysis workflows and corresponding to around 71,000 HEP jobs, as the input to detailed queuing simulations that model the expected data consumption and caching behaviors of the work running in HPC environments. In particular we describe in detail how the Sequential Access via Metadata (SAM) data handling system in combination with the dCache/Enstore based data archive facilities have been analyzed to develop the radically different models of the analysis of HEP data. We present how the simulation may be used to analyze the impact of design choices in archive facilities.« less

  16. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Sanders, S. J.; Huggins, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Spitz Fulldome Curriculum (FDC) for the SciDome digital planetarium ushered in a new and innovative way to present astronomical pedagogy via its use of the unique teaching attributes of the digital planetarium. In the case of the FDC, which uses the ubiquitous Starry Night planetarium software as its driving engine, these engaging and novel teaching techniques have also been made usable to desktop computers and flat-screen video projectors for classroom use. Volume 2 of the FDC introduces exciting new classes and mini-lessons to further enlighten and invigorate students as they struggle with often difficult three dimensional astronomical concepts. Additionally, other topics with related astronomical ties have been created to integrate history into planetarium presentations. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is its use of Starry Night as its astronomical engine. With it students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home, using the PC or Mac version. They can then simply load their creations onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for their classmates on the dome. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new content that has been developed for Volume 2. Topics covered in Volume 2 include eclipses, plotting planet locations on a curtate orbit chart by observing their positions in the sky, time and timekeeping (including sidereal day, hour angles, sidereal time, LAST, LMST, time zones and the International Date Line), teaching to the Boy Scout Merit Badge requirements, plotting scale analemmas on the surface of planets and interpreting them, precession, astronomical events in revolutionary Boston, the Lincoln Almanac Trial, eclipsing binaries, lunar librations, a trip through the universe, watching the speed of light move in real time, stellar sizes and the Milky Way.

  17. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, Lance

    2014-01-01

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  18. Iowa State University – Final Report for SciDAC3/NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, James P

    The Iowa State University (ISU) contributions to the NUCLEI project are focused on developing, implementing and running an efficient and scalable configuration interaction code (Many-Fermion Dynamics – nuclear or MFDn) for leadership class supercomputers addressing forefront research problems in low-energy nuclear physics. We investigate nuclear structure and reactions with realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions. We select a few highlights from our work that has produced a total of more than 82 refereed publications and more than 109 invited talks under SciDAC3/NUCLEI.

  19. Psychosocial and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bowel and Bladder Management after SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    depression after first being injured, and dealing with insurance companies. A second focus group session was planned for caregivers of those with SCI...Physical Health and Depression scores as a function of response shift – those showing no changes or response shift had the lowest PROMIS scores. 5b...stay away from depression … Don’t get upset with it. Deal with it. It’s who you are now. You have to… It’s just Self-rated Quality of Life: 9 21

  20. [Analysis on acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in science citation index (SCI) in 2008].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; He, Wen-Ju; Guo, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in Science Citation Index (SCI) in 2008 were summarized and analyzed. About 583 articles were collected using "acupuncture" and "in 2008" as keywords in the Web of Science data base by information retrieval. These papers were summarized and analyzed from various aspects of country, language, subject category, literature type, publication sources, impact factor, research method, acupoints, disease category and needling methods by using Excel software combined with manual sorting of the literature, the aim is to provide a reference for domestic acupuncture research.

  1. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Palamuttam, R. S.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Verma, R.; Waliser, D. E.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark under a NASA AIST grant (PI Mattmann). Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based ApacheTM Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk. SciSpark will enable scalable model evaluation by executing large-scale comparisons of A-Train satellite observations to model grids on a cluster of 10 to 1000 compute nodes. This 2nd generation capability for NASA's Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) will compute simple climate metrics at interactive speeds, and extend to quite sophisticated iterative algorithms such as machine-learning based clustering of temperature PDFs, and even graph-based algorithms for searching for Mesocale Convective Complexes. We have implemented a parallel data ingest capability in which the user specifies desired variables (arrays) as several time-sorted lists of URL's (i.e. using OPeNDAP model.nc?varname, or local files). The specified variables are partitioned by time/space and then each Spark node pulls its bundle of arrays into memory to begin a computation pipeline. We also investigated the performance of several N-dim. array libraries (scala breeze, java jblas & netlib-java, and ND4J). We are currently developing science codes using ND4J and studying memory behavior on the JVM. On the pyspark side, many of our science codes already use the numpy and SciPy ecosystems. The talk will cover: the architecture of SciSpark, the design of the scientific RDD (sRDD) data structure, our

  2. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Waliser, D. E.; Kim, J.; Loikith, P.; Lee, H.; McGibbney, L. J.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark. Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based ApacheTM Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk, and makes iterative algorithms feasible. SciSpark will enable scalable model evaluation by executing large-scale comparisons of A-Train satellite observations to model grids on a cluster of 100 to 1000 compute nodes. This 2nd generation capability for NASA's Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) will compute simple climate metrics at interactive speeds, and extend to quite sophisticated iterative algorithms such as machine-learning (ML) based clustering of temperature PDFs, and even graph-based algorithms for searching for Mesocale Convective Complexes. The goals of SciSpark are to: (1) Decrease the time to compute comparison statistics and plots from minutes to seconds; (2) Allow for interactive exploration of time-series properties over seasons and years; (3) Decrease the time for satellite data ingestion into RCMES to hours; (4) Allow for Level-2 comparisons with higher-order statistics or PDF's in minutes to hours; and (5) Move RCMES into a near real time decision-making platform. We will report on: the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms in Python and Scala, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from HDF files and model grids from netCDF files, first parallel runs to compute comparison statistics and PDF

  3. Earth on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

  4. Earth - Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft early Dec. 12, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.6 million miles from the Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00123

  5. The Earth & Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    During its flight, NASA’s Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon. Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00342

  6. Oblique Shot of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-05

    This highly oblique image shot over northwestern part of the African continent captures the curvature of the Earth and shows its atmosphere as seen by NASA EarthKAM. You can see clouds and even the occasional thunderhead.

