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Sample records for earth sesquiselenides ln

  1. Structure determination and characterization of two rare-earth molybdenum borate compounds: LnMoBO(6) (Ln = La, Ce).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Cheng, Wen-Dan; Zhang, Hao; Hang, Shu-Ping; Fang, Ming

    2008-07-28

    The structural, optical, and electronic properties of two rare-earth molybdenum borate compounds, LnMoBO(6) (Ln = La, Ce), have been investigated by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, and spectral measurements, as well as calculations of energy band structures, density of states, and optical response functions by the density functional method. The title compounds, which crystallize in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c, possess a similar network of interconnected [Ce(2)(MoO(4))(2)](2+) chains and [BO(2)](-) wavy chains. Novel 1D molybdenum oxide chains are contained in their three-dimensional (3D) networks. The calculated results of crystal energy band structure by the density functional theory (DFT) method show that the solid-state compound LaMoBO(6) is a semiconductor with indirect band gaps.

  2. Studies on phase transition temperature of rare earth niobates Ln3NbO7 (Ln = Pr, Sm, Eu) with orthorhombic fluorite-related structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinatsu, Yukio; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2017-06-01

    The phase transition of ternary rare earth niobates Ln3NbO7 (Ln = Pr, Sm, Eu) was investigated by the measurements of high-temperature and low-temperature X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). These compounds crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure derived from the structure of cubic fluorite (space group Pnma for Ln = Pr; C2221 for Ln = Sm, Eu). Sm3NbO7 undergoes the phase transition when the temperature is increased through ca. 1080 K and above the transition temperature, its structure is well described with space group Pnma. For Eu3NbO7, the phase transition was not observed up to 1273 K Pr3NbO7 indicates the phase transition when the temperature is increased through ca. 370 K. The change of the phase transition temperature against the Ln ionic radius for Ln3NbO7 is quite different from those for Ln3MO7 (M = Mo, Ru, Re, Os, or Ir), i.e., no systematic relationship between the phase transition temperature and the Ln ionic radius has been observed for Ln3NbO7 compounds.

  3. Magnetic interactions in rhenium-containing rare earth double perovskites Sr{sub 2}LnReO{sub 6} (Ln=rare earths)

    SciT

    Nishiyama, Atsuhide; Doi, Yoshihiro; Hinatsu, Yukio, E-mail: hinatsu@sci.hokudai.ac.jp

    The perovskite-type compounds containing both rare earth and rhenium Sr{sub 2}LnReO{sub 6} (Ln=Y, Tb-Lu) have been prepared. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld analysis show that Ln{sup 3+} and Re{sup 5+} ions are structurally ordered at the B site of the perovskite SrBO{sub 3}. Magnetic anomalies are found in their magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements at 2.6–20 K for Ln=Y, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu compounds. They are due to magnetic interactions between Re{sup 5+} ions. The results of the magnetic hysteresis and remnant magnetization measurements for Sr{sub 2}YReO{sub 6} and Sr{sub 2}LuReO{sub 6} indicate that the antiferromagnetic interactions betweenmore » Re{sup 5+} ions below transition temperatures have a weak ferromagnetic component. The analysis of the magnetic specific heat data for Sr{sub 2}YbReO{sub 6} shows that both the Yb{sup 3+} and Re{sup 5+} ions magnetically order at 20 K. For the case of Sr{sub 2}DyReO{sub 6}, magnetic ordering of the Re{sup 5+} moments occurs at 93 K, and with decreasing temperature, the moments of Dy{sup 3+} ferromagnetically order at 5 K from the measurements of magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of double perovskite Sr{sub 2}LnReO{sub 6}. Red and black lines show cubic and monoclinic unit cells, respectively. - Highlights: • Double perovskites Sr{sub 2}LnReO{sub 6} (Ln=rare earths) were prepared. • They show an antiferromagnetic transition at 2.6–20 K. • In Sr{sub 2}DyReO{sub 6}, Dy and Re moments magnetically order at 5 and 93 K, respectively.« less

  4. Magnetic properties and structural transitions of fluorite-related rare earth osmates Ln3OsO7 (Ln=Pr, Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinatsu, Yukio; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2013-02-01

    Ternary rare-earth osmates Ln3OsO7 (Ln=Pr, Tb) have been prepared. They crystallize in an ortho-rhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space group Cmcm. Both of these compounds undergo a structural phase transition at 130 K (Ln=Pr) and 580 K (Ln=Tb). These compounds show complex magnetic behavior at low temperatures. Pr3OsO7 exhibits magnetic transitions at 8 and 73 K, and Tb3OsO7 magnetically orders at 8 and 60 K. The Os moments become one-dimensionally ordered, and when the temperature is furthermore decreased, it provokes the ordering in the Ln3+ sublattice that simultaneously becomes three-dimensionally ordered with the Os sublattice.

  5. Reinvestigation of the uranium(3.5+) rare-earth oxysulfides "(UO)2LnS3" (Ln = Yb, Y).

    PubMed

    Jin, Geng Bang; Choi, Eun Sang; Ibers, James A

    2009-09-07

    Dark-red square plates of the previously reported compounds "(UO)(2)LnS(3)" (Ln = Yb, Y) have been synthesized by solid-state reactions of UOS and YbS or Y(2)S(3) with Sb(2)S(3) as a flux at 1273 K. The structure of these isotypic compounds was reinvestigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods and an inductively coupled plasma experiment. The actual formula of "(UO)(2)LnS(3)" (Ln = Yb, Y) is (U(0.5)Ln(0.5)O)(2)LnS(3), that is, ULn(2)O(2)S(3), which can be charge-balanced with U(4+) and Ln(3+). The layered structure comprises (U/Ln)O(4)S(4) square antiprisms alternating with LnS(6) octahedra. U and Ln1 atoms disorder on the eight-coordinate metal position, but Ln2 atoms occupy the six-coordinate metal position exclusively. UYb(2)O(2)S(3) is a modified Curie-Weiss paramagnet between 293 and 32 K, below which part of the paramagnetic moments go through a possible ferromagnetic transition. The band gaps of ULn(2)O(2)S(3) (Ln = Yb, Y) are around 2 eV.

  6. Ferroelasticity in the LnNbO/sub 4/-type rare earth niobates

    SciT

    Brixner, L.H.; Whitney, J.F.; Zumsteg, F.C.

    1977-01-01

    The previously reported phase transitions for the isostructural rare earth niobates between 500/sup 0/C and 850/sup 0/C correspond to a point group transformation 4/mF2/m, which is purely ferroelastic. The correct room temperature point group for all LnNbO/sub 4/ compounds is 2/m. Crystal growth and domain wall behavior is discussed for LaNbO/sub 4/. The high temperature phase transition is described for YbNbO/sub 4/.

  7. Magnetic interactions in new fluorite-related rare earth oxides LnLn’{sub 2}RuO{sub 7} (Ln, Ln’=rare earths)

    SciT

    Hinatsu, Yukio, E-mail: hinatsu@sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-15

    New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} and La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} have been prepared. They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space group Cmcm. Through magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 27 K, which is considerably lowered compared with that for Pr{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}. Analysis of the magnetic specific heat indicates that the magnetic behavior observed at 27 K for Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} is predominantly due to the magnetic interactions between Ru ions, and that the interactions between the Pr{sup 3+} and Ru{sup 5+} ions are alsomore » important. La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} shows magnetic ordering at 9.0 K, which is ascribed to the magnetic ordering between Ru{sup 5+} ions from the analysis of the magnetic specific heat data. - Graphical abstract: New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} and La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} have been prepared. Through magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} and La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} show an antiferromagnetic transition at 27 and 9.0 K, respectively. Display Omitted - Highlights: • New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnLn’{sub 2}RuO{sub 7} have been prepared. • Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 27 K. • La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} shows magnetic ordering at 9.0 K. • Their magnetic exchange mechanism has been elucidated by the magnetic entropy change.« less

  8. Low temperature synthesis of LnOF rare-earth oxyfluorides through reaction of the oxides with PTFE

    SciT

    Dutton, S.E., E-mail: sdutton@princeton.edu; Hirai, D.; Cava, R.J.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low temperature synthesis of LnOF rare-earth oxyfluorides from Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} and PTFE (CF{sub 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhombohedral LnOF is the major phase and forms as nanocrystals, 29-103 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expected lanthanide contraction observed in lattice parameters and bond lengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TbOF orders antiferromagnetically at 10 K and has a metamagnetic transition at 1.8 T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GdOF orders antiferromagnetically at 5 K, other LnOF are paramagnetic. -- Abstract: A low temperature solid-state synthesis route, employing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and the rare-earth oxides, for the formation of the LnOF rare-earth oxyfluorides (Ln = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb,more » Dy, Ho, Er), is reported. With the exception of LaOF, which forms in a tetragonal variant, rhomobohedral LnOF is found to be the major product of the reaction. In the case of PrOF, a transition from the rhombohedral to the cubic fluorite phase is observed on heating in air to 500 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction shows the expected lanthanide contraction in the lattice parameters and bond lengths. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show antiferromagnetic-like ordering in TbOF, T{sub m} = 10 K, with a metamagnetic transition at a field {mu}{sub 0}H{sub t} = 1.8 T at 2 K. An antiferromagnetic transition, T{sub N} = 4 K, is observed in GdOF. Paramagnetic behavior is observed above 2 K in PrOF, NdOF, DyOF, HoOF and ErOF. The magnetic susceptibility of EuOF is characteristic of Van Vleck paramagnetism.« less

  9. Theoretical study of mixed LiLnX4 (Ln = La, Dy; X = F, Cl, Br, I) rare earth/alkali halide complexes.

    PubMed

    Groen, C P; Oskam, A; Kovács, A

    2000-12-25

    The structure, bonding and vibrational properties of the mixed LiLnX4 (Ln = La, Dy; X = F, Cl, Br, I) rare earth/alkali halide complexes were studied using various quantum chemical methods (HF, MP2 and the Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange-correlation density functional) in conjunction with polarized triple-zeta valence basis sets and quasi-relativistic effective core potentials for the heavy atoms. Our comparative study indicated the superiority of MP2 theory while the HF and B3-LYP methods as well as less sophisticated basis sets failed for the correct energetic relations. In particular, f polarization functions on Li and X proved to be important for the Li...X interaction in the complexes. From the three characteristic structures of such complexes, possessing 1-(C3v), 2-(C2v), or 3-fold coordination (C3v) between the alkali metal and the bridging halide atoms, the bi- and tridentate forms are located considerably lower on the potential energy surface then the monodentate isomer. Therefore only the bi- and tridentate isomers have chemical relevance. The monodentate isomer is only a high-lying local minimum in the case of X = F. For X = Cl, Br, and I this structure is found to be a second-order saddle point. The bidentate structure was found to be the global minimum for the systems with X = F, Cl, and Br. However, the relative stability with respect to the tridentate structure is very small (1-5 kJ/mol) for the heavier halide derivatives and the relative order is reversed in the case of the iodides. The energy difference between the three structures and the dissociation energy decrease in the row F to I. The ionic bonding in the complexes was characterized by natural charges and a topological analysis of the electron density distribution according to Bader's theorem. Variation of the geometrical and bonding characteristics between the lanthanum and dysprosium complexes reflects the effect of "lanthanide contraction". The calculated vibrational data indicate that

  10. Utility of Lithium in Rare-Earth Metal Reduction Reactions to Form Nontraditional Ln2+ Complexes and Unusual [Li(2.2.2-cryptand)]1+ Cations.

    PubMed

    Huh, Daniel N; Darago, Lucy E; Ziller, Joseph W; Evans, William J

    2018-02-19

    The utility of lithium compared to other alkali metals in generating Ln 2+ rare-earth metal complexes via reduction of Ln 3+ precursors in reactions abbreviated as LnA 3 /M (Ln = rare-earth metal; A = anionic ligand; M = alkali metal) is described. Lithium reduction of Cp' 3 Ln (Cp' = C 5 H 4 SiMe 3 ; Ln = Y, Tb, Dy, Ho) under Ar in the presence of 2.2.2-cryptand (crypt) forms new examples of crystallographically characterizable Ln 2+ complexes of these metals, [Li(crypt)][Cp' 3 Ln]. In each complex, lithium is found in an N 2 O 4 donor atom coordination geometry that is unusual for the cryptand ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data on these new examples of nontraditional divalent lanthanide complexes are consistent with 4f n 5d 1 electronic configurations. The Dy and Ho complexes have exceptionally high single-ion magnetic moments, 11.35 and 11.67 μ B , respectively. Lithium reduction of Cp' 3 Y under N 2 at -35 °C forms the Y 2+ complex (Cp' 3 Y) 1- , which reduces dinitrogen upon warming to room temperature to generate the (N 2 ) 2- complex [Cp' 2 Y(THF)] 2 (μ-η 2 :η 2 -N 2 ). These results provide insight on the factors that lead to reduced dinitrogen complexes and/or stable divalent lanthanide complexes as a function of the specific reducing agent and conditions.

  11. Water-Free Rare Earth-Prussian Blue Type Analogues: Synthesis, Structure, Computational Analysis, and Magnetic Data of {Ln[superscript III](DMF)[subscript 6]Fe[superscript III](CN)[subcsript 6]}[subscript infinity] (Ln = Rare Earths Excluding Pm)

    SciT

    Wilson, Duane C.; Liu, Shengming; Chen, Xuenian

    2009-11-04

    Water-free rare earth(III) hexacyanoferrate(III) complexes, {l_brace}Ln(DMF){sub 6}({mu}-CN){sub 2}Fe(CN){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub {infinity}} (DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide; Ln = Sm, 1; Eu, 2; Gd, 3; Tb, 4; Dy, 5; Ho, 6; Er, 7; Tm, 8; Yb, 9; Lu, 10; Y, 11; La, 12; Ce, 13; Pr, 14; Nd, 15), were synthesized in dry DMF through the metathesis reactions of [(18-crown-6)K]{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} with LnX{sub 3}(DMF){sub n} (X = Cl or NO{sub 3}). Anhydrous DMF solutions of LnX{sub 3}(DMF){sub n} were prepared at room temperature from LnCl{sub 3} or LnX{sub 3} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O under a dynamic vacuum. All compounds were characterized by IR, X-raymore » powder diffraction (except for 10), and single crystal X-ray diffraction (except for 2, 7, 10). Infrared spectra reveal that a monotonic, linear relationship exists between the ionic radius of the lanthanide and the {nu}{sub {mu}-CN} stretching frequency of 1-10, 12-15 while 11 deviates slightly from the ionic radius relationship. X-ray powder diffraction data are in agreement with powder patterns calculated from single crystal X-ray diffraction results, a useful alternative for bulk sample confirmation when elemental analysis data are difficult to obtain. Eight-coordinate Ln(III) metal centers are observed for all structures. trans-cyanide units of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-} formed isocyanide linkages to Ln(III) resulting in one-dimensional polymeric chains. Structures of compounds 1-9 and 11 are isomorphous, crystallizing in the space group C2/c. Structures of compounds 12-15 are also isomorphous, crystallizing in the space group P2/n. One unique polymeric chain exists in the structures of 1-9 and 11 while two unique polymeric chains exist in structures of 12-15. One of the polymeric chains of 12-15 is similar to that observed for 1-9, 11 while the other is more distorted and has a shorter Ln-Fe distance. Magnetic susceptibility measurements for compounds 3-6, 8, 11 were performed on polycrystalline samples of the compounds.« less

  12. Thermochemistry of rare earth doped uranium oxides LnxU1-xO2-0.5x+y (Ln = La, Y, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    Lanthanum, yttrium, and neodymium doped uranium dioxide samples in the fluorite structure have been synthesized, characterized in terms of metal ratio and oxygen content, and their enthalpies of formation measured by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. For oxides doped with 10-50 mol % rare earth (Ln) cations, the formation enthalpies from constituent oxides (LnO1.5, UO2 and UO3 in a reaction not involving oxidation or reduction) become increasingly exothermic with increasing rare earth content, while showing no significant dependence on the varying uranium oxidation state. The oxidation enthalpy of LnxU1-xO2-0.5x+y is similar to that of UO2 to UO3 for all three rare earth doped systems. Though this may suggest that the oxidized uranium in these systems is energetically similar to that in the hexavalent state, thermochemical data alone can not constrain whether the uranium is present as U5+, U6+, or a mixture of oxidation states. The formation enthalpies from elements calculated from the calorimetric data are generally consistent with those from free energy measurements.

  13. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M'LnTaO/sub 4/ rare earth tantalates

    SciT

    Brixner, L.H.; Chen, H.-Y.

    1983-12-01

    The structure of M YTaO/sub 4/ has been redetermined and was refined to an R value of 0.034. M'YTaO/sub 4/ crystallizes in P2/a symmetry with a = 5.298(1),b = 5.451(1),c = 5.111(1)A,..beta.. = 96.45 deg. At temperatures > 1450/sup 0/C,M'YTaO/sub 4/ will convert by way of a reconstructive transformation into the I4/sub 1//a symmetry of scheelite, and, upon cooling, a second-order ferroelastic transition (4/mF2/m) to M (fergusonite) YTaO/sub 4/ occurs. There are significant structural differences between M and M'YTaO/sub 4/ which are discussed. M'LnTaO/sub 4/ compounds exist from Ln = Sm to Lu. As a host for luminescent ions, M'YTaO/submore » 4/ is superior to the M modification, as well as all other compounds in the Y/sub 2/O/sub 2/Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ phase diagram.« less

  14. Magnetism and transport properties of layered rare-earth cobaltates Ln{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 2}

    SciT

    Knížek, K., E-mail: knizek@fzu.cz; Novák, P.; Jirák, Z.

    2015-05-07

    The ab-initio (GGA+U) electronic structure calculations of layered cobaltates Ln{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 2} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd) prepared by ionic exchange from Na{sub 0.90}CoO{sub 2} precursors have been performed. The data are used for numerical modeling of Seebeck coefficient within Boltzmann transport theory using BoltzTraP program [G. K. H. Madsen and D. J. Singh, Comput. Phys. Commun. 175, 67 (2006)], as well as for determination of the crystal field split levels of rare-earth ions using a method based on a transformation of Bloch states into the basis of Wannier functions [P. Novák et al., Phys. Rev. B 87, 205139 (2013)]. An overallmore » agreement with observed magnetism and transport properties is obtained. In particular, the high p-type thermopower is well reproduced in a broad temperature range, but instead of theoretical linear decrease down to the lowest temperatures, the real systems exhibit an anomalous change of Seebeck sign, which might be related to the change of bare metallic carriers into the polaronic ones.« less

  15. Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Nanorod Bundle Ln4O(OH)9NO3:Eu(Ln = Y, Lu) Prepared by Hydrothermal Method.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Noh, Hyeon Mi; Liu, Xiaoguang; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Well-crystallized nanorod bundles Ln4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu(Ln = Y, Lu) have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. The crystalline phase, size and optical properties were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), infrared (IR) spectrograph and photoluminescent (PL) spectra. Site occupations of Eu3+ in crystals Ln4O(OH)9NO3:Eu(Ln = Y, Lu) were discussed based on excitation spectra and the empirical relationship formula between the charge transfer (CT) energy and the environmental factor. The emission spectra exhibited that the strongest emission peaks with an excitation wavelength of 395 nm were at 617 and 626 nm in crystal Lu4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu and Y4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu, respectively, both of which come from 5D0-7F2 transition of the Eu3+ ions. The broad excitation peaks at about 254 and 255 nm were found when monitored at 617 and 628 nm in crystal Lu4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu and Y4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu, respectively, which were due to O-Eu CT transition. Based on the dielectric theory of complex crystal, the CT bands at about 254 and 255 nm in Ln4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu(Ln = Y, Lu) were assigned to the transition of O-Eu at Ln3(Ln = Y, Lu) site, from which we can conclude that Eu3+ ions occupied the site of Ln3(Ln = Y, Lu) in crystal Ln4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu(Ln = Y, Lu). It put forward a new route to investigate site occupation of luminescent center ions in rare earth doped complex inorganic luminescence materials.

  16. Synthesis, structure and reactivity of rare-earth metallacarborane alkyls [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Ln(σ:η(1)-CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)(THF)2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingying; Xie, Zuowei

    2015-04-14

    Rare-earth metallacarborane alkyls can be stabilized by the incorporation of a functional sidearm into both π and σ ligands. Reaction of [Me3NH][7,8-O(CH2)2-7,8-C2B9H10] with one equiv. of Ln(CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)3 gave metallacarborane alkyls [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Ln(σ:η(1)-CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)(THF)2 (Ln = Y (), Gd (), Er ()) via alkane elimination. They represent the first examples of rare-earth metallacarborane alkyls. Treatment of with RN[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]NR (R = Cy, (i)Pr) or 2-benzoylpyridine afforded the corresponding mono-insertion products [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Y[η(2)-(RN)2C(CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)](DME) (R = Cy (), (i)Pr ()) or [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Y[C5H4NC(Ph)(CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)O](THF)2 (), respectively. Complex also reacted with ArNCO or ArNC (Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl) to give di-insertion products [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Y[OC([double bond, length as m-dash]NC6H3Me2)N(C6H3Me2)C(CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)O](THF)2 () or [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Y[C([double bond, length as m-dash]NC6H3(i)Pr2)C([double bond, length as m-dash]NC6H3(i)Pr2)(CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)](DME) (). These results showed that the reactivity pattern of the Ln-C σ bond in rare-earth metallacarborane alkyls was dependent on the nature of the unsaturated organic molecules. New complexes were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. Some were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis.

  17. Earth

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  18. Observation of unusual topological surface states in half-Heusler compounds LnPtBi (Ln=Lu, Y)

    SciT

    Liu, Z. K.; Yang, L. X.; Wu, S. -C.

    Topological quantum materials represent a new class of matter with both exotic physical phenomena and novel application potentials. Many Heusler compounds, which exhibit rich emergent properties such as unusual magnetism, superconductivity and heavy fermion behaviour, have been predicted to host non-trivial topological electronic structures. The coexistence of topological order and other unusual properties makes Heusler materials ideal platform to search for new topological quantum phases (such as quantum anomalous Hall insulator and topological superconductor). By carrying out angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ab initio calculations on rare-earth half-Heusler compounds LnPtBi (Ln=Lu, Y), we directly observe the unusual topological surface states onmore » these materials, establishing them as first members with non-trivial topological electronic structure in this class of materials. Moreover, as LnPtBi compounds are non-centrosymmetric superconductors, our discovery further highlights them as promising candidates of topological superconductors.« less

  19. Observation of unusual topological surface states in half-Heusler compounds LnPtBi (Ln=Lu, Y)

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Z. K.; Yang, L. X.; Wu, S. -C.; ...

    2016-09-27

    Topological quantum materials represent a new class of matter with both exotic physical phenomena and novel application potentials. Many Heusler compounds, which exhibit rich emergent properties such as unusual magnetism, superconductivity and heavy fermion behaviour, have been predicted to host non-trivial topological electronic structures. The coexistence of topological order and other unusual properties makes Heusler materials ideal platform to search for new topological quantum phases (such as quantum anomalous Hall insulator and topological superconductor). By carrying out angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ab initio calculations on rare-earth half-Heusler compounds LnPtBi (Ln=Lu, Y), we directly observe the unusual topological surface states onmore » these materials, establishing them as first members with non-trivial topological electronic structure in this class of materials. Moreover, as LnPtBi compounds are non-centrosymmetric superconductors, our discovery further highlights them as promising candidates of topological superconductors.« less

  20. Host-Sensitized and Tunable Luminescence of GdNbO4:Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Eu3+/Tb3+/Tm3+) Nanocrystalline Phosphors with Abundant Color.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Chen; Li, Shuailong; Dai, Yuhua; Guo, Huiqin; Tang, Xinghua; Xie, Yu; Yan, Liushui

    2016-10-17

    Up to now, GdNbO 4 has always been regarded as an essentially inert material in the visible region with excitation of UV light and electron beams. Nevertheless, here we demonstrate a new recreating blue emission of GdNbO 4 nanocrystalline phosphors with a quantum efficiency of 41.6% and host sensitized luminescence in GdNbO 4 :Ln 3+ (Ln 3+ = Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ /Tm 3+ ) nanocrystalline phosphors with abundant color in response to UV light and electron beams. The GdNbO 4 and GdNbO 4 :Ln 3+ (Ln 3+ = Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ /Tm 3+ ) nanocrystalline phosphors were synthesized by a Pechini-type sol-gel process. With excitation of UV light and low-voltage electron beams, the obtained GdNbO 4 nanocrystalline phosphor presents a strong blue luminescence from 280 to 650 nm centered around 440 nm, and the GdNbO 4 :Ln 3+ nanocrystalline phosphors show both host emission and respective emission lines derived from the characterize f-f transitions of the doping Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ , and Tm 3+ ions. The luminescence color of GdNbO 4 :Ln 3+ nanocrystalline phosphors can be tuned from blue to green, red, blue-green, orange, pinkish, white, etc. by varying the doping species, concentration, and relative ratio of the codoping rare earth ions in GdNbO 4 host lattice. A single-phase white-light-emission has been realized in Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ /Tm 3+ triply doped GdNbO 4 nanocrystalline phosphors. The luminescence properties and mechanisms of GdNbO 4 and GdNbO 4 :Ln 3+ (Ln 3+ = Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ /Tm 3+ ) are updated.

  1. A determination of the oxygen non-stoichiometry of the oxygen storage materials LnBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} (Ln=Gd, Pr)

    SciT

    Jeamjumnunja, Kannika; Gong, Wenquan; Makarenko, Tatyana

    BaMn{sub 2}O{sub 5.5} and the variation of stoichiometry of GdBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 5+x} with −log(pO{sub 2}) Display Omitted - Highlights: • Determination of the oxygen non-stoichiometry of GdBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} and PrBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} as a function of pO{sub 2} and T. • Establishment of pO{sub 2} ranges of stability of O{sub 5} and O{sub 5.5} at 600 °C, 650 °C, 700 °C and 750 °C. • Investigation of the kinetic instability of LnBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} (Ln=Gd, Pr) with respect to decomposition to BaMnO{sub 3−x} and LnMnO{sub 3} • Comparison of the thermodynamics of the oxidation of LnBaMnO{sub 5} (Ln=Y, Gd, Pr) as a function of the rare earth cation size.« less

  2. Effect of crystalline electric field on heat capacity of LnBaCuFeO5 (Ln = Gd, Ho, Yb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Surender; Mukherjee, K.; Yadav, C. S.

