American Geological Inst., Alexandria, VA.
Teams of teachers, other science educators, and scientists selected from a national search for project writers have proposed using the following set of questions to guide the inclusion of earth science content into the kindergarten through grade 12 curriculum. The Essential Questions are organized in a K-12 sequence by six content areas: (1) Solid…
Madsen, J. A.; Allen, D. E.; Donham, R. S.; Fifield, S. J.; Shipman, H. L.; Ford, D. J.; Dagher, Z. R.
With funding from the National Science Foundation, we have designed an integrated science content and methods course for sophomore-level elementary teacher education (ETE) majors. This course, the Science Semester, is a 15-credit sequence that consists of three science content courses (Earth, Life, and Physical Science) and a science teaching methods course. The goal of this integrated science and education methods curriculum is to foster holistic understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. During the Science Semester, traditional subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based elementary science. Exemplary approaches that support both learning science and learning how to teach science are used. In the science courses, students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. In the methods course, students critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning in the science courses. An earth system science approach is ideally adapted for the integrated, inquiry-based learning that takes place during the Science Semester. The PBL investigations that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in the PBL investigation that focuses on energy, the carbon cycle is examined as it relates to fossil fuels. In another PBL investigation centered on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. In a PBL investigation that has students learning about the Delaware Bay ecosystem through the story of the horseshoe crab and the biome
Johnson, D.; Ruzek, M.; Weatherley, J.
The Journal of Earth System Science Education is a new interdisciplinary electronic journal aiming to foster the study of the Earth as a system and promote the development and exchange of interdisciplinary learning resources for formal and informal education. JESSE will serve educators and students by publishing and providing ready electronic access to Earth system and global change science learning resources for the classroom and will provide authors and creators with professional recognition through publication in a peer reviewed journal. JESSE resources foster a world perspective by emphasizing interdisciplinary studies and bridging disciplines in the context of the Earth system. The Journal will publish a wide ranging variety of electronic content, with minimal constraints on format, targeting undergraduate educators and students as the principal readership, expanding to a middle and high school audience as the journal matures. JESSE aims for rapid review and turn-around of resources to be published, with a goal of 12 weeks from submission to publication for resources requiring few changes. Initial publication will be on a quarterly basis until a flow of resource submissions is established to warrant continuous electronic publication. JESSE employs an open peer review process in which authors and reviewers discuss directly the acceptability of a resource for publication using a software tool called the Digital Document Discourse Environment. Reviewer comments and attribution will be available with the resource upon acceptance for publication. JESSE will also implement a moderated peer commentary capability where readers can comment on the use of a resource or make suggestions. In the development phase, JESSE will also conduct a parallel anonymous review of content to validate and ensure credibility of the open review approach. Copyright of materials submitted remains with the author, granting JESSE the non-exclusive right to maintain a copy of the resource
Brkich, Katie Lynn
Earth science education, as it is traditionally taught, involves presenting concepts such as weathering, erosion, and deposition using relatively well-known examples—the Grand Canyon, beach erosion, and others. However, these examples—which resonate well with middle- and upper-class students—ill-serve students of poverty attending urban schools who may have never traveled farther from home than the corner store. In this paper, I explore the use of a place-based educational framework in teaching earth science concepts to urban fifth graders and explore the connections they make between formal earth science content and their lived experiences using participant-driven photo elicitation techniques. I argue that students are able to gain a sounder understanding of earth science concepts when they are able to make direct observations between the content and their lived experiences and that when such direct observations are impossible they make analogies of appearance, structure, and response to make sense of the content. I discuss additionally the importance of expanding earth science instruction to include man-made materials, as these materials are excluded traditionally from the curriculum yet are most immediately available to urban students for examination.
McCaughey, J.; Chong, E.
Singapore has a long tradition of geography education at the secondary and Junior College levels (ages 12-18). Although most geography teachers teach both human and physical geography, many of them have received more extensive university training in human geography. The Earth Obervatory of Singapore (EOS), a newly established research institute at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), is building an education and outreach program to integrate its research across formal and informal education. We are collaborating with the Singapore Ministry of Education to enhance the earth-science content and inquiry basis of physical geography education in Singapore classrooms. EOS is providing input to national curriculum, textbook materials, and teaching resources, as well as providing inquiry-based field seminars and workshops for inservice teachers. An upcoming 5-year "Our Dynamic Earth" exhibit at the Science Centre Singapore will be a centerpoint of outreach to younger students, their teachers and parents, and to the community at large. On a longer time scale, the upcoming undergraduate program in earth science at NTU, the first of its kind in Singapore, will provide a stream of earth scientists into the geography teaching workforce. Developing ties between EOS and the National Institute of Education will further enhance teacher training. With a highly centralized curriculum, small land area, high-performing student population, and key stakeholders eager to collaborate with EOS, Singapore presents an unusual opportunity to impact classrooms on a national scale.
The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft embarks on a journey that will culminate in a close encounter with an asteroid. The launch of NEAR inaugurates NASA's irnovative Discovery program of small-scale planetary missions with rapid, lower-cost development cycles and focused science objectives. NEAR will rendezvous in 1999 with the asteroid 433 Eros to begin the first long-term, close-up look at an asteroid's surface composition and physical properties. NEAR's science payload includes an x-ray/gamma ray spectrometer, an near-infrared spectrograph, a laser rangefinder, a magnetometer, a radio science experiment and a multi-spectral imager.
Lee, Siok H.
This study examines strategies for supporting vocabulary and content learning in 5 grade 9 Earth Science classes that are part of a SDAIE program (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English) in an urban California high school. Students received vocabulary and content instruction during a unit on Earthquakes. One group of students performed…
Rubino-Hare, L.; Sample, J. C.; Fredrickson, K.; Claesgens, J.; Bloom, N.; Henderson-Dahms, C.; Manone, M.
We have provided two years of professional development for secondary and middle school teachers with a focus on project-based instruction (PBI) using GIS. The EYE-POD project (funded by NSF-ITEST) involved pairs of teachers from Arizona and the surrounding region in two-week institutes during Summer, 2010, and an advanced institute in Summer, 2011. The NAz-POD project (funded by Arizona Department of Education and administered by Science Foundation Arizona) provided similar PD experiences, but the institutes occurred during weekends in the academic year. The institutes were led by a team with expertise in Earth science content, professional development and pedagogy, and GIS. The teachers developed learning modules using the project based learning instructional model. Pedagogy, content, and GIS skills were combined throughout the professional development activities. Academic year follow up by NAU personnel included classroom observations and technical support. For assessing student work we provided a rubric, but learned that teachers were not prepared to assess GIS products in order to determine the level of student understanding. In year two of the project we incorporated strategies for assessment of student products into the professional development. Teacher-participants and their students completed several pre- and post- assessments. Teacher assessments included a geospatial performance assessment, classroom observations, and content tests. Student data collection included attitude and efficacy questionnaires, content tests, and authentic assessments including products using GIS. Content tests were the same for teachers and students and included spatial reasoning, data analysis, and Earth science content. Data was also collected on teacher perception of professional development delivery and self-reported confidence in teaching with PBI and geospatial technology. Student assessments show that improvement occurred in all areas on the content test. Possible factors
The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft undergoing preflight preparation in the Spacecraft Assembly Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). NEAR will perform two critical mission events - Mathilde flyby and the Deep-Space maneuver. NEAR will fly-by Mathilde, a 38-mile (61-km) diameter C-type asteroid, making use of its imaging system to obtain useful optical navigation images. The primary science instrument will be the camera, but measurements of magnetic fields and mass also will be made. The Deep-Space Maneuver (DSM) will be executed about a week after the Mathilde fly-by. The DSM represents the first of two major burns during the NEAR mission of the 100-pound bi-propellant (Hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide) thruster. This maneuver is necessary to lower the perihelion distance of NEAR's trajectory. The DSM will be conducted in two segments to minimize the possibility of an overburn situation.
A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics"…
Wei, Y.; Pan, J.; Shrestha, B.; Cook, R. B.
An increasing need for derived and on-demand data product in Earth Science research makes the digital content more difficult for providers to manage and preserve and for users to locate, understand, and consume. Specifically, this increasing need presents additional challenges in managing data processing history information and delivering such information to end users. For example, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) chose a modified SYNMAP land cover data as one of the input driver data for participating terrestrial biospheric models. The global 1km resolution SYNMAP data was created by harmonizing 3 remote sensing-based land cover products: GLCC, GLC2000, and the MODIS land cover product. The original SYNMAP land cover data was aggregated into half and quarter degree resolution. It was then enhanced with more detailed grassland and cropland types. Currently, there lacks an effective mechanism to convey this data processing information to different modeling teams for them to determine if a data product meets their needs. It still highly relies on offline human interaction. The NASA-sponsored ORNL DAAC has leveraged the contemporary digital object repository technology to promote the representation, management, and delivery of data processing history and provenance information. Within digital object repository, different data products are managed as objects, with metadata as attributes and content delivery and management services as dissemination methods. Derivation relationships among data products can be semantically referenced between digital objects. Within the repository, data users can easily track a derived data product back to its origin, explorer metadata and documents about each intermediate data product, and discover processing details involved in each derivation step. Coupled with Drupal Web Content Management System, the digital repository interface was enhanced to
The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.
Dobinson, E.; Raskin, G.
This demo presents the combination on an http-based client/server application that facilitates internet access to Earth science data coupled with a Java applet GUI that allows the user to graphically select data based on spatial and temporal coverage plots and scientific parameters.
Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.
Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.
Madsen, J.; Allen, D.; Donham, R.; Fifield, S.; Ford, D.; Shipman, H.; Dagher, Z.
University of Delaware faculty in the geological sciences, biological sciences, and the physics and astronomy departments have partnered with faculty and researchers from the school of education to form a continuum for K- 8 pre-service teacher preparation in science. The goal of the continuum is to develop integrated understandings of content and pedagogy so that these future teachers can effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. Throughout the continuum where earth science content appears an earth system science approach, with emphasis on inquiry-based activities, is employed. The continuum for K-8 pre-service teachers includes a gateway content course in the earth, life, or physical sciences taken during the freshman year followed by integrated science content and methods courses taken during the sophomore year. These integrated courses, called the Science Semester, were designed and implemented with funding from the National Science Foundation. During the Science Semester, traditional content and pedagogy subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based science. Students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. They also critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning during the Science Semester. The PBL activities that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in a PBL investigation that focuses on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. Those students seeking secondary certification in science will enroll, as a bridge toward their student teaching experience, in an
Workers at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville prepared for a news media showing of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-1 (GOES-1). GOES-1 was the first in a new generation of weather satellites deployed above Earth. It was the first 3-axis, body-stabilized meteorological satellite to be used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA. These features allowed GOES-1 to continuously monitor the Earth, rather than viewing it just five percent of the time as was the case with spin-stabilized meteorological satellites. GOES-1 also has independent imaging and sounding instruments which can operate simultaneously yet independently. As a result, observations provided by each instrument will not be interrupted. The imager produces visual and infrared images of the Earth's surface, oceans, cloud cover and severe storm development, while the prime sounding products include vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and layer mean moisture.
This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.
This panoramic view of Hurricane Charley was photographed by the Expedition 9 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on August 13, 2004, at a vantage point just north of Tampa, Florida. The small eye was not visible in this view, but the raised cloud tops near the center coincide roughly with the time that the storm began to rapidly strengthen. The category 2 hurricane was moving north-northwest at 18 mph packing winds of 105 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.
This image hosts a look at the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm topped the western Caribbean Sea on Saturday, September 11, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, the category 5 storm sustained winds in the eye of the wall that were reported at about 160 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.
Except for a small portion of the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, fills this image over the northern Gulf of Mexico. As the downgraded category 4 storm approached landfall on the Alabama coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the ISS at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.
This image hosts a look into the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm approached landfall on the central Gulf coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph as the downgraded category 4 storm approached the Alabama coast. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.
Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is a tethered date collecting satellite and is intended to demonstrate a versatile and economical way of delivering smaller payloads to higher orbits or downward toward Earth's atmosphere. 19th Navstar Global Positioning System Satellite mission joined with previously launched satellites used for navigational purposes and geodite studies. These satellites are used commercially as well as by the military.
In July 1990, the Marshall Space Flight Center, in a joint project with the Department of Defense/Air Force Space Test Program, launched the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) using an Atlas I launch vehicle. The mission was designed to study the effects of artificial ion clouds produced by chemical releases on the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to monitor the effects of space radiation environment on sophisticated electronics.
A Delta II rocket carrying the Geomagnetic Tail Lab (GEOTAIL) spacecraft lifts off at Launch Complex 17, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a cloud-dappled sky. This liftoff marks the first Delta launch under the medium expendable launch vehicle services contract between NASA and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co. The GEOTAIL mission, a joint US/Japanese project, is the first in a series of five satellites to study the interactions between the Sun, the Earth's magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belts.
Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-45) onboard photo of Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (Atlas-1) module in open cargo bay. Atlas-1 pallets are back dropped against the Atlas Mountains. Taken over Mali in the western Sahara, shows dunes in the Iguidi Dune Sea.
Smith, Michael J.
This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…
Maynard, Nancy G.
A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.
Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…
Beaulieu, S. E.; Patterson, K.; Joyce, K.; Silva, T.; Madin, K.; Spargo, A.; Brickley, A.; Emery, M.
Spherical display systems, also known as digital globes, are technologies that, in person or online, can be used to help visualize global datasets and earth system processes. Using the InterRidge Global Database of Active Submarine Hydrothermal Vent Fields and imagery from deep-sea vehicles, we are creating content for spherical display systems to educate and excite the public about dynamic geophysical and biological processes and exploration in the deep ocean. The 'Global Viewport for Virtual Exploration of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents' is a collaboration between the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Ocean Explorium at New Bedford Seaport, hosting a Magic Planet and Science On a Sphere (SOS), respectively. The main activities in the first year of our project were geared towards team building and content development. Here we will highlight the partnering and teamwork involved in creating and testing the effectiveness of our new content. Our core team is composed of a lead scientist, educators at both institutions, graphic artists, and a professional evaluator. The new content addresses key principles of Earth Science Literacy and Ocean Literacy. We will share the collaborative, iterative process by which we developed two educational pieces, 'Life without sunlight' and 'Smoke and fire underwater' - each focusing on a different set of 3 literacy principles. We will share how we conducted our front-end and formative evaluations and how we focused on 2 NSF Informal Education Impact Categories for our evaluation questionnaire for the public. Each educational piece is being produced as a stand-alone movie and as an interactive, docent-led presentation integrating a number of other datasets available from NOAA's SOS Users Network. The proximity of our two institutions enables a unique evaluation of the learning attained with a stand-alone spherical display vs. live presentations with an SOS.
Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret
For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…
An ESIC? An Earth Science Information Center. Don't spell it. Say it. ESIC. It rhymes with seasick. You can find information in an information center, of course, and you'll find earth science information in an ESIC. That means information about the land that is the Earth, the land that is below the Earth, and in some instances, the space surrounding the Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of Earth Science Information Centers that sell earth science products and data. There are more than 75 ESIC's. Some are operated by the USGS, but most are in other State or Federal agencies. Each ESIC responds to requests for information received by telephone, letter, or personal visit. Your personal visit.
Ramapriyan, H. K.
Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes nearly 150 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies. Remote Sensing; Earth Science Informatics, Data Systems; Data Services; Metadata
Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.
Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various
Ramapriyan, H. K.
Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.
Ramapriyan, H. K.
Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses for a selfie after a quick rap performance by some young professionals during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project on New England water resources during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)
Lisa Waldron and Justin Roberts-Pierel present their project on Texas health and air quality during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)
Michael Gao presents his project on Southeast Asian disasters during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden asks young professionals about their projects after posing for a group photo during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)
Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard
This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.
This syllabus outlines a year earth science program designed to be activity oriented, investigatory in approach, and interdisciplinary in content. Each topic section contains a topic abstract and topic outline, major understandings, and information to teachers. The topic abstract lists behavioral objectives and general information about the topic…
Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.
The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.
Smith, G. Louis
This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.
Chi, Y.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.
The Earth Science Data Grid System (ESDGS) is a software in support of earth science data storage and access. It is built upon the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) data grid technology. We have developed a complete data grid system consistent of SRB server providing users uniform access to diverse storage resources in a heterogeneous computing environment and metadata catalog server (MCAT) managing the metadata associated with data set, users, and resources. We are also developing additional services of 1) metadata management, 2) geospatial, temporal, and content-based indexing, and 3) near/on site data processing, in response to the unique needs of Earth science applications. In this paper, we will describe the software architecture and components of the system, and use a practical example in support of storage and access of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to illustrate its functionality and features.
Chi, Y.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.
The Earth Science Data Grid System (ESDGS) is a software system in support of earth science data storage and access. It is built upon the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) data grid technology. We have developed a complete data grid system consistent of SRB server providing users uniform access to diverse storage resources in a heterogeneous computing environment and metadata catalog server (MCAT) managing the metadata associated with data set, users, and resources. We also develop the earth science application metadata; geospatial, temporal, and content-based indexing; and some other tools. In this paper, we will describe software architecture and components of the data grid system, and use a practical example in support of storage and access of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to illustrate its functionality and features.
Brkich, Katie Lynn
Earth science education, as it is traditionally taught, involves presenting concepts such as weathering, erosion, and deposition using relatively well-known examples--the Grand Canyon, beach erosion, and others. However, these examples--which resonate well with middle- and upper-class students--ill-serve students of poverty attending urban schools…
Philips, William C.
Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)
Reviews advancements in earth science during 1970 in each of these areas: economic geology (fuels), economic geology (metals), economic geology (nonmetals), environmental geology, geochemistry, manpower, hydrology, mapping, marine geology, mineralogy, paleontology, plate tectonics, politics and geology, remote sensing, and seismology. (PR)
A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.
Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, Michael F.
This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.
Orgren, James R.
Reviews history of earth science in secondary schools. From early nineteenth century to the present, earth science (and its antecedents, geology, physical geography, and astronomy) has had an erratic history for several reasons, but particularly because of lack of earth science teacher-training programs. (BR)
Hasler, A. F.
The presentation will begin with the latest 1998 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. A compilation of the 10 days of animations of Hurricane Georges which were supplied daily on NASA to Network television will be shown. NASA's visualizations of Hurricane Bonnie which appeared in the Sept 7 1998 issue of TIME magazine. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1 -min GOES images that will appear in the October BAMS. The visualizations are produced by the Goddard Visualization & Analysis Laboratory, and Scientific Visualization Studio, as well as other Goddard and NASA groups using NASA, NOAA, ESA, and NASDA Earth science datasets. Visualizations will be shown from the "Digital-HyperRes-Panorama" Earth Science ETheater'98 recently presented in Tokyo, Paris and Phoenix. The presentation in Paris used a SGI/CRAY Onyx Infinite Reality Super Graphics Workstation at 2560 X 1024 resolution with dual synchronized video Epson 71 00 projectors on a 20ft wide screen. Earth Science Electronic Theater '999 is being prepared for a December 1 st showing at NASA HQ in Washington and January presentation at the AMS meetings in Dallas. The 1999 version of the Etheater will be triple wide with at resolution of 3840 X 1024 on a 60 ft wide screen. Visualizations will also be featured from the new Earth Today Exhibit which was opened by Vice President Gore on July 2, 1998 at the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in Washington, as well as those presented for possible use at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC), Disney EPCOT, and other venues. New methods are demonstrated for visualizing, interpreting, comparing, organizing and analyzing immense Hyperimage remote sensing datasets and three dimensional numerical model results. We call the data from many new Earth sensing satellites
This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division's research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth's crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989, a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will, in the coming years, be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.
This videotape recording explains the factors that allow life to flourish on Earth, including our position within the solar system, the water cycle, and the composition of the planet. A hands-on activity demonstrates the earth's water cycle. Contents include a teacher's guide designed to help science teachers in grades 5-8 by providing a brief…
Schoeberl, Mark; Rychekewkitsch, Michael; Andrucyk, Dennis; McConaughy, Gail; Meeson, Blanche; Hildebrand, Peter; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's long range vision is to enable the development of a national proactive environmental predictive capability through targeted scientific research and technological innovation. Proactive environmental prediction means the prediction of environmental events and their secondary consequences. These consequences range from disasters and disease outbreak to improved food production and reduced transportation, energy and insurance costs. The economic advantage of this predictive capability will greatly outweigh the cost of development. Developing this predictive capability requires a greatly improved understanding of the earth system and the interaction of the various components of that system. It also requires a change in our approach to gathering data about the earth and a change in our current methodology in processing that data including its delivery to the customers. And, most importantly, it requires a renewed partnership between NASA and its sister agencies. We identify six application themes that summarize the potential of proactive environmental prediction. We also identify four technology themes that articulate our approach to implementing proactive environmental prediction.
An area that teachers often find difficult to make interesting is the earth science component of the science curriculum. This may be for a variety of reasons, such as lack of knowledge, lack of ideas or lack of resources. This article outlines ideas and activities that have been developed by the Earth Science Teachers' Association (ESTA) primary…
King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)
The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.
Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.
Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)
Great Earth science has been published over the ten years since the launch of Nature Geoscience. The field has also become more interdisciplinary and accountable, as well as more central to society and sustainability.
Ramapriyan, H. K.
NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.
Marius, Julio L.
This presentation gives a general overlook of the engineering efforts that are necessary to meet science mission requirement especially for Earth Science missions. It provides brief overlook of NASA's current missions and future Earth Science missions and the engineering challenges to meet some of the specific science objectives. It also provides, if time permits, a brief summary of two significant weather and climate phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere: El Nino and La Nina, as well as the Ozone depletion over Antarctica that will be of interest to IEEE intercom 2009 conference audience.
Day, James M. D.
The isotopic compositions of objects that formed early in the evolution of the Solar System have been found to be similar to Earth's composition -- overturning notions of our planet's chemical distinctiveness. See Letters p.394 & p.399
Meeson, Blanche W.
Workshop for middle and high school teachers to enhance their knowledge of the Earth as a system. NASA data and materials developed by teachers (all available via the Internet) will be used to engage participants in hands-on, investigative approaches to the Earth system. All materials are ready to be applied in pre-college classrooms. Remotely-sensed data will be used in combination with familiar resources, such as maps, to examine global climate change.
Lowe, Dawn R.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram
NASA has been collecting Earth observation data for over 50 years using instruments on board satellites, aircraft and ground-based systems. With the inception of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program in 1990, NASA established the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and initiated development of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A set of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) was established at locations based on science discipline expertise. Today, EOSDIS consists of 12 DAACs and 12 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS), processing data from the EOS missions, as well as the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership mission, and other satellite and airborne missions. The DAACs archive and distribute the vast majority of data from NASA’s Earth science missions, with data holdings exceeding 12 petabytes The data held by EOSDIS are available to all users consistent with NASA’s free and open data policy, which has been in effect since 1990. The EOSDIS archives consist of raw instrument data counts (level 0 data), as well as higher level standard products (e.g., geophysical parameters, products mapped to standard spatio-temporal grids, results of Earth system models using multi-instrument observations, and long time series of Earth System Data Records resulting from multiple satellite observations of a given type of phenomenon). EOSDIS data stewardship responsibilities include ensuring that the data and information content are reliable, of high quality, easily accessible, and usable for as long as they are considered to be of value.
Renard, Philippe; Badoux, Vincent; Petitdidier, Monique; Cossu, Roberto
The fundamental challenges facing humankind at the beginning of the 21st century require an effective response to the massive changes that are putting increasing pressure on the environment and society. The worldwide Earth science community, with its mosaic of disciplines and players (academia, industry, national surveys, international organizations, and so forth), provides a scientific basis for addressing issues such as the development of new energy resources; a secure water supply; safe storage of nuclear waste; the analysis, modeling, and mitigation of climate changes; and the assessment of natural and industrial risks. In addition, the Earth science community provides short- and medium-term prediction of weather and natural hazards in real time, and model simulations of a host of phenomena relating to the Earth and its space environment. These capabilities require that the Earth science community utilize, both in real and remote time, massive amounts of data, which are usually distributed among many different organizations and data centers.
Wright, Robert L. (Editor); Campbell, Thomas G. (Editor)
The objective of the workshop was to address problems in science and in four technology areas (large space antenna technology, microwave sensor technology, electromagnetics-phased array adaptive systems technology, and optical metrology technology) related to Earth Science Geostationary Platform missions.
Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.
Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…
Wysession, M.; Ladue, N.; Budd, D.; Campbell, K.; Conklin, M.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R.; Ross, R.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B.; Tuddenham, P.
During 2008, the Earth Sciences Literacy Initiative (ESLI) constructed a framework of earth science "Big Ideas" and "Supporting Concepts". Following the examples of recent literacy efforts in the ocean, atmosphere and climate research communities, ESLI has distilled the fundamental understandings of the earth science community into a document that all members of the community will be able to refer to when working with educators, policy-makers, the press and members of the general public. This document is currently in draft form for review and will be published for public distribution in 2009. ESLI began with the construction of an organizing committee of a dozen people who represent a wide array of earth science backgrounds. This group then organized and ran two workshops in 2008: a 2-week online content workshop and a 3-day intensive writing workshop. For both workshops, participants were chosen so as to cover the full breadth of earth science related to the solid earth, surficial processes, and fresh-water hydrology. The asynchronous online workshop included 350 scientists and educators participating from around the world and was a powerful way to gather ideas and information while retaining a written record of all interactions. The writing workshop included 35 scientists, educators and agency representatives to codify the extensive input of the online workshop. Since September, 2008, drafts of the ESLI literacy framework have been circulated through many different channels to make sure that the document accurately reflects the current understandings of earth scientists and to ensure that it is widely accepted and adopted by the earth science communities.
Chao, Yu-Long; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Yen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Shr-Jya
As science textbooks are considered as one of the major source of climate change information of students, this study aims to examine the differences in energy saving and carbon reduction knowledge, attitude, and behavior between two groups of Taiwan's high school students using earth science textbooks of two different publishers. Some items of…
Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.
Earth Science II: The Solid Earth -- Earth History and Planetary Science -- is the second of two Earth Science courses, and one of eleven graduate level science Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), that have been developed by the Boston Science Partnership as part of an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. A core goal of these courses is to provide high level science content to middle and high school teachers while modeling good instructional practices directly tied to the Boston Public Schools and Massachusetts science curriculum frameworks. All of these courses emphasize hands-on, lab-based, inquiry-driven, student-centered lessons. The Earth Science II team aimed to strictly adhere to ABC (Activity Before Concept) and 5E/7E models of instruction, and limited lecture or teacher-centered instruction to the later “Explanation” stages of all lessons. We also introduced McNeill and Krajick’s Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER) model of scientific explanation for middle school classroom discourse, both as a powerful scaffold leading to higher levels of accountable talk in the classroom, and to model science as a social construct. Daily evaluations, dutifully filled out by the course participants and diligently read by the course instructors, were quite useful in adapting instruction to the needs of the class on a real-time basis. We find the structure of the CCC teaching teams - university-based faculty providing expert content knowledge, K-12-based faculty providing age appropriate pedagogies and specific links to the K-12 curriculum - quite a fruitful, two-way collaboration. From the students’ perspective, one of the most useful takeaways from the university-based faculty was “listening to experts model out loud how they reason,” whereas some of the more practical takeaways (i.e., lesson components directly portable to the classroom?) came from the K-12-based faculty. The main takeaways from the course as a whole were the promise to bring more hands
NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is dedicated to understanding the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment. The goals of ESE are: (1) Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system using NASA's unique vantage points of space, aircraft, and in situ platforms; (2) Disseminate information about the Earth system; and (3) Enable the productive use of ESE science and technology in the public and private sectors. ESE has embraced the NASA Administrator's better, faster, cheaper paradigm for Earth observing missions. We are committed to launch the next generation of Earth Observing System (EOS) missions at a substantially lower cost than the EOS first series. Strategic investment in advanced instrument, spacecraft, and information system technologies is essential to accomplishing ESE's research goals in the coming decades. Advanced technology will play a major role in shaping the ESE fundamental and applied research program of the future. ESE has established an Earth science technology development program with the following objectives: (1) To accomplish ESE space-based and land-based program elements effectively and efficiently; and (2) To enable ESE's fundamental and applied research programs goals as stated in the NASA Strategic Plan.
Rubino-Hare, L.; Bloom, N.; Claesgens, J.; Fredrickson, K.; Henderson-Dahms, C.; Sample, J. C.
From 2009-2011, with support from the National Science Foundation (ITEST, DRL-0929846) and Science Foundation Arizona (MSAG-0412-09), educators, geologists and geographers at Northern Arizona University (NAU) partnered to offer professional development for interdisciplinary teams of secondary and middle school teachers with a focus on project-based instruction (PBI) using geospatial technologies (GST). While participating in professional development teachers received support and were held accountable to NAU staff. They implemented activities and pedagogical strategies presented, increased knowledge, skills, and confidence teaching with project-based instruction integrating GST, and their students demonstrated learning gains. Changes in student understanding are only observed when teachers continue to implement change, so the question remained: did these changes in practice sustain after official project support ended? In order to determine what, if anything, teachers sustained from the professional development and the factors that promoted or hindered sustained use of teaching with GST and PBI, data were collected one to two years following the professional development. Research questions included a) what pedagogical practices did teachers sustain following the professional learning experiences? and b) what contexts were present in schools that supported or limited the use of geospatial technologies as a teaching and learning tool? Findings from this study indicate that teachers fall into three categories of sustaining implementation - reformed implementers, mechanical implementers and non-implementers. School context was less of a factor in level of implementation than teachers' beliefs and philosophy of teaching and teachers' understanding of technology integration (teaching with technology vs. teaching technology). Case studies of teacher experiences will be presented along with implications for future professional development.
King, Chris John Henry
Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one…
Mayer, Victor J.
Content and process instruction from the earth sciences has gone unrepresented in the world's science curricula, especially at the secondary level. As a result there is a serious deficiency in public understanding of the planet on which we all live. This lack includes national and international leaders in politics, business, and science. The earth system science effort now engaging the research talent of the earth sciences provides a firm foundation from the sciences for inclusion of earth systems content into the evolving integrated science curricula of this country and others. Implementing integrated science curricula, especially at the secondary level where potential leaders often have their only exposure to science, can help to address these problems. The earth system provides a conceptual theme as opposed to a disciplinary theme for organizing such integrated curricula, absent from prior efforts. The end of the cold war era is resulting in a reexamination of science and the influence it has had on our planet and society. In the future, science and the curricula that teach about science must seriously address the environmental and social problems left in the wake of over 100 years of preparation for military and economic war. The earth systems education effort provides one such approach to the modernization of science curricula. Earth science educators should assume leadership in helping to establish such curricula in this country and around the world.
The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.
Jackson, Julia A.; Paty, Alma Hale
Offers two activities to help students explore the geosciences during Earth Science Week. Uses a fossil collection simulation that has students digging through strata of newspaper. Presents an interdisciplinary research project that has students investigate the fossils, minerals, and rocks of their home state. (ASK)
Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel
This book offers a large collection of Earth science projects and project ideas for students, teachers, and parents. The projects described are complete but can also be used as spring boards to create expanded projects. Overviews, organizational direction, suggested hypotheses, materials, procedures, and controls are provided. The projects…
Charles, Leslie Bermann
NASA's Earth science program is a scientific endeavor whose goal is to provide long-term understanding of the Earth as an integrated system of land, water, air and life. A highly developed scientific knowledge of the Earth system is necessary to understand how the environment affects humanity, and how humanity may be affecting the environment. The remote sensing technologies used to gather the global environmental data used in such research also have numerous practical applications. Current applications of remote sensing data demonstrate their practical benefits in areas such as the monitoring of crop conditions and yields, natural disasters and forest fires; hazardous waste clean up; and tracking of vector-borne diseases. The long-term availability of environmental data is essential for the continuity of important research and applications efforts. NASA's Earth observation program has undergone many changes in the recent past.
Ellins, K. K.; Snow, E.; Olson, H. C.; Stocks, E.; Willis, M.; Olson, J.; Odell, M. R.
The Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution was a 5-y teacher professional development project that aimed to increase teachers' content knowledge in Earth science and preparing them to teach a 12th-grade capstone Earth and Space Science course, which is new to the Texas curriculum. The National Science Foundation-supported project was…
The report spans the three year period beginning in June of 2001 and ending June of 2004. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center's (JIESIC) primary purpose has been to carry out research in support of the Global Change Data Center and other Earth science laboratories at Goddard involved in Earth science, remote sensing and applications data and information services. The purpose is to extend the usage of NASA Earth Observing System data, microwave data and other Earth observing data. JIESIC projects fall within the following categories: research and development; STW and WW prototyping; science data, information products and services; and science algorithm support. JIESIC facilitates extending the utility of NASA's Earth System Enterprise (ESE) data, information products and services to better meet the science data and information needs of a number of science and applications user communities, including domain users such as discipline Earth scientists, interdisciplinary Earth scientists, Earth science applications users and educators.
The 20th century has been a century of scientific revolutions for many disciplines: quantum mechanics in physics, the atomic approach in chemistry, the nonlinear revolution in mathematics, the introduction of statistical physics. The major breakthroughs in these disciplines had all occurred by about 1930. In contrast, the revolutions in the so-called natural sciences, that is in the earth sciences and in biology, waited until the last half of the century. These revolutions were indeed late, but they were no less deep and drastic, and they occurred quite suddenly. Actually, one can say that not one but three revolutions occurred in the earth sciences: in plate tectonics, planetology and the environment. They occurred essentially independently from each other, but as time passed, their effects developed, amplified and started interacting. These effects continue strongly to this day.
Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George
The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.
contents include the following: 1. Argentina Field Expedition (2004). NASA funds supported joint fieldwork by Peter Makovicky (Dept. of Geology, TFM) and Sebastian Apesteguia (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires) in a fossil-rich locality in the Cenomanian Candeleros Formation of northern Rio Negro Province, Argentina. The goal of this fieldwork was to collect small fossil vertebrates, which are abundant in this formation, with a special emphasis on small theropod (casmivorous) dinosaurs. 2. East Greenland Field Expedition (2004). During July-August 2004 the Field Museum led a month long expedition to Jameson Land in East Greenland to collect Triassic-Jurassic aged fossil plants from one of the most productive sites of this age in the world. The project aims include the study of events leading up to catastrophic changes in the biota and atmosphere that occurred about 200 million years ago. 3. Chile Field Expedition (March, 2004). Paleontological reconnaisance of the central Andean main range by helicopter: additional new Cenozoic mammal faunas from Chile. A several thousand sq km swath of the central Andean Cordillera was prospected by helicopter during 2004, permitting rapid survey of large areas in remote or difficult to access regions. This led to the recovery of fossils from several parts of the range, and the identification of sites worthy of future attention. 4. Wyoming Field Expedition (2004). NASA funds supported a three-week field program by Curator of Dinosaurs Peter Makovicky and a crew of Field Museum staff and volunteers at several sites in the Early Cretaceous Cloverly Formation of north-central Wyoming. The nine-member team excavated a number of sites that had been discovered over the preceding two summers.
Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff
Taking place October 9-15, Earth Science Week 2005 will celebrate the theme "Geoscientists Explore the Earth." The American Geological Institute (AGI) is organizing the event, as always, to help people better understand and appreciate the Earth sciences and to encourage stewardship of the planet. This year, the focus will be on the wide range of…
NASA s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) acquires, archives, and manages data from all of NASA s Earth science satellites, for the benefit of the Space Agency and for the benefit of others, including local governments, first responders, the commercial remote sensing industry, teachers, museums, and the general public. EOSDIS is currently handling an extraordinary amount of NASA scientific data. To give an idea of the volume of information it receives, NASA s Terra Earth-observing satellite, just one of many NASA satellites sending down data, sends it hundreds of gigabytes a day, almost as much data as the Hubble Space Telescope acquires in an entire year, or about equal to the amount of information that could be found in hundreds of pickup trucks filled with books. To make EOSDIS data completely accessible to the Earth science community, NASA teamed up with private industry in 2000 to develop an Earth science "marketplace" registry that lets public users quickly drill down to the exact information they need. It also enables them to publish their research and resources alongside of NASA s research and resources. This registry is known as the Earth Observing System ClearingHOuse, or ECHO. The charter for this project focused on having an infrastructure completely independent from EOSDIS that would allow for more contributors and open up additional data access options. Accordingly, it is only fitting that the term ECHO is more than just an acronym; it represents the functionality of the system in that it can echo out and create interoperability among other systems, all while maturing with time as industry technologies and standards change and improve.
Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.
In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to
Ziegler, C. R.; Schildhauer, M.
Concepts of open science -- in the context of cyber/digital technology and culture -- could greatly benefit applied and secondary Earth science efforts. However, international organizations (e.g., environmental agencies, conservation groups and sustainable development organizations) that are focused on applied science have been slow to incorporate open practices across the spectrum of scientific activities, from data to decisions. Myriad benefits include transparency, reproducibility, efficiency (timeliness and cost savings), stakeholder engagement, direct linkages between research and environmental outcomes, reduction in bias and corruption, improved simulation of Earth systems and improved availability of science in general. We map out where and how open science can play a role, providing next steps, with specific emphasis on applied science efforts and processes such as environmental assessment, synthesis and systematic reviews, meta-analyses, decision support and emerging cyber technologies. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the organizations for which they work and/or represent.
Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.
Earth system science in the classroom is the fertile crucible linking science with societal needs for local, national and global sustainability. The interdisciplinary dimension requires fruitful cooperation among departments, schools and colleges within universities and among the universities and the nation's laboratories and agencies. Teaching and learning requires content which brings together the basic and applied sciences with mathematics and technology in addressing societal challenges of the coming decades. Over the past decade remarkable advances have emerged in information technology, from high bandwidth Internet connectivity to raw computing and visualization power. These advances which have wrought revolutionary capabilities and resources are transforming teaching and learning in the classroom. With the launching of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) the amount and type of geophysical data to monitor the Earth and its climate are increasing dramatically. The challenge remains, however, for skilled scientists and educators to interpret this information based upon sound scientific perspectives and utilize it in the classroom. With an increasing emphasis on the application of data gathered, and the use of the new technologies for practical benefit in the lives of ordinary citizens, there comes the even more basic need for understanding the fundamental state, dynamics, and complex interdependencies of the Earth system in mapping valid and relevant paths to sustainability. Technology and data in combination with the need to understand Earth system processes and phenomena offer opportunities for new and productive partnerships between researchers and educators to advance the fundamental science of the Earth system and in turn through discovery excite students at all levels in the classroom. This presentation will discuss interdisciplinary partnership opportunities for educators and researchers at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
Renfrow, S.; Wood, E. L.
Although reading, writing, and math examinations are often conducted early in elementary school, science is not typically tested until 4th or 5th grade. The result is a refocus on the tested topics at the expense of the untested ones, despite that standards exist for each topic at all grades. On a national level, science instruction is relegated to a matter of a few hours per week. A 2007 Education Policy study states that elementary school students spend an average of 178 minutes a week on science while spending 500 minutes on literacy. A recent NSTA report in July of elementary and middle school teachers confirms that teachers feel pressured to teach math and literacy at the expense of other programs. One unintended result is that teachers in grades where science is tested must play catch-up with students for them to be successful on the assessment. A unique way to combat the lack of science instruction at elementary grades is to combine literacy, social studies, and math into an integrated science program, thereby increasing the number of science contact hours. The Dancing Lights program, developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, is a science, art, and literacy program about the aurora designed to easily fit into a typical 3rd-5th grade instructional day. It mirrors other successful literacy programs and will provide a basis for the literacy program being developed for the upcoming MAVEN mission to Mars. We will present early findings, as well as "lessons learned" during our development and implementation of the Dancing Lights program and will highlight our goals for the MAVEN mission literacy program.
Abdullatif, Osman M.; Farwa, Abdalla G.
This paper describes Earth Science Education in Sudan, with particular emphasis on the University of Khartoum. The first geological department in Sudan was founded in 1958 in the University of Khartoum. In the 1980s, six more geological departments have been added in the newer universities. The types of courses offered include Diploma, B.Sc. (General), B.Sc. (Honours), M.Sc. and Ph.D. The Geology programmes are strongly supported by field work training and mapping. Final-year students follow specialised training in one of the following topics: hydrogeology, geophysics, economic geology, sedimentology and engineering geology. A graduation report, written in the final year, represents 30-40% of the total marks. The final assessment and grading are decided with the help of internal and external examiners. Entry into the Geology programmes is based on merit and performance. The number of students who graduate with Honours and become geologists is between 20% to 40% of the initial intake at the beginning of the second year. Employment opportunities are limited and are found mainly in the Government's geological offices, the universities and research centres, and private companies. The Department of Geology at the University of Khartoum has long-standing internal and external links with outside partners. This has been manifested in the training of staff members, the donation of teaching materials and laboratory facilities. The chief problems currently facing Earth Science Education in Sudan are underfunding, poor equipment, laboratory facilities and logistics. Other problems include a shortage of staff, absence of research, lack of supervision and emigration of staff members. Urgent measures are needed to assess and evaluate the status of Earth Science Education in terms of objectives, needs and difficulties encountered. Earth Science Education is expected to contribute significantly to the exploitation of mineral resources and socio-economic development in the Sudan.
