Science.gov

Sample records for earth science chemistry

  1. Exemplary Programs in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E., Ed.

    The 1982 Search for Excellence in Science Education project has identified 50 exemplary programs in physics, chemistry, biology, and earth science. Descriptions of four of these programs and the criteria used in their selection are presented. The first section reviews the direction established by Project Synthesis in searching for exemplary…

  2. Where Is Earth Science? Mining for Opportunities in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Julie; Ivey, Toni; Puckette, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth sciences are newly marginalized in K-12 classrooms. With few high schools offering Earth science courses, students' exposure to the Earth sciences relies on the teacher's ability to incorporate Earth science material into a biology, chemistry, or physics course. ''G.E.T. (Geoscience Experiences for Teachers) in the Field'' is an…

  3. BASIC Simulation Programs; Volumes I and II. Biology, Earth Science, Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

    Computer programs which teach concepts and processes related to biology, earth science, and chemistry are presented. The seven biology problems deal with aspects of genetics, evolution and natural selection, gametogenesis, enzymes, photosynthesis, and the transport of material across a membrane. Four earth science problems concern climates, the…

  4. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-31

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft embarks on a journey that will culminate in a close encounter with an asteroid. The launch of NEAR inaugurates NASA's irnovative Discovery program of small-scale planetary missions with rapid, lower-cost development cycles and focused science objectives. NEAR will rendezvous in 1999 with the asteroid 433 Eros to begin the first long-term, close-up look at an asteroid's surface composition and physical properties. NEAR's science payload includes an x-ray/gamma ray spectrometer, an near-infrared spectrograph, a laser rangefinder, a magnetometer, a radio science experiment and a multi-spectral imager.

  5. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-13

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft undergoing preflight preparation in the Spacecraft Assembly Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). NEAR will perform two critical mission events - Mathilde flyby and the Deep-Space maneuver. NEAR will fly-by Mathilde, a 38-mile (61-km) diameter C-type asteroid, making use of its imaging system to obtain useful optical navigation images. The primary science instrument will be the camera, but measurements of magnetic fields and mass also will be made. The Deep-Space Maneuver (DSM) will be executed about a week after the Mathilde fly-by. The DSM represents the first of two major burns during the NEAR mission of the 100-pound bi-propellant (Hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide) thruster. This maneuver is necessary to lower the perihelion distance of NEAR's trajectory. The DSM will be conducted in two segments to minimize the possibility of an overburn situation.

  6. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  7. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  8. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-10-24

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  9. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-08

    Workers at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville prepared for a news media showing of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-1 (GOES-1). GOES-1 was the first in a new generation of weather satellites deployed above Earth. It was the first 3-axis, body-stabilized meteorological satellite to be used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA. These features allowed GOES-1 to continuously monitor the Earth, rather than viewing it just five percent of the time as was the case with spin-stabilized meteorological satellites. GOES-1 also has independent imaging and sounding instruments which can operate simultaneously yet independently. As a result, observations provided by each instrument will not be interrupted. The imager produces visual and infrared images of the Earth's surface, oceans, cloud cover and severe storm development, while the prime sounding products include vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and layer mean moisture.

  10. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-02

    This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.

  11. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-13

    This panoramic view of Hurricane Charley was photographed by the Expedition 9 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on August 13, 2004, at a vantage point just north of Tampa, Florida. The small eye was not visible in this view, but the raised cloud tops near the center coincide roughly with the time that the storm began to rapidly strengthen. The category 2 hurricane was moving north-northwest at 18 mph packing winds of 105 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  12. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-11

    This image hosts a look at the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm topped the western Caribbean Sea on Saturday, September 11, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, the category 5 storm sustained winds in the eye of the wall that were reported at about 160 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  13. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-15

    Except for a small portion of the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, fills this image over the northern Gulf of Mexico. As the downgraded category 4 storm approached landfall on the Alabama coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the ISS at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  14. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-15

    This image hosts a look into the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm approached landfall on the central Gulf coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph as the downgraded category 4 storm approached the Alabama coast. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  15. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-03-29

    Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is a tethered date collecting satellite and is intended to demonstrate a versatile and economical way of delivering smaller payloads to higher orbits or downward toward Earth's atmosphere. 19th Navstar Global Positioning System Satellite mission joined with previously launched satellites used for navigational purposes and geodite studies. These satellites are used commercially as well as by the military.

  16. The Right Chemistry. Lawn Care Project Brings Science down to Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, David

    1992-01-01

    At Southwest High School in Fort Worth, Texas, an applied learning project enables chemistry students to determine the most effective, economical, and environmentally safe fertilizer for the lawns of schools in the district. (SK)

  17. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    In July 1990, the Marshall Space Flight Center, in a joint project with the Department of Defense/Air Force Space Test Program, launched the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) using an Atlas I launch vehicle. The mission was designed to study the effects of artificial ion clouds produced by chemical releases on the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to monitor the effects of space radiation environment on sophisticated electronics.

  18. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-24

    A Delta II rocket carrying the Geomagnetic Tail Lab (GEOTAIL) spacecraft lifts off at Launch Complex 17, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a cloud-dappled sky. This liftoff marks the first Delta launch under the medium expendable launch vehicle services contract between NASA and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co. The GEOTAIL mission, a joint US/Japanese project, is the first in a series of five satellites to study the interactions between the Sun, the Earth's magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belts.

  19. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-03-24

    Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-45) onboard photo of Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (Atlas-1) module in open cargo bay. Atlas-1 pallets are back dropped against the Atlas Mountains. Taken over Mali in the western Sahara, shows dunes in the Iguidi Dune Sea.

  20. Visual Representations on High School Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDue, Nicole D.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive use of visual representations in textbooks, curricula, and assessments underscores their importance in K-12 science education. For example, visual representations figure prominently in the recent publication of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: for states, by states.…

  1. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  2. Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-11-01

    Stressing the fundamental solid state behavior of minerals, and emphasizing both theory and experiment, this text surveys the physics and chemistry of earth materials. The author begins with a systematic tour of crystal chemistry of both simple and complex structures (with completely new structural drawings) and discusses how to obtain structural and thermodynamic information experimentally. Dr. Navrotsky also reviews the quantitative concepts of chemical bonding--band theory, molecular orbit and ionic models. She then covers physical properties and relates microscopic features to macroscopic thermodynamic behavior and treats high pressure phase transitions, amorphous materials and solid state reactions. The author concludes with a look at the interface between mineral physics and materials science. Highly illustrated throughout, this book fills the gap between undergraduate texts and specialized review volumes and is appropriate for students and researchers in earth science and materials science.

  3. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  4. Earth System Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  5. Earth Science Information Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1991-01-01

    An ESIC? An Earth Science Information Center. Don't spell it. Say it. ESIC. It rhymes with seasick. You can find information in an information center, of course, and you'll find earth science information in an ESIC. That means information about the land that is the Earth, the land that is below the Earth, and in some instances, the space surrounding the Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of Earth Science Information Centers that sell earth science products and data. There are more than 75 ESIC's. Some are operated by the USGS, but most are in other State or Federal agencies. Each ESIC responds to requests for information received by telephone, letter, or personal visit. Your personal visit.

  6. Chemistry and Science Fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Jack H.

    1998-11-01

    This lively collection looks at science as filtered through literature, film, and television. It discusses classic works in science fiction and provides an in-depth look at the chemistry depicted in popular culture, particularly in Start Trek , Star Wars , and Doctor Who . It includes an examination by Nebula Award winner Connie Willis of how science fiction authors use science, and reprints two tongue-in-cheek short stories by Isaac Asimov. The book also includes suggestions for using science fiction as an educational resource.

  7. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes nearly 150 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies. Remote Sensing; Earth Science Informatics, Data Systems; Data Services; Metadata

  8. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.

  9. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  10. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  11. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses for a selfie after a quick rap performance by some young professionals during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project on New England water resources during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  13. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    Lisa Waldron and Justin Roberts-Pierel present their project on Texas health and air quality during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  14. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    Michael Gao presents his project on Southeast Asian disasters during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  15. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden asks young professionals about their projects after posing for a group photo during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  16. Hands On Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  17. Revolutions in the earth sciences

    PubMed Central

    Allègre, C.

    1999-01-01

    The 20th century has been a century of scientific revolutions for many disciplines: quantum mechanics in physics, the atomic approach in chemistry, the nonlinear revolution in mathematics, the introduction of statistical physics. The major breakthroughs in these disciplines had all occurred by about 1930. In contrast, the revolutions in the so-called natural sciences, that is in the earth sciences and in biology, waited until the last half of the century. These revolutions were indeed late, but they were no less deep and drastic, and they occurred quite suddenly. Actually, one can say that not one but three revolutions occurred in the earth sciences: in plate tectonics, planetology and the environment. They occurred essentially independently from each other, but as time passed, their effects developed, amplified and started interacting. These effects continue strongly to this day.

  18. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  19. Earth Science Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, William C.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

  20. Earth Science in 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews advancements in earth science during 1970 in each of these areas: economic geology (fuels), economic geology (metals), economic geology (nonmetals), environmental geology, geochemistry, manpower, hydrology, mapping, marine geology, mineralogy, paleontology, plate tectonics, politics and geology, remote sensing, and seismology. (PR)

  1. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  2. Teaching earth science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, Michael F.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.

  3. Earth Science: Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgren, James R.

    1969-01-01

    Reviews history of earth science in secondary schools. From early nineteenth century to the present, earth science (and its antecedents, geology, physical geography, and astronomy) has had an erratic history for several reasons, but particularly because of lack of earth science teacher-training programs. (BR)

  4. Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics"…

  5. Earth Science Multimedia Theater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation will begin with the latest 1998 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. A compilation of the 10 days of animations of Hurricane Georges which were supplied daily on NASA to Network television will be shown. NASA's visualizations of Hurricane Bonnie which appeared in the Sept 7 1998 issue of TIME magazine. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1 -min GOES images that will appear in the October BAMS. The visualizations are produced by the Goddard Visualization & Analysis Laboratory, and Scientific Visualization Studio, as well as other Goddard and NASA groups using NASA, NOAA, ESA, and NASDA Earth science datasets. Visualizations will be shown from the "Digital-HyperRes-Panorama" Earth Science ETheater'98 recently presented in Tokyo, Paris and Phoenix. The presentation in Paris used a SGI/CRAY Onyx Infinite Reality Super Graphics Workstation at 2560 X 1024 resolution with dual synchronized video Epson 71 00 projectors on a 20ft wide screen. Earth Science Electronic Theater '999 is being prepared for a December 1 st showing at NASA HQ in Washington and January presentation at the AMS meetings in Dallas. The 1999 version of the Etheater will be triple wide with at resolution of 3840 X 1024 on a 60 ft wide screen. Visualizations will also be featured from the new Earth Today Exhibit which was opened by Vice President Gore on July 2, 1998 at the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in Washington, as well as those presented for possible use at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC), Disney EPCOT, and other venues. New methods are demonstrated for visualizing, interpreting, comparing, organizing and analyzing immense Hyperimage remote sensing datasets and three dimensional numerical model results. We call the data from many new Earth sensing satellites

  6. Conceptual Mobility and Entrenchment in Introductory Geoscience Courses: New Questions Regarding Physics' and Chemistry's Role in Learning Earth Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of <0.03, and nearly half of these focused on basic physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…

  7. Earth Sciences Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division's research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth's crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989, a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will, in the coming years, be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.

  8. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  9. The Earth Science Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rychekewkitsch, Michael; Andrucyk, Dennis; McConaughy, Gail; Meeson, Blanche; Hildebrand, Peter; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's long range vision is to enable the development of a national proactive environmental predictive capability through targeted scientific research and technological innovation. Proactive environmental prediction means the prediction of environmental events and their secondary consequences. These consequences range from disasters and disease outbreak to improved food production and reduced transportation, energy and insurance costs. The economic advantage of this predictive capability will greatly outweigh the cost of development. Developing this predictive capability requires a greatly improved understanding of the earth system and the interaction of the various components of that system. It also requires a change in our approach to gathering data about the earth and a change in our current methodology in processing that data including its delivery to the customers. And, most importantly, it requires a renewed partnership between NASA and its sister agencies. We identify six application themes that summarize the potential of proactive environmental prediction. We also identify four technology themes that articulate our approach to implementing proactive environmental prediction.

  10. Earth Science in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Niki

    2007-01-01

    An area that teachers often find difficult to make interesting is the earth science component of the science curriculum. This may be for a variety of reasons, such as lack of knowledge, lack of ideas or lack of resources. This article outlines ideas and activities that have been developed by the Earth Science Teachers' Association (ESTA) primary…

  11. Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) has contracted with the Learning and Skills Network to support awareness and take-up of Triple Science GCSEs through the Triple Science Support Programme. This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Chemistry. It…

  12. Mineralogy and chemistry of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Earth is the prototype if not typical terrestrial planet. Ideas about the origin, evolution, structure and chemistry of the planets can be tested most thoroughly on the Earth. Similarly, the study of the other planets has generated new ideas which may be applicable to the Earth. For example the concepts of magma oceans, large polar wander, global stress fields, buoyant lithosphere, deep cumulate reservoirs, multiple tectonic styles and crust generation may also apply to the Earth, present or past. It is no longer valid to think of the mantle as an essentially homogeneous undifferentiated shell of olivine with pockes of basalt providing melts to midocean ridges and oceanic islands. It appears to be a well differentiated, outgassed body with both radial and lateral chemical variations. The lower mantle is close to chondritic in its major element chemistry. The transition region is garnet and clinopyroxene rich and may be a major basalt reservoir. This would explain the thin crust paradox. Chemical stratification of the Earth probably occurred during accretion.

  13. Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

  14. Lightning chemistry on Earth-like exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardaseva, Aleksandra; Rimmer, Paul B.; Waldmann, Ingo; Rocchetto, Marco; Yurchenko, Sergey N.; Helling, Christiane; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    We present a model for lightning shock-induced chemistry that can be applied to atmospheres of arbitrary H/C/N/O chemistry, hence for extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. The model couples hydrodynamics and the STAND2015 kinetic gas-phase chemistry. For an exoplanet analogue to the contemporary Earth, our model predicts NO and NO2 yields in agreement with observation. We predict height-dependent mixing ratios during a storm soon after a lightning shock of NO ≈10-3 at 40 km and NO2 ≈10-4 below 40 km, with O3 reduced to trace quantities (≪10-10). For an Earth-like exoplanet with a CO2/N2 dominated atmosphere and with an extremely intense lightning storm over its entire surface, we predict significant changes in the amount of NO, NO2, O3, H2O, H2 and predict a significant abundance of C2N. We find that, for the Early Earth, O2 is formed in large quantities by lightning but is rapidly processed by the photochemistry, consistent with previous work on lightning. The chemical effect of persistent global lightning storms are predicted to be significant, primarily due to NO2, with the largest spectral features present at ˜3.4 and ˜6.2 μm. The features within the transmission spectrum are on the order of 1 ppm and therefore are not likely detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope. Depending on its spectral properties, C2N could be a key tracer for lightning on Earth-like exoplanets with a N2/CO2 bulk atmosphere, unless destroyed by yet unknown chemical reactions.

  15. Incorporating Earth Science into Other High School Science Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. L. B.; Holzer, M.; Colson, M.; Courtier, A. M. B.; Jacobs, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    As states begin to review their standards, some adopt or adapt the NGSS and others write their own, many basing these on the Framework for K-12 Science Education. Both the NGSS and the Frameworks have an increased emphasis on Earth Science but many high school teachers are being asked to teach these standards in traditional Biology, Chemistry and Physics courses. At the Earth Educators Rendezvous, teachers, scientists, and science education researchers worked together to find the interconnections between the sciences using the NGSS and identified ways to reference the role of Earth Sciences in the other sciences during lectures, activities and laboratory assignments. Weaving Earth and Space sciences into the other curricular areas, the teams developed relevant problems for students to solve by focusing on using current issues, media stories, and community issues. These and other lessons and units of study will be presented along with other resources used by teachers to ensure students are gaining exposure and a deeper understanding of Earth and Space Science concepts.

  16. Understanding our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forehand, Lon; Griner, Charlotte (Editor); Greenstone, Renny (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the interaction of the Earth's systems, Earth System Science. The Earth Science Enterprise, NASA's comprehensive program for Earth System Science, uses satellites and other tools to intensively study the Earth. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of Earth-observing satellites, (2) an advanced data system and (3) teams of scientist who study the data. Key areas of study include: (1) clouds, (2) water and energy cycles, (3) oceans, (4) chemistry of the atmosphere, (5) land surface, water and ecosystems processes; (6) glaciers and polar ice sheets, and (7) the solid earth.

  17. A decade of Earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2018-01-01

    Great Earth science has been published over the ten years since the launch of Nature Geoscience. The field has also become more interdisciplinary and accountable, as well as more central to society and sustainability.

  18. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  19. Earth Science Missions Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marius, Julio L.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gives a general overlook of the engineering efforts that are necessary to meet science mission requirement especially for Earth Science missions. It provides brief overlook of NASA's current missions and future Earth Science missions and the engineering challenges to meet some of the specific science objectives. It also provides, if time permits, a brief summary of two significant weather and climate phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere: El Nino and La Nina, as well as the Ozone depletion over Antarctica that will be of interest to IEEE intercom 2009 conference audience.

  20. Earth science: Extraordinary world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic compositions of objects that formed early in the evolution of the Solar System have been found to be similar to Earth's composition -- overturning notions of our planet's chemical distinctiveness. See Letters p.394 & p.399

  1. Earth and Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    1999-01-01

    Workshop for middle and high school teachers to enhance their knowledge of the Earth as a system. NASA data and materials developed by teachers (all available via the Internet) will be used to engage participants in hands-on, investigative approaches to the Earth system. All materials are ready to be applied in pre-college classrooms. Remotely-sensed data will be used in combination with familiar resources, such as maps, to examine global climate change.

  2. Grid Computing for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Philippe; Badoux, Vincent; Petitdidier, Monique; Cossu, Roberto

    2009-04-01

    The fundamental challenges facing humankind at the beginning of the 21st century require an effective response to the massive changes that are putting increasing pressure on the environment and society. The worldwide Earth science community, with its mosaic of disciplines and players (academia, industry, national surveys, international organizations, and so forth), provides a scientific basis for addressing issues such as the development of new energy resources; a secure water supply; safe storage of nuclear waste; the analysis, modeling, and mitigation of climate changes; and the assessment of natural and industrial risks. In addition, the Earth science community provides short- and medium-term prediction of weather and natural hazards in real time, and model simulations of a host of phenomena relating to the Earth and its space environment. These capabilities require that the Earth science community utilize, both in real and remote time, massive amounts of data, which are usually distributed among many different organizations and data centers.

  3. Earth Science Geostationary Platform Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Robert L. (Editor); Campbell, Thomas G. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to address problems in science and in four technology areas (large space antenna technology, microwave sensor technology, electromagnetics-phased array adaptive systems technology, and optical metrology technology) related to Earth Science Geostationary Platform missions.

  4. Google Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  5. NASA's Earth science flight program status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

    2010-10-01

    NASA's strategic goal to "advance scientific understanding of the changing Earth system to meet societal needs" continues the agency's legacy of expanding human knowledge of the Earth through space activities, as mandated by the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. Over the past 50 years, NASA has been the world leader in developing space-based Earth observing systems and capabilities that have fundamentally changed our view of our planet and have defined Earth system science. The U.S. National Research Council report "Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements" published in 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences articulates those key achievements and the evolution of the space observing capabilities, looking forward to growing potential to address Earth science questions and enable an abundance of practical applications. NASA's Earth science program is an end-to-end one that encompasses the development of observational techniques and the instrument technology needed to implement them. This includes laboratory testing and demonstration from surface, airborne, or space-based platforms; research to increase basic process knowledge; incorporation of results into complex computational models to more fully characterize the present state and future evolution of the Earth system; and development of partnerships with national and international organizations that can use the generated information in environmental forecasting and in policy, business, and management decisions. Currently, NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) has 14 operating Earth science space missions with 6 in development and 18 under study or in technology risk reduction. Two Tier 2 Decadal Survey climate-focused missions, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) and Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), have been identified in conjunction with the U.S. Global Change Research Program and initiated for launch in the 2019

  6. Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is dedicated to understanding the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment. The goals of ESE are: (1) Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system using NASA's unique vantage points of space, aircraft, and in situ platforms; (2) Disseminate information about the Earth system; and (3) Enable the productive use of ESE science and technology in the public and private sectors. ESE has embraced the NASA Administrator's better, faster, cheaper paradigm for Earth observing missions. We are committed to launch the next generation of Earth Observing System (EOS) missions at a substantially lower cost than the EOS first series. Strategic investment in advanced instrument, spacecraft, and information system technologies is essential to accomplishing ESE's research goals in the coming decades. Advanced technology will play a major role in shaping the ESE fundamental and applied research program of the future. ESE has established an Earth science technology development program with the following objectives: (1) To accomplish ESE space-based and land-based program elements effectively and efficiently; and (2) To enable ESE's fundamental and applied research programs goals as stated in the NASA Strategic Plan.

  7. Earth Science Data Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Y.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Science Data Grid System (ESDGS) is a software in support of earth science data storage and access. It is built upon the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) data grid technology. We have developed a complete data grid system consistent of SRB server providing users uniform access to diverse storage resources in a heterogeneous computing environment and metadata catalog server (MCAT) managing the metadata associated with data set, users, and resources. We are also developing additional services of 1) metadata management, 2) geospatial, temporal, and content-based indexing, and 3) near/on site data processing, in response to the unique needs of Earth science applications. In this paper, we will describe the software architecture and components of the system, and use a practical example in support of storage and access of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to illustrate its functionality and features.

  8. Earth Science Data Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Y.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.

    2004-05-01

    The Earth Science Data Grid System (ESDGS) is a software system in support of earth science data storage and access. It is built upon the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) data grid technology. We have developed a complete data grid system consistent of SRB server providing users uniform access to diverse storage resources in a heterogeneous computing environment and metadata catalog server (MCAT) managing the metadata associated with data set, users, and resources. We also develop the earth science application metadata; geospatial, temporal, and content-based indexing; and some other tools. In this paper, we will describe software architecture and components of the data grid system, and use a practical example in support of storage and access of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to illustrate its functionality and features.

  9. NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.

  10. Environmental Science Literacy in Science Education, Biology and Chemistry Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mike; Crowther, David

    2001-01-01

    Questions whether biology majors are more environmental science literate than chemistry majors, preservice science teachers, and a general population sample of 1,492 students. Indicates that preservice science teachers are significantly more environmental science literate than chemistry majors, but not more science literate than biology majors.…

  11. Smarter Earth Science Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.

  12. Earth Science in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julia A.; Paty, Alma Hale

    2000-01-01

    Offers two activities to help students explore the geosciences during Earth Science Week. Uses a fossil collection simulation that has students digging through strata of newspaper. Presents an interdisciplinary research project that has students investigate the fossils, minerals, and rocks of their home state. (ASK)

  13. Earth Science Syllabus, 1970 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This syllabus outlines a year earth science program designed to be activity oriented, investigatory in approach, and interdisciplinary in content. Each topic section contains a topic abstract and topic outline, major understandings, and information to teachers. The topic abstract lists behavioral objectives and general information about the topic…

  14. Earth Science: 49 Science Fair Projects Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel

    This book offers a large collection of Earth science projects and project ideas for students, teachers, and parents. The projects described are complete but can also be used as spring boards to create expanded projects. Overviews, organizational direction, suggested hypotheses, materials, procedures, and controls are provided. The projects…

  15. NASA's Earth Science Flight Program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

    2011-11-01

    NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts pioneering work in Earth system science, the interdisciplinary view of Earth that explores the interaction among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself that has enabled scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by governments, organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The ESD makes the data collected and results generated by its missions accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster management, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. In addition to four missions now in development and 14 currently operating on-orbit, the ESD is now developing the first tier of missions recommended by the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey and is conducting engineering studies and technology development for the second tier. Furthermore, NASA's ESD is planning implementation of a set of climate continuity missions to assure availability of key data sets needed for climate science and applications. These include a replacement for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), OCO-2, planned for launch in 2013; refurbishment of the SAGE III atmospheric chemistry instrument to be hosted by the International Space Station (ISS) as early as 2014; and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE FO) mission scheduled for launch in 2016. The new Earth Venture (EV) class of missions is a series of uncoupled, low to moderate cost, small to medium-sized, competitively selected, full orbital missions, instruments for orbital missions of opportunity, and sub-orbital projects.

  16. NASA's Current Earth Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Leslie Bermann

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Earth science program is a scientific endeavor whose goal is to provide long-term understanding of the Earth as an integrated system of land, water, air and life. A highly developed scientific knowledge of the Earth system is necessary to understand how the environment affects humanity, and how humanity may be affecting the environment. The remote sensing technologies used to gather the global environmental data used in such research also have numerous practical applications. Current applications of remote sensing data demonstrate their practical benefits in areas such as the monitoring of crop conditions and yields, natural disasters and forest fires; hazardous waste clean up; and tracking of vector-borne diseases. The long-term availability of environmental data is essential for the continuity of important research and applications efforts. NASA's Earth observation program has undergone many changes in the recent past.

  17. Earth Science: It's All about the Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…

  18. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, Menas

    2004-01-01

    The report spans the three year period beginning in June of 2001 and ending June of 2004. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center's (JIESIC) primary purpose has been to carry out research in support of the Global Change Data Center and other Earth science laboratories at Goddard involved in Earth science, remote sensing and applications data and information services. The purpose is to extend the usage of NASA Earth Observing System data, microwave data and other Earth observing data. JIESIC projects fall within the following categories: research and development; STW and WW prototyping; science data, information products and services; and science algorithm support. JIESIC facilitates extending the utility of NASA's Earth System Enterprise (ESE) data, information products and services to better meet the science data and information needs of a number of science and applications user communities, including domain users such as discipline Earth scientists, interdisciplinary Earth scientists, Earth science applications users and educators.

  19. Student Geoscientists Explore the Earth during Earth Science Week 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    Taking place October 9-15, Earth Science Week 2005 will celebrate the theme "Geoscientists Explore the Earth." The American Geological Institute (AGI) is organizing the event, as always, to help people better understand and appreciate the Earth sciences and to encourage stewardship of the planet. This year, the focus will be on the wide range of…

  20. The Echoes of Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) acquires, archives, and manages data from all of NASA s Earth science satellites, for the benefit of the Space Agency and for the benefit of others, including local governments, first responders, the commercial remote sensing industry, teachers, museums, and the general public. EOSDIS is currently handling an extraordinary amount of NASA scientific data. To give an idea of the volume of information it receives, NASA s Terra Earth-observing satellite, just one of many NASA satellites sending down data, sends it hundreds of gigabytes a day, almost as much data as the Hubble Space Telescope acquires in an entire year, or about equal to the amount of information that could be found in hundreds of pickup trucks filled with books. To make EOSDIS data completely accessible to the Earth science community, NASA teamed up with private industry in 2000 to develop an Earth science "marketplace" registry that lets public users quickly drill down to the exact information they need. It also enables them to publish their research and resources alongside of NASA s research and resources. This registry is known as the Earth Observing System ClearingHOuse, or ECHO. The charter for this project focused on having an infrastructure completely independent from EOSDIS that would allow for more contributors and open up additional data access options. Accordingly, it is only fitting that the term ECHO is more than just an acronym; it represents the functionality of the system in that it can echo out and create interoperability among other systems, all while maturing with time as industry technologies and standards change and improve.

  1. Towards "open applied" Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Schildhauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Concepts of open science -- in the context of cyber/digital technology and culture -- could greatly benefit applied and secondary Earth science efforts. However, international organizations (e.g., environmental agencies, conservation groups and sustainable development organizations) that are focused on applied science have been slow to incorporate open practices across the spectrum of scientific activities, from data to decisions. Myriad benefits include transparency, reproducibility, efficiency (timeliness and cost savings), stakeholder engagement, direct linkages between research and environmental outcomes, reduction in bias and corruption, improved simulation of Earth systems and improved availability of science in general. We map out where and how open science can play a role, providing next steps, with specific emphasis on applied science efforts and processes such as environmental assessment, synthesis and systematic reviews, meta-analyses, decision support and emerging cyber technologies. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the organizations for which they work and/or represent.

  2. Chemistry of Earth's Putative Steam Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegley, B.; Schaefer, L.

    2007-12-01

    The concept of a steam atmosphere generated by impact devolatilization of planetesimals accreted during Earth's formation is over 20 years old (Matsui and Abe, 1986; Lange and Ahrens, 1982). Surprisingly, with the possible exception of a few qualitative remarks, no one has critically assessed this scenario. We use thermochemical equilibrium and, where relevant, thermochemical kinetic calculations to model the chemistry of the "steam" atmosphere produced by impact volatilization of different types of accreting material. We present results for our nominal conditions (1500 K, total P = 100 bar). We also studied the effects of variable temperature and total pressure. The composition of the accreting material is modeled using average compositions of the Orgueil CI chondrite, the Murchison CM2 chondrite, the Allende CV3 chondrite, average ordinary (H, L, LL) chondrites, and average enstatite (EH, EL) chondrites. The major gases released from CI and CM chondritic material are H2O, CO2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4, and SO2 in decreasing order of abundance. About 10% of the atmosphere is CO2. The major gases released from CV chondritic material are CO2, H2O, CO, H2, and SO2 in decreasing order of abundance. About 20% of the total atmosphere is steam. The major gases released from average ordinary chondritic material are H2, CO, H2O, CO2, CH4, H2S, and N2 in decreasing order of abundance. The "steam" atmosphere is predominantly H2 + CO with steam being about 10% of the total atmosphere. The major gases released from EH chondritic material are H2, CO, H2O, CO2, N2, and CH4 in decreasing order of abundance. The "steam" atmosphere is predominantly H2 + CO with about 10% of the total atmosphere as steam. This work was supported by the NASA Astrobiology and Origins Programs.

  3. Using Bad Science to Teach Good Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the integration of topics dealing with "bad science"--pseudo, pathological, or deviant science--into introductory undergraduate courses in general and analytical chemistry, and provides extensive references for the chemistry instructor interested in these topics. The approach is to incorporate specific cases that address…

  4. Chemistry. Teacher's Guide. Investigations in Natural Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John W.; And Others

    Investigations in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This teaching guide is designed for use with the 19 chemistry investigations found in the student manual. These investigations focus on concepts related to:…

  5. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  6. Earth Science Education in Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullatif, Osman M.; Farwa, Abdalla G.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes Earth Science Education in Sudan, with particular emphasis on the University of Khartoum. The first geological department in Sudan was founded in 1958 in the University of Khartoum. In the 1980s, six more geological departments have been added in the newer universities. The types of courses offered include Diploma, B.Sc. (General), B.Sc. (Honours), M.Sc. and Ph.D. The Geology programmes are strongly supported by field work training and mapping. Final-year students follow specialised training in one of the following topics: hydrogeology, geophysics, economic geology, sedimentology and engineering geology. A graduation report, written in the final year, represents 30-40% of the total marks. The final assessment and grading are decided with the help of internal and external examiners. Entry into the Geology programmes is based on merit and performance. The number of students who graduate with Honours and become geologists is between 20% to 40% of the initial intake at the beginning of the second year. Employment opportunities are limited and are found mainly in the Government's geological offices, the universities and research centres, and private companies. The Department of Geology at the University of Khartoum has long-standing internal and external links with outside partners. This has been manifested in the training of staff members, the donation of teaching materials and laboratory facilities. The chief problems currently facing Earth Science Education in Sudan are underfunding, poor equipment, laboratory facilities and logistics. Other problems include a shortage of staff, absence of research, lack of supervision and emigration of staff members. Urgent measures are needed to assess and evaluate the status of Earth Science Education in terms of objectives, needs and difficulties encountered. Earth Science Education is expected to contribute significantly to the exploitation of mineral resources and socio-economic development in the Sudan.

  7. Center for Space and Earth Science

    Science.gov Websites

    Search Site submit Los Alamos National LaboratoryCenter for Space and Earth Science Part of the Partnerships NSEC » CSES Center for Space and Earth Science High quality, cutting-edge science in the areas of astrophysics, space physics, solid planetary geoscience, and Earth systems Contact Director Reiner Friedel (505

  8. Mother Earth Chemistry: A Laboratory Course for Nonmajors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. L.; Selco, J. I.; Wacks, D. B.

    1996-08-01

    Mother Earth Chemistry is a laboratory-based course designed to introduce nonscience majors to chemistry using familiar products such as beer, soap, yogurt, and cheese as well as products made from soybeans, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Students make the products and learn some of the chemistry and biochemistry involved in their home manufacture as well as the rudiments of chemical analysis, stoichiometry, and the scientific method.

  9. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  10. Earth Science Education in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Kevin L.

    1999-05-01

    Zimbabwe is a mineral-rich country with a long history of Earth Science Education. The establishment of a University Geology Department in 1960 allowed the country to produce its own earth science graduates. These graduates are readily absorbed by the mining industry and few are without work. Demand for places at the University is high and entry standards reflect this. Students enter the University after GCE A levels in three science subjects and most go on to graduate. Degree programmes include B.Sc. General in Geology (plus another science), B.Sc. Honours in Geology and M.Sc. in Exploration Geology and in Geophysics. The undergraduate curriculum is broad-based and increasingly vocationally orientated. A well-equipped building caters for relatively large student numbers and also houses analytical facilities used for research and teaching. Computers are used in teaching from the first year onwards. Staff are on average poorly qualified compared to other universities, but there is an impressive research element. The Department has good links with many overseas universities and external funding agencies play a strong supporting role. That said, financial constraints remain the greatest barrier to future development, although increasing links with the mining industry may cushion this.

  11. Organic chemistry in a CO2 rich early Earth atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Carrasco, Nathalie; Millan, Maëva; Vettier, Ludovic; Szopa, Cyril

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of life on the Earth has required a prior organic chemistry leading to the formation of prebiotic molecules. The origin and the evolution of the organic matter on the early Earth is not yet firmly understood. Several hypothesis, possibly complementary, are considered. They can be divided in two categories: endogenous and exogenous sources. In this work we investigate the contribution of a specific endogenous source: the organic chemistry occurring in the ionosphere of the early Earth where the significant VUV contribution of the young Sun involved an efficient formation of reactive species. We address the issue whether this chemistry can lead to the formation of complex organic compounds with CO2 as only source of carbon in an early atmosphere made of N2, CO2 and H2, by mimicking experimentally this type of chemistry using a low pressure plasma reactor. By analyzing the gaseous phase composition, we strictly identified the formation of H2O, NH3, N2O and C2N2. The formation of a solid organic phase is also observed, confirming the possibility to trigger organic chemistry in the upper atmosphere of the early Earth. The identification of Nitrogen-bearing chemical functions in the solid highlights the possibility for an efficient ionospheric chemistry to provide prebiotic material on the early Earth.

  12. Strategy for earth explorers in global earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the current NASA Earth System Science initiative is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the Earth as an integrated, dynamic system. The centerpiece of the Earth System Science initiative will be a set of instruments carried on polar orbiting platforms under the Earth Observing System program. An Earth Explorer program can open new vistas in the earth sciences, encourage innovation, and solve critical scientific problems. Specific missions must be rigorously shaped by the demands and opportunities of high quality science and must complement the Earth Observing System and the Mission to Planet Earth. The committee believes that the proposed Earth Explorer program provides a substantial opportunity for progress in the earth sciences, both through independent missions and through missions designed to complement the large scale platforms and international research programs that represent important national commitments. The strategy presented is intended to help ensure the success of the Earth Explorer program as a vital stimulant to the study of the planet.

  13. Earth Sciences annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, L.W.; Donohue, M.L.; Peterson, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducts work in support of the Laboratory's energy, defense, and research programs. The Department is organized into ten groups. Five of these -- Nuclear Waste Management, Fossil Energy, Containment, Verification, and Research -- represent major programmatic activities within the Department. Five others -- Experimental Geophysics, Geomechanics, Geology/Geological Engineering, Geochemistry, and Seismology/Applied Geophysics -- are major disciplinary areas that support these and other laboratory programs. This report summarizes work carried out in 1987 by each group and contains a bibliography of their 1987 publications.

  14. Earth Systems Science: An Analytic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John

    2011-01-01

    Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…

  15. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise: 1998 Education Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The goals of the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) are to expand the scientific knowledge of the Earth system; to widely disseminate the results of the expanded knowledge; and to enable the productive use of this knowledge. This catalog provides information about the Earth Science education programs and the resources available for elementary through university levels.

  16. Earth Sciences Electronic Theater ''999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz; Manyin, Mike

    1999-01-01

    The Etheater presents visualizations which span the period from the original Suomi/Hasler animations of the first ATS-1 GEO weather satellite images in 1966 ....... to the latest 1999 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. Hot off the SGI-Onyx Graphics-Supercomputer are NASA's visualizations of Hurricanes Mitch, Georges, Fran and Linda. These storms have been recently featured on the covers of National Geographic, Time, Newsweek and Popular Science. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on National and International network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1-min GOES images that appeared in the November BAMS.

  17. Earth System Science Education Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  18. Dartmouth College Earth Sciences Mobile Field Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, E. E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Dade, W. B.; Sonder, L. J.; Renshaw, C. E.; Kelly, M. A.; Hawley, R. L.; Chipman, J. W.; Mikucki, J.; Posmentier, E. S.; Moore, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    spend several weeks conducting traditional multiday mapping of complexly-deformed sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks, and also collect and interpret geobiological, geochemical, geophysical, paleoclimatological, paleontological, and remote-sensing data outside the context of traditional mapping. During the Mono Lake segment, for example, students examine the interaction of ecology and chemistry in alkaline lakes. During the Canadian Rockies segment, students reconstruct Holocene paleoclimate using tree stumps and fossil wood detritus marking former positions of an alpine glacier. While a mobile, wide-ranging field program requires complicated logistics and potentially high per-student costs, the diversity of research topics, geological environments, and field techniques have made it a successful cornerstone of the Dartmouth Earth Sciences major. After the Stretch experience, significant fractions of our students become involved in ongoing faculty research, pursue senior theses, and go on to pursue Earth Sciences graduate degrees.

  19. NASA Earth Science Update with Information Science Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, Milton

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA earth science updates with information science technology. Details are given on NASA/Earth Science Enterprise (ESE)/Goddard Space Flight Center strategic plans, ESE missions and flight programs, roles of information science, ESE goals related to the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network, and future plans.

  20. 77 FR 55863 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-072)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory Group Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics... the Applied Science Advisory Group. This Subcommittee reports to the Earth Science Subcommittee...

  1. Chemistry Teaching: Science or Alchemy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that the development of good chemistry teaching and the pursuit of research have essentially the same structure. Similarities include the need for a clear focus, efficiency in time and effort, and a direction that is more often right than wrong. (DDR)

  2. Altering the Earth's Chemistry: Assessing the Risks. Worldwatch Paper 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postel, Sandra

    Human activities that have altered the earth's chemistry are discussed in terms of their potential ecological and economic consequences. Humanity's impact on the disruption of the natural cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur is assessed. Data are presented which illustrate the extent of change in these cycles. Risks particularly threatening and…

  3. Ivestigating Earth Science in Urban Schoolyards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna; Siegel, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Schoolyards project is a two year partnership with a university Earth Science Department and the surrounding urban elementary schools. The goal of the project was to develop the capacity of elementary teachers to teach earth science lessons using their schoolyards and local parks as field sites. The university personnel developed lessons…

  4. Elementary Children's Retrodictive Reasoning about Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Schneps, Matthew H.

    2012-01-01

    We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5) about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a…

  5. Senior High School Earth Sciences and Marine Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackenberg, Mary; And Others

    This guide was developed for earth sciences and marine sciences instruction in the senior high schools of Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. The subjects covered are: (1) Earth Science for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (2) Marine Biology I for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (3) Marine Biology II, Advanced, for 11th and 12th graders; (4) Marine…

  6. Digital Earth for Earth Sciences and Public Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresman, T. W.

    2006-12-01

    Buckminster Fuller was an early advocate for better comprehension of the planet and its resources related to human affairs. A comprehensive vision was articulated by a US Vice President and quickly adopted by the world's oldest country China.. Digital Earth brings fresh perspective on the current state of affairs and connects citizens with scientists through the applications of 3D visualization, spinning globes, virtual Earths, and the current collaboration with Virtual Globes. The prowess of Digital Earth technology has been so successful in both understanding and communicating the more challenging topics for global change and climate change phenomena that China has assigned it priority status with the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. New Zealand has recently begun to adjust its national strategies for sustainability with the technologies of Digital Earth. A comprehensive coverage of the results compiled over the past seven years is presented to place a foundation for the science and engineering community to prepare to align with this compelling science enterprise as a fundamental new paradigm for the registration, storage, and access of science data and information through the emerging Digital Earth Exchange under protocols developed for the Digital Earth Reference Model.