    2018-02-01

    Structural, magnetic and thermodynamic properties of layered perovskite compounds LnBaCuFeO5 (Ln = Ho, Gd, Yb) have been investigated. Unlike the iso-structural compound YBaCuFeO5, which shows commensurate antiferromagnetic to incommensurate antiferromagnetic ordering below ∼200 K, the studied compounds do not show any magnetic transition in measured temperature range of 2-350 K. The high temperature heat capacity of the compounds is understood by employing contributions from both optical and acoustic phonons. At low temperature, the observed upturn in the heat capacity is attributed to the Schottky anomaly. The magnetic field dependent heat capacity shows the variation in position of the anomaly with temperature, which appears due to the removal of ground state degeneracy of the rare earth ions, by the crystalline electric field.

  3. Rhombus-shaped tetranuclear [Ln4] complexes [Ln = Dy(III) and Ho(III)]: synthesis, structure, and SMM behavior.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Hossain, Sakiat; Das, Sourav; Biswas, Sourav; Sutter, Jean-Pascal

    2013-06-03

    The reaction of a new hexadentate Schiff base hydrazide ligand (LH3) with rare earth(III) chloride salts in the presence of triethylamine as the base afforded two planar tetranuclear neutral complexes: [{(LH)2Dy4}(μ2-O)4](H2O)8·2CH3OH·8H2O (1) and [{(LH)2Ho4}(μ2-O)4](H2O)8·6CH3OH·4H2O (2). These neutral complexes possess a structure in which all of the lanthanide ions and the donor atoms of the ligand remain in a perfect plane. Each doubly deprotonated ligand holds two Ln(III) ions in its two distinct chelating coordination pockets to form [LH(Ln)2](4+) units. Two such units are connected by four [μ2-O](2-) ligands to form a planar tetranuclear assembly with an Ln(III)4 core that possesses a rhombus-shaped structure. Detailed static and dynamic magnetic analysis of 1 and 2 revealed single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for complex 1. A peculiar feature of the χM" versus temperature curve is that two peaks that are frequency-dependent are revealed, indicating the occurrence of two relaxation processes that lead to two energy barriers (16.8 and 54.2 K) and time constants (τ0 = 1.4 × 10(-6) s, τ0 = 7.2 × 10(-7) s). This was related to the presence of two distinct geometrical sites for Dy(III) in complex 1.

  4. Charge-separated and molecular heterobimetallic rare earth-rare earth and alkaline earth-rare earth aryloxo complexes featuring intramolecular metal-pi-arene interactions.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Moxey, Graeme J; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin; St Prix, Courtney; Zuniga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of a rare earth metal (Ln) and a potential divalent rare earth metal (Ln') or an alkaline earth metal (Ae) with 2,6-diphenylphenol (HOdpp) at elevated temperatures (200-250 degrees C) afforded heterobimetallic aryloxo complexes, which were structurally characterised. A charge-separated species [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] was obtained for a range of metals, demonstrating the similarities between the chemistry of the divalent rare earth metals and the alkaline earth metals. The [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)](+) cation in the heterobimetallic structures is unusual in that it consists solely of bridging aryloxide ligands. A molecular heterobimetallic species [AeEu(Odpp)(4)] (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) was obtained by treating an alkaline earth metal and Eu metal with HOdpp at elevated temperatures. Similarly, [BaSr(Odpp)(4)] was prepared by treating Ba metal and Sr metal with HOdpp. Treatment of [Ba(2)(Odpp)(4)] with [Mg(Odpp)(2)(thf)(2)] in toluene afforded [Ba(2)(Odpp)(3)][Mg(Odpp)(3)(thf)]. Analogous solution-based syntheses were not possible for [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] complexes, for which the free-metal route was essential. As a result of the absence of additional donor ligands, the crystal structures of the heterobimetallic complexes feature extensive pi-Ph-metal interactions involving the pendant phenyl groups of the Odpp ligands, thus enabling the large electropositive metal atoms to attain coordination saturation. The charge-separated heterobimetallic species were purified by extraction with toluene/thf mixtures at ambient temperature (Ba-containing compounds) or by extraction with toluene under pressure above the boiling point of the solvent (other products). In donor solvents, heterobimetallic complexes other than those containing barium were found to fragment into homometallic species.

  5. To bend or not to bend: experimental and computational studies of structural preference in Ln(Tp(iPr)2)2 (Ln = Sm, Tm).

    PubMed

    Momin, Aurélien; Carter, Lee; Yang, Yi; McDonald, Robert; Essafi Labouille, Stéphanie; Nief, François; Del Rosal, Iker; Sella, Andrea; Maron, Laurent; Takats, Josef

    2014-11-17

    The synthesis and characterization of Ln(Tp(iPr2))2 (Ln = Sm, 3Sm; Tm, 3Tm) are reported. While the simple (1)H NMR spectra of the compounds indicate a symmetrical solution structure, with equivalent pyrazolyl groups, the solid-state structure revealed an unexpected, "bent sandwich-like" geometry. By contrast, the structure of the less sterically congested Tm(Tp(Me2,4Et))2 (4) adopts the expected symmetrical structure with a linear B-Tm-B arrangement. Computational studies to investigate the origin of the unexpected bent structure of the former compounds indicate that steric repulsion between the isopropyl groups forces the Tp ligands apart and permits the development of unusual interligand C-H···N hydrogen-bonding interactions that help stabilize the structure. These results find support in the similar geometry of the Tm(III) analogue [Tm(Tp(iPr2))2]I, 3Tm(+), and confirm that the low symmetry is not the result of a metal-ligand interaction. The relevance of these results to the general question of the coordination geometry of MX2 and M(C5R5)2 (M = heavy alkaline earth and Ln(II), X = halide, and C5R5 = bulky persubstituted cyclopentadienyl) complexes and the importance of secondary H-bonding and nonbonding interactions on the structure are highlighted.

  6. Enthalpies of melting of LnSF compounds (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, P. O.; Mikhalkina, O. G.; Andreev, O. V.; Elyshev, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The melting temperatures and enthalpies of such congruently melting compounds as LaSF ( T m = 1713 ± 7 K, Δ H = 45.7 ± 4.6 kJ/mol), CeSF ( T m = 1683 ± 7 K, Δ H = 40.7 ± 4.1 kJ/mol), PrSF ( T m = 1661 ± 7 K, Δ H = 39.7 ± 4.0 kJ/mol), NdSF ( T m = 1654 ± 7 K, Δ H = 40.2 ± 4.0 kJ/mol), and SmSF ( T m = 1587 ± 7 K, Δ H = 36.1 ± 3.6 kJ/mol) are determined via synchronous thermal analysis. The tetrad effect is evident in the change of the melting temperatures and enthalpies of LnSF compounds (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) depending on r(Ln3+).

  7. Phase transformation pathways of ultrafast-laser-irradiated Ln2O3 (Ln =Er -Lu )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Tracy, Cameron L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Solomon, Jonathan M.; Asta, Mark; Mao, Wendy L.; Yalisove, Steven M.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafast laser irradiation causes intense electronic excitations in materials, leading to transient high temperatures and pressures. Here, we show that ultrafast laser irradiation drives an irreversible cubic-to-monoclinic phase transformation in Ln2O3 (Ln =Er -Lu ), and explore the mechanism by which the phase transformation occurs. A combination of grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are used to determine the magnitude and depth-dependence of the phase transformation, respectively. Although all compositions undergo the same transformation, their transformation mechanisms differ. The transformation is pressure-driven for Ln =Tm -Lu , consistent with the material's phase behavior under equilibrium conditions. However, the transformation is thermally driven for Ln =Er , revealing that the nonequilibrium conditions of ultrafast laser irradiation can lead to novel transformation pathways. Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations are used to examine the atomic-scale effects of electronic excitation, showing the production of oxygen Frenkel pairs and the migration of interstitial oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated constitutional vacancy sites, the first step in a defect-driven phase transformation.

  8. Phase transformation pathways of ultrafast-laser-irradiated Ln 2 O 3 ( Ln = Er – Lu )

    DOE PAGES

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Tracy, Cameron L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; ...

    2018-01-10

    Ultrafast laser irradiation causes intense electronic excitations in materials, leading to transient high temperatures and pressures. Here, we show that ultrafast laser irradiation drives an irreversible cubic-to-monoclinic phase transformation in Ln 2O 3 ( Ln = Er – Lu ) , and explore the mechanism by which the phase transformation occurs. A combination of grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are used to determine the magnitude and depth-dependence of the phase transformation, respectively. Although all compositions undergo the same transformation, their transformation mechanisms differ. The transformation is pressure-driven for Ln = Tm – Lu , consistent with themore » material's phase behavior under equilibrium conditions. However, the transformation is thermally driven for Ln = Er , revealing that the nonequilibrium conditions of ultrafast laser irradiation can lead to novel transformation pathways. Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations are used to examine the atomic-scale effects of electronic excitation, showing the production of oxygen Frenkel pairs and the migration of interstitial oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated constitutional vacancy sites, the first step in a defect-driven phase transformation.« less

  9. Phase transformation pathways of ultrafast-laser-irradiated Ln 2 O 3 ( Ln = Er – Lu )

    SciT

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Tracy, Cameron L.; Chen, Chien-Hung

    Ultrafast laser irradiation causes intense electronic excitations in materials, leading to transient high temperatures and pressures. Here, we show that ultrafast laser irradiation drives an irreversible cubic-to-monoclinic phase transformation in Ln 2O 3 ( Ln = Er – Lu ) , and explore the mechanism by which the phase transformation occurs. A combination of grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are used to determine the magnitude and depth-dependence of the phase transformation, respectively. Although all compositions undergo the same transformation, their transformation mechanisms differ. The transformation is pressure-driven for Ln = Tm – Lu , consistent with themore » material's phase behavior under equilibrium conditions. However, the transformation is thermally driven for Ln = Er , revealing that the nonequilibrium conditions of ultrafast laser irradiation can lead to novel transformation pathways. Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations are used to examine the atomic-scale effects of electronic excitation, showing the production of oxygen Frenkel pairs and the migration of interstitial oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated constitutional vacancy sites, the first step in a defect-driven phase transformation.« less

  10. Bi3+ sensitized Y2WO6:Ln3+ (Ln=Dy, Eu, and Sm) phosphors for solar spectral conversion.

    PubMed

    Huang, M N; Ma, Y Y; Xiao, F; Zhang, Q Y

    2014-01-01

    The phosphors of Y2WO6:Bi3+, Ln3+ (Ln=Dy, Eu and Sm) were synthesized by solid-state reaction in this study. The crystal structure, photoluminescence properties and energy transfer mechanism were investigated. By introducing Bi3+ ions, the excitation band of the phosphors was broadened to be 250-380 nm, which could be absorbed by the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The overlap between excitation of W-O groups/Bi3+ and the emission of Ln3+ (Dy, Eu, and Sm) indicated that the probability of energy transfer from W-O groups and Bi3+ to Ln3+. The energy transfer efficiency from Bi3+ to Ln3+ (Ln=Dy, Eu and Sm) are calculated to be 16%, 20% and 58%. This work suggested that Y2WO6:Bi3+, Ln3+ (Ln=Dy, Eu and Sm) might be a promising ultraviolet-absorbing luminescent converter to enhance the photoelectrical conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of A-TIG Welding Process on the Weld Attributes of Type 304LN and 316LN Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, M.

    2017-03-01

    The specific activated flux has been developed for enhancing the penetration performance of TIG welding process for autogenous welding of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels through systematic study. Initially single-component fluxes were used to study their effect on depth of penetration and tensile properties. Then multi-component activated flux was developed which was found to produce a significant increase in penetration of 10-12 mm in single-pass TIG welding of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels. The significant improvement in penetration achieved using the activated flux developed in the present work has been attributed to the constriction of the arc and as well as reversal of Marangoni flow in the molten weld pool. The use of activated flux has been found to overcome the variable weld penetration observed in 316LN stainless steel with <50 ppm of sulfur. There was no degradation in the microstructure and mechanical properties of the A-TIG welds compared to that of the welds produced by conventional TIG welding on the contrary the transverse strength properties of the 304LN and 316LN stainless steel welds produced by A-TIG welding exceeded the minimum specified strength values of the base metals. Improvement in toughness values were observed in 316LN stainless steel produced by A-TIG welding due to refinement in the weld microstructure in the region close to the weld center. Thus, activated flux developed in the present work has greater potential for use during the TIG welding of structural components made of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels.

  12. Lanthanide contraction effect on crystal structures, magnetic, and dielectric properties in ordered double perovskites LnPbCoSbO{sub 6} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd)

    SciT

    Han, L.; Yao, C. G.; Meng, J. L.

    The crystal structures, magnetic, and dielectric properties for the ordered double perovskites LnPbCoSbO{sub 6} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd) have been investigated. The crystal structure has been solved by Rietveld refinements of X-ray diffraction data in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n (No. 14). The Co{sup 2+} and Sb{sup 5+} ions are almost fully ordered over the B-site, and the octahedral framework displays significant tilting distortion according to the Glazer's tilt system a{sup –}a{sup –}c{sup +}. As the result of lanthanide contraction from La{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+}, the B-site sublattice distortions become stronger accompanying with the reduction of themore » tolerance factor and coordination number. The magnetization measurements show an antiferromagnetic ordering with large effective magnetic moments (μ{sub eff}) suggesting that the orbital component is significant. The maximum values of isothermal magnetization increase with the decrease in radii of rare earth ions, which is attributed to the weakening of antiferromagnetic interaction via Co{sup 2+}–O–Sb{sup 5+}–O–Co{sup 2+} paths. The dielectric constants present frequency dependence and monotonically decrease with the ionic radii reduction from La{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+} due to the suppression of electron transfer. These results indicate that the magnetic and dielectric properties can be tuned by controlling the degree of lattice distortion, which is realized by introducing different Ln{sup 3+} ions at the A-site.« less

  13. Relaxor-ferroelectric BaLnZT (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Sc) ceramics for actuator and energy storage application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sarit K.; Mallick, Kaushik; Tiwari, B.; Sinha, E.; Rout, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Lead free ceramics Ba1-x Ln2x/3Zr0.3Ti0.7O3 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu and Sc), x = 0.02-0.10 are investigated for electrostrictive effect and energy storage properties in the proximity of relaxor-paraelectric phase boundary. Relaxor phase evidence from slim hysteresis loop and low remnant polarization are the key parameters responsible for improve the electrostrictive effect and energy storage properties simultaneously. With increase in rare earth content negative strain disappeared and almost hysteresis free strain is achieved. Strain-hysteresis profile in term of S-E, S-E 2 and S-P 2 is used to analyze the electrostrictive behavior of these ceramics. An average strain (S%) ˜ 0.03%, is accomplished at initial concentrations of x = 0.02-0.04 and electrostrictive coefficients (Q 11, and M 11) as well as the energy storage density is improved by a factor of 1.2 and 2.6 respectively when compare with pure (x = 0.0) ceramic. Above x ≥ 0.06, all compositions show a stable behavior which suggested the possibilities of these relaxor ceramics towards high precision actuators and energy storage application.

  14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING, AMMONIA SPHERES IN FOREGROUND. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  15. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS #BE565 & 564. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  16. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST AT A C. 1932 CHICAGO PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  17. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING WEST AT INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS #BE565 & 564. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  18. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST AT A C. 1932 CHICAGO PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (LN) COOLING SHED, MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (L-N) COOLING SHED, MILL BUILDING AND CONVEYOR BRIDGE. NOTE CORNERSTONE ON THE MILL BUILDING. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  20. Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure of the quaternary sulfides Ln{sub 2}CuMS{sub 5} (Ln=La, Ce; M=Sb, Bi)

    SciT

    Kussainova, Ardak M.; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716; Akselrud, Lev G.

    2016-01-15

    The series of quaternary sulfides with general formula Ln{sub 2}CuMS{sub 5} (Ln=La, Ce; M=Sb, Bi) have been synthesized by solid-state reactions. Three representative members have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. La{sub 2}CuSbS{sub 5} crystallizes in a new structure type (space group Ima2 (no. 46), Z=4, a=13.401(2) Å, b=7.592(1) Å, c=7.598(1) Å, V=773.1(3) Å{sup 3}). The bismuth analogs of composition La{sub 2}CuBiS{sub 5} and Ce{sub 2}CuBiS{sub 5} crystallize with the La{sub 2}CuInSe{sub 5} structure type (space group Pnma (no. 62), Z=4). Lattice parameters for La{sub 2}CuBiS{sub 5}: a=11.9213(5) Å, b=3.9967(2) Å, c=17.0537(8) Å, V=812.56(7) Å{sup 3}; lattice parameters formore » Ce{sub 2}CuBiS{sub 5}: a=11.9179(15) Å, b=3.9596(5) Å, c=16.955(2) Å, V=800.13(17) Å{sup 3}). The similarities and the differences between the two structures are discussed. Electronic structure calculations for La{sub 2}CuSbS{sub 5} and La{sub 2}CuBiS{sub 5} are also presented; they suggest semiconducting behavior with energy gaps exceeding 1.7 eV. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 2}CuSbS{sub 5} crystallizes in a new structure type (space group Ima2 (no. 46). Its bismuth analog La{sub 2}CuBiS{sub 5} crystallizes in the La{sub 2}CuInSe{sub 5} structure type (space group Pnma (no. 62)). Z=4, a=11.9213(5) Å, b=3.9967(2) Å, c=17.0536(10) Å, V=813.53(10) Å{sup 3}). The structures are based on rare-earth metal atoms coordinated by S atoms in a trigonal-prismatic and/or square-antiprismatic fashion, Cu-centered tetrahedra, and pnictogen atoms in pyramidal or distorted octahedral coordination. - Highlights: • Ln{sub 2}CuSbS{sub 5} are complex quarternary phases crystallizing in their own structure type. • Ln{sub 2}CuSbS{sub 5} and Ce{sub 2}CuBiS{sub 5} are new compound in the respective ternary phase diagrams. • Ln{sub 2}CuSbS{sub 5} on one side, and Ln{sub 2}CuBiS{sub 5} on the other are not isotypic.« less

  1. High Specific Power Motors in LN2 and LH2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has been operated in liquid nitrogen (LN2) with a power density as high as that reported for any motor or generator. The high performance stems from the low resistivity of Cu at LN2 temperature and from the geometry of the windings, the combination of which permits steady-state rms current density up to 7000 A/cm2, about 10 times that possible in coils cooled by natural convection at room temperature. The Joule heating in the coils is conducted to the end turns for rejection to the LN2 bath. Minimal heat rejection occurs in the motor slots, preserving that region for conductor. In the end turns, the conductor layers are spaced to form a heat-exchanger-like structure that permits nucleate boiling over a large surface area. Although tests were performed in LN2 for convenience, this motor was designed as a prototype for use with liquid hydrogen (LH2) as the coolant. End-cooled coils would perform even better in LH2 because of further increases in copper electrical and thermal conductivities. Thermal analyses comparing LN2 and LH2 cooling are presented verifying that end-cooled coils in LH2 could be either much longer or could operate at higher current density without thermal runaway than in LN2.

  2. High Specific Power Motors in LN2 and LH2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has been operated in liquid nitrogen (LN2) with a power density as high as that reported for any motor or generator. The high performance stems from the low resistivity of Cu at LN2 temperature and from the geometry of the windings, the combination of which permits steady-state rms current density up to 7000 A/sq cm, about 10 times that possible in coils cooled by natural convection at room temperature. The Joule heating in the coils is conducted to the end turns for rejection to the LN2 bath. Minimal heat rejection occurs in the motor slots, preserving that region for conductor. In the end turns, the conductor layers are spaced to form a heat-exchanger-like structure that permits nucleate boiling over a large surface area. Although tests were performed in LN2 for convenience, this motor was designed as a prototype for use with liquid hydrogen (LH2) as the coolant. End-cooled coils would perform even better in LH2 because of further increases in copper electrical and thermal conductivities. Thermal analyses comparing LN2 and LH2 cooling are presented verifying that end-cooled coils in LH2 could be either much longer or could operate at higher current density without thermal runaway than in LN2.

  3. Theoretical aspects of photonic band gap in 1D nano structure of LN: MgLN periodic layer

    SciT

    Sisodia, Namita, E-mail: namitasisodiya@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    By using the transfer matrix method, we have analyzed the photonic band gap properties in a periodic layer of LN:MgLN medium. The Width of alternate layers of LN and MgLN is in the range of hundred nanometers. The birefringent and ferroelectric properties of the medium (i.e ordinary, extraordinary refractive indices and electric dipole moment) is given due considerations in the formulation of photonic band gap. Effect of electronic transition dipole moment of the medium on photonic band gap is also taken into account. We find that photonic band gap can be modified by the variation in the ratio of themore » width of two medium. We explain our findings by obtaining numerical values and the effect on the photonic band gap due to variation in the ratio of alternate medium is shown graphically.« less

  4. High pressure luminescence spectra of CaMoO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Pr, Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlik, S.; Behrendt, M.; Grinberg, M.; Cavalli, E.; Bettinelli, M.

    2013-03-01

    Photoluminescence spectra and luminescence kinetics of pure CaMoO4 and CaMoO4 doped with Ln3+ (Ln = Pr or Tb) are presented. The spectra were obtained at high hydrostatic pressure up to 240 kbar applied in a diamond anvil cell. At ambient pressure undoped and doped samples exhibit a broad band emission extending between 380 and 700 nm with a maximum at 520 nm attributed to the {{MoO}}_{4}^{2-} luminescence. CaMoO4 doped with Pr3+ or Tb3+ additionally yields narrow emission lines related to f-f transitions. The undoped CaMoO4 crystal was characterized by a strong MoO{}_{4}^{2-} emission up to 240 kbar. In the cases of CaMoO4:Pr3+ and CaMoO4:Tb3+, high hydrostatic pressure caused quenching of Pr3+ and Tb3+ emission, and this effect was accompanied by a strong shortening of the luminescence lifetime. In doped samples, CaMoO4:Pr3+ and CaMoO4:Tb3+, quenching of the emission band attributed to {{MoO}}_{4}^{2-} was also observed, and at pressure above 130 kbar this luminescence was totally quenched. The effects mentioned above were related to the influence of the praseodymium (terbium) trapped exciton PTE (ITE—impurity trapped exciton) on the efficiency of the Pr3+ (Tb3+) and {{MoO}}_{4}^{2-} emissions.

  5. Structure and bulk modulus of Ln-doped UO2 (Ln = La, Nd) at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Park, Sulgiye; Tracy, Cameron L.; Zhang, Lei; Palomares, Raul I.; Lang, Maik; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Mao, Wendy L.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2017-07-01

    The structure of lanthanide-doped uranium dioxide, LnxU1-xO2-0.5x+y (Ln = La, Nd), was investigated at pressures up to ∼50-55 GPa. Samples were synthesized with different lanthanides at different concentrations (x ∼ 0.2 and 0.5), and all were slightly hyperstoichiometric (y ∼ 0.25-0.4). In situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to investigate their high-pressure phase behavior and determine their bulk moduli. All samples underwent a fluorite-to-cotunnite phase transformation with increasing pressure. The pressure of the phase transformation increased with increasing hyperstoichiometry, which is consistent with results from previous computational simulations. Bulk moduli are inversely proportional to both the ionic radius of the lanthanide and its concentration, as quantified using a weighted cationic radius ratio. This trend was found to be consistent with the behavior of other elastic properties measured for Ln-doped UO2, such as Young's modulus.

  6. Tunable emission in Ln3+ (Ce3+/Dy3+, Ce3+/Tb3+) doped KNa3Al4Si4O16 phosphor synthesized by combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolte, M. M.; Pawade, V. B.; Bhattacharya, A. B.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2018-05-01

    Ln3+ (Ln = Ce3+/Dy3+, Ce3+/Tb3+) doped KNa3Al4Si4O16 phosphor has been synthesized by Combustion method (CS) at 550° C successfully. Ln3+ (Ln = Ce3+, Dy3+, Tb3+) ions when doped in KNa3Al4Si4O16 host lattice, it shows blue and green emission band under the near Ultraviolet (NUV) excitation wavelength. The Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission spectra are observed due to f-f and d-f transition of rare earth ions. Also, an effective energy transfer (ET) study from Ce3+ → Dy3+ and Ce3+ → Tb3+ ions has been studied and confirmed on the basis of Dexter-Foster theory. Further synthesized phosphor is well characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and decay time measurement. However, the analysis of crystallite size, lattice strain has been studied by using theoretical as well as experimental techniques. Hence, the observed tunable emission in Ln3+ doped KNa3Al4Si4O16 phosphor may be applicable for solid state lighting technology.