  7. Exploring Spaceship Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Noel F.

    1973-01-01

    Describes various activities to understand the nature of the earth as a spaceship and its impact on human life. A figure depicting a holocoenotic environmental complex is given which can be used to illustrate various interacting forces on earth. (PS)

  8. NASA Earth Day 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-22

    Students listen intently while NASA's Director, Earth Science Division, Mike Freilich, speaks at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  9. Earth - India and Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-08

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00122

  10. Increasing specialty care access through use of an innovative home telehealth-based spinal cord injury disease management protocol (SCI DMP)

    PubMed Central

    Seton, Jacinta M.; Washington, Monique; Tomlinson, Suk C.; Phrasavath, Douangmala; Farrell, Karen R.; Goldstein, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Background A spinal cord injury disease management protocol (SCI DMP) was developed to address the unique medical, physical, functional, and psychosocial needs of those living with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). The SCI DMP was piloted to evaluate DMP clinical content and to identify issues for broader implementation across the Veterans Affairs (VA) SCI System of Care. Methods Thirty-three patients with SCI/D from four VA SCI centers participated in a 6-month pilot. Patients received customized SCI DMP questions through a data messaging device (DMD). Nurse home telehealth care coordinators (HTCC) monitored responses and addressed clinical alerts daily. One site administered the Duke Severity of Illness (DUSOI) Checklist and Short Form-8 (SF-8™) to evaluate the changes in comorbidity severity and health-related quality of life while on the SCI DMP. Results Patients remained enrolled an average of 116 days, with a mean response rate of 56%. The average distance between patient's home and their VA SCI center was 59 miles. Feedback on SCI DMP content and the DMD included requests for additional clinical topics, changes in administration frequency, and adapting the DMD for functional impairments. Improvement in clinical outcomes was seen in a subset of patients enrolled on the SCI DMP. Conclusion SCI HTCCs and patients reported that the program was most beneficial for newly injured patients recently discharged from acute rehabilitation that live far from specialty SCI care facilities. SCI DMP content changes and broader implementation strategies are currently being evaluated based on lessons learned from the pilot. PMID:24617497

  11. NASA Earth Day 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-22

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses for a quick selfie with students who attended the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA announced the "Global Selfie" event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. All selfies posted to social media with the hashtag "GlobalSelfie" will be included in a mosaic image of Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. The Dynamic Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siever, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)

  13. Determinants of G quadruplex-induced epigenetic instability in REV1-deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, Davide; Guilbaud, Guillaume; Murat, Pierre; Papadopoulou, Charikleia; Sarkies, Peter; Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Sale, Julian E

    2014-01-01

    REV1-deficient chicken DT40 cells are compromised in replicating G quadruplex (G4)-forming DNA. This results in localised, stochastic loss of parental chromatin marks and changes in gene expression. We previously proposed that this epigenetic instability arises from G4-induced replication fork stalls disrupting the accurate propagation of chromatin structure through replication. Here, we test this model by showing that a single G4 motif is responsible for the epigenetic instability of the BU-1 locus in REV1-deficient cells, despite its location 3.5 kb from the transcription start site (TSS). The effect of the G4 is dependent on it residing on the leading strand template, but is independent of its in vitro thermal stability. Moving the motif to more than 4 kb from the TSS stabilises expression of the gene. However, loss of histone modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K9/14ac) around the transcription start site correlates with the position of the G4 motif, expression being lost only when the promoter is affected. This supports the idea that processive replication is required to maintain the histone modification pattern and full transcription of this model locus. PMID:25190518

  14. Computational investigation of the HIV-1 Rev multimerization using molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Venken, Tom; Daelemans, Dirk; De Maeyer, Marc; Voet, Arnout

    2012-06-01

    The HIV Rev protein mediates the nuclear export of viral mRNA, and is thereby essential for the production of late viral proteins in the replication cycle. Rev forms a large organized multimeric protein-protein complex for proper functioning. Recently, the three-dimensional structures of a Rev dimer and tetramer have been resolved and provide the basis for a thorough structural analysis of the binding interaction. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) and binding free energy calculations were performed to elucidate the forces thriving dimerization and higher order multimerization of the Rev protein. It is found that despite the structural differences between each crystal structure, both display a similar behavior according to our calculations. Our analysis based on a molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) and a configurational entropy approach demonstrates that the higher order multimerization site is much weaker than the dimerization site. In addition, a quantitative hot spot analysis combined with a mutational analysis reveals the most contributing amino acid residues for protein interactions in agreement with experimental results. Additional residues were found in each interface, which are important for the protein interaction. The investigation of the thermodynamics of the Rev multimerization interactions performed here could be a further step in the development of novel antiretrovirals using structure based drug design. Moreover, the variability of the angle between each Rev monomer as measured during the MD simulations suggests a role of the Rev protein in allowing flexibility of the arginine rich domain (ARM) to accommodate RNA binding. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. REV-ERB-ALPHA circadian gene variant associates with obesity in two independent populations: Mediterranean and North American.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Smith, Caren E; Gomez-Abellán, Purificación; Ordovás-Montañés, María; Lee, Yu-Chi; Parnell, Laurence D; Arnett, Donna K; Ordovás, José M

    2014-04-01

    Despite the solid connection between REV-ERB and obesity, the information about whether genetic variations at this locus may be associated with obesity traits is scarce. Therefore our objective was to study the association between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 and obesity in two independent populations. Participants were 2214 subjects from Spanish Mediterranean (n = 1404) and North American (n = 810) populations. Anthropometric, biochemical, dietary, and genotype analyses were performed. We found novel associations between the REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 genotype and obesity in two independent populations: in Spanish Mediterranean and North American groups, the frequency of the minor-allele-carriers (AA+ AG) was significantly lower in the "abdominally obese" group than in those of the "nonabdominally obese" group (p < 0.05). Minor allele carriers had lower probability of abdominal obesity than noncarriers, and the effect was of similar magnitude for both populations (OR ≈ 1.50). There were consistent associations between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 genotype and obesity-related traits (p < 0.05). Energy intake was not significantly associated with REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339. However, physical activity significantly differed by genotype. A significant interaction between the REV-ERB-ALPHA1 variant and monounsaturated-fatty-acids (MUFA) intake for obesity was also detected in the Mediterranean population. This new discovery highlights the importance of REV-ERB-ALPHA1 in obesity and provides evidence for the connection between our biological clock and obesity-related traits. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Scientific support of SciTech museum exhibits and outreach programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peshkin, M.