  7. Earth Science Mining Web Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Long; Lynnes, Christopher; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Keiser, Ken

    2008-01-01

    To allow scientists further capabilities in the area of data mining and web services, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) have developed a system to mine data at the source without the need of network transfers. The system has been constructed by linking together several pre-existing technologies: the Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM), a processing engine at he GES DISC; the Algorithm Development and Mining (ADaM) system, a data mining toolkit from UAH that can be configured in a variety of ways to create customized mining processes; ActiveBPEL, a workflow execution engine based on BPEL (Business Process Execution Language); XBaya, a graphical workflow composer; and the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). XBaya is used to construct an analysis workflow at UAH using ADam components, which are also installed remotely at the GES DISC, wrapped as Web Services. The S4PM processing engine searches ECHO for data using space-time criteria, staging them to cache, allowing the ActiveBPEL engine to remotely orchestras the processing workflow within S4PM. As mining is completed, the output is placed in an FTP holding area for the end user. The goals are to give users control over the data they want to process, while mining data at the data source using the server's resources rather than transferring the full volume over the internet. These diverse technologies have been infused into a functioning, distributed system with only minor changes to the underlying technologies. The key to the infusion is the loosely coupled, Web-Services based architecture: All of the participating components are accessible (one way or another) through (Simple Object Access Protocol) SOAP-based Web Services.

  8. Earth Science Mining Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L. B.; Lynnes, C. S.; Hegde, M.; Graves, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Keiser, K.

    2008-12-01

    To allow scientists further capabilities in the area of data mining and web services, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) have developed a system to mine data at the source without the need of network transfers. The system has been constructed by linking together several pre-existing technologies: the Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM), a processing engine at the GES DISC; the Algorithm Development and Mining (ADaM) system, a data mining toolkit from UAH that can be configured in a variety of ways to create customized mining processes; ActiveBPEL, a workflow execution engine based on BPEL (Business Process Execution Language); XBaya, a graphical workflow composer; and the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). XBaya is used to construct an analysis workflow at UAH using ADaM components, which are also installed remotely at the GES DISC, wrapped as Web Services. The S4PM processing engine searches ECHO for data using space-time criteria, staging them to cache, allowing the ActiveBPEL engine to remotely orchestrates the processing workflow within S4PM. As mining is completed, the output is placed in an FTP holding area for the end user. The goals are to give users control over the data they want to process, while mining data at the data source using the server's resources rather than transferring the full volume over the internet. These diverse technologies have been infused into a functioning, distributed system with only minor changes to the underlying technologies. The key to this infusion is the loosely coupled, Web- Services based architecture: All of the participating components are accessible (one way or another) through (Simple Object Access Protocol) SOAP-based Web Services.

  9. Make Earth science education as dynamic as Earth itself

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautenbacher, Conrad C.; Groat, Charles G.

    2004-12-01

    The images of rivers spilling over their banks and washing away entire towns, buildings decimated to rubble by the violent shaking of the Earth's plates, and molten lava flowing up from inside the Earth's core are constant reminders of the power of the Earth. Humans are simply at the whim of the forces of Mother Nature—or are we? Whether it is from a great natural disaster, a short-term weather event like El Nino, or longer-term processes like plate tectonics, Earth processes affect us all. Yet,we are only beginning to scratch the surface of our understanding of Earth sciences. We believe the day will come when our understanding of these dynamic Earth processes will prompt better policies and decisions about saving lives and property. One key place to start is in America's classrooms.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Earth Science and Students: An Integrated Approach using NASA Earth Science Climate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Erica J.; Chambers, Lin H.; Phelps, Carrie S.; Oots, Penny C.; Moore, Susan W.; Diones, Dennis D.

    2007-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Department of Education's No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, beginning in 2007 students will be tested in the science area. There are many techniques that educators can employ to teach students science. The use of authentic materials or in this case authentic data can be an engaging alternative to more traditional methods. An Earth science classroom is a great place for the integration of authentic data and science concepts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a wealth of high quality Earth science data available to the general public. For instance, the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA s Langley Research Center houses over 800 Earth science data sets related to Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry. These data sets were produced to increase academic understanding of the natural and anthropogenic factors that influence global climate; however, a major hurdle in using authentic data is the size of the data and data documentation. To facilitate the use of these data sets for educational purposes, the Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and Earth science for Teachers and Amateurs (MY NASA DATA) project has been established to systematically support educational activities at all levels of formal and informal education. The MY NASA DATA project accomplishes this by reducing these large data holdings to microsets that are easily accessible and explored by K-12 educators and students though the project's Web page. MY NASA DATA seeks to ease the difficulty in understanding the jargon-heavy language of Earth science. This manuscript will show how MY NASA DATA provides resources for NCLB implementation in the science area through an overview of the Web site, the different microsets available, the lesson plans and computer tools, and an overview of educational support mechanisms.

  11. The Effects of Earth Science Programs on Student Knowledge and Interest in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ariana Wilson, Chris Skinner, Chris Poulsen Abstract For many years, academic programs have been in place for the instruction of young students in the earth sciences before they undergo formal training in high school or college. However, there has been little formal assessment of the impacts of these programs on student knowledge of the earth sciences and their interest in continuing with earth science. On August 6th-12th 2016 I will attend the University of Michigan's annual Earth Camp, where I will 1) ascertain high school students' knowledge of earth science-specifically atmospheric structure and wind patterns- before and after Earth Camp, 2) record their opinions about earth science before and after Earth Camp, and 3) record how the students feel about how the camp was run and what could be improved. I will accomplish these things through the use of surveys asking the students questions about these subjects. I expect my results will show that earth science programs like Earth Camp deepen students' knowledge of and interest in earth science and encourage them to continue their study of earth science in the future. I hope these results will give guidance on how to conduct future learning programs and how to recruit more students to become earth scientists in the future.

  12. Advances in the NASA Earth Science Division Applied Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, L.; Bonniksen, C. K.; Escobar, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Division's Applied Science Program advances the understanding of and ability to used remote sensing data in support of socio-economic needs. The integration of socio-economic considerations in to NASA Earth Science projects has advanced significantly. The large variety of acquisition methods used has required innovative implementation options. The integration of application themes and the implementation of application science activities in flight project is continuing to evolve. The creation of the recently released Earth Science Division, Directive on Project Applications Program and the addition of an application science requirement in the recent EVM-2 solicitation document NASA's current intent. Continuing improvement in the Earth Science Applications Science Program are expected in the areas of thematic integration, Project Applications Program tailoring for Class D missions and transfer of knowledge between scientists and projects.

  13. Testing Reproducibility in Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, M. A.; Dudill, A. R.; Frey, P.; Venditti, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Reproducibility represents how closely the results of independent tests agree when undertaken using the same materials but different conditions of measurement, such as operator, equipment or laboratory. The concept of reproducibility is fundamental to the scientific method as it prevents the persistence of incorrect or biased results. Yet currently the production of scientific knowledge emphasizes rapid publication of previously unreported findings, a culture that has emerged from pressures related to hiring, publication criteria and funding requirements. Awareness and critique of the disconnect between how scientific research should be undertaken, and how it actually is conducted, has been prominent in biomedicine for over a decade, with the fields of economics and psychology more recently joining the conversation. The purpose of this presentation is to stimulate the conversation in earth sciences where, despite implicit evidence in widely accepted classifications, formal testing of reproducibility is rare.As a formal test of reproducibility, two sets of experiments were undertaken with the same experimental procedure, at the same scale, but in different laboratories. Using narrow, steep flumes and spherical glass beads, grain size sorting was examined by introducing fine sediment of varying size and quantity into a mobile coarse bed. The general setup was identical, including flume width and slope; however, there were some variations in the materials, construction and lab environment. Comparison of the results includes examination of the infiltration profiles, sediment mobility and transport characteristics. The physical phenomena were qualitatively reproduced but not quantitatively replicated. Reproduction of results encourages more robust research and reporting, and facilitates exploration of possible variations in data in various specific contexts. Following the lead of other fields, testing of reproducibility can be incentivized through changes to journal

  14. Reforming Earth science education in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    Improving the employability of Earth science graduates by reforming Earth science instruction is a matter of concern to universities worldwide. It should, however, be self-evident that the developing countries cannot follow the same blueprint for change as the industrialized countries due to constraints of affordability and relevance. Peanuts are every bit as nutritious as almonds; if one with limited means has to choose between a fistful of peanuts and just one almond, it is wise to choose the peanuts. A paradigm proposed here would allow institutions in developing countries to impart good quality relevant Earth science instruction that would be affordable and lead to employment.

  15. An Overview of Rare Earth Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschneidner, Karl, Jr.

    2012-02-01

    Currently rare earth science and technology is robust: this includes all the major branches of science -- biochemistry, chemistry, materials and physics. There are, however, currently some anomalies and distortions especially in the technology and applications sector of the rare earth field, which is caused by the dominance of China on the sales of rare earths and rare earth containing products. For the past 5 to 10 years ˜95% of rare earths utilized in commerce came from China. Although Chinese actions have lead to sudden and large price spikes and export embargoes, the rare earths are still available but at a higher cost. The start up of production in 2011 at mines in the USA and Australia will alleviate this situation in about two years. Basic and applied research on the condensed matter physics/materials science has hardly been impacted by these events, but new research opportunities are opening up especially with regard to the USA's military and energy security. Magnets seems to be the hottest topic, but research on battery materials, phosphors and catalysts are also (or should be) strongly considered.

  16. Presenting the 'Big Ideas' of Science: Earth Science Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Details an 'explanatory Earth story' on plate tectonics to show how such a 'story' can be developed in an earth science context. Presents five other stories in outline form. Explains the use of these stories as vehicles to present the big ideas of science. (DDR)

  17. Uncovering the Chemistry of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use evidence from our solar system to understand exoplanets, and in particular, to predict their surface chemistry and thereby the possibility of life. An Earth-like planet, born from the same nebula as its host star, is composed primarily of silicate rocks and an iron-nickel metal core, and depleted in volatile content in a systematic manner. The more volatile (easier to vaporize or dissociate into gas form) an element is in an Earth-like planet, the more depleted the element is compared to its host star. After depletion, an Earth-like planet would go through the process of core formation due to heat from radioactive decay and collisions. Core formation depletes a planet's rocky mantle of siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in addition to the volatile depletion. After that, Earth-like planets likely accrete some volatile-rich materials, called 'late veneer'. The late veneer could be essential to the origins of life on Earth and Earth-like planets, as it also delivers the volatiles such as nitrogen, sulfur, carbon and water to the planet's surface, which are crucial for life to occur. We plan to build an integrative model of Earth-like planets from the bottom up. We would like to infer their chemical compositions from their mass-radius relations and their host stars' elemental abundances, and understand the origins of volatile contents (especially water) on their surfaces, and thereby shed light on the origins of life on them.

  18. APPENDIX AND BIBLIOGRAPHY TO BE USED WITH LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCE GUIDES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAHLER, FRED

    CONTAINED IN THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCES ARE BIBLIOGRAPHIES, DEMONSTRATIONS, AND EXPERIMENTS. BOOKS ARE LISTED FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE WHICH COVER A WIDE RANGE OF SUBJECTS, INCLUDING NATURE STUDY, BIOLOGY, CHEMISTRY, AND PHYSICS AS WELL AS MORE HIGHLY SPECIALIZED FIELDS OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES. TEXTBOOKS LISTED INCLUDE…

  19. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  20. Earth Science Europe "Is Earth Science Europe an interesting and useful construct?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludden, John

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 we managed to have a group of earth scientists from across the spectrum: from academic, survey, industry and government, pull together to create the first output for Earth Science Europe http://www.bgs.ac.uk/earthScienceEurope/downloads/EarthScienceEuropeBrochure.pdf In this document we stated that Earth scientists need a united, authoritative voice to enhance the status and impact of Earth science across Europe. The feeling was that there were many diverse infrastructure and research initiatives spanning the terrestrial and oceanic realms and science ranged from historical geology to active dynamics on Earth, and that a level of coordination and mutual knowledge sharing was necessary. In addition to a better understanding of the Earth in general, we thought there was a need to have Earth Science Europe develop a strategic research capacity in geohazards, georesources and environmental earth sciences, through a roadmap addressing fundamental and societal challenges. This would involve a robust research infrastructure to deliver strategic goals, enabling inspirational research and promoting solutions to societal challenges. In this talk I will propose some next steps and discuss what this "authoritative voice" could look like and ask the question - "is Earth Science Europe and interesting and useful concept?"

  1. A Directory of Societies in Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Lists the titles and addresses of approximately 450 domestic and foreign organizations which deal with earth science fields, including geology, paleontology, mining, and geophysics. Also listed are U.S. state geological surveys. (WB)

  2. ArXives of Earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2018-03-01

    Preprint servers afford a platform for sharing research before peer review. We are pleased that two dedicated preprint servers have opened for the Earth sciences and welcome submissions that have been posted there first.

  3. Multiple Modes of Inquiry in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann

    2008-01-01

    To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…

  4. Space Science in Action: Earth [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording explains the factors that allow life to flourish on Earth, including our position within the solar system, the water cycle, and the composition of the planet. A hands-on activity demonstrates the earth's water cycle. Contents include a teacher's guide designed to help science teachers in grades 5-8 by providing a brief…

  5. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston: Earth Science II (Solid Earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science II: The Solid Earth -- Earth History and Planetary Science -- is the second of two Earth Science courses, and one of eleven graduate level science Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), that have been developed by the Boston Science Partnership as part of an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. A core goal of these courses is to provide high level science content to middle and high school teachers while modeling good instructional practices directly tied to the Boston Public Schools and Massachusetts science curriculum frameworks. All of these courses emphasize hands-on, lab-based, inquiry-driven, student-centered lessons. The Earth Science II team aimed to strictly adhere to ABC (Activity Before Concept) and 5E/7E models of instruction, and limited lecture or teacher-centered instruction to the later “Explanation” stages of all lessons. We also introduced McNeill and Krajick’s Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER) model of scientific explanation for middle school classroom discourse, both as a powerful scaffold leading to higher levels of accountable talk in the classroom, and to model science as a social construct. Daily evaluations, dutifully filled out by the course participants and diligently read by the course instructors, were quite useful in adapting instruction to the needs of the class on a real-time basis. We find the structure of the CCC teaching teams - university-based faculty providing expert content knowledge, K-12-based faculty providing age appropriate pedagogies and specific links to the K-12 curriculum - quite a fruitful, two-way collaboration. From the students’ perspective, one of the most useful takeaways from the university-based faculty was “listening to experts model out loud how they reason,” whereas some of the more practical takeaways (i.e., lesson components directly portable to the classroom?) came from the K-12-based faculty. The main takeaways from the course as a whole were the promise to bring more hands

  6. Utah's Mobile Earth Science Outreach Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoessow, F. S.; Christian, L.

    2016-12-01

    Students at Utah State University's College of Natural Resources have engineered the first mobile Earth Science outreach platform capable of delivering high-tech and interactive solar-powered educational resources to the traditionally-underserved, remote communities of rural Utah. By retrofitting and modifying an industrial box-truck, this project effectively created a highly mobile and energy independent "school in a box" which seeks to help change the way that Earth science is communicated, eliminate traditional barriers, and increase science accessibility - both physically and conceptually. The project's education platform is focused on developing a more effective, sustainable, and engaging platform for presenting Earth science outreach curricula to community members of all ages in an engaging fashion. Furthermore, this project affords university students the opportunity to demonstrate innovative science communication techniques, translating vital university research into educational outreach operations aimed at doing real, measurable good for local communities.

  7. Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. The focus was on scientists' data requirements, as well as constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival systems. The workshop consisted of several invited papers; two described information systems for space and Earth science data, four depicted analysis scenarios for extracting information of scientific interest from data collected by Earth orbiting and deep space platforms, and a final one was a general tutorial on image data compression.

  8. NASA'S Earth Science Data Stewardship Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Dawn R.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been collecting Earth observation data for over 50 years using instruments on board satellites, aircraft and ground-based systems. With the inception of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program in 1990, NASA established the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and initiated development of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A set of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) was established at locations based on science discipline expertise. Today, EOSDIS consists of 12 DAACs and 12 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS), processing data from the EOS missions, as well as the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership mission, and other satellite and airborne missions. The DAACs archive and distribute the vast majority of data from NASA’s Earth science missions, with data holdings exceeding 12 petabytes The data held by EOSDIS are available to all users consistent with NASA’s free and open data policy, which has been in effect since 1990. The EOSDIS archives consist of raw instrument data counts (level 0 data), as well as higher level standard products (e.g., geophysical parameters, products mapped to standard spatio-temporal grids, results of Earth system models using multi-instrument observations, and long time series of Earth System Data Records resulting from multiple satellite observations of a given type of phenomenon). EOSDIS data stewardship responsibilities include ensuring that the data and information content are reliable, of high quality, easily accessible, and usable for as long as they are considered to be of value.

  9. Uncovering the Chemistry of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li; Sasselov, Dimitar; Jacobsen, Stein

    2015-08-01

    We propose to use the evidence from our solar system to understand exoplanets, and in particular, to predict their surface chemistry and thereby the possibility of life. An Earth-like planet, born from the same nebula as its host star, is composed primarily of silicate rocks and an iron-nickel metal core, and depleted in volatile content in a systematic manner. The more volatile (easier to vaporize or dissociate into gas form) an element is in an Earth-like planet, the more depleted the element is compared to its host star. After depletion, an Earth-like planet would go through the process of core formation due to heat from radioactive decay and collisions. Core formation depletes a planet’s rocky mantle of siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in addition to the volatile depletion. After that, Earth-like planets likely accrete some volatile-rich materials, called “late veneer”. The late veneer could be essential to the origins of life on Earth and Earth-like planets, as it also delivers the volatiles such as nitrogen, sulfur, carbon and water to the planet’s surface, which are crucial for life to occur. Here we build an integrative model of Earth-like planets from the bottom up. Thus the chemical compositions of Earth-like planets could be inferred from their mass-radius relations and their host stars’ elemental abundances, and the origins of volatile contents (especially water) on their surfaces could be understood, and thereby shed light on the origins of life on them. This elemental abundance model could be applied to other rocky exoplanets in exoplanet systems.

  10. Uncovering the Chemistry of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, L.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Sasselov, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    We propose to use the evidence from our solar system to understand exoplanets, and in particular, to predict their surface chemistry and thereby the possibility of life. An Earth-like planet, born from the same nebula as its host star, is composed primarily of silicate rocks and an iron-nickel metal core, and depleted in volatile content in a systematic manner. The more volatile (easier to vaporize or dissociate into gas form) an element is in an Earth-like planet, the more depleted the element is compared to its host star. After depletion, an Earth-like planet would go through the process of core formation due to heat from radioactive decay and collisions. Core formation depletes a planet's rocky mantle of siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in addition to the volatile depletion. After that, Earth-like planets likely accrete some volatile-rich materials, called "late veneer". The late veneer could be essential to the origins of life on Earth and Earth-like planets, as it also delivers the volatiles such as nitrogen, sulfur, carbon and water to the planet's surface, which are crucial for life to occur. Here we build an integrative model of Earth-like planets from the bottom up. Thus the chemical compositions of Earth-like planets could be inferred from their mass-radius relations and their host stars' elemental abundances, and the origins of volatile contents (especially water) on their surfaces could be understood, and thereby shed light on the origins of life on them. This elemental abundance model could be applied to other rocky exoplanets in exoplanet systems.

  11. Earth Science Content Guidelines Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geological Inst., Alexandria, VA.

    Teams of teachers, other science educators, and scientists selected from a national search for project writers have proposed using the following set of questions to guide the inclusion of earth science content into the kindergarten through grade 12 curriculum. The Essential Questions are organized in a K-12 sequence by six content areas: (1) Solid…

  12. Earth Science Literacy: Building Community Consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, M.; Ladue, N.; Budd, D.; Campbell, K.; Conklin, M.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R.; Ross, R.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B.; Tuddenham, P.

    2008-12-01

    During 2008, the Earth Sciences Literacy Initiative (ESLI) constructed a framework of earth science "Big Ideas" and "Supporting Concepts". Following the examples of recent literacy efforts in the ocean, atmosphere and climate research communities, ESLI has distilled the fundamental understandings of the earth science community into a document that all members of the community will be able to refer to when working with educators, policy-makers, the press and members of the general public. This document is currently in draft form for review and will be published for public distribution in 2009. ESLI began with the construction of an organizing committee of a dozen people who represent a wide array of earth science backgrounds. This group then organized and ran two workshops in 2008: a 2-week online content workshop and a 3-day intensive writing workshop. For both workshops, participants were chosen so as to cover the full breadth of earth science related to the solid earth, surficial processes, and fresh-water hydrology. The asynchronous online workshop included 350 scientists and educators participating from around the world and was a powerful way to gather ideas and information while retaining a written record of all interactions. The writing workshop included 35 scientists, educators and agency representatives to codify the extensive input of the online workshop. Since September, 2008, drafts of the ESLI literacy framework have been circulated through many different channels to make sure that the document accurately reflects the current understandings of earth scientists and to ensure that it is widely accepted and adopted by the earth science communities.

  13. Analyzing Earth Science Research Networking through Visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, S.; Stephan, R.; Narock, T.

    2017-12-01

    Using D3.js we visualize collaboration amongst several geophysical science organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP). We look at historical trends in Earth Science research topics, cross-domain collaboration, and topics of interest to the general population. The visualization techniques used provide an effective way for non-experts to easily explore distributed and heterogeneous Big Data. Analysis of these visualizations provides stakeholders with insights into optimizing meetings, performing impact evaluation, structuring outreach efforts, and identifying new opportunities for collaboration.

  14. Using Food to Demonstrate Earth Science Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Francek, M.

    2001-12-01

    One way to better engage K-16 students with the earth sciences is through classroom demonstrations with food. We summarize references from journals and the world wide web that use food to illustrate earth science concepts. Examples of how edible substances have been used include using candy bars to demonstrate weathering concepts, ice cream to mimic glaciers, and grapes to demonstrate evaporation. We also categorize these demonstrations into geology, weather, space science, and oceanography categories. We further categorize the topics by grade level, web versus traditional print format, amount of time necessary to prepare a lesson plan, and whether the activity is better used as a demonstration or hands on activity.

  15. Beautiful Earth: Inspiring Native American students in Earth Science through Music, Art and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasanto, V.; Rock, J.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Angell, D.; Beautiful Earth

    2011-12-01

    The Beautiful Earth program, awarded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), is a live multi-media performance at partner science centers linked with hands-on workshops featuring Earth scientists and Native American experts. It aims to inspire, engage and educate diverse students in Earth science through an experience of viewing the Earth from space as one interconnected whole, as seen through the eyes of astronauts. The informal education program is an outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA Living Atlas Experience (www.bellagaia.com) performed across the globe since 2008 and following the successful Earth Day education events in 2009 and 2010 with NASA's DLN (Digital Learning Network) http://tinyurl.com/2ckg2rh. Beautiful Earth takes a new approach to teaching, by combining live music and data visualizations, Earth Science with indigenous perspectives of the Earth, and hands-on interactive workshops. The program will utilize the emotionally inspiring multi-media show as a springboard to inspire participants to learn more about Earth systems and science. Native Earth Ways (NEW) will be the first module in a series of three "Beautiful Earth" experiences, that will launch the national tour at a presentation in October 2011 at the MOST science museum in collaboration with the Onandaga Nation School in Syracuse, New York. The NEW Module will include Native American experts to explain how they study and conserve the Earth in their own unique ways along with hands-on activities to convey the science which was seen in the show. In this first pilot run of the module, 110 K-12 students with faculty and family members of the Onandaga Nations School will take part. The goal of the program is to introduce Native American students to Earth Sciences and STEM careers, and encourage them to study these sciences and become responsible stewards of the Earth. The second workshop presented to participants will be the

  16. NASA's Earth Science Research and Environmental Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Earth Science program began in the 1960s with cloud imaging satellites used for weather observations. A fleet of satellites are now in orbit to investigate the Earth Science System to uncover the connections between land, Oceans and the atmosphere. Satellite systems using an array of active and passive remote sensors are used to search for answers on how is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth? The answer to these questions can be used for applications to serve societal needs and contribute to decision support systems for weather, hazard, and air quality predictions and mitigation of adverse effects. Partnerships with operational agencies using NASA's observational capabilities are now being explored. The system of the future will require new technology, data assimilation systems which includes data and models that will be used for forecasts that respond to user needs.

  17. Overview of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    For over the last 15 years, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) has devoted a tremendous effort to design and build the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to acquire, process, archive and distribute the data of the EOS series of satellites and other ESE missions and field programs. The development of EOSDIS began with an early prototype to support NASA data from heritage missions and progressed through a formal development process to today's system that supports the data from multiple missions including Landsat 7, Terra, Aqua, SORCE and ICESat. The system is deployed at multiple Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and its current holdings are approximately 4.5 petabytes. The current set of unique users requesting EOS data and information products exceeds 2 million. While EOSDIS has been the centerpiece of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems, other initiatives have augmented the services of EOSDIS and have impacted its evolution and the future directions of data systems within the ESE. ESDIS had an active prototyping effort and has continued to be involved in the activities of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). In response to concerns from the science community that EOSDIS was too large and monolithic, the ESE initiated the Earth Science Information Partners (ESP) Federation Experiment that funded a series of projects to develop specialized products and services to support Earth science research and applications. Last year, the enterprise made 41 awards to successful proposals to the Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASON) Cooperative Agreement Notice to continue and extend the ESP activity. The ESE has also sponsored a formulation activity called the Strategy for the Evolution of ESE Data Systems (SEEDS) to develop approaches and decision support processes for the management of the collection of data system and service providers of the enterprise. Throughout the development of its earth science

  18. Earth Sciences Requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, David E. (Editor); Katzberg, Steve J. (Editor); Wilson, R. Gale (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to further explore and define the earth sciences requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES), a proposed onboard data processor with real-time communications capability intended to support the Earth Observing System (Eos). A review of representative Eos instrument types is given and a preliminary set of real-time data needs has been established. An executive summary is included.

  19. Science Project Ideas about Kitchen Chemistry. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    This book presents science experiments that can be conducted in the kitchen. Contents include: (1) "Safety First"; (2) "Chemistry in and Near the Kitchen Sink"; (3) "Chemistry in the Refrigerator"; (4) "Chemistry on the Stove"; (5) "Chemistry on the Kitchen Counter"; and (6) "Further Reading and Internet Addresses." (YDS)

  20. Earth Summit Science, policy discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.

  1. Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

    1989-01-01

    This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

  2. Deriving Earth Science Data Analytics Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Data Analytics applications have made successful strides in the business world where co-analyzing extremely large sets of independent variables have proven profitable. Today, most data analytics tools and techniques, sometimes applicable to Earth science, have targeted the business industry. In fact, the literature is nearly absent of discussion about Earth science data analytics. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data from a variety of sources to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information. ESDA is most often applied to data preparation, data reduction, and data analysis. Co-analysis of increasing number and volume of Earth science data has become more prevalent ushered by the plethora of Earth science data sources generated by US programs, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists.Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, ESDA types have been defined in terms of data analytics end goals. Goals of which are very different than those in business, requiring different tools and techniques. A sampling of use cases have been collected and analyzed in terms of data analytics end goal types, volume, specialized processing, and other attributes. The goal of collecting these use cases is to be able to better understand and specify requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented. This presentation will describe the attributes and preliminary findings of ESDA use cases, as well as provide early analysis of data analytics toolstechniques requirements that would support specific ESDA type goals. Representative existing data analytics toolstechniques relevant to ESDA will also be addressed.

  3. New Earth Science Data and Access Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, John F.; Weinstein, Beth E.; Farnham, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, working with its domestic and international partners, provides scientific data and analysis to improve life here on Earth. NASA provides science data products that cover a wide range of physical, geophysical, biochemical and other parameters, as well as services for interdisciplinary Earth science studies. Management and distribution of these products is administered through the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), which all hold data within a different Earth science discipline. This paper will highlight selected EOS datasets and will focus on how these observations contribute to the improvement of essential services such as weather forecasting, climate prediction, air quality, and agricultural efficiency. Emphasis will be placed on new data products derived from instruments on board Terra, Aqua and ICESat as well as new regional data products and field campaigns. A variety of data tools and services are available to the user community. This paper will introduce primary and specialized DAAC-specific methods for finding, ordering and using these data products. Special sections will focus on orienting users unfamiliar with DAAC resources, HDF-EOS formatted data and the use of desktop research and application tools.

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Earth Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-26

    25 - d Phenomenological Description of Eddy Registered in Gulf Stream (V.A. Bubnov, N.P. Kuzmina , et al.; OKEANOLOGIYA, No 1, Jan-Feb 87) 26...Bubnov, N. P. Kuzmina and I. S. Podymov, Oceanology Insti- tute imeni P. P. Shirshov, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow] [Abstract] The 5th cruise of

  5. Bridging the gap with a duel-credit Earth Science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Norden, W.

    2011-12-01

    College-bound high school students rarely have any exposure to the Earth Sciences. Earth Science may be offered to Middle School students. What is offered in High School, however, is usually a watered-down course offered to the weakest students. Meanwhile, our best and brightest students are steered towards biology, chemistry, and physics, what most schools consider the "real sciences". As a direct result, our population is not literate in the Earth Sciences and few students choose to study the Earth Science in college. One way to counteract this trend is to offer a rigorous capstone Earth Science course to High School Juniors and Seniors. Offering a course does not guarantee enrollment, however. Top science students are too busy taking Advanced Placement courses to consider a non-AP course. For that reason, the best way to lure top students into studying Earth Science is to create a duel-credit course, for which students receive both high school and college credit. A collaboration between high school teachers and college professors can result in a quality Earth Science course that bridges the huge gap that now exists between middle school science and college Earth Science. Harvard-Westlake School has successfully offered a duel-credit course with UCLA, and has created a model that can be used by other schools.

  6. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  7. Teaching "Digital Earth" technologies in Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    As part of a review process for a module entitled "Digital Earth" which is currently taught as part of a BSc in Environmental Sciences program, research into the current provision of Geographical Information Science and Technology (GIS&T) related modules on UKbased Environmental Science degrees is made. The result of this search is used with DiBiase et al. (2006) "Body of Knowledge of GIS&T" to develop a foundation level module for Environmental Sciences. Reference is also made to the current provision geospatial analysis techniques in secondary and tertiary education in the UK, US and China, and the optimal use of IT and multimedia in geo-education.

  8. The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.

    2009-12-01

    In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to

  9. 75 FR 60484 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-115)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory Group Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics...) announces a meeting of the Applied Science Advisory Group. This Subcommittee reports to the Earth Science...

  10. Connecting NASA science and engineering with earth science applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. This Editorial reports the efforts of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to integrate applications with science and engineering i...

  11. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  12. Undergraduate students' earth science learning: relationships among conceptions, approaches, and learning self-efficacy in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-06-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to explore the relationships among undergraduates' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science by adopting the structural equation modeling technique. A total of 268 Taiwanese undergraduates (144 females) participated in this study. Three instruments were modified to assess the students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science. The results indicated that students' conceptions of learning made a significant contribution to their approaches to learning, which were consequently correlated with their learning self-efficacy. More specifically, students with stronger agreement that learning earth science involves applying the knowledge and skills learned to unknown problems were prone to possess higher confidence in learning earth science. Moreover, students viewing earth science learning as understanding earth science knowledge were more likely to adopt meaningful strategies to learn earth science, and hence expressed a higher sense of self-efficacy. Based on the results, practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Music Education and the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauregard, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Capturing the interest of non-science majors in science classes can be very difficult, no matter what type of science course it is. At Berklee College of Music, this challenge is especially daunting, as all students are majoring in some type of music program. To engage the Berklee students, I am trying to link the material in Earth science courses to music. The connection between Earth science and music is made in several different ways within the curriculum of each class, with the main connection via a final project. For their projects, students can use any creative outlet (or a standard presentation) to illustrate a point related to the course. Many students have chosen to compose original music and perform it for the class. Some examples of their work will be presented. These original compositions allow students to relate course material to their own lives. Additionally, since many of these students will enter professional careers in the performance and recording industries, the potential exists for them to expose large audiences to the issues of Earth sciences through music.

  14. Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George

    2003-01-01

    The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.

  15. Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center (GEST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes the activities of the Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center (GEST), a consortium of scientists and engineers led by the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), during the contract reporting period. Topics covered include: new programs, eligibility and selection criteria, Goddard Coastal Research Graduate Fellowship Program and staffing changes.

  16. International Earth Science Constellation (ESC) Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.; Machado, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This is the Welcome and Introduction presentation for the International Earth Science Constellation (ESC) Mission Operations Working Group (MOWG) meeting held in Albuquerque NM from September 27-29. It contains an org chart, charter, history, significant topics to be discussed, AquaAura 2017 inclination adjust maneuver calendar, a-train long range plans, upcoming events, and action items.

  17. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise: 1998 Education Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This catalog presents a reference guide to NASA Earth science education programs and products. The topics include: 1) Student Support (Elementary and Secondary, Undergraduate and Graduate, Postgraduate, and Postdoctorate); 2) Teacher/Faculty Preparation and Enhancement; 3) Systemic Change; 4) Curriculum Support; and 5) Resources.

  18. DISCUS Ninth Grade, Earth Science, Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL. Project DISCUS.

    Included are instructional materials designed for use with disadvantaged students who have a limited reading ability and poor command of English. The guide is the second volume of a two volume, one year program in earth science, and contains these five units and activities: Rock Cycle, 12 activities; Minerals and Crystals, 6 activities; Weathering…

  19. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Zhang, Jia; Duan, Xiaoyi; Miller, J. J.; Bugbee, Kaylin; Christopher, Sundar; Freitag, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge Graphs link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. From these relationships, researchers can query knowledge graphs for probabilistic recommendations to infer new knowledge. Scientific papers are an untapped resource which knowledge graphs could leverage to accelerate research discovery. Goal: Develop an end-to-end (semi) automated methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science.

  20. What to do when the Universities reject High School Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Norden, W.

    2011-12-01

    It is hard to imagine a state of the union more affected by Earth processes than the state of California. However, the University of California actively discourages High School students from taking Earth Science courses. For admission into the University of California students are required to take at least 2 years of courses that offer a fundamental knowledge in at least two of these three foundational subjects: biology, chemistry, and physics. Earth Science courses simply don't qualify as laboratory science courses. The UC Admissions will sometimes make an exception for an Earth Science course only if it is shown to contain a large component of biology, chemistry and physics topics. Since students don't get credit for admission for taking Earth Science, High Schools are quick to drop Earth Science courses for their college-bound students. A group of teachers and University professors have been working to reverse this policy by creating a rigorous capstone Earth Science course that clearly merits laboratory status. Getting this course accepted by the University of California is well on its way, but getting the course into the High Schools will take a lot of work and probably some extra funding.

  1. Earth System Science Education Interdisciplinary Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

    2002-05-01

    Earth system science in the classroom is the fertile crucible linking science with societal needs for local, national and global sustainability. The interdisciplinary dimension requires fruitful cooperation among departments, schools and colleges within universities and among the universities and the nation's laboratories and agencies. Teaching and learning requires content which brings together the basic and applied sciences with mathematics and technology in addressing societal challenges of the coming decades. Over the past decade remarkable advances have emerged in information technology, from high bandwidth Internet connectivity to raw computing and visualization power. These advances which have wrought revolutionary capabilities and resources are transforming teaching and learning in the classroom. With the launching of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) the amount and type of geophysical data to monitor the Earth and its climate are increasing dramatically. The challenge remains, however, for skilled scientists and educators to interpret this information based upon sound scientific perspectives and utilize it in the classroom. With an increasing emphasis on the application of data gathered, and the use of the new technologies for practical benefit in the lives of ordinary citizens, there comes the even more basic need for understanding the fundamental state, dynamics, and complex interdependencies of the Earth system in mapping valid and relevant paths to sustainability. Technology and data in combination with the need to understand Earth system processes and phenomena offer opportunities for new and productive partnerships between researchers and educators to advance the fundamental science of the Earth system and in turn through discovery excite students at all levels in the classroom. This presentation will discuss interdisciplinary partnership opportunities for educators and researchers at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  2. Supporting Inquiry-based Earth System Science Instruction with Middle and High School Earth Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, L.; Varner, R.; Froburg, E.; Smith, M.; Graham, K.; Hale, S.; Laura, G.; Brown, D.; Bryce, J.; Darwish, A.; Furman, T.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; von Damm, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) project, a partnership between faculty at the University of New Hampshire, Pennsylvania State University, Elizabeth City State University and Dillard University, is designed to enrich the professional development of in-service and pre-service Earth science teachers. One goal of this effort is to help teachers use an inquiry-based approach to teaching Earth system science in their classrooms. As a part of the TESSE project, 42 pre-service and in-service teachers participated in an intensive two-week summer institute at UNH taught by Earth scientists and science educators from TESSE partnership institutions. The institute included instruction about a range of Earth science system topics as well as an introduction to teaching Earth science using an inquiry-based approach. In addition to providing teachers with information about inquiry-based science teaching in the form of sample lesson plans and opportunities to revise traditional lessons and laboratory exercises to make them more inquiry-based, TESSE instructors modeled an inquiry- based approach in their own teaching as much as possible. By the end of the Institute participants had developed lesson plans, units, or year-long course overviews in which they were expected to explain the ways in which they would include an inquiry-based approach in their Earth science teaching over the course of the school year. As a part of the project, graduate fellows (graduate students in the earth sciences) will work with classroom teachers during the academic year to support their implementation of these plans as well as to assist them in developing a more comprehensive inquiry-based approach in the classroom.

  3. Mimicking the surface and prebiotic chemistry of early Earth using flow chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ritson, Dougal J; Battilocchio, Claudio; Ley, Steven V; Sutherland, John D

    2018-05-08

    When considering life's aetiology, the first questions that must be addressed are "how?" and "where?" were ostensibly complex molecules, considered necessary for life's beginning, constructed from simpler, more abundant feedstock molecules on primitive Earth. Previously, we have used multiple clues from the prebiotic synthetic requirements of (proto)biomolecules to pinpoint a set of closely related geochemical scenarios that are suggestive of flow and semi-batch chemistries. We now wish to report a multistep, uninterrupted synthesis of a key heterocycle (2-aminooxazole) en route to activated nucleotides starting from highly plausible, prebiotic feedstock molecules under conditions which mimic this scenario. Further consideration of the scenario has uncovered additional pertinent and novel aspects of prebiotic chemistry, which greatly enhance the efficiency and plausibility of the synthesis.

  4. Technology thrusts for future Earth science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2001-02-01

    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  5. Technology Thrust for Future Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Traditionally, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, weight and volume. These missions have taken much longer implementation due to technology development time and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large-size spacecraft. NASA is also facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific goals have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall life cycle by infusing technologies that are being developed independently of any planned mission's implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, and allow for more frequent missions or earth science measurements to occur. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  6. Technology Thrusts for Future Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  7. Earth Science Education in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barifaijo, E.

    1999-05-01

    Uganda has two Government funded universities, five operating private universities and four other universities are due to start soon. Geology was first taught in Uganda at Makerere University in 1968 within the Department of Geography. Through the leadership of Prof. Robert Macdonald it became established as a full department in August 1969 as part of the Faculty of Science. Both pure and applied geology are taught and the courses are designed to suit the current job market. At present, the three-term academic year is being replaced by a semester-based course unit system. At the same time, the 3:2:2 subject combination, requiring a student to do three subjects in first year and two subjects in both second and third years, is to be replaced by a major-minor subject combination. Currently, there are about 50 undergraduate students and four Ph.D. students in the Department. A student Geological Association acts as a forum for the exchange of information on matters of geological concern. An affirmative action policy has improved the intake of women students into the Department. On average, the number of women has increased from about 10% to 33.3% in the years 1984/85 to 1997/98. Their performance parallels that of the male students and they are readily employed. Of the eight members of academic staff, two are women. The Department of Geology has good links with regional and overseas universities through which a number of research programmes are currently supported. In addition, most of the training of manpower for the University and research programmes is supported by regional and international research agencies. Academic staff combine teaching with research and consultancy.