  7. Nucleation-dependant chemical bonding paradigm: the effect of rare earth ions on the nucleation of urea in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Sun, Congting; Wu, Sixin; Xue, Dongfeng

    2017-03-29

    Rare earth ions can be used to construct a variety of novel structures and are favorable to chemical bonding regulation and design. In this study, the chemical bonding paradigm between rare earth ions (Ln 3+ ) and urea molecules in an aqueous solution can be tracked by the evolution of C[double bond, length as m-dash]O, NH 2 , and CN vibration bands during the urea nucleation stage. Rare earth ions such as La 3+ , Gd 3+ , and Lu 3+ can manipulate the nucleation time of urea via regulating the nucleation-dependant N-C[double bond, length as m-dash]OH-N hydrogen-bonding between urea molecules. Two types of chemical bondings between Ln 3+ and urea molecules have been confirmed, which are Ln 3+ O[double bond, length as m-dash]C-N and Ln 3+ NH 2 -C. Compared with Ln 3+ NH 2 -C, Ln 3+ prefers to coordinate with the O[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond in urea. With a higher concentration of rare earth ions in the solution, some N-C[double bond, length as m-dash]OH-N hydrogen bonds are broken as a consequence of the incorporation of Ln 3+ into the lattice, resulting in the decreased symmetry of local urea molecules in the crystalline nuclei and the consequent Ln 3+ concentration-dependent nucleation time of urea. Moreover, using the ionic electronegativity scale of Ln 3+ , the different effects of La 3+ , Gd 3+ , and Lu 3+ on urea nucleation can be further distinguished. The present study provides basic data for unrevealing the chemical bonding regulation role of rare earth ions in the formation of hydrogen bonded materials, which may give insight into the design and fabrication of novel materials utilizing rare earth ions to adjust the chemical bonding process.

  8. New Antimony Lanthanide Disulfide Dibromides LnSbS

    SciT

    Gout, D.; Jobic, S.; Evain, M.

    2001-05-01

    CeSbS{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (I), Ce{sub 1/2}La{sub 1/2}SbS{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (II), and LaSbS{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (III) have been synthesized at 700 C from a mixture of LnBr{sub 3}, Ln{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Sb, and S and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The three phases are isostructural (space group P2{sub 1}/c, Z=4) and crystallize in a novel, dense, bidimensional structure with cell parameters a=8.709(3) {angstrom}, b=9.187(2) {angstrom}, c=17.397(5) {angstrom} {beta}=104.26(3) for I, a=8.739(7) {angstrom}, b=9.219(7) {angstrom}, c=17.41(2) {angstrom}, =104.3(1) for II, and a=8.785(1) {angstrom}, b=9.236(2) {angstrom}, c=17.372(3) {angstrom}, {beta}=104.09(2) for III. In these compounds, [Ln S{sub 5}Br{sub 4}] and [Ln S{sub 3}Br{sub 6}]more » (Ln=Ce, La) distorted tricapped trigonal prisms define infinite {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[LnS{sub 2}Br{sub 2}] layers counterbalanced and capped by antimony cations. In good accordance with the structural features, the charge balance in these materials is to be written Ln{sup III}Sb{sup III}S{sup -II}{sub 2}Br{sup -I}{sub 2}. These compounds exhibit a yellow hue with a measured absorption threshold of 2.42(1), 2.55(1), and 2.72(1) eV for I, II, and III, respectively. In the two cerium containing bromothioantimonates I and II, the origin of the color is assigned to a Ce-4f{yields}Ce-5d electronic transition, which shifts to higher energy from I to II due either to a matrix effect (increase of the mean Ln-S distances under the substitution of Ce for La) or to an atomic ordering between Ce and La cations on the Ln(1) and Ln(2) crystallographic sites. In contrast, the electronic transition at play in III involves a charge transfer from the bromine and sulfur ions to the antimony ions, the latter contributing substantially to the lowermost levels of the conduction band.« less

  9. Microchip Yb:CaLnAlO4 lasers with up to 91% slope efficiency.

    PubMed

    Loiko, Pavel; Serres, Josep Maria; Mateos, Xavier; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun; Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Navratil, Petr; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomas; Zhang, Xuzhao; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc; Major, Arkady

    2017-07-01

    Multi-watt continuous-wave (CW) operation of tetragonal rare-earth calcium aluminate Yb:CaLnAlO 4 (Ln=Gd,Y)) crystals in plano-plano microchip lasers was demonstrated with an almost quantum-defect-limited slope efficiency. Pumped at 978 nm by an InGaAs laser diode, a 3.4 mm long 8 at. % Yb:CaGdAlO 4 laser generated 7.79 W at 1057-1065 nm with a slope efficiency of η=84% (with respect to the absorbed pump power). An even higher η=91% was achieved with a 2.5 mm long 3 at. % Yb:CaYAlO 4 laser, from which 5.06 W were extracted at 1048-1056 nm. Both lasers produced linearly polarized output (σ-polarization) with an almost circular diffraction-limited beam (Mx,y2<1.1). The output performance of the developed lasers was modeled, yielding an internal loss coefficient as low as 0.004-0.007  cm -1 . In addition, their spectroscopic properties were revisited.

  10. Highly-efficient multi-watt Yb:CaLnAlO4 microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, Pavel; Serres, Josep Maria; Mateos, Xavier; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun; Yumashev, Konstantin; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc; Major, Arkady

    2017-02-01

    Tetragonal rare-earth calcium aluminates, CaLnAlO4 where Ln = Gd or Y (CALGO and CALYO, respectively), are attractive laser crystal hosts due to their locally disordered structure and high thermal conductivity. In the present work, we report on highly-efficient power-scalable microchip lasers based on 8 at.% Yb:CALGO and 3 at.% Yb:CALYO crystals grown by the Czochralski method. Pumped by an InGaAs laser diode at 978 nm, the 6 mm-long Yb:CALGO microchip laser generated 7.79 W at 1057-1065 nm with a slope efficiency of η = 84% (with respect to the absorbed pump power) and an optical-to-optical efficiency of ηopt = 49%. The 3 mm-long Yb:CALYO microchip laser generated 5.06 W at 1048-1056 nm corresponding to η = 91% and ηopt = 32%. Both lasers produced linearly polarized output (σ- polarization) with an almost circular beam profile and beam quality factors M2 x,y <1.1. The output performance of the developed lasers was modeled yielding a loss coefficient as low as 0.004-0.007 cm-1. The results indicate that the Yb3+- doped calcium aluminates are very promising candidates for high-peak-power passively Q-switched microchip lasers.

  11. One-dimensional coordination polymers of whole row rare earth tris-pivalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsymbarenko, Dmitry; Martynova, Irina; Grebenyuk, Dimitry; Shegolev, Vsevolod; Kuzmina, Natalia

    2018-02-01

    Fourteen 1D coordination polymers of rare earth pivalates [Ln(Piv)3]∞ (Ln = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm-Lu) were synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, TGA, and conventional elemental analysis. Crystal structures of [La(Piv)3]∞, [Yb(Piv)3]∞, [Lu(Piv)3]∞ were determined by means of single crystal X-ray analysis at 120 K, those of [Y(Piv)3]∞ and [Ho(Piv)3]∞ - from powder XRD data at 293 K. Transformation of [Ln(Piv)3]∞ structure and Piv- anions coordination mode along the whole row has been derived from powder XRD and IR spectroscopy results, and shown to crucially affect the relative location of 1D chains in the crystal structure, as well as the Ln···Ln distance within the single chain. Negative thermal expansion along 1D [Ln(Piv)3]∞ chain was revealed for Ln = Tm, Yb, Lu. Enforcement of 1D polymeric structure with the decrease of Ln ionic radius has been established from solid-state DFT calculations.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of 4ZnO·B2O3·H2O:Ln3 + (Ln = Eu, Tb) phosphors: Morphology-tunable and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shiwei; Jiao, Yang; Han, Weifang; Ge, Chunhua; Song, Bo; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-02-01

    4ZnO·B2O3·H2O:Ln3 + (Ln = Eu, Tb) phosphors with different morphologies have been successfully synthesized via one-step hydrothermal method through regulating the molar amount of Eu3 + and Tb3 +. Comprehensive scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) characterizations all confirm that obtained products are 4ZnO·B2O3·H2O:Ln3 + (Ln = Eu, Tb). The experimental results displayed that the morphology and photoluminescence of compounds is regularly changed with increased the molar amount of rare earth ions. For the Eu3 +-doped, Tb3 +-doped and Eu3 +/Tb3 + co-doped 4ZnO·B2O3·H2O phosphors of morphologies, the rod-like structures gradually changed to flower-like structures, fine wire-like structure and hybrid structure, respectively. To their photoluminescence, the Eu3 + shows a red emission (615 nm); the Tb3 + shows a green emission (545 nm); for the Eu3 +/Tb3 + co-doped 4ZnO·B2O3·H2O phosphors, a combination of blue (5d-4f of Eu2 +), green (5D4-7F5 of Tb3 +) and red (5D0-7F2 of Eu3 +) emissions emerges to achieve white emission. In addition, the energy transfer among Eu3 +, Eu2 + and Tb3 + ions was also discussed.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of 4ZnO·B2O3·H2O:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu, Tb) phosphors: Morphology-tunable and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shiwei; Jiao, Yang; Han, Weifang; Ge, Chunhua; Song, Bo; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-02-05

    4ZnO·B 2 O 3 ·H 2 O:Ln 3+ (Ln=Eu, Tb) phosphors with different morphologies have been successfully synthesized via one-step hydrothermal method through regulating the molar amount of Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ . Comprehensive scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) characterizations all confirm that obtained products are 4ZnO·B 2 O 3 ·H 2 O:Ln 3+ (Ln=Eu, Tb). The experimental results displayed that the morphology and photoluminescence of compounds is regularly changed with increased the molar amount of rare earth ions. For the Eu 3+ -doped, Tb 3+ -doped and Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ co-doped 4ZnO·B 2 O 3 ·H 2 O phosphors of morphologies, the rod-like structures gradually changed to flower-like structures, fine wire-like structure and hybrid structure, respectively. To their photoluminescence, the Eu 3+ shows a red emission (615nm); the Tb 3+ shows a green emission (545nm); for the Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ co-doped 4ZnO·B 2 O 3 ·H 2 O phosphors, a combination of blue (5d-4f of Eu 2+ ), green ( 5 D 4 - 7 F 5 of Tb 3+ ) and red ( 5 D 0 - 7 F 2 of Eu 3+ ) emissions emerges to achieve white emission. In addition, the energy transfer among Eu 3+ , Eu 2+ and Tb 3+ ions was also discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Decanuclear Ln10 Wheels and Vertex-Shared Spirocyclic Ln5 Cores: Synthesis, Structure, SMM Behavior, and MCE Properties.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourav; Dey, Atanu; Kundu, Subrata; Biswas, Sourav; Narayanan, Ramakirushnan Suriya; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Lorusso, Giulia; Evangelisti, Marco; Colacio, Enrique; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2015-11-16

    The reaction of a Schiff base ligand (LH3) with lanthanide salts, pivalic acid and triethylamine in 1:1:1:3 and 4:5:8:20 stoichiometric ratios results in the formation of decanuclear Ln10 (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), and Gd (3)) and pentanuclear Ln5 complexes (Ln = Gd (4), Tb (5), and Dy (6)), respectively. The formation of Ln10 and Ln5 complexes are fully governed by the stoichiometry of the reagents used. Detailed magnetic studies on these complexes (1-6) have been carried out. Complex 1 shows a SMM behavior with an effective energy barrier for the reversal of the magnetization (Ueff) = 16.12(8) K and relaxation time (τo) = 3.3×10(-5) s under 4000 Oe direct current (dc) field. Complex 6 shows the frequency dependent maxima in the out-of-phase signal under zero dc field, without achieving maxima above 2 K. Complexes 3 and 4 show a large magnetocaloric effect with the following characteristic values: -ΔSm = 26.6 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 2.2 K for 3 and -ΔSm = 27.1 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 2.4 K for 4, both for an applied field change of 7 T. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Facile hydrothermal crystallization of NaLn(WO4)2 (Ln=La-Lu, and Y), phase/morphology evolution, and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaofei; Li, Ji-Guang; Wang, Xuejiao; Zhu, Qi; Kim, Byung-Nam; Sun, Xudong

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal reaction of Ln nitrate and Na2WO4 at pH=8 and 200 °C for 24 hours, in the absence of any additive, has directly produced the scheelite-type sodium lanthanide tungstate of NaLn(WO4)2 for the larger Ln3+ of Ln=La-Dy (including Y, Group I) and an unknown compound that can be transformed into NaLn(WO4)2 by calcination at the low temperature of 600 °C for the smaller Ln3+ of Ln=Ho-Lu (Group II). With the successful synthesis of NaLn(WO4)2 for the full spectrum of Ln, the effects of lanthanide contraction on the structural features, crystal morphology, and IR responses of the compounds were clarified. The temperature- and time-course phase/morphology evolutions and the phase conversion upon calcination were thoroughly studied for the Group I and Group II compounds with Ln=La and Lu for example, respectively. Unknown intermediates were characterized by elemental analysis, IR absorption, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry to better understand their chemical composition and coordination. The photoluminescence properties of NaEu(WO4)2 and NaTb(WO4)2, including excitation, emission, fluorescence decay, and quantum efficiency of luminescence, were also comparatively studied for the as-synthesized and calcination products.

  16. Magnetic Nature of the CrIII-LnIII Interactions in [CrIII2LnIII3] Clusters with Slow Magnetic Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Qing; Xiang, Shuo; Wang, Jin; Bao, Dong-Xu; Li, Yun-Chun

    2018-02-01

    Two 3 d -4 f hetero-metal pentanuclear complexes with the formula {[Cr III 2 Ln III 3 L 10 (OH) 6 (H 2 O) 2 ]Et 3 NH} [Ln=Tb ( 1 ), Dy ( 2 ); HL=pivalic acid, Et 3 N=triethylamine] have been produced. The metal core of each cluster is made up of a trigonal bipyramid with three Ln III ions (plane) and two Cr III ions (above and below) held together by six μ 3 -OH bridges. Also reported with this series is the diamagnetic Cr III -Y III analogue ( 3 ). Fortunately, we successfully prepared Al III -Ln III analogues with the formula {[Al III 2 Ln III 3 L 10 (OH) 6 (H 2 O) 2 ]Et 3 NH⋅H 2 O} [Ln=Tb ( 4 ), Dy ( 5 )], containing diamagnetic Al III ions, which can be used to evaluate the Cr III -Ln III magnetic nature through a diamagnetic substitution method. Subsequently, static (dc) magnetic susceptibility studies reveal dominant ferromagnetic interactions between Cr III and Ln III ions. Dynamic (ac) magnetic susceptibility studies show frequency-dependent out-of-phase ( χ '') signals for [Cr III 2 Tb III 3 ] ( 1 ), [Cr III 2 Dy III 3 ] ( 2 ), and [Al III 2 Dy III 3 ] ( 5 ), which are derived from the single-ion behavior of Ln III ions and/or the Cr III -Ln III ferromagnetic interactions.

  17. Crystal structures and magnetic properties of lanthanide containing borates LnM(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Ho–Lu; M=Sc, Cr)

    SciT

    Doi, Yoshihiro, E-mail: doi@sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Satou, Tatsuya; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2013-10-15

    The synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic properties of LnM(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Ho–Lu; M=Sc, Cr) were investigated. The LnCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} compounds crystallize in the dolomite-type structure with space group R3{sup ¯}, in which the Ln and Cr ions occupy two octahedral sites. From the result of structural analysis, it was found that there is an anti-site disorder between these two sites and its chemical formula is more exactly Ln{sub 1−r}Cr{sub r}[Cr{sub 1−r}Ln{sub r}](BO{sub 3}){sub 2}. On the other hand, the LnSc(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} adopt the calcite-type structure with space group R3{sup ¯}c. The Ln and Sc ions randomly occupymore » an octahedral site and the chemical formula is represented as (Ln{sub 0.5}Sc{sub 0.5})BO{sub 3}. From the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, we found that all the LnCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} show an antiferromagnetic transition at 6.1–8.1 K. This transition is mainly due to the ordering of Cr{sup 3+} magnetic moments. Among the compounds with magnetic Ln{sup 3+} ions, only YbCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} shows an antiferromagnetic ordering of Ln{sup 3+} ion at 2.1 K. - Graphical abstract: The lanthanide containing borates LnM(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Ho–Lu; M=Sc, Cr) have the dolomite-type (Ln=Cr) and calcite-type (Ln=Sc) structures. Both structures are similar to each other except for the difference in the partially or fully disordered arrangements of octahedral sites. At low temperatures, the LnCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} compounds show an antiferromagnetic transition due to a long-range ordering of Cr{sup 3+} moments. Among them only YbCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} shows an antiferromagnetic ordering of Ln{sup 3+} ion at 2.1 K. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Lanthanide containing borates LnM(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Ho–Lu; M=Sc, Cr) have been synthesized. • LnCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} has the dolomite-type structure with an anti-site disorder between Ln and Cr sites. • LnSc(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} has the calcite

  18. Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O2N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) Persistent Luminescence Materials for Information Storage Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yixi; Lv, Ying; Wang, Le; Chen, Wenwei; Zhou, Tian-Liang; Takeda, Takashi; Hirosaki, Naoto; Xie, Rong-Jun

    2018-01-17

    Deep-trap persistent luminescence materials exhibit unique properties of energy storage and controllable photon release under additional stimulation, allowing for both wavelength and intensity multiplexing to realize high-capacity storage in the next-generation information storage system. However, the lack of suitable persistent luminescence materials with deep traps is the bottleneck of such storage technologies. In this study, we successfully developed a series of novel deep-trap persistent luminescence materials in the Ln 2+ /Ln 3+ -doped SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 system (Ln 2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln 3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) by applying the strategy of trap depth engineering. Interestingly, the trap depth can be tailored by selecting different codopants, and it monotonically increases from 0.90 to 1.18 eV in the order of Er, Ho, and Dy. This is well explained by the energy levels indicated in the host-referred binding energy scheme. The orange-red-emitting SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 :Yb,Dy and green-emitting SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 :Eu,Dy phosphors are demonstrated to be good candidates of information storage materials, which are attributed to their deep traps, narrow thermoluminescence glow bands, high emission efficiency, and excellent chemical stability. This work not only validates the suitability of deep-trap persistent luminescence materials in the information storage applications, but also broadens the avenue to explore such kinds of new materials for applications in anticounterfeiting and advanced displays.

  19. Systems Ln-Fe-O ( Ln=Eu, Gd): thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides using solid-state electrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, S. C.; Rakshit, S. K.; Dash, S.; Singh, Ziley; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, V.

    2003-05-01

    The standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of LnFeO 3(s) and Ln3Fe 5O 12(s) where Ln=Eu and Gd have been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing different solid electrolytes. The reversible e.m.f.s of the following solid-state electrochemical cells have been measured in the temperature range from 1050 to 1255 K. Cell (I): (-)Pt / { LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln2O 3(s)+Fe(s)} // YDT/CSZ // {Fe(s)+Fe 0.95O(s)} / Pt(+); Cell (II): (-)Pt/{Fe(s)+Fe 0.95O(s)}//CSZ//{ LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln3Fe 5O 12(s)+Fe 3O 4(s)}/Pt(+); Cell (III): (-)Pt/{ LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln3Fe 5O 12(s)+Fe 3O 4(s)}//YSZ//{Ni(s)+NiO(s)}/Pt(+); and Cell(IV):(-)Pt/{Fe(s)+Fe 0.95O(s)}//YDT/CSZ//{ LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln3Fe 5O 12(s)+Fe 3O 4(s)}/Pt(+). The oxygen chemical potentials corresponding to the three-phase equilibria involving the ternary oxides have been computed from the e.m.f. data. The standard Gibbs energies of formation of solid EuFeO 3, Eu 3Fe 5O 12, GdFeO 3 and Gd 3Fe 5O 12 calculated by the least-squares regression analysis of the data obtained in the present study are given by Δ fG°m(EuFeO 3, s) /kJ mol -1 (± 3.2)=-1265.5+0.2687( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1570), Δ fG°m(Eu 3Fe 5O 12, s)/kJ mol -1 (± 3.5)=-4626.2+1.0474( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1255), Δ fG°m(GdFeO 3, s) /kJ mol -1 (± 3.2)=-1342.5+0.2539( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1570), and Δ fG°m(Gd 3Fe 5O 12, s)/kJ·mol -1 (± 3.5)=-4856.0+1.0021( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1255). The uncertainty estimates for Δ fG°m include the standard deviation in the e.m.f. and uncertainty in the data taken from the literature. Based on the thermodynamic information, oxygen potential diagrams for the systems Eu-Fe-O and Gd-Fe-O and chemical potential diagrams for the system Gd-Fe-O were computed at 1250 K.

  20. Snynthesis and magnetization of BaLn2O4 (Ln = lanthanide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Matthew

    The BaLn2O4 family has been synthesized successfully as single crystals by the flux-growth method. The phases crystallize in the CaV2O4 structure prototype in space group Pnma (# 62). The structure has been studied using single-crystal x-ray diffraction, and stoichiometry confirmed with EDS, and the unit cell parameters and atomic positions have been determined for the whole lanthanide series (with the exception of the Lu compound). The effects of the lanthanide ionic radius on the atomic positions in the unit cell has been studied in terms of fractional atomic coordinates, bond lengths and angles, and bond valence sums. Magnetic measurements have been performed on the series with the exception of the La, Eu, and Lu members in the form of susceptibility versus temperature. The crystals all show signs of geometric antiferromagnetic frustration with the Neel temperatures significantly below the temperature predicted by the Weiss constant. Additionally some members of the family, namely BaCe2O4, BaNd2O4, BaPr 2O4, BaSm2O4, BaTb2O 4, and BaYb2O4 show significant crystal field splitting, that causes deviation from Currie-Weiss behavior.

  1. Rare Earth Arylsilazido Compounds with Inequivalent Secondary Interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Boteju, Kasuni Chathurika; Wan, Suchen; Venkatesh, Amrit; ...

    2018-06-05

    Here, a new bulky silazido ligand, –N(SiHMe 2)Dipp (Dipp = C 6H 3-2,6- iPr 2) supports planar, three-coordinate homoleptic rare earth complexes Ln{N(SiHMe 2)Dipp} 3 (Ln = Sc, Y, Lu) that each contain three secondary Ln←HSi interactions and one agostic CH bond. Y{N(SiHMe 2)Dipp} 3 and acetophenone react via hydrosilylation, rather than by insertion into the Y–N bond or enolate formation.

  2. Rare Earth Arylsilazido Compounds with Inequivalent Secondary Interactions

    SciT

    Boteju, Kasuni Chathurika; Wan, Suchen; Venkatesh, Amrit

    Here, a new bulky silazido ligand, –N(SiHMe 2)Dipp (Dipp = C 6H 3-2,6- iPr 2) supports planar, three-coordinate homoleptic rare earth complexes Ln{N(SiHMe 2)Dipp} 3 (Ln = Sc, Y, Lu) that each contain three secondary Ln←HSi interactions and one agostic CH bond. Y{N(SiHMe 2)Dipp} 3 and acetophenone react via hydrosilylation, rather than by insertion into the Y–N bond or enolate formation.

  3. Luminescent LuVO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Er) hollow porous spheres for encapsulation of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Chunlei; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2015-10-01

    In this study, LuVO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Er) hollow porous spheres, synthesized via self-sacrificing templated route, are developed for enzyme immobilization and protein adsorption. The four LuVO4 hollow spheres with diameter of 180 nm, 280 nm, 370 nm and 480 nm were obtained. The size of LuVO4 hollow sphere is dependent on Lu(OH)CO3 template. Upon excitation by UV light, hollow LuVO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Er) spheres exhibit red (Eu3+), orange (Sm3+), yellow-green (Dy3+), and green (Er3+) emissions. The good biocompatibility of sample is validated by MTT assay. Due to structure feature and size of obtained sample, the rapid encapsulation of biomolecules within samples has been achieved. Furthermore, the hollow spheres show different biomolecules adsorption capacities at different buffer solution pH values. The release behaviors of two kinds of biomolecules (lysozyme and bovine serum albumin) are also investigated. LuVO4 hollow spheres are suitable carriers for biomolecules. The emission intensity of Eu3+ in the LuVO4:Eu3+ varies with the released amount of LYZ. This enables the monitoring of release process by the change in the luminescence intensity.

  4. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciT

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development ofmore » a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both

  5. Formation and Fragmentation Chemistry of Tripositive Ln(TMGA)33+ Complexes in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuting; Li, Qingnuan; Gong, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) of LnCl 3 (Ln = La-Lu except Pm) and TMGA (tetramethyl glutaramide) mixtures resulted in the formation of gas-phase Ln(TMGA) 3 3+ complexes, where tripositive lanthanide cation was coordinated by three neutral TMGA ligands. Collision induced dissociation (CID) was employed to investigate the fragmentation chemistry of these tripositive complexes. Ln(TMGA) 2 (TMGA- 45) 3+ resulting from C carbonyl -N bond cleavage of TMGA and hydrogen transfer is the major CID product for all Ln(TMGA) 3 3+ except Eu(TMGA) 3 3+ which predominantly forms divalent Eu II (TMGA) 2 2+ complex via loss of TMGA + . Analogous Yb II (TMGA) 2 2+ and Sm II (TMGA) 2 2+ complexes arising from charge reduction were also observed, in competition with the formation of charge conserving Yb III (TMGA)(TMGA-H) 2+ and Sm III (TMGA)(TMGA-H) 2+ products. The yield of these charge reducing products follows their reduction potentials in condensed phase. In addition to Ln(TMGA) 3 3+ , tripositive ions such as Ln(TMGA) 4 3+ and Ln(TMGA) 2 3+ were experimentally identified as well. While the former was observed along with Ln(TMGA) 3 3+ during ESI, the latter was observed upon CID of Ln(TMGA) 3 3+ , suggesting two TMGA molecules can stabilize Ln 3+ in the gas phase. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanide(III) thioarsenates [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} (Ln==Sm, Eu, Gd) and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] (Ln==Tb, Dy, Ho)

    SciT

    Wang, Fang; Tang, Chunying; Chen, Ruihong

    2013-10-15

    Solvothermal reactions of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, As and S in diethylenetriamine (dien) at 170 °C for 6 days afforded two structural types of lanthanide thioarsenates with the general formulae [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3)] and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] [Ln=Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6)]. The Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides were converted to [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} complex units in the solvothermal reactions. The As atom binds four S atoms, forming a tetrahedral AsS{sub 4} unit. In 1−3, the AsS{sub 4} units interconnect the [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} cations via Ln−S bonds as tridentate μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4} bridging ligands, resulting in themore » neutral coordination polymers [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} (Ln1). In 4−6, the AsS{sub 4} units coordinate with the Ln{sup 3+} ion of [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} as 1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4} chelating ligands to form neutral coordination compounds [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] (Ln2). The Ln{sup 3+} ions are in nine- and eight-coordinated environments in Ln1 and Ln2, respectively. The formation of Ln1 and Ln2 is related with ionic size of the Ln{sup 3+} ions. Optical absorption spectra showed that 1−6 have potential use as semiconductors with the band gaps in the range 2.18−3.21 eV. - Graphical abstract: Two types of Ln-thioarsenates [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] were prepared by solvothermal methods and the soft Lewis basic AsS{sub 4}{sup 3–} ligand to Ln(III) centers with polyamine co-ligand was obtained. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Lanthanide thioarsenates were prepared by solvothermal methods. • The soft Lewis basic AsS{sub 4} ligand coordinate Ln{sup 3+} ions with coexistence polyamine ligands. • Two structural types of Ln-thioarsenates with structural turnover at Tb were obtained along Ln series. • The Ln-thioarsenates are potential

  7. Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Pindwal, Aradhana; Yan, KaKing; Patnaik, Smita; ...