    SciTech (Science and Technology Interactive Center) is a small hands-on science museum located in Aurora, Illinois, not far from Argonne National Laboratory. Its constituency includes prosperous suburbs and economically disadvantaged minority communities in Aurora and Chicago. Its mission is to contribute to the country`s scientific literacy initiative by offering hands-on experiences on the museum floor and through outreach programs extended to school children, their teachers, and other groups. Argonne`s participation is focused mainly on the development of exhibits to carry the ideas of modern science and technology to the public. This is an area in which traditional museums are weak,more » but in which SciTech has become a nationally recognized leader with the assistance of Argonne, Fermilab, nearby technological companies, and many volunteer scientists and engineers. We also participate in development and improvement of the museum`s general exhibits and outreach programs. Argonne`s Director, Alan Schriesheim, serves as a member of the museum`s Board of Directors. Murray Peshkin serves part-time as the museum`s Senior Scientist. Dale Henderson serves part-time as an exhibit developer. That work is supported by the Laboratory Director`s discretionary funds. In addition, several members of the Physics Division voluntarily assist with exhibit development and the Division makes facilities available for that effort.« less

  17. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Mary

    2014-09-19

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems has high priority within DOE SC. As we look to the future, achieving expected levels of performance on high-end com-puting (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing archi-tectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, PERI has implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. The PERI performance modeling and prediction activity is developing and refining performance models, significantly reducing the cost of collecting the data upon whichmore » the models are based, and increasing model fidelity, speed and generality. Our primary research activity is automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity is spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and is based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which has automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other re-cent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our third major component is application en-gagement, to which we are devoting approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with Sci-DAC-2 applications. This last activity not only helps DOE scientists meet their near-term per-formance goals, but also helps keep PERI research focused on the real challenges facing DOE computational scientists as they enter the Petascale Era.« less

  18. What's Manifest in the History of SciTech: Reflections on The History Manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kevles, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Making nuts-and-bolts public policy is not--and never has been--the long suit of professional historians, but general historical work, whatever its durée, has done a good deal to shape discourse on public issues. Jo Guldi and David Armitage neglect that fact, as well as the opinion-shaping influence of history conveyed via nonprint media. They also ignore the large body of scholarship produced in all media during recent decades in the history of science, technology, and science-related medicine (SciTech), even though SciTech itself looms enormously large in the modern era as an instrument of national and international security, a driver of the economy, and a transformer of medicine, public health, and the environment. Much of this scholarship, even though of short durée, can illuminate salient contemporary issues, including innovation; patronage and practice; government and policy; imperialism and globalization; intellectual property; science and religion; and human rights, environment, energy, and disasters.

  19. Neuroinflammatory contributions to pain after SCI: roles for central glial mechanisms and nociceptor-mediated host defense.

    PubMed

    Walters, Edgar T

    2014-08-01

    Neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is common, often intractable, and can be severely debilitating. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for this pain, which are discussed briefly, along with methods for revealing SCI pain in animal models, such as the recently applied conditioned place preference test. During the last decade, studies of animal models have shown that both central neuroinflammation and behavioral hypersensitivity (indirect reflex measures of pain) persist chronically after SCI. Interventions that reduce neuroinflammation have been found to ameliorate pain-related behavior, such as treatment with agents that inhibit the activation states of microglia and/or astroglia (including IL-10, minocycline, etanercept, propentofylline, ibudilast, licofelone, SP600125, carbenoxolone). Reversal of pain-related behavior has also been shown with disruption by an inhibitor (CR8) and/or genetic deletion of cell cycle-related proteins, deletion of a truncated receptor (trkB.T1) for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or reduction by antisense knockdown or an inhibitor (AMG9810) of the activity of channels (TRPV1 or Nav1.8) important for electrical activity in primary nociceptors. Nociceptor activity is known to drive central neuroinflammation in peripheral injury models, and nociceptors appear to be an integral component of host defense. Thus, emerging results suggest that spinal and systemic effects of SCI can activate nociceptor-mediated host defense responses that interact via neuroinflammatory signaling with complex central consequences of SCI to drive chronic pain. This broader view of SCI-induced neuroinflammation suggests new targets, and additional complications, for efforts to develop effective treatments for neuropathic SCI pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reply to comments by Ahmad et al. on: Shah, A. A., 2013. Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-013-0874-8 and on Shah, A. A., 2015. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India, International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-015-1183-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) mapped major unknown faults and fault segments in Kashmir basin using geomorphological techniques. The major trace of out-of-sequence thrust fault was named as Kashmir basin fault (KBF) because it runs through the middle of Kashmir basin, and the active movement on it has backtilted and uplifted most of the basin. Ahmad et al. (Int J Earth Sci, 2015) have disputed the existence of KBF and maintained that faults identified by Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) were already mapped as inferred faults by earlier workers. The early works, however, show a major normal fault, or a minor out-of-sequence reverse fault, and none have shown a major thrust fault.

  1. A HIV-1 Tat mutant protein disrupts HIV-1 Rev function by targeting the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min-Hsuan; Sivakumaran, Haran; Jones, Alun; Li, Dongsheng; Harper, Callista; Wei, Ting; Jin, Hongping; Rustanti, Lina; Meunier, Frederic A; Spann, Kirsten; Harrich, David

    2014-12-14

    Previously we described a transdominant negative mutant of the HIV-1 Tat protein, termed Nullbasic, that downregulated the steady state levels of unspliced and singly spliced viral mRNA, an activity caused by inhibition of HIV-1 Rev activity. Nullbasic also altered the subcellular localizations of Rev and other cellular proteins, including CRM1, B23 and C23 in a Rev-dependent manner, suggesting that Nullbasic may disrupt Rev function and trafficking by intervening with an unidentified component of the Rev nucleocytoplasmic transport complex. To seek a possible mechanism that could explain how Nullbasic inhibits Rev activity, we used a proteomics approach to identify host cellular proteins that interact with Nullbasic. Forty-six Nullbasic-binding proteins were identified by mass spectrometry including the DEAD-box RNA helicase, DDX1. To determine the effect of DDX1 on Nullbasic-mediated Rev activity, we performed cell-based immunoprecipitation assays, Rev reporter assays and bio-layer interferometry (BLI) assays. Interaction between DDX1 and Nullbasic was observed by co-immunoprecipitation of Nullbasic with endogenous DDX1 from cell lysates. BLI assays showed a direct interaction between Nullbasic and DDX1. Nullbasic affected DDX1 subcellular distribution in a Rev-independent manner. Interestingly overexpression of DDX1 in cells not only restored Rev-dependent mRNA export and gene expression in a Rev reporter assay but also partly reversed Nullbasic-induced Rev subcellular mislocalization. Moreover, HIV-1 wild type Tat co-immunoprecipitated with DDX1 and overexpression of Tat could rescue the unspliced viral mRNA levels inhibited by Nullbasic in HIV-1 expressing cells. Nullbasic was used to further define the complex mechanisms involved in the Rev-dependent nuclear export of the 9 kb and 4 kb viral RNAs. All together, these data indicate that DDX1 can be sequestered by Nullbasic leading to destabilization of the Rev nucleocytoplasmic transport complex and decreased