  8. The Concept Currency of K-12 Science Textbooks Relative to Earth Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janke, Delmar Lester

    This study was undertaken to determine the degree of agreement between science textbooks and scholars in earth science relative to earth science concepts to be included in the K-12 science curriculum. The study consisted of two phases: (1) the identification of a sample of earth science concepts rated by earth scientists as important for inclusion…

  9. JPL Earth Science Center Visualization Multitouch Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.; Chang, G.

    2014-12-01

    JPL Earth Science Center Visualization table is a specialized software and hardware to allow multitouch, multiuser, and remote display control to create seamlessly integrated experiences to visualize JPL missions and their remote sensing data. The software is fully GIS capable through time aware OGC WMTS using Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal as the GIS backend to continuously ingest and retrieve realtime remote sending data and satellite location data. 55 inch and 82 inch unlimited finger count multitouch displays allows multiple users to explore JPL Earth missions and visualize remote sensing data through very intuitive and interactive touch graphical user interface. To improve the integrated experience, Earth Science Center Visualization Table team developed network streaming which allows table software to stream data visualization to near by remote display though computer network. The purpose of this visualization/presentation tool is not only to support earth science operation, but specifically designed for education and public outreach and will significantly contribute to STEM. Our presentation will include overview of our software, hardware, and showcase of our system.

  10. Exploiting Untapped Information Resources in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities

  11. An experience of science theatre: Earth Science for children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana; D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    The present paper describes an experience of science theatre addressed to children of primary and secondary school, with the main purpose of explaining the Earth interior while raising awareness about natural hazard. We conducted the experience with the help of a theatrical company specialized in shows for children. Several performances have been reiterated in different context, giving us the opportunity of conducting a preliminary survey with public of different ages, even if the show was conceived for children. Results suggest that science theatre while relying on creativity and emotional learning in transmitting knowledge about the Earth and its hazard has the potential to induce in children a positive attitude towards the risks

  12. Educating the Public about Deep-Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, V. S.

    2010-12-01

    The nature of Earth’s interior is an active frontier of scientific research. Much of our current understanding of sub-crustal Earth is based on knowledge acquired in the last 2-3 decades, made possible by public funding and by dense seismic arrays, satellite remote sensing, increases in computer power that enable use of enhanced numerical techniques, improved theoretical and experimental knowledge of high PT mineral physics and chemistry, and a vigorous scientific community that has been trained to take advantage of these opportunities. An essential component of science is effective communication; therefore, providing for public education about science is a responsibility of the research community. Current public understanding of Earth’s interior is meager at best. In pre-college texts and in non-technical mass media, Earth's interior is typically visualized as an onion or baseball of concentric different-colored shells along whose upper surface "crustal" plates move like packages on conveyor belts of convecting mantle. Or the crust is thought to float on a molten mantle, as in the 19th century ideas of William Lowthian Green. Misconceptions about Earth that are brought to the undergraduate classroom must be confronted frankly and replaced by current understanding based on good science. Persistent ignorance has consequences. What do we want the public to know? First, the public should understand that knowledge of Earth's interior is important, not irrelevant. The public should know that deep-Earth processes result in Earth's dynamic magnetic field. Deep-Earth processes affect how radiation from the Sun reaches Earth, consequently affecting the atmosphere, the oceans, and the viability of life on Earth. The composition and differentiated structure of Earth's interior is a result of the early accretionary history of Earth and the Earth-Moon system. The public should also know that lithospheric tectonics, with all of its consequences (dynamic topography, volcanoes

  13. Earth From Space: "Beautiful Earth's" Integration of Media Arts, Earth Science, and Native Wisdom in Informal Learning Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasanto, V.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Rock, J.; Markus, T.

    2015-12-01

    "Beautiful Earth: Experiencing and Learning Science in an Engaging Way" was a 3-year project funded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science. An outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA performance, Beautiful Earth fostered a new approach to teaching by combining live music, data visualizations and Earth science with indigenous perspectives, and hands-on workshops for K-12 students at 5 science centers. Inspired by the "Overview Effect," described by many astronauts who were awestruck by seeing the Earth from space and their realization of the profound interconnectedness of Earth's life systems, Beautiful Earth leveraged the power of multimedia performance to serve as a springboard to engage K-12 students in hands-on Earth science and Native wisdom workshops. Results will be presented regarding student perceptions of Earth science, environmental issues, and indigenous ways of knowing from 3 years of evaluation data.

  14. Scientific Visualization & Modeling for Earth Systems Science Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj; Rodriguez, Waldo J.

    2003-01-01

    Providing research experiences for undergraduate students in Earth Systems Science (ESS) poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. This paper describes the development of an innovative model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research. In studying global climate change, experts typically use scientific visualization techniques applied to remote sensing data collected by satellites. In particular, many problems related to environmental phenomena can be quantitatively addressed by investigations based on datasets related to the scientific endeavours such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Working with data products stored at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers, visualization software specifically designed for students and an advanced, immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment, students engage in guided research projects during a structured 6-week summer program. Over the 5-year span, this program has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through science student partnerships with school-teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment).

  15. Russian Earth Science Research Program on ISS

    SciTech Connect

    Armand, N. A.; Tishchenko, Yu. G.

    1999-01-22

    Version of the Russian Earth Science Research Program on the Russian segment of ISS is proposed. The favorite tasks are selected, which may be solved with the use of space remote sensing methods and tools and which are worthwhile for realization. For solving these tasks the specialized device sets (submodules), corresponding to the specific of solved tasks, are working out. They would be specialized modules, transported to the ISS. Earth remote sensing research and ecological monitoring (high rates and large bodies transmitted from spaceborne information, comparatively stringent requirements to the period of its processing, etc.) cause rather high requirements tomore » the ground segment of receiving, processing, storing, and distribution of space information in the interests of the Earth natural resources investigation. Creation of the ground segment has required the development of the interdepartmental data receiving and processing center. Main directions of works within the framework of the ISS program are determined.« less

  16. Advanced platform technologies for Earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmerman, Loren; Raymond, Carol; Shotwell, Robert; Chase, James; Bhasin, Kul; Connerton, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Historically, Earth science investigations have been independent and highly focused. However, the Earth's environment is a very dynamic and interrelated system and to understand it, significant improvements in spatial and temporal observations will be required. Science needs to document the need for constellations to achieve desired spatial and temporal observations. A key element envisioned for accomplishing these difficult challenges is the idea of a distributed, heterogeneous, and adaptive observing system or sensor web. This paper focuses on one possible approach based on a LEO constellation composed of 100 spacecraft. A cost analysis has been done to indicate the financial pressures of each mission phase and conclusions are drawn suggesting that new technology investments are needed, directed toward lowering production costs; that operations costs will need to be reduced through autonomy; and that, of the on-board subsystems considered, advanced power generation and management may be the most enabling of new technologies.

  17. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  18. Enabling Earth Science Through Cloud Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Riofrio, Andres; Shams, Khawaja; Freeborn, Dana; Springer, Paul; Chafin, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing holds tremendous potential for missions across the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Several flight missions are already benefiting from an investment in cloud computing for mission critical pipelines and services through faster processing time, higher availability, and drastically lower costs available on cloud systems. However, these processes do not currently extend to general scientific algorithms relevant to earth science missions. The members of the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment task at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have worked closely with the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to integrate cloud computing into their science data processing pipeline. This paper details the efforts involved in deploying a science data system for the CARVE mission, evaluating and integrating cloud computing solutions with the system and porting their science algorithms for execution in a cloud environment.

  19. Provenance Challenges for Earth Science Dataset Publication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2011-01-01

    Modern science is increasingly dependent on computational analysis of very large data sets. Organizing, referencing, publishing those data has become a complex problem. Published research that depends on such data often fails to cite the data in sufficient detail to allow an independent scientist to reproduce the original experiments and analyses. This paper explores some of the challenges related to data identification, equivalence and reproducibility in the domain of data intensive scientific processing. It will use the example of Earth Science satellite data, but the challenges also apply to other domains.

  20. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.; Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Bugbee, K.; Christopher, S. A.; Miller, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates indicate that the world's information will grow by 800% in the next five years. In any given field, a single researcher or a team of researchers cannot keep up with this rate of knowledge expansion without the help of cognitive systems. Cognitive computing, defined as the use of information technology to augment human cognition, can help tackle large systemic problems. Knowledge graphs, one of the foundational components of cognitive systems, link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. Researchers could mine these graphs to make probabilistic recommendations and to infer new knowledge. At this point, however, there is a dearth of tools to generate scalable Knowledge graphs using existing corpus of scientific literature for Earth science research. Our project is currently developing an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge graphs for Earth Science. Semantic Entity Recognition (SER) is one of the key steps in this methodology. SER for Earth Science uses external resources (including metadata catalogs and controlled vocabulary) as references to guide entity extraction and recognition (i.e., labeling) from unstructured text, in order to build a large training set to seed the subsequent auto-learning component in our algorithm. Results from several SER experiments will be presented as well as lessons learned.

  1. Particle packing from an earth science viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. D. F.; Dijkstra, T. A.; Smalley, I. J.

    1994-04-01

    Particle packings are relevant to many aspects of the Earth sciences, and there is a long history of the study of packings from an Earth science viewpoint. Packings have also been studied in connection with other subjects and disciplines. Allen (1982) produced a major review which provides a solid base for Earth science related studies. This review complements Allen's work and in particular focuses on advances in the study of random packings over the last ten years. Transitions from packing to packing may be as important as the packings themselves, and possibly easier to model. This paper places emphasis on certain neglected works, in particular Morrow and Graves (1969) and the packing transition envelope, Kahn (1956) and the measurement of packing parameters, Griffiths (1962) on packings in one-dimension, and Getis and Boots (1978) on packings in two dimensions. Certain packing problems are relevant to current areas of study including structure collapse in loess (hydroconsolidation), flowslides in very sensitive soils, wind erosion, jewel quality in opals and the structure and functions of sand dunes. The region where interparticle forces become active (particles < 200 μm) is considered and the implications for packing are examined.

  2. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1990

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division`s research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth`s crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriatemore » chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989 a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will in the coming years be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.« less

  3. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  4. The "Earth Physics" Workshops Offered by the Earth Science Education Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Earth science has a part to play in broadening students' learning experience in physics. The Earth Science Education Unit presents a range of (free) workshops to teachers and trainee teachers, suggesting how Earth-based science activities, which show how we understand and use the planet we live on, can easily be slotted into normal science…

  5. The Denali Earth Science Education Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. A.; Stachnik, J. C.; Roush, J. J.; Siemann, K.; Nixon, I.

    2004-12-01

    In partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve and the Denali Institute, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) will capitalize upon an extraordinary opportunity to raise public interest in the earth sciences. A coincidence of events has made this an ideal time for outreach to raise awareness of the solid earth processes that affect all of our lives. On November 3, 2002, a M 7.9 earthquake occurred on the Denali Fault in central Alaska, raising public consciousness of seismic activity in this state to a level unmatched since the M 9.2 "Good Friday" earthquake of 1964. Shortly after the M 7.9 event, a new public facility for scientific research and education in Alaska's national parks, the Murie Science and Learning Center, was constructed at the entrance to Denali National Park and Preserve only 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault Earthquake. The AEIC and its partners believe that these events can be combined to form a synergy for the creation of unprecedented opportunities for learning about solid earth geophysics among all segments of the public. This cooperative project will undertake the planning and development of education outreach mechanisms and products for the Murie Science and Learning Center that will serve to educate Alaska's residents and visitors about seismology, tectonics, crustal deformation, and volcanism. Through partnerships with Denali National Park and Preserve, this cooperative project will include the Denali Institute (a non-profit organization that assists the National Park Service in operating the Murie Science and Learning Center) and Alaska's Denali Borough Public School District. The AEIC will also draw upon the resources of long standing state partners; the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys and the Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services. The objectives of this project are to increase public awareness and understanding of the solid earth processes that affect life in

  6. Teacher's Guide to SERAPHIM Software V. Chemistry: The Central Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna J.

    Designed to assist chemistry teachers in selecting appropriate software programs, this publication is the fifth in a series of six teacher's guides from Project SERAPHIM, a program sponsored by the National Science Foundation. This guide is keyed to the chapters of the text "Chemistry: The Central Science." Program suggestions are…

  7. Instrumentation to Improve Chemistry and Environmental Science Laboratory Curricula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    Introduction of modem chemical instrumentation in the chemistry, biology, and environmental science curricula provides a valuable experience for students and...stimulation for the faculty. The major concern now facing the chemistry, biology, and environmental science faculty at PCUPR is the inability to

  8. Chemistry. Student Investigations and Readings. Investigations in Natural Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John W.; And Others

    Investigations in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 19 chemistry investigations. These investigations focus on concepts related to: interactions with water; salt and calcium;…

  9. Software Reuse Within the Earth Science Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, James J.; Olding, Steve; Wolfe, Robert E.; Delnore, Victor E.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific missions in the Earth sciences frequently require cost-effective, highly reliable, and easy-to-use software, which can be a challenge for software developers to provide. The NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) spends a significant amount of resources developing software components and other software development artifacts that may also be of value if reused in other projects requiring similar functionality. In general, software reuse is often defined as utilizing existing software artifacts. Software reuse can improve productivity and quality while decreasing the cost of software development, as documented by case studies in the literature. Since large software systems are often the results of the integration of many smaller and sometimes reusable components, ensuring reusability of such software components becomes a necessity. Indeed, designing software components with reusability as a requirement can increase the software reuse potential within a community such as the NASA ESE community. The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group is chartered to oversee the development of a process that will maximize the reuse potential of existing software components while recommending strategies for maximizing the reusability potential of yet-to-be-designed components. As part of this work, two surveys of the Earth science community were conducted. The first was performed in 2004 and distributed among government employees and contractors. A follow-up survey was performed in 2005 and distributed among a wider community, to include members of industry and academia. The surveys were designed to collect information on subjects such as the current software reuse practices of Earth science software developers, why they choose to reuse software, and what perceived barriers prevent them from reusing software. In this paper, we compare the results of these surveys, summarize the observed trends, and discuss the findings. The results are very

  10. The Earth Science for Tomorrows Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    The Earth sciences comprises many fascinating topics that is teached to different age level pupils/students in order to bring hard core science closer to their daily life. With developing possibilities in IT, multimedia overall electronic sector the teachers/lecturers have continuous possibilities to accomplish novel approaches and utilize new ideas to make science more interesting for students in all ages. Emerging, from personal experiences, the teaching of our surrounding Environment can be very enjoyable. In our everyday life the SOIL remains invisible. The soil is covered by plant cover which makes the topic somewhat in distant that is not "visible" to an eye and its importance is underestimated. In other hand, the SOIL is valuable primary resource for food production and basis of life for healthy environment. From several studies have found that because its complications, SOIL related topics are not very often chosen topic for course or diploma works by students. The lower-school students are very open to environmental topics accordingly to the grades. Here, the good results can be obtained through complimentary materials creation, like story telling and drawing books and puzzles. The middle/ and upper/school students will experience "real science" being able to learn what the science is about which often can play a important role on making choices for future curriculum completion at university level. Current presentation shares the ideas of selected methods that had showed successful results on different Earth Science topics teaching (biodiversity, growing substrates, green house gas emissions). For some ideas the presentation introduces also the further developmental possibilities to be used in teaching at Tomorrows Classroom.

  11. Earth Science Research as IPY Priority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyakov, V.; Leonov, Y.; Coakley, B.; Grikurov, G.; Johnson, L.; Kaminsky, V.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Leitchenkov, G.; Pavlenko, V.

    2004-05-01

    The preparations for IPY 2007/2008 are evolving from conceptual to implementation planning. Many earth scientists are concerned that the emerging plans for IPY are too narrowly focused on environmental processes and therefore appear discriminatory with respect to other fundamental sciences. National/international efforts such as USGCRP (U.S. Global Change Research program) and IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) are also involved in the multitude of climate change issues, and just how the proposed IPY program could augment and complement these ongoing activities without reproducing them requires careful analysis and coordination. In particular, the polar research is unthinkable without study of the geological history of the Arctic and the Southern Oceans as a clue to tectonic evolution of the entire planet and test of the current geodynamic paradigm. In addition to these fundamental objectives, the circum-polar continental margins of the Arctic and Antarctica are likely to become the scenes of geopolitical intrigue provoked by implementation of the provisions of the Law of the Sea that require acquisition of specific earth science knowledge at internationally recognized levels of credibility. Interdisciplinary international programs (e. g. JEODI), based on geophysical data acquisition and analysis that would lead, where appropriate, to scientific drilling, had independently been proposed for studying the coupled tectonic and oceanographic history of the polar regions. Admitting the importance of identifying fundamental constraints for paleooceanography and climatic history of the high latitudes, and acknowledging the progress achieved so far in promoting IPY activities, the international earth science community has suggested developing the proposed approach into a major IPY endeavor - to examine the Polar Ocean Gateway Evolution (POGE). Such study would enable linking the geological history of the Polar Regions during the last 100 Ma and related

  12. Charting a Course to Earth System Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, J. L.; Koch, L.; Ridky, R.; Wei, M.; Ladue, N.

    2008-12-01

    Public literacy of fundamental ideas in Earth System Science (ESS) is immensely important, both because of its relevance to the daily lives of individual citizens and the role played by informed policy decisions related to water, energy, climate change, and hazards in securing our Nation's well-being and prosperity. The National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) argued that topics which comprise ESS also have tremendous value in providing context and meaning for the teaching of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics concepts and their applications, thereby serving the goals of the America COMPETES Act. Yet, as documented in the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, the U.S. continues to lag significantly behind other developed nations in science literacy. A major obstacle to improving public ESS literacy, specifically, and strengthening science literacy, in general, is the fact that fewer than 30% of students in U.S. high schools take any courses related to ESS. Often, these courses are taught by teachers with limited preparation in this content area. A new grass-roots movement within the geoscience research and education communities, fueled by interagency collaboration, is seeking to overcome these obstacles and steer a new course for ESS education in the Nation. The Earth System Science Literacy Initiative (ESSLI) builds on recent efforts within portions of the geosciences community to reach consensus on what defines scientific literacy within their fields. Individual literacy frameworks now exist for the ocean, atmospheric science, Earth science, and climate topic areas, and others are under development. The essential principles and fundamental concepts articulated in these frameworks provide consistent core messages that can be delivered and reinforced not only through formal education channels, but also through informal education activities and the media, thereby avoiding the inherent obstacles of the formal education setting

  13. Integrated Instrument Simulator Suites for Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, Johnathan; Butler, Carolyn; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Johnson, Michael P.; Jacob, Joseph C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System Simulators Suite (NEOS3) is a modular framework of forward simulations tools for remote sensing of Earth's Atmosphere from space. It was initiated as the Instrument Simulator Suite for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (ISSARS) under the NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) to enable science users to perform simulations based on advanced atmospheric and simple land surface models, and to rapidly integrate in a broad framework any experimental or innovative tools that they may have developed in this context. The name was changed to NEOS3 when the project was expanded to include more advanced modeling tools for the surface contributions, accounting for scattering and emission properties of layered surface (e.g., soil moisture, vegetation, snow and ice, subsurface layers). NEOS3 relies on a web-based graphic user interface, and a three-stage processing strategy to generate simulated measurements. The user has full control over a wide range of customizations both in terms of a priori assumptions and in terms of specific solvers or models used to calculate the measured signals.This presentation will demonstrate the general architecture, the configuration procedures and illustrate some sample products and the fundamental interface requirements for modules candidate for integration.

  14. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Donald; DePaolo, Donald

    2008-07-21

    Research in earth and atmospheric sciences has become increasingly important in light of the energy, climate change, and other environmental issues facing the United States and the world. The development of new energy resources other than fossil hydrocarbons, the safe disposal of nuclear waste and greenhouse gases, and a detailed understanding of the climatic consequences of our energy choices are all critical to meeting energy needs while ensuring environmental safety. The cleanup of underground contamination and the preservation and management of water supplies continue to provide challenges, as they will for generations into the future. To address the critical energymore » and environmental issues requires continuing advances in our knowledge of Earth systems and our ability to translate that knowledge into new technologies. The fundamental Earth science research common to energy and environmental issues largely involves the physics, chemistry, and biology of fluids in and on the Earth. To manage Earth fluids requires the ability to understand their properties and behavior at the most fundamental molecular level, as well as prediction, characterization, imaging, and manipulation of those fluids and their behavior in real Earth reservoirs. The broad range of disciplinary expertise, the huge range of spatial and time scales, and the need to integrate theoretical, computational, laboratory and field research, represent both the challenge and the excitement of Earth science research. The Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is committed to addressing the key scientific and technical challenges that are needed to secure our energy future in an environmentally responsibly way. Our staff of over 200 scientists, UC Berkeley faculty, support staff and guests perform world-acclaimed fundamental research in hydrogeology and reservoir engineering, geophysics and geomechanics, geochemistry, microbial

  15. In Brief: Revitalizing Earth science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    A 5-year, $3.9-million U.S. National Science Foundation Math Science Partnership grant to Michigan Technological University (MTU), in Houghton, aims to improve instruction in middle-school Earth and space science courses. The program will enable geoscience and education researchers to work with middle-school science teachers to test strategies designed to reform science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education. Project lead researcher Bill Rose said the project could be a template for improvement in STEM throughout the United States. Rose, one of seven MTU faculty members involved with the Michigan Institute for Teaching Excellence Program (MITEP), said the project is ``trying to do something constructive to attract more talented young people to advanced science, math, and technology.'' The project includes data collection and analysis overseen by an evaluation team from the Colorado School of Mines. Also participating in the project are scientists from Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Mich.; the Grand Rapids (Mich.) Area Pre-College Engineering Program; the American Geological Institute; and the U.S. National Park Service.

  16. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems - Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing demand for Earth Science data, NASA has significantly improved the Earth Science Data Systems over the last two decades. This improvement is reviewed in this slide presentation. Many Earth Science disciplines have been able to access the data that is held in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) at the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that forms the core of the data system.

  17. Mt. Kilimanjaro expedition in earth science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline

    2010-05-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website (http://www.xpeditiononline.com/) where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members

  18. 76 FR 21073 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-040)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...

  19. 75 FR 65673 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-141)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...

  20. 77 FR 27253 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-033)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...

  1. 77 FR 58412 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-075] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...

  2. 78 FR 52216 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: 13- 099] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...

  3. 78 FR 18373 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-031] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...

  4. 76 FR 49508 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 11-073] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...

  5. 75 FR 41899 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-082)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...

  6. 77 FR 12086 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-018] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...

  7. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  8. The National Science Foundation and the philosophy of chemistry.

    PubMed

    Seely, Bruce E

    2003-05-01

    Since its founding in 1950, the National Science Foundation has provided support for a variety of studies in history, philosophy, and social studies of science. The fact that a relatively small number of projects dealing with the philosophy of chemistry have received NSF support is due to the small number of such proposals that have been submitted. The NSF Science and Technology Studies Program (STS) welcomes proposals dealing with philosophy of chemistry.

  9. European grid services for global earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, S.; Sipos, G.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the distributed computing services that the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) offers to the Earth Sciences community and also explain the processes whereby Earth Science users can engage with the infrastructure. One of the main overarching goals for EGI over the coming year is to diversify its user-base. EGI therefore - through the National Grid Initiatives (NGIs) that provide the bulk of resources that make up the infrastructure - offers a number of routes whereby users, either individually or as communities, can make use of its services. At one level there are two approaches to working with EGI: either users can make use of existing resources and contribute to their evolution and configuration; or alternatively they can work with EGI, and hence the NGIs, to incorporate their own resources into the infrastructure to take advantage of EGI's monitoring, networking and managing services. Adopting this approach does not imply a loss of ownership of the resources. Both of these approaches are entirely applicable to the Earth Sciences community. The former because researchers within this field have been involved with EGI (and previously EGEE) as a Heavy User Community and the latter because they have very specific needs, such as incorporating HPC services into their workflows, and these will require multi-skilled interventions to fully provide such services. In addition to the technical support services that EGI has been offering for the last year or so - the applications database, the training marketplace and the Virtual Organisation services - there now exists a dynamic short-term project framework that can be utilised to establish and operate services for Earth Science users. During this talk we will present a summary of various on-going projects that will be of interest to Earth Science users with the intention that suggestions for future projects will emerge from the subsequent discussions: • The Federated Cloud Task

  10. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    Our Moon Every person on Earth is familiar with the Moon. Every resident with nominal eyesight on each continent has seen this near-by planetary body with their own eyes countless times. Those fortunate enough to have binoculars or access to a telescope have explored the craters, valleys, domes, and plains across the lunar surface as changing lighting conditions highlight the mysteries of this marvellously foreign landscape. Schoolchildren learn that the daily rhythm and flow of tides along the coastlines of our oceans are due to the interaction of the Earth and the Moon. This continuous direct and personal link is but one of the many reasons lunar science is fundamental to humanity. The Earth-Moon System In the context of space exploration, our understanding of the Earth-Moon system has grown enormously. The Moon has become the cornerstone for most aspects of planetary science that relate to the terrestrial (rocky) planets. The scientific context for exploration of the Moon is presented in a recent report by a subcommittee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council [free from the website: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11954]. Figure 1 captures the interwoven themes surrounding lunar science recognized and discussed in that report. In particular, it is now recognized that the Earth and the Moon have been intimately linked in their early history. Although they subsequently took very different evolutionary paths, the Moon provides a unique and valuable window both into processes that occurred during the first 600 Million years of solar system evolution (planetary differentiation and the heavy bombardment record) as well as the (ultimately dangerous) impact record of more recent times. This additional role of the Moon as keystone is because the Earth and the Moon share the same environment at 1 AU, but only the Moon retains a continuous record of cosmic events. An Initial Bloom of Exploration and Drought The space age celebrated its 50th

  11. Earth Science Curriculum Enrichment Through Matlab!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmun, H.; Buonaiuto, F. S.

    2016-12-01

    The use of Matlab in Earth Science undergraduate courses in the Department of Geography at Hunter College began as a pilot project in Fall 2008 and has evolved and advanced to being a significant component of an Advanced Oceanography course, the selected tool for data analysis in other courses and the main focus of a graduate course for doctoral students at The city University of New York (CUNY) working on research related to geophysical, oceanic and atmospheric dynamics. The primary objectives of these efforts were to enhance the Earth Science curriculum through course specific applications, to increase undergraduate programming and data analysis skills, and to develop a Matlab users network within the Department and the broader Hunter College and CUNY community. Students have had the opportunity to learn Matlab as a stand-alone course, within an independent study group, or as a laboratory component within related STEM classes. All of these instructional efforts incorporated the use of prepackaged Matlab exercises and a research project. Initial exercises were designed to cover basic scripting and data visualization techniques. Students were provided data and a skeleton script to modify and improve upon based on the laboratory instructions. As student's programming skills increased throughout the semester more advanced scripting, data mining and data analysis were assigned. In order to illustrate the range of applications within the Earth Sciences, laboratory exercises were constructed around topics selected from the disciplines of Geology, Physics, Oceanography, Meteorology and Climatology. In addition the structure of the research component of the courses included both individual and team projects.

  12. Earth system science: A program for global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed to consider directions for the NASA Earth-sciences program, with the following charge: review the science of the Earth as a system of interacting components; recommend an implementation strategy for Earth studies; and define the role of NASA in such a program. The challenge to the Earth system science is to develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, both naturally and in response to human activity. Sustained, long-term measurements of global variables; fundamental descriptions of the Earth and its history; research foci and process studies; development of Earth system models; an information system for Earth system science; coordination of Federal agencies; and international cooperation are examined.

  13. Discovering Communicable Models from Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes how we used regression rules to improve upon results previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  14. The effects of atmospheric chemistry on radiation budget in the Community Earth Systems Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Czader, B.; Diao, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Jeong, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Earth Systems Model (CESM)-Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) simulations were performed to study the impact of atmospheric chemistry on the radiation budget over the surface within a weather prediction time scale. The secondary goal is to get a simplified and optimized chemistry module for the short time period. Three different chemistry modules were utilized to represent tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, which differ in how their reactions and species are represented: (1) simplified tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (approximately 30 species), (2) simplified tropospheric chemistry and comprehensive stratospheric chemistry from the Model of Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 3 (MOZART-3, approximately 60 species), and (3) comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (MOZART-4, approximately 120 species). Our results indicate the different details in chemistry treatment from these model components affect the surface temperature and impact the radiation budget.

  15. Earth System Science at NASA: Teleconnections Between Sea Surface Temperature and Epidemics in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    2000-01-01

    The research carried out in the Earth Sciences in NASA and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will be the focus of the presentations. In addition, one research project that links sea surface temperature to epidemics in Africa will be highlighted. At GSFC research interests span the full breath of disciplines in Earth Science. Branches and research groups focus on areas as diverse as planetary geomagnetics and atmospheric chemistry. These organizations focus on atmospheric sciences (atmospheric chemistry, climate and radiation, regional processes, atmospheric modeling), hydrological sciences (snow, ice, oceans, and seasonal-to-interannual prediction), terrestrial physics (geology, terrestrial biology, land-atmosphere interactions, geophysics), climate modeling (global warming, greenhouse gases, climate change), on sensor development especially using lidar and microwave technologies, and on information technologies, that enable support of scientific and technical research.

  16. Polyoxometalates: from inorganic chemistry to materials science.

    PubMed

    Casañ-Pastor, Nieves; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2004-05-01

    Polyoxometalates have been traditionally the subject of study of molecular inorganic chemistry. Yet, these polynuclear molecules, reminiscent of oxide clusters, present a wide range of structures and with them ideal frameworks for the deployment of a plethora of useful magnetic, electroionic, catalytic, bioactive and photochemical properties. With this in mind, a new trend towards the application of these remarkable species in materials science is beginning to develop. In this review we analyze this trend and discuss two main lines of thought for the application of polyoxometalates as materials. On the one hand, there is their use as clusters with inherently useful properties on themselves, a line which has produced fundamental studies of their magnetic, electronic or photoelectrochemical properties and has shown these clusters as models for quantum-sized oxides. On the other hand, the encapsulation or integration of polyoxometalates into organic, polymeric or inorganic matrices or substrates opens a whole new field within the area of hybrid materials for harnessing the multifunctional properties of these versatile species in a wide variety of applications, ranging from catalysis to energy storage to biomedicine.

  17. Atomic scale study of vacancies in Earth's inner core: effect of pressure and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritterbex, S.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic observations of the Earth's inner core [1] remain ambiguously related to mineral physics studies of the inner core stable crystalline iron phase [2,3,4,5]. This makes it difficult to clarify the role of plastic deformation as one of the primary candidates responsible for the observed seismic anisotropy of Earth's inner core. Nonetheless, atomic self-diffusion mechanisms provide a direct link between plastic deformation and the mechanical properties of Earth's inner core stable iron phase(s). Using first-principles density functional based calculation techniques, we have studied the conjugate effect of pressure and chemistry on vacancy diffusion in HCP-, BCC- and FCC-iron by taking into account potential light alloying elements as hydrogen, silicon and sulfur. Our results show that inner core pressure highly inhibits the rate of intrinsic self-diffusion by suppressing defect concentration rather than by effecting the mobility of the defects. Moreover, we found light elements to be able to affect metallic bonding which allows for extrinsic diffusion mechanisms in iron under inner core conditions. The latter clearly enables to enhance defect concentration and hence to enhance the rate of plastic deformation. This suggests that inner core chemistry affects the rheological properties (e.g.viscosity) of iron alloys which finally should match with seismic observations. references: [1] Deuss, A., 2014. Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Earth's inner core. An. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 42, 103-126. [2] Anzellini, S., Dewaele, A., Mezouar, M., Loubeyre, P., Morard, G., 2013. Melting of iron at Earth's inner core boundary based on fast X-ray diffraction. Science 340, 464-466. [3] Godwal, B.K., Gonzales-Cataldo, F., Verma, A.K., Stixrude, L., Jeanloz, R., 2015. Stability of iron crystal structures at 0.3-1.5 TPa. [4] Vocadlo, L., 2007. Ab initio calculations of the elasticity of iron and iron alloys at inner core conditions: evidence for a partially molten inner core

  18. Airborne Science Program: Observing Platforms for Earth Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Airborne Science Program and the platforms used for conducting investigations for the Earth System Science. Included is a chart that shows some of the aircraft and the operational altitude and the endurance of the aircraft, views of the Dryden Aircraft Operation Facility, and some of the current aircraft that the facility operates, and the varieties of missions that are flown and the type of instrumentation. Also included is a chart showing the attributes of the various aircraft (i.e., duration, weight for a payload, maximum altitude, airspeed and range) for comparison

  19. Earth Science Informatics Comes of Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jodha, Siri; Khalsa, S.; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    The volume and complexity of Earth science data have steadily increased, placing ever-greater demands on researchers, software developers and data managers tasked with handling such data. Additional demands arise from requirements being levied by funding agencies and governments to better manage, preserve and provide open access to data. Fortunately, over the past 10-15 years significant advances in information technology, such as increased processing power, advanced programming languages, more sophisticated and practical standards, and near-ubiquitous internet access have made the jobs of those acquiring, processing, distributing and archiving data easier. These advances have also led to an increasing number of individuals entering the field of informatics as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also encompasses the use of computers and computational methods to support decisionmaking and other applications for societal benefits.

  20. Earth science big data at users' fingertips: the EarthServer Science Gateway Mobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; Calanducci, Antonio; Fargetta, Marco; Pappalardo, Marco; Rundo, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The EarthServer project (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program, aims at establishing open access and ad-hoc analytics on extreme-size Earth Science data, based on and extending leading-edge Array Database technology. The core idea is to use database query languages as client/server interface to achieve barrier-free "mix & match" access to multi-source, any-size, multi-dimensional space-time data -- in short: "Big Earth Data Analytics" - based on the open standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Coverage Processing Service (OGC WCPS) and the W3C XQuery. EarthServer combines both, thereby achieving a tight data/metadata integration. Further, the rasdaman Array Database System (www.rasdaman.com) is extended with further space-time coverage data types. On server side, highly effective optimizations - such as parallel and distributed query processing - ensure scalability to Exabyte volumes. In this contribution we will report on the EarthServer Science Gateway Mobile, an app for both iOS and Android-based devices that allows users to seamlessly access some of the EarthServer applications using SAML-based federated authentication and fine-grained authorisation mechanisms.

  1. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation we review the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  2. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation I will describe the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data to improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  3. Physical Oceanography: Project Earth Science. Material for Middle School Teachers in Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. Sean

    This book is one in a series of Earth science books and contains a collection of 18 hands-on activities/demonstrations developed for the middle/junior high school level. The activities are organized around three key concepts. First, students investigate the unique properties of water and how these properties shape the ocean and the global…

  4. New Pathways for Teaching Chemistry: Reflective Judgment in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finster, David C.

    1992-01-01

    The reflective judgment model offers a rich context for analysis of science and science teaching. It provides deeper understanding of the scientific process and its critical thinking and reveals fundamental connections between science and the other liberal arts. Classroom techniques from a college chemistry course illustrate the utility of the…

  5. Building Bridges between Science Courses Using Honors Organic Chemistry Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Timothy; Pontrello, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Introductory undergraduate science courses are traditionally offered as distinct units without formalized student interaction between classes. To bridge science courses, the authors used three Honors Organic Chemistry projects paired with other science courses. The honors students delivered presentations to mainstream organic course students and…

  6. Prospective Chemistry and Science Teachers' Views and Metaphors about Chemistry and Chemical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onen Ozturk, Fatma; Aglarci, Oya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the metaphors created by prospective chemistry and science teachers and their views about how the studies in the field of chemistry are carried out in relation to the grade level and department. Research Methods: Case study as a qualitative research design was used. Participants in the study included…

  7. Using the earth system for integrating the science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Victor J.

    Content and process instruction from the earth sciences has gone unrepresented in the world's science curricula, especially at the secondary level. As a result there is a serious deficiency in public understanding of the planet on which we all live. This lack includes national and international leaders in politics, business, and science. The earth system science effort now engaging the research talent of the earth sciences provides a firm foundation from the sciences for inclusion of earth systems content into the evolving integrated science curricula of this country and others. Implementing integrated science curricula, especially at the secondary level where potential leaders often have their only exposure to science, can help to address these problems. The earth system provides a conceptual theme as opposed to a disciplinary theme for organizing such integrated curricula, absent from prior efforts. The end of the cold war era is resulting in a reexamination of science and the influence it has had on our planet and society. In the future, science and the curricula that teach about science must seriously address the environmental and social problems left in the wake of over 100 years of preparation for military and economic war. The earth systems education effort provides one such approach to the modernization of science curricula. Earth science educators should assume leadership in helping to establish such curricula in this country and around the world.

  8. Teaching Chemistry in Primary Science: What Does the Research Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skamp, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The new Australian national science curriculum includes chemistry content at the primary level. Chemistry for young students is learning about changes in material stuff (matter) and, by implication, of what stuff is made. Pedagogy in this area needs to be guided by research if stepping stones to later learning of chemical ideas are to facilitate…

  9. Be a Citizen Scientist!: Celebrate Earth Science Week 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    During Earth Science Week (October 8-14, 2006), millions of citizen scientists worldwide will be sampling groundwater, monitoring weather, touring quarries, exploring caves, preparing competition projects, and visiting museums and science centers to learn about Earth science. The American Geological Institute organizes this annual event to…

  10. Cross-Cutting Interoperability in an Earth Science Collaboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Ramachandran, Rahul; Kuo, Kuo-Sen

    2011-01-01

    An Earth Science Collaboratory is: A rich data analysis environment with: (1) Access to a wide spectrum of Earth Science data, (3) A diverse set of science analysis services and tools, (4) A means to collaborate on data, tools and analysis, and (5)Supports sharing of data, tools, results and knowledge

  11. Understanding MSFC/Earth Science Office Within NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the Marshal's Earth Science Office (ESO) and the relationship of the office to the NASA administration, the National Research Council and NASA's Science Directorate. The presentation also reviews the strategic goals for Earth Science, and briefly reviews the ESO's international partners that NASA is cooperating with.

  12. The 6th International Earth Science Olympiad: A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, Luke; Cathro, Darcy; Mellow, Maddi; Tate, Clara

    2014-01-01

    In October 2012, two students from the Australian Science and Mathematics School and two from Yankalilla Area School were selected to travel to Olavarria, Argentina in order to compete in the 6th International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO). It was an opportunity for individuals with a passion for Earth science to come together from 17 countries to…

  13. New Millenium Program Serving Earth and Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk

    1999-01-01

    A cross-Enterprise program is to identify and validate flight breakthrough technologies that will significantly benefit future space science and earth science missions. The breakthrough technologies are: enable new capabilities to meet earth and space science needs and reducing costs of future missions. The flight validation are: mitigates risks to first users and enables rapid technology infusion into future missions.

  14. Nuclear Chemistry, Science (Experimental): 5316.62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Russell R.

    This nuclear chemistry module includes topics on atomic structure, instability of the nucleus, detection strengths and the uses of radioactive particles. Laboratory work stresses proper use of equipment and safe handling of radioactive materials. Students with a strong mathematics background may consider this course as advanced work in chemistry.…

  15. Earth Science Datacasting v2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Andrew W.; Deen, Robert G.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Stough, Timothy M.; McCleese, Sean W.; Toole, Nicholas T.