Search Site submit Los Alamos National LaboratoryCenter for Space and Earth Science Part of the Partnerships NSEC Â» CSES Center for Space and Earth Science High quality, cutting-edge science in the areas of astrophysics, space physics, solid planetary geoscience, and Earth systems Contact Director Reiner Friedel (505
Preservice elementary teachers are often required to take an Earth Science content course as part of their teacher education program but typically enter the course with little knowledge of key Earth Science concepts and are uncertain in their ability to teach science. This study investigated whether completing an inquiry-based Earth Science course…
Walsh, Kevin L.
Zimbabwe is a mineral-rich country with a long history of Earth Science Education. The establishment of a University Geology Department in 1960 allowed the country to produce its own earth science graduates. These graduates are readily absorbed by the mining industry and few are without work. Demand for places at the University is high and entry standards reflect this. Students enter the University after GCE A levels in three science subjects and most go on to graduate. Degree programmes include B.Sc. General in Geology (plus another science), B.Sc. Honours in Geology and M.Sc. in Exploration Geology and in Geophysics. The undergraduate curriculum is broad-based and increasingly vocationally orientated. A well-equipped building caters for relatively large student numbers and also houses analytical facilities used for research and teaching. Computers are used in teaching from the first year onwards. Staff are on average poorly qualified compared to other universities, but there is an impressive research element. The Department has good links with many overseas universities and external funding agencies play a strong supporting role. That said, financial constraints remain the greatest barrier to future development, although increasing links with the mining industry may cushion this.
Colorado Department of Education, 2007
The Colorado Model Content Standards for Science specify what all students should know and be able to do in science as a result of their school studies. Specific expectations are given for students completing grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Five standards outline the essential level of science knowledge and skills needed by Colorado citizens to…
Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.
Presented is a booklet containing scope and sequence charts for kindergarten and grades 1 to 6 science units. Overviews and lists of major concepts for units in the life, physical, and earth/space sciences are provided in tables for each grade level. Also presented are seven complete units, one for each grade level. Following a table of contents,…
The goal of the current NASA Earth System Science initiative is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the Earth as an integrated, dynamic system. The centerpiece of the Earth System Science initiative will be a set of instruments carried on polar orbiting platforms under the Earth Observing System program. An Earth Explorer program can open new vistas in the earth sciences, encourage innovation, and solve critical scientific problems. Specific missions must be rigorously shaped by the demands and opportunities of high quality science and must complement the Earth Observing System and the Mission to Planet Earth. The committee believes that the proposed Earth Explorer program provides a substantial opportunity for progress in the earth sciences, both through independent missions and through missions designed to complement the large scale platforms and international research programs that represent important national commitments. The strategy presented is intended to help ensure the success of the Earth Explorer program as a vital stimulant to the study of the planet.
Younker, L.W.; Donohue, M.L.; Peterson, S.J.
The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducts work in support of the Laboratory's energy, defense, and research programs. The Department is organized into ten groups. Five of these -- Nuclear Waste Management, Fossil Energy, Containment, Verification, and Research -- represent major programmatic activities within the Department. Five others -- Experimental Geophysics, Geomechanics, Geology/Geological Engineering, Geochemistry, and Seismology/Applied Geophysics -- are major disciplinary areas that support these and other laboratory programs. This report summarizes work carried out in 1987 by each group and contains a bibliography of their 1987 publications.
Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John
Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…
The goals of the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) are to expand the scientific knowledge of the Earth system; to widely disseminate the results of the expanded knowledge; and to enable the productive use of this knowledge. This catalog provides information about the Earth Science education programs and the resources available for elementary through university levels.
Hasler, Fritz; Manyin, Mike
The Etheater presents visualizations which span the period from the original Suomi/Hasler animations of the first ATS-1 GEO weather satellite images in 1966 ....... to the latest 1999 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. Hot off the SGI-Onyx Graphics-Supercomputer are NASA's visualizations of Hurricanes Mitch, Georges, Fran and Linda. These storms have been recently featured on the covers of National Geographic, Time, Newsweek and Popular Science. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on National and International network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1-min GOES images that appeared in the November BAMS.
Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.
The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific
King, Chris John Henry
Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one earth science error/misconception per page. Science syllabuses and examinations surveyed also showed errors/misconceptions. More than 500 instances of misconception were identified through the surveys. These were analysed for frequency, indicating that those areas of the earth science curriculum most prone to misconception are sedimentary processes/rocks, earthquakes/Earth's structure, and plate tectonics. For the 15 most frequent misconceptions, examples of quotes from the textbooks are given, together with the scientific consensus view, a discussion, and an example of a misconception of similar significance in another area of science. The misconceptions identified in the surveys are compared with those described in the literature. This indicates that the misconceptions found in college students and pre-service/practising science teachers are often also found in published materials, and therefore are likely to reinforce the misconceptions in teachers and their students. The analysis may also reflect the prevalence earth science misconceptions in the UK secondary (high school) science-teaching population. The analysis and discussion provide the opportunity for writers of secondary science materials to improve their work on earth science and to provide a platform for improved teaching and learning of earth science in the future.
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA earth science updates with information science technology. Details are given on NASA/Earth Science Enterprise (ESE)/Goddard Space Flight Center strategic plans, ESE missions and flight programs, roles of information science, ESE goals related to the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network, and future plans.
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-072)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory Group Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics... the Applied Science Advisory Group. This Subcommittee reports to the Earth Science Subcommittee...
Myers, R.; Botti, J.
The high school Earth system science course is web based and designed to meet the professional development needs of science teachers in grades 9-12. Three themes predominate this course: Earth system science (ESS) content, collaborative investigations, and problem-based learning (PBL) methodology. PBL uses real-world contexts for in-depth investigations of a subject matter. Participants predict the potential impacts of the selected event on Earth's spheres and the subsequent feedback and potential interactions that might result. PBL activities start with an ill-structured problem that serves as a springboard to team engagement. These PBL scenarios contain real-world situations. Teams of learners conduct an Earth system science analysis of the event and make recommendations or offer solutions regarding the problem. The course design provides an electronic forum for conversations, debate, development, and application of ideas. Samples of threaded discussions built around ESS thinking in science and PBL pedagogy will be presented.
Myers, R. J.; Botti, J. A.
The high school Earth system science course is web based and designed to meet the professional development needs of science teachers in grades 9-12. Three themes predominate this course: Earth system science (ESS) content, collaborative investigations, and problem-based learning (PBL) methodology. PBL uses real-world contexts for in-depth investigations of a subject matter. Participants predict the potential impacts of the selected event on Earth's spheres and the subsequent feedback and potential interactions that might result. PBL activities start with an ill-structured problem that serves as a springboard to team engagement. These PBL scenarios contain real-world situations. Teams of learners conduct an Earth system science analysis of the event and make recommendations or offer solutions regarding the problem. The course design provides an electronic forum for conversations, debate, development, and application of ideas. Samples of threaded discussions built around ESS thinking in science and PBL pedagogy will be presented.
Tretter, Thomas R.; Brown, Sherri L.; Bush, William S.; Saderholm, Jon C.; Holmes, Vicki-Lynn
Science teachers' content knowledge is an important influence on student learning, highlighting an ongoing need for programs, and assessments of those programs, designed to support teacher learning of science. Valid and reliable assessments of teacher science knowledge are needed for direct measurement of this crucial variable. This paper describes multiple sources of validity and reliability (Cronbach's alpha greater than 0.8) evidence for physical, life, and earth/space science assessments—part of the Diagnostic Teacher Assessments of Mathematics and Science (DTAMS) project. Validity was strengthened by systematic synthesis of relevant documents, extensive use of external reviewers, and field tests with 900 teachers during assessment development process. Subsequent results from 4,400 teachers, analyzed with Rasch IRT modeling techniques, offer construct and concurrent validity evidence.
Endreny, Anna; Siegel, Donald I.
The Urban Schoolyards project is a two year partnership with a university Earth Science Department and the surrounding urban elementary schools. The goal of the project was to develop the capacity of elementary teachers to teach earth science lessons using their schoolyards and local parks as field sites. The university personnel developed lessons…
Libarkin, Julie C.; Schneps, Matthew H.
We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5) about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a…
Hoffman, Martos; Barstow, Daniel
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) commissioned TERC to complete a review of science education standards for all 50 states. The study analyzed K-12 Earth science standards to determine how well each state addresses key Earth-science content, concepts and skills. This report reveals that few states have thoroughly integrated…
Hackenberg, Mary; And Others
This guide was developed for earth sciences and marine sciences instruction in the senior high schools of Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. The subjects covered are: (1) Earth Science for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (2) Marine Biology I for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (3) Marine Biology II, Advanced, for 11th and 12th graders; (4) Marine…
Sparrow, E. B.
There are many effective methods for teaching earth science education that are being successfully used during the fourth International Polar Year (IPY). Relevance of IPY and the polar regions is better understood using a systems thinking approach used in earth science education. Changes in components of the earth system have a global effect; and changes in the polar regions will affect the rest of the world regions and vice versa. Teaching strategies successfully used for primary, secondary, undergraduate and graduate student earth science education and IPY education outreach include: 1) engaging students in earth science or environmental research relevant to their locale; 2) blending lectures with research expeditions or field studies, 3) connecting students with scientists in person and through audio and video conferencing; 4) combining science and arts in teaching, learning and communicating about earth science and the polar regions, capitalizing on the uniqueness of polar regions and its inhabitants, and its sensitivity to climate change; and 5) integrating different perspectives: western science, indigenous and community knowledge in the content and method of delivery. Use of these strategies are exemplified in IPY projects in the University of the Arctic IPY Higher Education Outreach Project cluster such as the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes project, the Ice Mysteries e-Polar Books: An Innovative Way of Combining Science and Literacy project, the Resilience and Adaptation Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship project, and the Svalbard Research Experience for Undergraduates project.
Foresman, T. W.
Buckminster Fuller was an early advocate for better comprehension of the planet and its resources related to human affairs. A comprehensive vision was articulated by a US Vice President and quickly adopted by the world's oldest country China.. Digital Earth brings fresh perspective on the current state of affairs and connects citizens with scientists through the applications of 3D visualization, spinning globes, virtual Earths, and the current collaboration with Virtual Globes. The prowess of Digital Earth technology has been so successful in both understanding and communicating the more challenging topics for global change and climate change phenomena that China has assigned it priority status with the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. New Zealand has recently begun to adjust its national strategies for sustainability with the technologies of Digital Earth. A comprehensive coverage of the results compiled over the past seven years is presented to place a foundation for the science and engineering community to prepare to align with this compelling science enterprise as a fundamental new paradigm for the registration, storage, and access of science data and information through the emerging Digital Earth Exchange under protocols developed for the Digital Earth Reference Model.
Pham, Long; Lynnes, Christopher; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Keiser, Ken
To allow scientists further capabilities in the area of data mining and web services, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) have developed a system to mine data at the source without the need of network transfers. The system has been constructed by linking together several pre-existing technologies: the Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM), a processing engine at he GES DISC; the Algorithm Development and Mining (ADaM) system, a data mining toolkit from UAH that can be configured in a variety of ways to create customized mining processes; ActiveBPEL, a workflow execution engine based on BPEL (Business Process Execution Language); XBaya, a graphical workflow composer; and the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). XBaya is used to construct an analysis workflow at UAH using ADam components, which are also installed remotely at the GES DISC, wrapped as Web Services. The S4PM processing engine searches ECHO for data using space-time criteria, staging them to cache, allowing the ActiveBPEL engine to remotely orchestras the processing workflow within S4PM. As mining is completed, the output is placed in an FTP holding area for the end user. The goals are to give users control over the data they want to process, while mining data at the data source using the server's resources rather than transferring the full volume over the internet. These diverse technologies have been infused into a functioning, distributed system with only minor changes to the underlying technologies. The key to the infusion is the loosely coupled, Web-Services based architecture: All of the participating components are accessible (one way or another) through (Simple Object Access Protocol) SOAP-based Web Services.
Pham, L. B.; Lynnes, C. S.; Hegde, M.; Graves, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Keiser, K.
To allow scientists further capabilities in the area of data mining and web services, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) have developed a system to mine data at the source without the need of network transfers. The system has been constructed by linking together several pre-existing technologies: the Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM), a processing engine at the GES DISC; the Algorithm Development and Mining (ADaM) system, a data mining toolkit from UAH that can be configured in a variety of ways to create customized mining processes; ActiveBPEL, a workflow execution engine based on BPEL (Business Process Execution Language); XBaya, a graphical workflow composer; and the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). XBaya is used to construct an analysis workflow at UAH using ADaM components, which are also installed remotely at the GES DISC, wrapped as Web Services. The S4PM processing engine searches ECHO for data using space-time criteria, staging them to cache, allowing the ActiveBPEL engine to remotely orchestrates the processing workflow within S4PM. As mining is completed, the output is placed in an FTP holding area for the end user. The goals are to give users control over the data they want to process, while mining data at the data source using the server's resources rather than transferring the full volume over the internet. These diverse technologies have been infused into a functioning, distributed system with only minor changes to the underlying technologies. The key to this infusion is the loosely coupled, Web- Services based architecture: All of the participating components are accessible (one way or another) through (Simple Object Access Protocol) SOAP-based Web Services.
Lautenbacher, Conrad C.; Groat, Charles G.
The images of rivers spilling over their banks and washing away entire towns, buildings decimated to rubble by the violent shaking of the Earth's plates, and molten lava flowing up from inside the Earth's core are constant reminders of the power of the Earth. Humans are simply at the whim of the forces of Mother Nature—or are we? Whether it is from a great natural disaster, a short-term weather event like El Nino, or longer-term processes like plate tectonics, Earth processes affect us all. Yet,we are only beginning to scratch the surface of our understanding of Earth sciences. We believe the day will come when our understanding of these dynamic Earth processes will prompt better policies and decisions about saving lives and property. One key place to start is in America's classrooms.
Blueford, J. R.
In the 1970's the fact that woman and ethnic minorities men made up approximately10% of the workforce in the geosciences created concern. Determining ways to increase the participation became a topic of discussion amongst many of the geosciences agencies in the United States. Many created scholarships and work opportunities for students. One of the most successful projects was the MPES (Minority Participation in the Earth Science) Program implemented by the U.S. Geological Survey. A key factor in its success was its outreach programs which used employees to work in elementary schools to get children excited about earth sciences. Successive years added teacher workshops and developing career day presentations to help school districts increase the awareness of the earth sciences. However, cutbacks prevented the continuation of these programs, but from the ashes a new non-profit organization of scientists, the Math Science Nucleus, developed curriculum and implementation strategies that used Earth Sciences as a core content area. Using the power of the internet, it provided teachers and parents around the world content driven curriculum. The Integrating Science, Math, and Technology Reference Curriculum is used around the world to help teachers understand how children learn science content.
Ariana Wilson, Chris Skinner, Chris Poulsen Abstract For many years, academic programs have been in place for the instruction of young students in the earth sciences before they undergo formal training in high school or college. However, there has been little formal assessment of the impacts of these programs on student knowledge of the earth sciences and their interest in continuing with earth science. On August 6th-12th 2016 I will attend the University of Michigan's annual Earth Camp, where I will 1) ascertain high school students' knowledge of earth science-specifically atmospheric structure and wind patterns- before and after Earth Camp, 2) record their opinions about earth science before and after Earth Camp, and 3) record how the students feel about how the camp was run and what could be improved. I will accomplish these things through the use of surveys asking the students questions about these subjects. I expect my results will show that earth science programs like Earth Camp deepen students' knowledge of and interest in earth science and encourage them to continue their study of earth science in the future. I hope these results will give guidance on how to conduct future learning programs and how to recruit more students to become earth scientists in the future.
Graham, K. J.; Bryce, J. G.; Brown, D.; Darwish, A.; Finkel, L.; Froburg, E.; Furman, T.; Guertin, L.; Hale, S. R.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; Smith, M.; Varner, R.; von Damm, K.
A partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Dillard University, Elizabeth City State University, and Pennsylvania State University has been established to prepare middle and high school teachers to teach Earth and environmental sciences from a processes and systems approach. Specific project goals include: providing Earth system science content instruction; assisting teachers in implementing Earth system science in their own classrooms; and creating opportunities for pre-service teachers to experience authentic research with Earth scientists. TESSE programmatic components comprise (1) a two-week intensive summer institutes for current and future teachers; (2) eight-week research immersion experiences that match preservice teachers with Earth science faculty mentors; and (3) a science liaison program involving the pairing of inservice teachers with graduate students or future teachers. The first year of the program supported a total of 49 participants (42 inservice and preservice teachers, as well as 7 graduate fellows). All participants in the program attended an intensive two-week summer workshop at UNH, and the academic-year science liaison program is underway. In future summers, all partnering institutions will hold similar two-week summer institutes. UNH will offer a more advanced course geared towards "hot topics" and research techniques in the Earth and environmental sciences.
Chan, M. A.; Kahmann-Robinson, J. A.
The successes of NASA rovers on Mars and new remote sensing imagery at unprecedented resolution can awaken students to the valuable application of Earth analogs to understand Mars processes and the possibilities of extraterrestrial life. Mars For Earthlings (MFE) modules and curriculum are designed as general science content introducing a pedagogical approach of integrating Earth science principles and Mars imagery. The content can be easily imported into existing or new general education courses. MFE learning modules introduce students to Google Mars and JMARS software packages and encourage Mars imagery analysis to predict habitable environments on Mars drawing on our knowledge of extreme environments on Earth. "Mars Mission" projects help students develop teamwork and presentation skills. Topic-oriented module examples include: Remote Sensing Mars, Olympus Mons and Igneous Rocks, Surface Sculpting Forces, and Extremophiles. The learning modules package imagery, video, lab, and in-class activities for each topic and are available online for faculty to adapt or adopt in courses either individually or collectively. A piloted MFE course attracted a wide range of non-majors to non-degree seeking senior citizens. Measurable outcomes of the piloted MFE curriculum were: heightened enthusiasm for science, awareness of NASA programs, application of Earth science principles, and increased science literacy to help students develop opinions of current issues (e.g., astrobiology or related government-funded research). Earth and Mars analog examples can attract and engage future STEM students as the next generation of earth, planetary, and astrobiology scientists.
Friedl, L.; Bonniksen, C. K.; Escobar, V. M.
The NASA Earth Science Division's Applied Science Program advances the understanding of and ability to used remote sensing data in support of socio-economic needs. The integration of socio-economic considerations in to NASA Earth Science projects has advanced significantly. The large variety of acquisition methods used has required innovative implementation options. The integration of application themes and the implementation of application science activities in flight project is continuing to evolve. The creation of the recently released Earth Science Division, Directive on Project Applications Program and the addition of an application science requirement in the recent EVM-2 solicitation document NASA's current intent. Continuing improvement in the Earth Science Applications Science Program are expected in the areas of thematic integration, Project Applications Program tailoring for Class D missions and transfer of knowledge between scientists and projects.
Church, M. A.; Dudill, A. R.; Frey, P.; Venditti, J. G.
Reproducibility represents how closely the results of independent tests agree when undertaken using the same materials but different conditions of measurement, such as operator, equipment or laboratory. The concept of reproducibility is fundamental to the scientific method as it prevents the persistence of incorrect or biased results. Yet currently the production of scientific knowledge emphasizes rapid publication of previously unreported findings, a culture that has emerged from pressures related to hiring, publication criteria and funding requirements. Awareness and critique of the disconnect between how scientific research should be undertaken, and how it actually is conducted, has been prominent in biomedicine for over a decade, with the fields of economics and psychology more recently joining the conversation. The purpose of this presentation is to stimulate the conversation in earth sciences where, despite implicit evidence in widely accepted classifications, formal testing of reproducibility is rare.As a formal test of reproducibility, two sets of experiments were undertaken with the same experimental procedure, at the same scale, but in different laboratories. Using narrow, steep flumes and spherical glass beads, grain size sorting was examined by introducing fine sediment of varying size and quantity into a mobile coarse bed. The general setup was identical, including flume width and slope; however, there were some variations in the materials, construction and lab environment. Comparison of the results includes examination of the infiltration profiles, sediment mobility and transport characteristics. The physical phenomena were qualitatively reproduced but not quantitatively replicated. Reproduction of results encourages more robust research and reporting, and facilitates exploration of possible variations in data in various specific contexts. Following the lead of other fields, testing of reproducibility can be incentivized through changes to journal
Improving the employability of Earth science graduates by reforming Earth science instruction is a matter of concern to universities worldwide. It should, however, be self-evident that the developing countries cannot follow the same blueprint for change as the industrialized countries due to constraints of affordability and relevance. Peanuts are every bit as nutritious as almonds; if one with limited means has to choose between a fistful of peanuts and just one almond, it is wise to choose the peanuts. A paradigm proposed here would allow institutions in developing countries to impart good quality relevant Earth science instruction that would be affordable and lead to employment.
Heller, Robert L.
This earth science resource book, designed for use by elementary and secondary school teachers, presents aspects of earth science which illustrate the significance of matter, energy, forces, motion, time, and space in the dynamics and history of the earth. The major content of this resource manual consists of authoritative information about earth…
A collaborative of nine institutes of higher education and non-profits and seventy-one school divisions developed and implemented courses that will enable teachers to acquire an Add-On Earth Science endorsement and to improve their skills in teaching Earth Science. For the Earth Science Endorsement, the five courses and associated credits are Physical Geology (4), Geology of Virginia (4), Oceanography (4), Astronomy (3) and Meteorology (3). The courses include rigorous academic content, research-based instructional strategies, laboratory experiences, and intense field experiences. In addition, courses were offered on integrating new technologies into the earth sciences, developing virtual field trips, and teaching special education students. To date, 39 courses have been offered statewide, with over 560 teachers participating. Teachers showed increased conceptual understanding of earth science topics as measured by pre-post tests. Other outcomes include a project website, a collaborative of over 60 IHE and K-12 educators, pilot instruments, and a statewide committee focused on policy in the earth sciences.
Details an 'explanatory Earth story' on plate tectonics to show how such a 'story' can be developed in an earth science context. Presents five other stories in outline form. Explains the use of these stories as vehicles to present the big ideas of science. (DDR)
In 2014 we managed to have a group of earth scientists from across the spectrum: from academic, survey, industry and government, pull together to create the first output for Earth Science Europe http://www.bgs.ac.uk/earthScienceEurope/downloads/EarthScienceEuropeBrochure.pdf In this document we stated that Earth scientists need a united, authoritative voice to enhance the status and impact of Earth science across Europe. The feeling was that there were many diverse infrastructure and research initiatives spanning the terrestrial and oceanic realms and science ranged from historical geology to active dynamics on Earth, and that a level of coordination and mutual knowledge sharing was necessary. In addition to a better understanding of the Earth in general, we thought there was a need to have Earth Science Europe develop a strategic research capacity in geohazards, georesources and environmental earth sciences, through a roadmap addressing fundamental and societal challenges. This would involve a robust research infrastructure to deliver strategic goals, enabling inspirational research and promoting solutions to societal challenges. In this talk I will propose some next steps and discuss what this "authoritative voice" could look like and ask the question - "is Earth Science Europe and interesting and useful concept?"
Lists the titles and addresses of approximately 450 domestic and foreign organizations which deal with earth science fields, including geology, paleontology, mining, and geophysics. Also listed are U.S. state geological surveys. (WB)
Preprint servers afford a platform for sharing research before peer review. We are pleased that two dedicated preprint servers have opened for the Earth sciences and welcome submissions that have been posted there first.
Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Lowe, Dawn; Murphy, Kevin
Information from Earth observing missions (remote sensing with airborne and spaceborne instruments, and in situ measurements such as those from field campaigns) is proliferating in the world. Many agencies across the globe are generating important datasets by collecting measurements from instruments on board aircraft and spacecraft, globally and constantly. The data resulting from such measurements are a valuable resource that needs to be preserved for the benefit of future generations. These observations are the primary record of the Earths environment and therefore are the key to understanding how conditions in the future will compare to conditions today. Earth science observational data, derived products and models are used to answer key questions of global significance. In the near-term, as long as the missions data are being used actively for scientific research, it continues to be important to provide easy access to the data and services commensurate with current information technology. For the longer term, when the focus of the research community shifts toward new missions and observations, it is essential to preserve the previous mission data and associated information. This will enable a new user in the future to understand how the data were used for deriving information, knowledge and policy recommendations and to repeat the experiment to ascertain the validity and possible limitations of conclusions reached in the past and to provide confidence in long term trends that depended on data from multiple missions. Organizations that collect, process, and utilize Earth observation data today have a responsibility to ensure that the data and associated content continue to be preserved by them or are gathered and handed off to other organizations for preservation for the benefit of future generations. In order to ensure preservation of complete content necessary for understanding and reusing the data and derived digital products from todays missions, it is
Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann
To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…
In an effort to get elementary teachers to teach more science in the classroom, a required preservice science education course was designed to promote the use of hands-on teaching techniques. This paper describes course content and activities for an innovative, student-centered, Earth science class. However, any science-content course could be…
Lawson, Peter R. (Editor); Traub, Wesley A. (Editor)
This book outlines the exoplanet science content of NASA's Navigator Program, and it identifies the exoplanet research priorities. The goal of Navigator Program missions is to detect and characterize Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars and to search for signs of life on those planets.
Botti, J. A.
Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade in large part thanks to technology-and one technology in particular, the Internet. The World Wide Web has opened up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators from around the world to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. A positive offshoot of this reform effort is the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). This partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational TechnologiesTM at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school teachers. Each course lasts one semester. The courses begin with three weeks of introductory content. Then teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. In week A of each learning cycle, teachers do earth system activities with their students. In week B teachers investigate aspects of the Earth system -- for instance, the reason rocks change to soil, the relationship between rock weathering and soil nutrients, and the consequent development of biomes. In week C teachers develop classroom activities and share them online with other course participants. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events -- volcanic eruptions
Botti, J.; Myers, R.
Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade in large part thanks to technology-and one technology in particular, the Internet. The World Wide Web has opened up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators from around the world to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. A positive offshoot of this reform effort is the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). This partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational Technologiestm at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school teachers. Each course lasts one semester. The courses begin with three weeks of introductory content. Then teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. In week A of each learning cycle, teachers do earth system activities with their students. In week B teachers investigate aspects of the Earth system-for instance, the reason rocks change to soil, the relationship between rock weathering and soil nutrients, and the consequent development of biomes. In week C teachers develop classroom activities and share them online with other course participants. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events-volcanic eruptions
Schoessow, F. S.; Christian, L.
Students at Utah State University's College of Natural Resources have engineered the first mobile Earth Science outreach platform capable of delivering high-tech and interactive solar-powered educational resources to the traditionally-underserved, remote communities of rural Utah. By retrofitting and modifying an industrial box-truck, this project effectively created a highly mobile and energy independent "school in a box" which seeks to help change the way that Earth science is communicated, eliminate traditional barriers, and increase science accessibility - both physically and conceptually. The project's education platform is focused on developing a more effective, sustainable, and engaging platform for presenting Earth science outreach curricula to community members of all ages in an engaging fashion. Furthermore, this project affords university students the opportunity to demonstrate innovative science communication techniques, translating vital university research into educational outreach operations aimed at doing real, measurable good for local communities.
Tilton, James C. (Editor)
The workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. The focus was on scientists' data requirements, as well as constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival systems. The workshop consisted of several invited papers; two described information systems for space and Earth science data, four depicted analysis scenarios for extracting information of scientific interest from data collected by Earth orbiting and deep space platforms, and a final one was a general tutorial on image data compression.
Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission EARTH (GME) program delivers climate change science content, pedagogy, and data resources to K12 educators, future teachers, and professional development providers.
This presentation will include a series of visuals that discuss how hands-on learning activities and field investigations from the the Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission EARTH (GME) program deliver climate change science content, pedagogy, and data resources to K12 educators, future teachers, and professional development providers. The GME program poster presentation will also show how teachers strengthen student preparation for Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics (STEAM)-related careers while promoting diversity in the future STEM workforce. In addition to engaging students in scientific inquiry, the GME program poster will show how career exploration and preparation experiences is accomplished through direct connection to scientists and real science practices. The poster will show which hands-on learning activities that are being implemented in more than 30,000 schools worldwide, with over a million students, teachers, and scientists collecting environmental measurements using the GLOBE scientific protocols. This poster will also include how Next Generation Science Standards connect to GME learning progressions by grade strands. The poster will present the first year of results from the implementation of the GME program. Data is currently being agrigated by the east, midwest and westen regional operations.
Missotten, R.; Gaines, S. M.; de Mulder, E. F.
The United Nations Education Science Culture and Communication Organization (UNESCO) has recently launched a new Earth Science Education Initiative in Africa. The overall intention of this Initiative is to support the development of the next generation of earth scientists in Africa who are equipped with the necessary tools, networks and perspectives to apply sound science to solving and benefiting from the challenges and opportunities of sustainable development. The opportunities in the earth sciences are great, starting with traditional mineral extraction and extending into environmental management such as climate change adaptation, prevention of natural hazards, and ensuring access to drinking water. The Earth Science Education Initiative has received strong support from many different types of partners. Potential partners have indicated an interest to participate as organizational partners, content providers, relevant academic institutes, and funders. Organizational partners now include the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf), International Center for Training and Exchanges in the Geosciences (CIFEG), Association of African Women Geoscientists (AAWG), International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE), and International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). The activities and focus of the Initiative within the overall intention is being developed in a participatory manner through a series of five regional workshops in Africa. The objective of these workshops is to assess regional capacities and needs in earth science education, research and industry underlining existing centers of excellence through conversation with relevant regional and international experts and plotting the way ahead for earth science education. This talk will provide an update on the outcomes of the first three workshops which have taken place in Luanda, Angola; Assiut, Egypt; and Cape Town; South Africa.
Murphy, K.; Lowe, D.; Behnke, J.; Ramapriyan, H.; Behnke, J.; Sofinowski, E.
Earth science research requires coordination and collaboration across multiple disparate science domains. Data systems that support this research are often as disparate as the disciplines that they support. These distinctions can create barriers limiting access to measurements, which could otherwise enable cross-discipline Earth science. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is continuing to bridge the gap between discipline-centric data systems with a coherent and transparent system of systems that offers up to date and engaging science related content, creates an active and immersive science user experience, and encourages the use of EOSDIS earth data and services. The new Earthdata Coherent Web (ECW) project encourages cohesiveness by combining existing websites, data and services into a unified website with a common look and feel, common tools and common processes. It includes cross-linking and cross-referencing across the Earthdata site and NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC), and by leveraging existing EOSDIS Cyber-infrastructure and Web Service technologies to foster re-use and to reduce barriers to discovering Earth science data (http://earthdata.nasa.gov).
Oostra, D.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Baize, R.; Oots, P.; Rogerson, T.; Crecelius, S.; Coleman, T.
/needs and generate new data combinations--targeting users with a web 3.0 methodology. We will examine applications that give users direct access to data in near real-time and find solutions for the educational community. MND and S'COOL will identify trends in the mobile and web application sectors to provide the greatest effect upon relevant audiences within the science and educational communities. Greater access is the goal, with an acute focus on educating our future explorers and scientists with tools and data that will provide the most efficacy, use, and enriching science experiences. Current trends point to cross-platform web applications as being the most effective and efficient means of delivering content, data, and ideas to end users. Universal availability of key datasets on any device will encourage users to continue to use data and attract potential data users and providers. Projected Outcomes Initially, the outcome for this work is to increase the effectiveness of the MND and S'COOL projects by learning more about our users needs and anticipating how data will be used in the future. Through our work we will increase exposure and ease of access to NASA datasets relevant to our communities. Our goal is to focus on our participants mobile usage in the classroom, thereby gaining a greater understanding on how data is being used to teach students about the Earth and begin to develop better tools and technologies.
Hasnain, S.; Stephan, R.; Narock, T.
Using D3.js we visualize collaboration amongst several geophysical science organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP). We look at historical trends in Earth Science research topics, cross-domain collaboration, and topics of interest to the general population. The visualization techniques used provide an effective way for non-experts to easily explore distributed and heterogeneous Big Data. Analysis of these visualizations provides stakeholders with insights into optimizing meetings, performing impact evaluation, structuring outreach efforts, and identifying new opportunities for collaboration.
Walter, J.; Francek, M.
One way to better engage K-16 students with the earth sciences is through classroom demonstrations with food. We summarize references from journals and the world wide web that use food to illustrate earth science concepts. Examples of how edible substances have been used include using candy bars to demonstrate weathering concepts, ice cream to mimic glaciers, and grapes to demonstrate evaporation. We also categorize these demonstrations into geology, weather, space science, and oceanography categories. We further categorize the topics by grade level, web versus traditional print format, amount of time necessary to prepare a lesson plan, and whether the activity is better used as a demonstration or hands on activity.
Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Bowles, Ryan P.
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe children's science content knowledge and examine the early predictors of science content knowledge in a sample of 194 typically developing preschool children. Children's science content knowledge was assessed in the fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) of the preschool year. Results showed…
Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael
Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. Here in this article, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscalingmore » techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.« less
Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael; ...
Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. Here in this article, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscalingmore » techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.« less
Casasanto, V.; Rock, J.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Angell, D.; Beautiful Earth
The Beautiful Earth program, awarded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), is a live multi-media performance at partner science centers linked with hands-on workshops featuring Earth scientists and Native American experts. It aims to inspire, engage and educate diverse students in Earth science through an experience of viewing the Earth from space as one interconnected whole, as seen through the eyes of astronauts. The informal education program is an outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA Living Atlas Experience (www.bellagaia.com) performed across the globe since 2008 and following the successful Earth Day education events in 2009 and 2010 with NASA's DLN (Digital Learning Network) http://tinyurl.com/2ckg2rh. Beautiful Earth takes a new approach to teaching, by combining live music and data visualizations, Earth Science with indigenous perspectives of the Earth, and hands-on interactive workshops. The program will utilize the emotionally inspiring multi-media show as a springboard to inspire participants to learn more about Earth systems and science. Native Earth Ways (NEW) will be the first module in a series of three "Beautiful Earth" experiences, that will launch the national tour at a presentation in October 2011 at the MOST science museum in collaboration with the Onandaga Nation School in Syracuse, New York. The NEW Module will include Native American experts to explain how they study and conserve the Earth in their own unique ways along with hands-on activities to convey the science which was seen in the show. In this first pilot run of the module, 110 K-12 students with faculty and family members of the Onandaga Nations School will take part. The goal of the program is to introduce Native American students to Earth Sciences and STEM careers, and encourage them to study these sciences and become responsible stewards of the Earth. The second workshop presented to participants will be the
NASA Earth Science program began in the 1960s with cloud imaging satellites used for weather observations. A fleet of satellites are now in orbit to investigate the Earth Science System to uncover the connections between land, Oceans and the atmosphere. Satellite systems using an array of active and passive remote sensors are used to search for answers on how is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth? The answer to these questions can be used for applications to serve societal needs and contribute to decision support systems for weather, hazard, and air quality predictions and mitigation of adverse effects. Partnerships with operational agencies using NASA's observational capabilities are now being explored. The system of the future will require new technology, data assimilation systems which includes data and models that will be used for forecasts that respond to user needs.
For over the last 15 years, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) has devoted a tremendous effort to design and build the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to acquire, process, archive and distribute the data of the EOS series of satellites and other ESE missions and field programs. The development of EOSDIS began with an early prototype to support NASA data from heritage missions and progressed through a formal development process to today's system that supports the data from multiple missions including Landsat 7, Terra, Aqua, SORCE and ICESat. The system is deployed at multiple Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and its current holdings are approximately 4.5 petabytes. The current set of unique users requesting EOS data and information products exceeds 2 million. While EOSDIS has been the centerpiece of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems, other initiatives have augmented the services of EOSDIS and have impacted its evolution and the future directions of data systems within the ESE. ESDIS had an active prototyping effort and has continued to be involved in the activities of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). In response to concerns from the science community that EOSDIS was too large and monolithic, the ESE initiated the Earth Science Information Partners (ESP) Federation Experiment that funded a series of projects to develop specialized products and services to support Earth science research and applications. Last year, the enterprise made 41 awards to successful proposals to the Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASON) Cooperative Agreement Notice to continue and extend the ESP activity. The ESE has also sponsored a formulation activity called the Strategy for the Evolution of ESE Data Systems (SEEDS) to develop approaches and decision support processes for the management of the collection of data system and service providers of the enterprise. Throughout the development of its earth science
Manning, C. L. B.; Holzer, M.; Colson, M.; Courtier, A. M. B.; Jacobs, B. E.
As states begin to review their standards, some adopt or adapt the NGSS and others write their own, many basing these on the Framework for K-12 Science Education. Both the NGSS and the Frameworks have an increased emphasis on Earth Science but many high school teachers are being asked to teach these standards in traditional Biology, Chemistry and Physics courses. At the Earth Educators Rendezvous, teachers, scientists, and science education researchers worked together to find the interconnections between the sciences using the NGSS and identified ways to reference the role of Earth Sciences in the other sciences during lectures, activities and laboratory assignments. Weaving Earth and Space sciences into the other curricular areas, the teams developed relevant problems for students to solve by focusing on using current issues, media stories, and community issues. These and other lessons and units of study will be presented along with other resources used by teachers to ensure students are gaining exposure and a deeper understanding of Earth and Space Science concepts.
Bowker, David E. (Editor); Katzberg, Steve J. (Editor); Wilson, R. Gale (Editor)
The purpose of the workshop was to further explore and define the earth sciences requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES), a proposed onboard data processor with real-time communications capability intended to support the Earth Observing System (Eos). A review of representative Eos instrument types is given and a preliminary set of real-time data needs has been established. An executive summary is included.
Bendel, W. B.; Kirn, M.; Gupta, S.
project, 'Cognition + Affect = Effect' (CAE), is commissioning two artists, advised by a team of scientists, to create two new datasets for Science On a Sphere (SOS). SOS, developed by researchers at NOAA to help illustrate complex Earth System science to people of all ages, is a room-sized display system that uses computers and video projectors to display atmospheric conditions, climate change models, and more onto a six-foot diameter sphere, analogous to a large animated globe. SOS is installed in 100+ education centers worldwide, reaching more than 33 million people annually. In 2010, an evaluation by the Institute for Learning Innovation was conducted at 16 SOS sites to investigate the impacts that SOS has on audiences. The study revealed that while content shown on SOS proves to be captivating and informative, it is not realizing its full potential to inspire engagement in stewardship and conservation. CAE is researching the hypothesis that science and data visualizations conveyed on SOS through artistic images, metaphor, and storytelling can be more effective for inspiring social engagement and behavior change than science and data visualizations described solely from an informational standpoint.
Leath, Audrey T.
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.
Weigel, A. M.; Maskey, M.; Smith, T.; Conover, H.
One of the major challenges in Earth science research and applications is understanding and applying the proper methods, tools, and software for using scientific data. These techniques are often difficult and time consuming to identify, requiring novel users to conduct extensive research, take classes, and reach out for assistance, thus hindering scientific discovery and real-world applications. To address these challenges, the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) DAAC has developed a series of data recipes that novel users such as students, decision makers, and general Earth scientists can leverage to learn how to use Earth science datasets. Once the data recipe content had been finalized, GHRC computer and Earth scientists collaborated with a web and graphic designer to ensure the content is both attractively presented to data users, and clearly communicated to promote the education and use of Earth science data. The completed data recipes include, but are not limited to, tutorials, iPython Notebooks, resources, and tools necessary for addressing key difficulties in data use across a broad user base. These recipes enable non-traditional users to learn how to use data, but also curates and communicates common methods and approaches that may be difficult and time consuming for these users to identify.
Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke
This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.
Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.
NASA's strategic goal to "advance scientific understanding of the changing Earth system to meet societal needs" continues the agency's legacy of expanding human knowledge of the Earth through space activities, as mandated by the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. Over the past 50 years, NASA has been the world leader in developing space-based Earth observing systems and capabilities that have fundamentally changed our view of our planet and have defined Earth system science. The U.S. National Research Council report "Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements" published in 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences articulates those key achievements and the evolution of the space observing capabilities, looking forward to growing potential to address Earth science questions and enable an abundance of practical applications. NASA's Earth science program is an end-to-end one that encompasses the development of observational techniques and the instrument technology needed to implement them. This includes laboratory testing and demonstration from surface, airborne, or space-based platforms; research to increase basic process knowledge; incorporation of results into complex computational models to more fully characterize the present state and future evolution of the Earth system; and development of partnerships with national and international organizations that can use the generated information in environmental forecasting and in policy, business, and management decisions. Currently, NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) has 14 operating Earth science space missions with 6 in development and 18 under study or in technology risk reduction. Two Tier 2 Decadal Survey climate-focused missions, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) and Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), have been identified in conjunction with the U.S. Global Change Research Program and initiated for launch in the 2019
Kempler, Steven J.
Data Analytics applications have made successful strides in the business world where co-analyzing extremely large sets of independent variables have proven profitable. Today, most data analytics tools and techniques, sometimes applicable to Earth science, have targeted the business industry. In fact, the literature is nearly absent of discussion about Earth science data analytics. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data from a variety of sources to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information. ESDA is most often applied to data preparation, data reduction, and data analysis. Co-analysis of increasing number and volume of Earth science data has become more prevalent ushered by the plethora of Earth science data sources generated by US programs, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists.Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, ESDA types have been defined in terms of data analytics end goals. Goals of which are very different than those in business, requiring different tools and techniques. A sampling of use cases have been collected and analyzed in terms of data analytics end goal types, volume, specialized processing, and other attributes. The goal of collecting these use cases is to be able to better understand and specify requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented. This presentation will describe the attributes and preliminary findings of ESDA use cases, as well as provide early analysis of data analytics toolstechniques requirements that would support specific ESDA type goals. Representative existing data analytics toolstechniques relevant to ESDA will also be addressed.