    2017-10-09

    Homoleptic tris(alkyl) rare earth complexes Ln{C(SiHMe 2) 3} 3 (Ln = La, 1a; Ce, 1b; Pr, 1c; Nd, 1d) are synthesized in high yield from LnI 3THF n and 3 equiv of KC(SiHMe 2) 3. X-ray diffraction studies reveal 1a–d are isostructural, pseudo-C 3-symmetric molecules that contain two secondary Ln←HSi interactions per alkyl ligand (six total). Spectroscopic assignments are supported by comparison with Ln{C(SiDMe 2) 3} 3 and DFT calculations. Here, the Ln←HSi and terminal SiH exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale at room temperature, but the two motifs are resolved at low temperature. Variable-temperature NMR studies provide activationmore » parameters for the exchange process in 1a (ΔH ‡ = 8.2(4) kcal·mol –1; ΔS ‡ = –1(2) cal·mol –1K –1) and 1a-d 9 (ΔH ‡ = 7.7(3) kcal·mol –1; ΔS ‡ = –4(2) cal·mol –1K –1). Comparisons of lineshapes, rate constants (kH/kD), and slopes of ln(k/T) vs 1/T plots for 1a and 1a-d 9 reveal that an inverse isotope effect dominates at low temperature. DFT calculations identify four low-energy intermediates containing five β-Si–H→Ln and one γ-C–H→Ln. The calculations also suggest the pathway for Ln←HSi/SiH exchange involves rotation of a single C(SiHMe 2) 3 ligand that is coordinated to the Ln center through the Ln–C bond and one secondary interaction. These robust organometallic compounds persist in solution and in the solid state up to 80 °C, providing potential for their use in a range of synthetic applications. For example, reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe 2) 3} 3 and ancillary proligands, such as bis-1,1-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)ethane (HMeC(Ox Me2) 2) give {MeC(Ox Me2) 2}Ln{C(SiHMe 2) 3} 2, and reactions with disilazanes provide solvent-free lanthanoid tris(disilazides).« less

  8. Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds

    SciT

    Pindwal, Aradhana; Yan, KaKing; Patnaik, Smita

    Homoleptic tris(alkyl) rare earth complexes Ln{C(SiHMe 2) 3} 3 (Ln = La, 1a; Ce, 1b; Pr, 1c; Nd, 1d) are synthesized in high yield from LnI 3THF n and 3 equiv of KC(SiHMe 2) 3. X-ray diffraction studies reveal 1a–d are isostructural, pseudo-C 3-symmetric molecules that contain two secondary Ln←HSi interactions per alkyl ligand (six total). Spectroscopic assignments are supported by comparison with Ln{C(SiDMe 2) 3} 3 and DFT calculations. Here, the Ln←HSi and terminal SiH exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale at room temperature, but the two motifs are resolved at low temperature. Variable-temperature NMR studies provide activationmore » parameters for the exchange process in 1a (ΔH ‡ = 8.2(4) kcal·mol –1; ΔS ‡ = –1(2) cal·mol –1K –1) and 1a-d 9 (ΔH ‡ = 7.7(3) kcal·mol –1; ΔS ‡ = –4(2) cal·mol –1K –1). Comparisons of lineshapes, rate constants (kH/kD), and slopes of ln(k/T) vs 1/T plots for 1a and 1a-d 9 reveal that an inverse isotope effect dominates at low temperature. DFT calculations identify four low-energy intermediates containing five β-Si–H→Ln and one γ-C–H→Ln. The calculations also suggest the pathway for Ln←HSi/SiH exchange involves rotation of a single C(SiHMe 2) 3 ligand that is coordinated to the Ln center through the Ln–C bond and one secondary interaction. These robust organometallic compounds persist in solution and in the solid state up to 80 °C, providing potential for their use in a range of synthetic applications. For example, reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe 2) 3} 3 and ancillary proligands, such as bis-1,1-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)ethane (HMeC(Ox Me2) 2) give {MeC(Ox Me2) 2}Ln{C(SiHMe 2) 3} 2, and reactions with disilazanes provide solvent-free lanthanoid tris(disilazides).« less

  9. Dual shell-like magnetic clusters containing Ni(II) and Ln(III) (Ln = La, Pr, and Nd) ions.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Jian; Ren, Yan-Ping; Long, La-Sheng; Zheng, Zhiping; Nichol, Gary; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2008-04-07

    Dual shell-like nanoscopic magnetic clusters featuring a polynuclear nickel(II) framework encapsulating that of lanthanide ions (Ln = La, Pr, and Nd) were synthesized using Ni(NO3)(2).6H2O, Ln(NO3)(3).6H2O, and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) under hydrothermal conditions. Structurally established by crystallographic studies, these clusters are [La20Ni30(IDA)30(CO3)6(NO3)6(OH)30(H2O)12](CO3)(6).72H2O (1), [Ln20Ni21(C4H5NO4)21(OH)24(C2H2O3)6(C2O4)3(NO3)9(H2O)12](NO3)9.nH2O [C2H2O3 is the alkoxide form of glycolate; Ln = Pr (2), n = 42; Nd (3), n = 50], and {[La4Ni5Na(IDA)5(CO3)(NO3)4(OH)5(H2O)5][CO3].10H2O} infinity (4). Carbonate, oxalate, and glycolate are products of hydrothermal decomposition of IDA. Compositions of these compounds were confirmed by satisfactory elemental analyses. It has been found that the cluster structure is dependent on the identity of the lanthanide ion as well as the starting Ln/Ni/IDA ratio. The cationic cluster of 1 features a core of the Keplerate type with an outer icosidodecahedron of Ni(II) ions encaging a dodecahedral kernel of La(III). Clusters 2 and 3, distinctly different from 1, are isostructural, possessing a core of an outer shell of 21 Ni(II) ions encapsulating an inner shell of 20 Ln(III) ions. Complex 4 is a three-dimensional assembly of cluster building blocks connected by units of Na(NO3)/La(NO3)3; the structure of the building block resembles closely that of 1, with a hydrated La(III) ion internalized in the decanuclear cage being an extra feature. Magnetic studies indicated ferromagnetic interactions in 1, while overall antiferromagnetic interactions were revealed for 2 and 3. The polymeric, three-dimensional cluster network 4 displayed interesting ferrimagnetic interactions.

  10. Earth Observation

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  11. A Family of A-Site Cation-Deficient Double-Perovskite-Related Iridates: Ln9Sr2Ir4O24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Timothy; Smith, Mark D; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2018-06-21

    The compositions of the general formula Ln 11- x Sr x Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm; 1.37 ≥ x ≥ 2) belonging to a family of A-site cation-deficient double-perovskite-related oxide iridates were grown as highly faceted single crystals from a molten strontium chloride flux. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. On the basis of the single-crystal results, additional compositions, Ln 9 Sr 2 Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm), were prepared as polycrystalline powders via solid-state reactions and structurally characterized by Rietveld refinement. The compositions Ln 9 Sr 2 Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm) contain Ir(V) and Ir(IV) in a 1:3 ratio with an average iridium oxidation state of 4.25. The single-crystal compositions La 9.15 Sr 1.85 Ir 4 O 24 and Pr 9.63 Sr 1.37 Ir 4 O 24 contain relatively less Ir(V), with the average iridium oxidation states being 4.21 and 4.09, respectively. The magnetic properties of Ln 9 Sr 2 Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm) were measured, and complex magnetic behavior was observed in all cases at temperatures below 30 K.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure, optical and thermal properties of lanthanide hydrogen-polyphosphates Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho).

    PubMed

    Förg, Katharina; Höppe, Henning A

    2015-11-28

    Lanthanide hydrogen-polyphosphates Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho) were synthesised as colourless (Ln = Tb, Dy) and light pink (Ln = Ho) crystalline powders by reaction of Tb4O7/Dy2O3/Ho2O3 with H3PO3 at 380 °C. All compounds crystallise isotypically (P2(1)/c (no. 14), Z = 4, a(Tb) = 1368.24(4) pm, b(Tb) = 710.42(2) pm, c(Tb) = 965.79(3) pm, β(Tb) = 101.200(1)°, 3112 data, 160 parameters, wR2 = 0.062, a(Ho) = 1363.34(5) pm, b(Ho) = 709.24(3) pm, c(Ho) = 959.07(4) pm, β(Ho) = 101.055(1)°, 1607 data, 158 parameters, wR2 = 0.058). The crystal structure comprises two different infinite helical chains of corner-sharing phosphate tetrahedra. In-between these chains the lanthanide ions are located, coordinated by seven oxygen atoms belonging to four different polyphosphate chains. Vibrational, UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra of Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho) as well as Dy[H(PO3)4]:Ln (Ln = Ce, Eu) and the magnetic and thermal behaviour of Tb[H(PO3)4] are reported.

  13. Single crystal synthesis and magnetism of the Ba Ln 2O 4 family ( Ln = lanthanide)

    DOE PAGES

    Besara, Tiglet; Lundberg, Matthew S.; Sun, Jifeng; ...

    2014-05-27

    The series of compounds in the Ba Ln 2O 4 family (Ln = La–Lu, Y) has been synthesized for the first time in single crystalline form, using a molten metal flux. The series crystallizes in the CaV 2O 4 structure type with primitive orthorhombic symmetry (space group Pnma, #62), and a complete structural study of atomic positions, bonds, angles, and distortions across the lanthanide series is presented. With the exception of the Y, La, Eu, and Lu members, magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed between 2 K and 300 K. BaCe 2O 4 and BaYb 2O 4 display large crystal fieldsmore » effects and suppression of magnetic ordering. As a result, all compounds show signs of magnetic frustration due to the trigonal arrangements of the trivalent lanthanide cations in the structure.« less

  14. Surprising luminescent properties of the polyphosphates Ln(PO3)3:Eu (Ln = Y, Gd, Lu).

    PubMed

    Höppe, Henning A; Kazmierczak, Karolina; Kacprzak, Sylwia; Schellenberg, Inga; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2011-10-21

    The optical emission properties of the lanthanoid catena-polyphosphates Ln(PO(3))(3) (Ln = Y, Gd, Lu) doped with europium were investigated. Incommensurately modulated β-Y(PO(3))(3):Eu (super space group Cc (0|0.364|0)0) and Gd(PO(3))(3):Eu (space group I2/a) show the usual emission characteristics of Eu(3+), while in Lu(PO(3))(3):Eu (space group Cc) the europium is unprecedentedly partially reduced to the divalent state, as proven by both a broad emission band at 406 nm excited at 279 nm and an EPR spectroscopic investigation. (151)Eu-Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that only a very small part of the europium is reduced in Lu(PO(3))(3):Eu. An explanation for this unusual behaviour is given. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  15. Octanuclear Heterobimetallic {Ni4Ln4} Assemblies Possessing Ln4 Square Grid [2 × 2] Motifs: Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetism.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Goura, Joydeb; Das, Sourav; Topping, Craig V; Brambleby, Jamie; Goddard, Paul A; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2016-09-06

    Octanuclear heterobimetallic complexes, [Ln4Ni4(H3L)4(μ3-OH)4(μ2-OH)4]4Cl·xH2O·yCHCl3 (Dy(3+), x = 30.6, y = 2 (1); Tb(3+), x = 28, y = 0 (2) ; Gd(3+), x = 25.3, y = 0 (3); Ho(3+), x = 30.6, y = 3 (4)) (H5L = N1,N3-bis(6-formyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-methylphenol)diethylenetriamine) are reported. These are assembled by the cumulative coordination action of four doubly deprotonated compartmental ligands, [H3L](2-), along with eight exogenous -OH ligands. Within the core of these complexes, four Ln(3+)'s are distributed to the four corners of a perfect square grid while four Ni(2+)'s are projected away from the plane of the Ln4 unit. Each of the four Ni(2+)'s possesses distorted octahedral geometry while all of the Ln(3+)'s are crystallographically equivalent and are present in an elongated square antiprism geometry. The magnetic properties of compound 3 are dominated by an easy-plane single-ion anisotropy of the Ni(2+) ions [DNi = 6.7(7) K] and dipolar interactions between Gd(3+) centers. Detailed ac magnetometry reveals the presence of distinct temperature-dependent out-of-phase signals for compounds 1 and 2, indicative of slow magnetic relaxation. Magnetochemical analysis of complex 1 implies the 3d and the 4f metal ions are engaged in ferromagnetic interactions with SMM behavior, while dc magnetometry of compound 2 is suggestive of an antiferromagnetic Ni-Tb spin-exchange with slow magnetic relaxation due to a field-induced level crossing. Compound 4 exhibits an easy-plane single-ion anisotropy for the Ho(3+) ions and weak interactions between spin centers.

  16. Magnetic properties of the doubly ordered perovskite NaLnCoWO6 (Ln = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Peng; Klein, Holger; Darie, Céline; Colin, Claire V.

    2018-07-01

    The focus of this study is on the magnetic properties of the very recently synthesized doubly ordered perovskite family NaLnCoWO6 (Ln = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb). Magnetic characterizations were performed by magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature, isothermal magnetization and heat capacity measurements. All these compounds have been determined as antiferromagnets with Néel temperatures from 4 K to 13.1 K. When the lanthanide is magnetic, additional transitions were observed below the Néel temperature which are attributed to the polarization of the magnetic Ln3+ sublattice by the ordered Co2+ one. Taking into account the magnetic ordering found in this study and the polar structure in the nine compounds NaLnCoWO6 (Ln = Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb) reported before, these compounds can be classified as new Type I multiferroics.

  17. Controllable synthesis of Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) doped zinc phosphate nano-/micro-structured materials: phase, morphology and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Dan; Lu, Wei; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Xinlei; Liu, Chunxia; Wang, Zhenling

    2014-01-01

    Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) doped zinc phosphate tetrahydrate (ZPT:Ln3+) and ammonium zinc phosphate (AZP:Ln3+) nano-/micro-structured materials were synthesized in aqueous solution without the addition of any structure-directing agent. The phase structures, morphologies and luminescence properties of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and lifetime. These investigations indicate that different phosphate sources MnH(3-n)PO4 (M = NH4+ or Na+, n = 1, 2, 3) can lead to the altering of morphology from nanosheet to microflower, but have no significant effect on the phase structure of the samples. The microlump, nanosheet, and microflower (constructed by the primary microlumps or nanosheets) of orthorhombic ZPT:Ln3+ could be selectively prepared by adjusting the pH value from 3.5 to 7.0. A mixture of orthorhombic ZPT:Ln3+ and monoclinic AZP:Ln3+ with a microflower morphology was obtained when the pH value was adjusted to 8.0. Monoclinic AZP:Ln3+ microplate, microcube and nanoparticle morphologies were obtained at pH values of 8.5, 9.0 and 11.0 respectively. The phase transformation and growth mechanism of the diverse morphologies were proposed, and ZPT:Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Eu or Tb) samples exhibit red or green emission under the excitation of UV light.Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) doped zinc phosphate tetrahydrate (ZPT:Ln3+) and ammonium zinc phosphate (AZP:Ln3+) nano-/micro-structured materials were synthesized in aqueous solution without the addition of any structure-directing agent. The phase structures, morphologies and luminescence properties of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and lifetime. These

  18. Polymeric nanocomposites loaded with fluoridated hydroxyapatite Ln3+ (Ln = Eu or Tb)/iron oxide for magnetic targeted cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie; Liu, Wei-Jiao; Hua, Chao; Wang, Li-Li; Wan, Dong; Gong, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To fabricate polymeric nanocomposites with excellent photoluminescence, magnetic properties, and stability in aqueous solutions, in order to improve specificity and sensitivity of cellular imaging under a magnetic field. Methods Fluoridated Ln3+-doped HAP (Ln3+-HAP) NPs and iron oxides (IOs) can be encapsulated with biocompatible polymers via a modified solvent exaction/evaporation technique to prepare polymeric nanocomposites with fluoridated Ln3+-HAP/iron oxide. The nanocomposites were characterized for surface morphology, fluorescence spectra, magnetic properties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Magnetic targeted cellular imaging of such nanocomposites was also evaluated with confocal laser scanning microscope using A549 cells with or without magnetic field. Results The fabricated nanocomposites showed good stability and excellent luminescent properties, as well as low in vitro cytotoxicity, indicating that the nanocomposites are suitable for biological applications. Nanocomposites under magnetic field achieved much higher cellular uptake via an energy-dependent pathway than those without magnetic field. Conclusion The nanocomposites fabricated in this study will be a promising tool for magnetic targeted cellular imaging with improved specificity and enhanced selection. PMID:26487962

  19. Structure and bulk modulus of Ln-doped UO 2 (Ln = La, Nd) at high pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Park, Sulgiye; Tracy, Cameron L.; ...

    2017-04-10

    The structure of lanthanide-doped uranium dioxide, Ln xU 1-xO 2-0.5x+y (Ln = La, Nd), was investigated at pressures up to ~50–55 GPa. Samples were synthesized with different lanthanides at different concentrations (x ~ 0.2 and 0.5), and all were slightly hyperstoichiometric (y ~ 0.25–0.4). In situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to investigate their high-pressure phase behavior and determine their bulk moduli. All samples underwent a fluorite-to-cotunnite phase transformation with increasing pressure. The pressure of the phase transformation increased with increasing hyperstoichiometry, which is consistent with results from previous computational simulations. Bulk moduli are inversely proportional to both themore » ionic radius of the lanthanide and its concentration, as quantified using a weighted cationic radius ratio. As a result, this trend was found to be consistent with the behavior of other elastic properties measured for Ln-doped UO 2, such as Young's modulus.« less

  20. Controllable synthesis of Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) doped zinc phosphate nano-/micro-structured materials: phase, morphology and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Yue, Dan; Lu, Wei; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Xinlei; Liu, Chunxia; Wang, Zhenling

    2014-02-21

    Ln(3+) (Ln = Tb, Eu) doped zinc phosphate tetrahydrate (ZPT:Ln(3+)) and ammonium zinc phosphate (AZP:Ln(3+)) nano-/micro-structured materials were synthesized in aqueous solution without the addition of any structure-directing agent. The phase structures, morphologies and luminescence properties of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and lifetime. These investigations indicate that different phosphate sources MnH(3-n)PO4 (M = NH4(+) or Na(+), n = 1, 2, 3) can lead to the altering of morphology from nanosheet to microflower, but have no significant effect on the phase structure of the samples. The microlump, nanosheet, and microflower (constructed by the primary microlumps or nanosheets) of orthorhombic ZPT:Ln(3+) could be selectively prepared by adjusting the pH value from 3.5 to 7.0. A mixture of orthorhombic ZPT:Ln(3+) and monoclinic AZP:Ln(3+) with a microflower morphology was obtained when the pH value was adjusted to 8.0. Monoclinic AZP:Ln(3+) microplate, microcube and nanoparticle morphologies were obtained at pH values of 8.5, 9.0 and 11.0 respectively. The phase transformation and growth mechanism of the diverse morphologies were proposed, and ZPT:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu or Tb) samples exhibit red or green emission under the excitation of UV light.

  1. Magnetic Nature of the CrIII–LnIII Interactions in [CrIII 2LnIII 3] Clusters with Slow Magnetic Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Shuo; Wang, Jin; Bao, Dong‐Xu; Li, Yun‐Chun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Two 3d‐4f hetero‐metal pentanuclear complexes with the formula {[CrIII 2LnIII 3L10(OH)6(H2O)2]Et3NH} [Ln=Tb (1), Dy (2); HL=pivalic acid, Et3N=triethylamine] have been produced. The metal core of each cluster is made up of a trigonal bipyramid with three LnIII ions (plane) and two CrIII ions (above and below) held together by six μ 3‐OH bridges. Also reported with this series is the diamagnetic CrIII–YIII analogue (3). Fortunately, we successfully prepared AlIII–LnIII analogues with the formula {[AlIII 2LnIII 3L10(OH)6(H2O)2]Et3NH⋅H2O} [Ln=Tb (4), Dy (5)], containing diamagnetic AlIII ions, which can be used to evaluate the CrIII–LnIII magnetic nature through a diamagnetic substitution method. Subsequently, static (dc) magnetic susceptibility studies reveal dominant ferromagnetic interactions between CrIII and LnIII ions. Dynamic (ac) magnetic susceptibility studies show frequency‐dependent out‐of‐phase (χ′′) signals for [CrIII 2TbIII 3] (1), [CrIII 2DyIII 3] (2), and [AlIII 2DyIII 3] (5), which are derived from the single‐ion behavior of LnIII ions and/or the CrIII–LnIII ferromagnetic interactions. PMID:29435404

  2. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  3. General synthesis and structural evolution of a layered family of Ln8(OH)20Cl4 x nH2O (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Y).

    PubMed

    Geng, Fengxia; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Ma, Renzhi; Xin, Hao; Tanaka, Masahiko; Izumi, Fujio; Iyi, Nobuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2008-12-03

    The synthesis process and crystal structure evolution for a family of stoichiometric layered rare-earth hydroxides with general formula Ln(8)(OH)(20)Cl(4) x nH(2)O (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Y; n approximately 6-7) are described. Synthesis was accomplished through homogeneous precipitation of LnCl(3) x xH(2)O with hexamethylenetetramine to yield a single-phase product for Sm-Er and Y. Some minor coexisting phases were observed for Nd(3+) and Tm(3+), indicating a size limit for this layered series. Light lanthanides (Nd, Sm, Eu) crystallized into rectangular platelets, whereas platelets of heavy lanthanides from Gd tended to be of quasi-hexagonal morphology. Rietveld profile analysis revealed that all phases were isostructural in an orthorhombic layered structure featuring a positively charged layer, [Ln(8)(OH)(20)(H(2)O)(n)](4+), and interlayer charge-balancing Cl(-) ions. In-plane lattice parameters a and b decreased nearly linearly with a decrease in the rare-earth cation size. The interlamellar distance, c, was almost constant (approximately 8.70 A) for rare-earth elements Nd(3+), Sm(3+), and Eu(3+), but it suddenly decreased to approximately 8.45 A for Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+), and Er(3+), which can be ascribed to two different degrees of hydration. Nd(3+) typically adopted a phase with high hydration, whereas a low-hydration phase was preferred for Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+), and Tm(3+). Sm(3+), Eu(3+), and Gd(3+) samples were sensitive to humidity conditions because high- and low-hydration phases were interconvertible at a critical humidity of 10%, 20%, and 50%, respectively, as supported by both X-ray diffraction and gravimetry as a function of the relative humidity. In the phase conversion process, interlayer expansion or contraction of approximately 0.2 A also occurred as a possible consequence of absorption/desorption of H(2)O molecules. The hydration difference was also evidenced by refinement results. The number of coordinated water

  4. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  5. Earth Science

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  6. Solvothermal syntheses, and characterization of [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce, Pr) and [Ln(en){sub 4}]SbSe{sub 4}.0.5en (Ln=Eu, Gd, Er, Tm, Yb): The effect of lanthanide contraction on the crystal structures of lanthanide selenidoantimonates(V)

    SciT

    Jia Dingxian; Zhu Aimei; Jin Qinyan

    Two types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce(1a), Pr(1b)) and [Ln(en){sub 4}]SbSe{sub 4}.0.5en (Ln=Eu(2a), Gd(2b), Er(2c), Tm(2d), Yb(2e); en=ethylenediamine) were solvothermally synthesized by reactions of LnCl{sub 3}, Sb and Se with the stoichiometric ratio in en solvent at 140 deg. C. The four-en coordinated lanthanide complex cation [Ln(en){sub 4}]{sup 3+} formed in situ balances the charge of SbSe{sub 4}{sup 3-} anion. In compounds 1a and 1b, the SbSe{sub 4}{sup 3-} anion act as a monodentate ligand to coordinate complex [Ln(en){sub 4}]{sup 3+} and the neutral compound [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] is formed. The Ln{sup 3+} ion has a nine-coordinated environmentmore » involving eight N atoms and one Se atom forming a distorted monocapped square antiprism. In 2a-2e the lanthanide(III) ion exists as isolated complex [Ln(en){sub 4}]{sup 3+}, in which the Ln{sup 3+} ion is in a bicapped trigonal prism geometry. A systematic investigation of the crystal structures reveals that two types of structural features of these lanthanide selenidoantimonates are related with lanthanides contraction across the lanthanide series. TG curves show that compounds 1a-1b and 2a-2e remove their organic components in one and two steps, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce, Pr) and [Ln(en){sub 4}]SbSe{sub 4}.0.5en (Ln=Eu, Gd, Er, Tm, Yb; en=ethylenediamine) have been synthesized under the mild solvothermal conditions, and a systematic investigation of the crystal structures reveals that two types of structural features of these lanthanide selenidoantimonates are related with lanthanides contraction across the lanthanide series.« less

  7. Determination of the phase transition in Pb{sub 0.88}Ln{sub 0.08}Ti{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} (Ln=La, Sm, Eu) piezoceramics based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law

    SciT

    Suaste, Ernesto; Castillo, Victor; Gonzalez, Ruben

    2004-07-15

    A method for determination of the phase transition in piezoelectric ceramic based on the relationship expressed by the Stefan-Boltzmann law is reported, i.e., by means of the radiation that the piezoelectric ceramic emits when it is subjected to different temperatures. The experiment is performed in piezoelectric ceramic based on PbTiO{sub 3} modified by the partial substitution of rare earths for Pb in the Pb{sub 0.88}(Ln){sub 0.08}Ti{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} system (Ln=La, Sm, Eu). From the measured emitted radiation, the value of the emissivity is calculated for each type of piezoelectric ceramic.