    2012-01-01

    The Datacasting software, which consists of a server and a client, has been developed as part of the Earth Science (ES) Datacasting project. The goal of ES Datacasting is to provide scientists the ability to automatically and continuously download Earth science data that meets a precise, predefined need, and then to instantaneously visualize it on a local computer. This is achieved by applying the concept of podcasting to deliver science data over the Internet using RSS (Really Simple Syndication) XML feeds. By extending the RSS specification, scientists can filter a feed and only download the files that are required for a particular application (for example, only files that contain information about a particular event, such as a hurricane or flood). The extension also provides the ability for the client to understand the format of the data and visualize the information locally. The server part enables a data provider to create and serve basic Datacasting (RSS-based) feeds. The user can subscribe to any number of feeds, view the information related to each item contained within a feed (including browse pre-made images), manually download files associated with items, and place these files in a local store. The client-server architecture enables users to: a) Subscribe and interpret multiple Datacasting feeds (same look and feel as a typical mail client), b) Maintain a list of all items within each feed, c) Enable filtering on the lists based on different metadata attributes contained within the feed (list will reference only data files of interest), d) Visualize the reference data and associated metadata, e) Download files referenced within the list, and f) Automatically download files as new items become available.

  16. Factors Affecting Student Success with a Google Earth-Based Earth Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Lisa M.; Almquist, Heather; Estrada, Jen; Crews, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent the implementation of a Google Earth (GE)-based earth science curriculum increased students' understanding of volcanoes, earthquakes, plate tectonics, scientific reasoning abilities, and science identity. Nine science classrooms participated in the study. In eight of the classrooms, pre- and post-assessments…

  17. A crisis in the NASA space and earth sciences programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis, J.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.; Black, David C.; Baker, D. James; Banks, Peter M.; Bretherton, Francis; Brown, Robert A.; Burke, Kevin C.; Burns, Joseph A.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1987-01-01

    Problems in the space and earth science programs are examined. Changes in the research environment and requirements for the space and earth sciences, for example from small Explorer missions to multispacecraft missions, have been observed. The need to expand the computational capabilities for space and earth sciences is discussed. The effects of fluctuations in funding, program delays, the limited number of space flights, and the development of the Space Station on research in the areas of astronomy and astrophysics, planetary exploration, solar and space physics, and earth science are analyzed. The recommendations of the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee on the development and maintenance of effective space and earth sciences programs are described.

  18. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is

  19. Experiential learning for education on Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Laboratorio Divulgazione Scientifica e Attività Museali of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Laboratory for Outreach and Museum Activities) in Rome, organizes every year intense educational and outreach activities to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. Focusing on kids, we designed and implemented the "greedy laboratory for children curious on science (Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza)", to intrigue children from primary schools and to attract their interest by addressing in a fun and unusual way topics regarding the Earth, seismicity and seismic risk. We performed the "greedy laboratory" using experiential teaching, an innovative method envisaging the use and handling commonly used substances. In particular, in the "greedy laboratory" we proposed the use of everyday life's elements, such as food, to engage, entertain and convey in a simple and interesting communication approach notions concerning Earth processes. We proposed the initiative to public during the "European Researchers Night" in Rome, on September 26, 2014. Children attending the "greedy laboratory", guided by researchers and technicians, had the opportunity to become familiar with scientific concepts, such as the composition of the Earth, the Plate tectonics, the earthquake generation, the propagation of seismic waves and their shaking effects on the anthropogenic environment. During the hand-on laboratory, each child used not harmful substances such as honey, chocolate, flour, barley, boiled eggs and biscuits. At the end, we administered a questionnaire rating the proposed activities, first evaluating the level of general satisfaction of the laboratory and then the various activities in which it was divided. This survey supplied our team with feedbacks, revealing some precious hints on appreciation and margins of improvement. We provided a semi-quantitative assessment with a

  20. Earth Science Data for a Mobile Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, D.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Baize, R.; Oots, P.; Rogerson, T.; Crecelius, S.; Coleman, T.

    2012-12-01

    Earth science data access needs to be interoperable and automatic. Recently, increasingly savvy data users combined with more complex web and mobile applications have placed increasing demands on how this Earth science data is being delivered to educators and students. The MY NASA DATA (MND) and S'COOL projects are developing a strategy to interact with the education community in the age of mobile devices and platforms. How can we provide data and meaningful scientific experiences to educational users through mobile technologies? This initiative will seek out existing technologies and stakeholders within the Earth Science community to identify datasets that are relevant and appropriate for mobile application development and use by the educational community. Targeting efforts within the educational community will give the project a better understanding of the previous attempts at data/mobile application use in the classroom and its problems. In addition, we will query developers and data providers on what successes and failures they've experienced in trying to provide data for applications designed on mobile platforms. This feedback will be implemented in new websites, applications and lessons that will provide authentic scientific experiences for students and end users. We want to create tools that help sort through the vast amounts of NASA data, and deliver it to users automatically. NASA provides millions of gigabytes of data that is publicly available through a large number of services spread across the World Wide Web. Accessing and navigating this data can be time consuming and problematic with variety of file types and methods for accessing this data. The MND project, through its' Live Access Server system, provides selected datasets that are relevant and targets National Standards of Learning for educators to easily integrate into existing curricula. In the future, we want to provide desired data to users with automatic updates, anticipate future data queries

  1. PLANETarium - Visualizing Earth Sciences in the Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballmer, M. D.; Wiethoff, T.; Kraupe, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    In the past decade, projection systems in most planetariums, traditional sites of outreach and public education, have advanced from instruments that can visualize the motion of stars as beam spots moving over spherical projection areas to systems that are able to display multicolor, high-resolution, immersive full-dome videos or images. These extraordinary capabilities are ideally suited for visualization of global processes occurring on the surface and within the interior of the Earth, a spherical body just as the full dome. So far, however, our community has largely ignored this wonderful interface for outreach and education. A few documentaries on e.g. climate change or volcanic eruptions have been brought to planetariums, but are taking little advantage of the true potential of the medium, as mostly based on standard two-dimensional videos and cartoon-style animations. Along these lines, we here propose a framework to convey recent scientific results on the origin and evolution of our PLANET to the >100,000,000 per-year worldwide audience of planetariums, making the traditionally astronomy-focussed interface a true PLANETarium. In order to do this most efficiently, we intend to directly show visualizations of scientific datasets or models, originally designed for basic research. Such visualizations in solid-Earth, as well as athmospheric and ocean sciences, are expected to be renderable to the dome with little or no effort. For example, showing global geophysical datasets (e.g., surface temperature, gravity, magnetic field), or horizontal slices of seismic-tomography images and of spherical computer simulations (e.g., climate evolution, mantle flow or ocean currents) requires almost no rendering at all. Three-dimensional Cartesian datasets or models can be rendered using standard methods. With the appropriate audio support, present-day science visualizations are typically as intuitive as cartoon-style animations, yet more appealing visually, and clearly more

  2. Explore the virtual side of earth science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Scientists have always struggled to find an appropriate technology that could represent three-dimensional (3-D) data, facilitate dynamic analysis, and encourage on-the-fly interactivity. In the recent past, scientific visualization has increased the scientist's ability to visualize information, but it has not provided the interactive environment necessary for rapidly changing the model or for viewing the model in ways not predetermined by the visualization specialist. Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML 2.0) is a new environment for visualizing 3-D information spaces and is accessible through the Internet with current browser technologies. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are using VRML as a scientific visualization tool to help convey complex scientific concepts to various audiences. Kevin W. Laurent, computer scientist, and Maura J. Hogan, technical information specialist, have created a collection of VRML models available through the Internet at Virtual Earth Science (virtual.er.usgs.gov).

  3. [Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, James (Technical Monitor); Merkey, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    This grant supported the effort to characterize the problem domain of the Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project, to engage the Beowulf Cluster Computing Community as well as the High Performance Computing Research Community so that we can predict the applicability of said technologies to the scientific community represented by the CT project and formulate long term strategies to provide the computational resources necessary to attain the anticipated scientific objectives of the CT project. Specifically, the goal of the evaluation effort is to use the information gathered over the course of the Round-3 investigations to quantify the trends in scientific expectations, the algorithmic requirements and capabilities of high-performance computers to satisfy this anticipated need.

  4. The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation Contingency Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Warren F.; Richon, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation comprises NASA missions Aqua, Aura, CloudSat and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), the joint NASA/CNES mission CALIPSO and the CNES mission PARASOL. Both NASA and CNES offices are responsible for ensuring that contingency plans or other arrangements exist to cope with contingencies within their respective jurisdictions until the conclusion of all Afternoon Constellation operations. The Mission Operations Working Group, comprised of members from each of the missions, has developed the high-level procedures for maintaining the safety of this constellation. Each contingency situation requires detailed analyses before any decisions are made. This paper describes these procedures, and includes defining what constitutes a contingency situation, the pertinent parameters involved in the contingency analysis and guidelines for the actions required, based on the results of the contingency analyses.

  5. WCS Challenges for NASA's Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, S.; Swentek, L.; Khan, A.

    2017-12-01

    In an effort to ensure that data in NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is available to a wide variety of users through the tools of their choice, NASA continues to focus on exposing data and services using standards based protocols. Specifically, this work has focused recently on the Web Coverage Service (WCS). Experience has been gained in data delivery via GetCoverage requests, starting out with WCS v1.1.1. The pros and cons of both the version itself and different implementation approaches will be shared during this session. Additionally, due to limitations with WCS v1.1.1's ability to work with NASA's Earth science data, this session will also discuss the benefit of migrating to WCS 2.0.1 with EO-x to enrich this capability to meet a wide range of anticipated user needs This will enable subsetting and various types of data transformations to be performed on a variety of EOS data sets.

  6. Earth Science Futuristic Trends and Implementing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2003-01-01

    For the last several years, there is a strong trend among the science community to increase the number of space-based observations to get a much higher temporal and spatial resolution. Such information will eventually be useful in higher resolution models that can provide predictability with higher precision. Such desirability puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of budget, technology readiness and compute power. The health of planet Earth is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business living on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to undertake. So far, each country per their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing or benefiting directly or indirectly from the Earth observation data and scientific products. However, time has come that this is becoming a humongous problem to be undertaken by a single country. Therefore, this paper gives some serious thoughts in what options are there in undertaking this tremendous challenge. The problem is multi-dimensional in terms of budget, technology availability, environmental legislations, public awareness, and communication limitations. Some of these issues are introduced, discussed and possible implementation strategies are provided in this paper to move out of this predicament. A strong emphasis is placed on international cooperation and collaboration to see a collective benefit for this effort.

  7. A New Dimension for Earth Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, G.; Henry, A.; Bydlowski, D.

    2017-12-01

    NASA Science Objectives include capturing the global view of Earth from space. This unique perspective is often augmented by instrumented research aircraft, to provide in-situ and remote sensing observations in support of the world picture. Our "Advancing Earth Research Observations with Kites and Atmospheric /Terrestrial Sensors" (AEROKATS) project aims to bring this novel and exciting perspective into the hands of learners young and old. The practice of using instrumented kites as surrogate satellites and aircraft is gaining momentum, as our team undertakes the technical, operational, and scientific challenges in preparations to bring new and easy-to-field tools to broad audiences. The third dimension in spatial perception ("up") has previously been difficult to effectively incorporate in learning and local-scale research activities. AEROKATS brings simple to use instrumented aerial systems into the hands of students, educators, and scientists, with the tangible benefits of detailed, high resolution measurements and observations directly applicable to real-world studies of the environments around us.

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-18

    ZHURNAL PRIKLADNOY KHIMII, No 11, Nov 86). 64 Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gallium Alpha-orthophosphate in Orthophosphoric Acid (A. A, Adkhamov, B. S...precipitation from nitrate solutions with ammonium oxalate , heating to 400 deg and calcining at 800, 950 and 1100 deg for 4 hours. A high catalytic...12765/9835 CSO: 1841/215 UDC 548.54 HYDROTHERMAL CHEMISTRY OF GALLIUM ALPHA-ORTHOPHOSPHATE IN ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID Moscow DOKLADY AKADEMII NAUK

  9. Magic, science and masculinity: marketing toy chemistry sets.

    PubMed

    Al-Gailani, Salim

    2009-12-01

    At least since the late nineteenth century, toy chemistry sets have featured in standard scripts of the achievement of eminence in science, and they remain important in constructions of scientific identity. Using a selection of these toys manufactured in Britain and the United States, and with particular reference to the two dominant American brands, Gilbert and Chemcraft, this paper suggests that early twentieth-century chemistry sets were rooted in overlapping Victorian traditions of entertainment magic and scientific recreations. As chemistry set marketing copy gradually reoriented towards emphasising scientific modernity, citizenship, discipline and educational value, pre-twentieth-century traditions were subsumed within domestic-and specifically masculine-tropes. These developments in branding strategies point to transformations in both users' engagement with their chemistry sets and the role of scientific toys in domestic play. The chemistry set serves here as a useful tool for measuring cultural change and lay engagement with chemistry.

  10. Perceived Barriers and Strategies to Effective Online Earth and Space Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottinger, James E.

    With the continual growth and demand of online courses, higher education institutions are attempting to meet the needs of today's learners by modifying and developing new student centered services and programs. As a result, faculty members are being forced into teaching online, including Earth and Space science faculty. Online Earth and Space science courses are different than typical online courses in that they need to incorporate an inquiry-based component to ensure students fully understand the course concepts and science principles in the Earth and Space sciences. Studies have addressed the barriers in other inquiry-based online science courses, including biology, physics, and chemistry. This holistic, multiple-case qualitative study investigated perceived barriers and strategies to effective online Earth and Space science instruction through in-depth interviews with six experienced post-secondary online science instructors. Data from this study was analyzed using a thematic analysis approach and revealed four common themes when teaching online Earth and Space science. A positive perception and philosophy of online teaching is essential, the instructor-student interaction is dynamic, course structure and design modification will occur, and online lab activities must make science operational and relevant. The findings in this study demonstrated that online Earth and Space science instructors need institutional support in the form of a strong faculty development program and support staff in order to be as effective as possible. From this study, instructors realize that the instructor-student relationship and course structure is paramount, especially when teaching online science with labs. A final understanding from this study was that online Earth and Space science lab activities must incorporate the use and application of scientific skills and knowledge. Recommendations for future research include (a) qualitative research conducted in specific areas within the

  11. Parallel Grid Manipulations in Earth Science Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, W.; Lucchesi, R.; daSilva, A.; Takacs, L. L.

    1999-01-01

    sparse interpolation with little data locality between the physical lat-lon grid and a pole rotated computational grid- can be solved efficiently and at the GFlop/s rates needed to solve tomorrow's high resolution earth science models. In the subsequent presentation we will discuss the design and implementation of PILGRIM as well as a number of the problems it is required to solve. Some conclusions will be drawn about the potential performance of the overall earth science models on the supercomputer platforms foreseen for these problems.

  12. Art with Science: Connecting to Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendel, W. B.; Kirn, M.; Gupta, S.

    2013-12-01

    Why are so many people aware of climate change and sustainable solutions, but so few are actually doing anything about them? Social science research now suggests that to foster effective decision-making and action, good communication must include both cognition (e.g., intellect, facts, analysis) and affect (e.g., emotions, values, beliefs) working together. The arts have been used since prehistoric times not only to document and entertain, but to inspire, communicate, educate and motivate people to do things they might not otherwise have the interest or courage to do. Two projects, both funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), are presented that explore art and science collaborations, designed to engage both the analytical and experiential information processing systems of the brain while fostering transformative thinking and behavior shifts for Earth-sustainability. The first project, Raindrop, is a smartphone application created at Butler University through a collaboration with artist Mary Miss and EcoArts Connections in the project FLOW: Can You See the River? Raindrop uses geographic information systems and GPS technology to map a raindrop's path from a user's location in Marion County to the White River as it flows through Indianapolis. Raindrop allows users to identify various flow paths and pollutant constituents transported by this water from farms, buildings, lawns, and streets along the way. Miss, with the help of scientists and others, created public art installations along the river engaging viewers in its infrastructure, history, ecology, and uses, and allowed for virtual features of the Raindrop app to be grounded in physical space. By combining art, science and technology, the project helped people not only to connect more personally to watershed and climate information, but also to understand viscerally that 'all property is river front property' connecting their own behavior with the health of the river. The second

  13. Approaches for Improving Earth System Science Education in Middle Schools and High Schools in the United States (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, P. E.

    2009-12-01

    Earth system science is an often neglected subject in the US science curriculum. The state of Kansas State Department of Education, for example, has provided teachers with a curriculum guide for incorporating earth system science as an ancillary topic within the subjects of physics, chemistry, and the biological sciences. While this does provide a means to have earth system science within the curriculum, it relegates earth system science topics to a secondary status. In practice, earth system science topics are considered optional or only taught if there is time within an already an overly crowded curriculum. Given the importance of developing an educated citizenry that is capable of understanding, coping, and deciding how to live in a world where climate change is a reality requires a deeper understanding of earth system science. The de-emphasis of earth system science in favor of other science disciplines makes it imperative to seek opportunities to provide teachers, whose primary subject is not earth system science, with professional development opportunities to develop content knowledge understanding of earth system science, and pedagogical content knowledge (i.e. effective strategies for teaching earth system science). This is a noble goal, but there is no single method. At Fort Hays State University we have developed multiple strategies from face-to-face workshops, on-line coursework, and academic year virtual and face-to-face consultations with in-service and pre-service teachers. A review of the techniques and measures of effectiveness (based on teacher and student performance), and strengths and limitations of each method will be presented as an aid to other institutions and programs seeking to improve the teaching and learning of earth system science in their region.

  14. Exploring Secondary Science Teachers' Perceptions on the Goals of Earth Science Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2009-01-01

    The educational reform movement since the 1990s has led the secondary earth science curriculum in Taiwan into a stage of reshaping. The present study investigated secondary earth science teachers' perceptions on the Goals of Earth Science Education (GESE). The GESE should express the statements of philosophy and purpose toward which educators…

  15. 75 FR 81315 - Earth Sciences Proposal Review Panel; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Earth Sciences Proposal Review Panel; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: Proposal Review Panel in Earth Sciences (1569). Date and Time... Kelz, Program Director, Instrumentation & Facilities Program, Division of Earth Sciences, Room 785...

  16. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. F.; Pelletier, P.; Dorsen, J.; Douglas, E. M.; Pringle, M. S.; Karp, J.

    2009-12-01

    Inquiry-based, hands-on, graduate content courses have been developed specifically for Boston Public School middle school teachers of Earth Science. Earth Science I: Weather and Water and Earth Science II: The Solid Earth--Earth History and Planetary Systems have been taught a total of seven times to over 120 teachers. Several key attributes to these successful courses have been identified, including co-instruction by a university professor and a high school and a middle school teacher that are familiar with the Boston curriculum, use of hands-on activities that are closed related to those used in the Boston curriculum, pre- and post-course local field trips, and identification of key learning objectives for each day. This model of professional development was developed over several years in all disciplines (Earth Science, Physics, Biology, Chemistry) by the Boston Science Partnership (BSP), an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. One of the core strategies of the BSP is these Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), graduate level, lab-based courses taught at either UMass Boston or Northeastern University during summer intensive or semester formats. Two of the eleven courses developed under the grant are Earth Science I & II. This presentation shares the model of the CCC, the impact on teacher participants, the value of these courses for the professor, and lessons learned for successful professional development. Findings about the courses’ impact and effectiveness come from our external evaluation by the Program Evaluation Research Group (PERG). The combination of content and modeling good instructional practices have many positive outcomes for teachers, including increased self-efficacy in science understanding and teaching, positive impacts on student achievement, and teacher shifts from more traditional, more lecture-based instructional models to more inquiry approaches. STEM faculty members become involved in science education and learn and practice new

  17. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Technology of the Rare Earths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremers, Howard E.

    1985-01-01

    The 17 rare earth elements account for one-fifth of the 83 naturally occurring elements and collectively rank as the 22nd most abundant "element." Properties of these elements (including their chemical similarity), their extraction from the earth, and their uses are discussed. (JN)

  18. NASA Earth Science Research and Applications Using UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Enterprise sponsored the UAV Science Demonstration Project, which funded two projects: the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) and the UAV Coffee Harvest Optimization experiment. These projects were intended to begin a process of integrating UAVs into the mainstream of NASA s airborne Earth Science Research and Applications programs. The Earth Science Enterprise is moving forward given the positive science results of these demonstration projects to incorporate more platforms with additional scientific utility into the program and to look toward a horizon where the current piloted aircraft may not be able to carry out the science objectives of a mission. Longer duration, extended range, slower aircraft speed, etc. all have scientific advantages in many of the disciplines within Earth Science. The challenge we now face are identifying those capabilities that exist and exploiting them while identifying the gaps. This challenge has two facets: the engineering aspects of redesigning or modifying sensors and a paradigm shift by the scientists.

  19. NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, A.; Denkins, T.; Allen, B. Danette; Braun, Scott A.; Crawford, James H.; Jensen, Eric J.; Miller, Charles E.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Maring, Hal

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, NASA announced the first Earth Venture (EV-1) selections in response to a recommendation made by the National Research Council for low-cost investigations fostering innovation in Earth science. The five EV-1 investigations span the Earth science focus areas of atmosphere, weather, climate, water and energy and, carbon and represent earth science researchers from NASA as well as other government agencies, academia and industry from around the world. The EV-1 missions are: 1) Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), 2) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), 3) Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), 4) Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ), and 5) Hurricane And Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The Earth Venture missions are managed out of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (Allen, et. al. 2010b)

  20. [Activities of Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, Maryland University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is recognized as a world leader in the application of remote sensing and modeling aimed at improving knowledge of the Earth system. The Goddard Earth Sciences Directorate plays a central role in NASA's Earth Observing System and the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology (GEST) is organized as a cooperative agreement with the GSFC to promote excellence in the Earth sciences, and is a consortium of universities and corporations (University of Maryland Baltimore County, Howard University, Hampton University, Caelum Research Corporation and Northrop Grumman Corporation). The aim of this new program is to attract and introduce promising students in their first or second year of graduate studies to Oceanography and Earth system science career options through hands-on instrumentation research experiences on coastal processes at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on the Eastern Shore of Virginia.

  1. Activities in Planetary Geology for the Physical and Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alli, Richard, Ed.; Greely, Ronald, Ed.

    The activities in this guide deal with concepts in planetary geology, but they can be generalized to illustrate broad problems in the earth sciences. They are designed to supplement or introduce topics usually encountered in earth science courses. The exercises, organized into independent units which can be presented in any order, are appropriate…

  2. Global Issues in an Introductory Earth Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, James P.

    Information is provided explaining the incorporation of global issues units into an introductory earth science course at Skagit Valley Community College (Mount Vernon, Washington). First, a short description is provided of the original format of the earth science course, which was designed as an introductory level survey course covering topics in…

  3. Eighth Grade Earth Science Curriculum Guide. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This is a curriculum guide composed of lessons which can serve as models for the beginning teacher as well as for the teacher who needs activities to broaden the earth science perspective in the classroom. It was designed to supplement the New york State Earth Science Syllabus and encourages students to develop inquiry and problem solving skills.…

  4. Developing and Applying a Set of Earth Science Literacy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysession, Michael E.; LaDue, Nicole; Budd, David A.; Campbell, Karen; Conklin, Martha; Kappel, Ellen; Lewis, Gary; Raynolds, Robert; Ridky, Robert W.; Ross, Robert M.; Taber, John; Tewksbury, Barbara; Tuddenham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century will be defined by challenges such as understanding and preparing for climate change and ensuring the availability of resources such as water and energy, which are issues deeply rooted in Earth science. Understanding Earth science concepts is critical for humanity to successfully respond to these challenges and thrive in the…

  5. Earth & Space Science PhDs, Class of 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudy, Nicholas; Henly, Megan; Migdalski, Chet

    This study documents the employment patterns and demographic characteristics of recent PhDs in earth and space science. It summarizes the latest annual survey of recent earth and space science PhDs conducted by the American Geological Institute, the American Geophysical Union, and the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of…

  6. The ongoing educational anomaly of earth science placement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messina, P.; Speranza, P.; Metzger, E.P.; Stoffer, P.

    2003-01-01

    The geosciences have traditionally been viewed with less "aCademic prTstige" than other science curricula. Among the results of this perception are depressed K-16 enrollments, Earth Science assignments to lower-performing students, and relegation of these classes to sometimes under-qualified educators, all of which serve to confirm the widely-held misconceptions. An Earth Systems course developed at San Jos??e State University demonstrates the difficulty of a standard high school Earth science curriculum, while recognizing the deficiencies in pre-college Earth science education. Restructuring pre-college science curricula so that Earth Science is placed as a capstone course would greatly improve student understanding of the geosciences, while development of Earth systems courses that infuse real-world and hands-on learning at the college level is critical to bridging the information gap for those with no prior exposure to the Earth sciences. Well-crafted workshops for pre-service and inservice teachers of Earth Science can heIp to reverse the trends and unfortunate "sTatus" in geoscience education.

  7. Earth and Space Science. A Guide for Secondary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolles, William H.; And Others

    Designed for use in Pennsylvania secondary school science classes, this guide is intended to provide fundamental information in each of the various disciplines of the earth sciences. Some of the material contained in the guide is intended as background material for teachers. Five units are presented: The Earth, The Oceans, The Space Environment,…

  8. Resources Available for Earth Science Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Eric

    A study of schools was conducted to determine needs of earth science programs, and what, if any, services could effectively be provided by an earth science resource center. Contacts were made with approximately one-half the schools in the Minot State College service region. Discussions were held with administrators and teachers, and facilities at…

  9. Critical Science Education in a Suburban High School Chemistry Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Patrick

    To improve students' scientific literacy and their general perceptions of chemistry, I enacted critical chemistry education (CCE) in two "regular level" chemistry classes with a group of 25 students in a suburban, private high school as part of this study. CCE combined the efforts of critical science educators (Fusco & Calabrese Barton, 2001; Gilbert 2013) with the performance expectations of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (NGSS Lead States, 2013a) to critically transform the traditional chemistry curriculum at this setting. Essentially, CCE engages students in the critical exploration of socially situated chemistry content knowledge and requires them to demonstrate this knowledge through the practices of science. The purpose of this study was to gauge these students development of chemistry content knowledge, chemistry interest, and critical scientific literacy (CSL) as they engaged in CCE. CSL was a construct developed for this study that necessarily combined the National Research Center's (2012) definition of scientific literacy with a critical component. As such, CSL entailed demonstrating content knowledge through the practices of science as well as the ability to critically analyze the intersections between science content and socially relevant issues. A mixed methods, critical ethnographic approach framed the collection of data from open-ended questionnaires, focus group interviews, Likert surveys, pre- and post unit tests, and student artifacts. These data revealed three main findings: (1) students began to develop CSL in specific, significant ways working through the activities of CCE, (2) student participants of CCE developed a comparable level of chemistry content understanding to students who participated in a traditional chemistry curriculum, and (3) CCE developed a group of students' perceptions of interest in chemistry. In addition to being able to teach students discipline specific content knowledge, the implications of this study are

  10. Looking at Earth from Space: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The Maryland Pilot Earth Science and Technology Education Network (MAPS-NET) project was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to enrich teacher preparation and classroom learning in the area of Earth system science. This publication includes a teacher's guide that replicates material taught during a graduate-level…

  11. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  12. Earth and Space Science Ph.D. Class of 2003 Report released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keelor, Brad

    AGU and the American Geological Institute (AGI) released on 26 July an employment study of 180 Earth and space science Ph.D. recipients who received degrees from U.S. universities in 2003. The AGU/AGI survey asked graduates about their education and employment, efforts to find their first job after graduation, and experiences in graduate school. Key results from the study include: The vast majority (87%) of 2003 graduates found work in the Earth and space sciences, earning salaries commensurate with or slightly higher than 2001 and 2002 salary averages. Most (64%) graduates were employed within academia (including postdoctoral appointments), with the remainder in government (19%), industry (10%), and other (7%) sectors. Most graduates were positive about their employment situation and found that their work was challenging, relevant, and appropriate for someone with a Ph.D. The percentage of Ph.D. recipients accepting postdoctoral positions (58%) increased slightly from 2002. In contrast, the fields of physics and chemistry showed significant increases in postdoctoral appointments for Ph.D.s during the same time period. As in previous years, recipients of Ph.D.s in the Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences (median age of 32.7 years) are slightly older than Ph.D. recipients in most other natural sciences (except computer sciences), which is attributed to time taken off between undergraduate and graduate studies. Women in the Earth, atmospheric,and ocean sciences earned 33% of Ph.D.s in the class of 2003, surpassing the percentage of Ph.D.s earned by women in chemistry (32%) and well ahead of the percentage in computer sciences (20%), physics (19%), and engineering (17%). Participation of other underrepresented groups in the Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences remained extremely low.

  13. Grid Technology as a Cyber Infrastructure for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how grids and grid service technologies can be used to develop an infrastructure for the Earth Science community. This cyberinfrastructure would be populated with a hierarchy of services, including discipline specific services such those needed by the Earth Science community as well as a set of core services that are needed by most applications. This core would include data-oriented services used for accessing and moving data as well as computer-oriented services used to broker access to resources and control the execution of tasks on the grid. The availability of such an Earth Science cyberinfrastructure would ease the development of Earth Science applications. With such a cyberinfrastructure, application work flows could be created to extract data from one or more of the Earth Science archives and then process it by passing it through various persistent services that are part of the persistent cyberinfrastructure, such as services to perform subsetting, reformatting, data mining and map projections.

  14. Physical Chemistry, Science (Experimental): 5318.60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mary, Charlotta B.; Feuer, Jerold

    Performance objectives are stated for this secondary school instructional unit concerned with aspects of physical chemistry, involving the physical properties of matter, and laws and theories regarding chemical interaction. Lists of films and state-adopted and other texts are presented. Included are enrollment guidelines; an outline summarizing…

  15. SCIENCE VERSION OF PM CHEMISTRY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PM chemistry models containing detailed treatments of key chemical processes controlling ambient concentrations of inorganic and organic compounds in PM2.5 are needed to develop strategies for reducing PM2.5 concentrations. This task, that builds on previous research conducted i...

  16. Improving the Accessibility and Use of NASA Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tisdale, Matthew; Tisdale, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Many of the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) multidimensional tropospheric and atmospheric chemistry data products are stored in HDF4, HDF5 or NetCDF format, which traditionally have been difficult to analyze and visualize with geospatial tools. With the rising demand from the diverse end-user communities for geospatial tools to handle multidimensional products, several applications, such as ArcGIS, have refined their software. Many geospatial applications now have new functionalities that enable the end user to: Store, serve, and perform analysis on each individual variable, its time dimension, and vertical dimension. Use NetCDF, GRIB, and HDF raster data formats across applications directly. Publish output within REST image services or WMS for time and space enabled web application development. During this webinar, participants will learn how to leverage geospatial applications such as ArcGIS, OPeNDAP and ncWMS in the production of Earth science information, and in increasing data accessibility and usability.

  17. Emphasizing the process of science using demonstrations in conceptual chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Courtney A.

    The purpose of this project was to teach students a method for employing the process of science in a conceptual chemistry classroom when observing a demonstration of a discrepant event. Students observed six demonstrations throughout a trimester study of chemistry and responded to each demonstration by asking as many questions as they could think of, choosing one testable question to answer by making as many hypotheses as possible, and choosing one hypothesis to make predictions about observed results of this hypothesis when tested. Students were evaluated on their curiosity, confidence, knowledge of the process of science, and knowledge of the nature of science before and after the six demonstrations. Many students showed improvement in using or mastery of the process of science within the context of conceptual chemistry after six intensive experiences with it. Results of the study also showed students gained confidence in their scientific abilities after completing one trimester of conceptual chemistry. Curiosity and knowledge of the nature of science did not show statistically significant improvement according to the assessment tool. This may have been due to the scope of the demonstration and response activities, which focused on the process of science methodology instead of knowledge of the nature of science or the constraints of the assessment tool.

  18. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory

  19. The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

  20. Ethics in Science: The Unique Consequences of Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the ethical issues unique to the science and practice of chemistry. These issues arise from chemistry's position in the middle between the theoretical and the practical, a science concerned with molecules that are of the right size to directly affect human life. Many of the issues are raised by the central activity of chemistry--synthesis. Chemists make thousands of new substances each year. Many are beneficial, but others are threats. Since the development of the chemical industry in the nineteenth century, chemistry has contributed to the deterioration of the environment but has also helped to reduce pollution. Finally, we discuss the role of codes of ethics and whether the current codes of conduct for chemists are adequate for the challenges of today's world.

  1. Earth Sciences at Boston University: Reorientation and Renewal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, R. W.; Simpson, C.

    2003-12-01

    Beginning in 1994 with the renaming of its Department of Geology as the Department of Earth Sciences, Boston University has invested much effort into developing a modern, energetic department that excels in its dual research and teaching mission. These changes required strong leadership at the departmental and senior administrative level, but they have resulted in a moderately sized program (9.5 full time faculty) that is competing with "Top Ten" institutions for graduate students and faculty, and which is also placing its undergraduates in the leading graduate programs. Most of the revitalization was achieved over a 5-year period in which across the board changes occurred in our undergraduate curriculum and during which we recruited junior and mid-level faculty on the basis of their scholarly abilities and for their belief in the culture of our new mission and program. The undergraduate curriculum, which had been oriented towards traditional geologic offerings, was greatly increased in rigor (requiring a full year each of calculus, physics, and chemistry) and redesigned to expand flexibility in the broad field of earth sciences. During the evolution of the curriculum, it was extremely important not to confuse "tradition" with "rigor". Undergraduates became more critically involved with our research mission through senior theses, a formal Undergraduate Research Opportunities program, and by work-study participation in the laboratories. By making the program more challenging, over the period of 3 years we doubled the number of majors and minors and increased the average GPA by 0.5 units. Now, after 8 years, we have nearly tripled our overall number of students, with further improvements in quality and intellectual diversity. The opportunity to replace departing senior faculty was achieved through effectively arguing to the central administration that modern earth sciences are an essential component of any leading institution of higher education. By persuading the

  2. Increasing Diversity in the Earth Sciences (IDES) - An Oregon Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, S. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Wright, D. J.; de Silva, L.; Guerrero, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    The IDES (Increasing Diversity in Earth Sciences) Program is the first partnership of its kind in the state of Oregon targeted at broadening participation in the Earth Science enterprise. Funded by the National Science Foundation Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences program (NSF-OEDG), this partnership involves community colleges, a research university with major strengths in Earth Science research and education and an institutionalized commitment to enhancing diversity, state and federal agencies, centers of informal education, and the Oregon Space Grant Consortium, IDES has two integrated goals: 1) to increase the number of students from under-represented groups who pursue careers in Earth Science research and education, and 2) to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population. Built around the best practices of tiered mentoring, interactive student cohort, research and education internships, and financial support, this 4-year program recruits 10 to 12 students (mainly rising juniors) each year from science majors at Oregon State University and five Oregon community colleges. The program is reaching its goals by: a) training participants in the application of geospatial to Earth Science problems of personal relevance b) immersing participants in a two-year mentored research project that involves summer internships with academic units, state and federal agencies, and centers for informal education in Oregon. c) exposing, educating, and involving participants in the breadth of Earth Science careers through contact with Earth Science professionals through mentors, a professional internship, and a learning community that includes a speaker series. d) instilling an understanding of context and relevance of the Earth Science Enterprise to the participants, their families, their communities, and the general public. We report on the first two years of this program during

  3. An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth Science in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris John Henry

    2010-01-01

    Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one…

  4. Pilot Program for Teaching Earth Science in New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Patricia A.; Flores, Kennet E.; Ustunisik, Gokce; Zirakparvar, Nasser A.; Grcevich, Jana; Pagnotta, Ashley; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Kinzler, Rosamond J.; Macdonald, Maritza; Mathez, Edmond; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2013-06-01

    During the 2009-2010 school year, 40% of New York City (NYC) Earth science teachers were not certified to teach Earth science [New York State Education Department (NYSED), 2011]. This highlights a longstanding shortage of certified teachers, which persists today and prevents many schools from offering courses on the subject, thus diminishing student opportunities to study or embark on careers in Earth science. More generally, the paucity of qualified, effective science teachers hinders student achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), and research has consistently shown that improving the quality of teaching substantially increases achievement in STEM-related fields [National Science Board, 2007]. With only 36% of NYC 8th graders scoring at or above the basic level of proficiency in science and with even lower scores for African-American and Hispanic students [Livingston and Wirt, 2005], the need for more qualified science teachers is clear.

  5. Tracking Provenance of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milton

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous volumes of data have been captured, archived and analyzed. Sensors, algorithms and processing systems for transforming and analyzing the data are evolving over time. Web Portals and Services can create transient data sets on-demand. Data are transferred from organization to organization with additional transformations at every stage. Provenance in this context refers to the source of data and a record of the process that led to its current state. It encompasses the documentation of a variety of artifacts related to particular data. Provenance is important for understanding and using scientific datasets, and critical for independent confirmation of scientific results. Managing provenance throughout scientific data processing has gained interest lately and there are a variety of approaches. Large scale scientific datasets consisting of thousands to millions of individual data files and processes offer particular challenges. This paper uses the analogy of art history provenance to explore some of the concerns of applying provenance tracking to earth science data. It also illustrates some of the provenance issues with examples drawn from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) run at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center by the first author.

  6. Very high temperature chemistry: Science justification for containerless experimentation in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmeister, William H.; Nordine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of the justification for application of containerless processing in space to high temperature science. Low earth orbit offers a gravitational environment that allows samples to be positioned in an experimental apparatus by very small forces. Well controlled experiments become possible on reactive materials at high temperatures in a reasonably quiescent state and without container contamination. This provides an opportunity to advance the science of high temperature chemistry that can only be realized with a commitment by NASA to provide advanced facilities for in-space containerless study of materials at very high temperature.

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-15

    dust and gas emissions from ferrous and nonferrous metallurgical facilities on vegetable crops of 42 collective farms within a 10-15 km radius...the dust and gas wastes were determined to have adverse effects on vegetable crops. Tables 3. 12172/12379 CSO: 1841/299 43 FERTILIZERS...academy’s Institute of physical-Organic Chemistry, head of the republic large-scale program " Membrana "] [Abstract] The author assesses progress in

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    1990 2 USSR: Chemistry High Temperature Electrochemical Synthesis of Intermetallic Titanium Iron Compounds [V. I. Shapoval, L. I. Zarubitskaya, et al...Method for Increasing Level of Hydrogen Sulfide Purging From Coke Oven Gas [N. K. Smolyakov; KOKS I KHIMIYA, No 1, Jan 90] 18 Increasing...TVERDOGO TOPLIVA No 3, May-Jun 90] 19 Effect of Iron -ore Catalysts in Processes of Hydrogenation of Coal and Polycyclic Hydrocarbons [V. I

  9. Mother Earth Chemistry: A Laboratory Course for Nonmajors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a laboratory course that introduces students to chemistry using examples commonly encountered in the supermarket and on the dinner table. Acquaints students with simple chemical tasks that can be practiced at home, including the making of wine, ale, soap, cheese, and yogurt, and introduces them to the small-scale production of…

  10. PREFACE: Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched five years ago with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects and launched in the European Union, Russia, United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with international participation) and with a 15M annual budget, this highly diverse initiative is in full swing. Since the first NEESPI focus issue (Pavel Groisman et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045008 (1pp)) in December 2007, several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at International Meetings have been held that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic, non- boreal Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern Siberia, and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. In May 2009, an overview NEESPI paper was published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (Pavel Groisman et al 2009 Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 90 671). This paper also formulated a requirement to the next generation of NEESPI studies to work towards attaining a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, across disciplines. Three books devoted to studies in different regions of Northern Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team have appeared and/or are scheduled to appear in 2009. This (second) ERL focus issue dedicated to climatic and environmental studies in Northern Eurasia is composed mostly from the papers that were presented at two NEESPI Open Science Sessions at the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 2008, San Francisco, CA) and at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (April 2009, Vienna, Austria), as well as at the specialty NEESPI Workshops convened in Jena, Helsinki, Odessa, Urumqi

  11. Analytical Chemistry in the Regulatory Science of Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Guan, Allan; Wickramasekara, Samanthi; Phillips, K Scott

    2018-06-12

    In the United States, regulatory science is the science of developing new tools, standards, and approaches to assess the safety, efficacy, quality, and performance of all Food and Drug Administration-regulated products. Good regulatory science facilitates consumer access to innovative medical devices that are safe and effective throughout the Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC). Because the need to measure things is fundamental to the regulatory science of medical devices, analytical chemistry plays an important role, contributing to medical device technology in two ways: It can be an integral part of an innovative medical device (e.g., diagnostic devices), and it can be used to support medical device development throughout the TPLC. In this review, we focus on analytical chemistry as a tool for the regulatory science of medical devices. We highlight recent progress in companion diagnostics, medical devices on chips for preclinical testing, mass spectrometry for postmarket monitoring, and detection/characterization of bacterial biofilm to prevent infections.