Moses, John F.; Weinstein, Beth E.; Farnham, Jennifer
NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, working with its domestic and international partners, provides scientific data and analysis to improve life here on Earth. NASA provides science data products that cover a wide range of physical, geophysical, biochemical and other parameters, as well as services for interdisciplinary Earth science studies. Management and distribution of these products is administered through the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), which all hold data within a different Earth science discipline. This paper will highlight selected EOS datasets and will focus on how these observations contribute to the improvement of essential services such as weather forecasting, climate prediction, air quality, and agricultural efficiency. Emphasis will be placed on new data products derived from instruments on board Terra, Aqua and ICESat as well as new regional data products and field campaigns. A variety of data tools and services are available to the user community. This paper will introduce primary and specialized DAAC-specific methods for finding, ordering and using these data products. Special sections will focus on orienting users unfamiliar with DAAC resources, HDF-EOS formatted data and the use of desktop research and application tools.
25 - d Phenomenological Description of Eddy Registered in Gulf Stream (V.A. Bubnov, N.P. Kuzmina , et al.; OKEANOLOGIYA, No 1, Jan-Feb 87) 26...Bubnov, N. P. Kuzmina and I. S. Podymov, Oceanology Insti- tute imeni P. P. Shirshov, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow] [Abstract] The 5th cruise of
Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard
This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.
Griffiths, J. A.
As part of a review process for a module entitled "Digital Earth" which is currently taught as part of a BSc in Environmental Sciences program, research into the current provision of Geographical Information Science and Technology (GIS&T) related modules on UKbased Environmental Science degrees is made. The result of this search is used with DiBiase et al. (2006) "Body of Knowledge of GIS&T" to develop a foundation level module for Environmental Sciences. Reference is also made to the current provision geospatial analysis techniques in secondary and tertiary education in the UK, US and China, and the optimal use of IT and multimedia in geo-education.
King, Chris; Kennett, Peter
Explains how physics teaching can be more relevant for elementary and secondary students by integrating physics and earth science content that students can relate to and understand. Identifies and explains Earth contexts that can be appropriately implemented into the physics curriculum such as energy resources and radioactivity. (Author/YDS)
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-115)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory Group Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics...) announces a meeting of the Applied Science Advisory Group. This Subcommittee reports to the Earth Science...
The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. This Editorial reports the efforts of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to integrate applications with science and engineering i...
Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus
The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations
Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg
The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory
Beauregard, J. L.
Capturing the interest of non-science majors in science classes can be very difficult, no matter what type of science course it is. At Berklee College of Music, this challenge is especially daunting, as all students are majoring in some type of music program. To engage the Berklee students, I am trying to link the material in Earth science courses to music. The connection between Earth science and music is made in several different ways within the curriculum of each class, with the main connection via a final project. For their projects, students can use any creative outlet (or a standard presentation) to illustrate a point related to the course. Many students have chosen to compose original music and perform it for the class. Some examples of their work will be presented. These original compositions allow students to relate course material to their own lives. Additionally, since many of these students will enter professional careers in the performance and recording industries, the potential exists for them to expose large audiences to the issues of Earth sciences through music.
Given low course enrollment in geoscience courses, retention in undergraduate geoscience courses, and granting of BA and advanced degrees in the Earth sciences an effective strategy to increase participation in this field is necessary. In response, as K-12 education is a conduit to college education and the future workforce, Earth science education at the K-12 level was targeted with the development of teacher professional development around Earth system science, inquiry and problem-based learning. An NSF, NOAA and NASA funded effort through the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies led to the development of the Earth System Science Educational Alliance (ESSEA) and dissemination of interdisciplinary Earth science content modules accessible to the public and educators. These modules formed the basis for two teacher workshops, two graduate level courses for in-service teachers and two university course for undergraduate teacher candidates. Data from all three models will be presented with emphasis on the teacher workshop. Essential components of the workshop model include: teaching and modeling Earth system science analysis; teacher development of interdisciplinary, problem-based academic units for implementation in the classroom; teacher collaboration; daily workshop evaluations; classroom observations; follow-up collaborative meetings/think tanks; and the building of an on-line professional community for continued communication and exchange of best practices. Preliminary data indicate increased understanding of Earth system science, proficiency with Earth system science analysis, and renewed interest in innovative delivery of content amongst teachers. Teacher-participants reported increased student engagement in learning with the implementation of problem-based investigations in Earth science and Earth system science thinking in the classroom, however, increased enthusiasm of the teacher acted as a contributing factor. Teacher feedback on open
Doby, Janice Kay
The decline of science education in elementary schools has been well documented. While numerous efforts have been made for the purpose of reforming science education, most of those efforts have targeted science programs, assessment techniques, and setting national, state, and local standards, stressing teacher accountability for meeting those standards. However, inadequate science content knowledge of preservice teachers limits their ability to master effective teaching strategies, and also may foster negative attitudes toward science and science teaching. It is, therefore, highly unlikely that any significant reform in science education will be realized until this major underlying problem is addressed and resolved. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an experimental elementary science methods course, which employs the use of laser videodisc technology and instructional implications from cognitive science and instructional design, in terms of preservice teacher gains in Earth and physical science content knowledge and locus of control in science. The experimental elementary science methods course was compared to a more traditional approach to the same course which focused primarily on methods of teaching in the physical sciences and other science domains. The experimental and traditional groups were compared before and after treatment in terms of preservice teachers' content knowledge in Earth and physical science and locus ofcontrol in science. Results indicated that the experimental and traditional groups were comparable prior to treatment. The experimental group (89 preservice teachers) responded correctly to 45% of the items on the Elementary Science Concepts Test (ESCT) pretest and the traditional group (78 preservice teachers) responded correctly to 42% of the pretest items, the difference between groups being nonsignificant. Further, the experimental and traditional groups scored similarly on the pre-assessment of locus of control in
Constantino, R.; Dicelis, G.; Molina, E. C.
This study aims to identify the tools available to disseminate the Earth sciences to young people in Brazil and to propose new techniques that may help in the teaching of such subjects. The use of scientific dissemination can be a great tool for the consolidation of a scientific culture, especially for a public of young students. The starting point of this study is an important characteristic that is present in virtually all the children: curiosity. The young public tries to understand how the world is and how it works. The use of scientific dissemination and some educational experiences have shown that these students have a great ability to learn and deal with various topics within the Earth Sciences. Another relevant point is the possibility to show that the Earth sciences, e.g., geophysics, oceanography, meteorology, geology and geography, can be an educational attractive option. Several ways of disseminating Earth sciences are commonly used with the purpose of attracting and mainly teaching these subjects, such as websites, interactive museums and cultural and educational spaces. The objectives of this work are: i) Investigate the role of science centers as motivators in disseminating the scientific knowledge by examining the communication resources that are being employed, the acceptance, reaction, and interest of children to these means, and ii) From this analysis, to list suggestions of contents and new tools that could be used for obtaining better results.
Maskey, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Kuo, K. S.; Lynnes, C.; Niamsuwan, N.; Chidambaram, C.
Collaborative research is growing rapidly. Many tools including IDEs are now beginning to incorporate new collaborative features. Software engineering research has shown the effectiveness of collaborative programming and analysis. In particular, drastic reduction in software development time resulting in reduced cost has been highlighted. Recently, we have witnessed the rise of applications that allow users to share their content. Most of these applications scale such collaboration using cloud technologies. Earth science research needs to adopt collaboration technologies to reduce redundancy, cut cost, expand knowledgebase, and scale research experiments. To address these needs, we developed the Earth science collaboration workbench (CWB). CWB provides researchers with various collaboration features by augmenting their existing analysis tools to minimize learning curve. During the development of the CWB, we understood that Earth science collaboration tasks are varied and we concluded that it is not possible to design a tool that serves all collaboration purposes. We adopted a mix of synchronous and asynchronous sharing methods that can be used to perform collaboration across time and location dimensions. We have used cloud technology for scaling the collaboration. Cloud has been highly utilized and valuable tool for Earth science researchers. Among other usages, cloud is used for sharing research results, Earth science data, and virtual machine images; allowing CWB to create and maintain research environments and networks to enhance collaboration between researchers. Furthermore, collaborative versioning tool, Git, is integrated into CWB for versioning of science artifacts. In this paper, we present our experience in designing and implementing the CWB. We will also discuss the integration of collaborative code development use cases for data search and discovery using NASA DAAC and simulation of satellite observations using NASA Earth Observing System Simulation
McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.
As a response to the need for more rigorous, inquiry-based high school Earth science courses, a coalition of scientists, educators, and five states have created EarthLabs, a set of pilot modules that can serve as a national model for lab-based science courses. The content of EarthLabs chapters focuses on Earth system science and environmental literacy and conforms to the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The effort is funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. The pilot modules present activities on Corals, Drought, Fisheries, and Hurricanes. The Fisheries and Hurricanes units were reviewed and field-tested by educators in Texas and Arizona. The feedback from this evaluation led to revisions of these units and guided development of the Corals and Drought chapters. Each module consists of activities that use online data sets, satellite imagery, web-based readings, and hands-on laboratory experiments. The project comprises two separate websites, one for the instructor and one for students. The instructor's site contains the pedagogical underpinnings for each lab including teaching materials, assessment strategies, and the alignment of activities with state and national science standards. The student site provides access to all materials that students need to complete the activities or, in the case of the hands-on labs, where they access additional information to help extend their learning. There are also formative and summative questions embedded in the student webpages to help scaffold learning through the activities.
This document summarizes the activities of the Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center (GEST), a consortium of scientists and engineers led by the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), during the contract reporting period. Topics covered include: new programs, eligibility and selection criteria, Goddard Coastal Research Graduate Fellowship Program and staffing changes.
Guit, William J.; Machado, Michael J.
This is the Welcome and Introduction presentation for the International Earth Science Constellation (ESC) Mission Operations Working Group (MOWG) meeting held in Albuquerque NM from September 27-29. It contains an org chart, charter, history, significant topics to be discussed, AquaAura 2017 inclination adjust maneuver calendar, a-train long range plans, upcoming events, and action items.
This catalog presents a reference guide to NASA Earth science education programs and products. The topics include: 1) Student Support (Elementary and Secondary, Undergraduate and Graduate, Postgraduate, and Postdoctorate); 2) Teacher/Faculty Preparation and Enhancement; 3) Systemic Change; 4) Curriculum Support; and 5) Resources.
Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL. Project DISCUS.
Included are instructional materials designed for use with disadvantaged students who have a limited reading ability and poor command of English. The guide is the second volume of a two volume, one year program in earth science, and contains these five units and activities: Rock Cycle, 12 activities; Minerals and Crystals, 6 activities; Weathering…
Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Zhang, Jia; Duan, Xiaoyi; Miller, J. J.; Bugbee, Kaylin; Christopher, Sundar; Freitag, Brian
Knowledge Graphs link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. From these relationships, researchers can query knowledge graphs for probabilistic recommendations to infer new knowledge. Scientific papers are an untapped resource which knowledge graphs could leverage to accelerate research discovery. Goal: Develop an end-to-end (semi) automated methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science.
The integrative nature of Earth System Science courses provides extensive opportunities to introduce students to geoethical inquiry focused on globally significant societal issues. Geoscience education has traditionally lagged in its efforts to increase student awareness of the significance of geologic knowledge to understanding and responsibly confronting causes and possible solutions for emergent, newly emerging, and future problems of anthropogenic cause and consequence. Developing an understanding of the human impact on the earth system requires early (lower division) and for geoscience majors, repeated (upper division) curricular emphasis on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere across space and through time. Capturing the interest of university students in globally relevant earth system issues and their ethical dimensions while first learning about the earth system is an important initial step in bringing geoethical deliberation and awareness to the next generation of geoscientists. Development of a new introductory Earth System Science course replacing a traditional introductory Physical Geology course at Montana State University has involved abandonment of concept-based content organization in favor of a place-based approach incorporating examination of the complex interactions of earth system components and emergent issues and dilemmas deriving from the unique component interactions that characterize each locale. Thirteen different place-based week-long modules (using web- and classroom-based instruction) were developed to ensure cumulative broad coverage across the earth geographically and earth system components conceptually. Each place-based instructional module contains content of societal relevance requiring synthesis, critical evaluation, and reflection by students. Examples include making linkages between deforestation driven by economics and increased seismicity in Haiti, agriculture and development
Finkel, L.; Varner, R.; Froburg, E.; Smith, M.; Graham, K.; Hale, S.; Laura, G.; Brown, D.; Bryce, J.; Darwish, A.; Furman, T.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; von Damm, K.
The Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) project, a partnership between faculty at the University of New Hampshire, Pennsylvania State University, Elizabeth City State University and Dillard University, is designed to enrich the professional development of in-service and pre-service Earth science teachers. One goal of this effort is to help teachers use an inquiry-based approach to teaching Earth system science in their classrooms. As a part of the TESSE project, 42 pre-service and in-service teachers participated in an intensive two-week summer institute at UNH taught by Earth scientists and science educators from TESSE partnership institutions. The institute included instruction about a range of Earth science system topics as well as an introduction to teaching Earth science using an inquiry-based approach. In addition to providing teachers with information about inquiry-based science teaching in the form of sample lesson plans and opportunities to revise traditional lessons and laboratory exercises to make them more inquiry-based, TESSE instructors modeled an inquiry- based approach in their own teaching as much as possible. By the end of the Institute participants had developed lesson plans, units, or year-long course overviews in which they were expected to explain the ways in which they would include an inquiry-based approach in their Earth science teaching over the course of the school year. As a part of the project, graduate fellows (graduate students in the earth sciences) will work with classroom teachers during the academic year to support their implementation of these plans as well as to assist them in developing a more comprehensive inquiry-based approach in the classroom.
Nowicki, Barbara L.; Sullivan-Watts, Barbara; Shim, Minsuk K.; Young, Betty; Pockalny, Robert
Elementary teachers face increasing demands to engage children in authentic science process and argument while simultaneously preparing them with knowledge of science facts, vocabulary, and concepts. This reform is particularly challenging due to concerns that elementary teachers lack adequate science background to teach science accurately. This study examined 81 in-classroom inquiry science lessons for preservice education majors and their cooperating teachers to determine the accuracy of the science content delivered in elementary classrooms. Our results showed that 74 % of experienced teachers and 50 % of student teachers presented science lessons with greater than 90 % accuracy. Eleven of the 81 lessons (9 preservice, 2 cooperating teachers) failed to deliver accurate science content to the class. Science content accuracy was highly correlated with the use of kit-based resources supported with professional development, a preference for teaching science, and grade level. There was no correlation between the accuracy of science content and some common measures of teacher content knowledge (i.e., number of college science courses, science grades, or scores on a general science content test). Our study concluded that when provided with high quality curricular materials and targeted professional development, elementary teachers learn needed science content and present it accurately to their students.
Cervato, C.; Jach, J. Y.; Ridky, R.
Introductory Earth science courses are undergoing pedagogical changes in universities across the country and are focusing more than ever on the non-science majors. Increasing enrollment of non-science majors in these introductory Earth science courses demands a new look at what is being taught and how the content can be objectively chosen. Assessing the content and effectiveness of these courses requires a quantitative investigation of introductory Earth science topics and their relevance to current issues and concerns. Relevance of Earth science topics can be linked to improved students' attitude toward science and a deeper understanding of concepts. We have used the Internet based national news search-engine LexisNexis Academic Universe (http://www.lexisnexis.org/) to select the occurrence of Earth science terms over the last 12 months, five and ten years both regionally and nationally. This database of term occurrences is being used to examine how Earth sciences have evolved in the news through the last 10 years and is also compared with textbook contents and course syllabi from randomly selected introductory earth science courses across the nation. These data constitute the quantitative foundation for this study and are being used to evaluate the relevance of introductory earth science course content. The relevance of introductory course content and current real-world issues to student attitudes is a crucial factor when considering changes in course curricula and pedagogy. We have examined students' conception of the nature of science and attitudes towards science and learning science using a Likert-scale assessment instrument in the fall 2002 Geology 100 classes at Iowa State University. A pre-test and post-test were administered to see if the students' attitudes changed during the semester using as reference a control group comprised of geoscience undergraduate and graduate students, and faculty. The results of the attitude survey have been analyzed in terms
This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.
This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Traditionally, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, weight and volume. These missions have taken much longer implementation due to technology development time and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large-size spacecraft. NASA is also facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific goals have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall life cycle by infusing technologies that are being developed independently of any planned mission's implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, and allow for more frequent missions or earth science measurements to occur. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.
This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.
Uganda has two Government funded universities, five operating private universities and four other universities are due to start soon. Geology was first taught in Uganda at Makerere University in 1968 within the Department of Geography. Through the leadership of Prof. Robert Macdonald it became established as a full department in August 1969 as part of the Faculty of Science. Both pure and applied geology are taught and the courses are designed to suit the current job market. At present, the three-term academic year is being replaced by a semester-based course unit system. At the same time, the 3:2:2 subject combination, requiring a student to do three subjects in first year and two subjects in both second and third years, is to be replaced by a major-minor subject combination. Currently, there are about 50 undergraduate students and four Ph.D. students in the Department. A student Geological Association acts as a forum for the exchange of information on matters of geological concern. An affirmative action policy has improved the intake of women students into the Department. On average, the number of women has increased from about 10% to 33.3% in the years 1984/85 to 1997/98. Their performance parallels that of the male students and they are readily employed. Of the eight members of academic staff, two are women. The Department of Geology has good links with regional and overseas universities through which a number of research programmes are currently supported. In addition, most of the training of manpower for the University and research programmes is supported by regional and international research agencies. Academic staff combine teaching with research and consultancy.
Janke, Delmar Lester
This study was undertaken to determine the degree of agreement between science textbooks and scholars in earth science relative to earth science concepts to be included in the K-12 science curriculum. The study consisted of two phases: (1) the identification of a sample of earth science concepts rated by earth scientists as important for inclusion…
Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.; Chang, G.
JPL Earth Science Center Visualization table is a specialized software and hardware to allow multitouch, multiuser, and remote display control to create seamlessly integrated experiences to visualize JPL missions and their remote sensing data. The software is fully GIS capable through time aware OGC WMTS using Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal as the GIS backend to continuously ingest and retrieve realtime remote sending data and satellite location data. 55 inch and 82 inch unlimited finger count multitouch displays allows multiple users to explore JPL Earth missions and visualize remote sensing data through very intuitive and interactive touch graphical user interface. To improve the integrated experience, Earth Science Center Visualization Table team developed network streaming which allows table software to stream data visualization to near by remote display though computer network. The purpose of this visualization/presentation tool is not only to support earth science operation, but specifically designed for education and public outreach and will significantly contribute to STEM. Our presentation will include overview of our software, hardware, and showcase of our system.
Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.
NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts pioneering work in Earth system science, the interdisciplinary view of Earth that explores the interaction among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself that has enabled scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by governments, organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The ESD makes the data collected and results generated by its missions accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster management, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. In addition to four missions now in development and 14 currently operating on-orbit, the ESD is now developing the first tier of missions recommended by the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey and is conducting engineering studies and technology development for the second tier. Furthermore, NASA's ESD is planning implementation of a set of climate continuity missions to assure availability of key data sets needed for climate science and applications. These include a replacement for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), OCO-2, planned for launch in 2013; refurbishment of the SAGE III atmospheric chemistry instrument to be hosted by the International Space Station (ISS) as early as 2014; and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE FO) mission scheduled for launch in 2016. The new Earth Venture (EV) class of missions is a series of uncoupled, low to moderate cost, small to medium-sized, competitively selected, full orbital missions, instruments for orbital missions of opportunity, and sub-orbital projects.
Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.
One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities
Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana; D'Addezio, Giuliana
The present paper describes an experience of science theatre addressed to children of primary and secondary school, with the main purpose of explaining the Earth interior while raising awareness about natural hazard. We conducted the experience with the help of a theatrical company specialized in shows for children. Several performances have been reiterated in different context, giving us the opportunity of conducting a preliminary survey with public of different ages, even if the show was conceived for children. Results suggest that science theatre while relying on creativity and emotional learning in transmitting knowledge about the Earth and its hazard has the potential to induce in children a positive attitude towards the risks
Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Goodwin, Dawne
While the literature is replete with studies examining teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), few studies have investigated how science teacher orientations (STOs) shape classroom instruction. Therefore, this research explores the interplay between a STOs and the topic specificity of PCK across two science topics within a grade 9 earth science course. Through interviews and observations of one teacher's classroom across two sequentially taught, this research contests the notion that teachers hold a single way of conceptualising science teaching and learning. In this, we consider if multiple ontologies can provide potential explanatory power for characterising instructional enactments. In earlier work with the teacher in this study, using generic interview prompts and general discussions about science teaching and learning, we accepted the existence of a unitary STO and its promise of consistent reformed instruction in the classroom. However, upon close examination of instruction focused on different science topics, evidence was found to demonstrate the explanatory power of multiple ontologies for shaping characteristically different epistemological constructions across science topics. This research points to the need for care in generalising about teacher practice, as it reveals that a teacher's practice, and orientation, can vary, dependent on the context and science topics taught.
Casasanto, V.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Rock, J.; Markus, T.
"Beautiful Earth: Experiencing and Learning Science in an Engaging Way" was a 3-year project funded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science. An outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA performance, Beautiful Earth fostered a new approach to teaching by combining live music, data visualizations and Earth science with indigenous perspectives, and hands-on workshops for K-12 students at 5 science centers. Inspired by the "Overview Effect," described by many astronauts who were awestruck by seeing the Earth from space and their realization of the profound interconnectedness of Earth's life systems, Beautiful Earth leveraged the power of multimedia performance to serve as a springboard to engage K-12 students in hands-on Earth science and Native wisdom workshops. Results will be presented regarding student perceptions of Earth science, environmental issues, and indigenous ways of knowing from 3 years of evaluation data.
Armand, N. A.; Tishchenko, Yu. G.
Version of the Russian Earth Science Research Program on the Russian segment of ISS is proposed. The favorite tasks are selected, which may be solved with the use of space remote sensing methods and tools and which are worthwhile for realization. For solving these tasks the specialized device sets (submodules), corresponding to the specific of solved tasks, are working out. They would be specialized modules, transported to the ISS. Earth remote sensing research and ecological monitoring (high rates and large bodies transmitted from spaceborne information, comparatively stringent requirements to the period of its processing, etc.) cause rather high requirements tomore » the ground segment of receiving, processing, storing, and distribution of space information in the interests of the Earth natural resources investigation. Creation of the ground segment has required the development of the interdepartmental data receiving and processing center. Main directions of works within the framework of the ISS program are determined.« less
Lemmerman, Loren; Raymond, Carol; Shotwell, Robert; Chase, James; Bhasin, Kul; Connerton, Robert
Historically, Earth science investigations have been independent and highly focused. However, the Earth's environment is a very dynamic and interrelated system and to understand it, significant improvements in spatial and temporal observations will be required. Science needs to document the need for constellations to achieve desired spatial and temporal observations. A key element envisioned for accomplishing these difficult challenges is the idea of a distributed, heterogeneous, and adaptive observing system or sensor web. This paper focuses on one possible approach based on a LEO constellation composed of 100 spacecraft. A cost analysis has been done to indicate the financial pressures of each mission phase and conclusions are drawn suggesting that new technology investments are needed, directed toward lowering production costs; that operations costs will need to be reduced through autonomy; and that, of the on-board subsystems considered, advanced power generation and management may be the most enabling of new technologies.
Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.
Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.
Hardman, Sean; Riofrio, Andres; Shams, Khawaja; Freeborn, Dana; Springer, Paul; Chafin, Brian
Cloud Computing holds tremendous potential for missions across the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Several flight missions are already benefiting from an investment in cloud computing for mission critical pipelines and services through faster processing time, higher availability, and drastically lower costs available on cloud systems. However, these processes do not currently extend to general scientific algorithms relevant to earth science missions. The members of the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment task at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have worked closely with the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to integrate cloud computing into their science data processing pipeline. This paper details the efforts involved in deploying a science data system for the CARVE mission, evaluating and integrating cloud computing solutions with the system and porting their science algorithms for execution in a cloud environment.
Modern science is increasingly dependent on computational analysis of very large data sets. Organizing, referencing, publishing those data has become a complex problem. Published research that depends on such data often fails to cite the data in sufficient detail to allow an independent scientist to reproduce the original experiments and analyses. This paper explores some of the challenges related to data identification, equivalence and reproducibility in the domain of data intensive scientific processing. It will use the example of Earth Science satellite data, but the challenges also apply to other domains.
Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.; Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Bugbee, K.; Christopher, S. A.; Miller, J. J.
Estimates indicate that the world's information will grow by 800% in the next five years. In any given field, a single researcher or a team of researchers cannot keep up with this rate of knowledge expansion without the help of cognitive systems. Cognitive computing, defined as the use of information technology to augment human cognition, can help tackle large systemic problems. Knowledge graphs, one of the foundational components of cognitive systems, link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. Researchers could mine these graphs to make probabilistic recommendations and to infer new knowledge. At this point, however, there is a dearth of tools to generate scalable Knowledge graphs using existing corpus of scientific literature for Earth science research. Our project is currently developing an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge graphs for Earth Science. Semantic Entity Recognition (SER) is one of the key steps in this methodology. SER for Earth Science uses external resources (including metadata catalogs and controlled vocabulary) as references to guide entity extraction and recognition (i.e., labeling) from unstructured text, in order to build a large training set to seed the subsequent auto-learning component in our algorithm. Results from several SER experiments will be presented as well as lessons learned.
Rogers, C. D. F.; Dijkstra, T. A.; Smalley, I. J.
Particle packings are relevant to many aspects of the Earth sciences, and there is a long history of the study of packings from an Earth science viewpoint. Packings have also been studied in connection with other subjects and disciplines. Allen (1982) produced a major review which provides a solid base for Earth science related studies. This review complements Allen's work and in particular focuses on advances in the study of random packings over the last ten years. Transitions from packing to packing may be as important as the packings themselves, and possibly easier to model. This paper places emphasis on certain neglected works, in particular Morrow and Graves (1969) and the packing transition envelope, Kahn (1956) and the measurement of packing parameters, Griffiths (1962) on packings in one-dimension, and Getis and Boots (1978) on packings in two dimensions. Certain packing problems are relevant to current areas of study including structure collapse in loess (hydroconsolidation), flowslides in very sensitive soils, wind erosion, jewel quality in opals and the structure and functions of sand dunes. The region where interparticle forces become active (particles < 200 μm) is considered and the implications for packing are examined.
This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division`s research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth`s crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriatemore » chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989 a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will in the coming years be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.« less
Earth science has a part to play in broadening students' learning experience in physics. The Earth Science Education Unit presents a range of (free) workshops to teachers and trainee teachers, suggesting how Earth-based science activities, which show how we understand and use the planet we live on, can easily be slotted into normal science…
Hansen, R. A.; Stachnik, J. C.; Roush, J. J.; Siemann, K.; Nixon, I.
In partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve and the Denali Institute, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) will capitalize upon an extraordinary opportunity to raise public interest in the earth sciences. A coincidence of events has made this an ideal time for outreach to raise awareness of the solid earth processes that affect all of our lives. On November 3, 2002, a M 7.9 earthquake occurred on the Denali Fault in central Alaska, raising public consciousness of seismic activity in this state to a level unmatched since the M 9.2 "Good Friday" earthquake of 1964. Shortly after the M 7.9 event, a new public facility for scientific research and education in Alaska's national parks, the Murie Science and Learning Center, was constructed at the entrance to Denali National Park and Preserve only 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault Earthquake. The AEIC and its partners believe that these events can be combined to form a synergy for the creation of unprecedented opportunities for learning about solid earth geophysics among all segments of the public. This cooperative project will undertake the planning and development of education outreach mechanisms and products for the Murie Science and Learning Center that will serve to educate Alaska's residents and visitors about seismology, tectonics, crustal deformation, and volcanism. Through partnerships with Denali National Park and Preserve, this cooperative project will include the Denali Institute (a non-profit organization that assists the National Park Service in operating the Murie Science and Learning Center) and Alaska's Denali Borough Public School District. The AEIC will also draw upon the resources of long standing state partners; the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys and the Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services. The objectives of this project are to increase public awareness and understanding of the solid earth processes that affect life in
Pyle, E. J.
The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are a step forward in ensuring that future generations of students become scientifically literate. The NGSS document builds from the National Science Education Standards (1996) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science framework of 2005. Design teams for the Curriculum Framework for K-12 Science Education were to outline the essential content necessary for students' science literacy, considering the foundational knowledge and the structure of each discipline in the context of learning progressions. Once draft standards were developed, two issues emerged from their review: (a) the continual need to prune 'cherished ideas' within the content, such that only essential ideas were represented, and (b) the potential for prior conceptions of Science & Engineering Practices (SEP) and cross-cutting concepts (CCC) to limit overly constrain performance expectations. With the release of the NGSS, several challenges are emerging for geoscience education. First, the traditional emphasis of Earth science in middle school has been augmented by new standards for high school that require major syntheses of concepts. Second, the integration of SEPs into performance expectations places an increased burden on teachers and curriculum developers to organize instruction around the nature of inquiry in the geosciences. Third, work is needed to define CCCs in Earth contexts, such that the unique structure of the geosciences is best represented. To ensure that the Earth & Space Science standards are implemented through grade 12, two supporting structures must be developed. In the past, many curricular materials claimed that they adhered to the NSES, but in some cases this match was a simple word match or checklist that bore only superficial resemblance to the standards. The structure of the performance expectations is of sufficient sophistication to ensure that adherence to the standards more than a casual exercise. Claims
Wysession, M. E.; Colson, M.; Duschl, R. A.; Huff, K.; Lopez, R. E.; Messina, P.; Speranza, P.; Matthews, T.; Childress, J.
The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), due to be released in 2013, set a new direction for K-12 science education in America. These standards will put forth significant changes for Earth and space sciences. The NGSS are based upon the recommendations of the National Research Council's 2011 report "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The standards are being written by a large group of authors who represent many different constituencies, including 26 participating states, in a process led by Achieve, Inc. The standards encourage innovative ways to teach science at the K-12 level, including enhanced integration between the content, practices, and crosscutting ideas of science and greater assimilation among the sciences and engineering, and among the sciences, mathematics, and English language arts. The NGSS presents a greater emphasis on Earth and space sciences than in previous standards, recommending a year at both the middle and high school levels. The new standards also present a greater emphasis on areas of direct impact between humans and the Earth system, including climate change, natural hazards, resource management, and sustainability.
Marshall, James J.; Olding, Steve; Wolfe, Robert E.; Delnore, Victor E.
Scientific missions in the Earth sciences frequently require cost-effective, highly reliable, and easy-to-use software, which can be a challenge for software developers to provide. The NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) spends a significant amount of resources developing software components and other software development artifacts that may also be of value if reused in other projects requiring similar functionality. In general, software reuse is often defined as utilizing existing software artifacts. Software reuse can improve productivity and quality while decreasing the cost of software development, as documented by case studies in the literature. Since large software systems are often the results of the integration of many smaller and sometimes reusable components, ensuring reusability of such software components becomes a necessity. Indeed, designing software components with reusability as a requirement can increase the software reuse potential within a community such as the NASA ESE community. The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group is chartered to oversee the development of a process that will maximize the reuse potential of existing software components while recommending strategies for maximizing the reusability potential of yet-to-be-designed components. As part of this work, two surveys of the Earth science community were conducted. The first was performed in 2004 and distributed among government employees and contractors. A follow-up survey was performed in 2005 and distributed among a wider community, to include members of industry and academia. The surveys were designed to collect information on subjects such as the current software reuse practices of Earth science software developers, why they choose to reuse software, and what perceived barriers prevent them from reusing software. In this paper, we compare the results of these surveys, summarize the observed trends, and discuss the findings. The results are very
The truly interdisciplinary nature of Earth System Science lends itself to the creation of research teams comprised of people with different scientific and technical backgrounds. In the annals of Earth System Science (ESS) education, the lack of an academic major in the discipline might be seen as a barrier to the involvement of undergraduates in the overall ESS-enterprise. This issue is further compounded at minority-serving institutions by the rarity of departments dedicated to Atmospheric Science, Oceanography or even the geosciences. At Norfolk State University, a Historically Black College, a six week, NASA-supported, summer undergraduate research program (REESS - Research Experience in Earth System Science) is creating a model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research coupled with a structured education program. The project is part of a wider effort at the University to enhance undergraduate education by identifying specific areas of student weaknesses regarding the content and process of science. A pre- and post-assessment test, which is focused on some fundamental topics in global climate change, is given to all participants as part of the evaluation of the program. Student attitudes towards the subject and the program's approach are also surveyed at the end of the research experience. In 2002, 11 undergraduates participated in REESS and were educated in the informed use of some of the vast remote sensing resources available through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The program ran from June 3rd through July 12, 2002. This was the final year of the project.
The Earth sciences comprises many fascinating topics that is teached to different age level pupils/students in order to bring hard core science closer to their daily life. With developing possibilities in IT, multimedia overall electronic sector the teachers/lecturers have continuous possibilities to accomplish novel approaches and utilize new ideas to make science more interesting for students in all ages. Emerging, from personal experiences, the teaching of our surrounding Environment can be very enjoyable. In our everyday life the SOIL remains invisible. The soil is covered by plant cover which makes the topic somewhat in distant that is not "visible" to an eye and its importance is underestimated. In other hand, the SOIL is valuable primary resource for food production and basis of life for healthy environment. From several studies have found that because its complications, SOIL related topics are not very often chosen topic for course or diploma works by students. The lower-school students are very open to environmental topics accordingly to the grades. Here, the good results can be obtained through complimentary materials creation, like story telling and drawing books and puzzles. The middle/ and upper/school students will experience "real science" being able to learn what the science is about which often can play a important role on making choices for future curriculum completion at university level. Current presentation shares the ideas of selected methods that had showed successful results on different Earth Science topics teaching (biodiversity, growing substrates, green house gas emissions). For some ideas the presentation introduces also the further developmental possibilities to be used in teaching at Tomorrows Classroom.
Kotlyakov, V.; Leonov, Y.; Coakley, B.; Grikurov, G.; Johnson, L.; Kaminsky, V.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Leitchenkov, G.; Pavlenko, V.
The preparations for IPY 2007/2008 are evolving from conceptual to implementation planning. Many earth scientists are concerned that the emerging plans for IPY are too narrowly focused on environmental processes and therefore appear discriminatory with respect to other fundamental sciences. National/international efforts such as USGCRP (U.S. Global Change Research program) and IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) are also involved in the multitude of climate change issues, and just how the proposed IPY program could augment and complement these ongoing activities without reproducing them requires careful analysis and coordination. In particular, the polar research is unthinkable without study of the geological history of the Arctic and the Southern Oceans as a clue to tectonic evolution of the entire planet and test of the current geodynamic paradigm. In addition to these fundamental objectives, the circum-polar continental margins of the Arctic and Antarctica are likely to become the scenes of geopolitical intrigue provoked by implementation of the provisions of the Law of the Sea that require acquisition of specific earth science knowledge at internationally recognized levels of credibility. Interdisciplinary international programs (e. g. JEODI), based on geophysical data acquisition and analysis that would lead, where appropriate, to scientific drilling, had independently been proposed for studying the coupled tectonic and oceanographic history of the polar regions. Admitting the importance of identifying fundamental constraints for paleooceanography and climatic history of the high latitudes, and acknowledging the progress achieved so far in promoting IPY activities, the international earth science community has suggested developing the proposed approach into a major IPY endeavor - to examine the Polar Ocean Gateway Evolution (POGE). Such study would enable linking the geological history of the Polar Regions during the last 100 Ma and related
The NASA Earth Observing System Simulators Suite (NEOS3) is a modular framework of forward simulations tools for remote sensing of Earth's Atmosphere from space. It was initiated as the Instrument Simulator Suite for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (ISSARS) under the NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) to enable science users to perform simulations based on advanced atmospheric and simple land surface models, and to rapidly integrate in a broad framework any experimental or innovative tools that they may have developed in this context. The name was changed to NEOS3 when the project was expanded to include more advanced modeling tools for the surface contributions, accounting for scattering and emission properties of layered surface (e.g., soil moisture, vegetation, snow and ice, subsurface layers). NEOS3 relies on a web-based graphic user interface, and a three-stage processing strategy to generate simulated measurements. The user has full control over a wide range of customizations both in terms of a priori assumptions and in terms of specific solvers or models used to calculate the measured signals.This presentation will demonstrate the general architecture, the configuration procedures and illustrate some sample products and the fundamental interface requirements for modules candidate for integration.
Ajhar, Edward A.; Blackwell, E.; Quesada, D.
In South Florida, science teacher preparation is often weak as a shortage of science teachers often prompts administrators to assign teachers to science classes just to cover the classroom needs. This results is poor preparation of students for college science course work, which, in turn, causes the next generation of science teachers to be even weaker than the first. This cycle must be broken in order to prepare better students in the sciences. At St. Thomas University in Miami Gardens, Florida, our School of Science has teamed with our Institute for Education to create a program to alleviate this problem: A Master of Science in Education with a Concentration in Earth/Space Science. The Master's program consists of 36 total credits. Half the curriculum consists of traditional educational foundation and instructional leadership courses while the other half is focused on Earth and Space Science content courses. The content area of 18 credits also provides a separate certificate program. Although traditional high school science education places a heavy emphasis on Earth Science, this program expands that emphasis to include the broader context of astronomy, astrophysics, astrobiology, planetary science, and the practice and philosophy of science. From this contextual basis the teacher is better prepared to educate and motivate middle and high school students in all areas of the physical sciences. Because hands-on experience is especially valuable to educators, our program uses materials and equipment including small optical telescopes (Galileoscopes), several 8-in and 14-in Celestron and Meade reflectors, and a Small Radio Telescope installed on site. (Partial funding provided by the US Department of Education through Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program grant P120A050062.)
A 5-year, $3.9-million U.S. National Science Foundation Math Science Partnership grant to Michigan Technological University (MTU), in Houghton, aims to improve instruction in middle-school Earth and space science courses. The program will enable geoscience and education researchers to work with middle-school science teachers to test strategies designed to reform science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education. Project lead researcher Bill Rose said the project could be a template for improvement in STEM throughout the United States. Rose, one of seven MTU faculty members involved with the Michigan Institute for Teaching Excellence Program (MITEP), said the project is ``trying to do something constructive to attract more talented young people to advanced science, math, and technology.'' The project includes data collection and analysis overseen by an evaluation team from the Colorado School of Mines. Also participating in the project are scientists from Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Mich.; the Grand Rapids (Mich.) Area Pre-College Engineering Program; the American Geological Institute; and the U.S. National Park Service.
Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.
In order to meet the increasing demand for Earth Science data, NASA has significantly improved the Earth Science Data Systems over the last two decades. This improvement is reviewed in this slide presentation. Many Earth Science disciplines have been able to access the data that is held in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) at the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that forms the core of the data system.
Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline
Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website (http://www.xpeditiononline.com/) where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-040)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-141)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-033)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-075] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: 13- 099] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-031] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 11-073] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-082)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-018] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science...
Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.
In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.
Brewer, S.; Sipos, G.
This presentation will provide an overview of the distributed computing services that the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) offers to the Earth Sciences community and also explain the processes whereby Earth Science users can engage with the infrastructure. One of the main overarching goals for EGI over the coming year is to diversify its user-base. EGI therefore - through the National Grid Initiatives (NGIs) that provide the bulk of resources that make up the infrastructure - offers a number of routes whereby users, either individually or as communities, can make use of its services. At one level there are two approaches to working with EGI: either users can make use of existing resources and contribute to their evolution and configuration; or alternatively they can work with EGI, and hence the NGIs, to incorporate their own resources into the infrastructure to take advantage of EGI's monitoring, networking and managing services. Adopting this approach does not imply a loss of ownership of the resources. Both of these approaches are entirely applicable to the Earth Sciences community. The former because researchers within this field have been involved with EGI (and previously EGEE) as a Heavy User Community and the latter because they have very specific needs, such as incorporating HPC services into their workflows, and these will require multi-skilled interventions to fully provide such services. In addition to the technical support services that EGI has been offering for the last year or so - the applications database, the training marketplace and the Virtual Organisation services - there now exists a dynamic short-term project framework that can be utilised to establish and operate services for Earth Science users. During this talk we will present a summary of various on-going projects that will be of interest to Earth Science users with the intention that suggestions for future projects will emerge from the subsequent discussions: • The Federated Cloud Task
Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III
Our Moon Every person on Earth is familiar with the Moon. Every resident with nominal eyesight on each continent has seen this near-by planetary body with their own eyes countless times. Those fortunate enough to have binoculars or access to a telescope have explored the craters, valleys, domes, and plains across the lunar surface as changing lighting conditions highlight the mysteries of this marvellously foreign landscape. Schoolchildren learn that the daily rhythm and flow of tides along the coastlines of our oceans are due to the interaction of the Earth and the Moon. This continuous direct and personal link is but one of the many reasons lunar science is fundamental to humanity. The Earth-Moon System In the context of space exploration, our understanding of the Earth-Moon system has grown enormously. The Moon has become the cornerstone for most aspects of planetary science that relate to the terrestrial (rocky) planets. The scientific context for exploration of the Moon is presented in a recent report by a subcommittee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council [free from the website: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11954]. Figure 1 captures the interwoven themes surrounding lunar science recognized and discussed in that report. In particular, it is now recognized that the Earth and the Moon have been intimately linked in their early history. Although they subsequently took very different evolutionary paths, the Moon provides a unique and valuable window both into processes that occurred during the first 600 Million years of solar system evolution (planetary differentiation and the heavy bombardment record) as well as the (ultimately dangerous) impact record of more recent times. This additional role of the Moon as keystone is because the Earth and the Moon share the same environment at 1 AU, but only the Moon retains a continuous record of cosmic events. An Initial Bloom of Exploration and Drought The space age celebrated its 50th
Salmun, H.; Buonaiuto, F. S.