  8. Molten salt synthesis and luminescent properties of YVO4:Ln (Ln = Eu3+, Dy3+) nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenglu; Wang, Fang; Jia, Peiyun; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Eu3+ and Dy(3+)-doped YVO4 nanocrystallites were successfully prepared at 400 degrees C in equal moles of NaNO3 and KNO3 molten salts. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and lifetime were used to characterize the nanocrystallites. XRD results demonstrate that NaOH concentration and annealing temperature play important roles in phase purity and crystallinity of the nanocrystallites, the optimum NaOH concentration and annealing temperature being 6:40 and 400 degrees C respectively. TEM micrographs show the nanocrystallites are well crystallized with a cubic morphology in an average grain size of about 18 nm. Upon excitation of the vanadate group at 314 nm, YVO4:Eu3+ and YVO4:Dy3+ nanocrystallites exhibit the characteristic emission of Eu3+ and Dy3+, which indicates that there is an energy transfer from the vanadate group to the rare earth ions. Moreover, the structure and luminescent properties of the nanocrystallites were compared with their bulk counterparts with same composition in detail.

  9. Slow Magnetic Relaxation and Single-Molecule Toroidal Behaviour in a Family of Heptanuclear {CrIII LnIII6 } (Ln=Tb, Ho, Er) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Kuduva R; Langley, Stuart K; Swain, Abinash; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Damjanović, Marko; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Murray, Keith S

    2018-01-15

    The synthesis, magnetic properties, and theoretical studies of three heterometallic {Cr III Ln III 6 } (Ln=Tb, Ho, Er) complexes, each containing a metal topology consisting of two Ln 3 triangles connected via a Cr III linker, are reported. The {CrTb 6 } and {CrEr 6 } analogues display slow relaxation of magnetization in a 3000 Oe static magnetic field. Single-crystal measurements reveal opening up of the hysteresis loop for {CrTb 6 } and {CrHo 6 } molecules at low temperatures. Ab initio calculations predict toroidal magnetic moments in the two Ln 3 triangles, which are found to couple, stabilizing a con-rotating ferrotoroidal ground state in Tb and Ho examples and extend the possibility of observing toroidal behaviour in non Dy III complexes for the first time. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Panelists pose for a group photo at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  11. Dual-wavelength Nd:CaLnAlO4 lasers at 1.365 and 1.390 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, Pavel; Maria Serres, Josep; Mateos, Xavier; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc; Major, Arkady

    2018-02-01

    Tetragonal calcium rare-earth aluminates, CaLnAlO4, are attractive laser host crystals. The emission of Nd3+ ions at 1.3- 1.4 μm due to the 4F3/2 -> 4I13/2 transition is of interest for medicine, fiber optics, and light conversion. We report on compact Nd:CaLnAlO4 lasers using a plane-plane cavity. With an a-cut 0.8 at.% Nd:CaYAlO4 crystal diode-pumped at 802 nm, a maximum continuous-wave output power of 365 mW was achieved at 1.365 & 1.390 μm corresponding to the σ-polarization. The 4F3/2 -> 4I13/2 laser performance of the Nd:CaLnAlO4 crystals was compared to that from a monoclinic Nd:KGd(WO4)2. At the 4F3/2-> 4I11/2 transition (1.08 μm), a Nd:CaYAlO4 micro-laser generated multi-watt output (>4 W) with a slope efficiency of 39%.

  12. Cation deficient layered Ruddlesden-Popper-related oxysulfides La2LnMS2O5 (Ln=La, Y; M=Nb, Ta).

    PubMed

    Cario, Laurent; Popa, Aurelian Florin; Lafond, Alain; Guillot-Deudon, Catherine; Kabbour, Houria; Meerschaut, A; Clarke, Simon J; Adamson, Paul

    2007-11-12

    The structures of the new oxysulfide Ruddlesden-Popper phases La2LnMS2O5 (Ln=La, Y; M=Nb, Ta) are reported together with an iodide-containing variant: La3-xNb1+xS2O5I2x (0LnMO5] or [La1-xNb1+xO5I2x]. In the oxide slabs, the trivalent and pentavalent cations are disordered on the long-length scale probed by diffraction methods, but bond length considerations suggest that they must be ordered at least on the length scale of the unit cell. The [LnMO5] block of the iodide-free compounds derive from the ideal [Ti2O5] blocks found in Ln2Ti2S2O5 (Ln=Nd-Er; Y) by the formal substitution of two Ti4+ ions with one Ln3+ and one M5+ion. The unusual partial insertion of iodide in the perovskite voids of the [LaNbO5] block in La3NbS2O5 was found to be coupled to a La/Nb substitution, maintaining the charge balance within the [La1-xNb1+xO5I2x]2- block. The Nb5+ ions were found to be too resistant to reduction to undergo the intercalation of alkali metals observed in the Ln2Ti2S2O5 series.

  13. Unusual undecanuclear heterobimetallic Zn4Ln7 (Ln = Gd, Dy) nano-sized clusters encapsulating two peroxide anions through spontaneous intake of dioxygen.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hongshan; Lu, Xiaohua; Wei, Wen; Wang, Wenyuan; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping

    2017-06-27

    The synthesis, characterization and properties of two unprecedented undecanuclear heterobimetallic Zn 4 Ln 7 complexes of formula [Zn 4 Ln 7 (L) 8 (O 2 ) 2 (OH) 4 (Cl) 4 (H 2 O) 4 ]·Cl·4H 2 O·4CH 3 CN (Ln = Gd (1), Dy (2)) encapsulating two peroxide anions are presented, representing a very rare example of a 3d-peroxo-Ln system and expanding the realm of metal-peroxo complexes. These eleven metal ions are arranged in a peculiar structural motif, where Zn 4 is located at the peripheral shell wrapping Ln 7 in the inner core. The Zn ions are penta-coordinate in all cases, linked to the NO 2 donor atoms from the L 2- ligand and to a hydroxyl group, and the apical position is occupied by a chloride anion. All Ln III ions in these systems are octa-coordinate with LnO 8 and LnNO 7 coordination spheres. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) behavior has been found in the Gd analogue due to multiple low lying excited states arising from antiferromagnetic Gd-Gd exchange interactions. The Dy derivative shows frequency dependent out-of-phase signals indicating the presence of slow relaxation of magnetization below 8 K under zero applied direct current (dc) field, but without reaching a maximum, which is due to a faster quantum tunneling relaxation. The effective barrier extracted from the frequency dependent data is U eff = 11.2 K and a τ 0 of 4.18 × 10 -6 s.

  14. Magnetic upconverting fluorescent NaGdF4:Ln3+ and iron-oxide@NaGdF4:Ln3+ nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Navadeep; Rocha, Uéslen; Muraca, Diego; Jacinto, Carlos; Moreno, Sergio; Vargas, J. M.; Sharma, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Microwave assisted solvothermal method has been employed to synthesize multifunctional upconverting β-NaGdF4:Ln3+ and magnetic-upconverting Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3@NaGdF4:Ln3+ (Ln = Yb and Er) nanoparticles. The powder x-ray diffraction data confirms the hexagonal structure of NaGdF4:Ln3+ and high resolution transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of rod shaped NaGdF4:Ln3+ (˜ 20 nm) and ovoid shaped Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3@NaGdF4:Ln3+ (˜ 15 nm) nanoparticles. The magnetic hysteresis at 300 K for β-NaGdF4:Ln3+ demonstrates paramagnetic features, whereas iron-oxide@β-NaGdF4:Ln3+ exhibits superparamagnetic behavior along with a linear component at large applied field due to paramagnetic NaGdF4 matrix. Both nanoparticle samples provide an excellent green emitting [(2H11/2, 4S3/2)→4I15/2 (˜ 540 nm)] upconversion luminescence emission under excitation at 980 nm. The energy migration between Yb and Er in NaGdF4 matrix has been explored from 300-800 nm. Intensity variation of blue, green and red lines and the observed luminescence quenching due to the presence of Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 in the composite has been proposed. These kinds of materials contain magnetic and luminescence characteristics into single nanoparticle open new possibility for bioimaging applications.

  15. Chemical Substitution and High Pressure Effects on Superconductors in the LnOBiS$$_2$$ (Ln = La-Nd) System

    DOE PAGES

    Fang, Yuankan; Wolowiec, Christian T.; Yazici, Duygu; ...

    2015-12-14

    A large number of compounds which contain BiSmore » $$_2$$ layers exhibit enhanced superconductivity upon electron doping. Much interest and research effort has been focused on BiS$$_2$$-based compounds which provide new opportunities for exploring the nature of superconductivity. Important to the study of BiS2-based superconductors is the relation between structure and superconductivity. By modifying either the superconducting BiS$$_2$$ layers or the blocking layers in these layered compounds, one can effectively tune the lattice parameters, local atomic environment, electronic structure, and other physical properties of these materials. In this article, we will review some of the recent progress on research of the effects of chemical substitution in BiS$$_2$$-based compounds, with special attention given to the compounds in the LnOBiSS$$_2$$ (Ln = La-Nd) system. Strategies which are reported to be essential in optimizing superconductivity of these materials will also be discussed.« less

  16. Structural and dielectric characteristics of Ba3Ln3Ti5Nb5O30 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm) filled tungsten bronze ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wang; Gao, Ting Ting; Zhu, Xiao Li; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, the structural, dielectric and relaxor ferroelectric properties were investigated for Ba3Ln3Ti5Nb5O30 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm) ceramics. The filled tungsten bronze phase with space group P4/mbm was confirmed for all compositions, while a small amount of secondary phase was detected in Ba3Nd3Ti5Nb5O30 and Ba3Sm3Ti5Nb5O30. The typical relaxor ferroelectric behaviors were observed: a broad peak of dielectric constant shifting to higher temperatures and decreasing its magnitude with increasing frequency and the frequency dispersion obeying the Vogel-Fulcher relationship. The P-E (polarization-electric field) hysteresis loops were obtained for Ba3Ln3Ti5Nb5O30 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm) ceramics at low temperatures. The nanoscale ferroelectric 180° domains with strip-like shape were observed in the paraelectric matrix at room temperature, where the commensurate structural modulations were determined in the domains and incommensurate ones were determined in the matrix. The significant differences were determined between the present ceramics and Ba4Ln2Ti4Nb6O30 and Ba5LnTi3Nb7O30 because of the different distribution patterns of A1 and A2 cations.

  17. Earth Observation

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  18. Earth Observation

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. On crewmember's Flickr page - Look straight down into an aurora.

  19. Earth Observation

    2014-06-07

    ISS040-E-008174 (7 June 2014) --- Layers of Earth's atmosphere, brightly colored as the sun rises, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  20. Earth Observation

    2014-06-02

    ISS040-E-006817 (2 June 2014) --- Intersecting the thin line of Earth's atmosphere, International Space Station solar array wings are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  1. Earth Science

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  2. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  3. Earth Observation

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  4. Earth Observation

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  5. Earth Observation

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  6. Earth Science

    1990-10-24

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  7. Earth Observation

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  8. Earth Observation

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  9. Earth Observations

    2010-06-16

    ISS024-E-006136 (16 June 2010) --- Polar mesospheric clouds, illuminated by an orbital sunrise, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric, or noctilucent (?night shining?), clouds are observed from both Earth?s surface and in orbit by crew members aboard the space station. They are called night-shining clouds as they are usually seen at twilight. Following the setting of the sun below the horizon and darkening of Earth?s surface, these high clouds are still briefly illuminated by sunlight. Occasionally the ISS orbital track becomes nearly parallel to Earth?s day/night terminator for a time, allowing polar mesospheric clouds to be visible to the crew at times other than the usual twilight due to the space station altitude. This unusual photograph shows polar mesospheric clouds illuminated by the rising, rather than setting, sun at center right. Low clouds on the horizon appear yellow and orange, while higher clouds and aerosols are illuminated a brilliant white. Polar mesospheric clouds appear as light blue ribbons extending across the top of the image. These clouds typically occur at high latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and at fairly high altitudes of 76?85 kilometers (near the boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere atmospheric layers). The ISS was located over the Greek island of Kos in the Aegean Sea (near the southwestern coastline of Turkey) when the image was taken at approximately midnight local time. The orbital complex was tracking northeastward, nearly parallel to the terminator, making it possible to observe an apparent ?sunrise? located almost due north. A similar unusual alignment of the ISS orbit track, terminator position, and seasonal position of Earth?s orbit around the sun allowed for striking imagery of polar mesospheric clouds over the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

  10. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  11. Syntheses, crystal structures and optical spectroscopy of Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) and Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O

    SciT

    Kazmierczak, Karolina; Hoeppe, Henning A., E-mail: henning@ak-hoeppe.d

    2011-05-15

    The lanthanide sulphate octahydrates Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) and the respective tetrahydrate Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O were obtained by evaporation of aqueous reaction mixtures of trivalent rare earth oxides and sulphuric acid at 300 K. Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) crystallise in space group C2/c (Z=4, a{sub Ho}=13.4421(4) A, b{sub Ho}=6.6745(2) A, c{sub Ho}=18.1642(5) A, {beta}{sub Ho}=102.006(1) A{sup 3} and a{sub Tm}=13.4118(14) A, b{sub Tm}=6.6402(6) A, c{sub Tm}=18.1040(16) A, {beta}{sub Tm}=101.980(8) A{sup 3}), Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O adopts space group P2{sub 1}/n (a=13.051(3) A, b=7.2047(14) A, c=13.316(3) A, {beta}=92.55(3) A{sup 3}). The vibrationalmore » and optical spectra of Ho{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O and Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O are also reported. -- Graphical abstract: In the lanthanide sulphate octahydrates the cations form slightly undulated layers. Between the layers are voids in which sulphate tetrahedra and water molecules are located. The holmium compound exhibits an Alexandrite effect. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Determination of the optimum conditions for the growth of single-crystals of Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) and Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O. {yields} Single-crystal structure elucidation of Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) including hydrogen bonds. {yields} Single-crystal structure determination of Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O including hydrogen bonds. {yields} UV-vis spectra of Ho{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O and Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O recorded and interpreted: Assignation of bands and clarification of the Alexandrite effect of the Ho compound. {yields} IR and Raman spectra of Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) and Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O recorded and interpreted.« less

  12. In pursuit of the rhabdophane crystal structure: from the hydrated monoclinic LnPO4.0.667H2O to the hexagonal LnPO4 (Ln = Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu and Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Adel; Clavier, Nicolas; Elkaim, Erik; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Dacheux, Nicolas

    2017-05-01

    The dehydration process of the hydrated rhabdophane LnPO4.0.667H2O (Ln = La to Dy) was thoroughly studied over the combination of in situ high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction and TGA experiments. In the case of SmPO4.0.667H2O (monoclinic, C2), a first dehydration step was identified around 80 °C leading to the formation of SmPO4.0.5H2O (Monoclinic, C2) with Z =12 and a =17.6264(1) Å, b =6.9704(1) Å, c =12.1141(1) Å, β=133.74(1) °, V =1075.33(1) Å3. In agreement with the TGA and dilatometry experiments, all the water molecules were evacuated above 220 °C yielding to the anhydrous form, which crystallizes in the hexagonal P3121 space group with a =7.0389(1) Å, c =6.3702(1) Å and V =273.34(1) Å3. This study was extended to selected LnPO4.0.667H2O samples (Ln= Nd, Gd, Eu, Dy) and the obtained results confirmed the existence of two dehydration steps before the stabilization of the anhydrous form, with the transitory formation of LnPO4.0.5H2O.

  13. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  14. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Panelists discuss how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  15. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist, Planetary Science Institute, moderates a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  16. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    An audience member asks the panelists a question at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  17. Earth Science

    1994-03-08

    Workers at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville prepared for a news media showing of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-1 (GOES-1). GOES-1 was the first in a new generation of weather satellites deployed above Earth. It was the first 3-axis, body-stabilized meteorological satellite to be used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA. These features allowed GOES-1 to continuously monitor the Earth, rather than viewing it just five percent of the time as was the case with spin-stabilized meteorological satellites. GOES-1 also has independent imaging and sounding instruments which can operate simultaneously yet independently. As a result, observations provided by each instrument will not be interrupted. The imager produces visual and infrared images of the Earth's surface, oceans, cloud cover and severe storm development, while the prime sounding products include vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and layer mean moisture.

  18. Earth Science

    1994-09-02

    This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.

  19. Earth Observation

    2010-08-23

    ISS024-E-016042 (23 Aug. 2010) --- This night time view captured by one of the Expedition 24 crew members aboard the International Space Station some 220 miles above Earth is looking southward from central Romania over the Aegean Sea toward Greece and it includes Thessaloniki (near center), the larger bright mass of Athens (left center), and the Macedonian capital of Skopje (lower right). Center point coordinates of the area pictured are 46.4 degrees north latitude and 25.5 degrees east longitude. The picture was taken in August and was physically brought back to Earth on a disk with the return of the Expedition 25 crew in November 2010.

  20. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070412 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 panorama featuring wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. (Note: south is at the top of the frame). The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Parts of Oregon and Washington are included in the scene. Mt. Jefferson, Three Sisters and Mt. St. Helens are all snow-capped and visible in the photo, and the Columbia River can also be delineated.

  1. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070424 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Lightning has been given as the cause of the Ochoco Complex fires in the Ochoco National Forest in central Oregon. The complex has gotten larger since this photo was taken.

  2. Earth observation

    2014-09-04

    ISS040-E-129950 (4 Sept. 2014) --- In this photograph. taken by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, the orange spot located in the very center is the sun, which appears to be sitting on Earth's limb. At far right, a small bright spot is believed to be a reflection from somewhere in the camera system or something on the orbital outpost. When the photographed was exposed, the orbital outpost was flying at an altutude of 226 nautical miles above a point near French Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean.

  3. Earth Science

    2004-08-13

    This panoramic view of Hurricane Charley was photographed by the Expedition 9 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on August 13, 2004, at a vantage point just north of Tampa, Florida. The small eye was not visible in this view, but the raised cloud tops near the center coincide roughly with the time that the storm began to rapidly strengthen. The category 2 hurricane was moving north-northwest at 18 mph packing winds of 105 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  4. Earth Science

    2004-09-11

    This image hosts a look at the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm topped the western Caribbean Sea on Saturday, September 11, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, the category 5 storm sustained winds in the eye of the wall that were reported at about 160 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  5. Earth Science

    2004-09-15

    Except for a small portion of the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, fills this image over the northern Gulf of Mexico. As the downgraded category 4 storm approached landfall on the Alabama coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the ISS at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  6. Earth Science

    2004-09-15

    This image hosts a look into the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm approached landfall on the central Gulf coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph as the downgraded category 4 storm approached the Alabama coast. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  7. Syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of a family of heterometallic heptanuclear [Cu5Ln2] (Ln = Y(III), Lu(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), and Yb(III)) complexes: observation of SMM behavior for the Dy(III) and Ho(III) analogues.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Dey, Atanu; Das, Sourav; Rouzières, Mathieu; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2013-03-04

    Sequential reaction of the multisite coordination ligand (LH3) with Cu(OAc)2·H2O, followed by the addition of a rare-earth(III) nitrate salt in the presence of triethylamine, afforded a series of heterometallic heptanuclear complexes containing a [Cu5Ln2] core {Ln = Y(1), Lu(2), Dy(3), Ho(4), Er(5), and Yb(6)}. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography reveals that all the complexes are dicationic species that crystallize with two nitrate anions to compensate the charge. The heptanuclear aggregates in 1-6 are centrosymmetrical complexes, with a hexagonal-like arrangement of six peripheral metal ions (two rare-earth and four copper) around a central Cu(II) situated on a crystallographic inversion center. An all-oxygen environment is found to be present around the rare-earth metal ions, which adopt a distorted square-antiprismatic geometry. Three different Cu(II) sites are present in the heptanuclear complexes: two possess a distorted octahedral coordination sphere while the remaining one displays a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Detailed static and dynamic magnetic properties of all the complexes have been studied and revealed the single-molecule magnet behavior of the Dy(III) and Ho(III) derivatives.

  8. Synthesis, structures, and luminescent and magnetic properties of Ln-Ag heterometal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Qing; Zhao, Bin; Wei, Shi; Cheng, Peng

    2009-12-07

    A series of Ln-Ag heterometal-organic frameworks based on 4-hydroxylpyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H(3)CAM) with formulas {LaAg(2)(CAM)(HCAM)(H(2)O)(2)}(n) (1), {LnAg(HCAM)(2)(H(2)O)(3)}(n) (Ln = Pr, 2; Nd, 3; Sm, 4; Eu, 5), and {LnAg(3)(CAM)(2)(H(2)O)}(n) (Ln = Gd, 6; Tb, 7; Dy, 8; Tm, 9; Yb, 10), have been synthesized with the hydrothermal reaction of Ln(OH)(3), Ag(2)O, and H(3)CAM at 160 degrees C. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that three kinds of structures are exclusively governed by the size of lanthanide ions and the progression of structures is mainly ascribed to the lanthanide contraction effect. Compound 1 consists of a 3D network with an alpha-polonium-like Ag(+)-homometallic net and helical La(3+) chain. Compounds 2-5 display a 2D honeycomb-like structure with 18-membered Ln(3)Ag(3)O(12) motifs, and compounds 6-10 can be described as a sandwich-like 3D framework built of a 3D Ag(+)-homometallic net and 2D Ln(3+)-4(4) layer. In 4 (Sm), 5 (Eu), 7 (Tb), and 8 (Dy) samples, the efficient energy transfer from CAM to Ln(III) ions was observed, which results in the typical intense emissions of corresponding Ln(III) ions in the visible region, and the strongest emissions are (4)G(5/2) --> (6)H(7/2) (602 nm), (5)D(0) --> (7)F(2) (614 nm), (5)D(4) --> (7)F(5) (548 nm), and (4)F(9/2) --> (6)H(13/2) (576 nm) transitions. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements of 6-10 show that the ferromagnetic interaction between gadolinium(III) ions appears in 6, whereas the mu(eff) values of 7-10 smoothly decrease on cooling. For the orbital contribution of Ln(III) ions, it is very difficult to determine the intrinsic magnetic interactions between Ln(III) ions.

  9. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  10. Earth Observation

    2014-08-10

    ISS040-E-091158 (10 Aug. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members 225 nautical miles above Earth onboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to record this image of Hawke's Bay, New Zealand on Aug. 10, 2014. Napier and the bay area's most populous area are at bottom center of the frame.

  11. Earth Observation

    2013-06-13

    ISS036-E-007619 (13 June 2013) --- To a crew member aboard the International Space Station, the home planet is seen from many different angles and perspectives, as evdenced by this Expedition 36 image of Earth's atmophere partially obscured by one of the orbital outpost's solar panels.

  12. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  13. Earth Observation

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. Docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft are visible. On crewmember's Flickr page - The Moon, about to dive into a glowing ocean of green᥿9.

  14. Earth Observation

    2013-07-21

    Earth observation taken during night pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message this is labeled as : Tehran, Iran. Lights along the coast of the Caspian Sea visible through clouds. July 21.

  15. Earth Observation

    2013-05-19

    ISS036-E-002224 (21 May 2013) --- The sun is captured in a "starburst" mode over Earth's horizon by one of the Expedition 36 crew members as the orbital outpost was above a point in southwestern Minnesota on May 21, 2013.

  16. Earth Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy

    Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…

  17. Earth Science

    1993-03-29

    Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is a tethered date collecting satellite and is intended to demonstrate a versatile and economical way of delivering smaller payloads to higher orbits or downward toward Earth's atmosphere. 19th Navstar Global Positioning System Satellite mission joined with previously launched satellites used for navigational purposes and geodite studies. These satellites are used commercially as well as by the military.

  18. Earth Observation

    2014-06-14

    ISS040-E-011868 (14 June 2014) --- The dark waters of the Salton Sea stand out against neighboring cultivation and desert sands in the middle of the Southern California desert, as photographed by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station on June 14, 2014.

  19. Earth Observation

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: From southernmost point of orbit over the South Pacific- all clouds seemed to be leading to the South Pole.

  20. Earth Sky

    1965-12-16

    S65-63282 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Area of Indian Ocean, just east of the island of Madagascar, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 15th revolution of Earth. Land mass at top of picture is the Malagasy Republic (Madagascar). Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  1. Rare earths

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  2. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015354 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at lower left) were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  3. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015355 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at bottom center) were recorded in a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  4. Earth Observation

    2013-07-03

    ISS036-E-015292 (3 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 3-4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station. This image was recorded on July 3.

  5. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015342 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  6. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015335 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  7. Earth Observation

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of the U.S. Lab and PMM are also visible.

  8. Earth Observation

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038117 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.2 degrees west longitude.

  9. Earth Observation

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038114 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.3 degrees west longitude.

  10. Earth Observations

    2014-11-18

    ISS042E006751 (11/08/2014) --- Earth observation taken from the International Space Station of the coastline of the United Arab Emirates. The large wheel along the coast center left is "Jumeirah" Palm Island, with a conference center, hotels, recreation areas and a large marine zoo.