  12. An Analysis of Earth Science Data Analytics Use Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Kempler, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https:earthdata.nasa.govaboutsystem-- performance). In addition, other US agency, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists provide a plethora of additional sources for studying Earth. Co--analyzing huge amounts of heterogeneous data to glean out unobvious information is a daunting task. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. It can include Data Preparation, Data Reduction, and Data Analysis. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, a collection of Earth science data analytics use cases have been collected and analyzed for the purpose of extracting the types of Earth science data analytics employed, and requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented, based on use case needs. ESIP generated use case template, ESDA use cases, use case types, and preliminary use case analysis (this is a work in progress) will be presented.

  13. Pedotransfer Functions in Earth System Science: Challenges and Perspectives: PTFs in Earth system science perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael

    Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. Here in this article, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscalingmore » techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.« less

  14. Pedotransfer Functions in Earth System Science: Challenges and Perspectives: PTFs in Earth system science perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael; ...

    2017-12-28

    Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. Here in this article, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscalingmore » techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.« less

  15. Petroleum Science and Technology Institute with the TeXas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, H. C.; Olson, J. E.; Bryant, S. L.; Lake, L. W.; Bommer, P.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Jablonowski, C.; Willis, M.

    2009-12-01

    The TeXas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution, a professional development program for 8th- thru 12th-grade Earth Science teachers, presented a one-week Petroleum Science and Technology Institute at The University of Texas at Austin campus. The summer program was a joint effort between the Jackson School of Geosciences and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering. The goal of the institute was to focus on the STEM components involved in the petroleum industry and to introduce teachers to the larger energy resources theme. The institute kicked off with a welcoming event and tour of a green, energy-efficient home (LEED Platinum certified) owned by one of the petroleum engineering faculty. Tours of the home included an introduction to rainwater harvesting, solar energy, sustainable building materials and other topics on energy efficiency. Classroom topics included drilling technology (including a simulator lab and an overview of the history of the technology), energy use and petroleum geology, well-logging technology and interpretation, reservoir engineering and volumetrics (including numerous labs combining chemistry and physics), risk assessment and economics, carbon capture and storage (CO2 sequestration technology) and hydraulic fracturing. A mid-week field trip included visiting the Ocean Star offshore platform in Galveston, the Weiss Energy Hall at the Houston Museum of Science and Schlumberger (to view 3-D visualization technology) in Houston. Teachers remarked that they really appreciated the focused nature of the institute and especially found the increased use of mathematics both a tool for professional growth, as well as a challenge for them to use more math in their science classes. STEM integration was an important feature of the summer institute, and teachers found the integration of science (earth sciences, geophysics), technology, engineering (petroleum, chemical and reservoir) and mathematics particularly valuable. Pre

  16. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  17. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (3-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 3-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  18. Scope and Sequence. Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences. A Summer Curriculum Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    Presented is a booklet containing scope and sequence charts for kindergarten and grades 1 to 6 science units. Overviews and lists of major concepts for units in the life, physical, and earth/space sciences are provided in tables for each grade level. Also presented are seven complete units, one for each grade level. Following a table of contents,…

  19. MAESTRO: Mathematics and Earth Science Teachers' Resource Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtier, A. M.; Pyle, E. J.; Fichter, L.; Lucas, S.; Jackson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Mathematics and Earth Science Teachers' Resource Organization (MAESTRO) partnership between James Madison University and Harrisonburg City and Page County Public Schools, funded through NSF-GEO. The partnership aims to transform mathematics and Earth science instruction in middle and high schools by developing an integrated mathematics and Earth systems science approach to instruction. This curricular integration is intended to enhance the mathematical skills and confidence of students through concrete, Earth systems-based examples, while increasing the relevance and rigor of Earth science instruction via quantification and mathematical modeling of Earth system phenomena. MAESTRO draws heavily from the Earth Science Literacy Initiative (2009) and is informed by criterion-level standardized test performance data in both mathematics and Earth science. The project has involved two summer professional development workshops, academic year Lesson Study (structured teacher observation and reflection), and will incorporate site-based case studies with direct student involvement. Participating teachers include Grade 6 Science and Mathematics teachers, and Grade 9 Earth Science and Algebra teachers. It is anticipated that the proposed integration across grade bands will first strengthen students' interests in mathematics and science (a problem in middle school) and subsequently reinforce the relevance of mathematics and other sciences (a problem in high school), both in support of Earth systems literacy. MAESTRO's approach to the integration of math and science focuses on using box models to emphasize the interconnections among the geo-, atmo-, bio-, and hydrospheres, and demonstrates the positive and negative feedback processes that connect their mutual evolution. Within this framework we explore specific relationships that can be described both qualitatively and mathematically, using mathematical operations appropriate for each grade level. Site-based case studies

  20. Simulation of tropospheric chemistry and aerosols with the climate model EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noije, T. P. C.; Le Sager, P.; Segers, A. J.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Krol, M. C.; Hazeleger, W.

    2014-03-01

    We have integrated the atmospheric chemistry and transport model TM5 into the global climate model EC-Earth version 2.4. We present an overview of the TM5 model and the two-way data exchange between TM5 and the integrated forecasting system (IFS) model from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the atmospheric general circulation model of EC-Earth. In this paper we evaluate the simulation of tropospheric chemistry and aerosols in a one-way coupled configuration. We have carried out a decadal simulation for present-day conditions and calculated chemical budgets and climatologies of tracer concentrations and aerosol optical depth. For comparison we have also performed offline simulations driven by meteorological fields from ECMWF's ERA-Interim reanalysis and output from the EC-Earth model itself. Compared to the offline simulations, the online-coupled system produces more efficient vertical mixing in the troposphere, which likely reflects an improvement of the treatment of cumulus convection. The chemistry in the EC-Earth simulations is affected by the fact that the current version of EC-Earth produces a cold bias with too dry air in large parts of the troposphere. Compared to the ERA-Interim driven simulation, the oxidizing capacity in EC-Earth is lower in the tropics and higher in the extratropics. The methane lifetime is 7% higher in EC-Earth, but remains well within the range reported in the literature. We evaluate the model by comparing the simulated climatologies of surface carbon monoxide, tropospheric and surface ozone, and aerosol optical depth against observational data. The work presented in this study is the first step in the development of EC-Earth into an Earth system model with fully interactive atmospheric chemistry and aerosols.

  1. Simulation of tropospheric chemistry and aerosols with the climate model EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noije, T. P. C.; Le Sager, P.; Segers, A. J.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Krol, M. C.; Hazeleger, W.; Williams, A. G.; Chambers, S. D.

    2014-10-01

    We have integrated the atmospheric chemistry and transport model TM5 into the global climate model EC-Earth version 2.4. We present an overview of the TM5 model and the two-way data exchange between TM5 and the IFS model from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the atmospheric general circulation model of EC-Earth. In this paper we evaluate the simulation of tropospheric chemistry and aerosols in a one-way coupled configuration. We have carried out a decadal simulation for present-day conditions and calculated chemical budgets and climatologies of tracer concentrations and aerosol optical depth. For comparison we have also performed offline simulations driven by meteorological fields from ECMWF's ERA-Interim reanalysis and output from the EC-Earth model itself. Compared to the offline simulations, the online-coupled system produces more efficient vertical mixing in the troposphere, which reflects an improvement of the treatment of cumulus convection. The chemistry in the EC-Earth simulations is affected by the fact that the current version of EC-Earth produces a cold bias with too dry air in large parts of the troposphere. Compared to the ERA-Interim driven simulation, the oxidizing capacity in EC-Earth is lower in the tropics and higher in the extratropics. The atmospheric lifetime of methane in EC-Earth is 9.4 years, which is 7% longer than the lifetime obtained with ERA-Interim but remains well within the range reported in the literature. We further evaluate the model by comparing the simulated climatologies of surface radon-222 and carbon monoxide, tropospheric and surface ozone, and aerosol optical depth against observational data. The work presented in this study is the first step in the development of EC-Earth into an Earth system model with fully interactive atmospheric chemistry and aerosols.

  2. An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth science in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Chris John Henry

    2010-03-01

    Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one earth science error/misconception per page. Science syllabuses and examinations surveyed also showed errors/misconceptions. More than 500 instances of misconception were identified through the surveys. These were analysed for frequency, indicating that those areas of the earth science curriculum most prone to misconception are sedimentary processes/rocks, earthquakes/Earth's structure, and plate tectonics. For the 15 most frequent misconceptions, examples of quotes from the textbooks are given, together with the scientific consensus view, a discussion, and an example of a misconception of similar significance in another area of science. The misconceptions identified in the surveys are compared with those described in the literature. This indicates that the misconceptions found in college students and pre-service/practising science teachers are often also found in published materials, and therefore are likely to reinforce the misconceptions in teachers and their students. The analysis may also reflect the prevalence earth science misconceptions in the UK secondary (high school) science-teaching population. The analysis and discussion provide the opportunity for writers of secondary science materials to improve their work on earth science and to provide a platform for improved teaching and learning of earth science in the future.

  3. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  4. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Janese C.

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detectionmore » of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.« less

  5. Earth Science Teaching Strategies Used in the International Polar Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.

    2009-04-01

    There are many effective methods for teaching earth science education that are being successfully used during the fourth International Polar Year (IPY). Relevance of IPY and the polar regions is better understood using a systems thinking approach used in earth science education. Changes in components of the earth system have a global effect; and changes in the polar regions will affect the rest of the world regions and vice versa. Teaching strategies successfully used for primary, secondary, undergraduate and graduate student earth science education and IPY education outreach include: 1) engaging students in earth science or environmental research relevant to their locale; 2) blending lectures with research expeditions or field studies, 3) connecting students with scientists in person and through audio and video conferencing; 4) combining science and arts in teaching, learning and communicating about earth science and the polar regions, capitalizing on the uniqueness of polar regions and its inhabitants, and its sensitivity to climate change; and 5) integrating different perspectives: western science, indigenous and community knowledge in the content and method of delivery. Use of these strategies are exemplified in IPY projects in the University of the Arctic IPY Higher Education Outreach Project cluster such as the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes project, the Ice Mysteries e-Polar Books: An Innovative Way of Combining Science and Literacy project, the Resilience and Adaptation Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship project, and the Svalbard Research Experience for Undergraduates project.

  6. Ocean Color and Earth Science Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritorena, S.

    2014-12-01

    The development of consistent, high quality time series of biogeochemical products from a single ocean color sensor is a difficult task that involves many aspects related to pre- and post-launch instrument calibration and characterization, stability monitoring and the removal of the contribution of the atmosphere which represents most of the signal measured at the sensor. It is even more challenging to build Climate Data Records (CDRs) or Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) from multiple sensors as design, technology and methodologies (bands, spectral/spatial resolution, Cal/Val, algorithms) differ from sensor to sensor. NASA MEaSUREs, ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) and IOCCG Virtual Constellation are some of the underway efforts that investigate or produce ocean color CDRs or ESDRs from the recent and current global missions (SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS). These studies look at key aspects of the development of unified data records from multiple sensors, e.g. the concatenation of the "best" individual records vs. the merging of multiple records or band homogenization vs. spectral diversity. The pros and cons of the different approaches are closely dependent upon the overall science purpose of the data record and its temporal resolution. While monthly data are generally adequate for biogeochemical modeling or to assess decadal trends, higher temporal resolution data records are required to look into changes in phenology or the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms. Similarly, short temporal resolution (daily to weekly) time series may benefit more from being built through the merging of data from multiple sensors while a simple concatenation of data from individual sensors might be better suited for longer temporal resolution (e.g. monthly time series). Several Ocean Color ESDRs were developed as part of the NASA MEaSUREs project. Some of these time series are built by merging the reflectance data from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and Envisat-MERIS in a semi-analytical ocean color

  7. Theories of the Earth and the Nature of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James

    1991-01-01

    Describes the history of the science of geology. The author expounds upon the discovery of deep time and plate tectonics, explaining how the theory of deep time influenced the development of Darwin and Wallace's theory of evolution. Describes how the history of earth science helps students understand the nature of science. (PR)

  8. Transitioning Unmanned Technologies for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Douglas, J.

    2008-12-01

    Development of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has progressed dramatically in recent years along with miniaturization of sensor technology. This confluence of development paths has resulted in greater capability in smaller, less expensive platforms allowing research to be performed where manned airborne platforms are impractical or dangerous. Recent applications include small UAS for studies involving hurricanes, volcanic activity, sea ice changes, glacier melt, biological monitoring of land and sea species, wildfire monitoring, and others. However, the majority of UAS employed in these investigations were originally developed for non-civilian applications and many of the required interfaces are locked behind proprietary specifications, requiring expensive customization by the manufacturer to transform a military UAS into one suitable for civilian work. A small UAS for scientific research should be standards-based, low-cost, user friendly, field serviceable, and be designed to accept a range of payloads. The AV8R UAS is one example of an unmanned system that has been developed for specific application to earth observation missions. This system is designed to be operated by the user with difficult environmental conditions and field logistics in mind. Numerous features and innovations that advance this technology as a research tool as well as its planned science missions will be presented. Most importantly, all interfaces to the system required for successful design and integration of various payloads will be openly available. The environment of open, standards based development allow the small technologies companies that serve as the backbone for much of the technology development to participate in the rapid development of industry capabilities. This is particularly true with UAS technologies. Programs within the USA such as the STTR foster collaborations with small businesses and university researchers. Other innovations related to autonomous unmanned systems

  9. Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and its Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffries, Craig M.

    1997-01-01

    The Board will provide oversight of the earth science and resource activities within the National Research Council, provide a review of research and public activities in the solid-earth sciences, and provide analyses and recommendations relevant to the supply, delivery, and associated impacts of and issues related to hydrocarbon, metallic, and non-metallic mineral resources. The Board will monitor the status of the earth sciences, assess the health of the disciplines, and identify research opportunities, and will respond to specific agency requests.

  10. REFLECTIONS ON PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Science and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jortner, Joshua

    2006-05-01

    This is the story of a young person who grew up in Tel-Aviv during the period of the establishment of the State of Israel and was inspired to become a physical chemist by the cultural environment, by the excellent high-school education, and by having been trained by some outstanding scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, subsequently, by the intellectual environment and high-quality scientific endeavor at the University of Chicago. Since serving as the first chairman of the Chemistry Department of the newly formed Tel-Aviv University he has been immersed in research, in the training of young scientists, and in intensive and extensive international scientific collaboration. Together with the members of his "scientific family" he has explored the phenomena of energy acquisition, storage and disposal and structure-dynamics-function relations in large molecules, condensed phase, clusters and biomolecules, and is looking forward to many future adventures in physical chemistry. "What to leave out and what to put in? That's the problem." Hugh Lofting, Doctor Dolittle's Zoo, 1925

  11. Storytelling in Earth sciences: The eight basic plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    Reporting results and promoting ideas in science in general, and Earth science in particular, is treated here as storytelling. Just as in literature and drama, storytelling in Earth science is characterized by a small number of basic plots. Though the list is not exhaustive, and acknowledging that multiple or hybrid plots and subplots are possible in a single piece, eight standard plots are identified, and examples provided: cause-and-effect, genesis, emergence, destruction, metamorphosis, convergence, divergence, and oscillation. The plots of Earth science stories are not those of literary traditions, nor those of persuasion or moral philosophy, and deserve separate consideration. Earth science plots do not conform those of storytelling more generally, implying that Earth scientists may have fundamentally different motivations than other storytellers, and that the basic plots of Earth Science derive from the characteristics and behaviors of Earth systems. In some cases preference or affinity to different plots results in fundamentally different interpretations and conclusions of the same evidence. In other situations exploration of additional plots could help resolve scientific controversies. Thus explicit acknowledgement of plots can yield direct scientific benefits. Consideration of plots and storytelling devices may also assist in the interpretation of published work, and can help scientists improve their own storytelling.

  12. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  13. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    The presentation describes the recently awarded ACCESS project to provide data management of NASA remote sensing data for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). The project targets integration of remote sensing data from MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US-satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEP/NCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  14. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  15. Click Chemistry, a Powerful Tool for Pharmaceutical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Christopher D.; Liu, Xin-Ming; Wang, Dong

    2008-01-01

    Click chemistry refers to a group of reactions that are fast, simple to use, easy to purify, versatile, regiospecific, and give high product yields. While there are a number of reactions that fulfill the criteria, the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and terminal alkynes has emerged as the frontrunner. It has found applications in a wide variety of research areas, including materials sciences, polymer chemistry, and pharmaceutical sciences. In this manuscript, important aspects of the Huisgen cycloaddition will be reviewed, along with some of its many pharmaceutical applications. Bioconjugation, nanoparticle surface modification, and pharmaceutical-related polymer chemistry will all be covered. Limitations of the reaction will also be discussed. PMID:18509602

  16. ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

  17. Problem-Based Learning and Earth System Science - The ESSEA High School Earth System Science Online Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R.; Botti, J.

    2002-12-01

    The high school Earth system science course is web based and designed to meet the professional development needs of science teachers in grades 9-12. Three themes predominate this course: Earth system science (ESS) content, collaborative investigations, and problem-based learning (PBL) methodology. PBL uses real-world contexts for in-depth investigations of a subject matter. Participants predict the potential impacts of the selected event on Earth's spheres and the subsequent feedback and potential interactions that might result. PBL activities start with an ill-structured problem that serves as a springboard to team engagement. These PBL scenarios contain real-world situations. Teams of learners conduct an Earth system science analysis of the event and make recommendations or offer solutions regarding the problem. The course design provides an electronic forum for conversations, debate, development, and application of ideas. Samples of threaded discussions built around ESS thinking in science and PBL pedagogy will be presented.

  18. Problem-Based Learning and Earth System Science - The ESSEA High School Earth System Science Online Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R. J.; Botti, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    The high school Earth system science course is web based and designed to meet the professional development needs of science teachers in grades 9-12. Three themes predominate this course: Earth system science (ESS) content, collaborative investigations, and problem-based learning (PBL) methodology. PBL uses real-world contexts for in-depth investigations of a subject matter. Participants predict the potential impacts of the selected event on Earth's spheres and the subsequent feedback and potential interactions that might result. PBL activities start with an ill-structured problem that serves as a springboard to team engagement. These PBL scenarios contain real-world situations. Teams of learners conduct an Earth system science analysis of the event and make recommendations or offer solutions regarding the problem. The course design provides an electronic forum for conversations, debate, development, and application of ideas. Samples of threaded discussions built around ESS thinking in science and PBL pedagogy will be presented.

  19. CHEMISTRY OF SILICATE ATMOSPHERES OF EVAPORATING SUPER-EARTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce, E-mail: laura_s@levee.wustl.ed, E-mail: bfegley@levee.wustl.ed

    2009-10-01

    We model the formation of silicate atmospheres on hot volatile-free super-Earths. Our calculations assume that all volatile elements such as H, C, N, S, and Cl have been lost from the planet. We find that the atmospheres are composed primarily of Na, O{sub 2}, O, and SiO gas, in order of decreasing abundance. The atmospheric composition may be altered by fractional vaporization, cloud condensation, photoionization, and reaction with any residual volatile elements remaining in the atmosphere. Cloud condensation reduces the abundance of all elements in the atmosphere except Na and K. We speculate that large Na and K clouds suchmore » as those observed around Mercury and Io may surround hot super-Earths. These clouds would occult much larger fractions of the parent star than a closely bound atmosphere, and may be observable through currently available methods.« less

  20. Earth Stewardship Science: International Research Networks based in Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    The role of networking in student and early career years is critical in the development of international interdisciplinary earth system science. These networks - both peer and mentor-based - can build community, foster enthusiasm and further research applications in addition to the traditional goal of identifying and obtaining work. UNESCO has nearly 40 years of experience in building international research teams through the International Geoscience Program (IGCP) and has recently focused their attention on the status of the earth sciences in Africa. UNESCO’s Earth Science Education Initiative in Africa ran a series of regional scoping workshops around the continent in order to develop an integrated status report on the earth sciences in Africa. The results, which are globally relevant, indicate that the field is limited by the level of basic science education of incoming students and restricted laboratory facilities, but also by a lack of connectedness. This isolation relates both to the interaction between researchers within countries and around the world but also the divide between Universities and Industry and the failure of the field to communicate its relevance to the public. In a context where livelihood opportunities are the driver of study and the earth sciences provide a major source of income, practical academic ties to industry are an essential element of the attractiveness of the field to students. Actions and ideas for addressing this situation will be presented to reinforce the role of the earth sciences in improving human and environmental well-being.

  1. The Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, K. J.; Bryce, J. G.; Brown, D.; Darwish, A.; Finkel, L.; Froburg, E.; Furman, T.; Guertin, L.; Hale, S. R.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; Smith, M.; Varner, R.; von Damm, K.

    2007-12-01

    A partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Dillard University, Elizabeth City State University, and Pennsylvania State University has been established to prepare middle and high school teachers to teach Earth and environmental sciences from a processes and systems approach. Specific project goals include: providing Earth system science content instruction; assisting teachers in implementing Earth system science in their own classrooms; and creating opportunities for pre-service teachers to experience authentic research with Earth scientists. TESSE programmatic components comprise (1) a two-week intensive summer institutes for current and future teachers; (2) eight-week research immersion experiences that match preservice teachers with Earth science faculty mentors; and (3) a science liaison program involving the pairing of inservice teachers with graduate students or future teachers. The first year of the program supported a total of 49 participants (42 inservice and preservice teachers, as well as 7 graduate fellows). All participants in the program attended an intensive two-week summer workshop at UNH, and the academic-year science liaison program is underway. In future summers, all partnering institutions will hold similar two-week summer institutes. UNH will offer a more advanced course geared towards "hot topics" and research techniques in the Earth and environmental sciences.

  2. Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and its activities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR) coordinates, the National Research Council`s advice to the federal government on solid-earth science issues. The board identifies opportunities for advancing basic research and understanding, reports on applications of earth sciences in such areas as disaster mitigation and resource utilization, and analyzes the scientific underpinnings and credibility of earth science information for resource, environmental and other applications and policy decision. Committees operating under the guidance of the Board conducts studies addressing specific issues within the earth sciences. The current committees are as follows: Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data; Mapping Sciences Committee; Committeemore » on Seismology; Committee on Geodesy; Rediscovering Geography Committee; Committee on Research Programs of the US Bureau of Mines. The following recent reports are briefly described: research programs of the US Bureau of Mines, first assessment 1994; Mount Rainier, active cascade volcano; the national geomagnetic initiative; reservoir class field demonstration program; solid-earth sciences and society; data foundation for the national spatial infrastructure; promoting the national spatial data infrastructure through partnerships; toward a coordinated spatial data infrastructure for the nation; and charting a course into the digital era; guidance to the NOAA`s nautical charting mission.« less

  3. Pentadienyl chemistry of the heavy alkaline-earth metals revisited.

    PubMed

    Reiners, Matthias; Fecker, Ann Christin; Freytag, Matthias; Jones, Peter G; Walter, Marc D

    2014-05-14

    Open-metallocenes of the heavy alkaline-earth metals [(η(5)-Pdl')2M(thf)n] (M = Ca (1), Sr (2), n = 1; M = Ba (3), n = 2; Pdl' = 2,4-tBu2C5H5) are readily prepared by salt-metathesis between MI2 and KPdl' and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies.

  4. The critical role of peptide chemistry in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Kent, Stephen B H

    2015-03-01

    Peptide chemistry plays a key role in the synthesis and study of protein molecules and their functions. Modern ligation methods enable the total synthesis of enzymes and the systematic dissection of the chemical basis of enzyme catalysis. Predicted developments in peptide science are described. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Design of Chemistry Teacher Education Course on Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesterinen, Veli-Matti; Aksela, Maija

    2013-01-01

    To enhance students' understanding of nature of science (NOS), teachers need adequate pedagogical content knowledge related to NOS. The educational design research study presented here describes the design and development of a pre-service chemistry teacher education course on NOS instruction. The study documents two iterative cycles of…

  6. Making Science Real: Photo-Sharing in Biology and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waycott, Jenny; Dalgarno, Barney; Kennedy, Gregor; Bishop, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine students' reflections about the value of two photo-sharing activities that were implemented in undergraduate Biology and Chemistry subjects. Both activities aimed, broadly, to provide support for authentic and meaningful learning experiences in undergraduate science. Although the activities were similar--both required…

  7. The Sequencing of Basic Chemistry Topics by Physical Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibanda, Doras; Hobden, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers' preferred teaching sequence for basic chemistry topics in Physical Science in South Africa, to obtain their reasons underpinning their preferred sequence, and to compare these sequences with the prescribed sequences in the current curriculum. The study was located within a pragmatic paradigm and…

  8. UNESCO Chemistry Teaching Project in Asia: Experiments on Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhabanandana, Salag

    This teacher's guide on nuclear science is divided into two parts. The first part is a discussion of some of the concepts in nuclear chemistry including radioactivity, types of disintegration, radioactive decay and growth, and tracer techniques. The relevant experiments involving the use of radioisotopes are presented in the second part. The…

  9. Chemistry Students' Challenges in Using MBL's in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz

    Understanding students' challenges about using microcomputer based laboratories (MBLs) would provide important data in understanding the appropriateness of using MBLs in high school chemistry laboratories. Identifying students' concerns about this technology will in part help educators identify the obstacles to science learning when using this…

  10. Polymer Chemistry: Introduction to an Indispensable Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teegarden, David M.

    2004-01-01

    More than half of all chemists work on some aspect of polymers. For high school teachers who want to introduce polymer science basics, properties, and uses, this book is uniquely helpful--much deeper than simple monographs or collections of experiments, but much more accessible than college texts. Divided into four sections, Polymer Chemistry…

  11. Teaching General Chemistry: A Materials Science Companion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Arthur B.; And Others

    Many teachers and other educators have expressed a concern regarding the lack of student interest in many of the traditional science courses. To help rectify this problem a collaborative effort among educators and others concerned has led to the development of instructional materials that are more relevant to the lives of students. This document…

  12. Earthquake!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Earth Science Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science teachers to help their students learn about earthquakes and scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  13. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  14. Tools and Data Services from the GSFC Earth Sciences DAAC for Aura Science Data Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, S.; Johnson, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Ahmad, S.; Pham, L.; Eng, E.; Berrick, S.; Teng, W.; Vollmer, B.

    2004-01-01

    In these times of rapidly increasing amounts of archived data, tools and data services that manipulate data and uncover nuggets of information that potentially lead to scientific discovery are becoming more and more essential. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has made great strides in facilitating science and applications research by, in consultation with its users, developing innovative tools and data services. That is, as data users become more sophisticated in their research and more savvy with information extraction methodologies, the GES DAAC has been responsive to this evolution. This presentation addresses the tools and data services available and under study at the GES DAAC, applied to the Earth sciences atmospheric data. Now, with the data from NASA's latest Atmospheric Chemistry mission, Aura, being readied for public release, GES DAAC tools, proven successful for past atmospheric science missions such as MODIS, AIRS, TRMM, TOMS, and UARS, provide an excellent basis for similar tools updated for the data from the Aura instruments. GES DAAC resident Aura data sets are from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). Data obtained by these instruments afford researchers the opportunity to acquire accurate and continuous visualization and analysis, customized for Aura data, will facilitate the use and increase the usefulness of the new data. The Aura data, together with other heritage data at the GES DAAC, can potentially provide a long time series of data. GES DAAC tools will be discussed, as well as the GES DAAC Near Archive Data Mining (NADM) environment, the GIOVANNI on-line analysis tool, and rich data search and order services. Information can be found at: http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/upperatm/aura/. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Earth benefits from NASA research and technology. Life sciences applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document provides a representative sampling of examples of Earth benefits in life-sciences-related applications, primarily in the area of medicine and health care, but also in agricultural productivity, environmental monitoring and safety, and the environment. This brochure is not intended as an exhaustive listing, but as an overview to acquaint the reader with the breadth of areas in which the space life sciences have, in one way or another, contributed a unique perspective to the solution of problems on Earth. Most of the examples cited were derived directly from space life sciences research and technology. Some examples resulted from other space technologies, but have found important life sciences applications on Earth. And, finally, we have included several areas in which Earth benefits are anticipated from biomedical and biological research conducted in support of future human exploration missions.

  16. Earth science: Making a mountain out of a plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Hugh

    2017-02-01

    A theory proposed in 2015 suggested that relatively flat surfaces in mountain ranges were formed by the reorganization of river networks. A fresh analysis rebuts this idea, reigniting discussion of a long-standing problem in Earth science.

  17. New Millennium Program: Servicing Earth and Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, F.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has exciting plans for space science and Earth observations during the next decade. A broad range of advanced spacecraft and measurement technologies will be needed to support these plans within the existing budget and schedule constraints.

  18. Land Use Planning Experiment for Introductory Earth Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetter, C. W., Jr.; Hoffman, James I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an activity which incorporates topographic map interpretation, soils analysis, hydrogeology, and local geology in a five-week series of exercises for an introductory college earth science class. (CP)

  19. Secondary-School Earth Science: A Column for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Six secondary school teachers describe their most successful earth science investigations. They include various outdoor field activities, road-map reading skills, student-prepared and conducted investigations, and use of several materials for studying volcanoes. (JN)

  20. Combined Industry, Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, Aaron B. (Editor); Renner, Robert L. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The sixth annual Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop and the third annual Data Compression Industry Workshop were held as a single combined workshop. The workshop was held April 4, 1996 in Snowbird, Utah in conjunction with the 1996 IEEE Data Compression Conference, which was held at the same location March 31 - April 3, 1996. The Space and Earth Science Data Compression sessions seek to explore opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection, analysis, and retrieval of space and earth science data. Of particular interest is data compression research that is integrated into, or has the potential to be integrated into, a particular space or earth science data information system. Preference is given to data compression research that takes into account the scien- tist's data requirements, and the constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution and archival systems.

  1. Design and implementation of a prototype data system for earth radiation budget, cloud, aerosol, and chemistry data

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, B.A.; Barkstrom, B.R.

    1993-04-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) will collect data from a large number of satellite-borne instruments, beginning later in this decade, to make data accessible to the scientific community, NASA will build an EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). As an initial effort to accelerate the development of EOSDIS and to gain experience with such an information system, NASA and other agencies are working on a prototype system called Version O (VO). This effort will provide improved access to pre-EOS earth science data throughout the early EOSDIS period. Based on recommendations from the EOSDIS Science Advisory Panel, EOSDIS will have severalmore » distributed active archive centers (DAACs). Each DAAC will specialize in particular data sets. This paper describes work at the NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) DAAC. The Version 0 Langley DAAC began archiving and distributing existing data sets pertaining to the earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols, and tropospheric chemistry in late 1992. The primary goals of the LaRC VO effort are the following: (1) Enhance scientific use of existing data; (2) Develop institutional expertise in maintaining and distributing data; (3) Use institutional capability for processing data from previous missions such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment to prepare for processing future EOS satellite data; (4) Encourage cooperative interagency and international involvement with data sets and research; and (5) Incorporate technological hardware and software advances quickly.« less

  2. The Revolution in Earth and Space Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barstow, Daniel; Geary, Ed; Yazijian, Harvey

    2002-01-01

    Explains the changing nature of earth and space science education such as using inquiry-based teaching, how technology allows students to use satellite images in inquiry-based investigations, the consideration of earth and space as a whole system rather than a sequence of topics, and increased student participation in learning opportunities. (YDS)

  3. Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The GES DIS is one of 12 NASA Earth science data centers. The GES DISC vision is to enable researchers and educators maximize knowledge of the Earth by engaging in understanding their goals, and by leading the advancement of remote sensing information services in response to satisfying their goals. This presentation will describe the GES DISC approach, successes, challenges, and best practices.

  4. Interacting with Petabytes of Earth Science Data using Jupyter Notebooks, IPython Widgets and Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, T. A.; Granger, B.; Grout, J.; Corlay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The volume of Earth science data gathered from satellites, aircraft, drones, and field instruments continues to increase. For many scientific questions in the Earth sciences, managing this large volume of data is a barrier to progress, as it is difficult to explore and analyze large volumes of data using the traditional paradigm of downloading datasets to a local computer for analysis. Furthermore, methods for communicating Earth science algorithms that operate on large datasets in an easily understandable and reproducible way are needed. Here we describe a system for developing, interacting, and sharing well-documented Earth Science algorithms that combines existing software components: Jupyter Notebook: An open-source, web-based environment that supports documents that combine code and computational results with text narrative, mathematics, images, and other media. These notebooks provide an environment for interactive exploration of data and development of well documented algorithms. Jupyter Widgets / ipyleaflet: An architecture for creating interactive user interface controls (such as sliders, text boxes, etc.) in Jupyter Notebooks that communicate with Python code. This architecture includes a default set of UI controls (sliders, dropboxes, etc.) as well as APIs for building custom UI controls. The ipyleaflet project is one example that offers a custom interactive map control that allows a user to display and manipulate geographic data within the Jupyter Notebook. Google Earth Engine: A cloud-based geospatial analysis platform that provides access to petabytes of Earth science data via a Python API. The combination of Jupyter Notebooks, Jupyter Widgets, ipyleaflet, and Google Earth Engine makes it possible to explore and analyze massive Earth science datasets via a web browser, in an environment suitable for interactive exploration, teaching, and sharing. Using these environments can make Earth science analyses easier to understand and reproducible, which may

  5. Chemistry, the Central Science? The History of the High School Science Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Keith; Robbins, Dennis M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemistry became the ''central science'' not by design but by accident in the US high schools. The three important factors, which had their influence on the high school science, are sequenced and their impact on the development of US science education, are mentioned.

  6. What "Ideas-about-Science" Should Be Taught in School Science? A Chemistry Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to facilitate in-service chemistry teachers' understanding of nature of science and what "ideas-about-science" can be included in the classroom. The study is based on 17 in-service teachers who had registered for a 11-week course on "Epistemology of Science Teaching" as part of their Master's degree program. The…

  7. Digital Geological Mapping for Earth Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Richard; Smith, Sally; Tate, Nick; Jordan, Colm

    2010-05-01

    This SPLINT (SPatial Literacy IN Teaching) supported project is developing pedagogies for the introduction of teaching of digital geological mapping to Earth Science students. Traditionally students are taught to make geological maps on a paper basemap with a notebook to record their observations. Learning to use a tablet pc with GIS based software for mapping and data recording requires emphasis on training staff and students in specific GIS and IT skills and beneficial adjustments to the way in which geological data is recorded in the field. A set of learning and teaching materials are under development to support this learning process. Following the release of the British Geological Survey's Sigma software we have been developing generic methodologies for the introduction of digital geological mapping to students that already have experience of mapping by traditional means. The teaching materials introduce the software to the students through a series of structured exercises. The students learn the operation of the software in the laboratory by entering existing observations, preferably data that they have collected. Through this the students benefit from being able to reflect on their previous work, consider how it might be improved and plan new work. Following this they begin fieldwork in small groups using both methods simultaneously. They are able to practise what they have learnt in the classroom and review the differences, advantages and disadvantages of the two methods, while adding to the work that has already been completed. Once the field exercises are completed students use the data that they have collected in the production of high quality map products and are introduced to the use of integrated digital databases which they learn to search and extract information from. The relatively recent development of the technologies which underpin digital mapping also means that many academic staff also require training before they are able to deliver the

  8. Syllabus for Weizmann Course: Earth System Science 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This course aims for an understanding of Earth System Science and the interconnection of its various "spheres" (atmosphere, hydrosphere, etc.) by adopting the view that "the microcosm mirrors the macrocosm". We shall study a small set of microcosims, each residing primarily in one sphere, but substantially involving at least one other sphere, in order to illustrate the kinds of coupling that can occur and gain a greater appreciation of the complexity of even the smallest Earth System Science phenomenon.

  9. Earth System Science: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Details how an understanding of the role played by human activities in global environmental change has emerged. Presents information about the earth system provided by research programs. Speculates about the direction of future research. (DDR)

  10. Streaming Seismograms into Earth-Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Seismograms are the fundamental observations upon which seismology is based; they are central to any course in seismology and important for any discussion of earthquake-related phenomena based on seismic observations. Advances in the collection and distribution of seismic data have made the use of research-quality seismograms in any network capable classroom feasible. The development of large, deep seismogram archives place an unprecedented quantity of high-quality data within reach of the modern classroom environment. I describe and discuss several computer tools and classroom activities that I use in introductory (general education) and advanced undergraduate courses that present near real-time research-quality seismic observations in the classroom. The Earth Motion Monitor Application (EMMA), is a MacOS application that presents a visually clear seismogram display that can be projected in classrooms with internet access. Seismic signals from thousands of station are available from the IRIS data center and the bandwidth can be tailored to the particular type of signal of interest (large event, low frequencies; small event, high frequencies). In introductory classes for non-science students, the near realtime display routinely shows magnitude 4.0-5.0 earthquake-generated signals, demonstrating to students the frequency of earthquake occurrence. Over the next few minutes as the waves travel through and across the planet, their arrival on the seismogram display provides some basic data for a qualitative estimate of the event's general location. When a major or great earthquake occurs, a broad-band display of signals from nearby stations can dramatically and dynamically illuminate the frequent activity associated with the aftershock sequence. Routine use of the display (while continuing the traditional classroom activities) provides students with a significant dose of seismogram study. Students generally find all the signals, including variations in seismic

  11. Virginia Earth Science Collaborative: Developing Highly Qualified Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cothron, J.

    2007-12-01

    A collaborative of nine institutes of higher education and non-profits and seventy-one school divisions developed and implemented courses that will enable teachers to acquire an Add-On Earth Science endorsement and to improve their skills in teaching Earth Science. For the Earth Science Endorsement, the five courses and associated credits are Physical Geology (4), Geology of Virginia (4), Oceanography (4), Astronomy (3) and Meteorology (3). The courses include rigorous academic content, research-based instructional strategies, laboratory experiences, and intense field experiences. In addition, courses were offered on integrating new technologies into the earth sciences, developing virtual field trips, and teaching special education students. To date, 39 courses have been offered statewide, with over 560 teachers participating. Teachers showed increased conceptual understanding of earth science topics as measured by pre-post tests. Other outcomes include a project website, a collaborative of over 60 IHE and K-12 educators, pilot instruments, and a statewide committee focused on policy in the earth sciences.

  12. Sea Changes. Topics in Marine Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. The principal theme of Changes in the Sea is presented in this particular…

  13. Earth Science Education Plan: Inspire the Next Generation of Earth Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Education Enterprise Strategy, the expanding knowledge of how people learn, and the community-wide interest in revolutionizing Earth and space science education have guided us in developing this plan for Earth science education. This document builds on the success of the first plan for Earth science education published in 1996; it aligns with the new framework set forth in the NASA Education Enterprise Strategy; it recognizes the new educational opportunities resulting from research programs and flight missions; and it builds on the accomplishments th'at the Earth Science Enterprise has made over the last decade in studying Earth as a system. This document embodies comprehensive, practicable plans for inspiring our children; providing educators with the tools they need to teach science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and improving our citizens' scientific literacy. This plan describes an approach to systematically sharing knowledge; developing the most effective mechanisms to achieve tangible, lasting results; and working collaboratively to catalyze action at a scale great enough to ensure impact nationally and internationally. This document will evolve and be periodically reviewed in partnership with the Earth science education community.

  14. Enhancing interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science in an undergraduate life science program through physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Pursell, David P

    2009-01-01

    BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect.

  15. Enhancing Interdisciplinary, Mathematics, and Physical Science in an Undergraduate Life Science Program through Physical Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect. PMID:19255133

  16. Promotion of science among youngsters: chemistry outreach initiatives at EPFL.

    PubMed

    Moser, Farnaz

    2012-01-01

    At EPFL, a strategy for organising scientific outreach activities has been developed and a programme comprising various measures and actions elaborated to promote science and technology among youngsters, especially young girls. As part of this programme, workshops and chemistry camps are developed and carried out for children and youngsters aged from 7 to 16 years old. These workshops are adapted to the age of the participants and allow them to discover chemistry in a fascinating way and become familiar with this field, understand how useful it is to society and learn about the professions it opens up. Some of the workshops take place at EPFL and others are organised in schools in the French-speaking cantons of Switzerland during the touring campaign of a bus named 'Les sciences, ça m'intéresse !' ('Sciences Interest Me!').