  2. Earth Science community support in the EGI-Inspire Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwichtenberg, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Science Grid community is following its strategy of propagating Grid technology to the ES disciplines, setting up interactive collaboration among the members of the community and stimulating the interest of stakeholders on the political level since ten years already. This strategy was described in a roadmap published in an Earth Science Informatics journal. It was applied through different European Grid projects and led to a large Grid Earth Science VRC that covers a variety of ES disciplines; in the end, all of them were facing the same kind of ICT problems. .. The penetration of Grid in the ES community is indicated by the variety of applications, the number of countries in which ES applications are ported, the number of papers in international journals and the number of related PhDs. Among the six virtual organisations belonging to ES, one, ESR, is generic. Three others -env.see-grid-sci.eu, meteo.see-grid-sci.eu and seismo.see-grid-sci.eu- are thematic and regional (South Eastern Europe) for environment, meteorology and seismology. The sixth VO, EGEODE, is for the users of the Geocluster software. There are also ES users in national VOs or VOs related to projects. The services for the ES task in EGI-Inspire concerns the data that are a key part of any ES application. The ES community requires several interfaces to access data and metadata outside of the EGI infrastructure, e.g. by using grid-enabled database interfaces. The data centres have also developed service tools for basic research activities such as searching, browsing and downloading these datasets, but these are not accessible from applications executed on the Grid. The ES task in EGI-Inspire aims to make these tools accessible from the Grid. In collaboration with GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) this task is maintaining and evolving an interface in response to new requirements that will allow data in the GENESI-DR infrastructure to

  3. Games and Simulations for Climate, Weather and Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R. M.; Clark, S.

    2015-12-01

    We will demonstrate several interactive, computer-based simulations, games, and other interactive multimedia. These resources were developed for weather, climate, atmospheric science, and related Earth system science education. The materials were created by the UCAR Center for Science Education. These materials have been disseminated via our web site (SciEd.ucar.edu), webinars, online courses, teacher workshops, and large touchscreen displays in weather and Sun-Earth connections exhibits in NCAR's Mesa Lab facility in Boulder, Colorado. Our group has also assembled a web-based list of similar resources, especially simulations and games, from other sources that touch upon weather, climate, and atmospheric science topics. We'll briefly demonstrate this directory.

  4. Recommendations for the National Institute for Neurologic Disorders and Stroke spinal cord injury common data elements for children and youth with SCI.

    PubMed

    Mulcahey, M J; Vogel, L C; Sheikh, M; Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Augutis, M; Garner, E; Hagen, E M; Jakeman, L B; Kelly, E; Martin, R; Odenkirchen, J; Scheel-Sailer, A; Schottler, J; Taylor, H; Thielen, C C; Zebracki, K

    2017-04-01

    In 2014, the adult spinal cord injury (SCI) common data element (CDE) recommendations were made available. This project was a review of the adult SCI CDE for relevance to children and youth with SCI. The objective of this study was to review the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) adult SCI CDEs for relevance to children and youth with SCI. International. The pediatric working group consisted of international members with varied fields of expertise related to pediatric SCI. The group convened biweekly meetings for 6 months in 2015. All of the adult SCI CDEs were reviewed, evaluated and modified/created for four age groups: 0-5 years, 6-12 years, 13-15 years and 16-18 years. Whenever possible, results of published research studies were used to guide recommendations. In the absence of empirical support, grey literature and international content expert consensus were garnered. Existing pediatric NINDS CDEs and new CDEs were developed in areas where adult recommendations were not appropriate. After internal working group review of domain recommendations, these pediatric CDEs were vetted during a public review from November through December 2015. Version 1.0 of the pediatric SCI CDEs was posted in February 2016. The pediatric SCI CDEs are incorporated directly into the NINDS SCI CDE sets and can be found at https://commondataelements.ninds.nih.gov.

  5. Earth Science Information Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1991-01-01

    An ESIC? An Earth Science Information Center. Don't spell it. Say it. ESIC. It rhymes with seasick. You can find information in an information center, of course, and you'll find earth science information in an ESIC. That means information about the land that is the Earth, the land that is below the Earth, and in some instances, the space surrounding the Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of Earth Science Information Centers that sell earth science products and data. There are more than 75 ESIC's. Some are operated by the USGS, but most are in other State or Federal agencies. Each ESIC responds to requests for information received by telephone, letter, or personal visit. Your personal visit.

  6. Human protein Staufen-2 promotes HIV-1 proliferation by positively regulating RNA export activity of viral protein Rev.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Atoshi; Benjamin, Ronald; Balakrishnan, Kannan; Ghosh, Payel; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2014-02-13

    The export of intron containing viral RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step in the life cycle of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1). As the eukaryotic system does not permit the transport of intron containing RNA out of the nucleus, HIV-1 makes a regulatory protein, Rev, that mediates the transportation of unspliced and partially spliced viral mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, thereby playing a decisive role in the generation of new infectious virus particles. Therefore, the host factors modulating the RNA export activity of Rev can be major determinants of virus production in an infected cell. In this study, human Staufen-2 (hStau-2) was identified as a host factor interacting with HIV-1 Rev through affinity chromatography followed by MALDI analyses. Our experiments involving transient expressions, siRNA mediated knockdowns and infection assays conclusively established that hStau-2 is a positive regulator of HIV-1 pathogenesis. We demonstrated that Rev-hStau-2 interactions positively regulated the RNA export activity of Rev and promoted progeny virus synthesis. The Rev-hStau-2 interaction was independent of RNA despite both being RNA binding proteins. hStau-2 mutant, with mutations at Q314R-A318F-K319E, deficient of binding Rev, failed to promote hStau-2 dependent Rev activity and viral production, validating the essentiality of this protein-protein interaction. The expression of this positive regulator was elevated upon HIV-1 infection in both human T-lymphocyte and astrocyte cell lines. With this study, we establish that human Staufen-2, a host factor which is up-regulated upon HIV-1 infection, interacts with HIV-1 Rev, thereby promoting its RNA export activity and progeny virus formation. Altogether, our study provides new insights into the emerging role of the Staufen family of mRNA transporters in host-pathogen interaction and supports the notion that obliterating interactions between viral and host proteins that positively

  7. A faster and more reliable data acquisition system for the full performance of the SciCRT

    DOE PAGES

    Sasai, Y.; Matsubara, Y.; Itow, Y.; ...