  11. Earth Moon

    1998-06-08

    NASA Galileo spacecraft took this image of Earth moon on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the image is the Tycho impact basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00405

  12. Earth's horizon

    2005-07-30

    S114-E-6076 (30 July 2005) --- The blackness of space and Earth’s horizon form the backdrop for this view of the extended Space Shuttle Discovery’s remote manipulator system (RMS) robotic arm while docked to the International Space Station during the STS-114 mission.

  13. In pursuit of the rhabdophane crystal structure: from the hydrated monoclinic LnPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O to the hexagonal LnPO{sub 4} (Ln = Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu and Dy)

    SciT

    Mesbah, Adel, E-mail: adel.mesbah@cea.fr; Clavier, Nicolas; Elkaim, Erik

    The dehydration process of the hydrated rhabdophane LnPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O (Ln = La to Dy) was thoroughly studied over the combination of in situ high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction and TGA experiments. In the case of SmPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O (monoclinic, C2), a first dehydration step was identified around 80 °C leading to the formation of SmPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O (Monoclinic, C2) with Z =12 and a =17.6264(1) Å, b =6.9704(1) Å, c =12.1141(1) Å, β=133.74(1) °, V =1075.33(1) Å{sup 3}. In agreement with the TGA and dilatometry experiments, all the water molecules were evacuated above 220 °C yielding to the anhydrousmore » form, which crystallizes in the hexagonal P3{sub 1}21 space group with a =7.0389(1) Å, c =6.3702(1) Å and V =273.34(1) Å{sup 3}. This study was extended to selected LnPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O samples (Ln= Nd, Gd, Eu, Dy) and the obtained results confirmed the existence of two dehydration steps before the stabilization of the anhydrous form, with the transitory formation of LnPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O. - Graphical abstract: The dehydration process of the rhabdophane SmPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O was studied over combination of in situ high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction and TGA techniques, a first dehydration was identified around 80 °C leading to the formation of SmPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O (Monoclinic, C2). Then above 220 °C, the anhydrous form of the rhabdophane SmPO{sub 4} was stabilized and crystallizes in the hexagonal P3{sub 1}21 space group. - Highlights: • In situ synchrotron powder diffraction was carried out during the dehydration of the rhabdopahe LnPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O. • The heat of the rhabdophane LnPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O leads to LnPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O then to anhydrous rhabdophane LnPO{sub 4}. • LnPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O (monoclinic, C2) and LnPO{sub 4} (Hexagonal, P3{sub 1}21) were solved over the use of direct methods.« less

  14. Earth Observations

    2010-09-09

    ISS024-E-014071 (9 Sept. 2010) --- This striking panoramic view of the southwestern USA and Pacific Ocean is an oblique image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member looking outwards at an angle from the International Space Station (ISS). While most unmanned orbital satellites view Earth from a nadir perspective?in other words, collecting data with a ?straight down? viewing geometry?crew members onboard the space station can acquire imagery at a wide range of viewing angles using handheld digital cameras. The ISS nadir point (the point on Earth?s surface directly below the spacecraft) was located in northwestern Arizona, approximately 260 kilometers to the east-southeast, when this image was taken. The image includes parts of the States of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California together with a small segment of the Baja California, Mexico coastline at center left. Several landmarks and physiographic features are readily visible. The Las Vegas, NV metropolitan area appears as a gray region adjacent to the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range (both covered by white clouds). The Grand Canyon, located on the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, is visible (lower left) to the east of Las Vegas with the blue waters of Lake Mead in between. The image also includes the Mojave Desert, stretching north from the Salton Sea (left) to the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The Sierra Nevada range is roughly 640 kilometers long (north-south) and forms the boundary between the Central Valley of California and the adjacent Basin and Range. The Basin and Range is so called due to the pattern of long linear valleys separated by parallel linear mountain ranges ? this landscape, formed by extension and thinning of Earth?s crust, is particularly visible at right.

  15. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Shawn Domagal-Goldman, Research Space Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  16. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Phoebe Cohen, Professor of Geosciences, Williams College, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  17. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Christopher House, Professor of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Dawn Sumner, Professor of Geology, UC Davis, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  19. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Timothy Lyons, Professor of Biogeochemistry, UC Riverside, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  1. Vibrational and elastic properties of Ln2Sn2O7 (Ln = La, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, or Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbudak, S.; Kushwaha, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, an eight-parameter bond-bending force constant model was used to calculate the zone center phonon frequencies, elastic constants, and related properties of the stannate compounds Ln2Sn2O7 (Ln = La, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, or Lu) with a pyrochlore structure. We found that the Snsbnd O bond strengths dominate the Ln-O and Osbnd O bonds. We also found that all of the materials are ductile and anisotropic in nature. The anisotropic nature of the compounds increases in the order of: La2Sn2O7 < Sm2Sn2O7 < Gd2Sn2O7 < Dy2Sn2O7 < Ho2Sn2O7 < Er2Sn2O7 < Yb2Sn2O7 < Lu2Sn2O7.

  2. Crystal and electronic structure of the new quaternary sulfides TlLnAg2S3 (Ln = Nd, Sm and Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assoud, Abdeljalil; Shi, Yixuan; Guo, Quansheng; Kleinke, Holger

    2017-12-01

    The quaternary sulfides TlLnAg2S3 (Ln: Nd, Sm and Gd) were prepared via solid state reactions by heating the elements in the stoichiometric ratio under exclusion of air up to 750 °C. They are isostructural, adopting a new structure type in the space group Pnma with a = 13.8141(3) Å, b = 4.1649(1) Å, c = 11.4008(2) Å, V = 655.94(2) Å3, Z = 4 for TlNdAg2S3. The crystal structure contains AgS4 tetrahedra and LnS6 octahedra, which are interconnected to form linear chains running along the b axis. The melting point of TlNdAg2S3 was determined to be 540 °C. Electronic structure calculations show that these materials are semiconductors in agreement with their orange/yellow colors.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nanotubes from misfit compounds (LnS)1+yTaS2 (Ln= Pr, Sm, Gd, Yb).

    PubMed

    Tenne, Reshef; Serra, Marco; Stolovas, Dalit; Houben, Lothar; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Pinkas, Iddo; Kampmann, Felix; Maultzsch, Janina; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2018-06-06

    The synthesis and characterization of nanotubes from the misfit layered compounds (MLC) (LnS)1+yTaS2 (shortly denoted as LnS-TaS2) (Ln= Pr, Sm, Gd and Yb), not reported before, are described (the bulk compound YbS-LaS2 was not documented before). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) show that the interlayer spacing along the c-axis decrease with increasing atomic number of the lanthanide atom, suggesting tighter interaction between the LnS layer and the TaS2 for the late lanthanides. The Raman spectra of the tubules were studied and compared to the bulk MLC compounds. Like bulk MLC, the Raman spectra can be divided into the low frequency modes (110-150 cm-1) of the LnS lattice and the high frequency (250-400 cm-1) of the TaS2 lattice. The Raman spectra indicate that the vibrational lattice modes of the strained layers in the tubes are stiffer than those in the bulk compounds. Furthermore, the modes of the late lanthanides are higher in energy compared with the earlier lanthanides, suggesting larger charge transfer between the LnS and the TaS2 layers for the late lanthanides. Polarized Raman measurements showed the expected binodal intensity profile (antenna effect). The intensity ratio of the Raman signal showed that the E2g mode of TaS2 is more sensitive to the light polarization effect than its A1g mode. These nanotubes are expected to reveal interesting low temperature quasi-1D transport behavior. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Predictable self-assembled [2×2] Ln(III)4 square grids (Ln = Dy,Tb)-SMM behaviour in a new lanthanide cluster motif.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad Usman; Thompson, Laurence Kenneth; Dawe, Louise Nicole; Habib, Fatemah; Murugesu, Muralee

    2012-05-14

    The ditopic carbohydrazone ligand (L1) produces the square, self-assembled [2×2] grids [Dy(4)(L1)(4)(OH)(4)]Cl(2) (1) and [Ln(4)(L1)(4)(μ(4)-O)(μ(2)-1,1-N(3))(4)] (Ln = Dy (2), Tb (3)), with 2 exhibiting SMM behaviour. Two relaxation processes occur with U(eff) = 51 K, 91 K in the absence of an external field, and one with U(eff) = 270 K in the presence of a 1600 Oe optimum field. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. Covalently-bonded grafting of [Ln3(Benzimidazole)4]-arrayed (Ln = Tb, Nd, Yb or Er) complex monomers into PNBE (poly(norbornene)) with highly luminous color-purity green-light or efficient NIR luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Fu, Guorui; Feng, Heini; Guan, Jiaqing; Li, Fengping; Lü, Xingqiang; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Jones, Richard A.

    2017-07-01

    Within series of Ln3-grafted polymers Poly({[Ln3(L)4(NO3)6]·(NO3)·(H3O)2}-co-NBE) (Ln = La, 1; Ln = Eu, 2; Ln = Tb, 3; Ln = Nd, 4; Ln = Yb, 5; Ln = Er, 6 or Ln = Gd, 7) obtained from ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of norbornene (NBE) with each of allyl-functionalized complex monomers {[Ln3(L)4(NO3)6]·(NO3)·(H3O)2} (HL = 4-allyl-2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-6-methoxyphenol), PNBE-assisted effective energy transfer renders Poly(3-co-NBE) Tb3+-centered highly luminous color-purity green-light with an attractive quantum yield of 87% and efficient near-infrared (NIR) luminescence (ΦNdL = 0.61%; ΦYbL = 1.47% and ΦErL = 0.03%) for Nd3+-, Yb3+- or Er3+-grafted polymers.

  6. Sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent Ln 2O 3:Eu 3+ (Y, La, Gd) nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Alammar, Tarek; Cybinska, Joanna; Campbell, Paul S.; ...

    2015-05-12

    In this study, sonication of Ln(CH 3COO) 3·H 2O, Eu(CH 3COO) 3·H 2O and NaOH dissolved in the ionic liquid-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonylamide lead to Ln(OH) 3:Eu (Ln: Gd, La, Y) nanoparticles. Subsequent calcination at 800 °C for 3 h allowed to obtain Ln 2O 3:Eu nanopowders. Gd 2O 3 and Y 2O 3 were obtained in the C-type lanthanide sequioxide structure, whereas La 2O 3 crystallized in the A-type. Structure, morphology, and luminescent properties of the nano-oxides were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dispersive X-ray (EDX), and photoluminescence (PL). SEM studies revealed that the synthesized Gdmore » 2O 3:Eu, La 2O 3:Eu, and Y 2O 3:Eu formed nano-spindle, -sheets, and -rods in shape, respectively. The nanoscale materials show very efficient red emission due to the intraconfigurational f–f transitions of Eu 3+. The quantum yields for Ln 2O 3:Eu (5%) were determined to be 4.2% for Ln=Gd, 13.8% for Ln=Y and 5.2% for Ln=La. The asymmetric ratio I 02/I 01 of Eu 3+ varies from 5.3 for Gd 2O 3, to 5.6 for Y 2O 3 to 6.5 for La 2O 3, which increased the color chromaticity.« less

  7. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070439 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above a point on Earth located at 48.0 degrees north latitude and 116.9 degrees west longitude when the image was exposed. The state of Washington is especially affected by the fires, many of which have been blamed on lightning. This particular fire was part of the Carlton Complex Fire, located near the city of Brewster in north central Washington. The reservoir visible near the center of the image is Banks Lake.

  8. Earth Observation

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-081008 (25 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station, flying 225 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of the Tifernine dunes and the Tassili Najjer Mountains in Algeria. The area is about 800 miles south, southeast of Algiers, the capital of Algeria. The dunes are in excess of 1,000 feet in height.

  9. Earth Observation

    2014-07-15

    ISS040-E-063578 (15 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, flying some 225 nautical miles above the Caribbean Sea in the early morning hours of July 15, photographed this north-looking panorama that includes parts of Cuba, the Bahamas and Florida, and even runs into several other areas in the southeastern U.S. The long stretch of lights to the left of center frame gives the shape of Miami.

  10. Earth Observations

    2011-05-28

    ISS028-E-006059 (28 May 2011) --- One of the Expedition 28 crew members, photographing Earth images onboard the International Space Station while docked with the space shuttle Endeavour and flying at an altitude of just under 220 miles, captured this frame of the Salton Sea. The body of water, easily identifiable from low orbit spacecraft, is a saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault. The agricultural area is within the Coachella Valley.

  11. Earth Science

    1991-01-01

    In July 1990, the Marshall Space Flight Center, in a joint project with the Department of Defense/Air Force Space Test Program, launched the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) using an Atlas I launch vehicle. The mission was designed to study the effects of artificial ion clouds produced by chemical releases on the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to monitor the effects of space radiation environment on sophisticated electronics.

  12. Earth Observation

    2011-06-27

    ISS028-E-009979 (27 June 2011) --- The Massachusetts coastline is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. The Crew Earth Observations team at NASA Johnson Space Center sends specific ground targets for photography up to the station crew on a daily basis, but sometimes the crew takes imagery on their own of striking displays visible from orbit. One such display, often visible to the ISS crew due to their ability to look outwards at angles between 0 and 90 degrees, is sunglint on the waters of Earth. Sunglint is caused by sunlight reflecting off of a water surface?much as light reflects from a mirror?directly towards the observer. Roughness variations of the water surface scatter the light, blurring the reflection and producing the typical silvery sheen of the sunglint area. The point of maximum sunglint is centered within Cape Cod Bay, the body of water partially enclosed by the ?hook? of Cape Cod in Massachusetts (bottom). Cape Cod was formally designated a National Seashore in 1966. Sunglint off the water provides sharp contrast with the coastline and the nearby islands of Martha?s Vineyard and Nantucket (lower left), both popular destinations for tourists and summer residents. To the north, rocky Cape Ann extends out into the Atlantic Ocean; the border with New Hampshire is located approximately 30 kilometers up the coast. Further to the west, the eastern half of Long Island, New York is visible emerging from extensive cloud cover over the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern States. Persistent storm tracks had been contributing to record flooding along rivers in the Midwest at the time this image was taken in late June 2011. Thin blue layers of the atmosphere, contrasted against the darkness of space, are visible extending along the Earth?s curvature at top.

  13. Cloudy Earth

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds). Read more here: 1.usa.gov/1P6lbMU Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Earth Observation

    2011-08-02

    ISS028-E-020276 (2 Aug. 2011) --- This photograph of polar mesospheric clouds was acquired at an altitude of just over 202 nautical miles (about 322 kilometers) in the evening hours (03:19:54 Greenwich Mean Time) on Aug. 2, 2011, as the International Space Station was passing over the English Channel. The nadir coordinates of the station were 49.1 degrees north latitude and 5.5 degrees west longitude. Polar mesospheric clouds (also known as noctilucent, or ?night-shining? clouds) are transient, upper atmospheric phenomena that are usually observed in the summer months at high latitudes (greater than 50 degrees) of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They appear bright and cloudlike while in deep twilight. They are illuminated by sunlight when the lower layers of the atmosphere are in the darkness of Earth?s shadow. The horizon of Earth appears at the bottom of the image, with some layers of the lower atmosphere already illuminated by the rising sun. The higher, bluish-colored clouds look much like wispy cirrus clouds, which can be found as high as 60,000 feet (18 kilometers) in the atmosphere. However noctilucent clouds, as seen here, are observed in the mesosphere at altitudes of 250,000 to 280,000 feet (about 76 to 85 kilometers). Astronaut observations of polar mesospheric clouds over northern Europe in the summer are not uncommon.

  15. Efficient Rare-Earth-Based Coordination Polymers as Green Photocatalysts for the Synthesis of Imines at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Díaz, Lina M; Snejko, Natalia; Iglesias, Marta; Sánchez, Félix; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, M Ángeles

    2018-06-18

    Five new rare-earth coordination polymers (CPs) were designed in order to offer a remarkable platform that contains light-harvesting antennas and catalytic active centers to achieve solar-energy conversion as green alternatives in the synthesis of imines. These five new spirobifluorene-containing Ln-CPs, named [Er 3 (Hsfdc) 3 (sfdc) 3 (H 2 O)]· xH 2 O (RPF-30-Er), [Ln(Hsfdc)(sfdc)(EtOH)]·S (RPF-31-Ln, where Ln = La, Nd, and Sm and S = H 2 O or EtOH), and [Ho(Hsfdc)(sfdc)(H 2 O)] (RPF-32-Ho) (RPF = rare-earth polymeric framework and H 2 sfdc = 9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid), have been solvothermally synthesized, and their structural features can be described as follows: (i) RPF-30-Er shows a 3D framework in which the inorganic trimers (secondary building units) are cross-linked by Hsfdc - and sfdc 2- linkers displaying a pcu topology. (ii) The isostructural RPF-31-Ln series of materials, together with RPF-32-Ho, exhibit a 1D network of chains growing along the a axis with a ribbon-of-rings topology type. The photocatalytic activity of the RPF- n materials was tested in the oxidative coupling of amines using molecular oxygen and air as oxidizing agents under warm light. Among the materials investigated, RPF-31-Nd was chosen to further investigate the approach in the selectivity of different amine derivates.

  16. The Hydrofacies Approach and Why ln K σ 2 <5-10 is Unlikely

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, G. E.

    2004-12-01

    When heterogeneity of geologic systems is characterized in terms of hydrofacies rather than solely based on K measurements, the resulting flow and transport models typically contain not only aquifer materials but also significant volumes (10-70%) of aquitard materials. This leads to clear, heuristic rationale for the ln K σ 2 commonly exceeding 5 to 10, contradicting published data on ln K σ 2. I will explain the inconsistencies between commonly held assumptions of low (<1-2) ln K σ 2 and abundant geologic and hydrologic field data that indicate substantially larger values. The K data commonly cited in support of the low ln K σ 2 assumption have been misinterpreted because of unintentional, biased sampling. Geologic fundamentals and field data indicate that ln K σ 2 is commonly >10 and can easily exceed 20 in typical sedimentary deposits (not surficial soils) at spatial scales on the order of 101 to 102 m. Presence of large ln K σ 2 can be paramount in transport models and is often requisite for modeling observed transport phenomena such as preferential flow, extreme tailing, difficult remediation including frequent pump-and-treat failure, and significant, unanticipated mixing of groundwater ages.

  17. Earth Observations

    2010-09-11

    ISS024-E-014233 (11 Sept. 2010) --- A smoke plume near the northern Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. This broad view of the north coast of the Caspian Sea shows a smoke plume (left) and two river deltas (bottom and lower right). The larger delta is that of the Volga River which appears prominently here in sunglint (light reflected off a water surface back towards the observer), and the smaller less prominent delta is that of the Ural River. Wide angle, oblique views ? taken looking outward at an angle, rather than straight down towards Earth ? such as this give an excellent impression of how crew members onboard the space station view Earth. For a sense of scale, the Caucasus Mts. (across the Caspian, top right) are approximately 1,100 kilometers to the southwest of the International Space Station?s nadir point location ? the point on Earth directly underneath the spacecraft ? at the time this image was taken. The smoke plume appears to be sourced in the dark-toned coastal marsh vegetation along the outer fringe of the Ural River delta, rather than in a city or at some oil storage facility. Although even small fires produce plumes that are long and bright and thus easily visible from space, the density of the smoke in this plume, and its 350-kilometer length across the entire north lobe of the Caspian Sea, suggest it was a significant fire. The smoke was thick enough nearer the source to cast shadows on the sea surface below. Lines mark three separate pulses of smoke, the most recent, nearest the source, extending directly south away from the coastline (lower left). With time, plumes become progressively more diffuse. The oldest pulse appears to be the thinnest, casting no obvious shadows (center left).

  18. Microwave hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of rare-earth stannate nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuang; Xu, Hua-lan; Zhong, Sheng-liang; Wang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    Rare-earth stannate (Ln2Sn2O7 (Ln = Y, La-Lu)) nanocrystals with an average diameter of 50 nm were prepared through a facile microwave hydrothermal method at 200°C within 60 min. The products were well characterized. The effect of reaction parameters such as temperature, reaction time, pH value, and alkali source on the preparation was investigated. The results revealed that the pH value plays an important role in the formation process of gadolinium stannate (Gd2Sn2O7) nanoparticles. By contrast, the alkali source had no effect on the phase composition or morphology of the final product. Uniform and sphere-like nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm were obtained at the pH value of 11.5. A possible formation mechanism was briefly proposed. Gd2Sn2O7:Eu3+ nanoparticles displayed strong orange-red emission. Magnetic measurements revealed that Gd2Sn2O7 nanoparticles were paramagnetic. The other rare-earth stannate Ln2Sn2O7 (Ln = Y, La-Lu) nanocrystals were prepared by similar approaches.

  19. Antiferromagnetic coupling between rare earth ions and semiquinones in a series of 1:1 complexes.

    PubMed

    Caneschi, Andrea; Dei, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Poussereau, Sandrine; Sorace, Lorenzo

    2004-04-07

    We use the strategy of diamagnetic substitution for obtaining information on the crystal field effects in paramagnetic rare earth ions using the homologous series of compounds with the diamagnetic tropolonato ligand, Ln(Trp)(HBPz(3))(2), and the paramagnetic semiquinone ligand, Ln(DTBSQ)(HBPz(3))(2), (DTBSQ = 3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinonato, Trp = tropolonate, HBPz(3)= hydrotrispyrazolylborate) for Ln = Sm(iii), Eu(iii), Gd(iii), Tb(iii), Dy(iii), Ho(iii), Er(iii) or Yb(iii). The X-ray crystal structure of a new form of tropolonate derivative is presented, which shows, as expected, a marked similarity with the structure of the semiquinonate derivative. The Ln(Trp)(HBPz(3))(2) derivatives were then used as a reference for the qualitative determination of crystal field effects in the exchange coupled semiquinone derivatives. Through magnetisation and susceptibility measurements this empirical diamagnetic substitution method evidenced for Er(iii), Tb(iii), Dy(iii) and Yb(iii) derivatives a dominating antiferromagnetic coupling. The increased antiferromagnetic contribution compared to other radical-rare earth metal complexes formed by nitronyl nitroxide ligands may be related to the increased donor strength of the semiquinone ligand.

  20. Ion-irradiation resistance of the orthorhombic Ln2TiO5 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughterson, Robert D.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Ionescu, Mihail; Reyes, Massey de los; Gault, Baptiste; Whittle, Karl R.; Smith, Katherine L.; Cairney, Julie M.

    2015-12-01

    The response of Ln2TiO5 (where Ln is a lanthanide) compounds exposed to high-energy ions was used to test their suitability for nuclear-based applications, under two different but complementary conditions. Eight samples with nominal stoichiometry Ln2TiO5 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy), of orthorhombic (Pnma) structure were irradiated, at various temperatures, with 1 MeV Kr2+ ions in-situ within a transmission electron microscope. In each case, the fluence was increased until a phase transition from crystalline to amorphous was observed, termed critical dose Dc. At certain elevated temperatures, the crystallinity was maintained irrespective of fluence. The critical temperature for maintaining crystallinity, Tc, varied non-uniformly across the series. The Tc was consistently high for La, Pr, Nd and Sm2TiO5 before sequential improvement from Eu to Dy2TiO5 with Tc's dropping from 974 K to 712 K. In addition, bulk Dy2TiO5 was irradiated with 12 MeV Au+ ions at 300 K, 723 K and 823 K and monitored via grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). At 300 K, only amorphisation is observed, with no transition to other structures, whilst at higher temperatures, specimens retained their original structure. The improved radiation tolerance of compounds containing smaller lanthanides has previously been attributed to their ability to form radiation-induced phase transitions. No such transitions were observed here.

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies of the products of reaction between Ln(hfa) 3 and Cu(acac) 2 (Ln = La, Y; acac = acetylacetonate, hfa = hexafluoroacetylacetonate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.; Mironov, Andrey V.; Nemukhin, Alexander V.

    2007-04-01

    The new unusual heterobimetallic complex [La(hfa) 3Cu(acac) 2(H 2O)] ( I) was obtained in the reaction La(hfa) 3·2H 2O with Cu(acac) 2 in CHCl 3. This is the first example of such type of heterobimetallic complexes based on the Cu(acac) 2 species. According to the X-ray single crystal analysis, complex I crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1/c, with a = 12.516(3) Å, b = 17.757(4) Å, c = 17.446(4) Å, β = 93.90(3)° and Z = 4. The structure consists of isolated heterobinuclear molecules with the coordination number of La being 9. The molecules are further assembled into dimers via hydrogen bonds. The theoretical modeling of the structure and the properties of parent monometallic complexes Ln(hfa) 3 (Ln = La, Y) and Cu(acac) 2 is described. The comparative theoretical study of lanthanide complexes indicates relations in formation of a heterobimetallic complex to the Lewis acidity of original monometallic complexes. In particular, the Lewis acidity and charge of the central metal ion in Ln(hfa) 3 are the key parameters accounting for the formation of [Ln(hfa) 3Cu(acac) 2].

  2. Interplay of structural chemistry and magnetism in perovskites; A study of CaLn2Ni2WO9; Ln=La, Pr, Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Chun-Mann; Paria Sena, Robert; Hunter, Emily C.; Hadermann, Joke; Battle, Peter D.

    2017-07-01

    Polycrystalline samples of CaLn2Ni2WO9 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd) have been synthesized and characterised by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction, electron microscopy and magnetometry. Each composition adopts a perovskite-like structure with a 5.50, b 5.56, c 7.78 Å, β 90.1° in space group P21/n. Of the two crystallographically distinct six-coordinate sites, one is occupied entirely (Ln=Pr) or predominantly (Ln=La, Nd) by Ni2+ and the other by Ni2+ and W6+ in a ratio of approximately 1:2. None of the compounds shows long-range magnetic order at 5 K. The magnetometry data show that the magnetic moments of the Ni2+ cations form a spin glass below 30 K in each case. The Pr3+ moments in CaPr2Ni2WO9 also freeze but the Nd3+ moments in CaNd2Ni2WO9 do not. This behaviour is contrasted with that observed in other (A,A')B2B'O9 perovskites.