  17. Semantic Web Data Discovery of Earth Science Data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Strub, Richard F.; Lynnes, Christopher S.; Fang, Hongliang; Teng, William

    2008-01-01

    Mirador is a web interface for searching Earth Science data archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Mirador provides keyword-based search and guided navigation for providing efficient search and access to Earth Science data. Mirador employs the power of Google's universal search technology for fast metadata keyword searches, augmented by additional capabilities such as event searches (e.g., hurricanes), searches based on location gazetteer, and data services like format converters and data sub-setters. The objective of guided data navigation is to present users with multiple guided navigation in Mirador is an ontology based on the Global Change Master directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF). Current implementation includes the project ontology covering various instruments and model data. Additional capabilities in the pipeline include Earth Science parameter and applications ontologies.

  18. Online Analysis Enhances Use of NASA Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure, has provided researchers with advanced capabilities to perform data exploration and analysis with observational data from NASA Earth observation satellites. In the past 5-10 years, examining geophysical events and processes with remote-sensing data required a multistep process of data discovery, data acquisition, data management, and ultimately data analysis. Giovanni accelerates this process by enabling basic visualization and analysis directly on the World Wide Web. In the last two years, Giovanni has added new data acquisition functions and expanded analysis options to increase its usefulness to the Earth science research community.

  19. From Sky to Earth: Data Science Methodology Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabal, Ashish A.; Crichton, Daniel; Djorgovski, S. G.; Law, Emily; Hughes, John S.

    2017-06-01

    We describe here the parallels in astronomy and earth science datasets, their analyses, and the opportunities for methodology transfer from astroinformatics to geoinformatics. Using example of hydrology, we emphasize how meta-data and ontologies are crucial in such an undertaking. Using the infrastructure being designed for EarthCube - the Virtual Observatory for the earth sciences - we discuss essential steps for better transfer of tools and techniques in the future e.g. domain adaptation. Finally we point out that it is never a one-way process and there is enough for astroinformatics to learn from geoinformatics as well.

  20. Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Earth Engineering Center, NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Center for Risks and Hazards, Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development, and Center for Global Health and Economic Development and six academic departments including Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B, School of Arts and Sciences), Earth and Environmental Engineering (DEEE, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), Department of Environmental Health (School of Public Health), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DEES, School of Arts and Sciences), Department of International and Public Affairs (School of International and Policy Affairs), and Barnard College Department of Environmental Science. The Earth Institute at Columbia University's ADVANCE program is based both on a study of the status of women at Columbia and research on the progression of women in science elsewhere. The five major targets of the Columbia ADVANCE program are to (1) change the demographics of the faculty through intelligent hiring practices, (2) provide support to women scientists through difficult life transitions including elder care and adoption or birth of a child, (3) enhance mentoring and networking opportunities, (4) implement transparent promotion procedures and policies, and (5) conduct an institutional self study. The Earth Institute ADVANCE program is unique in that it addresses issues that tend to manifest themselves in the earth and environmental fields, such as extended

  1. UNESCO’s New Earth Science Education Initiative for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missotten, R.; Gaines, S. M.; de Mulder, E. F.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Education Science Culture and Communication Organization (UNESCO) has recently launched a new Earth Science Education Initiative in Africa. The overall intention of this Initiative is to support the development of the next generation of earth scientists in Africa who are equipped with the necessary tools, networks and perspectives to apply sound science to solving and benefiting from the challenges and opportunities of sustainable development. The opportunities in the earth sciences are great, starting with traditional mineral extraction and extending into environmental management such as climate change adaptation, prevention of natural hazards, and ensuring access to drinking water. The Earth Science Education Initiative has received strong support from many different types of partners. Potential partners have indicated an interest to participate as organizational partners, content providers, relevant academic institutes, and funders. Organizational partners now include the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf), International Center for Training and Exchanges in the Geosciences (CIFEG), Association of African Women Geoscientists (AAWG), International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE), and International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). The activities and focus of the Initiative within the overall intention is being developed in a participatory manner through a series of five regional workshops in Africa. The objective of these workshops is to assess regional capacities and needs in earth science education, research and industry underlining existing centers of excellence through conversation with relevant regional and international experts and plotting the way ahead for earth science education. This talk will provide an update on the outcomes of the first three workshops which have taken place in Luanda, Angola; Assiut, Egypt; and Cape Town; South Africa.

  2. The Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution: A Model for the Delivery of Earth Science Professional Development to Minority-Serving Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellins, K. K.; Snow, E.; Olson, H. C.; Stocks, E.; Willis, M.; Olson, J.; Odell, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution was a 5-y teacher professional development project that aimed to increase teachers' content knowledge in Earth science and preparing them to teach a 12th-grade capstone Earth and Space Science course, which is new to the Texas curriculum. The National Science Foundation-supported project was…

  3. The role of the space station in earth science research

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, Jack A.

    1999-01-22

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to be a valuable platform for earth science research. By virtue of its being in a mid-inclination orbit (51.5 deg.), ISS provides the opportunity for nadir viewing of nearly 3/4 of the Earth's surface, and allows viewing to high latitudes if limb-emission or occultation viewing techniques are used. ISS also provides the opportunity for viewing the Earth under a range of lighting conditions, unlike the polar sun-synchronous satellites that are used for many earth observing programs. The ISS is expected to have ample power and data handling capability to support Earth-viewing instruments,more » provide opportunities for external mounting and retrieval of instruments, and be in place for a sufficiently long period that long-term data records can be obtained. On the other hand, there are several questions related to contamination, orbital variations, pointing knowledge and stability, and viewing that are of concern in consideration of ISS for earth science applications. The existence of an optical quality window (the Window Observational Research Facility, or WORF), also provides the opportunity for Earth observations from inside the pressurized part of ISS. Current plans by NASA for earth science research from ISS are built around the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) instrument, planned for launch in 2002.« less

  4. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The presentation describes data management of NASA remote sensing data for Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). Many types of ground and integrative (e.g., satellite, GIs) data will be needed and many models must be applied, adapted or developed for properly understanding the functioning of Northern Eurasia cold and diverse regional system. Mechanisms for obtaining the requisite data sets and models and sharing them among the participating scientists are essential. The proposed project targets integration of remote sensing data from AVHRR, MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US- satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEPNCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  5. Integrating Authentic Earth Science Data in Online Visualization Tools and Social Media Networking to Promote Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. L.; Campbell, B.; Chambers, L.; Davis, A.; Riebeek, H.; Ward, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is one of the largest Earth Science research-based institutions in the nation. Along with the research comes a dedicated group of people who are tasked with developing Earth science research-based education and public outreach materials to reach the broadest possible range of audiences. The GSFC Earth science education community makes use of a wide variety of platforms in order to reach their goals of communicating science. These platforms include using social media networking such as Twitter and Facebook, as well as geo-spatial tools such as MY NASA DATA, NASA World Wind, NEO, and Google Earth. Using a wide variety of platforms serves the dual purposes of promoting NASA Earth Science research and making authentic data available to educational communities that otherwise might not otherwise be granted access. Making data available to education communities promotes scientific literacy through the investigation of scientific phenomena using the same data that is used by the scientific community. Data from several NASA missions will be used to demonstrate the ways in which Earth science data are made available for the education community.

  6. Communicating Earth Science Applications through Virtual Poster Sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.

    2013-12-01

    The DEVELOP National Program addresses environmental and public policy issues through interdisciplinary research projects that apply the lens of NASA Earth observations to community concerns around the globe. Part of NASA's Applied Sciences' Capacity Building Program, DEVELOP bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society, building capacity in both participants and partner organizations to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Teams of DEVELOP participants partner with decision makers to conduct rapid feasibility projects that highlight fresh applications of NASA's suite of Earth observing sensors, cultivate advanced skills, and increase understanding of NASA Earth Science data and technology. Part of this process involves the creation of short introductory videos that demonstrate the environmental concerns, project methodologies and results, and an overview of how this work will impact decision makers. These videos are presented to the public three times a year in 'virtual poster sessions' (VPS) that provide an interactive way for individuals from around the globe to access the research, understand the capabilities and applications of NASA's Earth science datasets, and interact with the participants through blogging and dialogue sessions. Virtual poster sessions have allowed DEVELOP to introduce NASA's Earth science assets to thousands of viewers around the world. For instance, one fall VPS had over 5,000 visitors from 89 different countries during the two week session. This presentation will discuss lessons learned and statistics related to the series of nine virtual poster sessions that DEVELOP has conducted 2011-2013.

  7. The Role and Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the three strategic goals of NASA is to Advance understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet (NASA strategic plan 2014). NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program directly supports this goal. NASA has been launching satellites for civilian Earth observations for over 40 years, and collecting data from various types of instruments. Especially since 1990, with the start of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, which was a part of the Mission to Planet Earth, the observations have been significantly more extensive in their volumes, variety and velocity. Frequent, global observations are made in support of Earth system science. An open data policy has been in effect since 1990, with no period of exclusive access and non-discriminatory access to data, free of charge. NASA currently holds nearly 10 petabytes of Earth science data including satellite, air-borne, and ground-based measurements and derived geophysical parameter products in digital form. Millions of users around the world are using NASA data for Earth science research and applications. In 2014, over a billion data files were downloaded by users from NASAs EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a system with 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) across the U. S. As a core component of the ESDS Program, EOSDIS has been operating since 1994, and has been evolving continuously with advances in information technology. The ESDS Program influences as well as benefits from advances in Earth Science Informatics. The presentation will provide an overview of the role and evolution of NASAs ESDS Program.

  8. Critical Zone Science as a Multidisciplinary Framework for Teaching Earth Science and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wymore, A.; White, T. S.; Dere, A. L. D.; Hoffman, A.; Washburne, J. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the terrestrial portion of the continents ranging from the top of the vegetative canopy down through soil and bedrock to the lowest extent of freely circulating groundwater. The primary objective of CZ science is to characterize and understand how the reciprocal interactions among rock, soil, water, air and terrestrial organisms influence the Earth as a habitable environment. Thus it is a highly multidisciplinary science that incorporates the biological, hydrological, geological and atmospheric sciences and provides a holistic approach to teaching Earth system science. Here we share highlights from a full-semester university curriculum that introduces upper-division Environmental Science, Geology, Hydrology and Earth Science students to CZ science. We emphasize how a CZ framework is appropriate to teach concepts across the scientific disciplines, concepts of sustainability, and how CZ science serves as a useful approach to solving humanities' grand challenges.

  9. 77 FR 67027 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12- 091] NASA Advisory Council; Science... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science Subcommittee of the [[Page 67028

  10. Story-telling, Earth-Sciences and Geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin; Sibilla, Anna; Graells, Robert Casals i.

    2015-04-01

    People are engineers, even the artist. People like stories, even the engineers. Engineering shapes the intersections of humans and their environments including with the geosphere. Geoethics considers values upon which to base practices how to intersect the geosphere. Story-telling is a skilful human practice to describe perception of values in different contexts to influence their application. Traditional earth-centric narrations of rural communities have been lost in the global urbanisation process. These former-time narrations related to the "sacrum" - matters not possible to be explained with reasoning. Science and technology, industrialisation and global urbanisation require an other kind of earth-centric story-telling. Now at the fringe of the Anthropocene, humans can base their earth-centricity on knowledge and scientific thinking. We argue that modern story-telling about the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on these systems is needed, also in particular because citizens rarely can notice how the geosphere intersects with their daily dealings; putting weather and disasters aside. Modern earth-centric story-telling would offer citizens opportunities to develop informed position towards humankind's place within earth-systems. We argue that such "earth-science story-lines" should be part of the public discourse to engage citizens who have more or less "expert-knowledge". Understanding the functioning of the Earth is needed for economy and values suitable for an anthropophil society. Multi-faceted discussion of anthropogenic global change and geoengineering took off recently; emerging from discussions about weather and hazard mitigation. Going beyond that example; we illustrate opportunities for rich story-telling on intersections of humans' activities and the geosphere. These 'modern narrations' can weave science, demographics, linguistics and cultural histories into earth-centric stories around daily dealings of citizens

  11. ACCESS Earth: Promoting Accessibility to Earth System Science for Students with Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, S. M.; Cohen, L.; Lightbody, N.

    2001-05-01

    ACCESS Earth is an intensive summer institute for high school students with disabilities and their teachers that is designed to encourage students with disabilities to consider careers in earth system science. Participants study earth system science concepts at a Maine coastal estuary, using Geographic Information Systems, remote sensing, and field observations to evaluate the impacts of climate change, sea level rise, and development on coastal systems. Teachers, students, and scientists work together to adapt field and laboratory activities for persons with disabilities, including those with mobility and visual impairments. Other sessions include demonstrations of assistive technology, career discussions, and opportunities for students to meet with successful scientists with disabilities from throughout the U.S. The summer institute is one of several programs in development at the University of Southern Maine to address the problem of underrepresentation of people with disabilities in the earth sciences. Other projects include a mentoring program for high school students, a web-based clearinghouse of resources for teaching earth sciences to students with disabilities, and guidebooks for adaptation of popular published earth system science curricula for disabled learners.

  12. General Education Engagement in Earth and Planetary Science through an Earth-Mars Analog Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. A.; Kahmann-Robinson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The successes of NASA rovers on Mars and new remote sensing imagery at unprecedented resolution can awaken students to the valuable application of Earth analogs to understand Mars processes and the possibilities of extraterrestrial life. Mars For Earthlings (MFE) modules and curriculum are designed as general science content introducing a pedagogical approach of integrating Earth science principles and Mars imagery. The content can be easily imported into existing or new general education courses. MFE learning modules introduce students to Google Mars and JMARS software packages and encourage Mars imagery analysis to predict habitable environments on Mars drawing on our knowledge of extreme environments on Earth. "Mars Mission" projects help students develop teamwork and presentation skills. Topic-oriented module examples include: Remote Sensing Mars, Olympus Mons and Igneous Rocks, Surface Sculpting Forces, and Extremophiles. The learning modules package imagery, video, lab, and in-class activities for each topic and are available online for faculty to adapt or adopt in courses either individually or collectively. A piloted MFE course attracted a wide range of non-majors to non-degree seeking senior citizens. Measurable outcomes of the piloted MFE curriculum were: heightened enthusiasm for science, awareness of NASA programs, application of Earth science principles, and increased science literacy to help students develop opinions of current issues (e.g., astrobiology or related government-funded research). Earth and Mars analog examples can attract and engage future STEM students as the next generation of earth, planetary, and astrobiology scientists.

  13. Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) version 2.51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, Patrick; Tost, Holger; Pozzer, Andrea; Kunze, Markus; Kirner, Oliver; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Brinkop, Sabine; Cai, Duy S.; Dyroff, Christoph; Eckstein, Johannes; Frank, Franziska; Garny, Hella; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Graf, Phoebe; Grewe, Volker; Kerkweg, Astrid; Kern, Bastian; Matthes, Sigrun; Mertens, Mariano; Meul, Stefanie; Neumaier, Marco; Nützel, Matthias; Oberländer-Hayn, Sophie; Ruhnke, Roland; Runde, Theresa; Sander, Rolf; Scharffe, Dieter; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Three types of reference simulations, as recommended by the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), have been performed with version 2.51 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model: hindcast simulations (1950-2011), hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1979-2013), i.e. nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined hindcast and projection simulations (1950-2100). The manuscript summarizes the updates of the model system and details the different model set-ups used, including the on-line calculated diagnostics. Simulations have been performed with two different nudging set-ups, with and without interactive tropospheric aerosol, and with and without a coupled ocean model. Two different vertical resolutions have been applied. The on-line calculated sources and sinks of reactive species are quantified and a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective is provided as a quality check of the data. The focus is on the intercomparison of the different model set-ups. The simulation data will become publicly available via CCMI and the Climate and Environmental Retrieval and Archive (CERA) database of the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ). This manuscript is intended to serve as an extensive reference for further analyses of the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) simulations.

  14. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners ESIP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2013-01-01

    A broad-based, distributed community of science, data and information technology practitioners. With over 150 member organizations, the ESIP Federation brings together public, academic, commercial, and nongovernmental organizations to share knowledge, expertise, technology and best practices to improve opportunities for increasing access, discovery, integration and usability of Earth science data.

  15. Explaining Four Earth Science Enigmas with a New Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarry, Mary Ann; Straffon, Dan; Patterson, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of science is seldom about solitary individuals busy at work in labs making discoveries. This is especially true of the Earth sciences, where time-intensive fieldwork is usually required. Single scientists are rarely capable of amassing the requisite data sets to form grand, unifying theories. This is the case with the new airburst…

  16. Earth Science (A Process Approach), Section 1: The Water Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, K. C.; And Others

    Included is a collection of earth science laboratory activities, which may provide the junior or senior high school science teacher with ideas for activities in his program. The included 48 experiments are grouped into these areas: properties of matter; evaporation; atmospheric moisture and condensation; precipitation; moving water, subsurface…

  17. The search for signs of life on exoplanets at the interface of chemistry and planetary science.

    PubMed

    Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2015-03-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets in the last two decades that are so different from planets in our own solar system challenges many areas of traditional planetary science. However, ideas for how to detect signs of life in this mélange of planetary possibilities have lagged, and only in the last few years has modeling how signs of life might appear on genuinely alien worlds begun in earnest. Recent results have shown that the exciting frontier for biosignature gas ideas is not in the study of biology itself, which is inevitably rooted in Earth's geochemical and evolutionary specifics, but in the interface of chemistry and planetary physics.

  18. An Integrated and Collaborative Approach for NASA Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, K.; Lowe, D.; Behnke, J.; Ramapriyan, H.; Behnke, J.; Sofinowski, E.

    2012-01-01

    Earth science research requires coordination and collaboration across multiple disparate science domains. Data systems that support this research are often as disparate as the disciplines that they support. These distinctions can create barriers limiting access to measurements, which could otherwise enable cross-discipline Earth science. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is continuing to bridge the gap between discipline-centric data systems with a coherent and transparent system of systems that offers up to date and engaging science related content, creates an active and immersive science user experience, and encourages the use of EOSDIS earth data and services. The new Earthdata Coherent Web (ECW) project encourages cohesiveness by combining existing websites, data and services into a unified website with a common look and feel, common tools and common processes. It includes cross-linking and cross-referencing across the Earthdata site and NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC), and by leveraging existing EOSDIS Cyber-infrastructure and Web Service technologies to foster re-use and to reduce barriers to discovering Earth science data (http://earthdata.nasa.gov).

  19. A New Carbonate Chemistry in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulard, E.; Gloter, A.; Corgne, A.; Antonangeli, D.; Auzende, A.; Perrillat, J.; Guyot, F. J.; Fiquet, G.

    2010-12-01

    explanation for the coexistence of oxidized and reduced C species observed on natural samples [4, 5], but also a new diamond formation mechanism at lower mantle conditions. [1] Sleep, N. H., and K. Zahnle (2001) J. Geophys. Res.-Planets 106(E1), 1373-1399. [2] Javoy, M. (1997) Geophys. Res. Lett. 24(2), 177-180. [3] Lecuyer et al. (2000) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 181(1-2), 33-40. [4] Brenker et al. (2007) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 260(1-2), 1-9. [5] Stachel et al. (2000) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 140(1), 16-27.

  20. Earth Radiation Budget Science, 1978. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An earth radiation budget satellite system planned in order to understand climate on various temporal and spatial scales is considered. Topics discussed include: climate modeling, climate diagnostics, radiation modeling, radiation variability and correlation studies, cloudiness and the radiation budget, and radiation budget and related measurements in 1985 and beyond.

  1. Earth Orbital Science, Space in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is part of the "Space in the Seventies" series and reviews the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) earth orbital scientific research programs in progress and those to be pursued in the coming decade. Research in space physics is described in Part One in these areas: interplanetary monitoring platforms, small…

  2. The chemistry of rare earth elements in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, J. W.; Bartholomay, H. A.; Fegley, B.

    1984-01-01

    The high concentration of rare earth elements (REE) in primitive CaS suggests that the REE along with the other normally lithophile elements form stable sulfides under the unusual conditions which existed during the formation of enstatite chrondites. In order to acquire a more quantitative framework in which to interpret these data, the behavior of the REE in systems with solar, or slightly fractionated solar, composition is being studied. These new data introduce modest changes in the behavior of some of the REE when compared to previous studies. For example, the largest differences are in the stabilities of the gaseous monoxides of Ce, Eu, Tb, Ho, and Tm, all of which now appear to be less stable than previously thought, and YbO(g) which is somewhat more stable. Much more significant are the changes in REE distribution in the gas phase in fractionated systems, especially those made more reducing by changing the C/O ratio from the solar value of 0.6 to about 1.0. In almost all cases, the exceptions being Eu, Tm and Yb whose elemental gaseous species dominate, the monosulfides become more abundant. Moreover, the solid oxides of Eu, Tm and Yb become less stable under more reducing conditions which, in effect, should reduce the condensation temperature of all REE in more reduced systems.

  3. Laboratory investigations: Low Earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jon B.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin protective coatings such as Al2O3 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.

  4. Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L.

    2003-03-01

    The space program and media based on it have provided fascinating examples that can be used to expore chemical principles. The HBO series From the Earth to the Moon and a documentary Moonshot provide examples for teaching chemical principles from the Apollo missions. A docking problem between two spacecrafts occurred during the Apollo 14 mission. This situation can be used to discuss the conditions necessary for a chemical reaction. A catastrophic fire on Apollo 1 can be used to illustrate the influence of different conditions on the rate of a reaction. Lightning striking Apollo 12 during liftoff showed the consequence of adding ions to solution. The landing of Apollo 12, which touched down only 535 feet from Surveyor 3, can be used to teach accuracy and absolute and relative error. The astronauts of Apollo 15 discovered a sample of the primordial lunar crust, and during Apollo 17, astronauts discovered orange dust on the moon. These discoveries can be used to demonstrate the importance of trained observation skills and analytical thinking.

  5. Modern Publishing Approach of Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Filling a needed scholarly publishing avenue for astronomy education researchers and earth science education researchers, the Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE published its first volume and issue in 2014. The Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE is a scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original discipline-based education research and evaluation, with an emphasis of significant scientific results derived from ethical observations and systematic experimentation in science education and evaluation. International in scope, JAESE aims to publish the highest quality and timely articles from discipline-based education research that advance understanding of astronomy and earth sciences education and are likely to have a significant impact on the discipline or on policy. Articles are solicited describing both (i) systematic science education research and (ii) evaluated teaching innovations across the broadly defined Earth & space sciences education, including the disciplines of astronomy, climate education, energy resource science, environmental science, geology, geography, agriculture, meteorology, planetary sciences, and oceanography education. The publishing model adopted for this new journal is open-access and articles appear online in GoogleScholar, ERIC, and are searchable in catalogs of 440,000 libraries that index online journals of its type. Rather than paid for by library subscriptions or by society membership dues, the annual budget is covered by page-charges paid by individual authors, their institutions, grants or donors: This approach is common in scientific journals, but is relatively uncommon in education journals. Authors retain their own copyright. The journal is owned by the Clute Institute of Denver, which owns and operates 17 scholarly journals and currently edited by former American Astronomical Society Education Officer Tim Slater, who is an endowed professor at the University of Wyoming and

  6. Lessons from NASA Applied Sciences Program: Success Factors in Applying Earth Science in Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, L. A.; Cox, L.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program collaborates with organizations to discover and demonstrate applications of NASA Earth science research and technology to decision making. The desired outcome is for public and private organizations to use NASA Earth science products in innovative applications for sustained, operational uses to enhance their decisions. In addition, the program facilitates the end-user feedback to Earth science to improve products and demands for research. The Program thus serves as a bridge between Earth science research and technology and the applied organizations and end-users with management, policy, and business responsibilities. Since 2002, the Applied Sciences Program has sponsored over 115 applications-oriented projects to apply Earth observations and model products to decision making activities. Projects have spanned numerous topics - agriculture, air quality, water resources, disasters, public health, aviation, etc. The projects have involved government agencies, private companies, universities, non-governmental organizations, and foreign entities in multiple types of teaming arrangements. The paper will examine this set of applications projects and present specific examples of successful use of Earth science in decision making. The paper will discuss scientific, organizational, and management factors that contribute to or impede the integration of the Earth science research in policy and management. The paper will also present new methods the Applied Sciences Program plans to implement to improve linkages between science and end users.

  7. Earth Science and Applications attached payloads on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wicks, Thomas G.; Arnold, Ralph R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Office of Space Science and Applications' process for Attached Payloads on Space Station Freedom from development through on-orbit operations. Its primary objectives are to detail the sequential steps of the attached payload methodology by tracing in particular the selected Earth Science and Applications' payloads through this flow and relate the integral role of Marshall Space Flight Center's Science Utilization Management function of integration and operations.

  8. It's Time to Stand up for Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary paper focuses upon the loss of respect for Earth Sciences on the part of many school districts across the United States. Too many Earth Science teachers are uncertified to teach Earth Science, or hold certificates to teach the subject merely because they took a test. The Earth Sciences have faced this problem for many years…

  9. Welcome to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    There are strong scientific indications that natural change in the Earth system is being accelerated by human intervention. As a result, planet Earth faces the possibility of rapid environmental changes that would have a profound impact on all nations. However, we do not fully understand either the short-term effects of our activities, or their long-term implications - many important scientific questions remain unanswered. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with the national and international scientific communities to establish a sound scientific basis for addressing these critical issues through research efforts coordinated under the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, and the World Climate Research Program. The Earth Science Enterprise is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise will use space- and surface-based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. The space-based components will provide a constellation of satellites to monitor the Earth from space. A major component of the Earth Science Enterprise is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The overall objective of the EOS Program is to determine the extent, causes, and regional consequences of global climate change. EOS will provide sustained space-based observations that will allow researchers to monitor climate variables over time to determine trends. A constellation of EOS satellites will acquire global data, beginning in 1998 and extending well into the 21st century.

  10. Broadening the Participation of Native Americans in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno Watts, Nievita

    Climate change is not a thing of the future. Indigenous people are being affected by climate changes now. Native American Earth scientists could help Native communities deal with both climate change and environmental pollution issues, but are noticeably lacking in Earth Science degree programs. The Earth Sciences produce the lowest percentage of minority scientists when compared with other science and engineering fields. Twenty semi-structured interviews were gathered from American Indian/ Alaska Native Earth Scientists and program directors who work directly with Native students to broaden participation in the field. Data was analyzed using qualitative methods and constant comparison analysis. Barriers Native students faced in this field are discussed, as well as supports which go the furthest in assisting achievement of higher education goals. Program directors give insight into building pathways and programs to encourage Native student participation and success in Earth Science degree programs. Factors which impede obtaining a college degree include financial barriers, pressures from familial obligations, and health issues. Factors which impede the decision to study Earth Science include unfamiliarity with geoscience as a field of study and career choice, the uninviting nature of Earth Science as a profession, and curriculum that is irrelevant to the practical needs of Native communities or courses which are inaccessible geographically. Factors which impede progress that are embedded in Earth Science programs include educational preparation, academic information and counseling and the prevalence of a Western scientific perspective to the exclusion of all other perspectives. Intradepartmental relationships also pose barriers to the success of some students, particularly those who are non-traditional students (53%) or women (80%). Factors which support degree completion include financial assistance, mentors and mentoring, and research experiences. Earth scientists

  11. Earth's Minimoons: Opportunities for Science and Technology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce T.; Bottke, William F.; Chyba, Monique; Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Jones, Lynne; Urrutxua, Hodei

    2018-05-01

    Twelve years ago the Catalina Sky Survey discovered Earth's first known natural geocentric object other than the Moon, a few-meter diameter asteroid designated \\RH. Despite significant improvements in ground-based asteroid surveying technology in the past decade they have not discovered another temporarily-captured orbiter (TCO; colloquially known as minimoons) but the all-sky fireball system operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network detected a bright natural meteor that was almost certainly in a geocentric orbit before it struck Earth's atmosphere. Within a few years the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will either begin to regularly detect TCOs or force a re-analysis of the creation and dynamical evolution of small asteroids in the inner solar system. The first studies of the provenance, properties, and dynamics of Earth's minimoons suggested that there should be a steady state population with about one 1- to 2-meter diameter captured objects at any time, with the number of captured meteoroids increasing exponentially for smaller sizes. That model was then improved and extended to include the population of temporarily-captured flybys (TCFs), objects that fail to make an entire revolution around Earth while energetically bound to the Earth-Moon system. Several different techniques for discovering TCOs have been considered but their small diameters, proximity, and rapid motion make them challenging targets for existing ground-based optical, meteor, and radar surveys. However, the LSST's tremendous light gathering power and short exposure times could allow it to detect and discover many minimoons. We expect that if the TCO population is confirmed, and new objects are frequently discovered, they can provide new opportunities for 1) studying the dynamics of the Earth-Moon system, 2) testing models of the production and dynamical evolution of small asteroids from the asteroid belt, 3) rapid and frequent low delta-v missions to

  12. Increasing Participation in the Earth Sciences A 35 year Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blueford, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    In the 1970's the fact that woman and ethnic minorities men made up approximately10% of the workforce in the geosciences created concern. Determining ways to increase the participation became a topic of discussion amongst many of the geosciences agencies in the United States. Many created scholarships and work opportunities for students. One of the most successful projects was the MPES (Minority Participation in the Earth Science) Program implemented by the U.S. Geological Survey. A key factor in its success was its outreach programs which used employees to work in elementary schools to get children excited about earth sciences. Successive years added teacher workshops and developing career day presentations to help school districts increase the awareness of the earth sciences. However, cutbacks prevented the continuation of these programs, but from the ashes a new non-profit organization of scientists, the Math Science Nucleus, developed curriculum and implementation strategies that used Earth Sciences as a core content area. Using the power of the internet, it provided teachers and parents around the world content driven curriculum. The Integrating Science, Math, and Technology Reference Curriculum is used around the world to help teachers understand how children learn science content.

  13. Ethics in Science: The Unique Consequences of Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the ethical issues unique to the science and practice of chemistry. These issues arise from chemistry’s position in the middle between the theoretical and the practical, a science concerned with molecules that are of the right size to directly affect human life. Many of the issues are raised by the central activity of chemistry––synthesis. Chemists make thousands of new substances each year. Many are beneficial, but others are threats. Since the development of the chemical industry in the nineteenth century, chemistry has contributed to the deterioration of the environment but has also helped to reduce pollution. Finally, we discuss the role of codes of ethics and whether the current codes of conduct for chemists are adequate for the challenges of today’s world. PMID:26155729

  14. Overview of the Earth System Science Education Alliance Online Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade in large part thanks to technology-and one technology in particular, the Internet. The World Wide Web has opened up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators from around the world to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. A positive offshoot of this reform effort is the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). This partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational TechnologiesTM at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school teachers. Each course lasts one semester. The courses begin with three weeks of introductory content. Then teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. In week A of each learning cycle, teachers do earth system activities with their students. In week B teachers investigate aspects of the Earth system -- for instance, the reason rocks change to soil, the relationship between rock weathering and soil nutrients, and the consequent development of biomes. In week C teachers develop classroom activities and share them online with other course participants. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events -- volcanic eruptions

  15. Overview of the Earth System Science Education Alliance Online Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, J.; Myers, R.

    2002-12-01

    Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade in large part thanks to technology-and one technology in particular, the Internet. The World Wide Web has opened up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators from around the world to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. A positive offshoot of this reform effort is the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). This partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational Technologiestm at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school teachers. Each course lasts one semester. The courses begin with three weeks of introductory content. Then teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. In week A of each learning cycle, teachers do earth system activities with their students. In week B teachers investigate aspects of the Earth system-for instance, the reason rocks change to soil, the relationship between rock weathering and soil nutrients, and the consequent development of biomes. In week C teachers develop classroom activities and share them online with other course participants. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events-volcanic eruptions

  16. Engineering for Life Sciences: A Fruitful Collaboration Enabled by Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Christof M

    2017-02-13

    "… The interaction of engineering and life sciences has a long history that is characterized by a mutual dependency. The role of chemistry in these developments is to connect the engineers' instrumentation with the life scientists' specimens. This very successful partnership will further continue to produce essential and innovative solutions for future challenges …" Read more in the Guest Editorial by Christof M. Niemeyer. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. PREFACE: 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013), was held at the Swiss Bell Mangga Besar, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 23 December 2013. The AeroEarth conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. AeroEarth 2013 promotes interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that high-level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Earth Science. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 91 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from 8 countries. There are 3 (three) Plenary Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of AeroEarth 2013. The AeroEarth 2013 Proceedings Editors Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. Amit Desai Further information on the invited plenary speakers and photographs from the conference can be found in the pdf.

  18. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  19. Earth Sciences' Capacity Building In Developing Countries through International Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W.

    2007-12-01

    Within the framework of "traditional" programmes, like the joint UNESCO-IUGS "International Geoscience Programme" (IGCP), the "International Continental Scientific Drilling Program" (ICDP), the "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program" (IODP) or the "International Lithosphere Programme" (ILP) numerous opportunities are provided to strengthen postgraduate geo-scientific education of representatives from developing countries. Recently established new initiatives, such as the "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) or UNESCO's Global Network of Geoparks complement these in addition as important components to UNESCO's 'Education for All' programme, notably the youth, as well as to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014). The "International Year of Planet Earth" is a joint initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO. The central aims and ambitions of the Year, proclaimed for 2008 by the UN General Assembly, are to demonstrate the great potential of the Earth sciences in building a safer, healthier and wealthier society, and to encourage more widespread and effective application of this potential by targeting politicians and other decision-makers, educational systems, and the general public. Promotion of international collaboration, as well as capacity building and training of students of developing countries in all fields of Earth Sciences seem to be the most appropriate way to meet also the challenges of the IYPE. Another opportunity to improve the international recognition of Earth Scinces, also in developing countries, is the use of Geoparks as a promotional tool for education and popularization of Earth Sciences. Geoparks, notably those included in the European and/or Global Geoparks Networks, provide an international platform of cooperation and exchange between experts and practitioners in geological heritage matters, and are as such excellent instruments in highlighting Earth sciences. The

  20. A new program in earth system science education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, Wesley; Kalb, Michael W.; Johnson, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    A program aimed at accelerating the development of earth system science curricula at the undergraduate level and at seeding the establishment of university-based mechanisms for cooperative research and education among universities and NASA has been initiated by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) in conjunction with NASA. Proposals were submitted by 100 U.S. research universities which were selected as candidates to participate in a three-year pilot program to develop undergraduate curricula in earth system science. Universities were then selected based upon peer review and considerations of overall scientific balance among proposed programs. The program will also aim to integrate a number of universities with evolving earth system programs, linking them with a cooperative curriculum, shared faculty, and NASA scientists in order to establish a stronger base for earth systems related education and interdisciplinary research collaboration.

  1. Introduction. Progress in Earth science and climate studies.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J Michael T

    2008-12-28

    In this introductory paper, I review the 'visions of the future' articles prepared by top young scientists for the second of the two Christmas 2008 Triennial Issues of Phil. Trans. R. Soc.A, devoted respectively to astronomy and Earth science. Topics covered in the Earth science issue include: trace gases in the atmosphere; dynamics of the Antarctic circumpolar current; a study of the boundary between the Earth's rocky mantle and its iron core; and two studies of volcanoes and their plumes. A final section devoted to ecology and climate covers: the mathematical modelling of plant-soil interactions; the effects of the boreal forests on the Earth's climate; the role of the past palaeoclimate in testing and calibrating today's numerical climate models; and the evaluation of these models including the quantification of their uncertainties.

  2. Chemistry teachers’ understanding of science process skills in relation of science process skills assessment in chemistry learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikmah, N.; Yamtinah, S.; Ashadi; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    A Science process skill (SPS) is a fundamental scientific method to achieve good knowledge. SPS can be categorized into two levels: basic and integrated. Learning SPS helps children to grow as individuals who can access knowledge and know how to acquire it. The primary outcomes of the scientific process in learning are the application of scientific processes, scientific reasoning, accurate knowledge, problem-solving, and understanding of the relationship between science, technology, society, and everyday life’s events. Teachers’ understanding of SPS is central to the application of SPS in a learning process. Following this point, this study aims to investigate the high school chemistry teachers’ understanding of SPS pertains to their assessment of SPS in chemistry learning. The understanding of SPS is measured from the conceptual and operational aspects of SPS. This research uses qualitative analysis method, and the sample consists of eight chemistry teachers selected by random sampling. A semi-structured interview procedure is used to collect the data. The result of the analysis shows that teachers’ conceptual and operational understanding of SPS is weak. It affects the accuracy and appropriateness of the teacher’s selection of SPS assessment in chemistry learning.

  3. Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Digital Object Identifier Registration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanchoo, Lalit; James, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has implemented a fully automated system for assigning Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to Earth Science data products being managed by its network of 12 distributed active archive centers (DAACs). A key factor in the successful evolution of the DOI registration system over last 7 years has been the incorporation of community input from three focus groups under the NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG). These groups were largely composed of DOI submitters and data curators from the 12 data centers serving the user communities of various science disciplines. The suggestions from these groups were formulated into recommendations for ESDIS consideration and implementation. The ESDIS DOI registration system has evolved to be fully functional with over 5,000 publicly accessible DOIs and over 200 DOIs being held in reserve status until the information required for registration is obtained. The goal is to assign DOIs to the entire 8000+ data collections under ESDIS management via its network of discipline-oriented data centers. DOIs make it easier for researchers to discover and use earth science data and they enable users to provide valid citations for the data they use in research. Also for the researcher wishing to reproduce the results presented in science publications, the DOI can be used to locate the exact data or data products being cited.

  4. Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project: Verification and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenner, Jeff; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rosea; Holecamp, Kara; Owen, Carolyn; Nicholson, Lamar; Dartez, Deanna

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project's verification,and validation process. The topics include: 1) What is Verification and Validation? 2) Why Verification and Validation? 3) Background; 4) ESE Data Purchas Validation Process; 5) Data Validation System and Ingest Queue; 6) Shipment Verification; 7) Tracking and Metrics; 8) Validation of Contract Specifications; 9) Earth Watch Data Validation; 10) Validation of Vertical Accuracy; and 11) Results of Vertical Accuracy Assessment.

  5. Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Wayne E.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Frank, Alan; Reed, Bryan; Schmerge, John F.; Siwick, Bradley J.; Stuart, Brent C.; Weber, Peter M.

    2005-06-01

    The use of pump-probe experiments to study complex transient events has been an area of significant interest in materials science, biology, and chemistry. While the emphasis has been on laser pump with laser probe and laser pump with x-ray probe experiments, there is a significant and growing interest in using electrons as probes. Early experiments used electrons for gas-phase diffraction of photostimulated chemical reactions. More recently, scientists are beginning to explore phenomena in the solid state such as phase transformations, twinning, solid-state chemical reactions, radiation damage, and shock propagation. This review focuses on the emerging area of ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM), which comprises ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM). The topics that are treated include the following: (1) The physics of electrons as an ultrafast probe. This encompasses the propagation dynamics of the electrons (space-charge effect, Child's law, Boersch effect) and extends to relativistic effects. (2) The anatomy of UED and DTEM instruments. This includes discussions of the photoactivated electron gun (also known as photogun or photoelectron gun) at conventional energies (60-200 keV) and extends to MeV beams generated by rf guns. Another critical aspect of the systems is the electron detector. Charge-coupled device cameras and microchannel-plate-based cameras are compared and contrasted. The effect of various physical phenomena on detective quantum efficiency is discussed. (3) Practical aspects of operation. This includes determination of time zero, measurement of pulse-length, and strategies for pulse compression. (4) Current and potential applications in materials science, biology, and chemistry. UEM has the potential to make a significant impact in future science and technology. Understanding of reaction pathways of complex transient phenomena in materials science, biology, and chemistry will provide fundamental

  6. Realistic Covariance Prediction for the Earth Science Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Matthew; Long, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Routine satellite operations for the Earth Science Constellation (ESC) include collision risk assessment between members of the constellation and other orbiting space objects. One component of the risk assessment process is computing the collision probability between two space objects. The collision probability is computed using Monte Carlo techniques as well as by numerically integrating relative state probability density functions. Each algorithm takes as inputs state vector and state vector uncertainty information for both objects. The state vector uncertainty information is expressed in terms of a covariance matrix. The collision probability computation is only as good as the inputs. Therefore, to obtain a collision calculation that is a useful decision-making metric, realistic covariance matrices must be used as inputs to the calculation. This paper describes the process used by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Earth Science Mission Operations Project to generate realistic covariance predictions for three of the Earth Science Constellation satellites: Aqua, Aura and Terra.