    2017-01-03

    The SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) is a massive scintillator tracker to observe cosmic rays at a very high-altitude environment in Mexico. The fully active tracker is based on the Scintillator Bar (SciBar) detector developed as a near detector for the KEK-to-Kamioka long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment (K2K) in Japan. Since the data acquisition (DAQ) system was developed for the accelerator experiment, we determined to develop a new robust DAQ system to optimize it to our cosmic-ray experiment needs at the top of Mt. Sierra Negra (4600 m). One of our special requirements is to achieve a 10 times faster readoutmore » rate. We started to develop a new fast readout back-end board (BEB) based on 100 Mbps SiTCP, a hardware network processor developed for DAQ systems for high energy physics experiments. Then we developed the new BEB which has a potential of 20 times faster than the current one in the case of observing neutrons. Lastly, we installed the new DAQ system including the new BEBs to a part of the SciCRT in July 2015. The system has been operating since then. In this article, we describe the development, the basic performance of the new BEB, the status after the installation in the SciCRT, and the future performance.« less

  8. Regulation of nitrite resistance of the cytochrome cbb3 oxidase by cytochrome c ScyA in Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Jin, Miao; Zhang, Haiyan; Ju, Lili; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Haichun

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c proteins, as enzymes to exchange electrons with substrates or as pure electron carriers to shuttle electrons, play vital roles in bacterial respiration and photosynthesis. In Shewanella oneidensis, a research model for the respiratory diversity, at least 42 c-type cytochromes are predicted to be encoded in the genome and are regarded to be the foundation of its highly branched electron transport pathways. However, only a small number of c-type cytochromes have been extensively studied. In this study, we identify soluble cytochrome c ScyA as an important factor influencing the nitrite resistance of a strain devoid of the bd oxidase by utilizing a newly developed transposon mutagenesis vector, which enables overexpression of the gene(s) downstream of the insertion site. We show that when in overabundance ScyA facilitates growth against nitrite inhibition by enhancing nitrite resistance of the cbb3 oxidase. Based on the data presented in this study, we suggest two possible mechanisms underlying the observed effect of ScyA: (1) ScyA increases electron flow to the cbb3 oxidase; (2) ScyA promotes nitrite resistance of the cbb3 oxidase, possibly by direct interaction. PMID:25417822

  9. Enhancing health care professionals' and trainees' knowledge of physical activity guidelines for adults with and without SCI.

    PubMed

    Shirazipour, Celina H; Tomasone, Jennifer R; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2018-01-11

    Health care providers (HCPs) are preferred sources of physical activity (PA) information; however, minimal research has explored HCPs' knowledge of spinal cord injury (SCI) PA guidelines, and no research has examined HCP trainees' PA guideline knowledge. The current study explored HCPs' and trainees' initial knowledge of PA guidelines for both adults with SCI and the general population, and the utility of an event-based intervention for improving this knowledge. Participants (HCPs n = 129; trainees n = 573) reported guideline knowledge for both sets of guidelines (SCI and general population) immediately after, one-month, and six-months following the intervention. Frequencies determined guideline knowledge at each timepoint, while chi-squared tests examined differences in knowledge of both guidelines, as well as knowledge differences in the short- and long-term. Results demonstrated that HCPs and trainees lack knowledge of PA guidelines, particularly guidelines for adults with SCI. The results further suggest that a single event-based intervention is not effective for improving long-term guideline knowledge. Suggestions are made for future research with the aim of improving interventions that target HCP and HCP trainees' long-term guideline knowledge for adults with SCI and the general population.

  10. Social Competence Intervention for Parents (SCI-P): Comparing Outcomes for a Parent Education Program Targeting Adolescents with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Tia R.; Stichter, Janine P.; Herzog, Melissa J.; McGhee, Stephanie D.; Lierheimer, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that parent education programs can address some of the distinct challenges that parents of youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) encounter. This study examined the effectiveness of the Social Competence Intervention for Parents (SCI-P), a parent education program, administered in conjunction with a social competence intervention that targeted youth with ASD ages 11–14 (SCI-A). Using a quasi-experimental pre-post design, parents were assigned to either the SCI-P group (n = 16) or to the waitlist comparison group (n = 10). Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed a significant effect for parent education participation such that SCI-P participants experienced significantly greater reductions in levels of stress and a trend for increases in parenting sense of competence from pre- to post-intervention. Moreover, parents in the SCI-P group reported high satisfaction with the program. These findings suggest that parent education can result in positive outcomes for parents' well being. PMID:22934178

  11. The novel oral glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 shows in vitro activity against sessile and planktonic Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Gómez-Perosanz, Marta; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2017-07-01

    We studied the antifungal activity of SCY-078 (an orally bioavailable 1,3-β -d- glucan synthesis inhibitor), micafungin and fluconazole against the planktonic and sessile forms of 178 Candida and non- Candida isolates causing fungaemia in patients recently admitted to a large European hospital. The in vitro activity of SCY-078, micafungin and fluconazole against the planktonic form of the isolates was assessed using EUCAST EDef 7.3 and CLSI M27-A3. Antibiofilm activity was assessed using the XTT reduction assay. SCY-078 and micafungin showed potent in vitro activity against Candida and non- Candida isolates. The in vitro activity of both drugs was similar, but SYC-078 displayed significantly lower MIC values than micafungin against Candida parapsilosis and non- Candida isolates, whereas micafungin displayed significantly lower MIC values for the remaining species ( P  <0.001). In contrast, SCY-078 and micafungin showed essentially the same activity against the biofilms with the exception of Candida glabrata , in which the micafungin sessile MIC values were significantly lower ( P  <0.001). These observations were confirmed by assessing biofilm structure by scanning electron microscopy after antifungal treatment. Our study showed that the high in vitro activity of SCY-078 against invasive Candida isolates in both sessile and planktonic forms is comparable to that of micafungin. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  13. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  14. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and short forms and the SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Tate, Denise G; Spungen, Ann M; Kirshblum, Steven C

    2015-05-01

    To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and Bladder Complications scale. Using a mixed-methods design, a pool of items assessing bladder and bowel-related concerns were developed using focus groups with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and SCI clinicians, cognitive interviews, and item response theory (IRT) analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning. Thirty-eight bladder items and 52 bowel items were tested at the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation Research Center, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY. Seven hundred fifty-seven adults with traumatic SCI. The final item banks demonstrated unidimensionality (Bladder Management Difficulties CFI=0.965; RMSEA=0.093; Bowel Management Difficulties CFI=0.955; RMSEA=0.078) and acceptable fit to a graded response IRT model. The final calibrated Bladder Management Difficulties bank includes 15 items, and the final Bowel Management Difficulties item bank consists of 26 items. Additionally, 5 items related to urinary tract infections (UTI) did not fit with the larger Bladder Management Difficulties item bank but performed relatively well independently (CFI=0.992, RMSEA=0.050) and were thus retained as a separate scale. The SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks are psychometrically robust and are available as computer adaptive tests or short forms. The SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale is a brief, fixed-length outcomes instrument for individuals with a UTI.

  15. LLNL Radiation Protection Program (RPP) Rev 9.2, Implementation of 10 CFR 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection'

    SciTech Connect

    Shingleton, K. L.