  3. Earth Observation

    2016-04-20

    ISS047e069406 (04/20/2016) ---Earth observation image taken by the Expedition 47 crew aboard the International Space Station. This is an oblique south-looking view of the main Bahama island chain. Cuba is across the entire top of the image, the Florida Peninsula on the right margin. In the Bahamas, the main Andros island is just distinguishable under cloud upper left of center. Under less cloud is the Abaco Islands in the foreground (middle of pic nearest camera left of center.)

  4. Earth Observation

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018729 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are just below center frame on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  5. Earth Observation

    2014-05-29

    ISS040-E-005979 (29 May 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to photograph this image from 222 nautical miles above Earth showing Harris County and Galveston County, Texas plus several other surrounding counties, including a long stretch along the Gulf of Mexico (bottom left). The entirety of Galveston Bay is visible at bottom center. Just below center lies the 1625-acre site of NASA's Johnson Space Center, one of the training venues for all space station crew members and the nearby long-time area of residence for NASA astronauts.

  6. Earth Observation

    2013-07-31

    ISS036-E-027014 (31 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Eastern Europe on July 31, 2013, took this night picture looking toward the Mediterranean Sea, which almost blends into the horizon. Also visible are the Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Parts of the following countries are among those visible as well: Greece, Italy, Sicily, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Albania. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a number of stars in the late July sky. A solar array panel is visible in the darkness on the right side of the frame.

  7. Earth Explorer

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Explorer Web site provides access to millions of land-related products, including the following: Satellite images from Landsat, advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), and Corona data sets. Aerial photographs from the National Aerial Photography Program, NASA, and USGS data sets.  Digital cartographic data from digital elevation models, digital line graphs, digital raster graphics, and digital orthophoto quadrangles. USGS paper maps Digital, film, and paper products are available, and many products can be previewed before ordering.

  8. Earth Science

    1992-07-24

    A Delta II rocket carrying the Geomagnetic Tail Lab (GEOTAIL) spacecraft lifts off at Launch Complex 17, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a cloud-dappled sky. This liftoff marks the first Delta launch under the medium expendable launch vehicle services contract between NASA and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co. The GEOTAIL mission, a joint US/Japanese project, is the first in a series of five satellites to study the interactions between the Sun, the Earth's magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belts.

  9. Earth Science

    1996-01-31

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft embarks on a journey that will culminate in a close encounter with an asteroid. The launch of NEAR inaugurates NASA's irnovative Discovery program of small-scale planetary missions with rapid, lower-cost development cycles and focused science objectives. NEAR will rendezvous in 1999 with the asteroid 433 Eros to begin the first long-term, close-up look at an asteroid's surface composition and physical properties. NEAR's science payload includes an x-ray/gamma ray spectrometer, an near-infrared spectrograph, a laser rangefinder, a magnetometer, a radio science experiment and a multi-spectral imager.

  10. Phase transformations during HLnTiO{sub 4} (Ln=La, Nd) thermolysis and photocatalytic activity of obtained compounds

    SciT

    Silyukov, Oleg I., E-mail: olegsilyukov@yandex.ru; Abdulaeva, Liliia D.; Burovikhina, Alena A.

    2015-03-15

    Layered HLnTiO{sub 4} (Ln=La, Nd) compounds belonging to Ruddlesden–Popper phases were found to form partially hydrated compounds Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}·xH{sub 2}O during thermal dehydration as well as defect oxides Ln{sub 2}□Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} as final products. Further heating of metastable defect Ln{sub 2}□Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} substances leads to the formation of pyrochlore-type oxides Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} {sub (p)}, with subsequent transformation under higher temperatures to stable layered 110-type perovskites Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The occurring structure transformations lead to an increase of photocatalytic activity in the order of HLnTiO{sub 4}

  11. Herbal Earth

    2017-12-08

    Subtle vegetation changes are visible in this year-long visualization. Large-scale patterns vary with seasons, but the local variations in green are also sensitive precipitation, drought and fire. High values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, represent dense green functioning vegetation and low NDVI values represent sparse green vegetation or vegetation under stress from limiting conditions, such as drought. The visualization was created from a year’s worth of data from April 2012 to April 2013. The information was sent back to Earth from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. Earth Observation

    2013-06-17

    ISS036-E-009405 (17 June 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station, some 240 miles above Earth, used a 50mm lens to record this oblique nighttime image of a large part of the nation’s second largest state in area, including the four largest metropolitan areas in population. The extent of the metropolitan areas is easily visible at night due to city and highway lights. The largest metro area, Dallas-Fort Worth, often referred to informally as the Metroplex, is the heavily cloud-covered area at the top center of the photo. Neighboring Oklahoma, on the north side of the Red River, less than 100 miles to the north of the Metroplex, appears to be experiencing thunderstorms. The Houston metropolitan area, including the coastal city of Galveston, is at lower right. To the east near the Texas border with Louisiana, the metropolitan area of Beaumont-Port Arthur appears as a smaller blotch of light, also hugging the coast of the Texas Gulf. Moving inland to the left side of the picture one can delineate the San Antonio metro area. The capital city of Austin can be seen to the northeast of San Antonio. This and hundreds of thousands of other Earth photos taken by astronauts and cosmonauts over the past 50 years are available on http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov

  13. Earth Observation

    2011-07-06

    ISS028-E-014782 (6 July 2011) --- The Shoemaker (formerly Teague) Impact Structure, located in Western Australia in a drainage basin south of the Waldburg Range, presents an other-worldly appearance in this detailed photograph recorded from onboard the International Space Station on July 6. The Shoemaker impact site is approximately 30 kilometers in diameter, and is clearly defined by concentric ring structures formed in sedimentary rocks (brown to dark brown, image center) that were deformed by the impact event approximately 1630 million years ago, according to the Earth Impact Database. Several saline and ephemeral lakes?Nabberu, Teague, Shoemaker, and numerous smaller ponds?occupy the land surface between the concentric ring structures. Differences in color result from both water depth and suspended sediments, with some bright salt crusts visible around the edges of smaller ponds (image center The Teague Impact Structure was renamed Shoemaker in honor of the late Dr. Eugene M. Shoemaker, a pioneer in the field of impact crater studies and planetary geology, and founder of the Astrogeology Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The image was recorded with a digital still camera using a 200 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  14. Single-ion 4f element magnetism: an ab-initio look at Ln(COT)2(-).

    PubMed

    Gendron, Frédéric; Pritchard, Benjamin; Bolvin, Hélène; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-12-14

    The electron densities associated with the Ln 4f shell, and spin and orbital magnetizations ('magnetic moment densities'), are investigated for the Ln(COT)2(-) series. The densities are obtained from ab-initio calculations including spin-orbit coupling. For Ln = Ce, Pr the magnetizations are also derived from crystal field models and shown to agree with the ab-initio results. Analysis of magnetizations from ab-initio calculations may be useful in assisting research on single molecule magnets.

  15. Sulfur Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  16. Theoretical Study on the Photoelectron Spectra of Ln(COT)2-: Lanthanide Dependence of the Metal-Ligand Interaction.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, Erika; Masuda, Tomohide; Yabushita, Satoshi

    2016-12-08

    We have performed a theoretical analysis of the recently reported photoelectron (PE) spectra of the series of sandwich complex anions Ln(COT) 2 - (Ln = La-Lu, COT = 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene), focusing on the Ln dependence of the vertical detachment energies. For most Ln, the π molecular orbitals, largely localized on the COT ligands, have the energy order of e 1g < e 1u < e 2g < e 2u as in the actinide analogues, reflecting the substantial orbital interaction with the Ln 5d and 5p orbitals. Thus, it would be expected that the lanthanide contraction would increase the orbital interaction so that the overlaps between the COT π and Ln atomic orbitals tend to increase across the series. However, the PE spectra and theoretical calculations were not consistent with this expectation, and the details have been clarified in this study. Furthermore, the energy level splitting patterns of the anion and neutral complexes have been studied by multireference ab initio methods, and the X peak splittings observed in the PE spectra only for the middle-range Ln complexes were found to be due to the specific interaction between the Ln 4f and ligand π orbitals of the neutral complexes in e 2u symmetry. Because the magnitude of this 4f-ligand interaction depends critically on the final state 4f electron configuration and the spin state, a significant Ln dependence in the PE spectra is explained.

  17. Cloudy Earth

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds).

  18. Earth observation

    2014-08-31

    ISS040-E-113700 (31 Aug. 2014) --- This panorama view, photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station, shows tan-colored dust of a major dust storm obscuring the Persian Gulf and the its northern shoreline. Strong north winds often blow in summer, churning up dust from the entire length of the desert surfaces of the Tigris and Euphrates valleys (top left). Dust partly obscures the hundreds of kilometers of Iraq’s light-green agricultural lands along these rivers (left). A line of thunderstorms is being set off by the Zagros Mountains of Iran (right), with the setting sun casting long shadows from the thunderheads. Space station crews see sixteen sunrises and sunsets every day from low Earth orbit. Here the crew captured dusk in a darkening Iranian landscape (right).

  19. Earth Observation

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018725 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring most of the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are in lower right portion of the image on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  20. Earth Observation

    2013-07-29

    ISS036-E-025908 (29 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Africa, took this night picture of Sicily (center frame) and much of Italy (frame left to frame center) on July 29, 2013. The Stretto de Messina, which separates Sicily from Italy, is near frame center. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a scenic horizon with a number of stars in the late July sky. Barely visible in the darkness, part of the long arm of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 runs diagonally through the right one-third of the image.

  1. Earth Observation

    2011-07-15

    ISS028-E-017123 (16 July 2011) --- Separate atmospheric optical phenomena were captured in this electronic still photograph from the Inernational Space Station. The thin greenish band stretching along the Earth's horizon is airglow; light emitted by the atmosphere from a layer about 30 kilometers thick and about 100 kilometers in altitude. The predominant emission in airglow is the green 5577 Angstrom wavelength light from atomic oxygen atoms. Airglow is always and everywhere present in the atmosphere; it results from the recombination of molecules that have been broken apart by solar radiation during the day. But airglow is so faint that it can only be seen at night by looking "edge on" at the emission layer, such as the view astronauts and cosmonauts have in orbit. The second phenomenon is the appearnce of Aurora Australis.

  2. Earth Observation

    2014-11-22

    ISS042E007131 (11/22/2014) — Astronauts aboard the International Space Station captured this image of a huge crater in Africa on Nov. 22, 2014. This is the Richat Structure in northwestern Mauritania, otherwise known as the “Eye of the Sahara.” Scientists are still deciding whether this was formed by a subterranean volcano or impact from a large meteor. Deep in the Sahara Desert it is nearly a perfect circle, it is 1.2 miles (1.9 kilometers) wide, and sports a rim 330 feet (100 meters) tall. The crater sits in a vast plain of rocks so ancient they were deposited hundreds of millions of years before the first dinosaurs walked the Earth.

  3. Earth Science

    1996-01-13

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft undergoing preflight preparation in the Spacecraft Assembly Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). NEAR will perform two critical mission events - Mathilde flyby and the Deep-Space maneuver. NEAR will fly-by Mathilde, a 38-mile (61-km) diameter C-type asteroid, making use of its imaging system to obtain useful optical navigation images. The primary science instrument will be the camera, but measurements of magnetic fields and mass also will be made. The Deep-Space Maneuver (DSM) will be executed about a week after the Mathilde fly-by. The DSM represents the first of two major burns during the NEAR mission of the 100-pound bi-propellant (Hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide) thruster. This maneuver is necessary to lower the perihelion distance of NEAR's trajectory. The DSM will be conducted in two segments to minimize the possibility of an overburn situation.

  4. Fabrication of Ln-MOFs with color-tunable photoluminescence and sensing for small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengyan; Shan, Liang; Fan, Yong; Jia, Jia; Xu, Jianing; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Three isomorphic lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) [LnL(H2O)2]·2H2O (Ln=Tb for 1, Eu for 2, Gd for 3) have been constructed from flexible organic ligand 4-(2-carboxyphenoxy)benzene-1,3-dioic acid (H3L). They exhibit two-dimensional (2D) layered structure with the rhombus windows along the b axis. This network can be described as a shubnikov plane net with Schäfli symbol of (43)2(46.66.83). Solid state luminescent studies indicate that 1 and 2 show the characteristic red, and green emissions of the corresponding Ln3+ ions, respectively, while 3 exhibits blue emission arising from the organic ligand. Then by adjusting the relative amounts of different luminescent components into the well-defined host framework, a series of new co-doped Ln-MOF, Tb1-xEuxL (4) (x refers to the molar ratios of Eu3+ and Tb3+), with tunable luminescence have been fabricated. The luminescent color of 4 can be tuned from green to red due to the energy transfer from the Tb3+ to Eu3+ ions by changing the doping concentration of the Eu3+ ions. In addition, 2 exhibits good stability in different solvents and excellent fluorescence sensing for small molecules, especially for CH3CN and nitrobenzene.

  5. Current advances in lanthanide ion (Ln(3+))-based upconversion nanomaterials for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongmei; Ma, Ping'an; Hou, Zhiyou; Cheng, Ziyong; Li, Chunxia; Lin, Jun

    2015-03-21

    Lanthanide ion (Ln(3+))-based upconversion nano/micromaterials that emit higher-energy visible light when excited by low-energy NIR light have aroused considerable attention in the forefront of materials science and biomedical fields, which stems from their unique optical and chemical properties including minimum photodamage to living organisms, low autofluorescence, high signal-to-noise ratio and detection sensitivity, and high penetration depth in biological or environmental samples. Thus, Ln(3+)-based upconversion materials are rising new stars and are quickly emerging as potential candidates to revolutionize novel biomedical applications. In this review article, we mainly focus on the recent progress in various chemical syntheses of Ln(3+)-based upconversion nanomaterials, with special emphasis on their application in stimuli-response controlled drug release and subsequent therapy. Functional groups that are introduced into the stimuli-responsive system can respond to external triggers, such as pH, temperature, light, and even magnetic fields, which can regulate the movement of the pharmaceutical cargo and release the drug at a desired time and in a desired area. This is crucial to boost drug efficacy in cancer treatment while minimizing the side effects of cytotoxic drugs. Many multifunctional (magnetic/upconversion luminescence and porous) composite materials based on Ln(3+) have been designed for controlled drug delivery and multimodal bioimaging. Finally, the challenges and future opportunities for Ln(3+)-based upconversion materials are discussed.

  6. Comparisons of lanthanide/actinide +2 ions in a tris(aryloxide)arene coordination environment† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional computational details, spectroscopic information, crystallographic data collection, structure solution, and refinement (PDF), X-ray diffraction details of compounds 1-Ln (Ln = Nd, Gd, Dy, and Er), 2-Nd, 2-Ln/3-Ln (Ln = Gd, Dy, Er), 2-Dy/4-Dy, and 5-Dy/6-Dy. CCDC (CIF, 1538987–1538995 and 1566075 for 2-Dy/3-Dy), and DFT-optimized structural coordinates for 2-Nd and 2-Gd. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc02337e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Fieser, Megan E.; Palumbo, Chad T.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Halter, Dominik P.; Voora, Vamsee K.; Ziller, Joseph W.

    2017-01-01

    A new series of Ln3+ and Ln2+ complexes has been synthesized using the tris(aryloxide)arene ligand system, ((Ad,MeArO)3mes)3–, recently used to isolate a complex of U2+. The triphenol precursor, (Ad,MeArOH)3mes, reacts with the Ln3+ amides, Ln(NR2)3 (R = SiMe3), to form a series of [((Ad,MeArO)3mes)Ln] complexes, 1-Ln. Crystallographic characterization was achieved for Ln = Nd, Gd, Dy, and Er. The complexes 1-Ln can be reduced with potassium graphite in the presence of 2.2.2-cryptand (crypt) to form highly absorbing solutions with properties consistent with Ln2+ complexes, [K(crypt)][((Ad,MeArO)3mes)Ln], 2-Ln. The synthesis of the Nd2+ complex [K(crypt)][((Ad,MeArO)3mes)Nd], 2-Nd, was unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. In the case of the other lanthanides, crystals were found to contain mixtures of 2-Ln co-crystallized with either a Ln3+ hydride complex, [K(crypt)][((Ad,MeArO)3mes)LnH], 3-Ln, for Ln = Gd, Dy, and Er, or a hydroxide complex, [K(crypt)][((Ad,MeArO)3mes)Ln(OH)], 4-Ln, for Ln = Dy. A Dy2+ complex with 18-crown-6 as the potassium chelator, [K(18-crown-6)(THF)2][((Ad,MeArO)3mes)Dy], 5-Dy, was isolated as a co-crystallized mixture with the Dy3+ hydride complex, [K(18-crown-6)(THF)2][((Ad,MeArO)3mes)DyH], 6-Dy. Structural comparisons of 1-Ln and 2-Ln are presented with respect to their uranium analogs and correlated with density functional theory calculations on their electronic structures. PMID:29163894

  7. Influence of lanthanides on spin-relaxation and spin-structure in a family of Fe 7Ln 4 single molecule magnets

    SciT

    Prodius, Denis; Mereacre, Valeriu; Singh, Prashant

    A family of isostructural undecanuclear 3d–4f coordination clusters of formula [Fe III 7Ln III 4O 4(OH) 3(tea) 2(Htea) 3(Piv) 7(H 2O) 2(NO 3) 3], where Ln = Y (1), Gd (2), Tb (3), Dy (4); PivH ≡ pivalic acid and H 3tea ≡ triethanolamine, was synthesised in this paper. The central Fe7 core of the coordination cluster can be described in terms of two {Fe 4O 2} butterfly motifs sharing a common body Fe atom. The two Fe 4 mean-planes subtend a dihedral angle of ca. 72°. The Tb (3) and Dy (4) compounds show Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) behaviourmore » as confirmed by ac-susceptibility and μ-SQUID measurements. Furthermore, 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of 1–4 confirm the presence of high-spin Fe III sites. The spectra of all complexes in the high temperature range (30–300 K) show broad overlapping doublets which were assigned to the body and wing-tip pairs of metal ions within the Fe 7 core. The low temperature Mössbauer spectra show dependence on the nature of the rare-earth metal as a result of its interaction with the iron sites. Finally, we observed a transition from fast (2), to intermediate (1) and very slow (frozen) (3, 4) spin fluctuation phenomena in these compounds.« less

  8. Influence of lanthanides on spin-relaxation and spin-structure in a family of Fe 7Ln 4 single molecule magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Prodius, Denis; Mereacre, Valeriu; Singh, Prashant; ...

    2018-03-01

    A family of isostructural undecanuclear 3d–4f coordination clusters of formula [Fe III 7Ln III 4O 4(OH) 3(tea) 2(Htea) 3(Piv) 7(H 2O) 2(NO 3) 3], where Ln = Y (1), Gd (2), Tb (3), Dy (4); PivH ≡ pivalic acid and H 3tea ≡ triethanolamine, was synthesised in this paper. The central Fe7 core of the coordination cluster can be described in terms of two {Fe 4O 2} butterfly motifs sharing a common body Fe atom. The two Fe 4 mean-planes subtend a dihedral angle of ca. 72°. The Tb (3) and Dy (4) compounds show Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) behaviourmore » as confirmed by ac-susceptibility and μ-SQUID measurements. Furthermore, 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of 1–4 confirm the presence of high-spin Fe III sites. The spectra of all complexes in the high temperature range (30–300 K) show broad overlapping doublets which were assigned to the body and wing-tip pairs of metal ions within the Fe 7 core. The low temperature Mössbauer spectra show dependence on the nature of the rare-earth metal as a result of its interaction with the iron sites. Finally, we observed a transition from fast (2), to intermediate (1) and very slow (frozen) (3, 4) spin fluctuation phenomena in these compounds.« less

  9. Enhancement of the red emission in CaTiO 3:Pr 3+ by addition of rare earth oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianmin; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhang, Xia; Chen, Li; Luo, Yongshi; Wang, Xiao-jun

    2007-02-01

    Enhancement of the 1D 2- 3H 4 red emission of CaTiO 3:Pr 3+ with addition of rare earth oxides Ln 2O 3 (Ln = Lu, La, Gd) is reported. Ca 2+ and Ti 4+ in CaTiO 3 can be substituted by Ln 3+ ions as donors and acceptors, respectively. Ca 2+ and Ti 4+ vacancies, as quenching centers in the host, are effectively suppressed by the self-compensation, leading to the increase of lifetimes and then the emission efficiency of 1D 2. The red fluorescence intensity for CaTiO 3:Pr 3+ phosphor co-doped with 5 mol% Lu 2O 3 is nearly 3 times greater than that of the Lu-free samples.

  10. Insight into substrate binding in Shibasaki's Li3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln complexes and implications in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Alfred J; Carroll, Patrick J; Walsh, Patrick J

    2008-06-11

    Heterobimetallic Lewis acids M 3(THF) n (BINOLate) 3Ln [M = Li, Na, K; Ln = lanthanide(III)] are exceptionally useful asymmetric catalysts that exhibit high levels of enantioselectivity across a wide range of reactions. Despite their prominence, important questions remain regarding the nature of the catalyst-substrate interactions and, therefore, the mechanism of catalyst operation. Reported herein are the isolation and structural characterization of 7- and 8-coordinate heterobimetallic complexes Li 3(THF) 4(BINOLate) 3Ln(THF) [Ln = La, Pr, and Eu], Li 3(py) 5(BINOLate) 3Ln(py) [Ln = Eu and Yb], and Li 3(py) 5(BINOLate) 3La(py) 2 [py = pyridine]. Solution binding studies of cyclohexenone, DMF, and pyridine with Li 3(THF) n (BINOLate) 3Ln [Ln = Eu, Pr, and Yb] and Li 3(DMEDA) 3(BINOLate) 3Ln [Ln = La and Eu; DMEDA = N, N'-dimethylethylene diamine] demonstrate binding of these Lewis basic substrate analogues to the lanthanide center. The paramagnetic europium, ytterbium, and praseodymium complexes Li 3(THF) n (BINOLate) 3Ln induce relatively large lanthanide-induced shifts on substrate analogues that ranged from 0.5 to 4.3 ppm in the (1)H NMR spectrum. X-ray structure analysis and NMR studies of Li 3(DMEDA) 3(BINOLate) 3Ln [Ln = Lu, Eu, La, and the transition metal analogue Y] reveal selective binding of DMEDA to the lithium centers. Upon coordination of DMEDA, six new stereogenic nitrogen centers are formed with perfect diastereoselectivity in the solid state, and only a single diastereomer is observed in solution. The lithium-bound DMEDA ligands are not displaced by cyclohexenone, DMF, or THF on the NMR time scale. Use of the DMEDA adduct Li 3(DMEDA) 3(BINOLate) 3La in three catalytic asymmetric reactions led to enantioselectivities similar to those obtained with Shibasaki's Li 3(THF) n (BINOLate) 3La complex. Also reported is a unique dimeric [Li 6(en) 7(BINOLate) 6Eu 2][mu-eta (1),eta (1)-en] structure [en = ethylenediamine]. On the basis of these studies, it is

  11. Why Was Kelvin's Estimate of the Earth's Age Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Ian; Syed, M. Qasim

    2014-01-01

    This is a companion to our previous paper in which we give a published example, based primarily on Perry's work, of a graph of ln "y" versus "t" when "y" is an exponential function of "t". This work led us to the idea that Lord Kelvin's (William Thomson's) estimate of the Earth's age was…

  12. Earth Observation

    2014-08-30

    ISS040E112662 (08/30/2014) ---- Cancún, Mexico. A long lens was used by astronauts aboard the International Space Station to take this image, and it highlights many natural and built features. The street pattern of Mexico’s tourist mecca, Cancún, contrasts with the waterways of the marinas that open into the bay and the lagoons. Brilliant blue water over coral reefs contrast with the dark waters of inland lagoons. The reefs are the second largest reef system on Earth, and draw tourists from all over the world. The wide, well developed beach on the gulf coast (image upper right) is the result of vigorous wave energy; the white sand makes the beach easily visible from space. But wave energy is reduced along Cancún’s protected shoreline (image center) and the beaches are thin or non-existant. Fair-weather cumulus clouds are scattered across the image top left. To shoot crisp mages with long lenses, astronaut photographers must learn to brace themselves against the ISS bulkhead to prevent any slight shaking that would blur or “smear” the picture. Counterintuitively, they then need to move the camera carefully retaining the target at the same point in the viewfinder (the landscape moves across the viewfinder quickly with long lenses). This is called tracking the target and requires good coordination by the photographer—again, to prevent blurring. Shorter lenses do not require this skill because the image appears to pass more slowly across the viewfinder.

  13. Earth Observations

    2010-09-20

    ISS024-E-015121 (20 Sept. 2010) --- Twitchell Canyon Fire in central Utah is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS). The Twitchell Canyon Fire near central Utah?s Fishlake National Forest is reported to have an area of approximately 13,383 hectares (approximately 134 square kilometers, or 33,071 acres). This detailed image shows smoke plumes generated by several fire spots close to the southwestern edge of the burned area. The fire was started by a lightning strike on July 20, 2010. Whereas many of the space station images of Earth are looking straight down (nadir), this photograph was exposed at an angle. The space station was located over a point approximately 509 kilometers (316 miles) to the northeast, near the Colorado/Wyoming border, at the time the image was taken on Sept. 20. Southwesterly winds were continuing to extend smoke plumes from the fire to the northeast. While the Twitchell Canyon region is sparsely populated, Interstate Highway 15 is visible at upper left.