  7. The Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document is the proceedings from a Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop, which was held on March 27, 1992, at the Snowbird Conference Center in Snowbird, Utah. This workshop was held in conjunction with the 1992 Data Compression Conference (DCC '92), which was held at the same location, March 24-26, 1992. The workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. The workshop consisted of eleven papers presented in four sessions. These papers describe research that is integrated into, or has the potential of being integrated into, a particular space and/or Earth science data information system. Presenters were encouraged to take into account the scientists's data requirements, and the constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival system.

  8. The 1994 Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document is the proceedings from the fourth annual 'Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop,' which was held on April 2, 1994, at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah. This workshop was held in cooperation with the 1994 Data Compression Conference, which was held at Snowbird, Utah, March 29-31 1994. The Workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. It consisted of 13 papers presented in 4 sessions. The papers focus on data compression research that is integrated into, or has the potential to be integrated into, a particular space and/or Earth science data information system. Presenters were encouraged to take into account the scientist's data requirements, and the constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival system.

  9. Benefits of Delay Tolerant Networking for Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Faith; Marquart, Jane; Menke, Greg

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been much discussion about the value of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) for space missions. Claims of various benefits, based on paper analysis, are good; however a benefits statement with empirical evidence to support is even better. This paper presents potential and actual advantages of using DTN for Earth science missions based on results from multiple demonstrations, conducted by the Communications, Standards, and Technology Laboratory (CSTL) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Demonstrations included two flight demonstrations using the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1) and the Near Earth Network (NEN), a ground based demonstration over satellite links to the Internet Router in Space (IRIS) payload on Intelsat-14, and others using the NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Real and potential findings include increased flexibility and efficiency in science campaigns, reduced latency in a collaborative science scenario, and improved scientist-instrument communication and control.

  10. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  11. Examining the Features of Earth Science Logical Reasoning and Authentic Scientific Inquiry Demonstrated in a High School Earth Science Curriculum: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Do-Yong; Park, Mira

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the inquiry features demonstrated in the inquiry tasks of a high school Earth Science curriculum. One of the most widely used curricula, Holt Earth Science, was chosen for this case study to examine how Earth Science logical reasoning and authentic scientific inquiry were related to one another and how…

  12. EOS ART: Six Artistic Projects Inspired by Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The six projects produced under the artists' residencies at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) were inspired by Earth science and by the human experience in naturally hazardous regions. These contemporary artworks were created within an interdisciplinary framework that fostered collaborations between artists and scientists. EOS ART was a pilot program that also facilitated the active engagement of regional artists with issues related to Earth science, sustainable societies, and innovative methods for science outreach. An interdisciplinary jury of art critics, curators and Earth scientists selected art projects proposed by regional artists, and funds were awarded to develop and realize the projects. The artworks-including installations, photographs, and video art-were showcased in the "Unearthed" public exhibit at the Singapore Art Museum from March to July of 2014. A 92-page catalog accompanied the show and public seminars about interdisciplinary connections complemented the event. This was a unique example of collaboration between scientific and artistic institutions in Southeast Asia. The paper provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. The art projects include "Coastline" by Zhang Xiao (China), "Lupang" by Clara Balaguer and Carlos Casas (Philippines and Spain), "Sound of the Earth" by Chen Sai Hua Kuan (Singapore), "Sudden Nature" by Isaac Kerlow (Mexico/USA), "The Possibility of Knowing" by Robert Zhao Renhui (Singapore), and "When Need Moves the Earth" by Sutthirat Supaparinya (Thailand).

  13. Depending on Partnerships to Manage NASA's Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Lowe, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of the NASA Earth observation program since the 1990's.The data collected by NASA's remote sensing instruments represent a significant public investment in research, providing access to a world-wide public research community. From the beginning, NASA employed a free, open and non-discriminatory data policy to maximize the global utilization of the products derived from NASA's observational data and related analyses. EOSDIS is designed to ingest, process, archive, and distribute data in a multi-mission environment. The system supports a wide variety of Earth science disciplines, including cryosphere, land cover change, radiation budget, atmosphere dynamics and composition, as well as inter-disciplinary research, including global climate change. To this end, EOSDIS has collocated NASA Earth science data and processing with centers of science discipline expertise located at universities, other government agencies and NASA centers. Commercial industry is also part of this partnership as it focuses on developing the EOSDIS cross-element infrastructure. The partnership to develop and operate EOSDIS has made for a robust, flexible system that evolves continuously to take advantage of technological opportunities. The centralized entrance point to the NASA Earth Science data collection can be found at http://earthdata.nasa.gov. A distributed architecture was adopted to ensure discipline-specific support for the science data, while also leveraging standards and establishing policies and tools to enable interdisciplinary research, and analysis across multiple instruments. Today's EOSDIS is a loosely coupled, yet heterogeneous system designed to meet the requirements of both a diverse user community and a growing collection of data to be archived and distributed. The system was scaled to expand to meet the ever-growing volume of data (currently ~10 petabytes), and the exponential

  14. Deriving Earth Science Data Analytics Tools/Techniques Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempler, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Data Analytics applications have made successful strides in the business world where co-analyzing extremely large sets of independent variables have proven profitable. Today, most data analytics tools and techniques, sometimes applicable to Earth science, have targeted the business industry. In fact, the literature is nearly absent of discussion about Earth science data analytics. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data from a variety of sources to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information. ESDA is most often applied to data preparation, data reduction, and data analysis. Co-analysis of increasing number and volume of Earth science data has become more prevalent ushered by the plethora of Earth science data sources generated by US programs, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, ESDA types have been defined in terms of data analytics end goals. Goals of which are very different than those in business, requiring different tools and techniques. A sampling of use cases have been collected and analyzed in terms of data analytics end goal types, volume, specialized processing, and other attributes. The goal of collecting these use cases is to be able to better understand and specify requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented. This presentation will describe the attributes and preliminary findings of ESDA use cases, as well as provide early analysis of data analytics tools/techniques requirements that would support specific ESDA type goals. Representative existing data analytics tools/techniques relevant to ESDA will also be addressed.

  15. Design of Scalable and Effective Earth Science Collaboration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Kuo, K. S.; Lynnes, C.; Niamsuwan, N.; Chidambaram, C.

    2014-12-01

    Collaborative research is growing rapidly. Many tools including IDEs are now beginning to incorporate new collaborative features. Software engineering research has shown the effectiveness of collaborative programming and analysis. In particular, drastic reduction in software development time resulting in reduced cost has been highlighted. Recently, we have witnessed the rise of applications that allow users to share their content. Most of these applications scale such collaboration using cloud technologies. Earth science research needs to adopt collaboration technologies to reduce redundancy, cut cost, expand knowledgebase, and scale research experiments. To address these needs, we developed the Earth science collaboration workbench (CWB). CWB provides researchers with various collaboration features by augmenting their existing analysis tools to minimize learning curve. During the development of the CWB, we understood that Earth science collaboration tasks are varied and we concluded that it is not possible to design a tool that serves all collaboration purposes. We adopted a mix of synchronous and asynchronous sharing methods that can be used to perform collaboration across time and location dimensions. We have used cloud technology for scaling the collaboration. Cloud has been highly utilized and valuable tool for Earth science researchers. Among other usages, cloud is used for sharing research results, Earth science data, and virtual machine images; allowing CWB to create and maintain research environments and networks to enhance collaboration between researchers. Furthermore, collaborative versioning tool, Git, is integrated into CWB for versioning of science artifacts. In this paper, we present our experience in designing and implementing the CWB. We will also discuss the integration of collaborative code development use cases for data search and discovery using NASA DAAC and simulation of satellite observations using NASA Earth Observing System Simulation

  16. EarthCache as a Tool to Promote Earth-Science in Public School Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, E. E.; Rose, W. I.; Klawiter, M.; Vye, E. C.; Engelmann, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscientists often find it difficult to bridge the gap in communication between university research and what is learned in the public schools. Today's schools operate in a high stakes environment that only allow instruction based on State and National Earth Science curriculum standards. These standards are often unknown by academics or are written in a style that obfuscates the transfer of emerging scientific research to students in the classroom. Earth Science teachers are in an ideal position to make this link because they have a background in science as well as a solid understanding of the required curriculum standards for their grade and the pedagogical expertise to pass on new information to their students. As part of the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP), teachers from Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Jackson school districts participate in 2 week field courses with Michigan Tech University to learn from earth science experts about how the earth works. This course connects Earth Science Literacy Principles' Big Ideas and common student misconceptions with standards-based education. During the 2011 field course, we developed and began to implement a three-phase EarthCache model that will provide a geospatial interactive medium for teachers to translate the material they learn in the field to the students in their standards based classrooms. MiTEP participants use GPS and Google Earth to navigate to Michigan sites of geo-significance. At each location academic experts aide participants in making scientific observations about the locations' geologic features, and "reading the rocks" methodology to interpret the area's geologic history. The participants are then expected to develop their own EarthCache site to be used as pedagogical tool bridging the gap between standards-based classroom learning, contemporary research and unique outdoor field experiences. The final phase supports teachers in integrating inquiry based, higher-level learning student

  17. Virtual Collections: An Earth Science Data Curation Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Kaylin; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The role of Earth science data centers has traditionally been to maintain central archives that serve openly available Earth observation data. However, in order to ensure data are as useful as possible to a diverse user community, Earth science data centers must move beyond simply serving as an archive to offering innovative data services to user communities. A virtual collection, the end product of a curation activity that searches, selects, and synthesizes diffuse data and information resources around a specific topic or event, is a data curation service that improves the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of Earth science data and also supports the needs of unanticipated users. Virtual collections minimize the amount of the time and effort needed to begin research by maximizing certainty of reward and by providing a trustworthy source of data for unanticipated users. This presentation will define a virtual collection in the context of an Earth science data center and will highlight a virtual collection case study created at the Global Hydrology Resource Center data center.

  18. Virtual Collections: An Earth Science Data Curation Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugbee, K.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.

    2016-12-01

    The role of Earth science data centers has traditionally been to maintain central archives that serve openly available Earth observation data. However, in order to ensure data are as useful as possible to a diverse user community, Earth science data centers must move beyond simply serving as an archive to offering innovative data services to user communities. A virtual collection, the end product of a curation activity that searches, selects, and synthesizes diffuse data and information resources around a specific topic or event, is a data curation service that improves the discoverability, accessibility and usability of Earth science data and also supports the needs of unanticipated users. Virtual collections minimize the amount of time and effort needed to begin research by maximizing certainty of reward and by providing a trustworthy source of data for unanticipated users. This presentation will define a virtual collection in the context of an Earth science data center and will highlight a virtual collection case study created at the Global Hydrology Resource Center data center.

  19. Space Technology and Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2011-01-01

    Science must continue to drive the technology development. Partnering and Data Sharing among nations is very important to maximize the cost benefits of such investments Climate changes and adaptability will be a big challenge for the next several decades (1) Natural disasters frequency and locations (2) Economic and social impact can be global and (3) Water resources and management.

  20. EarthRef.org: Exploring aspects of a Cyber Infrastructure in Earth Science and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Helly, J.

    2004-12-01

    EarthRef.org is the common host and (co-) developer of a range of earth science databases and IT resources providing a test bed for a Cyberinfrastructure in Earth Science and Education (CIESE). EarthRef.org data base efforts include in particular the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM), the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC), the Educational Resources for Earth Science Education (ERESE) project, the Seamount Catalog, the Mid-Ocean Ridge Catalog, the Radio-Isotope Geochronology (RiG) initiative for CHRONOS, and the Microbial Observatory for Fe oxidizing microbes on Loihi Seamount (FeMO; the most recent development). These diverse databases are developed under a single database umbrella and webserver at the San Diego Supercomputing Center. All the data bases have similar structures, with consistent metadata concepts, a common database layout, and automated upload wizards. Shared resources include supporting databases like an address book, a reference/publication catalog, and a common digital archive making database development and maintenance cost-effective, while guaranteeing interoperability. The EarthRef.org CIESE provides a common umbrella for synthesis information as well as sample-based data, and it bridges the gap between science and science education in middle and high schools, validating the potential for a system wide data infrastructure in a CIESE. EarthRef.org experiences have shown that effective communication with the respective communities is a key part of a successful CIESE facilitating both utility and community buy-in. GERM has been particularly successful at developing a metadata scheme for geochemistry and in the development of a new electronic journal (G-cubed) that has made much progress in data publication and linkages between journals and community data bases. GERM also has worked, through editors and publishers, towards interfacing databases with the publication process, to accomplish a more scholarly and database friendly data

  1. Earth Science Outreach: A Move in the Right Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarty Halfkenny, B.; Schröder Adams, C.

    2009-05-01

    There is concern within the Geoscience Community about the public's limited understanding of Earth Science and its fundamental contribution to society. Earth Science plays only a minor role in public school education in Ontario leaving many students to stumble upon this field of study in post-secondary institutions. As the Earth Sciences offer relevant advice for political decisions and provide excellent career opportunities, outreach is an increasingly important component of our work. Recruitment of post-secondary students after they have chosen their discipline cannot remain the sole opportunity. Outreach must be directed to potential students at an early stage of their education. High school teachers are influential, directing students towards professional careers. Therefore we are first committed to reach these teachers. We provide professional development, resources and continued support, building an enthusiastic community of educators. Specific initiatives include: a three day workshop supported by a grant from EdGEO introducing earth science exercises and local field destinations; a resource kit with minerals, rocks, fossils, mineral identification tools and manuals; a CD with prepared classroom exercises; and in-class demonstrations and field trip guiding on request. Maintaining a growing network with teachers has proven highly effective. Direct public school student engagement is also given priority. We inspire students through interaction with researchers and graduate students, hand-on exercises, and by providing opportunities to visit our department and work with our collections. Successful projects include our week-long course "School of Rock" for the Enrichment Mini-Course Program, classroom visits and presentations on the exciting and rewarding career paths in geology during Carleton University open houses. Outreach to the general public allows us to educate the wider community about the Geoheritage of our region, and initiate discussions about

  2. The Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center (GEST Center)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The following is a technical report of the progress made under Cooperative Agreement NCC5494, the Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center (GEST). The period covered by this report is October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001. GEST is a consortium of scientists and engineers, led by the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), to conduct scientific research in Earth and information sciences and related technologies in collaboration with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). GEST was established through a cooperative agreement signed May 11, 2000, following a competitive procurement process initiated by GSFC.

  3. 75 FR 14565 - NIST Summer Institute for Middle School Science Teachers; Availability of Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...), including, but not limited to, earth science, physical science, chemistry, physics, and/or biology. This... science, physical science, chemistry, physics and/or biology. NIST will award funding that will support... instruction in general science fields including earth science, physical science, chemistry, physics, and/or...

  4. Increasing the Use of Earth Science Data and Models in Air Quality Management.

    PubMed

    Milford, Jana B; Knight, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated the Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) as a 5-year, $17.5-million award with 19 principal investigators. AQAST aims to increase the use of Earth science products in air quality-related research and to help meet air quality managers' information needs. We conducted a Web-based survey and a limited number of follow-up interviews to investigate federal, state, tribal, and local air quality managers' perspectives on usefulness of Earth science data and models, and on the impact AQAST has had. The air quality managers we surveyed identified meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and particulate matter, emissions from mobile sources, and interstate air pollution transport as top challenges in need of improved information. Most survey respondents viewed inadequate coverage or frequency of satellite observations, data uncertainty, and lack of staff time or resources as barriers to increased use of satellite data by their organizations. Managers who have been involved with AQAST indicated that the program has helped build awareness of NASA Earth science products, and assisted their organizations with retrieval and interpretation of satellite data and with application of global chemistry and climate models. AQAST has also helped build a network between researchers and air quality managers with potential for further collaborations. NASA's Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) aims to increase the use of satellite data and global chemistry and climate models for air quality management purposes, by supporting research and tool development projects of interest to both groups. Our survey and interviews of air quality managers indicate they found value in many AQAST projects and particularly appreciated the connections to the research community that the program facilitated. Managers expressed interest in receiving continued support for their organizations' use of

  5. Assessing Gains in Science Teaching Self-Efficacy after Completing an Inquiry-Based Earth Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers are often required to take an Earth Science content course as part of their teacher education program but typically enter the course with little knowledge of key Earth Science concepts and are uncertain in their ability to teach science. This study investigated whether completing an inquiry-based Earth Science course…

  6. Tools and Techniques to Teach Earth Sciences to Young People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantino, R.; Dicelis, G.; Molina, E. C.

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to identify the tools available to disseminate the Earth sciences to young people in Brazil and to propose new techniques that may help in the teaching of such subjects. The use of scientific dissemination can be a great tool for the consolidation of a scientific culture, especially for a public of young students. The starting point of this study is an important characteristic that is present in virtually all the children: curiosity. The young public tries to understand how the world is and how it works. The use of scientific dissemination and some educational experiences have shown that these students have a great ability to learn and deal with various topics within the Earth Sciences. Another relevant point is the possibility to show that the Earth sciences, e.g., geophysics, oceanography, meteorology, geology and geography, can be an educational attractive option. Several ways of disseminating Earth sciences are commonly used with the purpose of attracting and mainly teaching these subjects, such as websites, interactive museums and cultural and educational spaces. The objectives of this work are: i) Investigate the role of science centers as motivators in disseminating the scientific knowledge by examining the communication resources that are being employed, the acceptance, reaction, and interest of children to these means, and ii) From this analysis, to list suggestions of contents and new tools that could be used for obtaining better results.

  7. Earth benefits from space life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Griffiths, L.

    1990-01-01

    Contributions of space exploration which are widely recognized are those dealing with the impact of space technology on public health and medical services in both urban and remote rural areas. Telecommunications, image enhancement, 3-dimensional image reconstructions, miniaturization, automation, and data analysis, have transformed the delivery of medical care and have brought about a new impetus to the field of biomedicine. Many areas of medical care and biological research have been affected. These include technological breakthroughs in such areas as: (1) diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, (2) new approaches to the understanding of osteoporosis, (3) early detection of genetic birth defects, (4) emergency medical care, and (5) treatment of chronic metabolic disorders. These are but a few examples where technology originally developed to support space medicine or space research has been applied to solving medical and health care delivery problems on Earth.

  8. EarthLabs: A National Model for Earth Science Lab Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.

    2008-12-01

    As a response to the need for more rigorous, inquiry-based high school Earth science courses, a coalition of scientists, educators, and five states have created EarthLabs, a set of pilot modules that can serve as a national model for lab-based science courses. The content of EarthLabs chapters focuses on Earth system science and environmental literacy and conforms to the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The effort is funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. The pilot modules present activities on Corals, Drought, Fisheries, and Hurricanes. The Fisheries and Hurricanes units were reviewed and field-tested by educators in Texas and Arizona. The feedback from this evaluation led to revisions of these units and guided development of the Corals and Drought chapters. Each module consists of activities that use online data sets, satellite imagery, web-based readings, and hands-on laboratory experiments. The project comprises two separate websites, one for the instructor and one for students. The instructor's site contains the pedagogical underpinnings for each lab including teaching materials, assessment strategies, and the alignment of activities with state and national science standards. The student site provides access to all materials that students need to complete the activities or, in the case of the hands-on labs, where they access additional information to help extend their learning. There are also formative and summative questions embedded in the student webpages to help scaffold learning through the activities.

  9. Games and Simulations for Climate, Weather and Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R. M.; Clark, S.

    2015-12-01

    We will demonstrate several interactive, computer-based simulations, games, and other interactive multimedia. These resources were developed for weather, climate, atmospheric science, and related Earth system science education. The materials were created by the UCAR Center for Science Education. These materials have been disseminated via our web site (SciEd.ucar.edu), webinars, online courses, teacher workshops, and large touchscreen displays in weather and Sun-Earth connections exhibits in NCAR's Mesa Lab facility in Boulder, Colorado. Our group has also assembled a web-based list of similar resources, especially simulations and games, from other sources that touch upon weather, climate, and atmospheric science topics. We'll briefly demonstrate this directory.

  10. Games and Simulations for Climate, Weather and Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    We will demonstrate several interactive, computer-based simulations, games, and other interactive multimedia. These resources were developed for weather, climate, atmospheric science, and related Earth system science education. The materials were created by the UCAR Center for Science Education. These materials have been disseminated via our web site (SciEd.ucar.edu), webinars, online courses, teacher workshops, and large touchscreen displays in weather and Sun-Earth connections exhibits in NCAR's Mesa Lab facility in Boulder, Colorado. Our group has also assembled a web-based list of similar resources, especially simulations and games, from other sources that touch upon weather, climate, and atmospheric science topics. We'll briefly demonstrate this directory. More info available at: scied.ucar.edu/events/agu-2014-games-simulations-sessions

  11. Science teacher orientations and PCK across science topics in grade 9 earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Goodwin, Dawne

    2017-07-01

    While the literature is replete with studies examining teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), few studies have investigated how science teacher orientations (STOs) shape classroom instruction. Therefore, this research explores the interplay between a STOs and the topic specificity of PCK across two science topics within a grade 9 earth science course. Through interviews and observations of one teacher's classroom across two sequentially taught, this research contests the notion that teachers hold a single way of conceptualising science teaching and learning. In this, we consider if multiple ontologies can provide potential explanatory power for characterising instructional enactments. In earlier work with the teacher in this study, using generic interview prompts and general discussions about science teaching and learning, we accepted the existence of a unitary STO and its promise of consistent reformed instruction in the classroom. However, upon close examination of instruction focused on different science topics, evidence was found to demonstrate the explanatory power of multiple ontologies for shaping characteristically different epistemological constructions across science topics. This research points to the need for care in generalising about teacher practice, as it reveals that a teacher's practice, and orientation, can vary, dependent on the context and science topics taught.

  12. Domestic science: making chemistry your cup of tea.

    PubMed

    Keene, Melanie

    2008-03-01

    In the early Victorian home, there were plenty of scientific lessons to be uncovered. With the appropriate interrogation, everyday objects could transform seemingly mundane activities such as eating breakfast, washing clothes or reading by candle-light into household lectures that gave children a familiar base from which to explore the hidden properties and marvellous histories of common commodities. Responding to an unprecedented hunger for scientific knowledge, a profusion of introductory texts appeared in the mid-nineteenth century that directed lessons into homes across Britain and beyond. In particular, the science of chemistry found its way into this domestic setting, as writers promoted its practice and practitioners as a source of authoritative expertise on everyday life. One of the most compelling illustrations of this encounter between the public and chemistry took place over a simple cup of tea.

  13. Proceedings of the 11th JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop forum held to report science research and applications results with spectral images measured by the NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). These papers were presented at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from March 5-8, 2001. Electronic versions of these papers may be found at the A VIRIS Web http://popo.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/docs/workshops/aviris.proceedings.html

  14. Earth materials research: Report of a Workshop on Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The report concludes that an enhanced effort of earth materials research is necessary to advance the understanding of the processes that shape the planet. In support of such an effort, there are new classes of experiments, new levels of analytical sensitivity and precision, and new levels of theory that are now applicable in understanding the physical and chemical properties of geological materials. The application of these capabilities involves the need to upgrade and make greater use of existing facilities as well as the development of new techniques. A concomitant need is for a sample program involving their collection, synthesis, distribution, and analysis.

  15. Earthworks: Educating Teachers in Earth System Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spetzler, H.; Weaver, A.; Buhr, S.

    2000-01-01

    Earthworks is a national community of teachers and scientists. Initiated in 1998 with funding from NASA, our summer workshops in the Rocky Mountains each year provide unique opportunities for teachers to design and conduct field research projects, working closely with scientists. Teachers then develop plans for classroom implementation during the school year, sharing their ideas and experiences with other community members through e-mail and a listserv. Scientists, from graduate students to expert senior researchers, share their knowledge of field methods in environmental science, and learn how to better communicate and teach about their research.

  16. Strategies for Growth in a Young Earth Sciences Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, B. M.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Draper, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Earth Sciences at Florida International University (FIU) has been fortunate to be part of a rapidly growing university. FIU began offering classes in 1972 with an initial enrollment of 5600 students, and today enrollment exceeds 35,000 students. During this time the Department of Earth Sciences has grown to a faculty of 14 and offers the BA, BS, MS and PhD degrees. Our department, however, has faced the same challenges meeting many Earth Science departments in that our number of undergraduate majors has not grown at the same pace as the university enrollment (or at the same pace as enrollment in our graduate program). Two strategies have proven effective and have helped the department build its program in spite of this challenge. The first strategy was to create tenure-track positions with a 50% assignment in the Earth Sciences Department and 50% in a research center on campus. We currently have two faculty who have half-time appointments in the Southeast Environmental Research Center, and we have a new faculty member joining in the Spring who will have a joint appointment with the International Hurricane Research Center. This strategy has made it possible to gain expertise in, and to offer courses in, critical areas (such as hydrogeology and meteorology) that we otherwise would not be able to offer. The second strategy is to develop strong courses for non-majors that satisfy FIU's University Common Curriculum requirements. A particularly successful example is a new course titled "The History of Life". This course was designed to take advantage of our existing expertise in paleobiology, and offer a class that satisfies the University Common Curriculum requirement that every student take a laboratory course in the life sciences. This class now fills to capacity each semester with more than 200 students. This course not only boosts our department's productivity, but it lets us reach 200 new students each semester with many potential new Earth

  17. An Expert System toward Buiding An Earth Science Knowledge Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Ramachandran, R.; Lee, T. J.; Bao, Q.; Gatlin, P. N.; Maskey, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this ongoing work, we aim to build foundations of Cognitive Computing for Earth Science research. The goal of our project is to develop an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES). These knowledge graphs can then serve as the foundational components for building cognitive systems in Earth science, enabling researchers to uncover new patterns and hypotheses that are virtually impossible to identify today. In addition, this research focuses on developing mining algorithms needed to exploit these constructed knowledge graphs. As such, these graphs will free knowledge from publications that are generated in a very linear, deterministic manner, and structure knowledge in a way that users can both interact and connect with relevant pieces of information. Our major contributions are two-fold. First, we have developed an end-to-end methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES) using existing corpus of journal papers and reports. One of the key challenges in any machine learning, especially deep learning applications, is the need for robust and large training datasets. We have developed techniques capable of automatically retraining models and incrementally building and updating KG4ES, based on ever evolving training data. We also adopt the evaluation instrument based on common research methodologies used in Earth science research, especially in Atmospheric Science. Second, we have developed an algorithm to infer new knowledge that can exploit the constructed KG4ES. In more detail, we have developed a network prediction algorithm aiming to explore and predict possible new connections in the KG4ES and aid in new knowledge discovery.

  18. Exploring Connections Between Earth Science and Biology - Interdisciplinary Science Activities for Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vd Flier-Keller, E.; Carolsfeld, C.; Bullard, T.

    2009-05-01

    To increase teaching of Earth science in schools, and to reflect the interdisciplinary nature and interrelatedness of science disciplines in today's world, we are exploring opportunities for linking Earth science and Biology through engaging and innovative hands-on science activities for the classroom. Through the NSERC-funded Pacific CRYSTAL project based at the University of Victoria, scientists, science educators, and teachers at all levels in the school system are collaborating to research ways of enriching the preparation of students in math and science, and improving the quality of science education from Kindergarten to Grade 12. Our primary foci are building authentic, engaging science experiences for students, and fostering teacher leadership through teacher professional development and training. Interdisciplinary science activities represent an important way of making student science experiences real, engaging and relevant, and provide opportunities to highlight Earth science related topics within other disciplines, and to expand the Earth science taught in schools. The Earth science and Biology interdisciplinary project builds on results and experiences of existing Earth science education activities, and the Seaquaria project. We are developing curriculum-linked activities and resource materials, and hosting teacher workshops, around two initial areas; soils, and marine life and the fossil record. An example activity for the latter is the hands-on examination of organisms occupying the nearshore marine environment using a saltwater aquarium and touch tank or beach fieldtrip, and relating this to a suite of marine fossils to facilitate student thinking about representation of life in the fossil record e.g. which life forms are typically preserved, and how are they preserved? Literacy activities such as fossil obituaries encourage exploration of paleoenvironments and life habits of fossil organisms. Activities and resources are being tested with teachers

  19. Earth Science Data Education through Cooking Up Recipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. M.; Maskey, M.; Smith, T.; Conover, H.

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges in Earth science research and applications is understanding and applying the proper methods, tools, and software for using scientific data. These techniques are often difficult and time consuming to identify, requiring novel users to conduct extensive research, take classes, and reach out for assistance, thus hindering scientific discovery and real-world applications. To address these challenges, the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) DAAC has developed a series of data recipes that novel users such as students, decision makers, and general Earth scientists can leverage to learn how to use Earth science datasets. Once the data recipe content had been finalized, GHRC computer and Earth scientists collaborated with a web and graphic designer to ensure the content is both attractively presented to data users, and clearly communicated to promote the education and use of Earth science data. The completed data recipes include, but are not limited to, tutorials, iPython Notebooks, resources, and tools necessary for addressing key difficulties in data use across a broad user base. These recipes enable non-traditional users to learn how to use data, but also curates and communicates common methods and approaches that may be difficult and time consuming for these users to identify.

  20. The Path from Large Earth Science Datasets to Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data (GES) and Information Services Center (DISC) is one of the major Science Mission Directorate (SMD) for archiving and distribution of Earth Science remote sensing data, products and services. This virtual portal provides convenient access to Atmospheric Composition and Dynamics, Hydrology, Precipitation, Ozone, and model derived datasets (generated by GSFC's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office), the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data products (both generated by GSFC's Hydrological Sciences Branch). This presentation demonstrates various tools and computational technologies developed in the GES DISC to manage the huge volume of data and products acquired from various missions and programs over the years. It explores approaches to archive, document, distribute, access and analyze Earth Science data and information as well as addresses the technical and scientific issues, governance and user support problem faced by scientists in need of multi-disciplinary datasets. It also discusses data and product metrics, user distribution profiles and lessons learned through interactions with the science communities around the world. Finally it demonstrates some of the most used data and product visualization and analyses tools developed and maintained by the GES DISC.

  1. The TXESS Revolution: A Partnership to Advance Earth and Space Science in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K. K.; Olson, H. C.; Willis, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Texas State Board of Education voted in 2006 to require a fourth year of science for graduation from high school and to authorize the creation of a new senior level Earth Systems and Space Science course as an option to fulfill that requirement. The new Earth Systems and Space Science course will be a capstone course for which three required science courses(biology, chemistry and physics)are prerequisites. Here, we summarize the collective efforts of business leaders, scientists and educators who worked collaboratively for almost a decade to successfully reinstate Earth science as part of Texas' standard high school curriculum and describe a new project, the Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution, a 5-year professional development program for 8th -12th grade minority and minority-serving science teachers and teacher mentors in Texas to help prepare them to teach the new capstone course. At the heart of TXESS Revolution is an extraordinary partnership, involving (1) two UT-Austin academic units, the Jackson School of Geosciences and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering; (2) TERC, a not-for-profit educational enterprise in Massachusetts with 30 years experience in designing science curriculum; (3) the University of South Florida; and (4) the Texas Regional Collaboratives for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Teaching, a statewide network of teacher mentors and science teachers. With guidance from the Texas Education Agency, the state agency charged with overseeing education, the TXESS Revolution project will provide teachers with access to high quality materials and instruction aligned with the Texas educational standards for the new capstone course through: a program of eight different 3-day professional development academies offered to both teachers and teachers mentors; immersive summer institutes, field experiences, and a Petroleum Science and Technology Institute; training on how to implement Earth Science by Design, a teacher

  2. Comparing Unique Title Coverage of Web of Science and Scopus in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Philip; Lascar, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The current journal titles in earth and atmospheric sciences, that are unique to each of two databases, Web of Science and Scopus, were identified using different methods. Comparing by subject category shows that Scopus has hundreds of unique titles, and Web of Science just 16. The titles unique to each database have low SCImago Journal Rank…

  3. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  4. Moving Towards a Science-Driven Workbench for Earth Science Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, S. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Law, E.; Yang, C. P.; Keiser, K.

    2017-12-01

    The NSF-funded EarthCube Integration and Test Environment (ECITE) prototype was proposed as a 2015 Integrated Activities project and resulted in the prototyping of an EarthCube federated cloud environment and the Integration and Testing Framework. The ECITE team has worked with EarthCube science and technology governance committees to define the types of integration, testing and evaluation necessary to achieve and demonstrate interoperability and functionality that benefit and support the objectives of the EarthCube cyber-infrastructure. The scope of ECITE also includes reaching beyond NSF and EarthCube to work with the broader Earth science community, such as the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) to incorporate lessons learned from other testbed activities, and ultimately provide broader community benefits. This presentation will discuss evolving ECITE ideas for a science-driven workbench that will start with documented science use cases, map the use cases to solution scenarios that identify the available technology and data resources that match the use case, the generation of solution workflows and test plans, the testing and evaluation of the solutions in a cloud environment, and finally the documentation of identified technology and data gaps that will assist with driving the development of additional EarthCube resources.

  5. ECHO Responds to NASA's Earth Science User Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; Ullman, Richard; Wichmann, Keith; Perkins, Dorothy C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past decade NASA has designed, built, evolved, and operated the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Information Management System (IMS) in order to provide user access to NASA's Earth Science data holdings. During this time revolutionary advances in technology have driven changes in NASA's approach to providing an IMS service. This paper will describe NASA's strategic planning and approach to build and evolve the EOSDIS IMS and to serve the evolving needs of NASA's Earth Science community. It discusses the original strategic plan and how lessons learned help to form a new plan, a new approach and a new system. It discusses the original technologies and how they have evolved to today.

  6. Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

  7. The Time-Sharing Computer In Introductory Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, William D.; MacDonald, Geraldine E.

    Time-sharing computer-assisted instructional (CAI) programs employing the APL language are being used in support of introductory earth science laboratory exercises at the State University of New York at Binghamton. Three examples are sufficient to illustrate the variety of applications to which these programs are put. The BRACH program is used in…

  8. Earth Science Unit for Second Grade: A Seed Crystal Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, Sandra

    This teacher's guide to a second-grade earth science unit provides a range of activities, suggestions for classroom discussion, and open-ended questions suitable for each of the concepts developed. One of the central purposes of the unit is to develop independence and self confidence by encouraging the student to think through a problem clearly.…

  9. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    Two dozen energy-related earth science lessons comprise this guide for secondary school teachers. Intended to provide information about energy issues that exist in Pennsylvania and throughout the world, the activities cover topics such as coal mining, radioactivity, and the distribution of oil and gas in Pennsylvania. Lessons include objectives,…

  10. Educator Perspectives on Earth System Science Literacy: Challenges and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDue, Nicole; Clark, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges and priorities of defining and achieving Earth System Science (ESS) literacy are examined through surveys of geoscience educators attending a professional geological meeting. Two surveys with Likert-style and free-response questions were distributed to geoscientists and K-12 teachers to elicit what instructors think are important…

  11. Future perspectives in astronomy and the earth sciences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J Michael T; Wang, Charles H-T

    2005-12-15

    This article is an overview of the contributions to the Triennial Issue of Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A published in December, 2005, and also plays the role of a Preface. Devoted to the work of young scientists, the issue covers the fields of astronomy and earth science.

  12. Native America: American Indian Geoscientists & Earth System Science Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands across the Americas. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all Tribal societies. These changes have accelerated the momentum to ensure the future of American Indian Geoscientists and Earth Systems Science Leaders. The presentation will bring to prominence the unique recruitment and mentoring necessary to achieve success that emerged through working with Tribal people. The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on recruitment and mentoring of Native/Tribal students in geoscience and earth systems science; 2) current Native leadership and research development; 3) unique collaborations "bridging" Native people across geographic areas (International) in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive geoscience and earth systems science knowledge of Tribal peoples throughout the Americas. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native geoscientists and earth systems science leaders.

  13. Digging into Inquiry-Based Earth Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Bryan; Yates, Crystal; Schultz, Jayne M.

    2008-01-01

    To help eighth-grade students experience the excitement of Earth science research, the authors developed an inquiry-based project in which students evaluated and cataloged their campus geology and soils. Following class discussions of rock-weathering and soil-forming processes, students worked in groups to excavate multiple soil pits in the school…

  14. Evaluation of an Inservice Program for Earth Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the evaluation of an earth science inservice program designed to (1) improve teachers' understandings of principles and concepts, (2) assist teachers in the use of investigatory techniques for teaching, (3) assist teachers in developing and implementing laboratory-oriented courses and (4) instruct teachers in techniques of self…

  15. Snow as Field-Teaching Medium for Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Stephan Gregory

    1991-01-01

    Snow is a widely available earth-science teaching medium which can be used to explore scientific concepts in the field, either directly or by analogy. Snow can be considered a mineral, sediment, sedimentary rock, or metamorphic rock. Natural processes such as crystal growth, melting, sedimentation, and metamorphism can be studied in practical time…

  16. Earth-Like Exoplanets: The Science of NASA's Navigator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R. (Editor); Traub, Wesley A. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    This book outlines the exoplanet science content of NASA's Navigator Program, and it identifies the exoplanet research priorities. The goal of Navigator Program missions is to detect and characterize Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars and to search for signs of life on those planets.

  17. Using Copy Change with Trade Books to Teach Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, William P.; Wright, Pam; Sheffer, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Developing and implementing relevant, challenging, integrative, and exploratory curriculum is critical at all levels of schooling. This article describes one attempt to develop and implement an instance of interdisciplinary curriculum by using copy change with trade books to teach earth science. Specifically, it introduces trade books as a way to…

  18. Earth and Life Science: Eighth Grade. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlandale Independent School District, San Antonio, TX. Career Education Center.

    The guide is arranged in vertical columns relating curriculum concepts in earth science to curriculum performance objectives, career concepts and career performance objectives, suggested teaching methods, and resource materials. The course for eighth graders attempts to place the curriculum concepts in order of increasing difficulty. Occupational…

  19. Enabling Analytics in the Cloud for Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Lynnes, Christopher; Bingham, Andrew W.; Quam, Brandi M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to hold interactive discussions where providers, users, and other stakeholders could explore the convergence of three main elements in the rapidly developing world of technology: Big Data, Cloud Computing, and Analytics, [for earth science data].

  20. Data Mining in Earth System Science (DMESS 2011)

    Treesearch

    Forrest M. Hoffman; J. Walter Larson; Richard Tran Mills; Bhorn-Gustaf Brooks; Auroop R. Ganguly; William Hargrove; et al

    2011-01-01

    From field-scale measurements to global climate simulations and remote sensing, the growing body of very large and long time series Earth science data are increasingly difficult to analyze, visualize, and interpret. Data mining, information theoretic, and machine learning techniques—such as cluster analysis, singular value decomposition, block entropy, Fourier and...