    2011-06-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) originally issued Part 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection, on January 1, 1994. This regulation, hereafter referred to as “the Rule”, required DOE contractors to develop and maintain a DOE-approved Radiation Protection Program (RPP); DOE approved the initial Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) RPP (Rev 2) on 6/29/95. DOE issued a revision to the Rule on December 4, 1998 and approved LLNL’s revised RPP (Rev 7.1) on 11/18/99. DOE issued a second Rule revision on June 8, 2007 (effective July 9, 2007) and on June 13, 2008 approved LLNL’s RPP (Rev 9.0) which contained plansmore » and measures for coming into compliance with the 2007 Rule changes. DOE issued a correction to the Rule on April 21, 2009.« less

  16. [Summarization and analysis on the acupuncture-related articles published in science citation index (SCI) periodicals in 2005].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Yue; Wu, Li-Ping; Guo, Yi

    2007-04-01

    To retrieve, summarize and analyze journals and articles related to acupuncture published in SCI periodicals in 2005, so as to understand the international dynamics about acupuncture researches. The articles about treatment and mechanisms of acupuncture published in SCI periodicals in 2005 were found out and searched for by acupuncture information retrieval online and databank. Most of the 72 SCI periodicals retrieved are from the west, with 147 articles of acupuncture published, and Lancet has the highest impact factors of 23. 407. The kinds of the journals and articles publishing acupuncture researches are increasing, with varied types, rich and varied contents, and increasing the design level. However, the results of the studies are vastly different due to differences of experimental methods, objects and acupuncture manipulations. Therefore, standardization of acupuncture studies is extremely urgent.

  17. Numerical modelling of powder caking at REV scale by using DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guessasma, Mohamed; Silva Tavares, Homayra; Afrassiabian, Zahra; Saleh, Khashayar

    2017-06-01

    This work deals with numerical simulation of powder caking process caused by capillary condensation phenomenon. Caking consists in unwanted agglomeration of powder particles. This process is often irreversible and not easy to predict. To reproduce mechanism involved by caking phenomenon we have used the Discrete Elements Method (DEM). In the present work, we mainly focus on the role of capillary condensation and subsequent liquid bridge formation within a granular medium exposed to fluctuations of ambient relative humidity. Such bridges cause an attractive force between particles, leading to the formation of a cake with intrinsic physicochemical and mechanical properties. By considering a Representative Elementary Volume (REV), the DEM is then performed by means of a MULTICOR-3D software tacking into account the properties of the cake (degree of saturation) in order to establish relationships between the microscopic parameters and the macroscopic behaviour (tensile strength).

  18. The CanPain SCI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rehabilitation Management of Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord: screening and diagnosis recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Guy, S D; Bryce, T N; Craven, B C; Finnerup, N B; Hitzig, S L; Orenczuk, S; Siddall, P J; Widerström-Noga, E; Casalino, A; Côté, I; Harvey, D; Kras-Dupuis, A; Lau, B; Middleton, J W; Moulin, D E; O'Connell, C; Parrent, A G; Potter, P; Short, C; Teasell, R; Townson, A; Truchon, C; Wolfe, D; Bradbury, C L; Loh, E

    2016-08-01

    Clinical practice guidelines. To develop the first Canadian clinical practice guidelines for screening and diagnosis of neuropathic pain in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The guidelines are relevant for inpatient and outpatient SCI rehabilitation settings in Canada. The CanPainSCI Working Group reviewed evidence to address clinical questions regarding screening and diagnosis of neuropathic pain after SCI. A consensus process was followed to achieve agreement on recommendations and clinical considerations. Twelve recommendations, based on expert consensus, were developed for the screening and diagnosis of neuropathic pain after SCI. The recommendations address methods for assessment, documentation tools, team member accountability, frequency of screening and considerations for diagnostic investigation. Important clinical considerations accompany each recommendation. The expert Working Group developed recommendations for the screening and diagnosis of neuropathic pain after SCI that should be used to inform practice.

  19. ScyFlow: An Environment for the Visual Specification and Execution of Scientific Workflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Karen M.; Yarrow, Maurice; DeVivo, Adrian; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of grid technologies, scientists and engineers are building more and more complex applications to utilize distributed grid resources. The core grid services provide a path for accessing and utilizing these resources in a secure and seamless fashion. However what the scientists need is an environment that will allow them to specify their application runs at a high organizational level, and then support efficient execution across any given set or sets of resources. We have been designing and implementing ScyFlow, a dual-interface architecture (both GUT and APT) that addresses this problem. The scientist/user specifies the application tasks along with the necessary control and data flow, and monitors and manages the execution of the resulting workflow across the distributed resources. In this paper, we utilize two scenarios to provide the details of the two modules of the project, the visual editor and the runtime workflow engine.

  20. Data supporting Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data files representing each of the Figures and Tables published in Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,3, 593. The data file names identify the Figure or Table and each file contains an internal set of data definitionsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Al-Abed, S.R., J. Virkutyte, J. Ortenzio , R.M. McCarrick, L. Degn, R. Zucker , N. Coates , K. Cleveland, H. Ma, S. Diamond, K. Dreher , and W. Boyes. Environmental aging alters AI(OH)3 coating of TiO2 nanoparticles enhancing their photocatalytic and phototoxicity activities. Environmental Science: Nano. RSC Publishing, Cambridge, UK, N/A, (2016).

  1. Temperature inducible β-sheet structure in the transactivation domains of retroviral regulatory proteins of the Rev family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumb, Werner; Graf, Christine; Parslow, Tristram; Schneider, Rainer; Auer, Manfred

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulatory protein Rev with cellular cofactors is crucial for the viral life cycle. The HIV-1 Rev transactivation domain is functionally interchangeable with analog regions of Rev proteins of other retroviruses suggesting common folding patterns. In order to obtain experimental evidence for similar structural features mediating protein-protein contacts we investigated activation domain peptides from HIV-1, HIV-2, VISNA virus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) by CD spectroscopy, secondary structure prediction and sequence analysis. Although different in polarity and hydrophobicity, all peptides showed a similar behavior with respect to solution conformation, concentration dependence and variations in ionic strength and pH. Temperature studies revealed an unusual induction of β-structure with rising temperatures in all activation domain peptides. The high stability of β-structure in this region was demonstrated in three different peptides of the activation domain of HIV-1 Rev in solutions containing 40% hexafluoropropanol, a reagent usually known to induce α-helix into amino acid sequences. Sequence alignments revealed similarities between the polar effector domains from FIV and EIAV and the leucine rich (hydrophobic) effector domains found in HIV-1, HIV-2 and VISNA. Studies on activation domain peptides of two dominant negative HIV-1 Rev mutants, M10 and M32, pointed towards different reasons for the biological behavior. Whereas the peptide containing the M10 mutation (L 78E 79→D 78L 79) showed wild-type structure, the M32 mutant peptide (L 78L 81L 83→A 78A 81A 83) revealed a different protein fold to be the reason for the disturbed binding to cellular cofactors. From our data, we conclude, that the activation domain of Rev proteins from different viral origins adopt a similar fold and that a β-structural element is involved in binding to a