The use of Matlab in Earth Science undergraduate courses in the Department of Geography at Hunter College began as a pilot project in Fall 2008 and has evolved and advanced to being a significant component of an Advanced Oceanography course, the selected tool for data analysis in other courses and the main focus of a graduate course for doctoral students at The city University of New York (CUNY) working on research related to geophysical, oceanic and atmospheric dynamics. The primary objectives of these efforts were to enhance the Earth Science curriculum through course specific applications, to increase undergraduate programming and data analysis skills, and to develop a Matlab users network within the Department and the broader Hunter College and CUNY community. Students have had the opportunity to learn Matlab as a stand-alone course, within an independent study group, or as a laboratory component within related STEM classes. All of these instructional efforts incorporated the use of prepackaged Matlab exercises and a research project. Initial exercises were designed to cover basic scripting and data visualization techniques. Students were provided data and a skeleton script to modify and improve upon based on the laboratory instructions. As student's programming skills increased throughout the semester more advanced scripting, data mining and data analysis were assigned. In order to illustrate the range of applications within the Earth Sciences, laboratory exercises were constructed around topics selected from the disciplines of Geology, Physics, Oceanography, Meteorology and Climatology. In addition the structure of the research component of the courses included both individual and team projects.
Van Looy, K.; Minasny, B.; Nemes, A.; Verhoef, A.; Weihermueller, L.; Vereecken, H.
We make a stronghold for a new generation of Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) that is currently developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science, offering strong perspectives for improvement of integrated process-based models, from local to global scale applications. PTFs are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we highlight how PTF development needs to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscaling techniques such that the PTFs correctly capture the spatial heterogeneity of soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration and organic carbon content, root density and vegetation water uptake. We present an outlook and stepwise approach to the development of a comprehensive set of PTFs that can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques and soil information availability provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary in three domains: 1) the determining of unknown relationships and dealing with uncertainty in Earth system modeling; 2) the step of spatially deploying this knowledge with PTF validation at regional to global scales; and 3) the integration and linking of the complex model parameterizations (coupled parameterization). Integration is an achievable goal we will show.
Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael; Koestel, John; Minasny, Budiman; Mishra, Umakant; Montzka, Carsten; Nemes, Attila; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Padarian, José; Schaap, Marcel G.; Tóth, Brigitta; Verhoef, Anne; Vanderborght, Jan; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Weihermüller, Lutz; Zacharias, Steffen; Zhang, Yonggen; Vereecken, Harry
Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. In this paper, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscaling techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.
Tretter, Thomas R.; Brown, Sherri L.; Bush, William S.; Saderholm, Jon C.; Holmes, Vicki-Lynn
Science teachers' content knowledge is an important influence on student learning, highlighting an ongoing need for programs, and assessments of those programs, designed to support teacher learning of science. Valid and reliable assessments of teacher science knowledge are needed for direct measurement of this crucial variable. This paper…
Forehand, Lon; Griner, Charlotte (Editor); Greenstone, Renny (Editor)
NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the interaction of the Earth's systems, Earth System Science. The Earth Science Enterprise, NASA's comprehensive program for Earth System Science, uses satellites and other tools to intensively study the Earth. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of Earth-observing satellites, (2) an advanced data system and (3) teams of scientist who study the data. Key areas of study include: (1) clouds, (2) water and energy cycles, (3) oceans, (4) chemistry of the atmosphere, (5) land surface, water and ecosystems processes; (6) glaciers and polar ice sheets, and (7) the solid earth.
The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed to consider directions for the NASA Earth-sciences program, with the following charge: review the science of the Earth as a system of interacting components; recommend an implementation strategy for Earth studies; and define the role of NASA in such a program. The challenge to the Earth system science is to develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, both naturally and in response to human activity. Sustained, long-term measurements of global variables; fundamental descriptions of the Earth and its history; research foci and process studies; development of Earth system models; an information system for Earth system science; coordination of Federal agencies; and international cooperation are examined.
Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia
This chapter describes how we used regression rules to improve upon results previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.
Meyer, E. E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Dade, W. B.; Sonder, L. J.; Renshaw, C. E.; Kelly, M. A.; Hawley, R. L.; Chipman, J. W.; Mikucki, J.; Posmentier, E. S.; Moore, J. R.
For the last 50 years the Department of Earth Sciences at Dartmouth College has offered a term-long, undergraduate field program, informally called "the Stretch". A student typically enrolls during fall quarter of his or her junior year soon after choosing a major or minor. The program thus provides valuable field context for courses that a student will take during the remainder of his or her undergraduate career. Unlike many traditional field camps that focus on one particular region, the Stretch is a mobile program that currently travels through Western North America, from the Canadian Rockies to the Grand Canyon. The program spans two and a half months, during which time undergraduates, graduate TAs, and faculty live, work, and learn collaboratively. Dartmouth College faculty members sequentially teach individual 1- to 2-week segments that focus on their interests and expertise; currently, there are a total of eight segments led by eleven faculty members. Consequently, topics are diverse and include economic geology, geobiology, geomorphology, glaciology, glacial geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, paleontology, stratigraphy, structure and tectonics, and volcanology. The field localities are equally varied, including the alpine glaciers of western Alberta, the national parks of Montana, Wyoming and Utah, the eastern Sierra Nevada, the southern Great Basin, and highlight such classic geological field locales as Sheep Mountain in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin, Death Valley, and the Grand Canyon. Overall, the program aims to: 1) give students a broad perspective on the timing and nature of the processes that resulted in the landscape and underlying geology of western North America; and 2) introduce students to a wide variety of geological environments, field techniques, and research equipment. Students emerge from the program with wide-ranging exposure to active research questions as well as a working knowledge of core field skills in the earth sciences. Stretch students
Maiden, M. E.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Mitchell, A. E.; Berrick, S. W.; Walter, J.; Murphy, K. J.
The summary description of the Fall 2013 AGU session on 'Data Curation, Credibility, Preservation Implementation, and Data Rescue to Enable Multi-Source Science' identifies four attributes needed to ensure credibility in Earth science data records. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Program has been working on all four of these attributes: transparency, completeness, permanence, and ease of access and use, by focusing on them and upon improving our practices of them, over many years. As far as transparency or openness, NASA was in the forefront of free and open sharing of data and associated information for Earth observations. The US data policy requires such openness, but allows for the recoup of the marginal cost of distribution of government data and information - but making the data available with no such charge greatly increases their usage in scientific studies and the resultant analyses hasten our collective understanding of the Earth system. NASA's currently available Earth observations comprise primarily those obtained from satellite-borne instruments, suborbital campaigns, and field investigations. These data are complex and must be accompanied by rich metadata and documentation to be understandable. To enable completeness, NASA utilizes standards for data format, metadata content, and required documentation for any data that are ingested into our distributed Earth Observing System Data and Information System, or EOSDIS. NASA is moving to a new metadata paradigm, primarily to enable a fuller description of data quality and fit-for-purpose attributes. This paradigm offers structured approaches for storing quality measures in metadata that include elements such as Positional Accuracy, Lineage and Cloud Cover. NASA exercises validation processes for the Earth Science Data Systems Program to ensure users of EOSDIS have a predictable level of confidence in data as well as assessing the data viability for usage and application. The Earth Science Data Systems
Mote, A. S.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.
Humans are modifying planet Earth at an alarming rate without fully understanding how our actions will affect the atmosphere, hydrosphere, or biosphere. Recognizing the value of educating people to become citizens who can make informed decisions about Earth's resources and challenges, Texas currently offers Earth and Space Science as a rigorous high school capstone course. The new course has created a need for high quality instructional resources and professional development to equip teachers with the most up to date content knowledge, pedagogical approaches, and technological skills to be able to teach a rigorous Earth and Space Science course. As a participant in the NSF-sponsored Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution teacher professional development program, I was selected to participate in a curriculum development project led by TERC to create Earth System Science and climate change resources for the EarthLabs collection. To this end, I am involved in multiple phases of the EarthLabs project, including reviewing the lab-based units during the development phase, pilot teaching the units with my students, participating in research, and ultimately delivering professional development to other teachers to turn them on to the new modules. My partnership with the EarthLabs project has strengthened my teaching practice by increasing my involvement with curriculum development and collaboration and interaction with other Earth science educators. Critically evaluating the lab modules prior to delivering the lessons to my students has prepared me to more effectively teach the EarthLabs modules in my classroom and present the material to other teachers during professional development workshops. The workshop was also strengthened by planning meetings held with EarthLabs partner teachers in which we engaged in lively discussions regarding misconceptions in Earth science, held by both students and adults, and pedagogical approaches to uncover these misconceptions
Beaulieu, Stace E.; Emery, Emery; Brickley, Annette; Spargo, Abbey; Patterson, Kathleen; Joyce, Katherine; Silva, Tim; Madin, Katherine
Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in informal and formal education to display global datasets and show connections among Earth systems. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question by developing new content for digital globes with the intent to educate and…
Lee, S. P.; Prakash, A.; Reider, D.; Baker, D.
Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century (ESSE 21) has created a public access on-line evaluation resource available at http://esse21.usra.edu/evaltoolkit in collaboration with the ESSE 21 institutions, PIs, and evaluators. The purpose of the ESSE toolkit is to offer examples of how evaluation and assessment are/have been used in Earth System Science courses and programs. Our goal is to help instructors recognize different types of assessment and evaluation tools and uses that have proved useful in these courses and provide models for designing assessments in new courses. We have included actual examples of evaluations used by ESSE institution faculty in their own courses. This is not a comprehensive toolkit on educational evaluation and assessment, but it does provide several examples of evaluations that have been used successfully in Earth System Science courses and links to many good web resources on course evaluation. We have provided examples of assessments that are designed to collect information from students before, during and after courses. Some, presented in different formats, are designed to assess what students learn, others are designed to provide course instructors with information they can use to revise their courses. These assessments range from content tests to portfolios, from feedback forms to interviews, and from concept maps to attitude surveys.
Mace, Thomas H.
This slide presentation reviews the Airborne Science Program and the platforms used for conducting investigations for the Earth System Science. Included is a chart that shows some of the aircraft and the operational altitude and the endurance of the aircraft, views of the Dryden Aircraft Operation Facility, and some of the current aircraft that the facility operates, and the varieties of missions that are flown and the type of instrumentation. Also included is a chart showing the attributes of the various aircraft (i.e., duration, weight for a payload, maximum altitude, airspeed and range) for comparison
Jodha, Siri; Khalsa, S.; Ramachandran, Rahul
The volume and complexity of Earth science data have steadily increased, placing ever-greater demands on researchers, software developers and data managers tasked with handling such data. Additional demands arise from requirements being levied by funding agencies and governments to better manage, preserve and provide open access to data. Fortunately, over the past 10-15 years significant advances in information technology, such as increased processing power, advanced programming languages, more sophisticated and practical standards, and near-ubiquitous internet access have made the jobs of those acquiring, processing, distributing and archiving data easier. These advances have also led to an increasing number of individuals entering the field of informatics as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also encompasses the use of computers and computational methods to support decisionmaking and other applications for societal benefits.
Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; Calanducci, Antonio; Fargetta, Marco; Pappalardo, Marco; Rundo, Francesco
The EarthServer project (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program, aims at establishing open access and ad-hoc analytics on extreme-size Earth Science data, based on and extending leading-edge Array Database technology. The core idea is to use database query languages as client/server interface to achieve barrier-free "mix & match" access to multi-source, any-size, multi-dimensional space-time data -- in short: "Big Earth Data Analytics" - based on the open standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Coverage Processing Service (OGC WCPS) and the W3C XQuery. EarthServer combines both, thereby achieving a tight data/metadata integration. Further, the rasdaman Array Database System (www.rasdaman.com) is extended with further space-time coverage data types. On server side, highly effective optimizations - such as parallel and distributed query processing - ensure scalability to Exabyte volumes. In this contribution we will report on the EarthServer Science Gateway Mobile, an app for both iOS and Android-based devices that allows users to seamlessly access some of the EarthServer applications using SAML-based federated authentication and fine-grained authorisation mechanisms.
Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J.
Where did we come from? Are we alone? These age-old questions form the basis of NASA's Origins Program, a series of missions spanning the next twenty years that will use a host of space- and ground-based observatories to understand the origin and development of galaxies, stars, planets, and the conditions necessary to support life. The Space Science Institute in Boulder, CO, is developing a 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, which will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths will have four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about the wide range of conditions for life on Earth and how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Visitors will also learn about the tools scientists use, such as space-based and ground-based telescopes, to improve our understanding of the cosmos. The exhibit's size will permit it to visit medium sized museums in all regions of the country. It will begin its 3-year tour to 9 host museums and science centers in early 2005 at the Lawrence Hall of Science in Berkeley, California. The Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) will manage the exhibit's national tour. In addition to the exhibit, the project includes workshops for educators and docents at host sites, as well as a public website that will use exhibit content to delve deeper into origins research. Current partners in the Alien Earths project include ASTC, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Lawrence Hall of Science, NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA missions (Navigator, SIRTF, and Kepler), the SETI Institute, and the Space Telescope Science Institute
Rutherford, Matthew T.; Huffer, Elisabeth B.; Kusterer, John M.; Quam, Brandi M.
This paper discusses the Ontology-driven Interactive Search Environment for Earth Sciences (ODISEES) project currently being developed to aid researchers attempting to find usable data among an overabundance of closely related data. ODISEES' ontological structure relies on a modular, adaptable concept modeling approach, which allows the domain to be modeled more or less as it is without worrying about terminology or external requirements. In the model, variables are individually assigned semantic content based on the characteristics of the measurements they represent, allowing intuitive discovery and comparison of data without requiring the user to sift through large numbers of data sets and variables to find the desired information.
Bruton, Sheila, Ed.; Ong, Faye, Ed.; Geeting, Greg, Ed.
This document represents the content of science education in California and includes the essential skills and knowledge students will need to be scientifically literate citizens in the 21st century. The standards include grade-level specific content for kindergarten through grade 8. A significant feature is the focus on earth science in the 6th…
King, Michael D.
The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation we review the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.
King, Michael D.
The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation I will describe the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data to improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.
Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. Sean
This book is one in a series of Earth science books and contains a collection of 18 hands-on activities/demonstrations developed for the middle/junior high school level. The activities are organized around three key concepts. First, students investigate the unique properties of water and how these properties shape the ocean and the global…
Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff
During Earth Science Week (October 8-14, 2006), millions of citizen scientists worldwide will be sampling groundwater, monitoring weather, touring quarries, exploring caves, preparing competition projects, and visiting museums and science centers to learn about Earth science. The American Geological Institute organizes this annual event to…
Lynnes, Christopher; Ramachandran, Rahul; Kuo, Kuo-Sen
An Earth Science Collaboratory is: A rich data analysis environment with: (1) Access to a wide spectrum of Earth Science data, (3) A diverse set of science analysis services and tools, (4) A means to collaborate on data, tools and analysis, and (5)Supports sharing of data, tools, results and knowledge
This slide presentation reviews the role of the Marshal's Earth Science Office (ESO) and the relationship of the office to the NASA administration, the National Research Council and NASA's Science Directorate. The presentation also reviews the strategic goals for Earth Science, and briefly reviews the ESO's international partners that NASA is cooperating with.
Barlett, Luke; Cathro, Darcy; Mellow, Maddi; Tate, Clara
In October 2012, two students from the Australian Science and Mathematics School and two from Yankalilla Area School were selected to travel to Olavarria, Argentina in order to compete in the 6th International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO). It was an opportunity for individuals with a passion for Earth science to come together from 17 countries to…
A cross-Enterprise program is to identify and validate flight breakthrough technologies that will significantly benefit future space science and earth science missions. The breakthrough technologies are: enable new capabilities to meet earth and space science needs and reducing costs of future missions. The flight validation are: mitigates risks to first users and enables rapid technology infusion into future missions.
Cole, T.; Teed, R.; Slattery, W.
In 2003 the Ohio Department of Education developed the Ohio K-12 Science Content Standards. These new science standards substantially tracked the goals and objectives of The National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. The Ohio K-12 Science Content Standards followed the National Standards in the content areas of Physical Science, Life Science and Earth and Space Science. At the same time, the state's K-12 schools were gearing up for a new high school graduation requirement, the successful passing of a high-stakes Ohio Graduation Test, given during a student's tenth grade year. Earth and Space science questions make up approximately one third of the science test items. To make it more likely that teachers have the requisite science content knowledge Ohio has recently changed from certification of K-12 teachers to a more content rich licensure standard. This new licensure requirement splits the older certification designation of K-8 into the elementary and middle school licensure areas. Under the new licensure requirements middle school licensure candidates wishing to earn a science concentration now have to take 15 semester hours of content class work in Science. The Ohio Department of Education has strongly suggested that teacher preparation institutions develop new courses for middle school educators in all four areas of concentration, including science. In response to this call for new courses science education faculty in all science areas worked together to develop a comprehensive suite of courses that would target the science content standards guidelines in the state and national standards. The newly developed Earth and Space science course is titled Earth Systems. The course carries 4.5quarter hours of credit and is intended expressly for pre-service middle school (grades 4- 9) science teachers. The content is structured around three modules of study that are designed to develop interdisciplinary science content within the context of past
Bingham, Andrew W.; Deen, Robert G.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Stough, Timothy M.; McCleese, Sean W.; Toole, Nicholas T.
The Datacasting software, which consists of a server and a client, has been developed as part of the Earth Science (ES) Datacasting project. The goal of ES Datacasting is to provide scientists the ability to automatically and continuously download Earth science data that meets a precise, predefined need, and then to instantaneously visualize it on a local computer. This is achieved by applying the concept of podcasting to deliver science data over the Internet using RSS (Really Simple Syndication) XML feeds. By extending the RSS specification, scientists can filter a feed and only download the files that are required for a particular application (for example, only files that contain information about a particular event, such as a hurricane or flood). The extension also provides the ability for the client to understand the format of the data and visualize the information locally. The server part enables a data provider to create and serve basic Datacasting (RSS-based) feeds. The user can subscribe to any number of feeds, view the information related to each item contained within a feed (including browse pre-made images), manually download files associated with items, and place these files in a local store. The client-server architecture enables users to: a) Subscribe and interpret multiple Datacasting feeds (same look and feel as a typical mail client), b) Maintain a list of all items within each feed, c) Enable filtering on the lists based on different metadata attributes contained within the feed (list will reference only data files of interest), d) Visualize the reference data and associated metadata, e) Download files referenced within the list, and f) Automatically download files as new items become available.
Blank, Lisa M.; Almquist, Heather; Estrada, Jen; Crews, Jeff
This study investigated to what extent the implementation of a Google Earth (GE)-based earth science curriculum increased students' understanding of volcanoes, earthquakes, plate tectonics, scientific reasoning abilities, and science identity. Nine science classrooms participated in the study. In eight of the classrooms, pre- and post-assessments…
Lanzerotti, Louis, J.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.; Black, David C.; Baker, D. James; Banks, Peter M.; Bretherton, Francis; Brown, Robert A.; Burke, Kevin C.; Burns, Joseph A.; Canizares, Claude R.
Problems in the space and earth science programs are examined. Changes in the research environment and requirements for the space and earth sciences, for example from small Explorer missions to multispacecraft missions, have been observed. The need to expand the computational capabilities for space and earth sciences is discussed. The effects of fluctuations in funding, program delays, the limited number of space flights, and the development of the Space Station on research in the areas of astronomy and astrophysics, planetary exploration, solar and space physics, and earth science are analyzed. The recommendations of the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee on the development and maintenance of effective space and earth sciences programs are described.
Mutter, J. C.
Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is
Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca
The Laboratorio Divulgazione Scientifica e Attività Museali of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Laboratory for Outreach and Museum Activities) in Rome, organizes every year intense educational and outreach activities to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. Focusing on kids, we designed and implemented the "greedy laboratory for children curious on science (Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza)", to intrigue children from primary schools and to attract their interest by addressing in a fun and unusual way topics regarding the Earth, seismicity and seismic risk. We performed the "greedy laboratory" using experiential teaching, an innovative method envisaging the use and handling commonly used substances. In particular, in the "greedy laboratory" we proposed the use of everyday life's elements, such as food, to engage, entertain and convey in a simple and interesting communication approach notions concerning Earth processes. We proposed the initiative to public during the "European Researchers Night" in Rome, on September 26, 2014. Children attending the "greedy laboratory", guided by researchers and technicians, had the opportunity to become familiar with scientific concepts, such as the composition of the Earth, the Plate tectonics, the earthquake generation, the propagation of seismic waves and their shaking effects on the anthropogenic environment. During the hand-on laboratory, each child used not harmful substances such as honey, chocolate, flour, barley, boiled eggs and biscuits. At the end, we administered a questionnaire rating the proposed activities, first evaluating the level of general satisfaction of the laboratory and then the various activities in which it was divided. This survey supplied our team with feedbacks, revealing some precious hints on appreciation and margins of improvement. We provided a semi-quantitative assessment with a
Blaney, L. S.; Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T.
The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) is a National Science Foundation-supported program implemented by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) to improve the quality of geoscience instruction for pre-service, middle, and high school teachers. ESSEA increases teachers' access to quality materials, standards-based instructional methods and content knowledge. With additional support from NASA, the ESSEA program is being enhanced to reflect emphasis on the International Polar Year. From 1999-2005 the ESSEA program was based on a trio of online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers), the courses have been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 teachers in Earth system science. Program evaluation of original course participants indicated that the courses had significant impact on teachers Earth system content knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning. Seventeen of the original participating institutions have continued to use the courses and many have developed new programs that incorporate the courses in Earth science education opportunities for teachers. Today the ESSEA program lists nearly 40 colleges and universities as participants. With NASA support, the K-4 course and modules have been revised to include topics and resources focusing on the International Polar Year. Additional modules examining the changes in black carbon, ice sheets and permafrost have been added for middle and high school levels. The new modules incorporate geoscience data and analysis tools into classroom instruction. By exploring IPY related topics and data, participating teachers and their students will develop new understandings about the interactions and dependencies of the Earth spheres and our polar regions. Changes in climate, air, water, and land quality and animal and plant populations make the news everyday. The ESSEA IPY modules will help teachers inform rather than frighten their students as they learn
Ballmer, M. D.; Wiethoff, T.; Kraupe, T. W.
In the past decade, projection systems in most planetariums, traditional sites of outreach and public education, have advanced from instruments that can visualize the motion of stars as beam spots moving over spherical projection areas to systems that are able to display multicolor, high-resolution, immersive full-dome videos or images. These extraordinary capabilities are ideally suited for visualization of global processes occurring on the surface and within the interior of the Earth, a spherical body just as the full dome. So far, however, our community has largely ignored this wonderful interface for outreach and education. A few documentaries on e.g. climate change or volcanic eruptions have been brought to planetariums, but are taking little advantage of the true potential of the medium, as mostly based on standard two-dimensional videos and cartoon-style animations. Along these lines, we here propose a framework to convey recent scientific results on the origin and evolution of our PLANET to the >100,000,000 per-year worldwide audience of planetariums, making the traditionally astronomy-focussed interface a true PLANETarium. In order to do this most efficiently, we intend to directly show visualizations of scientific datasets or models, originally designed for basic research. Such visualizations in solid-Earth, as well as athmospheric and ocean sciences, are expected to be renderable to the dome with little or no effort. For example, showing global geophysical datasets (e.g., surface temperature, gravity, magnetic field), or horizontal slices of seismic-tomography images and of spherical computer simulations (e.g., climate evolution, mantle flow or ocean currents) requires almost no rendering at all. Three-dimensional Cartesian datasets or models can be rendered using standard methods. With the appropriate audio support, present-day science visualizations are typically as intuitive as cartoon-style animations, yet more appealing visually, and clearly more
Zedef, Veysel, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Russell, Michael
We examined the rare earth element content of several cryptocrystalline magnesites as well as hydromagnesite, host rock serpentinites, lake water and hot spring water from Turkey. Southwestern Turkey hosts cryptocrystalline magnesites, sedimentary magnesites with presently forming, biologically mediated hydromagnesites and travertines. Our results show the REE content of the minerals, rocks and waters are well below detection limits. One hydromagnesite sample from Lake Salda has slightly high La (2.38ppb), Ce (3.91 ppb) and Nd (1.68 ppb) when compared to other samples, but these are also still below detection limits of the method we followed.
Karsten, J. L.; Koch, L.; Ridky, R.; Wei, M.; Ladue, N.
Public literacy of fundamental ideas in Earth System Science (ESS) is immensely important, both because of its relevance to the daily lives of individual citizens and the role played by informed policy decisions related to water, energy, climate change, and hazards in securing our Nation's well-being and prosperity. The National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) argued that topics which comprise ESS also have tremendous value in providing context and meaning for the teaching of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics concepts and their applications, thereby serving the goals of the America COMPETES Act. Yet, as documented in the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, the U.S. continues to lag significantly behind other developed nations in science literacy. A major obstacle to improving public ESS literacy, specifically, and strengthening science literacy, in general, is the fact that fewer than 30% of students in U.S. high schools take any courses related to ESS. Often, these courses are taught by teachers with limited preparation in this content area. A new grass-roots movement within the geoscience research and education communities, fueled by interagency collaboration, is seeking to overcome these obstacles and steer a new course for ESS education in the Nation. The Earth System Science Literacy Initiative (ESSLI) builds on recent efforts within portions of the geosciences community to reach consensus on what defines scientific literacy within their fields. Individual literacy frameworks now exist for the ocean, atmospheric science, Earth science, and climate topic areas, and others are under development. The essential principles and fundamental concepts articulated in these frameworks provide consistent core messages that can be delivered and reinforced not only through formal education channels, but also through informal education activities and the media, thereby avoiding the inherent obstacles of the formal education setting
Schmid, Brian M.; Manu, Andrew; Norton, Amy E.
Three-dimensional visualization is helpful in understanding soils, and three dimensional (3-D) tools are gaining popularity in teaching earth sciences. Those tools are still somewhat underused in soil science, yet soil properties such as texture, color, and organic carbon content vary both vertically and horizontally across the landscape. These…
Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.
Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…
Fatland, D. R.; Rush, K.; van Ingen, C.; Wong, C.; Fay, J.; Xu, Y.; Fay, D.
Worldwide Telescope (WWT) -available at no cost from Microsoft Research as both Windows desktop and web browser applications - enables personal computers to function as virtual telescopes for viewing the earth, the solar system and the cosmos across many wavelengths. Bringing together imagery from ground and space-based telescopes as well as photography from Mars rovers and Apollo astronauts, WWT is designed to work as both a research tool and a platform for educational exploration. Central to the latter purpose is the Tour authoring facility which enables a student or educator to create narrative stories with dynamic perspective, voice-over narrative, background sound and superimposed content. We describe here the application of recent developments in WWT, particularly the 2009 updates, towards planetary science education with particular emphasis on WWT earth models. Two core themes informing this development are the notions of enabling social networking through WWT Communities and including the earth as part of the bigger picture, in effect swinging the telescope around from the deep sky to look back at our observatory. moon, earth (WWT solar system view)
Scientists have always struggled to find an appropriate technology that could represent three-dimensional (3-D) data, facilitate dynamic analysis, and encourage on-the-fly interactivity. In the recent past, scientific visualization has increased the scientist's ability to visualize information, but it has not provided the interactive environment necessary for rapidly changing the model or for viewing the model in ways not predetermined by the visualization specialist. Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML 2.0) is a new environment for visualizing 3-D information spaces and is accessible through the Internet with current browser technologies. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are using VRML as a scientific visualization tool to help convey complex scientific concepts to various audiences. Kevin W. Laurent, computer scientist, and Maura J. Hogan, technical information specialist, have created a collection of VRML models available through the Internet at Virtual Earth Science (virtual.er.usgs.gov).
Fischer, James (Technical Monitor); Merkey, Phillip
This grant supported the effort to characterize the problem domain of the Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project, to engage the Beowulf Cluster Computing Community as well as the High Performance Computing Research Community so that we can predict the applicability of said technologies to the scientific community represented by the CT project and formulate long term strategies to provide the computational resources necessary to attain the anticipated scientific objectives of the CT project. Specifically, the goal of the evaluation effort is to use the information gathered over the course of the Round-3 investigations to quantify the trends in scientific expectations, the algorithmic requirements and capabilities of high-performance computers to satisfy this anticipated need.
Case, Warren F.; Richon, Karen
The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation comprises NASA missions Aqua, Aura, CloudSat and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), the joint NASA/CNES mission CALIPSO and the CNES mission PARASOL. Both NASA and CNES offices are responsible for ensuring that contingency plans or other arrangements exist to cope with contingencies within their respective jurisdictions until the conclusion of all Afternoon Constellation operations. The Mission Operations Working Group, comprised of members from each of the missions, has developed the high-level procedures for maintaining the safety of this constellation. Each contingency situation requires detailed analyses before any decisions are made. This paper describes these procedures, and includes defining what constitutes a contingency situation, the pertinent parameters involved in the contingency analysis and guidelines for the actions required, based on the results of the contingency analyses.
Chen, R. F.; Pelletier, P.; Dorsen, J.; Douglas, E. M.; Pringle, M. S.; Karp, J.
Inquiry-based, hands-on, graduate content courses have been developed specifically for Boston Public School middle school teachers of Earth Science. Earth Science I: Weather and Water and Earth Science II: The Solid Earth--Earth History and Planetary Systems have been taught a total of seven times to over 120 teachers. Several key attributes to these successful courses have been identified, including co-instruction by a university professor and a high school and a middle school teacher that are familiar with the Boston curriculum, use of hands-on activities that are closed related to those used in the Boston curriculum, pre- and post-course local field trips, and identification of key learning objectives for each day. This model of professional development was developed over several years in all disciplines (Earth Science, Physics, Biology, Chemistry) by the Boston Science Partnership (BSP), an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. One of the core strategies of the BSP is these Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), graduate level, lab-based courses taught at either UMass Boston or Northeastern University during summer intensive or semester formats. Two of the eleven courses developed under the grant are Earth Science I & II. This presentation shares the model of the CCC, the impact on teacher participants, the value of these courses for the professor, and lessons learned for successful professional development. Findings about the courses’ impact and effectiveness come from our external evaluation by the Program Evaluation Research Group (PERG). The combination of content and modeling good instructional practices have many positive outcomes for teachers, including increased self-efficacy in science understanding and teaching, positive impacts on student achievement, and teacher shifts from more traditional, more lecture-based instructional models to more inquiry approaches. STEM faculty members become involved in science education and learn and practice new
Ward, K.; Voiland, A. P.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Simmon, R. B.; Allen, J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.
NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is a 13-year old online publication focusing on the communication of NASA Earth science research, including climate change, weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public"--people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and popular media. We use the EO website (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) to host a variety of content including image-driven stories (natural events and research-based), articles featuring NASA research and, more recently, blogs that give us the ability to increase interaction with our users. For much of our site's history, our communication has been largely one way, and we have relied primarily on traditional online marketing techniques such as RSS and email listservs. As the information ecosystem evolves into one in which many users expect to play a more active role in distributing and even developing content through social media, we've experimented with various social media outlets (blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.) that offer new opportunities for people to interact with NASA data, scientists, and the EO editorial team. As part of our explorations, we are learning about how, and to what extent, these outlets can be used for interaction and outright promotion and how to achieve those goals with existing personnel and resources.
Cantrell, S.; Swentek, L.; Khan, A.
In an effort to ensure that data in NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is available to a wide variety of users through the tools of their choice, NASA continues to focus on exposing data and services using standards based protocols. Specifically, this work has focused recently on the Web Coverage Service (WCS). Experience has been gained in data delivery via GetCoverage requests, starting out with WCS v1.1.1. The pros and cons of both the version itself and different implementation approaches will be shared during this session. Additionally, due to limitations with WCS v1.1.1's ability to work with NASA's Earth science data, this session will also discuss the benefit of migrating to WCS 2.0.1 with EO-x to enrich this capability to meet a wide range of anticipated user needs This will enable subsetting and various types of data transformations to be performed on a variety of EOS data sets.
For the last several years, there is a strong trend among the science community to increase the number of space-based observations to get a much higher temporal and spatial resolution. Such information will eventually be useful in higher resolution models that can provide predictability with higher precision. Such desirability puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of budget, technology readiness and compute power. The health of planet Earth is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business living on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to undertake. So far, each country per their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing or benefiting directly or indirectly from the Earth observation data and scientific products. However, time has come that this is becoming a humongous problem to be undertaken by a single country. Therefore, this paper gives some serious thoughts in what options are there in undertaking this tremendous challenge. The problem is multi-dimensional in terms of budget, technology availability, environmental legislations, public awareness, and communication limitations. Some of these issues are introduced, discussed and possible implementation strategies are provided in this paper to move out of this predicament. A strong emphasis is placed on international cooperation and collaboration to see a collective benefit for this effort.
Bland, G.; Henry, A.; Bydlowski, D.
NASA Science Objectives include capturing the global view of Earth from space. This unique perspective is often augmented by instrumented research aircraft, to provide in-situ and remote sensing observations in support of the world picture. Our "Advancing Earth Research Observations with Kites and Atmospheric /Terrestrial Sensors" (AEROKATS) project aims to bring this novel and exciting perspective into the hands of learners young and old. The practice of using instrumented kites as surrogate satellites and aircraft is gaining momentum, as our team undertakes the technical, operational, and scientific challenges in preparations to bring new and easy-to-field tools to broad audiences. The third dimension in spatial perception ("up") has previously been difficult to effectively incorporate in learning and local-scale research activities. AEROKATS brings simple to use instrumented aerial systems into the hands of students, educators, and scientists, with the tangible benefits of detailed, high resolution measurements and observations directly applicable to real-world studies of the environments around us.
Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.
resources and inquiry-based activities that libraries can use to enrich the exhibit experience (focused on weather and climate). Additional resources will be provided through partnerships with relevant professional science organizations (e.g. American Geophysical Union) that will provide speakers for host library events and webinars. Online and in-person workshops will be conducted for library staff with a focus on increasing content knowledge and improving facilitation expertise. This presentation will provide an overview of the Discover Earth project and how it will address climate change issues, engage AGU scientists, and impact rural libraries nationwide.
Over the past year, Windows to the Universe has continued a multifaceted program of support to the Earth Science Enterprise Education program. Areas of activity include continued maintenance of the W2U website and user traffic analysis, development of new and revised content and activities on the website, implementation of new tools to facilitate website development and maintenance, response to users questions and comments, professional development for educators through workshops at the National Science Teachers Association meetings and at NCAR, and dissemination of information about the project through materials distribution at NSTAs, AGUs, AMS and other venues. This report provides some background on the project and summarizes progress for the third and final year of the project.
Chegwidden, D. M.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.
As an educator in Texas, a state that values and supports an Earth Science curriculum, I find it essential to educate my students who are our future voting citizens and tax payers. It is important to equip them with tools to understand and solve the challenges of solving of climate change. As informed citizens, students can help to educate others in the community with basic knowledge of weather and climate. They can also help to dispose of the many misconceptions that surround the climate change, which is perceived as a controversial topic. As a participant in a NSF-sponsored Texas Earth and Space (TXESS) Revolution teacher professional development program, I was selected to participate in a curriculum development project led by TERC to develop and test education resources for the EarthLabs climate literacy collection. I am involved in the multiple phases of the project, including reviewing labs that comprise the Climate, Weather and Biosphere module during the development phase, pilot teaching the module with my students, participating in research, and delivering professional development to other Texas teachers to expose them to the content found in the module and to encourage them to incorporate it into their teaching. The Climate, Weather and the Biosphere module emphasizes different forms of evidence and requires that learners apply different inquiry-based approaches to build the knowledge they need to develop as climate literate citizens. My involvement with the EarthLabs project has strengthened my overall knowledge and confidence to teach about Earth's climate system and climate change. In addition, the project has produced vigorous classroom discussion among my students as well as encouraged me to collaborate with other educators through our delivery of professional development to other teachers. In my poster, I will share my experiences, describe the impact the curriculum has made on my students, and report on challenges and valuable lessons gained by
Zembal-Saul, Carla; Krajcik, Joseph; Blumenfeld, Phyllis
This purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which three prospective teachers who had early opportunities to teach science would approach representing science content within the context of their student teaching experiences. The study is framed in the literature on pedagogical content knowledge and learning to teach. A situated perspective on cognition is applied to better understand the influence of context and the role of the cooperating teacher. The three participants were enrolled in an experimental teacher preparation program designed to enhance the teaching of science at the elementary level. Qualitative case study design guided the collection, organization, and analysis of data. Multiple forms of data associated with student teachers' content representations were collected, including audiotaped planning and reflection interviews, written lesson plans and reflections, and videotaped teaching experiences. Broad analysis categories were developed and refined around the subconstructs of content representation (i.e., knowledge of instructional strategies that promote learning and knowledge of students and their requirements for meaningful science learning). Findings suggest that when prospective teachers are provided with opportunities to apply and reflect substantively on their developing considerations for supporting children's science learning, they are able to maintain a subject matter emphasis. However, in the absence of such opportunities, student teachers abandon their subject matter emphasis, even when they have had extensive background and experiences addressing subject-specific considerations for teaching and learning.
Sawyer, W.; Lucchesi, R.; daSilva, A.; Takacs, L. L.
sparse interpolation with little data locality between the physical lat-lon grid and a pole rotated computational grid- can be solved efficiently and at the GFlop/s rates needed to solve tomorrow's high resolution earth science models. In the subsequent presentation we will discuss the design and implementation of PILGRIM as well as a number of the problems it is required to solve. Some conclusions will be drawn about the potential performance of the overall earth science models on the supercomputer platforms foreseen for these problems.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a guided inquiry integrated with technology, in terms of female middle-school students' attitudes toward science/scientists and content knowledge regarding selective science concepts (e.g., Greenhouse Effect, Air/Water Quality, Alternative Energy, and Human Health). Thirty-five female students who were entering eighth grade attended an intensive, 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program which used a main theme, "Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology." We used pre- and post-attitude surveys, pre- and post-science content knowledge tests, and selective interviews to collect data and measure changes in students' attitudes and content knowledge. The study results indicated that at the post-intervention measures, participants significantly improved their attitudes toward science and science-related careers and increased their content knowledge of selected science concepts ( p < .05).
Chang, Chun-Yen; Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Yang, Fang-Ying
The educational reform movement since the 1990s has led the secondary earth science curriculum in Taiwan into a stage of reshaping. The present study investigated secondary earth science teachers' perceptions on the Goals of Earth Science Education (GESE). The GESE should express the statements of philosophy and purpose toward which educators…
Moseley, Christine; Utley, Juliana
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an earth systems science course (integrated mathematics and science content) on preservice elementary teachers' mathematics and science teaching efficacy. Paired t-tests revealed that the personal mathematics and science teaching efficacy and science teaching outcome expectancy significantly…
... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Earth Sciences Proposal Review Panel; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: Proposal Review Panel in Earth Sciences (1569). Date and Time... Kelz, Program Director, Instrumentation & Facilities Program, Division of Earth Sciences, Room 785...
Sinton, C. W.
Undergraduate programs in Environmental Science (ES) have progressively grown over the past decades. One of the many challenges of providing an effective curriculum is deciding what content and which skills are included in such a wide ranging field. Certainly geoscience needs to be included as part of the content but how is this best executed? More precisely, what should ES majors know about how the earth, oceans, and atmosphere work? One possible approach is to include existing undergraduate geology or atmospheric science courses as part of the required core, but this has potential pitfalls. For example, courses may be geared toward general education requirements or may be designed more for geology majors. A better solution is to offer a course or set of courses that are specifically tailored for ES majors. I propose that Earth System Science (ESS) is an excellent approach as it incorporates the earth as a whole system and can be taught within the context of environmental sustainability. My approach to ESS is to focus on the movement/cycles of matter (e.g., carbon, calcium, nitrogen) and energy. By referring back to this focus throughout the semester, students are provided with a structure to begin to make sense of a complex problem. In support of this, lab exercises provide practice in collecting and analyzing data using a variety resources.
Wessen, A. S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.
The connections between science and literacy in the classroom have received increasing attention over the last two decades, as more and more evidence demonstrates that science provides an exciting vehicle in which to engage students on the path to literacy improvement. Combining literacy with science allows students to creatively explore the world or universe, and it. Combining science and literacy improves both reading and science scores, and increases students’ interest in science. At a time when over 40% of students beyond the 5th grade are reading two or more levels below grade level and are struggling with their current materials, finding ways to excite and engage them in the reading process is key. Literacy programs incorporating unique space science content can help prepare children for standardized language arts tests. It also engages our nation’s youngest learners and their teachers with the science, math, and technology of exploration in a language arts format. This session focuses on programs and products that bring the excitement of earth and space science into the literacy classroom, with a focus on research-based approached to combining science and language arts. Reading, Writing and Rings! Grades 1-2
Botti, J. A.; Myers, R. J.
Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade thanks in large part to the technology of the Internet, opening up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators worldwide to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) is one positive offshoot of this reform effort. This developing partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational TechnologiesTM at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA semester-long courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school educators. After three weeks of introductory content, teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events-volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, rainforest destruction-on Earth's lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere, using "jigsaw" to study the interactions between events, spheres, and positive and negative feedback loops. The high school course uses problem-based learning to examine critical areas of global change, such as coral reef degradation, ozone depletion, and climate change. This ESSEA presentation provides examples of learning environments from each of the three courses.
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
This journal is intended for classroom teachers and provides a collection of essays and instructional materials organized around the theme of mathematics and science content knowledge. Articles include: (1) "Watching Ourselves Learn" (Annette Thorson); (2) "Search Smarter!" (Kimberly S. Roempler); (3) "Teacher Education Materials Project" (Joan…
Guillory, Anthony R.
The NASA Earth Science Enterprise sponsored the UAV Science Demonstration Project, which funded two projects: the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) and the UAV Coffee Harvest Optimization experiment. These projects were intended to begin a process of integrating UAVs into the mainstream of NASA s airborne Earth Science Research and Applications programs. The Earth Science Enterprise is moving forward given the positive science results of these demonstration projects to incorporate more platforms with additional scientific utility into the program and to look toward a horizon where the current piloted aircraft may not be able to carry out the science objectives of a mission. Longer duration, extended range, slower aircraft speed, etc. all have scientific advantages in many of the disciplines within Earth Science. The challenge we now face are identifying those capabilities that exist and exploiting them while identifying the gaps. This challenge has two facets: the engineering aspects of redesigning or modifying sensors and a paradigm shift by the scientists.
Guillory, A.; Denkins, T.; Allen, B. Danette; Braun, Scott A.; Crawford, James H.; Jensen, Eric J.; Miller, Charles E.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Maring, Hal
In 2010, NASA announced the first Earth Venture (EV-1) selections in response to a recommendation made by the National Research Council for low-cost investigations fostering innovation in Earth science. The five EV-1 investigations span the Earth science focus areas of atmosphere, weather, climate, water and energy and, carbon and represent earth science researchers from NASA as well as other government agencies, academia and industry from around the world. The EV-1 missions are: 1) Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), 2) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), 3) Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), 4) Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ), and 5) Hurricane And Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The Earth Venture missions are managed out of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (Allen, et. al. 2010b)
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is recognized as a world leader in the application of remote sensing and modeling aimed at improving knowledge of the Earth system. The Goddard Earth Sciences Directorate plays a central role in NASA's Earth Observing System and the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology (GEST) is organized as a cooperative agreement with the GSFC to promote excellence in the Earth sciences, and is a consortium of universities and corporations (University of Maryland Baltimore County, Howard University, Hampton University, Caelum Research Corporation and Northrop Grumman Corporation). The aim of this new program is to attract and introduce promising students in their first or second year of graduate studies to Oceanography and Earth system science career options through hands-on instrumentation research experiences on coastal processes at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on the Eastern Shore of Virginia.
D'Alli, Richard, Ed.; Greely, Ronald, Ed.
The activities in this guide deal with concepts in planetary geology, but they can be generalized to illustrate broad problems in the earth sciences. They are designed to supplement or introduce topics usually encountered in earth science courses. The exercises, organized into independent units which can be presented in any order, are appropriate…
Pierce, James P.
Information is provided explaining the incorporation of global issues units into an introductory earth science course at Skagit Valley Community College (Mount Vernon, Washington). First, a short description is provided of the original format of the earth science course, which was designed as an introductory level survey course covering topics in…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.
This is a curriculum guide composed of lessons which can serve as models for the beginning teacher as well as for the teacher who needs activities to broaden the earth science perspective in the classroom. It was designed to supplement the New york State Earth Science Syllabus and encourages students to develop inquiry and problem solving skills.…
Wysession, Michael E.; LaDue, Nicole; Budd, David A.; Campbell, Karen; Conklin, Martha; Kappel, Ellen; Lewis, Gary; Raynolds, Robert; Ridky, Robert W.; Ross, Robert M.; Taber, John; Tewksbury, Barbara; Tuddenham, Peter
The 21st century will be defined by challenges such as understanding and preparing for climate change and ensuring the availability of resources such as water and energy, which are issues deeply rooted in Earth science. Understanding Earth science concepts is critical for humanity to successfully respond to these challenges and thrive in the…
Claudy, Nicholas; Henly, Megan; Migdalski, Chet
This study documents the employment patterns and demographic characteristics of recent PhDs in earth and space science. It summarizes the latest annual survey of recent earth and space science PhDs conducted by the American Geological Institute, the American Geophysical Union, and the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of…
Messina, P.; Speranza, P.; Metzger, E.P.; Stoffer, P.
The geosciences have traditionally been viewed with less "aCademic prTstige" than other science curricula. Among the results of this perception are depressed K-16 enrollments, Earth Science assignments to lower-performing students, and relegation of these classes to sometimes under-qualified educators, all of which serve to confirm the widely-held misconceptions. An Earth Systems course developed at San Jos??e State University demonstrates the difficulty of a standard high school Earth science curriculum, while recognizing the deficiencies in pre-college Earth science education. Restructuring pre-college science curricula so that Earth Science is placed as a capstone course would greatly improve student understanding of the geosciences, while development of Earth systems courses that infuse real-world and hands-on learning at the college level is critical to bridging the information gap for those with no prior exposure to the Earth sciences. Well-crafted workshops for pre-service and inservice teachers of Earth Science can heIp to reverse the trends and unfortunate "sTatus" in geoscience education.
Bolles, William H.; And Others
Designed for use in Pennsylvania secondary school science classes, this guide is intended to provide fundamental information in each of the various disciplines of the earth sciences. Some of the material contained in the guide is intended as background material for teachers. Five units are presented: The Earth, The Oceans, The Space Environment,…
A study of schools was conducted to determine needs of earth science programs, and what, if any, services could effectively be provided by an earth science resource center. Contacts were made with approximately one-half the schools in the Minot State College service region. Discussions were held with administrators and teachers, and facilities at…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
The Maryland Pilot Earth Science and Technology Education Network (MAPS-NET) project was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to enrich teacher preparation and classroom learning in the area of Earth system science. This publication includes a teacher's guide that replicates material taught during a graduate-level…
Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather
For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…
Hinke, Thomas H.
This paper describes how grids and grid service technologies can be used to develop an infrastructure for the Earth Science community. This cyberinfrastructure would be populated with a hierarchy of services, including discipline specific services such those needed by the Earth Science community as well as a set of core services that are needed by most applications. This core would include data-oriented services used for accessing and moving data as well as computer-oriented services used to broker access to resources and control the execution of tasks on the grid. The availability of such an Earth Science cyberinfrastructure would ease the development of Earth Science applications. With such a cyberinfrastructure, application work flows could be created to extract data from one or more of the Earth Science archives and then process it by passing it through various persistent services that are part of the persistent cyberinfrastructure, such as services to perform subsetting, reformatting, data mining and map projections.
de Silva, S. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Wright, D. J.; de Silva, L.; Guerrero, E. F.
The IDES (Increasing Diversity in Earth Sciences) Program is the first partnership of its kind in the state of Oregon targeted at broadening participation in the Earth Science enterprise. Funded by the National Science Foundation Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences program (NSF-OEDG), this partnership involves community colleges, a research university with major strengths in Earth Science research and education and an institutionalized commitment to enhancing diversity, state and federal agencies, centers of informal education, and the Oregon Space Grant Consortium, IDES has two integrated goals: 1) to increase the number of students from under-represented groups who pursue careers in Earth Science research and education, and 2) to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population. Built around the best practices of tiered mentoring, interactive student cohort, research and education internships, and financial support, this 4-year program recruits 10 to 12 students (mainly rising juniors) each year from science majors at Oregon State University and five Oregon community colleges. The program is reaching its goals by: a) training participants in the application of geospatial to Earth Science problems of personal relevance b) immersing participants in a two-year mentored research project that involves summer internships with academic units, state and federal agencies, and centers for informal education in Oregon. c) exposing, educating, and involving participants in the breadth of Earth Science careers through contact with Earth Science professionals through mentors, a professional internship, and a learning community that includes a speaker series. d) instilling an understanding of context and relevance of the Earth Science Enterprise to the participants, their families, their communities, and the general public. We report on the first two years of this program during
Adams, P. E.
Earth system science is an often neglected subject in the US science curriculum. The state of Kansas State Department of Education, for example, has provided teachers with a curriculum guide for incorporating earth system science as an ancillary topic within the subjects of physics, chemistry, and the biological sciences. While this does provide a means to have earth system science within the curriculum, it relegates earth system science topics to a secondary status. In practice, earth system science topics are considered optional or only taught if there is time within an already an overly crowded curriculum. Given the importance of developing an educated citizenry that is capable of understanding, coping, and deciding how to live in a world where climate change is a reality requires a deeper understanding of earth system science. The de-emphasis of earth system science in favor of other science disciplines makes it imperative to seek opportunities to provide teachers, whose primary subject is not earth system science, with professional development opportunities to develop content knowledge understanding of earth system science, and pedagogical content knowledge (i.e. effective strategies for teaching earth system science). This is a noble goal, but there is no single method. At Fort Hays State University we have developed multiple strategies from face-to-face workshops, on-line coursework, and academic year virtual and face-to-face consultations with in-service and pre-service teachers. A review of the techniques and measures of effectiveness (based on teacher and student performance), and strengths and limitations of each method will be presented as an aid to other institutions and programs seeking to improve the teaching and learning of earth system science in their region.
Nadeau, Patricia A.; Flores, Kennet E.; Ustunisik, Gokce; Zirakparvar, Nasser A.; Grcevich, Jana; Pagnotta, Ashley; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Kinzler, Rosamond J.; Macdonald, Maritza; Mathez, Edmond; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark
During the 2009-2010 school year, 40% of New York City (NYC) Earth science teachers were not certified to teach Earth science [New York State Education Department (NYSED), 2011]. This highlights a longstanding shortage of certified teachers, which persists today and prevents many schools from offering courses on the subject, thus diminishing student opportunities to study or embark on careers in Earth science. More generally, the paucity of qualified, effective science teachers hinders student achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), and research has consistently shown that improving the quality of teaching substantially increases achievement in STEM-related fields [National Science Board, 2007]. With only 36% of NYC 8th graders scoring at or above the basic level of proficiency in science and with even lower scores for African-American and Hispanic students [Livingston and Wirt, 2005], the need for more qualified science teachers is clear.
Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milton
Tremendous volumes of data have been captured, archived and analyzed. Sensors, algorithms and processing systems for transforming and analyzing the data are evolving over time. Web Portals and Services can create transient data sets on-demand. Data are transferred from organization to organization with additional transformations at every stage. Provenance in this context refers to the source of data and a record of the process that led to its current state. It encompasses the documentation of a variety of artifacts related to particular data. Provenance is important for understanding and using scientific datasets, and critical for independent confirmation of scientific results. Managing provenance throughout scientific data processing has gained interest lately and there are a variety of approaches. Large scale scientific datasets consisting of thousands to millions of individual data files and processes offer particular challenges. This paper uses the analogy of art history provenance to explore some of the concerns of applying provenance tracking to earth science data. It also illustrates some of the provenance issues with examples drawn from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) run at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center by the first author.
Johnson, D. R.; Ruzek, M.; Schweizer, D.
The NASA/USRA Cooperative University-based Program in Earth System Science Education (ESSE), initiated over a decade ago through NASA support, has led in the creation of a nationwide collaborative effort to bring Earth system science into the undergraduate classroom. Forty-five ESSE institutions now offer over 120 Earth system courses each year, reaching thousands of students annually with interdisciplinary content. Through the course offerings by faculty from different disciplines and the organizational infrastructure of colleges and universities emphasizing cross disciplinary curricula, programs, degrees and departments, the ESSE Program has led in systemic change in the offering of a holistic view of Earth system science in the classroom. Building on this successful experience and collaborative infrastructure within and among colleges, universities and NASA partners, an expanded program called ESSE 21 is being supported by NASA to extend the legacy established during the last decade. Through its expanded focus including partnerships with under represented colleges and universities, the Program seeks to further develop broadly based educational resources, including shared courses, electronic learning materials and degree programs that will extend Earth system science concepts in both undergraduate and graduate classrooms and laboratories. These resources emphasizing fundamentals of Earth system science advance the nation's broader agenda for improving science, technology, engineering and mathematics competency. Overall the thrust within the classrooms of colleges and universities is critical to extending and solidifying courses of study in Earth system and global change science. ESSE 21 solicits proposals from undergraduate institutions to create or adopt undergraduate and graduate level Earth system science content in courses, curricula and degree programs. The goal for all is to effect systemic change through developing Earth system science learning materials
Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.
The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched five years ago with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects and launched in the European Union, Russia, United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with international participation) and with a 15M annual budget, this highly diverse initiative is in full swing. Since the first NEESPI focus issue (Pavel Groisman et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045008 (1pp)) in December 2007, several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at International Meetings have been held that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic, non- boreal Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern Siberia, and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. In May 2009, an overview NEESPI paper was published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (Pavel Groisman et al 2009 Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 90 671). This paper also formulated a requirement to the next generation of NEESPI studies to work towards attaining a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, across disciplines. Three books devoted to studies in different regions of Northern Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team have appeared and/or are scheduled to appear in 2009. This (second) ERL focus issue dedicated to climatic and environmental studies in Northern Eurasia is composed mostly from the papers that were presented at two NEESPI Open Science Sessions at the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 2008, San Francisco, CA) and at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (April 2009, Vienna, Austria), as well as at the specialty NEESPI Workshops convened in Jena, Helsinki, Odessa, Urumqi
Shie, Chung-Lin; Kempler, Steve
The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https:earthdata.nasa.govaboutsystem-- performance). In addition, other US agency, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists provide a plethora of additional sources for studying Earth. Co--analyzing huge amounts of heterogeneous data to glean out unobvious information is a daunting task. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. It can include Data Preparation, Data Reduction, and Data Analysis. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, a collection of Earth science data analytics use cases have been collected and analyzed for the purpose of extracting the types of Earth science data analytics employed, and requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented, based on use case needs. ESIP generated use case template, ESDA use cases, use case types, and preliminary use case analysis (this is a work in progress) will be presented.
Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen
This teaching guide on earth sciences for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…
Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen
This teaching guide on earth sciences for 3-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…
Courtier, A. M.; Pyle, E. J.; Fichter, L.; Lucas, S.; Jackson, A.
The Mathematics and Earth Science Teachers' Resource Organization (MAESTRO) partnership between James Madison University and Harrisonburg City and Page County Public Schools, funded through NSF-GEO. The partnership aims to transform mathematics and Earth science instruction in middle and high schools by developing an integrated mathematics and Earth systems science approach to instruction. This curricular integration is intended to enhance the mathematical skills and confidence of students through concrete, Earth systems-based examples, while increasing the relevance and rigor of Earth science instruction via quantification and mathematical modeling of Earth system phenomena. MAESTRO draws heavily from the Earth Science Literacy Initiative (2009) and is informed by criterion-level standardized test performance data in both mathematics and Earth science. The project has involved two summer professional development workshops, academic year Lesson Study (structured teacher observation and reflection), and will incorporate site-based case studies with direct student involvement. Participating teachers include Grade 6 Science and Mathematics teachers, and Grade 9 Earth Science and Algebra teachers. It is anticipated that the proposed integration across grade bands will first strengthen students' interests in mathematics and science (a problem in middle school) and subsequently reinforce the relevance of mathematics and other sciences (a problem in high school), both in support of Earth systems literacy. MAESTRO's approach to the integration of math and science focuses on using box models to emphasize the interconnections among the geo-, atmo-, bio-, and hydrospheres, and demonstrates the positive and negative feedback processes that connect their mutual evolution. Within this framework we explore specific relationships that can be described both qualitatively and mathematically, using mathematical operations appropriate for each grade level. Site-based case studies
Veal, William R.; Chandler, Anna T.
Teaching the rock cycle can overwhelm even the most enthusiastic rock hound. As middle school science teachers, we constantly struggle with an appropriate balance between Earth system content and experiential activities. The authors have found that stations can be successfully employed to teach rock cycle content while reinforcing development of…
Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.
"Earth Science for Educators" is an innovative, standards-based, graduate level teacher education curriculum that presents science content and pedagogic technique in parallel. The curriculum calls upon the resources and expertise of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) to prepare novice New York City teachers for teaching Earth Science. One of the goals of teacher education is to assure and facilitate science education reform through preparation of K-12 teachers who understand and are able to implement standard-based instruction. Standards reflect not only the content knowledge students are expected to attain but also the science skills and dispositions towards science they are expected to develop. Melding a list of standards with a curriculum outline to create inquiry-based classroom instruction that reaches a very diverse population of learners is extremely challenging. "Earth Science for Educators" helps novice teachers make the link between standards and practice by constantly connecting standards with instruction they receive and activities they carry out. Development of critical thinking and enthusiasm for inquiry is encouraged through engaging experience and contact with scientists and their work. Teachers are taught Earth systems science content through modeling of a wide variety of instruction and assessment methods based upon authentic scientific inquiry and aimed at different learning styles. Use of fieldwork and informal settings, such as the Museum, familiarizes novice teachers with ways of drawing on community resources for content and instructional settings. Metacognitive reflection that articulates standards, practice, and the teachers' own learning experience help draw out teachers' insights into their students' learning. The innovation of bring science content together with teaching methods is key to preparing teachers for standards-based, inquiry instruction. This curriculum was successfully piloted with a group of 28 novice teachers as
The development of consistent, high quality time series of biogeochemical products from a single ocean color sensor is a difficult task that involves many aspects related to pre- and post-launch instrument calibration and characterization, stability monitoring and the removal of the contribution of the atmosphere which represents most of the signal measured at the sensor. It is even more challenging to build Climate Data Records (CDRs) or Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) from multiple sensors as design, technology and methodologies (bands, spectral/spatial resolution, Cal/Val, algorithms) differ from sensor to sensor. NASA MEaSUREs, ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) and IOCCG Virtual Constellation are some of the underway efforts that investigate or produce ocean color CDRs or ESDRs from the recent and current global missions (SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS). These studies look at key aspects of the development of unified data records from multiple sensors, e.g. the concatenation of the "best" individual records vs. the merging of multiple records or band homogenization vs. spectral diversity. The pros and cons of the different approaches are closely dependent upon the overall science purpose of the data record and its temporal resolution. While monthly data are generally adequate for biogeochemical modeling or to assess decadal trends, higher temporal resolution data records are required to look into changes in phenology or the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms. Similarly, short temporal resolution (daily to weekly) time series may benefit more from being built through the merging of data from multiple sensors while a simple concatenation of data from individual sensors might be better suited for longer temporal resolution (e.g. monthly time series). Several Ocean Color ESDRs were developed as part of the NASA MEaSUREs project. Some of these time series are built by merging the reflectance data from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and Envisat-MERIS in a semi-analytical ocean color
Describes the history of the science of geology. The author expounds upon the discovery of deep time and plate tectonics, explaining how the theory of deep time influenced the development of Darwin and Wallace's theory of evolution. Describes how the history of earth science helps students understand the nature of science. (PR)
Wardell, L. J.; Douglas, J.
Development of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has progressed dramatically in recent years along with miniaturization of sensor technology. This confluence of development paths has resulted in greater capability in smaller, less expensive platforms allowing research to be performed where manned airborne platforms are impractical or dangerous. Recent applications include small UAS for studies involving hurricanes, volcanic activity, sea ice changes, glacier melt, biological monitoring of land and sea species, wildfire monitoring, and others. However, the majority of UAS employed in these investigations were originally developed for non-civilian applications and many of the required interfaces are locked behind proprietary specifications, requiring expensive customization by the manufacturer to transform a military UAS into one suitable for civilian work. A small UAS for scientific research should be standards-based, low-cost, user friendly, field serviceable, and be designed to accept a range of payloads. The AV8R UAS is one example of an unmanned system that has been developed for specific application to earth observation missions. This system is designed to be operated by the user with difficult environmental conditions and field logistics in mind. Numerous features and innovations that advance this technology as a research tool as well as its planned science missions will be presented. Most importantly, all interfaces to the system required for successful design and integration of various payloads will be openly available. The environment of open, standards based development allow the small technologies companies that serve as the backbone for much of the technology development to participate in the rapid development of industry capabilities. This is particularly true with UAS technologies. Programs within the USA such as the STTR foster collaborations with small businesses and university researchers. Other innovations related to autonomous unmanned systems
Schiffries, Craig M.
The Board will provide oversight of the earth science and resource activities within the National Research Council, provide a review of research and public activities in the solid-earth sciences, and provide analyses and recommendations relevant to the supply, delivery, and associated impacts of and issues related to hydrocarbon, metallic, and non-metallic mineral resources. The Board will monitor the status of the earth sciences, assess the health of the disciplines, and identify research opportunities, and will respond to specific agency requests.
Cox, S. J. D.; Yu, J.
Shared vocabularies are an important aid to geoscience data interoperability. Many organizations maintain useful vocabularies, with Geologic Surveys having a particularly long history of vocabulary and lexicon development. However, the mode of publication is heterogeneous, ranging from PDFs and HTML web pages, spreadsheets and CSV, through various user-interfaces and APIs. Update and maintenance ranges from tightly-governed and externally opaque, through various community processes, all the way to crowd-sourcing ('folksonomies'). A general expectation, however, is for greater harmonization and vocabulary re-use. In order to be successful this requires (a) standardized content formalization and APIs (b) transparent content maintenance and versioning. We have been trialling a combination of software dealing with registration, search and linking. SKOS is designed for formalizing multi-lingual, hierarchical vocabularies, and has been widely adopted in earth and environmental sciences. SKOS is an RDF vocabulary, for which SPARQL is the standard low-level API. However, for interoperability between SKOS vocabulary sources, a SKOS-based API (i.e. based on the SKOS predicates prefLabel, broader, narrower, etc) is required. We have developed SISSvoc for this purpose, and used it to deploy a number of vocabularies on behalf of the IUGS, ICS, NERC, OGC, the Australian Government, and CSIRO projects. SISSvoc Search provides simple search UI on top of one or more SISSvoc sources. Content maintenance is composed of many elements, including content-formalization, definition-update, and mappings to related vocabularies. Typically there is a degree of expert judgement required. In order to provide confidence in users, two requirements are paramount: (i) once published, a URI that denotes a vocabulary item must remain dereferenceable; (ii) the history and status of the content denoted by a URI must be available. These requirements match the standard 'registration' paradigm which is
Reporting results and promoting ideas in science in general, and Earth science in particular, is treated here as storytelling. Just as in literature and drama, storytelling in Earth science is characterized by a small number of basic plots. Though the list is not exhaustive, and acknowledging that multiple or hybrid plots and subplots are possible in a single piece, eight standard plots are identified, and examples provided: cause-and-effect, genesis, emergence, destruction, metamorphosis, convergence, divergence, and oscillation. The plots of Earth science stories are not those of literary traditions, nor those of persuasion or moral philosophy, and deserve separate consideration. Earth science plots do not conform those of storytelling more generally, implying that Earth scientists may have fundamentally different motivations than other storytellers, and that the basic plots of Earth Science derive from the characteristics and behaviors of Earth systems. In some cases preference or affinity to different plots results in fundamentally different interpretations and conclusions of the same evidence. In other situations exploration of additional plots could help resolve scientific controversies. Thus explicit acknowledgement of plots can yield direct scientific benefits. Consideration of plots and storytelling devices may also assist in the interpretation of published work, and can help scientists improve their own storytelling.
The presentation describes the recently awarded ACCESS project to provide data management of NASA remote sensing data for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). The project targets integration of remote sensing data from MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US-satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEP/NCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.
Gaines, S. M.
The role of networking in student and early career years is critical in the development of international interdisciplinary earth system science. These networks - both peer and mentor-based - can build community, foster enthusiasm and further research applications in addition to the traditional goal of identifying and obtaining work. UNESCO has nearly 40 years of experience in building international research teams through the International Geoscience Program (IGCP) and has recently focused their attention on the status of the earth sciences in Africa. UNESCO’s Earth Science Education Initiative in Africa ran a series of regional scoping workshops around the continent in order to develop an integrated status report on the earth sciences in Africa. The results, which are globally relevant, indicate that the field is limited by the level of basic science education of incoming students and restricted laboratory facilities, but also by a lack of connectedness. This isolation relates both to the interaction between researchers within countries and around the world but also the divide between Universities and Industry and the failure of the field to communicate its relevance to the public. In a context where livelihood opportunities are the driver of study and the earth sciences provide a major source of income, practical academic ties to industry are an essential element of the attractiveness of the field to students. Actions and ideas for addressing this situation will be presented to reinforce the role of the earth sciences in improving human and environmental well-being.
The Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR) coordinates, the National Research Council`s advice to the federal government on solid-earth science issues. The board identifies opportunities for advancing basic research and understanding, reports on applications of earth sciences in such areas as disaster mitigation and resource utilization, and analyzes the scientific underpinnings and credibility of earth science information for resource, environmental and other applications and policy decision. Committees operating under the guidance of the Board conducts studies addressing specific issues within the earth sciences. The current committees are as follows: Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data; Mapping Sciences Committee; Committeemore » on Seismology; Committee on Geodesy; Rediscovering Geography Committee; Committee on Research Programs of the US Bureau of Mines. The following recent reports are briefly described: research programs of the US Bureau of Mines, first assessment 1994; Mount Rainier, active cascade volcano; the national geomagnetic initiative; reservoir class field demonstration program; solid-earth sciences and society; data foundation for the national spatial infrastructure; promoting the national spatial data infrastructure through partnerships; toward a coordinated spatial data infrastructure for the nation; and charting a course into the digital era; guidance to the NOAA`s nautical charting mission.« less
Wright, Russell G.
This book is designed for middle school earth science teachers to help their students learn about earthquakes and scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…
Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.
Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be
This document provides a representative sampling of examples of Earth benefits in life-sciences-related applications, primarily in the area of medicine and health care, but also in agricultural productivity, environmental monitoring and safety, and the environment. This brochure is not intended as an exhaustive listing, but as an overview to acquaint the reader with the breadth of areas in which the space life sciences have, in one way or another, contributed a unique perspective to the solution of problems on Earth. Most of the examples cited were derived directly from space life sciences research and technology. Some examples resulted from other space technologies, but have found important life sciences applications on Earth. And, finally, we have included several areas in which Earth benefits are anticipated from biomedical and biological research conducted in support of future human exploration missions.
A theory proposed in 2015 suggested that relatively flat surfaces in mountain ranges were formed by the reorganization of river networks. A fresh analysis rebuts this idea, reigniting discussion of a long-standing problem in Earth science.
NASA has exciting plans for space science and Earth observations during the next decade. A broad range of advanced spacecraft and measurement technologies will be needed to support these plans within the existing budget and schedule constraints.
Fetter, C. W., Jr.; Hoffman, James I.
Describes an activity which incorporates topographic map interpretation, soils analysis, hydrogeology, and local geology in a five-week series of exercises for an introductory college earth science class. (CP)
Six secondary school teachers describe their most successful earth science investigations. They include various outdoor field activities, road-map reading skills, student-prepared and conducted investigations, and use of several materials for studying volcanoes. (JN)
Kiely, Aaron B. (Editor); Renner, Robert L. (Editor)
The sixth annual Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop and the third annual Data Compression Industry Workshop were held as a single combined workshop. The workshop was held April 4, 1996 in Snowbird, Utah in conjunction with the 1996 IEEE Data Compression Conference, which was held at the same location March 31 - April 3, 1996. The Space and Earth Science Data Compression sessions seek to explore opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection, analysis, and retrieval of space and earth science data. Of particular interest is data compression research that is integrated into, or has the potential to be integrated into, a particular space or earth science data information system. Preference is given to data compression research that takes into account the scien- tist's data requirements, and the constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution and archival systems.
Cox, Simon; Schade, Sven
'Linked Data' is a current buzz-phrase promoting access to various forms of data on the internet. It starts from the two principles that have underpinned the architecture and scalability of the World Wide Web: 1. Universal Resource Identifiers - using the http protocol which is supported by the DNS system. 2. Hypertext - in which URIs of related resources are embedded within a document. Browsing is the key mode of interaction, with traversal of links between resources under control of the client. Linked Data also adds, or re-emphasizes: • Content negotiation - whereby the client uses http headers to tell the service what representation of a resource is acceptable, • Semantic Web principles - formal semantics for links, following the RDF data model and encoding, and • The 'mashup' effect - in which original and unexpected value may emerge from reuse of data, even if published in raw or unpolished form. Linked Data promotes typed links to all kinds of data, so is where the semantic web meets the 'deep web', i.e. resources which may be accessed using web protocols, but are in representations not indexed by search engines. Earth sciences are data rich, but with a strong legacy of specialized formats managed and processed by disconnected applications. However, most contemporary research problems require a cross-disciplinary approach, in which the heterogeneity resulting from that legacy is a significant challenge. In this context, Linked Data clearly has much to offer the earth sciences. But, there are some important questions to answer. What is a resource? Most earth science data is organized in arrays and databases. A subset useful for a particular study is usually identified by a parameterized query. The Linked Data paradigm emerged from the world of documents, and will often only resolve data-sets. It is impractical to create even nested navigation resources containing links to all potentially useful objects or subsets. From the viewpoint of human user
Barstow, Daniel; Geary, Ed; Yazijian, Harvey
Explains the changing nature of earth and space science education such as using inquiry-based teaching, how technology allows students to use satellite images in inquiry-based investigations, the consideration of earth and space as a whole system rather than a sequence of topics, and increased student participation in learning opportunities. (YDS)
The GES DIS is one of 12 NASA Earth science data centers. The GES DISC vision is to enable researchers and educators maximize knowledge of the Earth by engaging in understanding their goals, and by leading the advancement of remote sensing information services in response to satisfying their goals. This presentation will describe the GES DISC approach, successes, challenges, and best practices.
Erickson, T. A.; Granger, B.; Grout, J.; Corlay, S.
The volume of Earth science data gathered from satellites, aircraft, drones, and field instruments continues to increase. For many scientific questions in the Earth sciences, managing this large volume of data is a barrier to progress, as it is difficult to explore and analyze large volumes of data using the traditional paradigm of downloading datasets to a local computer for analysis. Furthermore, methods for communicating Earth science algorithms that operate on large datasets in an easily understandable and reproducible way are needed. Here we describe a system for developing, interacting, and sharing well-documented Earth Science algorithms that combines existing software components: Jupyter Notebook: An open-source, web-based environment that supports documents that combine code and computational results with text narrative, mathematics, images, and other media. These notebooks provide an environment for interactive exploration of data and development of well documented algorithms. Jupyter Widgets / ipyleaflet: An architecture for creating interactive user interface controls (such as sliders, text boxes, etc.) in Jupyter Notebooks that communicate with Python code. This architecture includes a default set of UI controls (sliders, dropboxes, etc.) as well as APIs for building custom UI controls. The ipyleaflet project is one example that offers a custom interactive map control that allows a user to display and manipulate geographic data within the Jupyter Notebook. Google Earth Engine: A cloud-based geospatial analysis platform that provides access to petabytes of Earth science data via a Python API. The combination of Jupyter Notebooks, Jupyter Widgets, ipyleaflet, and Google Earth Engine makes it possible to explore and analyze massive Earth science datasets via a web browser, in an environment suitable for interactive exploration, teaching, and sharing. Using these environments can make Earth science analyses easier to understand and reproducible, which may
England, Richard; Smith, Sally; Tate, Nick; Jordan, Colm
This SPLINT (SPatial Literacy IN Teaching) supported project is developing pedagogies for the introduction of teaching of digital geological mapping to Earth Science students. Traditionally students are taught to make geological maps on a paper basemap with a notebook to record their observations. Learning to use a tablet pc with GIS based software for mapping and data recording requires emphasis on training staff and students in specific GIS and IT skills and beneficial adjustments to the way in which geological data is recorded in the field. A set of learning and teaching materials are under development to support this learning process. Following the release of the British Geological Survey's Sigma software we have been developing generic methodologies for the introduction of digital geological mapping to students that already have experience of mapping by traditional means. The teaching materials introduce the software to the students through a series of structured exercises. The students learn the operation of the software in the laboratory by entering existing observations, preferably data that they have collected. Through this the students benefit from being able to reflect on their previous work, consider how it might be improved and plan new work. Following this they begin fieldwork in small groups using both methods simultaneously. They are able to practise what they have learnt in the classroom and review the differences, advantages and disadvantages of the two methods, while adding to the work that has already been completed. Once the field exercises are completed students use the data that they have collected in the production of high quality map products and are introduced to the use of integrated digital databases which they learn to search and extract information from. The relatively recent development of the technologies which underpin digital mapping also means that many academic staff also require training before they are able to deliver the
Wiscombe, Warren J.
This course aims for an understanding of Earth System Science and the interconnection of its various "spheres" (atmosphere, hydrosphere, etc.) by adopting the view that "the microcosm mirrors the macrocosm". We shall study a small set of microcosims, each residing primarily in one sphere, but substantially involving at least one other sphere, in order to illustrate the kinds of coupling that can occur and gain a greater appreciation of the complexity of even the smallest Earth System Science phenomenon.
Carpenter, John R.; And Others
An introductory college course in which both the instructional staff and students have input into the content has been successfully implemented into a spectrum of instructor-centered to student-centered introductory earth science courses. Grading by point accumulation method reduced the grade threat and induced student responsibility for learning.…
These documents contain instructional materials for the Earth/Space Science curriculum designed by the Florida Department of Education. The student guide is adapted for students with disabilities or diverse learning needs. The content of Parallel Alternative Strategies for Students (PASS) differs from standard textbooks with its simplified text,…
Details how an understanding of the role played by human activities in global environmental change has emerged. Presents information about the earth system provided by research programs. Speculates about the direction of future research. (DDR)
Ammon, C. J.
Seismograms are the fundamental observations upon which seismology is based; they are central to any course in seismology and important for any discussion of earthquake-related phenomena based on seismic observations. Advances in the collection and distribution of seismic data have made the use of research-quality seismograms in any network capable classroom feasible. The development of large, deep seismogram archives place an unprecedented quantity of high-quality data within reach of the modern classroom environment. I describe and discuss several computer tools and classroom activities that I use in introductory (general education) and advanced undergraduate courses that present near real-time research-quality seismic observations in the classroom. The Earth Motion Monitor Application (EMMA), is a MacOS application that presents a visually clear seismogram display that can be projected in classrooms with internet access. Seismic signals from thousands of station are available from the IRIS data center and the bandwidth can be tailored to the particular type of signal of interest (large event, low frequencies; small event, high frequencies). In introductory classes for non-science students, the near realtime display routinely shows magnitude 4.0-5.0 earthquake-generated signals, demonstrating to students the frequency of earthquake occurrence. Over the next few minutes as the waves travel through and across the planet, their arrival on the seismogram display provides some basic data for a qualitative estimate of the event's general location. When a major or great earthquake occurs, a broad-band display of signals from nearby stations can dramatically and dynamically illuminate the frequent activity associated with the aftershock sequence. Routine use of the display (while continuing the traditional classroom activities) provides students with a significant dose of seismogram study. Students generally find all the signals, including variations in seismic
Awkerman, Gary L.
This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. The principal theme of Changes in the Sea is presented in this particular…
The Education Enterprise Strategy, the expanding knowledge of how people learn, and the community-wide interest in revolutionizing Earth and space science education have guided us in developing this plan for Earth science education. This document builds on the success of the first plan for Earth science education published in 1996; it aligns with the new framework set forth in the NASA Education Enterprise Strategy; it recognizes the new educational opportunities resulting from research programs and flight missions; and it builds on the accomplishments th'at the Earth Science Enterprise has made over the last decade in studying Earth as a system. This document embodies comprehensive, practicable plans for inspiring our children; providing educators with the tools they need to teach science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and improving our citizens' scientific literacy. This plan describes an approach to systematically sharing knowledge; developing the most effective mechanisms to achieve tangible, lasting results; and working collaboratively to catalyze action at a scale great enough to ensure impact nationally and internationally. This document will evolve and be periodically reviewed in partnership with the Earth science education community.
Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Strub, Richard F.; Lynnes, Christopher S.; Fang, Hongliang; Teng, William
Mirador is a web interface for searching Earth Science data archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Mirador provides keyword-based search and guided navigation for providing efficient search and access to Earth Science data. Mirador employs the power of Google's universal search technology for fast metadata keyword searches, augmented by additional capabilities such as event searches (e.g., hurricanes), searches based on location gazetteer, and data services like format converters and data sub-setters. The objective of guided data navigation is to present users with multiple guided navigation in Mirador is an ontology based on the Global Change Master directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF). Current implementation includes the project ontology covering various instruments and model data. Additional capabilities in the pipeline include Earth Science parameter and applications ontologies.
Acker, James G.; Leptoukh, Gregory
Giovanni, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure, has provided researchers with advanced capabilities to perform data exploration and analysis with observational data from NASA Earth observation satellites. In the past 5-10 years, examining geophysical events and processes with remote-sensing data required a multistep process of data discovery, data acquisition, data management, and ultimately data analysis. Giovanni accelerates this process by enabling basic visualization and analysis directly on the World Wide Web. In the last two years, Giovanni has added new data acquisition functions and expanded analysis options to increase its usefulness to the Earth science research community.
Mahabal, Ashish A.; Crichton, Daniel; Djorgovski, S. G.; Law, Emily; Hughes, John S.
We describe here the parallels in astronomy and earth science datasets, their analyses, and the opportunities for methodology transfer from astroinformatics to geoinformatics. Using example of hydrology, we emphasize how meta-data and ontologies are crucial in such an undertaking. Using the infrastructure being designed for EarthCube - the Virtual Observatory for the earth sciences - we discuss essential steps for better transfer of tools and techniques in the future e.g. domain adaptation. Finally we point out that it is never a one-way process and there is enough for astroinformatics to learn from geoinformatics as well.
Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.
The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Earth Engineering Center, NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Center for Risks and Hazards, Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development, and Center for Global Health and Economic Development and six academic departments including Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B, School of Arts and Sciences), Earth and Environmental Engineering (DEEE, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), Department of Environmental Health (School of Public Health), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DEES, School of Arts and Sciences), Department of International and Public Affairs (School of International and Policy Affairs), and Barnard College Department of Environmental Science. The Earth Institute at Columbia University's ADVANCE program is based both on a study of the status of women at Columbia and research on the progression of women in science elsewhere. The five major targets of the Columbia ADVANCE program are to (1) change the demographics of the faculty through intelligent hiring practices, (2) provide support to women scientists through difficult life transitions including elder care and adoption or birth of a child, (3) enhance mentoring and networking opportunities, (4) implement transparent promotion procedures and policies, and (5) conduct an institutional self study. The Earth Institute ADVANCE program is unique in that it addresses issues that tend to manifest themselves in the earth and environmental fields, such as extended
Rueda, C.; Bermudez, L. E.; Graybeal, J.; Alexander, P.
Semantic interoperability—the exchange of meaning among computer systems—is needed to successfully share data in Ocean Science and across all Earth sciences. The best approach toward semantic interoperability requires a designed framework, and operationally tested tools and infrastructure within that framework. Currently available technologies make a scientific semantic framework feasible, but its development requires sustainable architectural vision and development processes. This presentation outlines the MMI Semantic Framework, including recent progress on it and its client applications. The MMI Semantic Framework consists of tools, infrastructure, and operational and community procedures and best practices, to meet short-term and long-term semantic interoperability goals. The design and prioritization of the semantic framework capabilities are based on real-world scenarios in Earth observation systems. We describe some key uses cases, as well as the associated requirements for building the overall infrastructure, which is realized through the MMI Ontology Registry and Repository. This system includes support for community creation and sharing of semantic content, ontology registration, version management, and seamless integration of user-friendly tools and application programming interfaces. The presentation describes the architectural components for semantic mediation, registry and repository for vocabularies, ontology, and term mappings. We show how the technologies and approaches in the framework can address community needs for managing and exchanging semantic information. We will demonstrate how different types of users and client applications exploit the tools and services for data aggregation, visualization, archiving, and integration. Specific examples from OOSTethys (http://www.oostethys.org) and the Ocean Observatories Initiative Cyberinfrastructure (http://www.oceanobservatories.org) will be cited. Finally, we show how semantic augmentation of web
Kaye, Jack A.
The International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to be a valuable platform for earth science research. By virtue of its being in a mid-inclination orbit (51.5 deg.), ISS provides the opportunity for nadir viewing of nearly 3/4 of the Earth's surface, and allows viewing to high latitudes if limb-emission or occultation viewing techniques are used. ISS also provides the opportunity for viewing the Earth under a range of lighting conditions, unlike the polar sun-synchronous satellites that are used for many earth observing programs. The ISS is expected to have ample power and data handling capability to support Earth-viewing instruments,more » provide opportunities for external mounting and retrieval of instruments, and be in place for a sufficiently long period that long-term data records can be obtained. On the other hand, there are several questions related to contamination, orbital variations, pointing knowledge and stability, and viewing that are of concern in consideration of ISS for earth science applications. The existence of an optical quality window (the Window Observational Research Facility, or WORF), also provides the opportunity for Earth observations from inside the pressurized part of ISS. Current plans by NASA for earth science research from ISS are built around the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) instrument, planned for launch in 2002.« less
Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.