  1. A Primary Grade (K-3) Earth Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Maurice L.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the rationale and structure of a newly developed earth science program for elementary school children (K-3). The activities involve pre-operational and concrete operational stages, progressing from one to the other. Children show sustained interest and enthusiasm as they investigate landforms, the moon, fossils, and weather phenomena.…

  2. Normal Science Education and Its Dangers: The Case of School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Berkel, Berry; De Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.; Pilot, Albert

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to solve the problem of hidden structure in school chemistry. Argues that normal chemistry education is isolated from common sense, everyday life and society, the history and philosophy of science, technology, school physics, and chemical research. (Author/CCM)

  3. Evolving Metadata in NASA Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M. F.; Walter, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of satellites for long term global observations. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research by providing end-to-end services from EOS instrument data collection to science data processing to full access to EOS and other earth science data. On a daily basis, the EOSDIS ingests, processes, archives and distributes over 3 terabytes of data from NASA's Earth Science missions representing over 3500 data products ranging from various types of science disciplines. EOSDIS is currently comprised of 12 discipline specific data centers that are collocated with centers of science discipline expertise. Metadata is used in all aspects of NASA's Earth Science data lifecycle from the initial measurement gathering to the accessing of data products. Missions use metadata in their science data products when describing information such as the instrument/sensor, operational plan, and geographically region. Acting as the curator of the data products, data centers employ metadata for preservation, access and manipulation of data. EOSDIS provides a centralized metadata repository called the Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHouse (ECHO) for data discovery and access via a service-oriented-architecture (SOA) between data centers and science data users. ECHO receives inventory metadata from data centers who generate metadata files that complies with the ECHO Metadata Model. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project established a Tiger Team to study and make recommendations regarding the adoption of the international metadata standard ISO 19115 in EOSDIS. The result was a technical report recommending an evolution of NASA data systems towards a consistent application of ISO 19115 and related standards including the creation of a NASA-specific convention for core ISO 19115 elements. Part of

  4. Sulfidic Anion Concentrations on Early Earth for Surficial Origins-of-Life Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Todd, Zoe R; Sutherland, John D; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2018-04-08

    A key challenge in origin-of-life studies is understanding the environmental conditions on early Earth under which abiogenesis occurred. While some constraints do exist (e.g., zircon evidence for surface liquid water), relatively few constraints exist on the abundances of trace chemical species, which are relevant to assessing the plausibility and guiding the development of postulated prebiotic chemical pathways which depend on these species. In this work, we combine literature photochemistry models with simple equilibrium chemistry calculations to place constraints on the plausible range of concentrations of sulfidic anions (HS - , HSO 3 - , SO 3 2- ) available in surficial aquatic reservoirs on early Earth due to outgassing of SO 2 and H 2 S and their dissolution into small shallow surface water reservoirs like lakes. We find that this mechanism could have supplied prebiotically relevant levels of SO 2 -derived anions, but not H 2 S-derived anions. Radiative transfer modeling suggests UV light would have remained abundant on the planet surface for all but the largest volcanic explosions. We apply our results to the case study of the proposed prebiotic reaction network of Patel et al. ( 2015 ) and discuss the implications for improving its prebiotic plausibility. In general, epochs of moderately high volcanism could have been especially conducive to cyanosulfidic prebiotic chemistry. Our work can be similarly applied to assess and improve the prebiotic plausibility of other postulated surficial prebiotic chemistries that are sensitive to sulfidic anions, and our methods adapted to study other atmospherically derived trace species. Key Words: Early Earth-Origin of life-Prebiotic chemistry-Volcanism-UV radiation-Planetary environments. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

  5. The computational challenges of Earth-system science.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alan; Steenman-Clark, Lois

    2002-06-15

    The Earth system--comprising atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere and biosphere--is an immensely complex system, involving processes and interactions on a wide range of space- and time-scales. To understand and predict the evolution of the Earth system is one of the greatest challenges of modern science, with success likely to bring enormous societal benefits. High-performance computing, along with the wealth of new observational data, is revolutionizing our ability to simulate the Earth system with computer models that link the different components of the system together. There are, however, considerable scientific and technical challenges to be overcome. This paper will consider four of them: complexity, spatial resolution, inherent uncertainty and time-scales. Meeting these challenges requires a significant increase in the power of high-performance computers. The benefits of being able to make reliable predictions about the evolution of the Earth system should, on their own, amply repay this investment.

  6. Using documentaries for Earth science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Richard; Lilienfeld, Linda; Arrigo, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    With the success of An Inconvenient Truth, a movie about former U.S. vice president Al Gore's campaign to educate the public on global climate change, long-form documentaries, particularly those concerning environmental issues, are enjoying a renaissance. These films can be a powerful educational tool because they create teachable moments by heightening students' interest in environmental topics. Successful documentaries engage the audience emotionally and tell a compelling story, with heroes and villains. Often films touch on some scientific concepts and may even contain graphics and animations that are useful in explaining processes. However, they generally do not provide a balanced exposition of the science and technical issues that underlie the environmental problems described. Documentaries may advocate a particular policy position.

  7. Engaging Today's Studentsin Earth Science 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Smith, Matthew C.

    2006-08-01

    It is a sad fact, or perhaps a happy one,that many geoscientists in academia willfind themselves in front of a classroom of100-300 undergraduate nonscience majors,lecturing to them for three hours per week.Whether it is `Rocks for Jocks' or `Waves forBabes,' students often are under the impressionthat geoscience classes will be the leastpainful way to fulfill their science creditrequirements. The sense of personal anonymitythat can accompany large-enrollmentclasses often results in a different level ofstudent engagement compared with smallerclasses. Thus, if students are physically presentat all, instructors often have only theirmuch-divided attention. How can professorskeep 300 students, even the ones in the backof the classroom who are barely visible,awake and engaged?

  8. Soil moisture needs in earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1992-01-01

    The author reviews the development of passive and active microwave techniques for measuring soil moisture with respect to how the data may be used. New science programs such as the EOS, the GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) and STORM, a mesoscale meteorology and hydrology project, will have to account for soil moisture either as a storage in water balance computations or as a state variable in-process modeling. The author discusses future soil moisture needs such as frequency of measurement, accuracy, depth, and spatial resolution, as well as the concomitant model development that must proceed concurrently if the development in microwave technology is to have a major impact in these areas.

  9. Expanding Earth and Space Science through the Initiating New Science Partnerships In Rural Education (INSPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radencic, S.; McNeal, K. S.; Pierce, D.; Hare, D.

    2010-12-01

    The INSPIRE program at Mississippi State University (MSU), funded by the NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK12) program, focuses on Earth and Space science education and has partnered ten graduate students from MSU with five teachers from local, rural school districts. For the next five years the project will serve to increase inquiry and technology experiences in science and math while enhancing graduate student’s communication skills. Graduate students, from the disciplines of Geosciences, Physics, and Engineering are partnered with Chemistry, Physical Science, Physics, Geometry and Middle school science classrooms and will create engaging inquiry activities that incorporate elements of their research, and integrate various forms of technology. The generated lesson plans that are implemented in the classroom are published on the INSPIRE home page (www.gk12.msstate.edu) so that other classroom instructors can utilize this free resource. Local 7th -12th grade students will attend GIS day later this fall at MSU to increase their understanding and interest in Earth and Space sciences. Selected graduate students and teachers will visit one of four international university partners located in Poland, Australia, England, or The Bahamas to engage research abroad. Upon return they will incorporate their global experiences into their local classrooms. Planning for the project included many factors important to the success of the partnerships. The need for the program was evident in Mississippi K-12 schools based on low performance on high stakes assessments and lack of curriculum in the Earth and Space sciences. Meeting with administrators to determine what needs they would like addressed by the project and recognizing the individual differences among the schools were integral components to tailoring project goals and to meet the unique needs of each school partner. Time for training and team building of INSPIRE teachers and graduate students before the

  10. Incorporating Geoethics in Introductory Earth System Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The integrative nature of Earth System Science courses provides extensive opportunities to introduce students to geoethical inquiry focused on globally significant societal issues. Geoscience education has traditionally lagged in its efforts to increase student awareness of the significance of geologic knowledge to understanding and responsibly confronting causes and possible solutions for emergent, newly emerging, and future problems of anthropogenic cause and consequence. Developing an understanding of the human impact on the earth system requires early (lower division) and for geoscience majors, repeated (upper division) curricular emphasis on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere across space and through time. Capturing the interest of university students in globally relevant earth system issues and their ethical dimensions while first learning about the earth system is an important initial step in bringing geoethical deliberation and awareness to the next generation of geoscientists. Development of a new introductory Earth System Science course replacing a traditional introductory Physical Geology course at Montana State University has involved abandonment of concept-based content organization in favor of a place-based approach incorporating examination of the complex interactions of earth system components and emergent issues and dilemmas deriving from the unique component interactions that characterize each locale. Thirteen different place-based week-long modules (using web- and classroom-based instruction) were developed to ensure cumulative broad coverage across the earth geographically and earth system components conceptually. Each place-based instructional module contains content of societal relevance requiring synthesis, critical evaluation, and reflection by students. Examples include making linkages between deforestation driven by economics and increased seismicity in Haiti, agriculture and development

  11. EVEREST: Creating a Virtual Research Environment for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H.

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing trend towards researchers working together using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. The EVER-EST project is developing a range of both generic and domain specific technologies, tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, to create a virtual research environment (VRE) that supports this type of dynamic collaborative research. The EVER-EST VRE provides a suite of services to overcome the existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing researchers to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, and with other domains beyond the Earth Sciences. Researchers will be able to seamlessly manage both the data and the scientific methods applied in their observations and modelling that lead to results that need to be attributable, validated and shared both within their communities and more widely in the form of scholarly communications.To ensure that the EVER-EST VRE meets the specific needs of the Earth Science domain, it is being developed and validated in consultation with four pre-selected virtual research communities (VRC) that include ocean observing, natural hazards, land monitoring and volcanic risk management. The requirements of these individual VRCs for data, software, best practice and community interaction are used to customise the VRE platform This user-centric approach allows the EVER-EST infrastructure to be assessed in terms of its capability to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of Earth Science communities for more effective collaboration, greater efficiency and increasingly innovative research. EVER-EST is a three year project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no 674907.

  12. GENESIS: GPS Environmental and Earth Science Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajj, George

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the GPS ENvironmental and Earth Science Information System (GENESIS). The objectives of GENESIS are outlined (1) Data Archiving, searching and distribution for science data products derived from Space borne TurboRogue Space Receivers for GPS science and other ground based GPS receivers, (2) Data browsing using integrated visualization tools, (3) Interactive web/java-based data search and retrieval, (4) Data subscription service, (5) Data migration from existing GPS archived data, (6) On-line help and documentation, and (7) participation in the WP-ESIP federation. The presentation reviews the products and services of Genesis, and the technology behind the system.

  13. Using immersive media and digital technology to communicate Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapur, Ravi

    2016-04-01

    A number of technologies in digital media and interactivity have rapidly advanced and are now converging to enable rich, multi-sensoral experiences which create opportunities for both digital art and science communication. Techniques used in full-dome film-making can now be deployed in virtual reality experiences; gaming technologies can be utilised to explore real data sets; and collaborative interactivity enable new forms of public artwork. This session will explore these converging trends through a number of emerging and forthcoming projects dealing with Earth science, climate change and planetary science.

  14. Earth Science Data and Applications for K-16 Education from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, C. S.; Chambers, L. H.; Alston, E. J.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate aims to stimulate public interest in Earth system science and to encourage young scholars to consider careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at Langley Research Center houses over 700 data sets related to Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry that are being produced to increase academic understanding of the natural and anthropogenic perturbations that influence global climate change. However, barriers still exist in the use of these actual satellite observations by educators in the classroom to supplement the educational process. Thus, NASA is sponsoring the "Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs" (MY NASA DATA) project to systematically support educational activities by reducing the ASDC data holdings to `microsets' that can be easily accessible and explored by the K-16 educators and students. The microsets are available via Web site (http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov) with associated lesson plans, computer tools, data information pages, and a science glossary. A MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) has been populated with ASDC data such that users can create custom microsets online for desired time series, parameters and geographical regions. The LAS interface is suitable for novice to advanced users, teachers or students. The microsets may be visual representations of data or text output for spreadsheet analysis. Currently, over 148 parameters from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), Surface Radiation Budget (SRB), Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are available and provide important information on clouds, fluxes and cycles in the Earth system. Additionally, a MY NASA DATA OPeNDAP server has been established to facilitate file transfer of

  15. The Earth Information Exchange: A Portal for Earth Science From the ESIP Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertz, R.; Hutchinson, C.; Hardin, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners is a unique consortium of more than 90 organizations that collect, interpret and develop applications for remotely sensed Earth Observation Information. Included in the ESIP network are NASA, NOAA and USGS data centers, research universities, government research laboratories, supercomputer facilities, education resource providers, information technology innovators, nonprofit organizations and commercial enterprises. The consortium's work is dedicated to providing the most up-to-date, science-based information to researchers and decision-makers who are working to understand and address the environmental, economic and social challenges facing our planet. By increasing the use and usability of Earth observation data and linking it with decision-making tools, the Federation partners leverage the value of these important data resources for the betterment of society and our planet. To further the dissemination of Earth Science data, the Federation is developing the Earth Information Exchange (EIE). The EIE is a portal that will provide access to the vast information holdings of the members' organizations in one web-based location and will provides a robust marketplace in which the products and services needed to use and understand this information can be readily acquired. Since the Federation membership includes the federal government's Earth observing data centers, we believe that the impact of the EIE on Earth science research and education and environmental policy making will be profound. In the EIE, Earth observation data, products and services, are organized by the societal benefits categories defined by the international working group developing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The quality of the information is ensured in each of the Exchange's issue areas by maintaining working groups of issue area researchers and practitioners who serve as stewards for their respective communities. The

  16. Integrating Intelligent Systems Domain Knowledge Into the Earth Science Curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güereque, M.; Pennington, D. D.; Pierce, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    High-volume heterogeneous datasets are becoming ubiquitous, migrating to center stage over the last ten years and transcending the boundaries of computationally intensive disciplines into the mainstream, becoming a fundamental part of every science discipline. Despite the fact that large datasets are now pervasive across industries and academic disciplines, the array of skills is generally absent from earth science programs. This has left the bulk of the student population without access to curricula that systematically teach appropriate intelligent-systems skills, creating a void for skill sets that should be universal given their need and marketability. While some guidance regarding appropriate computational thinking and pedagogy is appearing, there exist few examples where these have been specifically designed and tested within the earth science domain. Furthermore, best practices from learning science have not yet been widely tested for developing intelligent systems-thinking skills. This research developed and tested evidence based computational skill modules that target this deficit with the intention of informing the earth science community as it continues to incorporate intelligent systems techniques and reasoning into its research and classrooms.

  17. Booklets for children related with Earth Sciences published in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaniz, S. A.; Nieto-Samaniego, A. F.

    2009-04-01

    The Centro de Geociencias, at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, has published a series of booklets for children, entitled "Simple experiments to understand a complex Earth". It is part of the activities of the Mexican committee of the International Year of the Planet Earth. Each booklet contains experiments related with an Earth Sciences topic and includes the procedure to do one of the "Ten most beautiful experiments in physics" (Crease, P., Physics World May 2002 p17 and September 2002 pp19-20). In Mexico, as in other developing countries, there is very little information about Science in general and Earth Sciences in particular, in the basic education programs. Also, there is poor bibliography in Spanish about science experiments. For this reason, we try to fill the vacuum by distributing free the booklets in Science Museums and rural basic schools in paper, and by Internet in the Centro de Geociencias web site (http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/geociencias/difusion/indice.html). At present, we have been distributed 100,000 copies of 5 issues: 1."Atmospheric pressure and the falling bodies", it deals with the Galileo experiment of falling bodies, he proposed that all the bodies fall down at the same velocity. We discuss the properties of the atmosphere air (temperature, pressure and volume) and concluded that Galileo is right but when the bodies are very light. 2. "The light and the colors" is based in the Newton's decomposition of sunlight with a prism experiment. This booklet contains nine experiments to explain the colors that we find in Earth like the blue of the sky, the orange of the sunset, the rainbow and the mirage. 3. "¿Eureka! oceans and continents float". This booklet presents seven experiments related with density and buoyancy to explain the principles of the Plate tectonics theory. 4. "Climate hanging by a thread", Foucault pendulum demonstrates the rotation of Earth without seeing the stars, in this booklet, we explain, through 9

  18. Earth Science Data Analytics: Preparing for Extracting Knowledge from Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Barbieri, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Data analytics is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. Data analytics is a broad term that includes data analysis, as well as an understanding of the cognitive processes an analyst uses to understand problems and explore data in meaningful ways. Analytics also include data extraction, transformation, and reduction, utilizing specific tools, techniques, and methods. Turning to data science, definitions of data science sound very similar to those of data analytics (which leads to a lot of the confusion between the two). But the skills needed for both, co-analyzing large amounts of heterogeneous data, understanding and utilizing relevant tools and techniques, and subject matter expertise, although similar, serve different purposes. Data Analytics takes on a practitioners approach to applying expertise and skills to solve issues and gain subject knowledge. Data Science, is more theoretical (research in itself) in nature, providing strategic actionable insights and new innovative methodologies. Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining, preparing, reducing, and analyzing large amounts of spatial (multi-dimensional), temporal, or spectral data using a variety of data types to uncover patterns, correlations and other information, to better understand our Earth. The large variety of datasets (temporal spatial differences, data types, formats, etc.) invite the need for data analytics skills that understand the science domain, and data preparation, reduction, and analysis techniques, from a practitioners point of view. The application of these skills to ESDA is the focus of this presentation. The Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster was created in recognition of the practical need to facilitate the co-analysis of large amounts of data and information for Earth science. Thus, from a to

  19. Games and Simulations for Climate, Weather and Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    We will demonstrate several interactive, computer-based simulations, games, and other interactive multimedia. These resources were developed for weather, climate, atmospheric science, and related Earth system science education. The materials were created by education groups at NCAR/UCAR in Boulder, primarily Spark and the COMET Program. These materials have been disseminated via Spark's web site (spark.ucar.edu), webinars, online courses, teacher workshops, and large touchscreen displays in weather and Sun-Earth connections exhibits in NCAR's Mesa Lab facility. Spark has also assembled a web-based list of similar resources, especially simulations and games, from other sources that touch upon weather, climate, and atmospheric science topics. We'll briefly demonstrate this directory.

  20. Earth Systems Science in an Integrated Science Content and Methods Course for Elementary Education Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, J. A.; Allen, D. E.; Donham, R. S.; Fifield, S. J.; Shipman, H. L.; Ford, D. J.; Dagher, Z. R.

    2004-12-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation, we have designed an integrated science content and methods course for sophomore-level elementary teacher education (ETE) majors. This course, the Science Semester, is a 15-credit sequence that consists of three science content courses (Earth, Life, and Physical Science) and a science teaching methods course. The goal of this integrated science and education methods curriculum is to foster holistic understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. During the Science Semester, traditional subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based elementary science. Exemplary approaches that support both learning science and learning how to teach science are used. In the science courses, students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. In the methods course, students critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning in the science courses. An earth system science approach is ideally adapted for the integrated, inquiry-based learning that takes place during the Science Semester. The PBL investigations that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in the PBL investigation that focuses on energy, the carbon cycle is examined as it relates to fossil fuels. In another PBL investigation centered on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. In a PBL investigation that has students learning about the Delaware Bay ecosystem through the story of the horseshoe crab and the biome

  1. Synthetic Approach to biomolecular science by cyborg supramolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Matsuo, Muneyuki; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Sato, Sota

    2018-02-01

    To imitate the essence of living systems via synthetic chemistry approaches has been attempted. With the progress in supramolecular chemistry, it has become possible to synthesize molecules of a size and complexity close to those of biomacromolecules. Recently, the combination of precisely designed supramolecules with biomolecules has generated structural platforms for designing and creating unique molecular systems. Bridging between synthetic chemistry and biomolecular science is also developing methodologies for the creation of artificial cellular systems. This paper provides an overview of the recently expanding interdisciplinary research to fuse artificial molecules with biomolecules, that can deepen our understanding of the dynamical ordering of biomolecules. Using bottom-up approaches based on the precise chemical design, synthesis and hybridization of artificial molecules with biological materials have been realizing the construction of sophisticated platforms having the fundamental functions of living systems. The effective hybrid, molecular cyborg, approaches enable not only the establishment of dynamic systems mimicking nature and thus well-defined models for biophysical understanding, but also the creation of those with highly advanced, integrated functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biophysical Exploration of Dynamical Ordering of Biomolecular Systems" edited by Dr. Koichi Kato. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Key Provenance of Earth Science Observational Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Plale, B.; Aktas, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Purohit, P.; Jensen, S.; Graves, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    As the sheer volume of data increases, particularly evidenced in the earth and environmental sciences, local arrangements for sharing data need to be replaced with reliable records about the what, who, how, and where of a data set or collection. This is frequently called the provenance of a data set. While observational data processing systems in the earth sciences have a long history of capturing metadata about the processing pipeline, current processes are limited in both what is captured and how it is disseminated to the science community. Provenance capture plays a role in scientific data preservation and stewardship precisely because it can automatically capture and represent a coherent picture of the what, how and who of a particular scientific collection. It reflects the transformations that a data collection underwent prior to its current form and the sequence of tasks that were executed and data products applied to generate a new product. In the NASA-funded Instant Karma project, we examine provenance capture in earth science applications, specifically the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Science Investigator-led Processing system (SIPS). The project is integrating the Karma provenance collection and representation tool into the AMSR-E SIPS production environment, with an initial focus on Sea Ice. This presentation will describe capture and representation of provenance that is guided by the Open Provenance Model (OPM). Several things have become clear during the course of the project to date. One is that core OPM entities and relationships are not adequate for expressing the kinds of provenance that is of interest in the science domain. OPM supports name-value pair annotations that can be used to augment what is known about the provenance entities and relationships, but in Karma, annotations cannot be added during capture, but only after the fact. This limits the capture system's ability to record something it

  3. Norfolk State University Research Experience in Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, Raj

    2002-01-01

    The truly interdisciplinary nature of Earth System Science lends itself to the creation of research teams comprised of people with different scientific and technical backgrounds. In the annals of Earth System Science (ESS) education, the lack of an academic major in the discipline might be seen as a barrier to the involvement of undergraduates in the overall ESS-enterprise. This issue is further compounded at minority-serving institutions by the rarity of departments dedicated to Atmospheric Science, Oceanography or even the geosciences. At Norfolk State University, a Historically Black College, a six week, NASA-supported, summer undergraduate research program (REESS - Research Experience in Earth System Science) is creating a model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research coupled with a structured education program. The project is part of a wider effort at the University to enhance undergraduate education by identifying specific areas of student weaknesses regarding the content and process of science. A pre- and post-assessment test, which is focused on some fundamental topics in global climate change, is given to all participants as part of the evaluation of the program. Student attitudes towards the subject and the program's approach are also surveyed at the end of the research experience. In 2002, 11 undergraduates participated in REESS and were educated in the informed use of some of the vast remote sensing resources available through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The program ran from June 3rd through July 12, 2002. This was the final year of the project.

  4. Natural Hazards in Earth Science education projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Elena; Magagna, Alessandra

    2013-04-01

    reconstructing situations recognizable only by clues and following events widely spread in geologic times. These examples will illustrate how methodologies and strategies have been applied to achieve the following purposes: (i) to act according to the principles of geoethics in the formation of professionals of Geosciences education and communication; (ii) to increase individual and collective awareness of the interference of mankind on natural systems, especially on geological heritage. All the mentioned activities have been designed following these common strategies: - to respect and to value the great emotional impact of the issues proposed; - to lighten the irrational aspects of an approximate communication carried out by some media; - to place the impulsive events between the effects of "normal" terrestrial dynamical processes; - to train to a constant and curious attention towards "common" situations, in order to be able to interpret them with awareness; - to highlight the complexity of the phenomena and the richness of the relations between abiotic and living world, despite of convenient simplifications; - to highlight the role of mankind in the system of relationships, as "victim" or "creator" of the changes; - to encourage the awareness of individual responsibility, to enhance the development of a respectful and careful attitude towards other living beings and the Earth system, attitude mindful of the values and the need to protect them. The importance of taking care of the communication approach has been evaluated and tested, giving constant attention to the interlocutors participation, creating informal moments of dialogue, valuing the contributions of their previous knowledge and experience, integrating other contributions of knowledge, relevant to the humanities and the arts.

  5. Integration of a Communicating Science Module into an Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Jessica; Squier, Christopher; Larsen, Sarah C.

    2006-01-01

    A communicating science module was introduced into an advanced undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. The module was integrated into the course such that students received formal instruction in communicating science interwoven with the chemistry laboratory curriculum. The content of the communicating science module included three…

  6. Data Fusion for Earth Science Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA has supported the development of an international network of ground-based remote sensing installations for the measurement of greenhouse gas columns. This collaboration has been successful and is currently used in both carbon cycle investigations and in the efforts to validate the GOSAT space-based column observations of CO2 and CH4. With the support of a grant, this research group has established a network of ground-based column observations that provide an essential link between the satellite observations of CO2, CO, and CH4 and the extensive global in situ surface network. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) was established in 2004. At the time of this report seven sites, employing modern instrumentation, were operational or were expected to be shortly. TCCON is expected to expand. In addition to providing the most direct means of tying the in situ and remote sensing data sets together, TCCON provides a means of testing the retrieval algorithms of SCIAMACHY and GOSAT over the broadest variation in atmospheric state. TCCON provides a critically maintained and long timescale record for identification of temporal drift and spatial bias in the calibration of the space-based sensors. Finally, the global observations from TCCON are improving our understanding of how to use column observations to provide robust estimates of surface exchange of C02 and CH4 in advance of the launch of OCO and GOSAT. TCCON data are being used to better understand the impact of both regional fluxes and long-range transport on gradients in the C02 column. Such knowledge is essential for identifying the tools required to best use the space-based observations. The technical approach and methodology of retrieving greenhouse gas columns from near-IR solar spectra, data quality and process control are described. Additionally, the impact of and relevance to NASA of TCCON and satellite validation and carbon science are addressed.

  7. Ensuring Credibility of NASA's Earth Science Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiden, M. E.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Mitchell, A. E.; Berrick, S. W.; Walter, J.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The summary description of the Fall 2013 AGU session on 'Data Curation, Credibility, Preservation Implementation, and Data Rescue to Enable Multi-Source Science' identifies four attributes needed to ensure credibility in Earth science data records. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Program has been working on all four of these attributes: transparency, completeness, permanence, and ease of access and use, by focusing on them and upon improving our practices of them, over many years. As far as transparency or openness, NASA was in the forefront of free and open sharing of data and associated information for Earth observations. The US data policy requires such openness, but allows for the recoup of the marginal cost of distribution of government data and information - but making the data available with no such charge greatly increases their usage in scientific studies and the resultant analyses hasten our collective understanding of the Earth system. NASA's currently available Earth observations comprise primarily those obtained from satellite-borne instruments, suborbital campaigns, and field investigations. These data are complex and must be accompanied by rich metadata and documentation to be understandable. To enable completeness, NASA utilizes standards for data format, metadata content, and required documentation for any data that are ingested into our distributed Earth Observing System Data and Information System, or EOSDIS. NASA is moving to a new metadata paradigm, primarily to enable a fuller description of data quality and fit-for-purpose attributes. This paradigm offers structured approaches for storing quality measures in metadata that include elements such as Positional Accuracy, Lineage and Cloud Cover. NASA exercises validation processes for the Earth Science Data Systems Program to ensure users of EOSDIS have a predictable level of confidence in data as well as assessing the data viability for usage and application. The Earth Science Data Systems

  8. The inclusion of Science Technology Society topics in junior high school earth science textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadhli, Fathi Ali

    2000-10-01

    The Science Technology Society (STS) approach is a major science education reform through which a scientifically literate citizen could be produced. The teaching of science through STS approach is centered on science and technology related issues and problems. The purpose of this study was to analyze five earth science textbooks published in the 1990's for their inclusion of twelve sciences and technology related issues and problems and for their inclusion of activities focused on STS. The selected earth science textbooks were; Scott Foresman, Heath, Holt, Merrill and Prentice-Hall. The targeted twelve issues and problems were identified by Bybee (1987), as the most important global science and technology related issues and problems. The numbers of full text pages devoted to each topic were determined by classifying each segment to one of the targeted topics. In addition, the numbers of STS activities were also determined by using criteria developed for this study. ANOVA statistical analyses and t-tests showed that the analyzed earth science textbooks treated the studied STS issues and problems and treated the STS activities differently. It was found that six of the studied issues and problems were constantly receiving more attention in all the analyzed earth science textbooks than the rest of the topics. These topics were; Air Quality and Atmosphere, Energy Shortages, Water Resources, Land Use, Hazardous Substances, and Mineral Resources. The overall results revealed that only an average of 8.82% of the text pages in all the analyzed earth science textbooks were devoted to STS topics and 5.49% of the activities in all the analyzed earth science textbooks were focused on STS topics. However, none of the activities focused on STS topics were presented in STS approach as defined by NSTA. The percentage of STS topics inclusion and the percentage of activities focused on STS topics were considered to be very low. Accordingly, the objectives and goals of STS approach

  9. Embracing Open Source for NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baynes, Katie; Pilone, Dan; Boller, Ryan; Meyer, David; Murphy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The overarching purpose of NASAs Earth Science program is to develop a scientific understanding of Earth as a system. Scientific knowledge is most robust and actionable when resulting from transparent, traceable, and reproducible methods. Reproducibility includes open access to the data as well as the software used to arrive at results. Additionally, software that is custom-developed for NASA should be open to the greatest degree possible, to enable re-use across Federal agencies, reduce overall costs to the government, remove barriers to innovation, and promote consistency through the use of uniform standards. Finally, Open Source Software (OSS) practices facilitate collaboration between agencies and the private sector. To best meet these ends, NASAs Earth Science Division promotes the full and open sharing of not only all data, metadata, products, information, documentation, models, images, and research results but also the source code used to generate, manipulate and analyze them. This talk focuses on the challenges to open sourcing NASA developed software within ESD and the growing pains associated with establishing policies running the gamut of tracking issues, properly documenting build processes, engaging the open source community, maintaining internal compliance, and accepting contributions from external sources. This talk also covers the adoption of existing open source technologies and standards to enhance our custom solutions and our contributions back to the community. Finally, we will be introducing the most recent OSS contributions from NASA Earth Science program and promoting these projects for wider community review and adoption.

  10. In Brief: European Earth science network for postdocs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched a new initiative called the Changing Earth Science Network, to support young scientists undertaking leading-edge research activities aimed at advancing the understanding of the Earth system. The initiative will enable up to 10 young postdoctoral researchers from the agency's member states to address major scientific challenges by using Earth observation (EO) satellite data from ESA and its third-party missions. The initiative aims to foster the development of a network of young scientists in Europe with a good knowledge of the agency and its EO programs. Selected candidates will have the option to carry out part of their research in an ESA center as a visiting scientist. The deadline to submit proposals is 16 January 2009. Selections will be announced in early 2009. The Changing Earth Science Network was developed as one of the main programmatic components of ESA's Support to Science Element, launched in 2008. For more information, visit http://www.esa.int/stse.

  11. Physics Guided Data Science in the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Even as the geosciences are becoming relatively data-rich owing to remote sensing and archived model simulations, established physical understanding and process knowledge cannot be ignored. The ability to leverage both physics and data-intensive sciences may lead to new discoveries and predictive insights. A principled approach to physics guided data science, where physics informs feature selection, output constraints, and even the architecture of the learning models, is motivated. The possibility of hybrid physics and data science models at the level of component processes is discussed. The challenges and opportunities, as well as the relations to other approaches such as data assimilation - which also bring physics and data together - are discussed. Case studies are presented in climate, hydrology and meteorology.

  12. Students' Science Attitudes, Beliefs, and Context: Associations with Science and Chemistry Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Sheldrake, Richard; Reiss, Michael J.; Simon, Shirley

    2018-01-01

    There is a widespread concern that relatively few students, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, continue to study chemistry and other science subjects after compulsory education. Yet it remains unclear how different aspects of students' background and home context, their own attitudes and beliefs, and their experiences of particular…

  13. Sun-Earth Day: Exposing the Public to Sun-Earth Connection Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J. R.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2001-12-01

    The year 2001 marked the first observance of Sun-Earth Day as an event to celebrate the strong interconnection of the life we have on Earth and the dependence of it on the dynamic influence of the Sun. The science of the Sun-Earth Connection has grown dramatically with new satellite and ground-based studies of the Sun and the Sun's extended "atmosphere" in which we live. Space weather is becoming a more common concept that people know can affect their lives. An understanding of the importance of the Sun's dynamic behavior and how this shapes the solar system and especially the Earth is the aim of Sun-Earth Day. The first Sun-Earth event actually took place over two days, April 27 and 28, 2001, in order to accommodate all the events which were planned both in the classroom on Friday the 27th and in more informal settings on Saturday the 28th. The Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) organized the creation of ten thousand packets of educational materials about Sun-Earth Day and distributed them mostly to teachers who were trained to use them in the classroom. Many packets, however, went to science centers, museums, and planetariums as resource materials for programs associated with Sun-Earth Day. Over a hundred scientists used the event as an opportunity to communicate their love of science to audiences in these informal settings. Sun-Earth Day was also greatly assisted by the Amateur Astronomical Society which used the event as a theme for their annual promotion of astronomy in programs given around the country. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a satellite mission jointly sponsored by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), used Sun-Earth Day in conjunction with the fifth anniversary celebration of SOHO as a basis for many programs and events, especially a large number of happenings in Europe. These included observing parties, art exhibits, demonstrations, etc. Examples of some of the innovative ways that Sun-Earth Day was brought into people

  14. Designing the Social Context for Easier Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification of Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification (VVUQ) are key actions that support conclusions based on Earth science data. Communities of data producers and users must undertake VVUQ when they create and use their data. The strategies [S] and tools [T] suggested below come from successful use on two large NASA projects. The first was the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The second is the investigation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). [S] 1. Partition the production system into subsystems that deal with data transformations confined to limited space and time scales. Simplify the subsystems to minimize the number of data transformations in each subsystem. [S] 2. Derive algorithms from the fundamental physics and chemistry governing the parameters in each subsystem including those for instrument calibration. [S] 3. Use preliminary uncertainty estimates to detect unexpected discrepancies. Removing these requires diagnostic work as well as development and testing of fixes. [S] 4. Make sure there are adequate resources to support multiple end-to-end reprocessing of all data products. [T] 1. Create file identifiers that accommodate temporal and spatial sequences of data files and subsystem version changes. [T] 2. Create libraries of parameters used in common by different subsystems to reduce errors due to inconsistent values. [T] 3. Maintain a list of action items to record progress on resolving discrepancies. [T] 4. Plan on VVUQ activities that use independent data sources and peer review before distributing and archiving data. The goal of VVUQ is to provide a transparent link between the data and the physics and chemistry governing the measured quantities. The VVUQ effort also involves specialized domain experience and nomenclature. It often requires as much effort as the original system development. ERBE and CERES demonstrated that these strategies and tools can reduce the cost of VVUQ for Earth science data products.

  15. A prospectus for Thematic Mapper research in the Earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Earth science applications of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are discussed. Prospective research themes are defined in a general sense in relation to the technical measurement capabilities of the TM and the various types of Earth information that can potentially be derived from multispectral TM imagery. An overview of the system developed to acquire and reduce TM data is presented. The technical capabilities of this system are presented in detail. The orbital performance of the TM sensor is described, based upon the analysis of LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data collected to date.

  16. A finite world, earth sciences, and public trust.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, T N

    2003-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century has coincided with our recognition that life-sustaining earth cycles are remarkably fine-tuned, and that humans have developed technological abilities to perturb these cycles. Also, inspired bythe gifts of freedom and democracy, humans have given themselves laws to exploit nature for profit. The upshot is that nature's balance, governed by immutable physical laws, is being confronted by social laws driven by human aspirations. This conflict and its implications to the human relevance of the earth sciences are explored in the context of an extraordinary tradition of European culture known as public trust.

  17. Assessing Teachers' Comprehension of What Matters in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penuel, W. R.; Kreikemeier, P.; Venezky, D.; Blank, J. G.; Davatzes, A.; Davatzes, N.

    2006-12-01

    Curricular standards developed for individual U.S. States tell teachers what they should teach. Most sets of standards are too numerous to be taught in a single year, forcing teachers to make decisions about what to emphasize in their curriculum. Ideally, such decisions would be based on what matters most in Earth science, namely, the big ideas that anchor scientific inquiry in the field. A measure of teachers' ability to associate curriculum standards with fundamental concepts in Earth science would help K-12 program and curriculum developers to bridge gaps in teachers' knowledge in order to help teachers make better decisions about what is most important to teach and communicate big ideas to students. This paper presents preliminary results of an attempt to create and validate a measure of teachers' comprehension of what matters in three sub-disciplines of Earth science. This measure was created as part of an experimental study of teacher professional development in Earth science. It is a task that requires teachers to take their state's curriculum standards and identify which standards are necessary or supplemental to developing students' understanding of fundamental concepts in the target sub-disciplines. To develop the task, a team of assessment experts and educational researchers asked a panel of four Earth scientists to identify key concepts embedded within middle school standards for the state of Florida. The Earth science panel reached a consensus on which standards needed to be taught in order to develop understanding of those concepts; this was used as a basis for comparison with teacher responses. Preliminary analysis of the responses of 44 teachers who participated in a pilot validation study identified differences between teachers' and scientists' maps of standards to big ideas in the sub-disciplines. On average, teachers identified just under one-third of the connections seen by expert Earth scientists between the concepts and their state standards

  18. Earth Science Data Analysis in the Era of Big Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, K.-S.; Clune, T. L.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-01-01

    Anyone with even a cursory interest in information technology cannot help but recognize that "Big Data" is one of the most fashionable catchphrases of late. From accurate voice and facial recognition, language translation, and airfare prediction and comparison, to monitoring the real-time spread of flu, Big Data techniques have been applied to many seemingly intractable problems with spectacular successes. They appear to be a rewarding way to approach many currently unsolved problems. Few fields of research can claim a longer history with problems involving voluminous data than Earth science. The problems we are facing today with our Earth's future are more complex and carry potentially graver consequences than the examples given above. How has our climate changed? Beside natural variations, what is causing these changes? What are the processes involved and through what mechanisms are these connected? How will they impact life as we know it? In attempts to answer these questions, we have resorted to observations and numerical simulations with ever-finer resolutions, which continue to feed the "data deluge." Plausibly, many Earth scientists are wondering: How will Big Data technologies benefit Earth science research? As an example from the global water cycle, one subdomain among many in Earth science, how would these technologies accelerate the analysis of decades of global precipitation to ascertain the changes in its characteristics, to validate these changes in predictive climate models, and to infer the implications of these changes to ecosystems, economies, and public health? Earth science researchers need a viable way to harness the power of Big Data technologies to analyze large volumes and varieties of data with velocity and veracity. Beyond providing speedy data analysis capabilities, Big Data technologies can also play a crucial, albeit indirect, role in boosting scientific productivity by facilitating effective collaboration within an analysis environment

  19. A Knowledge Portal and Collaboration Environment for the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agnese, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    Earth Knowledge is developing a web-based 'Knowledge Portal and Collaboration Environment' that will serve as the information-technology-based foundation of a modular Internet-based Earth-Systems Monitoring, Analysis, and Management Tool. This 'Knowledge Portal' is essentially a 'mash- up' of web-based and client-based tools and services that support on-line collaboration, community discussion, and broad public dissemination of earth and environmental science information in a wide-area distributed network. In contrast to specialized knowledge-management or geographic-information systems developed for long- term and incremental scientific analysis, this system will exploit familiar software tools using industry standard protocols, formats, and APIs to discover, process, fuse, and visualize existing environmental datasets using Google Earth and Google Maps. An early form of these tools and services is being used by Earth Knowledge to facilitate the investigations and conversations of scientists, resource managers, and citizen-stakeholders addressing water resource sustainability issues in the Great Basin region of the desert southwestern United States. These ongoing projects will serve as use cases for the further development of this information-technology infrastructure. This 'Knowledge Portal' will accelerate the deployment of Earth- system data and information into an operational knowledge management system that may be used by decision-makers concerned with stewardship of water resources in the American Desert Southwest.

  20. NASA's Future Active Remote Sensing Missing for Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Jonathan B.

    2000-01-01

    Since the beginning of space remote sensing of the earth, there has been a natural progression widening the range of electromagnetic radiation used to sense the earth, and slowly, steadily increasing the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution of the measurements. There has also been a somewhat slower trend toward active measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum, motivated in part by increased resolution, but also by the ability to make new measurements. Active microwave instruments have been used to measure ocean topography, to study the land surface. and to study rainfall from space. Future NASA active microwave missions may add detail to the topographical studies, sense soil moisture, and better characterize the cryosphere. Only recently have active optical instruments been flown in space by NASA; however, there are currently several missions in development which will sense the earth with lasers and many more conceptual active optical missions which address the priorities of NASA's earth science program. Missions are under development to investigate the structure of the terrestrial vegetation canopy, to characterize the earth's ice caps, and to study clouds and aerosols. Future NASA missions may measure tropospheric vector winds and make vastly improved measurements of the chemical components of the earth's atmosphere.