  2. Locomotor activity of rats with SCI is improved by dexmedetomidine by targeting the expression of inflammatory factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Guo; Wang, Lin; Jiao, Zhen-Hua; Xue, Bin; Xu, Zhan-Wang

    2018-04-26

    Dexmedetomidine, a well‑known selective α‑2 adrenoceptor agonist, inhibits the apoptosis of neurons and protects other organs from oxidative damage. In the present study, the effect of dexmedetomidine on spinal cord injury (SCI) in a rat model was investigated. The SCI rat model was prepared using the weight‑drop method, and the effect of dexmedetomidine on locomotor activity was analyzed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale. Western blot analysis was used to observe changes in the expression of apoptosis‑related proteins, including B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax). The results revealed that treatment of the SCI rats with dexmedetomidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg significantly prevented the formation of edema in the tissues of the spinal cord. Dexmedetomidine also inhibited the SCI‑induced accumulation of neutrophils in the spinal cord. The BBB scores were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the rats with SCI treated with dexmedetomidine after 10 days. The results of grid walking test revealed a marked decrease in the number of missteps following 10 days of dexmedetomidine treatment. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑1β were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in the spinal cord tissues of the dexmedetomidine group, compared with those in the control group of rats. Dexmedetomidine treatment following SCI exerted an inhibitory effect on the SCI‑induced increase in the expression of Bax. The expression of Bcl‑2 was increased in the dexmedetomidine treated rats, compared with that in the control group. Taken together, dexmedetomidine improved the locomotor activity of the rats through the inhibition of edema, reduction in the expression levels of TNF‑α and IL‑1β, and inhibition of the induction of apoptosis. Therefore, dexmedetomidine may be of therapeutic importance for patients with SCI.

  3. Extraordinary tools for extraordinary science: the impact of SciDAC on accelerator science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-09-01

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook.'' Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  4. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now takemore » hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.« less

  5. Effect of wearable sensor dynamics on physical activity estimates: A comparison between SCI vs. healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, C; Mummidisetty, C K; Jayaraman, A

    2016-08-01

    Accuracy of physical activity estimates predicted by activity monitoring technologies may be affected by device location, analysis algorithms, type of technology (i.e. wearable/stickable) and population demographics (disability) being studied. Consequently, the main purpose of this investigation was to study such sensor dynamics (i.e. effect of device location, type and population demographics on energy expenditure estimates) of two commercial activity monitors. It was hypothesized that device location, population studied (disability), choice of proprietary algorithm and type of technology used will significantly impact the accuracy of the predicted physical activity metrics. 10 healthy controls and eight individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) performed structured activities in a laboratory environment. All participants wore, (i) three ActiGraph-G3TX's one each on their wrist, waist & ankle, (ii) a stickable activity monitor (Metria-IH1) on their upper-arm and (3) a Cosmed-K4B 2 metabolic unit, while performing sedentary (lying), low intensity (walk 50 steps at self-speed) and vigorous activity (a 6 minute walk test). To validate the hypothesis, the energy expenditures (EE) predicted by ActiGraph-GT3X and Metria-IH1 were benchmarked with estimated EE per Cosmed K4B 2 metabolic unit. To verify the step count accuracy predicted by ActiGraph-GT3X's and Metria-IH1, the manually calculated step count during the low intensity activity were compared to estimates from both devices. Results suggest that Metria-IH1 out-performed ActiGraph-GT3X in estimating EE during sedentary activity in both groups. The device location and population demographics, significantly affected the accuracy of predicted estimates. In conclusion, selecting activity monitor locations, analysis algorithm and choice of technology plays based on the movement threshold of population being studied can pave a better way for reliable healthcare decisions and data analytics in population with SCI.

  6. People and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John James William; Feiss, P. Geoffrey

    1998-03-01

    People and the Earth examines the numerous ways in which this planet enhances and limits our lifestyles. Written with wit and remarkable insight, and illustrated with numerous case histories, it provides a balanced view of the complex environmental issues facing our civilization. The authors look at the geologic restrictions on our ability to withdraw resources--food, water, energy, and minerals--from the earth, the effect human activity has on the earth, and the lingering damage caused by natural disasters. People and the Earth examines the basic components of our interaction with this planet, provides a lucid, scientific discussion of each issue, and speculates on what the future may hold. It provides the fundamental concepts that will enable us to make wise and conscientious choices on how to live our day-to-day lives. People and the Earth is an ideal introductory textbook and will also appeal to anyone concerned with our evolving relationship to the earth.

  7. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    SCI. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, we will objectively measure sleep disordered breathing ( SDB ) in chronic SCI patients using...portable sleep studies, and systematically evaluate the association between SDB , cognitive performance, mood, pain, and CV measures. We will randomize...randomized shortly. 15. SUBJECT TERMS SDB , SCI, PAP, CV 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a

  8. A Novel Approach for Effectively Treating SCI Pain, Improving Opioid Efficacy, and Preventing Opioid-Induced Constipation: Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a disabling and costly condition...23 11. Appendices…………………………………………………………. 24 INTRODUCTION   Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a disabling and costly condition... learned everything taught in the renowned Spinal Cord Injury Training Program. Since Gaudet already has training in SCI research, further training

  9. EarthExplorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houska, Treva

    2012-01-01

    The EarthExplorer trifold provides basic information for on-line access to remotely-sensed data from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) client/server interface allows users to search and download aerial photography, satellite data, elevation data, land-cover products, and digitized maps. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.

  10. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Huntress, Wesley T.

    1990-01-01

    The rationale behind Mission to Planet Earth is presented, and the program plan is described in detail. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to collect muultidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented large amount of information about the earth and how it functions as a system. Attention is given to the space observatories, the data and information systems, and the interdisciplinary research.