The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that
Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.; Johnson, R.; Foster, S.; Hatheway, B.; Russell, R.
Links between the science of Earth and the visual and literary arts, cultures, and human history provides important context and connections for learners of all ages. Several new features that foster a multidisciplinary approach to learning about our planet are now available on Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu), an educational Web site that includes over 6000 pages of content and is used by over 20 million people each year. The Clouds in Art interactive encourages users to identify cloud types depicted in well-known landscape paintings. Examples of poems by historic poets describe weather phenomena and link to information about the science of weather. A new feature allows users to post their original poetry about an image of weather phenomena. Historic image collections emphasize human connections to the Earth system. For example, a collection of images that visually describes Inuit traditions is linked to Web content about Earth's polar regions and the impact of climate change in the Arctic. To support K-12 classroom learning of Earth system concepts and engage visual learners, several new classroom activities make use of photographs, satellite images, and animations of remote sensing data. In one activity, students learn about the impact of climate change in the Arctic by working with photographs of Alaskan glaciers taken over the past century. These new interdisciplinary features on Windows to the Universe, combined with a wealth of existing content on the site about the history of science and mythology, provide other ways to appreciate science phenomena as well as alternate avenues into science for the general public, teachers and students. Windows to the Universe, a project of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach, provides users with content about the Earth and space sciences at three levels of instruction in both English and Spanish.
The presentation describes data management of NASA remote sensing data for Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). Many types of ground and integrative (e.g., satellite, GIs) data will be needed and many models must be applied, adapted or developed for properly understanding the functioning of Northern Eurasia cold and diverse regional system. Mechanisms for obtaining the requisite data sets and models and sharing them among the participating scientists are essential. The proposed project targets integration of remote sensing data from AVHRR, MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US- satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEPNCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.
Carter, B. L.; Campbell, B.; Chambers, L.; Davis, A.; Riebeek, H.; Ward, K.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is one of the largest Earth Science research-based institutions in the nation. Along with the research comes a dedicated group of people who are tasked with developing Earth science research-based education and public outreach materials to reach the broadest possible range of audiences. The GSFC Earth science education community makes use of a wide variety of platforms in order to reach their goals of communicating science. These platforms include using social media networking such as Twitter and Facebook, as well as geo-spatial tools such as MY NASA DATA, NASA World Wind, NEO, and Google Earth. Using a wide variety of platforms serves the dual purposes of promoting NASA Earth Science research and making authentic data available to educational communities that otherwise might not otherwise be granted access. Making data available to education communities promotes scientific literacy through the investigation of scientific phenomena using the same data that is used by the scientific community. Data from several NASA missions will be used to demonstrate the ways in which Earth science data are made available for the education community.
Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.
The DEVELOP National Program addresses environmental and public policy issues through interdisciplinary research projects that apply the lens of NASA Earth observations to community concerns around the globe. Part of NASA's Applied Sciences' Capacity Building Program, DEVELOP bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society, building capacity in both participants and partner organizations to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Teams of DEVELOP participants partner with decision makers to conduct rapid feasibility projects that highlight fresh applications of NASA's suite of Earth observing sensors, cultivate advanced skills, and increase understanding of NASA Earth Science data and technology. Part of this process involves the creation of short introductory videos that demonstrate the environmental concerns, project methodologies and results, and an overview of how this work will impact decision makers. These videos are presented to the public three times a year in 'virtual poster sessions' (VPS) that provide an interactive way for individuals from around the globe to access the research, understand the capabilities and applications of NASA's Earth science datasets, and interact with the participants through blogging and dialogue sessions. Virtual poster sessions have allowed DEVELOP to introduce NASA's Earth science assets to thousands of viewers around the world. For instance, one fall VPS had over 5,000 visitors from 89 different countries during the two week session. This presentation will discuss lessons learned and statistics related to the series of nine virtual poster sessions that DEVELOP has conducted 2011-2013.
Barkstrom, Bruce R.
Contents include the following: Introduction. A Producer Perspective on Earth Science Data. Data Producers as Members of a Scientific Community. Some Unique Characteristics of Scientific Data. Spatial and Temporal Sampling for Earth (or Space) Science Data. The Influence of the Data Production System Architecture. The Spatial and Temporal Structures Underlying Earth Science Data. Earth Science Data File (or Relation) Schemas. Data Producer Configuration Management Complexities. The Topology of Earth Science Data Inventories. Some Thoughts on the User Perspective. Science Data User Communities. Spatial and Temporal Structure Needs of Different Users. User Spatial Objects. Data Search Services. Inventory Search. Parameter (Keyword) Search. Metadata Searches. Documentation Search. Secondary Index Search. Print Technology and Hypertext. Inter-Data Collection Configuration Management Issues. An Archive View. Producer Data Ingest and Production. User Data Searching and Distribution. Subsetting and Supersetting. Semantic Requirements for Data Interchange. Tentative Conclusions. An Object Oriented View of Archive Information Evolution. Scientific Data Archival Issues. A Perspective on the Future of Digital Archives for Scientific Data. References Index for this paper.
A viewgraph presentation describing the Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission is shown. The contents include: 1) Why CO2?; 2) What Processes Control CO2 Sinks?; 3) OCO Science Team; 4) Space-Based Measurements of CO2; 5) Driving Requirement: Precise, Bias-Free Global Measurements; 6) Making Precise CO2 Measurements from Space; 7) OCO Spatial Sampling Strategy; 8) OCO Observing Modes; 9) Implementation Approach; 10) The OCO Instrument; 11) The OCO Spacecraft; 12) OCO Will Fly in the A-Train; 13) Validation Program Ensures Accuracy and Minimizes Spatially Coherent Biases; 14) Can OCO Provide the Required Precision?; 15) O2 Column Retrievals with Ground-based FTS; 16) X(sub CO2) Retrieval Simulations; 17) Impact of Albedo and Aerosol Uncertainty on X(sub CO2) Retrievals; 18) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Seasonal Cycle; 19) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: The North-South Gradient in CO2; 20) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Effect of Diurnal Biases; 21) Project Status and Schedule; and 22) Summary.
Ramapriyan, H. K.
One of the three strategic goals of NASA is to Advance understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet (NASA strategic plan 2014). NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program directly supports this goal. NASA has been launching satellites for civilian Earth observations for over 40 years, and collecting data from various types of instruments. Especially since 1990, with the start of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, which was a part of the Mission to Planet Earth, the observations have been significantly more extensive in their volumes, variety and velocity. Frequent, global observations are made in support of Earth system science. An open data policy has been in effect since 1990, with no period of exclusive access and non-discriminatory access to data, free of charge. NASA currently holds nearly 10 petabytes of Earth science data including satellite, air-borne, and ground-based measurements and derived geophysical parameter products in digital form. Millions of users around the world are using NASA data for Earth science research and applications. In 2014, over a billion data files were downloaded by users from NASAs EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a system with 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) across the U. S. As a core component of the ESDS Program, EOSDIS has been operating since 1994, and has been evolving continuously with advances in information technology. The ESDS Program influences as well as benefits from advances in Earth Science Informatics. The presentation will provide an overview of the role and evolution of NASAs ESDS Program.
Wymore, A.; White, T. S.; Dere, A. L. D.; Hoffman, A.; Washburne, J. C.; Conklin, M. H.
The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the terrestrial portion of the continents ranging from the top of the vegetative canopy down through soil and bedrock to the lowest extent of freely circulating groundwater. The primary objective of CZ science is to characterize and understand how the reciprocal interactions among rock, soil, water, air and terrestrial organisms influence the Earth as a habitable environment. Thus it is a highly multidisciplinary science that incorporates the biological, hydrological, geological and atmospheric sciences and provides a holistic approach to teaching Earth system science. Here we share highlights from a full-semester university curriculum that introduces upper-division Environmental Science, Geology, Hydrology and Earth Science students to CZ science. We emphasize how a CZ framework is appropriate to teach concepts across the scientific disciplines, concepts of sustainability, and how CZ science serves as a useful approach to solving humanities' grand challenges.
... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12- 091] NASA Advisory Council; Science... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science Subcommittee of the [[Page 67028
Bohle, Martin; Sibilla, Anna; Graells, Robert Casals i.
People are engineers, even the artist. People like stories, even the engineers. Engineering shapes the intersections of humans and their environments including with the geosphere. Geoethics considers values upon which to base practices how to intersect the geosphere. Story-telling is a skilful human practice to describe perception of values in different contexts to influence their application. Traditional earth-centric narrations of rural communities have been lost in the global urbanisation process. These former-time narrations related to the "sacrum" - matters not possible to be explained with reasoning. Science and technology, industrialisation and global urbanisation require an other kind of earth-centric story-telling. Now at the fringe of the Anthropocene, humans can base their earth-centricity on knowledge and scientific thinking. We argue that modern story-telling about the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on these systems is needed, also in particular because citizens rarely can notice how the geosphere intersects with their daily dealings; putting weather and disasters aside. Modern earth-centric story-telling would offer citizens opportunities to develop informed position towards humankind's place within earth-systems. We argue that such "earth-science story-lines" should be part of the public discourse to engage citizens who have more or less "expert-knowledge". Understanding the functioning of the Earth is needed for economy and values suitable for an anthropophil society. Multi-faceted discussion of anthropogenic global change and geoengineering took off recently; emerging from discussions about weather and hazard mitigation. Going beyond that example; we illustrate opportunities for rich story-telling on intersections of humans' activities and the geosphere. These 'modern narrations' can weave science, demographics, linguistics and cultural histories into earth-centric stories around daily dealings of citizens
Locke, S. M.; Cohen, L.; Lightbody, N.
ACCESS Earth is an intensive summer institute for high school students with disabilities and their teachers that is designed to encourage students with disabilities to consider careers in earth system science. Participants study earth system science concepts at a Maine coastal estuary, using Geographic Information Systems, remote sensing, and field observations to evaluate the impacts of climate change, sea level rise, and development on coastal systems. Teachers, students, and scientists work together to adapt field and laboratory activities for persons with disabilities, including those with mobility and visual impairments. Other sessions include demonstrations of assistive technology, career discussions, and opportunities for students to meet with successful scientists with disabilities from throughout the U.S. The summer institute is one of several programs in development at the University of Southern Maine to address the problem of underrepresentation of people with disabilities in the earth sciences. Other projects include a mentoring program for high school students, a web-based clearinghouse of resources for teaching earth sciences to students with disabilities, and guidebooks for adaptation of popular published earth system science curricula for disabled learners.
Barkstrom, B. R.
While there has been substantial work in the IT community regarding metadata and file identifier schemas, there appears to be relatively little work on the organization of the file collections that constitute the preponderance of Earth science data. One symptom of this difficulty appears in nomenclature describing collections: the terms `Data Product,' `Data Set,' and `Version' are overlaid with multiple meanings between communities. A particularly important aspect of this lack of standardization appears when the community attempts to developa schema for data file identifiers. There are four candidate families of identifiers: ● Randomly assigned identifiers, such as GUIDs or UUIDs, ● Segmented numerical identifiers, such as OIDs or the prefixes for DOIs, ● Extensible URL-based identifiers, such as URNs, PURL, ARK, and similar schemas, ● Text-based identifiers based on citations for papers and books, such as those suggested for the International Polar Year (IPY) citations. Unfortunately, these schema families appear to be devoid of content based on the actual structures of Earth science data collections. In this paper, we consider an organization based on an industrial production paradigm that appears to provide the preponderance of Earth science data from satellites and in situ observations. This paradigm produces a hierarchical collection structure, similar to one discussed in Barkstrom [2003: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2649, pp. 118-133]. In this organization, three key collection types are ● a Data Product, which is a collection of files that have similar key parameters and included data time interval, ● a Data Set, which is a collection of files within a Data Product that comes from a specified set of Data Sources, ● a Data Set Version, which is a collection of files within a Data Set for which the data producer has attempted to ensure error homogeneity. Within a Data Set Version, files appear as a time series of instances that may be
Yager, Robert E., Ed.
The 1982 Search for Excellence in Science Education project has identified 50 exemplary programs in physics, chemistry, biology, and earth science. Descriptions of four of these programs and the criteria used in their selection are presented. The first section reviews the direction established by Project Synthesis in searching for exemplary…
A broad-based, distributed community of science, data and information technology practitioners. With over 150 member organizations, the ESIP Federation brings together public, academic, commercial, and nongovernmental organizations to share knowledge, expertise, technology and best practices to improve opportunities for increasing access, discovery, integration and usability of Earth science data.
McGarry, Mary Ann; Straffon, Dan; Patterson, Chuck
The evolution of science is seldom about solitary individuals busy at work in labs making discoveries. This is especially true of the Earth sciences, where time-intensive fieldwork is usually required. Single scientists are rarely capable of amassing the requisite data sets to form grand, unifying theories. This is the case with the new airburst…
Campbell, K. C.; And Others
Included is a collection of earth science laboratory activities, which may provide the junior or senior high school science teacher with ideas for activities in his program. The included 48 experiments are grouped into these areas: properties of matter; evaporation; atmospheric moisture and condensation; precipitation; moving water, subsurface…
An earth radiation budget satellite system planned in order to understand climate on various temporal and spatial scales is considered. Topics discussed include: climate modeling, climate diagnostics, radiation modeling, radiation variability and correlation studies, cloudiness and the radiation budget, and radiation budget and related measurements in 1985 and beyond.
Corliss, William R.
This publication is part of the "Space in the Seventies" series and reviews the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) earth orbital scientific research programs in progress and those to be pursued in the coming decade. Research in space physics is described in Part One in these areas: interplanetary monitoring platforms, small…
Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.
process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.
Alston, Erica J.; Chambers, Lin H.; Phelps, Carrie S.; Oots, Penny C.; Moore, Susan W.; Diones, Dennis D.
Under the auspices of the Department of Education's No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, beginning in 2007 students will be tested in the science area. There are many techniques that educators can employ to teach students science. The use of authentic materials or in this case authentic data can be an engaging alternative to more traditional methods. An Earth science classroom is a great place for the integration of authentic data and science concepts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a wealth of high quality Earth science data available to the general public. For instance, the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA s Langley Research Center houses over 800 Earth science data sets related to Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry. These data sets were produced to increase academic understanding of the natural and anthropogenic factors that influence global climate; however, a major hurdle in using authentic data is the size of the data and data documentation. To facilitate the use of these data sets for educational purposes, the Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and Earth science for Teachers and Amateurs (MY NASA DATA) project has been established to systematically support educational activities at all levels of formal and informal education. The MY NASA DATA project accomplishes this by reducing these large data holdings to microsets that are easily accessible and explored by K-12 educators and students though the project's Web page. MY NASA DATA seeks to ease the difficulty in understanding the jargon-heavy language of Earth science. This manuscript will show how MY NASA DATA provides resources for NCLB implementation in the science area through an overview of the Web site, the different microsets available, the lesson plans and computer tools, and an overview of educational support mechanisms.
Kuhl, James; Shaffer, Karen
Constructing model hot air balloons is an activity that captures the imaginations of students, enabling teachers to present required content to minds that are open to receive it. Additionally, there are few activities that lend themselves to integrating so much content across subject areas. In this article, the authors describe how they have…
Slater, Timothy F.
Filling a needed scholarly publishing avenue for astronomy education researchers and earth science education researchers, the Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE published its first volume and issue in 2014. The Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE is a scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original discipline-based education research and evaluation, with an emphasis of significant scientific results derived from ethical observations and systematic experimentation in science education and evaluation. International in scope, JAESE aims to publish the highest quality and timely articles from discipline-based education research that advance understanding of astronomy and earth sciences education and are likely to have a significant impact on the discipline or on policy. Articles are solicited describing both (i) systematic science education research and (ii) evaluated teaching innovations across the broadly defined Earth & space sciences education, including the disciplines of astronomy, climate education, energy resource science, environmental science, geology, geography, agriculture, meteorology, planetary sciences, and oceanography education. The publishing model adopted for this new journal is open-access and articles appear online in GoogleScholar, ERIC, and are searchable in catalogs of 440,000 libraries that index online journals of its type. Rather than paid for by library subscriptions or by society membership dues, the annual budget is covered by page-charges paid by individual authors, their institutions, grants or donors: This approach is common in scientific journals, but is relatively uncommon in education journals. Authors retain their own copyright. The journal is owned by the Clute Institute of Denver, which owns and operates 17 scholarly journals and currently edited by former American Astronomical Society Education Officer Tim Slater, who is an endowed professor at the University of Wyoming and
Fei, Y.; Huang, H.; Leng, C.; Hu, X.; Wang, Q.
Any core formation models would lead to the incorporation of sulfur (S) into the Earth's core, based on the cosmochemical/geochemical constraints, sulfur's chemical affinity for iron (Fe), and low eutectic melting temperature in the Fe-FeS system. Preferential partitioning of S into the melt also provides petrologic constraint on the density difference between the liquid outer and solid inner cores. Therefore, the center issue is to constrain the amount of sulfur in the core. Geochemical constraints usually place 2-4 wt.% S in the core after accounting for its volatility, whereas more S is allowed in models based on mineral physics data. Here we re-examine the constraints on the S content in the core by both petrologic and mineral physics data. We have measured S partitioning between solid and liquid iron in the multi-anvil apparatus and the laser-heated diamond anvil cell, evaluating the effect of pressure on melting temperature and partition coefficient. In addition, we have conducted shockwave experiments on Fe-11.8wt%S using a two-stage light gas gun up to 211 GPa. The new shockwave experiments yield Hugoniot densities and the longitudinal sound velocities. The measurements provide the longitudinal sound velocity before melting and the bulk sound velocity of liquid. The measured sound velocities clearly show melting of the Fe-FeS mix with 11.8wt%S at a pressure between 111 and 129 GPa. The sound velocities at pressures above 129GPa represent the bulk sound velocities of Fe-11.8wt%S liquid. The combined data set including density, sound velocity, melting temperature, and S partitioning places a tight constraint on the required sulfur partition coefficient to produce the density and velocity jumps and the bulk sulfur content in the core.
Friedl, L. A.; Cox, L.
The NASA Applied Sciences Program collaborates with organizations to discover and demonstrate applications of NASA Earth science research and technology to decision making. The desired outcome is for public and private organizations to use NASA Earth science products in innovative applications for sustained, operational uses to enhance their decisions. In addition, the program facilitates the end-user feedback to Earth science to improve products and demands for research. The Program thus serves as a bridge between Earth science research and technology and the applied organizations and end-users with management, policy, and business responsibilities. Since 2002, the Applied Sciences Program has sponsored over 115 applications-oriented projects to apply Earth observations and model products to decision making activities. Projects have spanned numerous topics - agriculture, air quality, water resources, disasters, public health, aviation, etc. The projects have involved government agencies, private companies, universities, non-governmental organizations, and foreign entities in multiple types of teaming arrangements. The paper will examine this set of applications projects and present specific examples of successful use of Earth science in decision making. The paper will discuss scientific, organizational, and management factors that contribute to or impede the integration of the Earth science research in policy and management. The paper will also present new methods the Applied Sciences Program plans to implement to improve linkages between science and end users.
Wicks, Thomas G.; Arnold, Ralph R.
This paper describes the Office of Space Science and Applications' process for Attached Payloads on Space Station Freedom from development through on-orbit operations. Its primary objectives are to detail the sequential steps of the attached payload methodology by tracing in particular the selected Earth Science and Applications' payloads through this flow and relate the integral role of Marshall Space Flight Center's Science Utilization Management function of integration and operations.
Thomas, Julie; Ivey, Toni; Puckette, Jim
The Earth sciences are newly marginalized in K-12 classrooms. With few high schools offering Earth science courses, students' exposure to the Earth sciences relies on the teacher's ability to incorporate Earth science material into a biology, chemistry, or physics course. ''G.E.T. (Geoscience Experiences for Teachers) in the Field'' is an…
Schaffer, Dane L.
This commentary paper focuses upon the loss of respect for Earth Sciences on the part of many school districts across the United States. Too many Earth Science teachers are uncertified to teach Earth Science, or hold certificates to teach the subject merely because they took a test. The Earth Sciences have faced this problem for many years…
There are strong scientific indications that natural change in the Earth system is being accelerated by human intervention. As a result, planet Earth faces the possibility of rapid environmental changes that would have a profound impact on all nations. However, we do not fully understand either the short-term effects of our activities, or their long-term implications - many important scientific questions remain unanswered. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with the national and international scientific communities to establish a sound scientific basis for addressing these critical issues through research efforts coordinated under the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, and the World Climate Research Program. The Earth Science Enterprise is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise will use space- and surface-based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. The space-based components will provide a constellation of satellites to monitor the Earth from space. A major component of the Earth Science Enterprise is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The overall objective of the EOS Program is to determine the extent, causes, and regional consequences of global climate change. EOS will provide sustained space-based observations that will allow researchers to monitor climate variables over time to determine trends. A constellation of EOS satellites will acquire global data, beginning in 1998 and extending well into the 21st century.
Bueno Watts, Nievita
Climate change is not a thing of the future. Indigenous people are being affected by climate changes now. Native American Earth scientists could help Native communities deal with both climate change and environmental pollution issues, but are noticeably lacking in Earth Science degree programs. The Earth Sciences produce the lowest percentage of minority scientists when compared with other science and engineering fields. Twenty semi-structured interviews were gathered from American Indian/ Alaska Native Earth Scientists and program directors who work directly with Native students to broaden participation in the field. Data was analyzed using qualitative methods and constant comparison analysis. Barriers Native students faced in this field are discussed, as well as supports which go the furthest in assisting achievement of higher education goals. Program directors give insight into building pathways and programs to encourage Native student participation and success in Earth Science degree programs. Factors which impede obtaining a college degree include financial barriers, pressures from familial obligations, and health issues. Factors which impede the decision to study Earth Science include unfamiliarity with geoscience as a field of study and career choice, the uninviting nature of Earth Science as a profession, and curriculum that is irrelevant to the practical needs of Native communities or courses which are inaccessible geographically. Factors which impede progress that are embedded in Earth Science programs include educational preparation, academic information and counseling and the prevalence of a Western scientific perspective to the exclusion of all other perspectives. Intradepartmental relationships also pose barriers to the success of some students, particularly those who are non-traditional students (53%) or women (80%). Factors which support degree completion include financial assistance, mentors and mentoring, and research experiences. Earth scientists
Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Goodwin, Dawne
While the literature is replete with studies examining teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), few studies have investigated how science teacher orientations (STOs) shape classroom instruction. Therefore, this research explores the interplay between a STOs and the topic specificity of PCK across two science topics within a grade…
Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce T.; Bottke, William F.; Chyba, Monique; Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Jones, Lynne; Urrutxua, Hodei
Twelve years ago the Catalina Sky Survey discovered Earth's first known natural geocentric object other than the Moon, a few-meter diameter asteroid designated \\RH. Despite significant improvements in ground-based asteroid surveying technology in the past decade they have not discovered another temporarily-captured orbiter (TCO; colloquially known as minimoons) but the all-sky fireball system operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network detected a bright natural meteor that was almost certainly in a geocentric orbit before it struck Earth's atmosphere. Within a few years the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will either begin to regularly detect TCOs or force a re-analysis of the creation and dynamical evolution of small asteroids in the inner solar system. The first studies of the provenance, properties, and dynamics of Earth's minimoons suggested that there should be a steady state population with about one 1- to 2-meter diameter captured objects at any time, with the number of captured meteoroids increasing exponentially for smaller sizes. That model was then improved and extended to include the population of temporarily-captured flybys (TCFs), objects that fail to make an entire revolution around Earth while energetically bound to the Earth-Moon system. Several different techniques for discovering TCOs have been considered but their small diameters, proximity, and rapid motion make them challenging targets for existing ground-based optical, meteor, and radar surveys. However, the LSST's tremendous light gathering power and short exposure times could allow it to detect and discover many minimoons. We expect that if the TCO population is confirmed, and new objects are frequently discovered, they can provide new opportunities for 1) studying the dynamics of the Earth-Moon system, 2) testing models of the production and dynamical evolution of small asteroids from the asteroid belt, 3) rapid and frequent low delta-v missions to
The 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013), was held at the Swiss Bell Mangga Besar, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 23 December 2013. The AeroEarth conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. AeroEarth 2013 promotes interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that high-level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Earth Science. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 91 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from 8 countries. There are 3 (three) Plenary Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of AeroEarth 2013. The AeroEarth 2013 Proceedings Editors Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. Amit Desai Further information on the invited plenary speakers and photographs from the conference can be found in the pdf.
Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook
NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.
Luby, M.; Haber, J.; Wittenberg, K.
Reform in the classroom, and certainly in academic publishing, is greatly influenced not only by educational research, but also by direct surveys of students and instructors. This presentation looks at changes to Columbia Earthscape, www.earthscape.org, based on an ongoing series of evaluation and testing measures. Two years ago, the Earthscape project was introduced as a central online resource. It aimed to select and make available authoritative materials from all the disciplines that constitute Earth-system science. Its design harnessed the dynamics of the Web and the interrelatedness of research, education, and public policy. In response to substantial class tests, involving five universities in the United States and abroad, three focus groups of geoscience faculty and librarians, user feedback, internal editorial-board review, and extensive consultation with colleagues in commercial and nonprofit educational publishing, Earthscape is implementing broad changes in design and content. These include arranging the site into sections that correspond to user profiles (scientist, policy-maker, teacher, and student), providing easier search or browsing (by research area, policy content, or lesson concept), and streamlining the presentation of links among our resources. These changes are implemented through more advanced searching capabilities, greater specificity of content metatags, and an overall increase in content from journals, books, and original material. The metatags now include all core geoscience disciplines or a range of pertinent issues (such as climate change, geologic hazards, and pollution). Reflecting the evaluation by librarians, Earthscape's revised interface will permit users to begin with a primary area of interest based on who they are, their "profile." They can then either browse the site's entire holdings in that area, perform searches within each area, or follow the extensive hyperlinks to explore connections to other areas and user needs
Avvisati, Gala; Di Vito, Mauro; Marotta, Enrica; Sangianantoni, Agata; Peluso, Rosario; de Vita, Sandro; Nave, Rosella; Vertechi, Enrico; De Natale, Giuseppe; Ghilardi, Massimo
In recent years the Earth Sciences community is facing the need to achieve a more effective and efficient dissemination of its scientific culture. There is now a growing needing to integrate the use of "traditional" dissemination media of cultural heritage with the new digital technologies. Getting people involved in geoheritage site's activities represents a crucial issue in order to better communicate and increase the collective awareness of natural hazards, risk, and environmental change. The Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano (ROV) which is part of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), owns collections unique in their combination of scientific, historical and artistic importance. The long history of ROV is extensively documented in its collections. This heritage - of great scientific and cultural value and unique for its abundance and variety - tells the story of the first observatory in the world, closely linked to the activity of Vesuvius, and the commitment of many scientists who dedicated their lives to study the volcano. The collections include: a) old books on volcanological matters, b) collection of rocks, minerals, volcanic ash and other materials from historical eruptions of Vesuvius, c) recordings on smoked paper of Vesuvius seismic activity from 1915 until 1970, d) scientific instruments, e) geological and geomorphological maps and models, f) vintage photographs and filmed sequences of eruptions, g) gouaches of Vesuvius and h) lava medals. The exposition of these collections, improved with the new digital contents, may trace new and unexplored routes for the dissemination of Earth Sciences related culture. The ethical duty of the ROV is the creation of an universal identity by taking a picture of the evolution of the society through the training of the culture of seismic and volcanic risk. A disappearance of its heritage could represent an huge impoverishment of its community: the ROV carries in fact the cultural identity of the
Pell, Barney; Coughlan, Joe; Biegel, Bryan; Stevens, Ken; Hansson, Othar; Hayes, Jordan
Contents include the following: Computing Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Systems Analysis. Our modeling approach: a 3-part schematic investment model of technology change, impact assessment and prioritization. A whirlwind tour of our model. Lessons learned.
Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien
This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…
Within the framework of "traditional" programmes, like the joint UNESCO-IUGS "International Geoscience Programme" (IGCP), the "International Continental Scientific Drilling Program" (ICDP), the "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program" (IODP) or the "International Lithosphere Programme" (ILP) numerous opportunities are provided to strengthen postgraduate geo-scientific education of representatives from developing countries. Recently established new initiatives, such as the "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) or UNESCO's Global Network of Geoparks complement these in addition as important components to UNESCO's 'Education for All' programme, notably the youth, as well as to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014). The "International Year of Planet Earth" is a joint initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO. The central aims and ambitions of the Year, proclaimed for 2008 by the UN General Assembly, are to demonstrate the great potential of the Earth sciences in building a safer, healthier and wealthier society, and to encourage more widespread and effective application of this potential by targeting politicians and other decision-makers, educational systems, and the general public. Promotion of international collaboration, as well as capacity building and training of students of developing countries in all fields of Earth Sciences seem to be the most appropriate way to meet also the challenges of the IYPE. Another opportunity to improve the international recognition of Earth Scinces, also in developing countries, is the use of Geoparks as a promotional tool for education and popularization of Earth Sciences. Geoparks, notably those included in the European and/or Global Geoparks Networks, provide an international platform of cooperation and exchange between experts and practitioners in geological heritage matters, and are as such excellent instruments in highlighting Earth sciences. The
Huntress, Wesley; Kalb, Michael W.; Johnson, Donald R.
A program aimed at accelerating the development of earth system science curricula at the undergraduate level and at seeding the establishment of university-based mechanisms for cooperative research and education among universities and NASA has been initiated by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) in conjunction with NASA. Proposals were submitted by 100 U.S. research universities which were selected as candidates to participate in a three-year pilot program to develop undergraduate curricula in earth system science. Universities were then selected based upon peer review and considerations of overall scientific balance among proposed programs. The program will also aim to integrate a number of universities with evolving earth system programs, linking them with a cooperative curriculum, shared faculty, and NASA scientists in order to establish a stronger base for earth systems related education and interdisciplinary research collaboration.
Thompson, J Michael T
In this introductory paper, I review the 'visions of the future' articles prepared by top young scientists for the second of the two Christmas 2008 Triennial Issues of Phil. Trans. R. Soc.A, devoted respectively to astronomy and Earth science. Topics covered in the Earth science issue include: trace gases in the atmosphere; dynamics of the Antarctic circumpolar current; a study of the boundary between the Earth's rocky mantle and its iron core; and two studies of volcanoes and their plumes. A final section devoted to ecology and climate covers: the mathematical modelling of plant-soil interactions; the effects of the boreal forests on the Earth's climate; the role of the past palaeoclimate in testing and calibrating today's numerical climate models; and the evaluation of these models including the quantification of their uncertainties.
Wanchoo, Lalit; James, Nathan
NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has implemented a fully automated system for assigning Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to Earth Science data products being managed by its network of 12 distributed active archive centers (DAACs). A key factor in the successful evolution of the DOI registration system over last 7 years has been the incorporation of community input from three focus groups under the NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG). These groups were largely composed of DOI submitters and data curators from the 12 data centers serving the user communities of various science disciplines. The suggestions from these groups were formulated into recommendations for ESDIS consideration and implementation. The ESDIS DOI registration system has evolved to be fully functional with over 5,000 publicly accessible DOIs and over 200 DOIs being held in reserve status until the information required for registration is obtained. The goal is to assign DOIs to the entire 8000+ data collections under ESDIS management via its network of discipline-oriented data centers. DOIs make it easier for researchers to discover and use earth science data and they enable users to provide valid citations for the data they use in research. Also for the researcher wishing to reproduce the results presented in science publications, the DOI can be used to locate the exact data or data products being cited.
Schwarz-Ballard, Jennifer A.
As researchers and designers, we intuitively recognize differences between curricula and describe them in terms of design strategy: project-based, laboratory-based, modular, traditional, and textbook, among others. We assume that practitioners recognize the differences in how each requires that students use knowledge, however these intuitive differences have not been captured or systematically described by the existing languages for describing learning goals. In this dissertation I argue that we need new ways of capturing relationships among elements of content, and propose a theory that describes some of the important differences in how students reason in differently designed curricula and activities. Educational researchers and curriculum designers have taken a variety of approaches to laying out learning goals for science. Through an analysis of existing descriptions of learning goals I argue that to describe differences in the understanding students come away with, they need to (1) be specific about the form of knowledge, (2) incorporate both the processes through which knowledge is used and its form, and (3) capture content development across a curriculum. To show the value of inquiry curricula, learning goals need to incorporate distinctions among the variety of ways we ask students to use knowledge. Here I propose the Epistemic Structures Framework as one way to describe differences in students reasoning that are not captured by existing descriptions of learning goals. The usefulness of the Epistemic Structures framework is demonstrated in the four curriculum case study examples in Part II of this work. The curricula in the case studies represent a range of content coverage, curriculum structure, and design rationale. They serve both to illustrate the Epistemic Structures analysis process and make the case that it does in fact describe learning goals in a way that captures important differences in students reasoning in differently designed curricula
Jenner, Jeff; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rosea; Holecamp, Kara; Owen, Carolyn; Nicholson, Lamar; Dartez, Deanna
This paper presents viewgraphs on the Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project's verification,and validation process. The topics include: 1) What is Verification and Validation? 2) Why Verification and Validation? 3) Background; 4) ESE Data Purchas Validation Process; 5) Data Validation System and Ingest Queue; 6) Shipment Verification; 7) Tracking and Metrics; 8) Validation of Contract Specifications; 9) Earth Watch Data Validation; 10) Validation of Vertical Accuracy; and 11) Results of Vertical Accuracy Assessment.
Yang, Y. M.; Buccino, D.; Folkner, W. M.; Oudrhiri, K.; Phipps, P. H.; Parisi, M.; Kahan, D. S.
Interplanetary and Earth ionosphere plasma electrons can have significant impacts on radio frequency signal propagation such as telecommunication between spacecraft and the Deep Space Network (DSN). On 27 August 2016, the first closest approach of The Juno spacecraft (Perijove 1) provided an opportunity to observe plasma electrons inside of the Io plasma torus using radio science measurements from Juno. Here, we report on the derivations of plasma electron content in the Io plasma torus by using two-way coherent radio science measurements made from Juno's Gravity Science Instrument and the Deep Space Network. During Perijove 1, Juno spacecraft passed through the inner region (perijove altitude of 1.06 Jovian Radii) between Jupiter and the Io plasma torus. Significant plasma electron variations of up to 30 TEC units were observed while the radio link between Juno and the DSN traveled through the Io plasma torus. In this research, we compare observations made by open-loop and closed-loop processes using different frequency radio signals, corresponding Io plasma torus model simulations, and other Earth ionosphere observations. The results of three-dimensional Io plasma model simulations are consistent with observations with some discrepancies. Results are shown to improve our understanding of the Io plasma torus effect on Juno gravity science measurements and its calibrations to reduce the corresponding (non-gravity field induced) radio frequency shift.
Pacheco, H. A.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W.; Benbow, A. E.
The NASA Triad program of the American Geological Institute (AGI) and Arizona State University School of Earth and Space Exploration (ASU SESE) is a three-part effort to promote Earth and space science literacy and STEM education at the national level, funded by NASA through a cooperative agreement starting in 2010. NASA Triad comprises (1) infusion of NASA STEM content into AGI's secondary Earth science curricula; (2) national lead teacher professional development workshops; and (3) an online professional development guide for teachers running NASA STEM workshops. The Triad collaboration draws on AGI's inquiry-based curriculum and teacher professional-development resources and workforce-building programs; ASU SESE's spectrum of research in Mars and Moon exploration, astrobiology, meteoritics, Earth systems, and cyberlearning; and direct access to NASA facilities and dynamic education resources. Triad milestones to date include integration of NASA resources into AGI's print and online curricula and two week-long, national-scale, teacher-leader professional development academies in Earth and space sciences presented at ASU Dietz Museum in Tempe and NASA Johnson Space Flight Center in Houston. Robust front-end and formative assessments of these program components, including content gains, teacher-perceived classroom relevance, teacher-cohort lesson development, and teacher workshop design, have been conducted. Quantitative and qualitative findings from these assessment activities have been applied to identify best and most effective practices, which will be disseminated nationally and globally through AGI and NASA channels.
Duncan, Matthew; Long, Anne
Routine satellite operations for the Earth Science Constellation (ESC) include collision risk assessment between members of the constellation and other orbiting space objects. One component of the risk assessment process is computing the collision probability between two space objects. The collision probability is computed using Monte Carlo techniques as well as by numerically integrating relative state probability density functions. Each algorithm takes as inputs state vector and state vector uncertainty information for both objects. The state vector uncertainty information is expressed in terms of a covariance matrix. The collision probability computation is only as good as the inputs. Therefore, to obtain a collision calculation that is a useful decision-making metric, realistic covariance matrices must be used as inputs to the calculation. This paper describes the process used by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Earth Science Mission Operations Project to generate realistic covariance predictions for three of the Earth Science Constellation satellites: Aqua, Aura and Terra.
Tilton, James C. (Editor)
This document is the proceedings from a Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop, which was held on March 27, 1992, at the Snowbird Conference Center in Snowbird, Utah. This workshop was held in conjunction with the 1992 Data Compression Conference (DCC '92), which was held at the same location, March 24-26, 1992. The workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. The workshop consisted of eleven papers presented in four sessions. These papers describe research that is integrated into, or has the potential of being integrated into, a particular space and/or Earth science data information system. Presenters were encouraged to take into account the scientists's data requirements, and the constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival system.
Tilton, James C. (Editor)
This document is the proceedings from the fourth annual 'Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop,' which was held on April 2, 1994, at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah. This workshop was held in cooperation with the 1994 Data Compression Conference, which was held at Snowbird, Utah, March 29-31 1994. The Workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. It consisted of 13 papers presented in 4 sessions. The papers focus on data compression research that is integrated into, or has the potential to be integrated into, a particular space and/or Earth science data information system. Presenters were encouraged to take into account the scientist's data requirements, and the constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival system.
Davis, Faith; Marquart, Jane; Menke, Greg
To date there has been much discussion about the value of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) for space missions. Claims of various benefits, based on paper analysis, are good; however a benefits statement with empirical evidence to support is even better. This paper presents potential and actual advantages of using DTN for Earth science missions based on results from multiple demonstrations, conducted by the Communications, Standards, and Technology Laboratory (CSTL) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Demonstrations included two flight demonstrations using the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1) and the Near Earth Network (NEN), a ground based demonstration over satellite links to the Internet Router in Space (IRIS) payload on Intelsat-14, and others using the NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Real and potential findings include increased flexibility and efficiency in science campaigns, reduced latency in a collaborative science scenario, and improved scientist-instrument communication and control.
Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin
This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.
Tilton, James C.
NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.
Park, Do-Yong; Park, Mira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the inquiry features demonstrated in the inquiry tasks of a high school Earth Science curriculum. One of the most widely used curricula, Holt Earth Science, was chosen for this case study to examine how Earth Science logical reasoning and authentic scientific inquiry were related to one another and how…
The six projects produced under the artists' residencies at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) were inspired by Earth science and by the human experience in naturally hazardous regions. These contemporary artworks were created within an interdisciplinary framework that fostered collaborations between artists and scientists. EOS ART was a pilot program that also facilitated the active engagement of regional artists with issues related to Earth science, sustainable societies, and innovative methods for science outreach. An interdisciplinary jury of art critics, curators and Earth scientists selected art projects proposed by regional artists, and funds were awarded to develop and realize the projects. The artworks-including installations, photographs, and video art-were showcased in the "Unearthed" public exhibit at the Singapore Art Museum from March to July of 2014. A 92-page catalog accompanied the show and public seminars about interdisciplinary connections complemented the event. This was a unique example of collaboration between scientific and artistic institutions in Southeast Asia. The paper provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. The art projects include "Coastline" by Zhang Xiao (China), "Lupang" by Clara Balaguer and Carlos Casas (Philippines and Spain), "Sound of the Earth" by Chen Sai Hua Kuan (Singapore), "Sudden Nature" by Isaac Kerlow (Mexico/USA), "The Possibility of Knowing" by Robert Zhao Renhui (Singapore), and "When Need Moves the Earth" by Sutthirat Supaparinya (Thailand).
Gschneidner, Karl, Jr.
Currently rare earth science and technology is robust: this includes all the major branches of science -- biochemistry, chemistry, materials and physics. There are, however, currently some anomalies and distortions especially in the technology and applications sector of the rare earth field, which is caused by the dominance of China on the sales of rare earths and rare earth containing products. For the past 5 to 10 years ˜95% of rare earths utilized in commerce came from China. Although Chinese actions have lead to sudden and large price spikes and export embargoes, the rare earths are still available but at a higher cost. The start up of production in 2011 at mines in the USA and Australia will alleviate this situation in about two years. Basic and applied research on the condensed matter physics/materials science has hardly been impacted by these events, but new research opportunities are opening up especially with regard to the USA's military and energy security. Magnets seems to be the hottest topic, but research on battery materials, phosphors and catalysts are also (or should be) strongly considered.
Behnke, J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Lowe, D. R.
NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of the NASA Earth observation program since the 1990's.The data collected by NASA's remote sensing instruments represent a significant public investment in research, providing access to a world-wide public research community. From the beginning, NASA employed a free, open and non-discriminatory data policy to maximize the global utilization of the products derived from NASA's observational data and related analyses. EOSDIS is designed to ingest, process, archive, and distribute data in a multi-mission environment. The system supports a wide variety of Earth science disciplines, including cryosphere, land cover change, radiation budget, atmosphere dynamics and composition, as well as inter-disciplinary research, including global climate change. To this end, EOSDIS has collocated NASA Earth science data and processing with centers of science discipline expertise located at universities, other government agencies and NASA centers. Commercial industry is also part of this partnership as it focuses on developing the EOSDIS cross-element infrastructure. The partnership to develop and operate EOSDIS has made for a robust, flexible system that evolves continuously to take advantage of technological opportunities. The centralized entrance point to the NASA Earth Science data collection can be found at http://earthdata.nasa.gov. A distributed architecture was adopted to ensure discipline-specific support for the science data, while also leveraging standards and establishing policies and tools to enable interdisciplinary research, and analysis across multiple instruments. Today's EOSDIS is a loosely coupled, yet heterogeneous system designed to meet the requirements of both a diverse user community and a growing collection of data to be archived and distributed. The system was scaled to expand to meet the ever-growing volume of data (currently ~10 petabytes), and the exponential
Kempler, S. J.
Data Analytics applications have made successful strides in the business world where co-analyzing extremely large sets of independent variables have proven profitable. Today, most data analytics tools and techniques, sometimes applicable to Earth science, have targeted the business industry. In fact, the literature is nearly absent of discussion about Earth science data analytics. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data from a variety of sources to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information. ESDA is most often applied to data preparation, data reduction, and data analysis. Co-analysis of increasing number and volume of Earth science data has become more prevalent ushered by the plethora of Earth science data sources generated by US programs, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, ESDA types have been defined in terms of data analytics end goals. Goals of which are very different than those in business, requiring different tools and techniques. A sampling of use cases have been collected and analyzed in terms of data analytics end goal types, volume, specialized processing, and other attributes. The goal of collecting these use cases is to be able to better understand and specify requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented. This presentation will describe the attributes and preliminary findings of ESDA use cases, as well as provide early analysis of data analytics tools/techniques requirements that would support specific ESDA type goals. Representative existing data analytics tools/techniques relevant to ESDA will also be addressed.
Gochis, E. E.; Rose, W. I.; Klawiter, M.; Vye, E. C.; Engelmann, C. A.
Geoscientists often find it difficult to bridge the gap in communication between university research and what is learned in the public schools. Today's schools operate in a high stakes environment that only allow instruction based on State and National Earth Science curriculum standards. These standards are often unknown by academics or are written in a style that obfuscates the transfer of emerging scientific research to students in the classroom. Earth Science teachers are in an ideal position to make this link because they have a background in science as well as a solid understanding of the required curriculum standards for their grade and the pedagogical expertise to pass on new information to their students. As part of the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP), teachers from Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Jackson school districts participate in 2 week field courses with Michigan Tech University to learn from earth science experts about how the earth works. This course connects Earth Science Literacy Principles' Big Ideas and common student misconceptions with standards-based education. During the 2011 field course, we developed and began to implement a three-phase EarthCache model that will provide a geospatial interactive medium for teachers to translate the material they learn in the field to the students in their standards based classrooms. MiTEP participants use GPS and Google Earth to navigate to Michigan sites of geo-significance. At each location academic experts aide participants in making scientific observations about the locations' geologic features, and "reading the rocks" methodology to interpret the area's geologic history. The participants are then expected to develop their own EarthCache site to be used as pedagogical tool bridging the gap between standards-based classroom learning, contemporary research and unique outdoor field experiences. The final phase supports teachers in integrating inquiry based, higher-level learning student
Bugbee, Kaylin; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick
The role of Earth science data centers has traditionally been to maintain central archives that serve openly available Earth observation data. However, in order to ensure data are as useful as possible to a diverse user community, Earth science data centers must move beyond simply serving as an archive to offering innovative data services to user communities. A virtual collection, the end product of a curation activity that searches, selects, and synthesizes diffuse data and information resources around a specific topic or event, is a data curation service that improves the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of Earth science data and also supports the needs of unanticipated users. Virtual collections minimize the amount of the time and effort needed to begin research by maximizing certainty of reward and by providing a trustworthy source of data for unanticipated users. This presentation will define a virtual collection in the context of an Earth science data center and will highlight a virtual collection case study created at the Global Hydrology Resource Center data center.
Bugbee, K.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.
The role of Earth science data centers has traditionally been to maintain central archives that serve openly available Earth observation data. However, in order to ensure data are as useful as possible to a diverse user community, Earth science data centers must move beyond simply serving as an archive to offering innovative data services to user communities. A virtual collection, the end product of a curation activity that searches, selects, and synthesizes diffuse data and information resources around a specific topic or event, is a data curation service that improves the discoverability, accessibility and usability of Earth science data and also supports the needs of unanticipated users. Virtual collections minimize the amount of time and effort needed to begin research by maximizing certainty of reward and by providing a trustworthy source of data for unanticipated users. This presentation will define a virtual collection in the context of an Earth science data center and will highlight a virtual collection case study created at the Global Hydrology Resource Center data center.
Science must continue to drive the technology development. Partnering and Data Sharing among nations is very important to maximize the cost benefits of such investments Climate changes and adaptability will be a big challenge for the next several decades (1) Natural disasters frequency and locations (2) Economic and social impact can be global and (3) Water resources and management.
Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Helly, J.
EarthRef.org is the common host and (co-) developer of a range of earth science databases and IT resources providing a test bed for a Cyberinfrastructure in Earth Science and Education (CIESE). EarthRef.org data base efforts include in particular the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM), the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC), the Educational Resources for Earth Science Education (ERESE) project, the Seamount Catalog, the Mid-Ocean Ridge Catalog, the Radio-Isotope Geochronology (RiG) initiative for CHRONOS, and the Microbial Observatory for Fe oxidizing microbes on Loihi Seamount (FeMO; the most recent development). These diverse databases are developed under a single database umbrella and webserver at the San Diego Supercomputing Center. All the data bases have similar structures, with consistent metadata concepts, a common database layout, and automated upload wizards. Shared resources include supporting databases like an address book, a reference/publication catalog, and a common digital archive making database development and maintenance cost-effective, while guaranteeing interoperability. The EarthRef.org CIESE provides a common umbrella for synthesis information as well as sample-based data, and it bridges the gap between science and science education in middle and high schools, validating the potential for a system wide data infrastructure in a CIESE. EarthRef.org experiences have shown that effective communication with the respective communities is a key part of a successful CIESE facilitating both utility and community buy-in. GERM has been particularly successful at developing a metadata scheme for geochemistry and in the development of a new electronic journal (G-cubed) that has made much progress in data publication and linkages between journals and community data bases. GERM also has worked, through editors and publishers, towards interfacing databases with the publication process, to accomplish a more scholarly and database friendly data
McLarty Halfkenny, B.; Schröder Adams, C.
There is concern within the Geoscience Community about the public's limited understanding of Earth Science and its fundamental contribution to society. Earth Science plays only a minor role in public school education in Ontario leaving many students to stumble upon this field of study in post-secondary institutions. As the Earth Sciences offer relevant advice for political decisions and provide excellent career opportunities, outreach is an increasingly important component of our work. Recruitment of post-secondary students after they have chosen their discipline cannot remain the sole opportunity. Outreach must be directed to potential students at an early stage of their education. High school teachers are influential, directing students towards professional careers. Therefore we are first committed to reach these teachers. We provide professional development, resources and continued support, building an enthusiastic community of educators. Specific initiatives include: a three day workshop supported by a grant from EdGEO introducing earth science exercises and local field destinations; a resource kit with minerals, rocks, fossils, mineral identification tools and manuals; a CD with prepared classroom exercises; and in-class demonstrations and field trip guiding on request. Maintaining a growing network with teachers has proven highly effective. Direct public school student engagement is also given priority. We inspire students through interaction with researchers and graduate students, hand-on exercises, and by providing opportunities to visit our department and work with our collections. Successful projects include our week-long course "School of Rock" for the Enrichment Mini-Course Program, classroom visits and presentations on the exciting and rewarding career paths in geology during Carleton University open houses. Outreach to the general public allows us to educate the wider community about the Geoheritage of our region, and initiate discussions about
Zirakparvar, N. Alex
This article describes a museum-based urban teacher-residency (UTR) program's approach to building subject-specific content knowledge and research experience in Earth Science teacher candidates. In the museum-based program, graduate-level science courses and research experiences are designed and implemented specifically for the UTR by active Earth…
Tenenbaum, L. F.; Shaftel, H.; Jackson, R.
There is no such thing as a non-scientist, but there are some who have yet to acknowledge their inner science spark. Aiming to ignite and fan the flame of curiosity, promote dialogue and attempt to make climate science personal and relevant to everyday life, NASA's Global Climate Change website http://climate.nasa.gov/ and Earth Right Now campaign http://www.nasa.gov/content/earth-right-now/ partnered together this year to launch the Earth Right Now blog http://climate.nasa.gov/blog. It quickly became one of the most popular blogs in all of NASA social media, receiving thousands of likes per week, and frequent comments as well as thoughtful and respectful discussions about climate change. Social media platforms such as blogs have become popular vehicles for engaging large swaths of the public in new exciting ways. NASA's Earth Right Now blog has become a powerful platform for engaging both scientists and the science-curious in constructive, fruitful conversations about the complex topic of climate science. We continue to interact and have ongoing dialogue with our readers by making the scientific content both accessible and engaging for diverse populations.
The following is a technical report of the progress made under Cooperative Agreement NCC5494, the Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center (GEST). The period covered by this report is October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001. GEST is a consortium of scientists and engineers, led by the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), to conduct scientific research in Earth and information sciences and related technologies in collaboration with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). GEST was established through a cooperative agreement signed May 11, 2000, following a competitive procurement process initiated by GSFC.
Qian, R.; Wang, X.; Sun, L.
With the development of Chinese economy, science and technology, as well as the increasing demand of the persons with knowledge and experience in earth science and geological exploration, the higher education of earth science has been boosted in recent years. There are 2,000 to 3,000 students studying earth science every year and many of them will take part in scientific research and engineering technology work around the world after graduation, which increased the demand of educators, both in quantity and quality. However, the fact is that there is a huge gap between the demand and the current number of educators due to the explosion of students, which makes the reform of traditional education methods inevitable. There is great significance in doing research on the teaching methods catering to a large number of students. Some research contents and result based on the reform of education methods has been conducted. We integrate the teaching contents with the cutting-edge research projects and stress significance of earth science, which will greatly enhance the student's enthusiasm of it. Moreover. New technology will be applied to solve the problem that every teacher are responsible for 100~150 students in one courses. For instance, building the Internet platform where teachers and the students can discuss the courses contents, read the latest scientific articles. With the numerical simulation technology, the internal structure of the Earth, geological phenomena, characteristics of ore body, geophysical and hydrological fields, etc. can be simulated and the experiments and teaching practice can be demonstrated via video technology. It can also be used to design algorithm statistics and assessment and monitor teaching effect. Students are separated into small groups to take research training with their personal tutor at the beginning of the first semester, which will increase the opportunities for students to communicate with educators and solve the problem that the
Wong, K.; Read, K.; Charlevoix, D.; Tomkin, J.; Hug, B.; Williams, M.; Pianfetti, E.
ESES 202 is a new general education course in physical science at the University of Illinois's School of Earth, Society and Environment, designed for pre-service K-8 teachers. The goal of the course is to help future classroom teachers become confident with teaching earth science content. The designers of this course include a faculty expert in earth system science, a pre-service teacher and a former middle school science teacher. The goal of the in the curriculum design was to utilize the unique perspectives and experiences of our team. Our poster will highlight the unique nature of the curriculum development outlining the challenges and successes of designing the course. The general format of the class will be a combination of discussions, hands on experiences, and opportunities for students to design their own lessons. Class meetings will be once per week in a three-hour block, allowing students to immediately transfer new content knowledge into classroom activities. The end goal is that they can use these same activities with their students once they are practicing teachers. The content of the course shall be taught using an earth systems approach by showing the relationships among the four spheres: biosphere, hydrosphere, atmospheric, and anthrosphere. There are five units in the course: Introduction to Earth Systems, Carbon Cycle, Water Quality, El Niño and Climate Change. In addition to the science portion of the course, students will spend time reflecting on the classroom activities from the perspective of future educators. Activities will be presented at a late elementary school level; however, time will be devoted to discussing methods to adapt the lesson to different grade levels and differentiation needs within a classroom. Additionally, students in this course will be instructed on how to utilize a multitude of resources from stream tables to science education databases to prepare them for the dynamic nature of the classroom. By the end of the class
Moreland, J. L.; Nadeau, D. R.; Baru, C.; Crosby, C. J.
The integration of data is essential to make transformative progress in understanding the complex processes operating at the Earth’s surface and within its interior. While our current ability to collect massive amounts of data, develop structural models, and generate high-resolution dynamics models is well developed, our ability to quantitatively integrate these data and models into holistic interpretations of Earth systems is poorly developed. We lack the basic tools to realize a first-order goal in Earth science of developing integrated 4D models of Earth structure and processes using a complete range of available constraints, at a time when the research agenda of major efforts such as EarthScope demand such a capability. Among the challenges to 3D data integration are data that may be in different coordinate spaces, units, value ranges, file formats, and data structures. While several file format standards exist, they are infrequently or incorrectly used. Metadata is often missing, misleading, or relegated to README text files along side the data. This leaves much of the work to integrate data bogged down by simple data management tasks. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) being developed by GEON addresses these data management difficulties. The software incorporates file format parsers, data interpretation heuristics, user interfaces to prompt for missing information, and visualization techniques to merge data into a common visual model. The OEF’s data access libraries parse formal and de facto standard file formats and map their data into a common data model. The software handles file format quirks, storage details, caching, local and remote file access, and web service protocol handling. Heuristics are used to determine coordinate spaces, units, and other key data features. Where multiple data structure, naming, and file organization conventions exist, those heuristics check for each convention’s use to find a high confidence interpretation of the data. When
Garshnek, V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Griffiths, L.
Contributions of space exploration which are widely recognized are those dealing with the impact of space technology on public health and medical services in both urban and remote rural areas. Telecommunications, image enhancement, 3-dimensional image reconstructions, miniaturization, automation, and data analysis, have transformed the delivery of medical care and have brought about a new impetus to the field of biomedicine. Many areas of medical care and biological research have been affected. These include technological breakthroughs in such areas as: (1) diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, (2) new approaches to the understanding of osteoporosis, (3) early detection of genetic birth defects, (4) emergency medical care, and (5) treatment of chronic metabolic disorders. These are but a few examples where technology originally developed to support space medicine or space research has been applied to solving medical and health care delivery problems on Earth.
Charlevoix, D. J.; Taber, J. J.; Berg, M.; Dorr, P. M.; McQuillan, P.; Olds, S. E.
The IRIS and UNAVCO facilities play an important role in support of EarthScope through joint and independent education and outreach activities. These activities are focused on providing data and data products to a wide range of audiences, disseminating EarthScope science results through formal and informal venues, and informing the public of the broader impacts of EarthScope. The facilities are particularly well-suited for sustained engagement of multiple audiences over the decade-long course of EarthScope. One such example of a long-term effort was the Transportable Array student siting program, where over an 8 year period, students from about 55 institutions across the US and Canada conducted site reconnaissance and talked to landowners about EarthScope. Another activity focused on students was the development of a student intern program to support field engineering efforts during the construction of the Plate Boundary Observatory. Other ongoing activities include developing and maintaining relationships with media representatives and annual training of National Parks staff throughout the western U.S. The UNAVCO-IRIS partnership has been particularly valuable for EarthScope-related activities, where UNAVCO and IRIS work closely with the EarthScope National Office (ESNO) to bring EarthScope science to national, regional and local audiences within the EarthScope footprint. Collaborations have ranged across each group's products and services, including: EarthScope-focused teacher workshops, participation in EarthScope interpretive workshops for informal educators (led by ESNO), development of content for the IRIS Active Earth Monitor, preparing PBO-, USArray- and EarthScope-focused materials on topics such as Episodic Tremor and Slip for wider distribution through print, web, and mobile information technologies, and organizing research experiences for undergraduates on EarthScope-related topics. Other collaborations have focused on social media, and the development
Bruno, B. C.; Wren, J. L.; Ayau, J. F.
Ocean TECH (Technology Expands Career Horizons) is a new initiative funded by NSF/GeoEd to stimulate interest in ocean, earth and environmental science careers - and the college majors that lead to such careers - among Hawaii's underrepresented students in grades 6-14. The Ocean TECH project features hands-on ocean science and technology and interactions with career professionals. Ocean TECH builds upon Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together), a previous NSF/OEDG project aimed at teaching fun hands-on science in culturally and locally relevant ways to Hawaii's elementary school students and their families. Ocean FEST was rigorously evaluated (including cognitive pre-testing developed in partnership with external evaluators) and shown to be successful both in teaching science content and changing attitudes toward ocean, earth and environmental science careers. Over the course of the four-year grant, Ocean FEST reached 20,99 students and adults, including 636 classroom teachers and other volunteers who assisted with program delivery, most of whom were from underrepresented groups. For more info on Ocean FEST: http://oceanfest.soest.hawaii.edu/ Ocean TECH events have various formats, but common themes include: (1) Using technology as a hook to engage students in ocean, earth and environmental science. (2) Bringing middle school through community college students to college campuses, where they engage in hands-on science activities and learn about college majors. (3) Drawing direct links between the students' hands-on science activities and the research currently occurring at the UH Manoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), such as C-MORE and HOT research. (4) Respecting and valuing students' local knowledge and experiences. (5) Explicitly showing, through concrete examples, how becoming an ocean, earth or environmental scientist addresses would beneit Hawaii (6) Having graduate students from diverse backgrounds serve as instructors and
Russell, R. M.; Clark, S.
We will demonstrate several interactive, computer-based simulations, games, and other interactive multimedia. These resources were developed for weather, climate, atmospheric science, and related Earth system science education. The materials were created by the UCAR Center for Science Education. These materials have been disseminated via our web site (SciEd.ucar.edu), webinars, online courses, teacher workshops, and large touchscreen displays in weather and Sun-Earth connections exhibits in NCAR's Mesa Lab facility in Boulder, Colorado. Our group has also assembled a web-based list of similar resources, especially simulations and games, from other sources that touch upon weather, climate, and atmospheric science topics. We'll briefly demonstrate this directory.
Russell, R. M.
We will demonstrate several interactive, computer-based simulations, games, and other interactive multimedia. These resources were developed for weather, climate, atmospheric science, and related Earth system science education. The materials were created by the UCAR Center for Science Education. These materials have been disseminated via our web site (SciEd.ucar.edu), webinars, online courses, teacher workshops, and large touchscreen displays in weather and Sun-Earth connections exhibits in NCAR's Mesa Lab facility in Boulder, Colorado. Our group has also assembled a web-based list of similar resources, especially simulations and games, from other sources that touch upon weather, climate, and atmospheric science topics. We'll briefly demonstrate this directory. More info available at: scied.ucar.edu/events/agu-2014-games-simulations-sessions
Cox, Simon; Yu, Jonathan; Williams, Megan; Giabardo, Fabrizio; Lowe, Dominic
Environment Agency, and now adapted and enhanced for deployment by CSIRO and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The LDR applies a standard content registration paradigm to RDF data, also including a delegation mode that enables a system to register (endorse) externally managed content. The locally managed RDF is exposed on a SPARQL endpoint. The registry implementation enables a flexible interaction pattern to support various specific content publication workflows, with the key feature of making the content externally accessible through a standard interface alongside its history, previous versions, and status. SPARQL is the standard low-level API for RDF including SKOS. On top of this we have developed SISSvoc, a SKOS-based RESTful API. This has been used it to deploy a number of vocabularies on behalf of the IUGS, ICS, NERC, OGC, the Australian Government, and CSIRO projects. Applications like SISSvoc Search provide a simple search UI on top of one or more SISSvoc sources. Together, these components provide a powerful and flexible system for providing earth science vocabularies for the community, consistent with semantic web and linked-data principles.
Saito, A.; Tsugawa, T.
Digital globe system is a powerful tool to make the audiences understand phenomena on the Earth and planets in intuitive way. Geo-cosmos of Miraikan, Japan uses 6-m spherical LED, and is one of the largest systems of digital globe. Science on a Sphere (SOS) by NOAA is a digital globe system that is most widely used in science museums around the world. These systems are so expensive that the usage of the digital globes is mainly limited to large-scale science museums. Dagik Earth is a digital globe project that promotes educational programs using digital globe with low cost. It aims to be used especially in classrooms. The cost for the digital globe of Dagik Earth is from several US dollars if PC and PC projector are available. It uses white spheres, such as balloons and balance balls, as the screen. The software is provided by the project with free of charge for the educational usage. The software runs on devices of Windows, Mac and iOS. There are English and Chinese language versions of the PC software besides Japanese version. The number of the registered users of Dagik Earth is about 1,400 in Japan. About 60% of them belongs to schools, 30% to universities and research institutes, and 8% to science museums. In schools, it is used in classes by teachers, and science activities by students. Several teachers have used the system for five years and more. In a students' activity, Dagik Earth contents on the typhoon, solar eclipse, and satellite launch were created and presented in a school festival. This is a good example of the usage of Dagik Earth for STEM education. In the presentation, the system and activity of Dagik Earth will be presented, and the future expansion of the project will be discussed.
Green, Robert O.
This publication contains the proceedings of the JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop forum held to report science research and applications results with spectral images measured by the NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). These papers were presented at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from March 5-8, 2001. Electronic versions of these papers may be found at the A VIRIS Web http://popo.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/docs/workshops/aviris.proceedings.html
Frew, J.; Metzger, D.; Slaughter, P.
MODster is a distributed, decentralized inventory server for Earth science data granules (standard units of data content and structure.) MODster connects data granule users (people who know which specific granule they want, but who don't know who has it or how to get it) with data granule providers (people or institutions that keep granules accessible online.) * If you're a provider, you can tell MODster which granules you have and where they live (i.e., their URLs.) * If you're a user, you can ask MODster for a granule, and it will transparently redirect your request to whomever has it. The key to making this work is a standard granule namespace. A granule namespace is a naming convention that associates particular names with particular granules, regardless of where those granules live. Different Earth science data products have their own granule namespaces. For example, in the MODIS granule namespace, the granule name "MOD43A2.A1998365.h5.v8.001.1999001090020.hdf" always refers to version 1 of the 5th horizontal and 8th vertical tile of the Level 3 16-day Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function product, acquired by the MODIS Terra sensor on 31 December 1998 and generated on 01 January 1999 at 9:00:20 AM. A MODster URL is simply a standard way of referring to a data product namespace and one of its granules. MODster URLs have the general form "http://server/namespace/granule" where "granule" is a granule name that conforms to a granule namespace, "namespace" is a MODster namespace, which is the name of a granule namespace whose conventions are known to MODster, and "server" is a MODster server, which is an HTTP server that can redirect namespace/granule requests to granule providers. A MODster URL with no granule component gets a description of the MODster namespace, its authority (the persons or institutions responsible for documenting and maintaining the naming convention), and also any services for that MODster namespace that the MODster server
Spetzler, H.; Weaver, A.; Buhr, S.
Earthworks is a national community of teachers and scientists. Initiated in 1998 with funding from NASA, our summer workshops in the Rocky Mountains each year provide unique opportunities for teachers to design and conduct field research projects, working closely with scientists. Teachers then develop plans for classroom implementation during the school year, sharing their ideas and experiences with other community members through e-mail and a listserv. Scientists, from graduate students to expert senior researchers, share their knowledge of field methods in environmental science, and learn how to better communicate and teach about their research.
Clement, B. M.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Draper, G.
The Department of Earth Sciences at Florida International University (FIU) has been fortunate to be part of a rapidly growing university. FIU began offering classes in 1972 with an initial enrollment of 5600 students, and today enrollment exceeds 35,000 students. During this time the Department of Earth Sciences has grown to a faculty of 14 and offers the BA, BS, MS and PhD degrees. Our department, however, has faced the same challenges meeting many Earth Science departments in that our number of undergraduate majors has not grown at the same pace as the university enrollment (or at the same pace as enrollment in our graduate program). Two strategies have proven effective and have helped the department build its program in spite of this challenge. The first strategy was to create tenure-track positions with a 50% assignment in the Earth Sciences Department and 50% in a research center on campus. We currently have two faculty who have half-time appointments in the Southeast Environmental Research Center, and we have a new faculty member joining in the Spring who will have a joint appointment with the International Hurricane Research Center. This strategy has made it possible to gain expertise in, and to offer courses in, critical areas (such as hydrogeology and meteorology) that we otherwise would not be able to offer. The second strategy is to develop strong courses for non-majors that satisfy FIU's University Common Curriculum requirements. A particularly successful example is a new course titled "The History of Life". This course was designed to take advantage of our existing expertise in paleobiology, and offer a class that satisfies the University Common Curriculum requirement that every student take a laboratory course in the life sciences. This class now fills to capacity each semester with more than 200 students. This course not only boosts our department's productivity, but it lets us reach 200 new students each semester with many potential new Earth
Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Ramachandran, R.; Lee, T. J.; Bao, Q.; Gatlin, P. N.; Maskey, M.
In this ongoing work, we aim to build foundations of Cognitive Computing for Earth Science research. The goal of our project is to develop an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES). These knowledge graphs can then serve as the foundational components for building cognitive systems in Earth science, enabling researchers to uncover new patterns and hypotheses that are virtually impossible to identify today. In addition, this research focuses on developing mining algorithms needed to exploit these constructed knowledge graphs. As such, these graphs will free knowledge from publications that are generated in a very linear, deterministic manner, and structure knowledge in a way that users can both interact and connect with relevant pieces of information. Our major contributions are two-fold. First, we have developed an end-to-end methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES) using existing corpus of journal papers and reports. One of the key challenges in any machine learning, especially deep learning applications, is the need for robust and large training datasets. We have developed techniques capable of automatically retraining models and incrementally building and updating KG4ES, based on ever evolving training data. We also adopt the evaluation instrument based on common research methodologies used in Earth science research, especially in Atmospheric Science. Second, we have developed an algorithm to infer new knowledge that can exploit the constructed KG4ES. In more detail, we have developed a network prediction algorithm aiming to explore and predict possible new connections in the KG4ES and aid in new knowledge discovery.
Vd Flier-Keller, E.; Carolsfeld, C.; Bullard, T.
To increase teaching of Earth science in schools, and to reflect the interdisciplinary nature and interrelatedness of science disciplines in today's world, we are exploring opportunities for linking Earth science and Biology through engaging and innovative hands-on science activities for the classroom. Through the NSERC-funded Pacific CRYSTAL project based at the University of Victoria, scientists, science educators, and teachers at all levels in the school system are collaborating to research ways of enriching the preparation of students in math and science, and improving the quality of science education from Kindergarten to Grade 12. Our primary foci are building authentic, engaging science experiences for students, and fostering teacher leadership through teacher professional development and training. Interdisciplinary science activities represent an important way of making student science experiences real, engaging and relevant, and provide opportunities to highlight Earth science related topics within other disciplines, and to expand the Earth science taught in schools. The Earth science and Biology interdisciplinary project builds on results and experiences of existing Earth science education activities, and the Seaquaria project. We are developing curriculum-linked activities and resource materials, and hosting teacher workshops, around two initial areas; soils, and marine life and the fossil record. An example activity for the latter is the hands-on examination of organisms occupying the nearshore marine environment using a saltwater aquarium and touch tank or beach fieldtrip, and relating this to a suite of marine fossils to facilitate student thinking about representation of life in the fossil record e.g. which life forms are typically preserved, and how are they preserved? Literacy activities such as fossil obituaries encourage exploration of paleoenvironments and life habits of fossil organisms. Activities and resources are being tested with teachers
Vicente, G. A.
The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data (GES) and Information Services Center (DISC) is one of the major Science Mission Directorate (SMD) for archiving and distribution of Earth Science remote sensing data, products and services. This virtual portal provides convenient access to Atmospheric Composition and Dynamics, Hydrology, Precipitation, Ozone, and model derived datasets (generated by GSFC's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office), the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data products (both generated by GSFC's Hydrological Sciences Branch). This presentation demonstrates various tools and computational technologies developed in the GES DISC to manage the huge volume of data and products acquired from various missions and programs over the years. It explores approaches to archive, document, distribute, access and analyze Earth Science data and information as well as addresses the technical and scientific issues, governance and user support problem faced by scientists in need of multi-disciplinary datasets. It also discusses data and product metrics, user distribution profiles and lessons learned through interactions with the science communities around the world. Finally it demonstrates some of the most used data and product visualization and analyses tools developed and maintained by the GES DISC.
Barnett, Philip; Lascar, Claudia
The current journal titles in earth and atmospheric sciences, that are unique to each of two databases, Web of Science and Scopus, were identified using different methods. Comparing by subject category shows that Scopus has hundreds of unique titles, and Web of Science just 16. The titles unique to each database have low SCImago Journal Rank…
Graves, S. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Law, E.; Yang, C. P.; Keiser, K.
The NSF-funded EarthCube Integration and Test Environment (ECITE) prototype was proposed as a 2015 Integrated Activities project and resulted in the prototyping of an EarthCube federated cloud environment and the Integration and Testing Framework. The ECITE team has worked with EarthCube science and technology governance committees to define the types of integration, testing and evaluation necessary to achieve and demonstrate interoperability and functionality that benefit and support the objectives of the EarthCube cyber-infrastructure. The scope of ECITE also includes reaching beyond NSF and EarthCube to work with the broader Earth science community, such as the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) to incorporate lessons learned from other testbed activities, and ultimately provide broader community benefits. This presentation will discuss evolving ECITE ideas for a science-driven workbench that will start with documented science use cases, map the use cases to solution scenarios that identify the available technology and data resources that match the use case, the generation of solution workflows and test plans, the testing and evaluation of the solutions in a cloud environment, and finally the documentation of identified technology and data gaps that will assist with driving the development of additional EarthCube resources.
Pfister, Robin; Ullman, Richard; Wichmann, Keith; Perkins, Dorothy C. (Technical Monitor)
Over the past decade NASA has designed, built, evolved, and operated the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Information Management System (IMS) in order to provide user access to NASA's Earth Science data holdings. During this time revolutionary advances in technology have driven changes in NASA's approach to providing an IMS service. This paper will describe NASA's strategic planning and approach to build and evolve the EOSDIS IMS and to serve the evolving needs of NASA's Earth Science community. It discusses the original strategic plan and how lessons learned help to form a new plan, a new approach and a new system. It discusses the original technologies and how they have evolved to today.
Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.
A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.
MacDonald, William D.; MacDonald, Geraldine E.
Time-sharing computer-assisted instructional (CAI) programs employing the APL language are being used in support of introductory earth science laboratory exercises at the State University of New York at Binghamton. Three examples are sufficient to illustrate the variety of applications to which these programs are put. The BRACH program is used in…
This teacher's guide to a second-grade earth science unit provides a range of activities, suggestions for classroom discussion, and open-ended questions suitable for each of the concepts developed. One of the central purposes of the unit is to develop independence and self confidence by encouraging the student to think through a problem clearly.…
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.
Two dozen energy-related earth science lessons comprise this guide for secondary school teachers. Intended to provide information about energy issues that exist in Pennsylvania and throughout the world, the activities cover topics such as coal mining, radioactivity, and the distribution of oil and gas in Pennsylvania. Lessons include objectives,…
LaDue, Nicole; Clark, Scott K.
The challenges and priorities of defining and achieving Earth System Science (ESS) literacy are examined through surveys of geoscience educators attending a professional geological meeting. Two surveys with Likert-style and free-response questions were distributed to geoscientists and K-12 teachers to elicit what instructors think are important…
Thompson, J Michael T; Wang, Charles H-T
This article is an overview of the contributions to the Triennial Issue of Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A published in December, 2005, and also plays the role of a Preface. Devoted to the work of young scientists, the issue covers the fields of astronomy and earth science.
Bolman, J. R.
We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands across the Americas. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all Tribal societies. These changes have accelerated the momentum to ensure the future of American Indian Geoscientists and Earth Systems Science Leaders. The presentation will bring to prominence the unique recruitment and mentoring necessary to achieve success that emerged through working with Tribal people. The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on recruitment and mentoring of Native/Tribal students in geoscience and earth systems science; 2) current Native leadership and research development; 3) unique collaborations "bridging" Native people across geographic areas (International) in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive geoscience and earth systems science knowledge of Tribal peoples throughout the Americas. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native geoscientists and earth systems science leaders.
Schultz, Bryan; Yates, Crystal; Schultz, Jayne M.
To help eighth-grade students experience the excitement of Earth science research, the authors developed an inquiry-based project in which students evaluated and cataloged their campus geology and soils. Following class discussions of rock-weathering and soil-forming processes, students worked in groups to excavate multiple soil pits in the school…
Mayer, Victor J.; And Others
Reports on the evaluation of an earth science inservice program designed to (1) improve teachers' understandings of principles and concepts, (2) assist teachers in the use of investigatory techniques for teaching, (3) assist teachers in developing and implementing laboratory-oriented courses and (4) instruct teachers in techniques of self…
Custer, Stephan Gregory
Snow is a widely available earth-science teaching medium which can be used to explore scientific concepts in the field, either directly or by analogy. Snow can be considered a mineral, sediment, sedimentary rock, or metamorphic rock. Natural processes such as crystal growth, melting, sedimentation, and metamorphism can be studied in practical time…
Bintz, William P.; Wright, Pam; Sheffer, Julie
Developing and implementing relevant, challenging, integrative, and exploratory curriculum is critical at all levels of schooling. This article describes one attempt to develop and implement an instance of interdisciplinary curriculum by using copy change with trade books to teach earth science. Specifically, it introduces trade books as a way to…
Harlandale Independent School District, San Antonio, TX. Career Education Center.
The guide is arranged in vertical columns relating curriculum concepts in earth science to curriculum performance objectives, career concepts and career performance objectives, suggested teaching methods, and resource materials. The course for eighth graders attempts to place the curriculum concepts in order of increasing difficulty. Occupational…
Ramachandran, Rahul; Lynnes, Christopher; Bingham, Andrew W.; Quam, Brandi M.
The purpose of this workshop was to hold interactive discussions where providers, users, and other stakeholders could explore the convergence of three main elements in the rapidly developing world of technology: Big Data, Cloud Computing, and Analytics, [for earth science data].
Forrest M. Hoffman; J. Walter Larson; Richard Tran Mills; Bhorn-Gustaf Brooks; Auroop R. Ganguly; William Hargrove; et al
From field-scale measurements to global climate simulations and remote sensing, the growing body of very large and long time series Earth science data are increasingly difficult to analyze, visualize, and interpret. Data mining, information theoretic, and machine learning techniquesâsuch as cluster analysis, singular value decomposition, block entropy, Fourier and...
Schwartz, Maurice L.; Slesnick, Irwin L.
Describes the rationale and structure of a newly developed earth science program for elementary school children (K-3). The activities involve pre-operational and concrete operational stages, progressing from one to the other. Children show sustained interest and enthusiasm as they investigate landforms, the moon, fossils, and weather phenomena.…
Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M. F.; Walter, J.
NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of satellites for long term global observations. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research by providing end-to-end services from EOS instrument data collection to science data processing to full access to EOS and other earth science data. On a daily basis, the EOSDIS ingests, processes, archives and distributes over 3 terabytes of data from NASA's Earth Science missions representing over 3500 data products ranging from various types of science disciplines. EOSDIS is currently comprised of 12 discipline specific data centers that are collocated with centers of science discipline expertise. Metadata is used in all aspects of NASA's Earth Science data lifecycle from the initial measurement gathering to the accessing of data products. Missions use metadata in their science data products when describing information such as the instrument/sensor, operational plan, and geographically region. Acting as the curator of the data products, data centers employ metadata for preservation, access and manipulation of data. EOSDIS provides a centralized metadata repository called the Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHouse (ECHO) for data discovery and access via a service-oriented-architecture (SOA) between data centers and science data users. ECHO receives inventory metadata from data centers who generate metadata files that complies with the ECHO Metadata Model. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project established a Tiger Team to study and make recommendations regarding the adoption of the international metadata standard ISO 19115 in EOSDIS. The result was a technical report recommending an evolution of NASA data systems towards a consistent application of ISO 19115 and related standards including the creation of a NASA-specific convention for core ISO 19115 elements. Part of
O'Neill, Alan; Steenman-Clark, Lois
The Earth system--comprising atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere and biosphere--is an immensely complex system, involving processes and interactions on a wide range of space- and time-scales. To understand and predict the evolution of the Earth system is one of the greatest challenges of modern science, with success likely to bring enormous societal benefits. High-performance computing, along with the wealth of new observational data, is revolutionizing our ability to simulate the Earth system with computer models that link the different components of the system together. There are, however, considerable scientific and technical challenges to be overcome. This paper will consider four of them: complexity, spatial resolution, inherent uncertainty and time-scales. Meeting these challenges requires a significant increase in the power of high-performance computers. The benefits of being able to make reliable predictions about the evolution of the Earth system should, on their own, amply repay this investment.
Hooper, Richard; Lilienfeld, Linda; Arrigo, Jennifer
With the success of An Inconvenient Truth, a movie about former U.S. vice president Al Gore's campaign to educate the public on global climate change, long-form documentaries, particularly those concerning environmental issues, are enjoying a renaissance. These films can be a powerful educational tool because they create teachable moments by heightening students' interest in environmental topics. Successful documentaries engage the audience emotionally and tell a compelling story, with heroes and villains. Often films touch on some scientific concepts and may even contain graphics and animations that are useful in explaining processes. However, they generally do not provide a balanced exposition of the science and technical issues that underlie the environmental problems described. Documentaries may advocate a particular policy position.
Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Smith, Matthew C.
It is a sad fact, or perhaps a happy one,that many geoscientists in academia willfind themselves in front of a classroom of100-300 undergraduate nonscience majors,lecturing to them for three hours per week.Whether it is `Rocks for Jocks' or `Waves forBabes,' students often are under the impressionthat geoscience classes will be the leastpainful way to fulfill their science creditrequirements. The sense of personal anonymitythat can accompany large-enrollmentclasses often results in a different level ofstudent engagement compared with smallerclasses. Thus, if students are physically presentat all, instructors often have only theirmuch-divided attention. How can professorskeep 300 students, even the ones in the backof the classroom who are barely visible,awake and engaged?
Engman, Edwin T.
The author reviews the development of passive and active microwave techniques for measuring soil moisture with respect to how the data may be used. New science programs such as the EOS, the GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) and STORM, a mesoscale meteorology and hydrology project, will have to account for soil moisture either as a storage in water balance computations or as a state variable in-process modeling. The author discusses future soil moisture needs such as frequency of measurement, accuracy, depth, and spatial resolution, as well as the concomitant model development that must proceed concurrently if the development in microwave technology is to have a major impact in these areas.
Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.
Archive-based, historical research of materials produced during the Golden Age of Geology (1788-1840) uncovered scientific caricatures (SCs) which may serve as a unique form of knowledge representation for students today. SCs played important roles in the past, stimulating critical inquiry among early geologists and fueling debates that addressed key theoretical issues. When historical SCs were utilized in a large-enrollment college Earth History course, student response was positive. Therefore, we offered SCs as an optional assessment tool. Paired t-tests that compared individual students’ performances with the SC option, as well as without the SC option, showed a significant positive difference favoring scientific caricatures ( α = 0.05). Content analysis of anonymous student survey responses revealed three consistent findings: (a) students enjoyed expressing science content correctly but creatively through SCs, (b) development of SCs required deeper knowledge integration and understanding of the content than conventional test items, and (c) students appreciated having SC item options on their examinations, whether or not they took advantage of them. We think that incorporation of SCs during assessment may effectively expand the variety of methods for probing understanding, thereby increasing the mode validity of current geoscience tests.
There is an increasing trend towards researchers working together using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. The EVER-EST project is developing a range of both generic and domain specific technologies, tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, to create a virtual research environment (VRE) that supports this type of dynamic collaborative research. The EVER-EST VRE provides a suite of services to overcome the existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing researchers to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, and with other domains beyond the Earth Sciences. Researchers will be able to seamlessly manage both the data and the scientific methods applied in their observations and modelling that lead to results that need to be attributable, validated and shared both within their communities and more widely in the form of scholarly communications.To ensure that the EVER-EST VRE meets the specific needs of the Earth Science domain, it is being developed and validated in consultation with four pre-selected virtual research communities (VRC) that include ocean observing, natural hazards, land monitoring and volcanic risk management. The requirements of these individual VRCs for data, software, best practice and community interaction are used to customise the VRE platform This user-centric approach allows the EVER-EST infrastructure to be assessed in terms of its capability to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of Earth Science communities for more effective collaboration, greater efficiency and increasingly innovative research. EVER-EST is a three year project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no 674907.
Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N.