  11. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  12. Earth on the Horizon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-13

    This is the first image ever taken of Earth from the surface of a planet beyond the Moon. It was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit one hour before sunrise on the 63rd martian day, or sol, of its mission. Earth is the tiny white dot in the center. The image is a mosaic of images taken by the rover's navigation camera showing a broad view of the sky, and an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera of Earth. The contrast in the panoramic camera image was increased two times to make Earth easier to see. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05560

  13. NASA Earth Day 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-22

    NASA Astronaut John Mace Grunsfeld takes a quick selfie with astronauts at the International Space Station at the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA announced the "Global Selfie" event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. All selfies posted to social media with the hashtag "GlobalSelfie" will be included in a mosaic image of Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  14. Measuring stigma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Stigma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Pace, Natalie; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Heinemann, Allen W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) to assess the effects of stigma on health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, and item response theory (IRT)-based psychometric analyses. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Stigma Item Bank Results A sample of 611 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 30 items assessing SCI-related stigma. After 7 items were iteratively removed, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. Graded Response Model IRT analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 23 items. Conclusions The SCI-QOL Stigma item bank is unique not only in the assessment of SCI-related stigma but also in the inclusion of individuals with SCI in all phases of its development. Use of confirmatory factor analytic and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a 10-item fixed-length short form and can be used for research and clinical applications. PMID:26010973

  15. Measuring anxiety after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank and linkage with GAD-7.

    PubMed

    Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Heinemann, Allen W; Pohlig, Ryan T; Carle, Adam; Choi, Seung W

    2015-05-01

    To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test to assess anxiety symptoms in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a statistical linkage with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7, a widely used anxiety measure. Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods; large-scale item calibration field testing; confirmatory factor analysis; graded response model item response theory analyses; statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric; and linkage with the GAD-7. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Anxiety Item Bank Seven hundred sixteen individuals with traumatic SCI completed 38 items assessing anxiety, 17 of which were PROMIS items. After 13 items (including 2 PROMIS items) were removed, factor analyses confirmed unidimensionality. Item response theory analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 25 items (15 from PROMIS). The observed Pearson correlation between the SCI-QOL Anxiety and GAD-7 scores was 0.67. The SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank demonstrates excellent psychometric properties and is available as a computer adaptive test or short form for research and clinical applications. SCI-QOL Anxiety scores have been transformed to the PROMIS metric and we provide a method to link SCI-QOL Anxiety scores with those of the GAD-7.

  16. Measuring stigma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Stigma item bank and short form.

    PubMed

    Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S; Pace, Natalie; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W; Heinemann, Allen W

    2015-05-01

    To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) to assess the effects of stigma on health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, and item response theory (IRT)-based psychometric analyses. Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. SCI-QOL Stigma Item Bank A sample of 611 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 30 items assessing SCI-related stigma. After 7 items were iteratively removed, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. Graded Response Model IRT analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 23 items. The SCI-QOL Stigma item bank is unique not only in the assessment of SCI-related stigma but also in the inclusion of individuals with SCI in all phases of its development. Use of confirmatory factor analytic and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a 10-item fixed-length short form and can be used for research and clinical applications.

  17. Use, knowledge, and perception of the scientific contribution of Sci-Hub in medical students: Study in six countries in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Christian R.; Valladares-Garrido, Mario J.; Miñan-Tapia, Armando; Serrano, Felipe T.; Tobler-Gómez, Liz E.; Pereda-Castro, William; Mendoza-Flores, Cynthia R.; Mundaca-Manay, Maria Y.; Valladares-Garrido, Danai

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sci-Hub is a useful web portal for people working in science as it provides access to millions of free scientific articles. Satisfaction and usage should be explored in the Latino student population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use, knowledge, and perception of the scientific contribution of Sci-Hub in medical students from Latin America. Methodology A multicenter, observational, analytical study was conducted in 6632 medical students from 6 countries in Latin America. We surveyed from a previously validated instrument, delving into knowledge, monthly average usage, satisfaction level, and perception of the scientific contributions provided by Sci-Hub. Frequencies and percentages are described, and generalized linear models were used to establish statistical associations. Results Only 19.2% of study participants knew of Sci-Hub and its function, while the median use was twice a month. 29.9% of Sci-Hub-aware participants claimed they always find the desired scientific information in their Sci-Hub search; 62.5% of participants affirmed that Sci-Hub contributes to scientific investigation; only 2.2% reported that Sci-Hub does not contribute to science. Conclusion The majority of Latino students are not aware of Sci-Hub. PMID:28982181

  18. Use, knowledge, and perception of the scientific contribution of Sci-Hub in medical students: Study in six countries in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Christian R; Valladares-Garrido, Mario J; Miñan-Tapia, Armando; Serrano, Felipe T; Tobler-Gómez, Liz E; Pereda-Castro, William; Mendoza-Flores, Cynthia R; Mundaca-Manay, Maria Y; Valladares-Garrido, Danai

    2017-01-01

    Sci-Hub is a useful web portal for people working in science as it provides access to millions of free scientific articles. Satisfaction and usage should be explored in the Latino student population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use, knowledge, and perception of the scientific contribution of Sci-Hub in medical students from Latin America. A multicenter, observational, analytical study was conducted in 6632 medical students from 6 countries in Latin America. We surveyed from a previously validated instrument, delving into knowledge, monthly average usage, satisfaction level, and perception of the scientific contributions provided by Sci-Hub. Frequencies and percentages are described, and generalized linear models were used to establish statistical associations. Only 19.2% of study participants knew of Sci-Hub and its function, while the median use was twice a month. 29.9% of Sci-Hub-aware participants claimed they always find the desired scientific information in their Sci-Hub search; 62.5% of participants affirmed that Sci-Hub contributes to scientific investigation; only 2.2% reported that Sci-Hub does not contribute to science. The majority of Latino students are not aware of Sci-Hub.

  19. Roles of Rev1, Pol ζ, Pol32 and Pol η in the bypass of chromosomal abasic sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Paul A.; Demple, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) on DNA is a process by which potentially cytotoxic replication-blocking lesions are bypassed, but at the risk of increased mutagenesis. The exact in vivo role of the individual TLS enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been difficult to determine from previous studies due to differing results from the variety of systems used. We have generated a series of S.cerevisiae strains in which each of the TLS-related genes REV1, REV3, REV7, RAD30 and POL32 was deleted, and in which chromosomal apyrimidinic sites were generated during normal cell growth by the activity of altered forms of human uracil-DNA glycosylase that remove undamaged cytosines or thymines. Deletion of REV1, REV3 or REV7 resulted in slower growth dependent on (rev3Δ and rev7Δ) or enhanced by (rev1Δ) expression of the mutator glycosylases and a nearly complete abolition of glycosylase-induced mutagenesis. Deletion of POL32 resulted in cell death when the mutator glycosylases were expressed and, in their absence, diminished spontaneous mutagenesis. RAD30 appeared to be unnecessary for mutagenesis in response to abasic sites, as deleting this gene caused no significant change in either the mutation rates or the mutational spectra due to glycosylase expression. PMID:19901007

  20. Earth System Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…