The University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) has been offering on-line Earth System Science coursework to in-service teachers in Nebraska since 2002 through the Earth Systems Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). The goal of this course is to increase teacher content knowledge in Earth Science, introduce them to Earth System Science, and have them experience cooperative learning. We have offered three different ESSEA courses, with nearly 200 students having taken ESSEA courses at UNO for graduate credit. This effort represents a close collaboration between faculty and students from the Colleges of Arts & Sciences and Education, with periodic assistance of the local schools. In a follow-up study related to ESSEA coursework, UNO examined the perceptions of teachers who have taken the course and the potential benefits of the ESSEA courses for their own educational settings. The study was descriptive in design and included an online survey and a focus group. The results of these assessments indicated that the teachers felt very positive about what they learned in these courses, and in particular, how they could incorporate cooperative learning, inquiry based activities, and Earth System Science interconnections in their own classrooms. Problems identified by the teachers included a perceived lack of time to be able to integrate the learned material into their science curriculua and a lack of computer and/or technological resources in their educational settings. In addition, this Fall, we will conduct two teacher case studies, where we will interview two teachers, visit their classrooms, acquire work samples and talk with students. All of the results of our survey and focus group will be presented.
Jacobs, B. E.; Bohls-Graham, E.; Martinez, A. O.; Ellins, K. K.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Stocks, E.; Fox, S.; Kent, M.
Today's instruction in Earth's systems requires thoughtful selection of curricula, and in turn, high quality learning activities that address modern Earth science. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which are intended to guide K-12 science instruction, further demand a discriminating selection process. The DIG (Diversity & Innovation in Geoscience) Texas Instructional Blueprints attempt to fulfill this practice by compiling vetted educational resources freely available online into units that are the building blocks of the blueprints. Each blueprint is composed of 9 three-week teaching units and serves as a scope and sequence for teaching a one-year Earth science course. In the earliest stages of the project, teams explored the Internet for classroom-worthy resources, including laboratory investigations, videos, visualizations, and readings, and submitted the educational resources deemed suitable for the project into the project's online review tool. Each team member evaluated the educational resources chosen by fellow team members according to a set of predetermined criteria that had been incorporated into the review tool. Resources rated as very good or excellent by all team members were submitted to the project PIs for approval. At this stage, approved resources became candidates for inclusion in the blueprint units. Team members tagged approved resources with descriptors for the type of resource and instructional strategy, and aligned these to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Earth and Space Science and the Earth Science Literacy Principles. Each team then assembled and sequenced resources according to content strand, balancing the types of learning experiences within each unit. Once units were packaged, teams then considered how they addressed the NGSS and identified the relevant disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices. In addition to providing a brief overview of the project, this
This presentation reviews the GPS ENvironmental and Earth Science Information System (GENESIS). The objectives of GENESIS are outlined (1) Data Archiving, searching and distribution for science data products derived from Space borne TurboRogue Space Receivers for GPS science and other ground based GPS receivers, (2) Data browsing using integrated visualization tools, (3) Interactive web/java-based data search and retrieval, (4) Data subscription service, (5) Data migration from existing GPS archived data, (6) On-line help and documentation, and (7) participation in the WP-ESIP federation. The presentation reviews the products and services of Genesis, and the technology behind the system.
A number of technologies in digital media and interactivity have rapidly advanced and are now converging to enable rich, multi-sensoral experiences which create opportunities for both digital art and science communication. Techniques used in full-dome film-making can now be deployed in virtual reality experiences; gaming technologies can be utilised to explore real data sets; and collaborative interactivity enable new forms of public artwork. This session will explore these converging trends through a number of emerging and forthcoming projects dealing with Earth science, climate change and planetary science.
Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Bowles, Ryan P.
Research Findings The purpose of this study was to describe children’s science content knowledge and examine the early predictors of science content knowledge in a sample of 194 typically developing preschool children. Children’s science content knowledge was assessed in the fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) of the preschool year. Results showed that children exhibited significant gains in science content knowledge over the course of the preschool year. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that the level of maternal education (i.e., holding at least a bachelor’s degree) significantly predicted children’s Time 1 science content knowledge. Children’s cognitive, math, and language skills at Time 1 were all significant concurrent predictors of Time 1 science content knowledge. However, only Time 1 math skills significantly predicted residualized gains in science content knowledge (i.e., Time 2 scores with Time 1 scores as covariates). Practice or Policy Factors related to individual differences in young children’s science content knowledge may be important for early childhood educators to consider in their efforts to provide more support to children who may need help with science learning. PMID:25541574
Wertz, R.; Hutchinson, C.; Hardin, D.
The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners is a unique consortium of more than 90 organizations that collect, interpret and develop applications for remotely sensed Earth Observation Information. Included in the ESIP network are NASA, NOAA and USGS data centers, research universities, government research laboratories, supercomputer facilities, education resource providers, information technology innovators, nonprofit organizations and commercial enterprises. The consortium's work is dedicated to providing the most up-to-date, science-based information to researchers and decision-makers who are working to understand and address the environmental, economic and social challenges facing our planet. By increasing the use and usability of Earth observation data and linking it with decision-making tools, the Federation partners leverage the value of these important data resources for the betterment of society and our planet. To further the dissemination of Earth Science data, the Federation is developing the Earth Information Exchange (EIE). The EIE is a portal that will provide access to the vast information holdings of the members' organizations in one web-based location and will provides a robust marketplace in which the products and services needed to use and understand this information can be readily acquired. Since the Federation membership includes the federal government's Earth observing data centers, we believe that the impact of the EIE on Earth science research and education and environmental policy making will be profound. In the EIE, Earth observation data, products and services, are organized by the societal benefits categories defined by the international working group developing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The quality of the information is ensured in each of the Exchange's issue areas by maintaining working groups of issue area researchers and practitioners who serve as stewards for their respective communities. The
Güereque, M.; Pennington, D. D.; Pierce, S. A.
High-volume heterogeneous datasets are becoming ubiquitous, migrating to center stage over the last ten years and transcending the boundaries of computationally intensive disciplines into the mainstream, becoming a fundamental part of every science discipline. Despite the fact that large datasets are now pervasive across industries and academic disciplines, the array of skills is generally absent from earth science programs. This has left the bulk of the student population without access to curricula that systematically teach appropriate intelligent-systems skills, creating a void for skill sets that should be universal given their need and marketability. While some guidance regarding appropriate computational thinking and pedagogy is appearing, there exist few examples where these have been specifically designed and tested within the earth science domain. Furthermore, best practices from learning science have not yet been widely tested for developing intelligent systems-thinking skills. This research developed and tested evidence based computational skill modules that target this deficit with the intention of informing the earth science community as it continues to incorporate intelligent systems techniques and reasoning into its research and classrooms.
Cronin, V. S.
The nature of Earth’s interior is an active frontier of scientific research. Much of our current understanding of sub-crustal Earth is based on knowledge acquired in the last 2-3 decades, made possible by public funding and by dense seismic arrays, satellite remote sensing, increases in computer power that enable use of enhanced numerical techniques, improved theoretical and experimental knowledge of high PT mineral physics and chemistry, and a vigorous scientific community that has been trained to take advantage of these opportunities. An essential component of science is effective communication; therefore, providing for public education about science is a responsibility of the research community. Current public understanding of Earth’s interior is meager at best. In pre-college texts and in non-technical mass media, Earth's interior is typically visualized as an onion or baseball of concentric different-colored shells along whose upper surface "crustal" plates move like packages on conveyor belts of convecting mantle. Or the crust is thought to float on a molten mantle, as in the 19th century ideas of William Lowthian Green. Misconceptions about Earth that are brought to the undergraduate classroom must be confronted frankly and replaced by current understanding based on good science. Persistent ignorance has consequences. What do we want the public to know? First, the public should understand that knowledge of Earth's interior is important, not irrelevant. The public should know that deep-Earth processes result in Earth's dynamic magnetic field. Deep-Earth processes affect how radiation from the Sun reaches Earth, consequently affecting the atmosphere, the oceans, and the viability of life on Earth. The composition and differentiated structure of Earth's interior is a result of the early accretionary history of Earth and the Earth-Moon system. The public should also know that lithospheric tectonics, with all of its consequences (dynamic topography, volcanoes
Alaniz, S. A.; Nieto-Samaniego, A. F.
The Centro de Geociencias, at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, has published a series of booklets for children, entitled "Simple experiments to understand a complex Earth". It is part of the activities of the Mexican committee of the International Year of the Planet Earth. Each booklet contains experiments related with an Earth Sciences topic and includes the procedure to do one of the "Ten most beautiful experiments in physics" (Crease, P., Physics World May 2002 p17 and September 2002 pp19-20). In Mexico, as in other developing countries, there is very little information about Science in general and Earth Sciences in particular, in the basic education programs. Also, there is poor bibliography in Spanish about science experiments. For this reason, we try to fill the vacuum by distributing free the booklets in Science Museums and rural basic schools in paper, and by Internet in the Centro de Geociencias web site (http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/geociencias/difusion/indice.html). At present, we have been distributed 100,000 copies of 5 issues: 1."Atmospheric pressure and the falling bodies", it deals with the Galileo experiment of falling bodies, he proposed that all the bodies fall down at the same velocity. We discuss the properties of the atmosphere air (temperature, pressure and volume) and concluded that Galileo is right but when the bodies are very light. 2. "The light and the colors" is based in the Newton's decomposition of sunlight with a prism experiment. This booklet contains nine experiments to explain the colors that we find in Earth like the blue of the sky, the orange of the sunset, the rainbow and the mirage. 3. "¿Eureka! oceans and continents float". This booklet presents seven experiments related with density and buoyancy to explain the principles of the Plate tectonics theory. 4. "Climate hanging by a thread", Foucault pendulum demonstrates the rotation of Earth without seeing the stars, in this booklet, we explain, through 9
Kempler, Steven; Barbieri, Lindsay
Data analytics is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. Data analytics is a broad term that includes data analysis, as well as an understanding of the cognitive processes an analyst uses to understand problems and explore data in meaningful ways. Analytics also include data extraction, transformation, and reduction, utilizing specific tools, techniques, and methods. Turning to data science, definitions of data science sound very similar to those of data analytics (which leads to a lot of the confusion between the two). But the skills needed for both, co-analyzing large amounts of heterogeneous data, understanding and utilizing relevant tools and techniques, and subject matter expertise, although similar, serve different purposes. Data Analytics takes on a practitioners approach to applying expertise and skills to solve issues and gain subject knowledge. Data Science, is more theoretical (research in itself) in nature, providing strategic actionable insights and new innovative methodologies. Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining, preparing, reducing, and analyzing large amounts of spatial (multi-dimensional), temporal, or spectral data using a variety of data types to uncover patterns, correlations and other information, to better understand our Earth. The large variety of datasets (temporal spatial differences, data types, formats, etc.) invite the need for data analytics skills that understand the science domain, and data preparation, reduction, and analysis techniques, from a practitioners point of view. The application of these skills to ESDA is the focus of this presentation. The Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster was created in recognition of the practical need to facilitate the co-analysis of large amounts of data and information for Earth science. Thus, from a to
Russell, R. M.
We will demonstrate several interactive, computer-based simulations, games, and other interactive multimedia. These resources were developed for weather, climate, atmospheric science, and related Earth system science education. The materials were created by education groups at NCAR/UCAR in Boulder, primarily Spark and the COMET Program. These materials have been disseminated via Spark's web site (spark.ucar.edu), webinars, online courses, teacher workshops, and large touchscreen displays in weather and Sun-Earth connections exhibits in NCAR's Mesa Lab facility. Spark has also assembled a web-based list of similar resources, especially simulations and games, from other sources that touch upon weather, climate, and atmospheric science topics. We'll briefly demonstrate this directory.
Ellins, K. K.; Bohls-Graham, E.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Jacobs, B. E.; Martinez, A. O.; Fox, S.; Kent, M.; Stocks, E.; Pennington, D. D.
The NSF-sponsored DIG Texas Instructional Blueprint project supports the development of online instructional blueprints for a yearlong high school-level Earth science course. Each blueprint stitches together three-week units that contain curated educational resources aligned with the Texas state standards for Earth and Space Science and the Earth Science Literacy Principles. Units focus on specific geoscience content, place-based concerns, features or ideas, or other specific conceptual threads. Five regional teams composed of geoscientists, pedagogy specialists, and practicing science teachers chose unit themes and resources for twenty-two units during three workshops. In summer 2014 three Education Interns (Earth science teachers) spent six weeks refining the content of the units and aligning them with the Next Generation Science Standards. They also assembled units into example blueprints. The cross-disciplinary collaboration among blueprint team members allowed them to develop knowledge in new areas and to share their own discipline-based knowledge and perspectives. Team members and Education Interns learned where to find and how to evaluate high quality geoscience educational resources, using a web-based resource review tool developed by the Science Education Resource Center (SERC). SERC is the repository for the DIG Texas blueprint web pages. Work is underway to develop automated tools to allow educators to compile resources into customized instructional blueprints by reshuffling units within an existing blueprint, by mixing units from other blueprints, or creating new units and blueprints. These innovations will enhance the use of the units by secondary Earth science educators beyond Texas. This presentation provides an overview of the project, shows examples of blueprints and units, reports on the preliminary results of classroom implementation by Earth science teachers, and considers challenges encountered in developing and testing the blueprints. The
Haidl, F. M.; Vodden, C.; Bates, J. L.; Morgan, A. V.
CGEN, the outreach arm of the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences, is a network of more than 270 individuals from all over Canada who work to promote geoscience education and public awareness of science. CGEN's priorities are threefold: to improve the quality of Earth science education delivered in our primary and secondary schools; to raise public awareness about the Earth sciences and their impact on everyday life; and to encourage student interest in the Earth sciences as a career option. These priorities are supported by CGEN's six core programs: 1) The national EdGEO program (www.edgeo.org), initiated in the 1970s, supports Earth science workshops for teachers. These workshops, organized by teams of local educators and geoscientists, provide teachers with "enhanced knowledge, classroom resources and increased confidence" to more effectively teach Earth science. In 2008, a record 521 teachers attended 14 EdGEO workshops. 2) EarthNet (www.earthnet-geonet.ca) is a virtual resource centre that provides support for teachers and for geoscientists involved in education and outreach. In 2008, EarthNet received a $11,500 grant from Encana Corporation to develop energy-related content. 3) The new Careers in Earth Science website (www.earthsciencescanada.com/careers), launched in October 2008, enhances CGEN's capacity to encourage students to pursue a career in the Earth sciences. This project exemplifies the value of collaboration with other organizations. Seven groups provided financial support for the project and many other organizations and individuals contributed in-kind support. 4) Geoscape Canada and Waterscape Canada, programs led by the Geological Survey of Canada, communicate practical Earth science information to teachers, students, and other members of communities across Canada through a series of electronic and hard-copy posters and other resources. Many of the resources created from 1998 to 2007 are available online (www.geoscape.nrcan.gc.ca). A northern
Schwerin, T. G.; deCharon, A.; Brown de Colstoun, E. C.; Chambers, L. H.; Woroner, M.; Taylor, J.; Callery, S.; Jackson, R.; Riebeek, H.; Butcher, G. J.
Earth Science Week (ESW) - the 2nd full week in October - is a national and international event to help the public, particularly educators and students, gain a better understanding and appreciation for the Earth sciences. The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) organizes ESW, along with partners including NASA, using annual themes (e.g., the theme for 2014 is Earth's Connected Systems). ESW provides a unique opportunity for NASA scientists and engineers across multiple missions and projects to share NASA STEM, their personal stories and enthusiasm to engage and inspire the next generation of Earth explorers. Over the past five years, NASA's ESW campaign has been planned and implemented by a cross-mission/cross-project group, led by the NASA Earth Science Education and Pubic Outreach Forum, and utilizing a wide range of media and approaches (including both English- and Spanish-language events and content) to deliver NASA STEM to teachers and students. These included webcasts, social media (blogs, twitter chats, Google+ hangouts, Reddit Ask Me Anything), videos, printed and online resources, and local events and visits to classrooms. Dozens of NASA scientists, engineers, and communication and education specialists contribute and participate each year. This presentation will provide more information about this activity and offer suggestions and advice for others engaging scientists and engineers in education and outreach programs and events.
Conover, H.; Plale, B.; Aktas, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Purohit, P.; Jensen, S.; Graves, S. J.
As the sheer volume of data increases, particularly evidenced in the earth and environmental sciences, local arrangements for sharing data need to be replaced with reliable records about the what, who, how, and where of a data set or collection. This is frequently called the provenance of a data set. While observational data processing systems in the earth sciences have a long history of capturing metadata about the processing pipeline, current processes are limited in both what is captured and how it is disseminated to the science community. Provenance capture plays a role in scientific data preservation and stewardship precisely because it can automatically capture and represent a coherent picture of the what, how and who of a particular scientific collection. It reflects the transformations that a data collection underwent prior to its current form and the sequence of tasks that were executed and data products applied to generate a new product. In the NASA-funded Instant Karma project, we examine provenance capture in earth science applications, specifically the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Science Investigator-led Processing system (SIPS). The project is integrating the Karma provenance collection and representation tool into the AMSR-E SIPS production environment, with an initial focus on Sea Ice. This presentation will describe capture and representation of provenance that is guided by the Open Provenance Model (OPM). Several things have become clear during the course of the project to date. One is that core OPM entities and relationships are not adequate for expressing the kinds of provenance that is of interest in the science domain. OPM supports name-value pair annotations that can be used to augment what is known about the provenance entities and relationships, but in Karma, annotations cannot be added during capture, but only after the fact. This limits the capture system's ability to record something it
Ferrero, Elena; Magagna, Alessandra
reconstructing situations recognizable only by clues and following events widely spread in geologic times. These examples will illustrate how methodologies and strategies have been applied to achieve the following purposes: (i) to act according to the principles of geoethics in the formation of professionals of Geosciences education and communication; (ii) to increase individual and collective awareness of the interference of mankind on natural systems, especially on geological heritage. All the mentioned activities have been designed following these common strategies: - to respect and to value the great emotional impact of the issues proposed; - to lighten the irrational aspects of an approximate communication carried out by some media; - to place the impulsive events between the effects of "normal" terrestrial dynamical processes; - to train to a constant and curious attention towards "common" situations, in order to be able to interpret them with awareness; - to highlight the complexity of the phenomena and the richness of the relations between abiotic and living world, despite of convenient simplifications; - to highlight the role of mankind in the system of relationships, as "victim" or "creator" of the changes; - to encourage the awareness of individual responsibility, to enhance the development of a respectful and careful attitude towards other living beings and the Earth system, attitude mindful of the values and the need to protect them. The importance of taking care of the communication approach has been evaluated and tested, giving constant attention to the interlocutors participation, creating informal moments of dialogue, valuing the contributions of their previous knowledge and experience, integrating other contributions of knowledge, relevant to the humanities and the arts.
Beginning in 2004, NASA has supported the development of an international network of ground-based remote sensing installations for the measurement of greenhouse gas columns. This collaboration has been successful and is currently used in both carbon cycle investigations and in the efforts to validate the GOSAT space-based column observations of CO2 and CH4. With the support of a grant, this research group has established a network of ground-based column observations that provide an essential link between the satellite observations of CO2, CO, and CH4 and the extensive global in situ surface network. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) was established in 2004. At the time of this report seven sites, employing modern instrumentation, were operational or were expected to be shortly. TCCON is expected to expand. In addition to providing the most direct means of tying the in situ and remote sensing data sets together, TCCON provides a means of testing the retrieval algorithms of SCIAMACHY and GOSAT over the broadest variation in atmospheric state. TCCON provides a critically maintained and long timescale record for identification of temporal drift and spatial bias in the calibration of the space-based sensors. Finally, the global observations from TCCON are improving our understanding of how to use column observations to provide robust estimates of surface exchange of C02 and CH4 in advance of the launch of OCO and GOSAT. TCCON data are being used to better understand the impact of both regional fluxes and long-range transport on gradients in the C02 column. Such knowledge is essential for identifying the tools required to best use the space-based observations. The technical approach and methodology of retrieving greenhouse gas columns from near-IR solar spectra, data quality and process control are described. Additionally, the impact of and relevance to NASA of TCCON and satellite validation and carbon science are addressed.
Fadhli, Fathi Ali
The Science Technology Society (STS) approach is a major science education reform through which a scientifically literate citizen could be produced. The teaching of science through STS approach is centered on science and technology related issues and problems. The purpose of this study was to analyze five earth science textbooks published in the 1990's for their inclusion of twelve sciences and technology related issues and problems and for their inclusion of activities focused on STS. The selected earth science textbooks were; Scott Foresman, Heath, Holt, Merrill and Prentice-Hall. The targeted twelve issues and problems were identified by Bybee (1987), as the most important global science and technology related issues and problems. The numbers of full text pages devoted to each topic were determined by classifying each segment to one of the targeted topics. In addition, the numbers of STS activities were also determined by using criteria developed for this study. ANOVA statistical analyses and t-tests showed that the analyzed earth science textbooks treated the studied STS issues and problems and treated the STS activities differently. It was found that six of the studied issues and problems were constantly receiving more attention in all the analyzed earth science textbooks than the rest of the topics. These topics were; Air Quality and Atmosphere, Energy Shortages, Water Resources, Land Use, Hazardous Substances, and Mineral Resources. The overall results revealed that only an average of 8.82% of the text pages in all the analyzed earth science textbooks were devoted to STS topics and 5.49% of the activities in all the analyzed earth science textbooks were focused on STS topics. However, none of the activities focused on STS topics were presented in STS approach as defined by NSTA. The percentage of STS topics inclusion and the percentage of activities focused on STS topics were considered to be very low. Accordingly, the objectives and goals of STS approach
Baynes, Katie; Pilone, Dan; Boller, Ryan; Meyer, David; Murphy, Kevin
The overarching purpose of NASAs Earth Science program is to develop a scientific understanding of Earth as a system. Scientific knowledge is most robust and actionable when resulting from transparent, traceable, and reproducible methods. Reproducibility includes open access to the data as well as the software used to arrive at results. Additionally, software that is custom-developed for NASA should be open to the greatest degree possible, to enable re-use across Federal agencies, reduce overall costs to the government, remove barriers to innovation, and promote consistency through the use of uniform standards. Finally, Open Source Software (OSS) practices facilitate collaboration between agencies and the private sector. To best meet these ends, NASAs Earth Science Division promotes the full and open sharing of not only all data, metadata, products, information, documentation, models, images, and research results but also the source code used to generate, manipulate and analyze them. This talk focuses on the challenges to open sourcing NASA developed software within ESD and the growing pains associated with establishing policies running the gamut of tracking issues, properly documenting build processes, engaging the open source community, maintaining internal compliance, and accepting contributions from external sources. This talk also covers the adoption of existing open source technologies and standards to enhance our custom solutions and our contributions back to the community. Finally, we will be introducing the most recent OSS contributions from NASA Earth Science program and promoting these projects for wider community review and adoption.
The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched a new initiative called the Changing Earth Science Network, to support young scientists undertaking leading-edge research activities aimed at advancing the understanding of the Earth system. The initiative will enable up to 10 young postdoctoral researchers from the agency's member states to address major scientific challenges by using Earth observation (EO) satellite data from ESA and its third-party missions. The initiative aims to foster the development of a network of young scientists in Europe with a good knowledge of the agency and its EO programs. Selected candidates will have the option to carry out part of their research in an ESA center as a visiting scientist. The deadline to submit proposals is 16 January 2009. Selections will be announced in early 2009. The Changing Earth Science Network was developed as one of the main programmatic components of ESA's Support to Science Element, launched in 2008. For more information, visit http://www.esa.int/stse.
Ganguly, A. R.
Even as the geosciences are becoming relatively data-rich owing to remote sensing and archived model simulations, established physical understanding and process knowledge cannot be ignored. The ability to leverage both physics and data-intensive sciences may lead to new discoveries and predictive insights. A principled approach to physics guided data science, where physics informs feature selection, output constraints, and even the architecture of the learning models, is motivated. The possibility of hybrid physics and data science models at the level of component processes is discussed. The challenges and opportunities, as well as the relations to other approaches such as data assimilation - which also bring physics and data together - are discussed. Case studies are presented in climate, hydrology and meteorology.
Thieman, J. R.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.
The year 2001 marked the first observance of Sun-Earth Day as an event to celebrate the strong interconnection of the life we have on Earth and the dependence of it on the dynamic influence of the Sun. The science of the Sun-Earth Connection has grown dramatically with new satellite and ground-based studies of the Sun and the Sun's extended "atmosphere" in which we live. Space weather is becoming a more common concept that people know can affect their lives. An understanding of the importance of the Sun's dynamic behavior and how this shapes the solar system and especially the Earth is the aim of Sun-Earth Day. The first Sun-Earth event actually took place over two days, April 27 and 28, 2001, in order to accommodate all the events which were planned both in the classroom on Friday the 27th and in more informal settings on Saturday the 28th. The Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) organized the creation of ten thousand packets of educational materials about Sun-Earth Day and distributed them mostly to teachers who were trained to use them in the classroom. Many packets, however, went to science centers, museums, and planetariums as resource materials for programs associated with Sun-Earth Day. Over a hundred scientists used the event as an opportunity to communicate their love of science to audiences in these informal settings. Sun-Earth Day was also greatly assisted by the Amateur Astronomical Society which used the event as a theme for their annual promotion of astronomy in programs given around the country. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a satellite mission jointly sponsored by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), used Sun-Earth Day in conjunction with the fifth anniversary celebration of SOHO as a basis for many programs and events, especially a large number of happenings in Europe. These included observing parties, art exhibits, demonstrations, etc. Examples of some of the innovative ways that Sun-Earth Day was brought into people
Ramaprian, Hampapuram K.; Moses, John F.
Long-term data sets with data from many missions are needed to study trends and validate model results that are typical in Earth System Science research. Data and derived products originate from multiple missions (spaceborne, airborne and/or in situ) and from multiple organizations. During the missions as well as well past their termination, it is essential to preserve the data and products to support future studies. Key aspects of preservation are: preserving bits and ensuring data are uncorrupted, preserving understandability with appropriate documentation, and preserving reproducibility of science with appropriate documentation and other artifacts. Computer technology provides adequate standards to ensure that, with proper engineering, bits are preserved as hardware evolves. However, to ensure understandability and reproducibility, it is essential to plan ahead to preserve all the relevant data and information. There are currently no standards to identify the content that needs to be preserved, leading to non-uniformity in content and users not being sure of whether preserved content is comprehensive. Each project, program or agency can specify the items to be preserved as a part of its data management requirements. However, broader community consensus that cuts across organizational or national boundaries would be needed to ensure comprehensiveness, uniformity and long-term utility of archived data. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), a diverse network of scientists, data stewards and technology developers, has a forum for ESIP members to collaborate on data preservation issues. During early 2011, members discussed the importance of developing a Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS) and developed an initial list of content items. This list is based on the outcome of a NASA and NOAA meeting held in 1998 under the auspices of the USGCRP, documentation requirements from NOAA and our experience with some of the NASA Earth science
Earth science applications of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are discussed. Prospective research themes are defined in a general sense in relation to the technical measurement capabilities of the TM and the various types of Earth information that can potentially be derived from multispectral TM imagery. An overview of the system developed to acquire and reduce TM data is presented. The technical capabilities of this system are presented in detail. The orbital performance of the TM sensor is described, based upon the analysis of LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data collected to date.
Narasimhan, T N
The beginning of the 21st century has coincided with our recognition that life-sustaining earth cycles are remarkably fine-tuned, and that humans have developed technological abilities to perturb these cycles. Also, inspired bythe gifts of freedom and democracy, humans have given themselves laws to exploit nature for profit. The upshot is that nature's balance, governed by immutable physical laws, is being confronted by social laws driven by human aspirations. This conflict and its implications to the human relevance of the earth sciences are explored in the context of an extraordinary tradition of European culture known as public trust.
This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the "science content" expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within…
Penuel, W. R.; Kreikemeier, P.; Venezky, D.; Blank, J. G.; Davatzes, A.; Davatzes, N.
Curricular standards developed for individual U.S. States tell teachers what they should teach. Most sets of standards are too numerous to be taught in a single year, forcing teachers to make decisions about what to emphasize in their curriculum. Ideally, such decisions would be based on what matters most in Earth science, namely, the big ideas that anchor scientific inquiry in the field. A measure of teachers' ability to associate curriculum standards with fundamental concepts in Earth science would help K-12 program and curriculum developers to bridge gaps in teachers' knowledge in order to help teachers make better decisions about what is most important to teach and communicate big ideas to students. This paper presents preliminary results of an attempt to create and validate a measure of teachers' comprehension of what matters in three sub-disciplines of Earth science. This measure was created as part of an experimental study of teacher professional development in Earth science. It is a task that requires teachers to take their state's curriculum standards and identify which standards are necessary or supplemental to developing students' understanding of fundamental concepts in the target sub-disciplines. To develop the task, a team of assessment experts and educational researchers asked a panel of four Earth scientists to identify key concepts embedded within middle school standards for the state of Florida. The Earth science panel reached a consensus on which standards needed to be taught in order to develop understanding of those concepts; this was used as a basis for comparison with teacher responses. Preliminary analysis of the responses of 44 teachers who participated in a pilot validation study identified differences between teachers' and scientists' maps of standards to big ideas in the sub-disciplines. On average, teachers identified just under one-third of the connections seen by expert Earth scientists between the concepts and their state standards
Kuo, K.-S.; Clune, T. L.; Ramachandran, R.
Anyone with even a cursory interest in information technology cannot help but recognize that "Big Data" is one of the most fashionable catchphrases of late. From accurate voice and facial recognition, language translation, and airfare prediction and comparison, to monitoring the real-time spread of flu, Big Data techniques have been applied to many seemingly intractable problems with spectacular successes. They appear to be a rewarding way to approach many currently unsolved problems. Few fields of research can claim a longer history with problems involving voluminous data than Earth science. The problems we are facing today with our Earth's future are more complex and carry potentially graver consequences than the examples given above. How has our climate changed? Beside natural variations, what is causing these changes? What are the processes involved and through what mechanisms are these connected? How will they impact life as we know it? In attempts to answer these questions, we have resorted to observations and numerical simulations with ever-finer resolutions, which continue to feed the "data deluge." Plausibly, many Earth scientists are wondering: How will Big Data technologies benefit Earth science research? As an example from the global water cycle, one subdomain among many in Earth science, how would these technologies accelerate the analysis of decades of global precipitation to ascertain the changes in its characteristics, to validate these changes in predictive climate models, and to infer the implications of these changes to ecosystems, economies, and public health? Earth science researchers need a viable way to harness the power of Big Data technologies to analyze large volumes and varieties of data with velocity and veracity. Beyond providing speedy data analysis capabilities, Big Data technologies can also play a crucial, albeit indirect, role in boosting scientific productivity by facilitating effective collaboration within an analysis environment
D'Agnese, F. A.
Earth Knowledge is developing a web-based 'Knowledge Portal and Collaboration Environment' that will serve as the information-technology-based foundation of a modular Internet-based Earth-Systems Monitoring, Analysis, and Management Tool. This 'Knowledge Portal' is essentially a 'mash- up' of web-based and client-based tools and services that support on-line collaboration, community discussion, and broad public dissemination of earth and environmental science information in a wide-area distributed network. In contrast to specialized knowledge-management or geographic-information systems developed for long- term and incremental scientific analysis, this system will exploit familiar software tools using industry standard protocols, formats, and APIs to discover, process, fuse, and visualize existing environmental datasets using Google Earth and Google Maps. An early form of these tools and services is being used by Earth Knowledge to facilitate the investigations and conversations of scientists, resource managers, and citizen-stakeholders addressing water resource sustainability issues in the Great Basin region of the desert southwestern United States. These ongoing projects will serve as use cases for the further development of this information-technology infrastructure. This 'Knowledge Portal' will accelerate the deployment of Earth- system data and information into an operational knowledge management system that may be used by decision-makers concerned with stewardship of water resources in the American Desert Southwest.
Hartley, Jonathan B.
Since the beginning of space remote sensing of the earth, there has been a natural progression widening the range of electromagnetic radiation used to sense the earth, and slowly, steadily increasing the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution of the measurements. There has also been a somewhat slower trend toward active measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum, motivated in part by increased resolution, but also by the ability to make new measurements. Active microwave instruments have been used to measure ocean topography, to study the land surface. and to study rainfall from space. Future NASA active microwave missions may add detail to the topographical studies, sense soil moisture, and better characterize the cryosphere. Only recently have active optical instruments been flown in space by NASA; however, there are currently several missions in development which will sense the earth with lasers and many more conceptual active optical missions which address the priorities of NASA's earth science program. Missions are under development to investigate the structure of the terrestrial vegetation canopy, to characterize the earth's ice caps, and to study clouds and aerosols. Future NASA missions may measure tropospheric vector winds and make vastly improved measurements of the chemical components of the earth's atmosphere.
Clark, R. D.
For nearly 40 years, the Department of Earth Sciences at Millersville University (MU-DES) of Pennsylvania has been preparing students for careers in the earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences by providing a rigorous and comprehensive curricula leading to B.S. degrees in geology, meteorology, and oceanography. Undergraduate research is a hallmark of these earth sciences programs with over 30 students participating in some form of meritorious research each year. These programs are rich in applied physics, couched in mathematics, and steeped in technical computing and computer languages. Our success is measured by the number of students that find meaningful careers or go on to earn graduate degrees in their respective fields, as well as the high quality of faculty that the department has retained over the years. Student retention rates in the major have steadily increased with the introduction of a formal learning community and peer mentoring initiatives, and the number of new incoming freshmen and transfer students stands at an all-time high. Yet until recently, the disciplines have remained largely disparate with only minor inroads made into integrating courses that seek to address the Earth as a system. This is soon to change as the MU-DES unveils a new program leading to a B.S. in Integrated Earth Systems. The B.S. in Integrated Earth Systems (ISS) is not a reorganization of existing courses to form a marketable program. Instead, it is a fully integrated program two years in development that borrows from the multi-disciplinary backgrounds and experiences of faculty, while bringing in resources that are tailored to visualizing and modeling the Earth system. The result is the creation of a cross-cutting curriculum designed to prepare the 21st century student for the challenges and opportunities attending the holistic study of the Earth as a system. MU-DES will continue to offer programs leading to degrees in geology, meteorology, and ocean science, but in addition
Maskey, Manil; Ramachandran, Rahul; Li, Xiang; Weigel, Amanda; Bugbee, Kaylin; Gatlin, Patrick; Miller, J. J.
Earth science data are being collected for various science needs and applications, processed using different algorithms at multiple resolutions and coverages, and then archived at different archiving centers for distribution and stewardship causing difficulty in data discovery. Curation, which typically occurs in museums, art galleries, and libraries, is traditionally defined as the process of collecting and organizing information around a common subject matter or a topic of interest. Curating data sets around topics or areas of interest addresses some of the data discovery needs in the field of Earth science, especially for unanticipated users of data. This paper describes a methodology to automate search and selection of data around specific phenomena. Different components of the methodology including the assumptions, the process, and the relevancy ranking algorithm are described. The paper makes two unique contributions to improving data search and discovery capabilities. First, the paper describes a novel methodology developed for automatically curating data around a topic using Earth science metadata records. Second, the methodology has been implemented as a stand-alone web service that is utilized to augment search and usability of data in a variety of tools.
Spatiotemporal processes occur in many areas of earth sciences and engineering. However, most of the available theoretical tools and techniques of space-time daft processing have been designed to operate exclusively in time or in space, and the importance of spatiotemporal variability was not fully appreciated until recently. To address this problem, a systematic framework of spatiotemporal random field (S/TRF) models for geoscience/engineering applications is presented and developed in this thesis. The space-tune continuity characterization is one of the most important aspects in S/TRF modelling, where the space-time continuity is displayed with experimental spatiotemporal variograms, summarized in terms of space-time continuity hypotheses, and modelled using spatiotemporal variogram functions. Permissible spatiotemporal covariance/variogram models are addressed through permissibility criteria appropriate to spatiotemporal processes. The estimation of spatiotemporal processes is developed in terms of spatiotemporal kriging techniques. Particular emphasis is given to the singularity analysis of spatiotemporal kriging systems. The impacts of covariance, functions, trend forms, and data configurations on the singularity of spatiotemporal kriging systems are discussed. In addition, the tensorial invariance of universal spatiotemporal kriging systems is investigated in terms of the space-time trend. The conditional simulation of spatiotemporal processes is proposed with the development of the sequential group Gaussian simulation techniques (SGGS), which is actually a series of sequential simulation algorithms associated with different group sizes. The simulation error is analyzed with different covariance models and simulation grids. The simulated annealing technique honoring experimental variograms, is also proposed, providing a way of conditional simulation without the covariance model fitting which is prerequisite for most simulation algorithms. The proposed
Nowicki, Barbara L.; Sullivan-Watts, Barbara; Shim, Minsuk K.; Young, Betty; Pockalny, Robert
Elementary teachers face increasing demands to engage children in authentic science process and argument while simultaneously preparing them with knowledge of science facts, vocabulary, and concepts. This reform is particularly challenging due to concerns that elementary teachers lack adequate science background to teach science accurately. This…
Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.
Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.
Simpson, D.; Blewitt, G.; Ekstrom, G.; Henyey, T.; Hickman, S.; Prescott, W.; Zoback, M.
EarthScope is a scientific research and infrastructure initiative designed to provide a suite of new observational facilities to address fundamental questions about the evolution of continents and the processes responsible for earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The integrated observing systems that will comprise EarthScope capitalize on recent developments in sensor technology and communications to provide Earth scientists with synoptic and high-resolution data derived from a variety of geophysical sensors. An array of 400 broadband seismometers will spend more than ten years crossing the contiguous 48 states and Alaska to image features that make up the internal structure of the continent and underlying mantle. Additional seismic and electromagnetic instrumentation will be available for high resolution imaging of geological targets of special interest. A network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and sensitive borehole strainmeters will be installed along the western U.S. plate boundary. These sensors will measure how western North America is deforming, what motions occur along faults, how earthquakes start, and how magma flows beneath active volcanoes. A four-kilometer deep observatory bored directly into the San Andreas fault will provide the first opportunity to observe directly the conditions under which earthquakes occur, to collect fault rocks and fluids for laboratory study, and to monitor continuously an active fault zone at depth. All data from the EarthScope facilities will be openly available in real-time to maximize participation from the scientific community and to provide on-going educational outreach to students and the public. EarthScope's sensors will revolutionize observational Earth science in terms of the quantity, quality and spatial extent of the data they provide. Turning these data into exciting scientific discovery will require new modes of experimentation and interdisciplinary cooperation from the Earth
Holliday, Gary M.; Lederman, Norman G.; Lederman, Judith S.
This study looked at a life science course that was offered at and taught by education staff of a large informal science institution (ISI) located in the Midwest. The curriculum, materials, and agendas for the course were developed by education staff and complemented a permanent life science exhibition. The researcher developed a content test…
Schwols, Amitra; Miller, Kirsten Brush
Science teachers know that the mathematics concepts taught in the Common Core are critical for students' understanding of science. But what can a teacher do when his/her students lack the necessary mathematics skills to master science content? There may be other reasons besides students not paying attention in their math courses. Maybe the…
Zendler, A.; Spannagel, C.; Klaudt, D.
Constructivist approaches to computer science education emphasize that as well as knowledge, thinking skills and processes are involved in active knowledge construction. K-12 computer science curricula must not be based on fashions and trends, but on contents and processes that are observable in various domains of computer science, that can be…
The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of how preservice science teachers' science teaching orientations, viewed as an interrelated set of beliefs, interact with the other components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Eight preservice science teachers participated in the study. Qualitative data were collected in the…
Ahrens, T. J.
It is pointed out that shock wave data for: (1) low temperature condensable gases H2 and He, (2) H2O, CH4, NH3, CO, CO2, and N2 ices, and (3) silicates, metals, oxides and sulfides have many applications in geophysics and planetary science. The present paper is concerned with such applications. The composition of planetary interiors is discussed, taking into account the division of the major constituent of the planets in three groups on the basis of 'cosmic abundance' arguments, the H-He mixtures in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, shock wave data for hydrogen, and constraints on the internal structure of Uranus and Neptune. Attention is also given to the earth's mantle, shock wave data for mantle materials, the earth's core, impacts on planetary surfaces, elastic wave velocities as a function of pressure along the Hugoniot of iron, and reactions which yield the CO2 bearing atmospheres for Venus, earth, and Mars.
Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos
The mission of EPOS is to build an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the solid Earth sciences in Europe. In particular, EPOS is a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data, models and facilities from mainly distributed existing, but also new, research infrastructures for Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes, ground stability, and tsunamis as well as those processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a significant step forward by developing new concepts and tools for accurate, durable, and sustainable answers to societal questions concerning geo-hazards and those geodynamic phenomena relevant to the environment and human welfare. EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and is building the integrating RI elements. This integration requires a significant coordination between, among others, disciplinary (thematic) communities, national RIs policies and initiatives, as well as geo- and IT-scientists. The RIs that EPOS coordinates include: i) Regionally-distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) Local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) Analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) Integrated satellite data and geological information services. We present the results achieved during the EPOS Preparatory Phase (which will end on October 2014) and the progress towards construction in terms of both the design of the integrated core services (ICS) and the development of thematic core services (TCS) for the different communities participating to the integration plan. We will focus on discussing the strategies adopted to foster the necessary implementation of TCS, clarifying their crucial role as domain