  14. Earth Observation

    2014-08-05

    ISS040-E-088891 (5 Aug. 2014) --- Thunderheads near Borneo, Indonesia are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station. Late afternoon sun casts long shadows from high thunderhead anvils over southern Borneo. Crews aboard the space station have recently concentrated on panoramic views of clouds?taken with lenses similar to the focal length of the human eye. These images reveal the kinds of views crews see -- huge areas of the planet, with a strong three-dimensional sense of what it is like to fly 350 kilometers above Earth. Winds usually blow in different directions at different altitudes. High-altitude winds are clearly sweeping the tops off the many tallest thunderclouds, generating long anvils of diffuse cirrus plumes that trail south. At low levels, ?streets? of white dots -- fair-weather cumulus clouds -- are aligned with west-moving winds (lower left). Small smoke plumes from forest fires onshore are also aligned west. Storm formation near the horizon -- more than 1,000 kilometers away (center) -- is assisted by air currents rising over the central mountains of Borneo.

  15. Earth Observation

    2013-10-14

    ISS037-E-011470 (14 Oct. 2013) --- Man-made archipelagos near Dubai, United Arab Emirates, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 37 crew member on the International Space Station, flying at approximately 220 miles above Earth. The municipality of Dubai is the largest city of the Persian Gulf emirate of the same name, and has built a global reputation for large-scale developments and architectural works. Among the most visible of these developments -- particularly from the perspective of astronauts onboard the space station -- are three man-made archipelagos. The two Palm Islands -- Palm Jumeirah (right) and Palm Jebel Ali (out of frame further to the right) -- appear as stylized palm trees when viewed from above. The World Islands (center frame) evoke a rough map of the world from an air- or space-borne perspective. The Palm Jumeirah project began in 2001 and required more than 50 million cubic meters of dredged sand to raise the islands above the Persian Gulf sea level. Construction of the Palm Jumeirah islands was completed in 2006; for several years now they have been developed for residential and commercial housing and infrastructure. Creation of the World Islands was begun in 2003 and completed in 2008, using 320 million cubic meters of sand and 37 million tons of rock for the surrounding 27 kilometer-long protective breakwater.

  16. Evolution of magnetism in LnCuGa3 (Ln = La-Nd, Sm-Gd) studied via μSR and specific heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, M. J.; Hettinger, J. D.; Nemeth, K.; Dally, R.; Baines, C.; Subbarao, U.; Peter, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Muon spin rotation/relaxation (μSR) and specific heat measurements are presented for polycrystalline LnCuGa3, with Ln = La-Nd, and Sm-Gd. All materials undergo magnetic ordering transitions, apart from non-magnetic LaCuGa3, and PrCuGa3, which shows the onset of short range correlations below 3 K but no long-range magnetic order down to T = 25 mK. While magnetic order in the Ce and Nd compounds is incommensurate with the lattice, the order is commensurate for the Sm and Eu compounds. The strong damping in GdCuGa3 prevents us from determining the nature of magnetism in that system. SmCuGa3 exhibits two precessional frequencies, which appear at different temperatures, suggesting inhomogeneous magnetic ordering or a second magnetic/structural phase transition.

  17. Infrared detector Dewars - Increased LN2 hold time and vacuum jacket life spans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Boyd, W. J.; Blass, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    IR detector Dewars commonly suffer from shorter than desired LN2 hold times and insulation jacket vacuum corruption over relatively short time periods. In an attempt to solve this problem for a 9144 detector Dewar, small 1 liter/s appendage ion pumps were selected for continuous pumping of the vacuum jackets. This procedure extended LN2 hold times from 20 to 60 h and virtually eliminated vacuum jacket corruption. Thus the detector systems are usable continuously over periods of 6 months or more.

  18. Observations on the T lnR term in the quark-antiquark free energy

    SciT

    Kiskis, J.

    1986-06-15

    Consider the response of a pure gauge theory at temperature T to an external quark-antiquark pair separated by R. In the confining phase, the leading term in the free energy at large R is sigmaR. A string-model calculation has given T lnR for the next-to-leading term. In this paper, the origin of the T lnR term is considered in a more general context that includes the analog spin model and the lattice gauge theory at strong coupling. The connection with transverse fluctuations is emphasized.

  19. Effect of lanthanide contraction on the mixed polyamine systems Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien): Syntheses and characterizations of lanthanide complexes with a tetraelenidoantimonate ligand

    SciT

    Zhao Jing; Liang Jingjing; Pan Yingli

    Mixed polyamine systems Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien) (Ln=lanthanide, en=ethylenediamine, dien=diethylenetriamine, trien=triethylenetetramine) were investigated under solvothermal conditions, and novel mixed-coordinated lanthanide(III) complexes [Ln(en){sub 2}(dien)({eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce(1a), Nd(1b)), [Ln(en){sub 2}(dien)(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Sm(2a), Gd(2b), Dy(2c)), [Ln(en)(trien)({mu}-{eta}{sup 1},{eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4})]{sub {infinity}} (Ln=Ce(3a), Nd(3b)) and [Sm(en)(trien)({eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4})] (4a) were prepared. Two structural types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates were obtained across the lanthanide series in both en+dien and en+trien systems. The tetrahedral anion [SbSe{sub 4}]{sup 3-} acts as a monodentate ligand mono-SbSe{sub 4}, a bidentate chelating ligand {eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} or a tridentate bridging ligand {mu}-{eta}{sup 1},{eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} to the lanthanide(III) center depending on themore » Ln{sup 3+} ions and the mixed ethylene polyamines, indicating the effect of lanthanide contraction on the structures of the lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates. The lanthanide selenidoantimonates exhibit semiconducting properties with E{sub g} between 2.08 and 2.51 eV. - Graphical Abstract: Two structural types of lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates are formed in both en-dien and en-trien mixed polyamines across lanthanide series, indicating the lanthanide contraction effect on the structures of the lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates. Highlights: > Two structural types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates are prepared across the lanthanide series in both Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien) systems. > The [SbSe{sub 4}]{sup 3-} anion acts as a mono-SbSe{sub 4}, a {eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} or a {mu}-{eta}{sup 1},{eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} ligand to the Ln{sup 3+} ions. > The soft base ligand [SbSe{sub 4}]{sup 3-} can be controlled to coordinate to the Ln{sup 3+} ions with en+dien and en+trien as co-ligands.« less

  20. Magnetism of cyano-bridged hetero-one-dimensional Ln3+-M3+ complexes (Ln3+ = Sm, Gd, Yb; M3+ = FeLS, Co).

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Albert; Diaz, Carmen; Ribas, Joan; Tangoulis, Vassilis; Sangregorio, Claudio; Gatteschi, Dante; Maestro, Miguel; Mahía, José

    2003-08-25

    The reaction of Ln(NO(3))(3).aq with K(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] or K(3)[Co(CN)(6)] and 2,2'-bipyridine in water led to five one-dimensional complexes: trans-[M(CN)(4)(mu-CN)(2)Ln(H(2)O)(4) (bpy)](n)().XnH(2)O.1.5nbpy (M = Fe(3+) or Co(3+); Ln = Sm(3+), Gd(3+), or Yb(3+); X = 4 or 5). The structures for [Fe(3)(+)-Sm(3+)] (1), [Fe(3)(+)-Gd(3+)] (2), [Fe(3)(+)-Yb(3+)] (3), [Co(3)(+)-Gd(3+)] (4), and [Co(3)(+)-Yb(3+)] (5) have been solved; they crystallize in the triclinic space P1 and are isomorphous. The [Fe(3+)-Sm(3+)] complex is a ferrimagnet, its magnetic studies suggesting the onset of weak ferromagnetic 3-D ordering at 3.5 K. The [Fe(3+)-Gd(3+)] interaction is weakly antiferromagnetic. The isotropic nature of Gd(3+) allowed us to evaluate the exchange interaction (J = 0.77 cm(-)(1)).

  1. Anion dependent self-assembly of 56-metal Cd-Ln nanoclusters with enhanced near-infrared luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Schipper, Desmond; Zhang, Lijie; Yang, Keqin; Huang, Shaoming; Jiang, Jijun; Su, Chengyong; Jones, Richard A.

    2014-08-01

    Two series of Cd-Ln clusters: nano-drum [Ln8Cd24L12(OAc)48] and nano-double-drum [Ln12Cd44L20Cl30(OAc)54] (Ln = Nd and Yb) were prepared using a flexible Schiff base ligand bearing two aryl-Br groups. Chloride (Cl-) ions, together with the interactions of Br with other electronegative atoms, play a key role in the formation of the nano-double-drums. The structures were studied by TEM and photophysical properties were determined.Two series of Cd-Ln clusters: nano-drum [Ln8Cd24L12(OAc)48] and nano-double-drum [Ln12Cd44L20Cl30(OAc)54] (Ln = Nd and Yb) were prepared using a flexible Schiff base ligand bearing two aryl-Br groups. Chloride (Cl-) ions, together with the interactions of Br with other electronegative atoms, play a key role in the formation of the nano-double-drums. The structures were studied by TEM and photophysical properties were determined. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full experimental and characterization details for 1-4. CCDC 972369-972372. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03075c

  2. Earth Observations

    2013-06-21

    ISS036-E-011034 (21 June 2013) --- The Salton Trough is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. The Imperial and Coachella Valleys of southern California – and the corresponding Mexicali Valley and Colorado River Delta in Mexico – are part of the Salton Trough, a large geologic structure known to geologists as a graben or rift valley that extends into the Gulf of California. The trough is a geologically complex zone formed by interaction of the San Andreas transform fault system that is, broadly speaking, moving southern California towards Alaska; and the northward motion of the Gulf of California segment of the East Pacific Rise that continues to widen the Gulf of California by sea-floor spreading. According to scientists, sediments deposited by the Colorado River have been filling the northern rift valley (the Salton Trough) for the past several million years, excluding the waters of the Gulf of California and providing a fertile environment – together with irrigation—for the development of extensive agriculture in the region (visible as green and yellow-brown fields at center). The Salton Sea, a favorite landmark of astronauts in low Earth orbit, was formed by an irrigation canal rupture in 1905, and today is sustained by agricultural runoff water. A wide array of varying landforms and land uses in the Salton Trough are visible from space. In addition to the agricultural fields and Salton Sea, easily visible metropolitan areas include Yuma, AZ (lower left); Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico (center); and the San Diego-Tijuana conurbation on the Pacific Coast (right). The approximately 72-kilometer-long Algodones Dunefield is visible at lower left.

  3. Earth Observation

    2012-07-10

    ISS032-E-006129 (10 July 2012) --- Flooding in Krymsk in the Krasnodar region of southern Russia is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 32 crew member on the International Space Station. On the night of July 7, 2012 a major storm dumped more than a foot of water on the southern Russian area of Krasnodar, near the Black Sea. The resulting flood was likened to a tsunami, and to date, more than 170 people died, most from the city of Krymsk. The Moscow times reports that more than 19,000 people lost everything. This image taken by cosmonauts aboard the space station shows the city of Krymsk. The tan-colored areas indicate some of the regions that were flooded; the color is probably due to the mud and debris that were left by the floodwaters. Krymsk is located in the western foothills on the northern slope of the Caucasus Mountains?a range that stretches between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The vast amount of rain quickly overwhelmed the small river channels that flow northward from the mountains to the Russian lowlands and the Kuban River; Krymsk, located on one of those tributaries, was directly in the pathway of the flash flood. As part of the international partner agreement to use the International Space Station to benefit humanity, crew members and other Earth observing instruments provide best-effort support to the International Disaster Charter (IDC) when it is activated by collecting imagery of areas on the ground impacted by natural events such as the flooding in Krymsk. This image was acquired July 10, 2012 in response to the IDC activation.

  4. Earth Observations

    2011-06-02

    ISS028-E-006687 (2 June 2011) --- Estuaries on the northwestern coast of Madagascar are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. Regions where fresh water flowing in rivers and salt water from the seas and oceans mix are called estuaries, and they are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on Earth. This photograph highlights two estuaries located along the northwestern coastline of the island of Madagascar. The Mozambique Channel (top) separates Madagascar from the southeastern coast of Africa. Bombetoka Bay (upper left) is fed by the Betsiboka River and is a frequent subject of astronaut photography due to its striking red floodplain sediments. Mahajamba Bay (right) is fed by several rivers including the Mahajamba and Sofia Rivers; like the Betsiboka, the floodplains of these rivers also contain reddish sediments eroded from their basins upstream. The brackish (mix of fresh and salty water) conditions found in most estuaries host unique plant and animal species adapted to live in such environments. Mangroves in particular are a common plant species found in and around Madagascar estuaries, and Bombetoka Bay contains some of the largest remaining stands. Estuaries also host abundant fish and shellfish species ? many of which need access to freshwater for a portion of their life cycles ? and these in turn support local and migratory bird species that prey on them. However, human activities such as urban development, overfishing, and increased sediment loading from erosion of upriver highlands threaten the ecosystem health of the estuaries. In particular, the silt deposits in Bombetoka Bay at the mouth of the Betsiboka River have been filling in the bay.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

  6. Evaluating the electronic structure of formal Ln II ions in Ln II(C 5H 4SiMe 3) 3 1– using XANES spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    SciT

    Fieser, Megan E.; Ferrier, Maryline Ghislaine; Su, Jing

    Here, the isolation of [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][Ln(C 5H 4SiMe 3) 3], formally containing LnII, for all lanthanides (excluding Pm) was surprising given that +2 oxidation states are typically regarded as inaccessible for most 4f-elements. Herein, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), ground-state density functional theory (DFT), and transition dipole moment calculations are used to investigate the possibility that Ln(C 5H 4SiMe 3) 3 1– (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) compounds represented molecular Ln II complexes. Results from the ground-state DFT calculations were supported by additional calculations that utilized complete-active-space multi-configuration approach with second-ordermore » perturbation theoretical correction (CASPT2). Through comparisons with standards, Ln(C 5H 4SiMe 3) 3 1– (Ln = Sm, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y) are determined to contain 4f 6 5d 0 (Sm II), 4f 13 5d 0 (Tm II), 4f 14 5d 0 (Yb II), 4f 14 5d 1 (Lu II), and 4d 1 (Y II) electronic configurations. Additionally, our results suggest that Ln(C 5H 4SiMe 3) 3 1– (Ln = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) also contain Ln II ions, but with 4f n 5d 1 configurations (not 4f n +1 5d 0). In these 4f n 5d 1 complexes, the C 3h-symmetric ligand environment provides a highly shielded 5d-orbital of a' symmetry that made the 4f n 5d 1 electronic configurations lower in energy than the more typical 4f n+1 5d 0 configuration.« less

  7. Evaluating the electronic structure of formal Ln II ions in Ln II(C 5H 4SiMe 3) 3 1– using XANES spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Fieser, Megan E.; Ferrier, Maryline Ghislaine; Su, Jing; ...

    2017-06-30

    Here, the isolation of [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][Ln(C 5H 4SiMe 3) 3], formally containing LnII, for all lanthanides (excluding Pm) was surprising given that +2 oxidation states are typically regarded as inaccessible for most 4f-elements. Herein, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), ground-state density functional theory (DFT), and transition dipole moment calculations are used to investigate the possibility that Ln(C 5H 4SiMe 3) 3 1– (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) compounds represented molecular Ln II complexes. Results from the ground-state DFT calculations were supported by additional calculations that utilized complete-active-space multi-configuration approach with second-ordermore » perturbation theoretical correction (CASPT2). Through comparisons with standards, Ln(C 5H 4SiMe 3) 3 1– (Ln = Sm, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y) are determined to contain 4f 6 5d 0 (Sm II), 4f 13 5d 0 (Tm II), 4f 14 5d 0 (Yb II), 4f 14 5d 1 (Lu II), and 4d 1 (Y II) electronic configurations. Additionally, our results suggest that Ln(C 5H 4SiMe 3) 3 1– (Ln = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) also contain Ln II ions, but with 4f n 5d 1 configurations (not 4f n +1 5d 0). In these 4f n 5d 1 complexes, the C 3h-symmetric ligand environment provides a highly shielded 5d-orbital of a' symmetry that made the 4f n 5d 1 electronic configurations lower in energy than the more typical 4f n+1 5d 0 configuration.« less

  8. Exploring the Influence of Diamagnetic Ions on the Mechanism of Magnetization Relaxation in {CoIII2LnIII2} (Ln = Dy, Tb, Ho) "Butterfly" Complexes.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Kuduva R; Langley, Stuart K; Murray, Keith S; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2017-03-06

    The synthesis and magnetic and theoretical studies of three isostructural heterometallic [Co III 2 Ln III 2 (μ 3 -OH) 2 (o-tol) 4 (mdea) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ] (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), Ho (3)) "butterfly" complexes are reported (o-tol = o-toluate, (mdea) 2- = doubly deprotonated N-methyldiethanolamine). The Co III ions are diamagnetic in these complexes. Analysis of the dc magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two Ln III ions for all three complexes. ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for complex 1, in the absence of an external magnetic field, with an anisotropy barrier U eff of 81.2 cm -1 , while complexes 2 and 3 exhibit field induced SMM behavior, with a U eff value of 34.2 cm -1 for 2. The barrier height for 3 could not be quantified. To understand the experimental observations, we performed DFT and ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations to probe the single-ion properties and the nature and magnitude of the Ln III -Ln III magnetic coupling and to develop an understanding of the role the diamagnetic Co III ion plays in the magnetization relaxation. The calculations were able to rationalize the experimental relaxation data for all complexes and strongly suggest that the Co III ion is integral to the observation of SMM behavior in these systems. Thus, we explored further the effect that the diamagnetic Co III ions have on the magnetization blocking of 1. We did this by modeling a dinuclear {Dy III 2 } complex (1a), with the removal of the diamagnetic ions, and three complexes of the types {K I 2 Dy III 2 } (1b), {Zn II 2 Dy III 2 } (1c), and {Ti IV 2 Dy III 2 } (1d), each containing a different diamagnetic ion. We found that the presence of the diamagnetic ions results in larger negative charges on the bridging hydroxides (1b > 1c > 1 > 1d), in comparison to 1a (no diamagnetic ion), which reduces quantum tunneling of magnetization effects, allowing for more desirable SMM

  9. Earth Observation

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011843 (24 June 2013) --- Gravity waves and sunglint on Lake Superior are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. From the vantage point of the space station, crew members frequently observe Earth atmospheric and surface phenomena in ways impossible to view from the ground. Two such phenomena?gravity waves and sunglint?are illustrated in this photograph of northeastern Lake Superior. The Canadian Shield of southern Ontario (bottom) is covered with extensive green forest canopy typical of early summer. Offshore, and to the west and southwest of Pukaskwa National Park several distinct sets of parallel cloud bands are visible. Gravity waves are produced when moisture-laden air encounters imbalances in air density, such as might be expected when cool air flows over warmer air; this can cause the flowing air to oscillate up and down as it moves, causing clouds to condense as the air rises (cools) and evaporate away as the air sinks (warms). This produces parallel bands of clouds oriented perpendicular to the wind direction. The orientation of the cloud bands visible in this image, parallel to the coastlines, suggests that air flowing off of the land surfaces to the north is interacting with moist, stable air over the lake surface, creating gravity waves. The second phenomenon?sunglint?effects the water surface around and to the northeast of Isle Royale (upper right). Sunglint is caused by light reflection off a water surface; some of the reflected light travels directly back towards the observer, resulting in a bright mirror-like appearance over large expanses of water. Water currents and changes in surface tension (typically caused by presence of oils or surfactants) alter the reflective properties of the water, and can be highlighted by sunglint. For example, surface water currents are visible to the east of Isle Royale that are oriented similarly to the gravity waves ? suggesting that they too

  10. Analyses of Small Punch Creep Deformation Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Having Different Nitrogen Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh Kumar, J.; Laha, K.; Ganesan, V.; Prasad Reddy, G. V.

    2018-04-01

    The small punch creep (SPC) behavior of 316LN stainless steel (SS) containing 0.07, 0.11 and 0.14 wt.% nitrogen has been investigated at 923 K. The transient and tertiary SPC deformation of 316LN SS with various nitrogen contents have been analyzed according to the equation proposed for SPC deflection, δ = δ0 + δT (1 - e^{ - κ t} ) + \\dot{δ }s t + δ3 e^[ φ( t - tr ) ]. The relationships among the rate of exhaustion of transient creep (κ), steady-state deflection rate (\\dot{δ }s ) and the rate of acceleration of tertiary creep (φ) revealed the interrelationships among the three stages of SPC curve. The first-order reaction rate theory was found to be applicable to SPC deformation throughout the transient as well as tertiary region, in all the investigated steels. The initial and final creep deflection rates were decreased, whereas time to attain steady-state deflection rate increased with the increase in nitrogen content. By increasing the nitrogen content in 316LN SS from 0.07 to 0.14 wt.%, each stage of SPC was prolonged, and consequently, the values of κ, \\dot{δ }s and φ were lowered. Using the above parameters, the master curves for both transient and tertiary SPC deflections were constructed for 316LN SS containing different nitrogen contents.

  11. Analyses of Small Punch Creep Deformation Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Having Different Nitrogen Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh Kumar, J.; Laha, K.; Ganesan, V.; Prasad Reddy, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The small punch creep (SPC) behavior of 316LN stainless steel (SS) containing 0.07, 0.11 and 0.14 wt.% nitrogen has been investigated at 923 K. The transient and tertiary SPC deformation of 316LN SS with various nitrogen contents have been analyzed according to the equation proposed for SPC deflection, δ = δ0 + δT (1 - e^{ - κ t} ) + \\dot{δ }s t + δ3 e^{[ φ( {t - tr } )} ]. The relationships among the rate of exhaustion of transient creep ( κ), steady-state deflection rate (\\dot{δ }s) and the rate of acceleration of tertiary creep ( φ) revealed the interrelationships among the three stages of SPC curve. The first-order reaction rate theory was found to be applicable to SPC deformation throughout the transient as well as tertiary region, in all the investigated steels. The initial and final creep deflection rates were decreased, whereas time to attain steady-state deflection rate increased with the increase in nitrogen content. By increasing the nitrogen content in 316LN SS from 0.07 to 0.14 wt.%, each stage of SPC was prolonged, and consequently, the values of κ, \\dot{δ }s and φ were lowered. Using the above parameters, the master curves for both transient and tertiary SPC deflections were constructed for 316LN SS containing different nitrogen contents.

  12. Targeted replacement: systematic studies of dodecanuclear {MLn} coordination clusters (M = Cr, Co; Ln = Dy, Y).

    PubMed

    Chen, Sihuai; Mereacre, Valeriu; Zhao, Zhiying; Zhang, Wanwan; Zhang, Mengsi; He, Zhangzhen

    2018-06-05

    Three dodecanuclear 3d-4f coordination clusters, [CrIII6LnIII6(μ3-OH)8(tbdea)6(C6H5COO)16]·2H2O (Ln = Dy (1), Y (2)) and [CoIII6DyIII6(μ3-OH)8(nbdea)6(m-CH3C6H4COO)16]·2H2O·2CH3CN (3), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all three compounds possess an analogous {MIII6LnIII6} core (M = Cr, Co; Ln = Dy, Y) and dc magnetic susceptibility studies indicated that the magnetic exchange couplings between DyIII ions are dominant antiferromagnetic, while the CrIII-DyIII interactions are weakly ferromagnetic. Furthermore, the ac magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that both CrIII6DyIII6 compound 1 and CoIIi6DyIII6 compound 3 containing highly anisotropic DyIII ions displayed single-molecule magnetic (SMM) behavior with the energy barrier Ueff increasing from 12.8 K (for 1) to 20.8 K (for 3), indicating that weak 3d-4f exchange couplings enhance the QTM and reduce the energy barrier.

  13. A Study of Submicron Grain Boundary Precipitates in Ultralow Carbon 316LN Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, S.; Han, K.; Kalu, P. N.; Yang, K.; Du, Z. M.

    2010-04-01

    This article reports our efforts in characterization of an ultralow carbon 316LN-type stainless steel. The carbon content in the material is one-third that in a conventional 316LN, which further inhibits the formation of grain boundary carbides and therefore sensitizations. Our primary effort is focused on characterization of submicron size precipitates in the materials with the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique complemented by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Thermodynamic calculations suggested that several precipitates, such as M23C6, Chi, Sigma, and Cr2N, can form in a low carbon 316LN. In the steels heat treated at 973 K (700 °C) for 100 hours, a combination of EBSD and AES conclusively identified the grain boundary precipitates (≥100 nm) as Cr2N, which has a hexagonal closed-packed crystallographic structure. Increases of the nitrogen content promote formation of large size Cr2N precipitates. Therefore, prolonged heat treatment at relatively high temperatures of ultralow carbon 316LN steels may result in a sensitization.

  14. AlN/Pt/LN structure for SAW sensors capable of operating at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, Natalya; Nicolay, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    There is a need for wireless sensors able to operate in the intermediate temperature range (ITR) between 300 °C and 600 °C. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are promising candidates to solve this issue. However, existing SAW sensors most often fail in the ITR, due to the quick degradation of the sensor housing in extreme conditions. A promising way to circumvent the issue is to use "package-less" devices, where the acoustic waves are guided in a multilayered structure where they are intrinsically protected from adverse environmental effects. We present here an innovative multilayered structure that fulfills all the basic requirements, to achieve a wireless and "package-less" SAW Sensor for the ITR. The structure is made of a thin AlN layer deposited on top of a Y + 128°LN substrate and equipped with buried Pt electrodes. Numerical simulations of the acoustic waves propagating in SAW resonators built on this structure reveal the existence of a useful Rayleigh-type SAW that propagates at the AlN/LN interface with a velocity up to 4500 m/s and a high electromechanical coupling k2=5.6%, without leakage into the substrate. The existence of this mode is due to specific properties of the Y + 128°LN cut, which are analyzed in detail in this paper. The performances of an optimized AlN/Pt/LN structure are also compared to the ones of previously suggested "package-less" structures, including AlN/ZnO/Sapphire. It is shown that better device characteristics can be expected from the AlN/Pt/LN structure in the ITR.

  15. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  16. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  17. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students who attended the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA sponsored the Earth Day event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. 3d-4f {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} Cubanes as Bio-Inspired Water Oxidation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Fabio; Moré, René; Hodel, Florian; Luber, Sandra; Patzke, Greta Ricarda

    2015-09-02

    Although the {CaMn4O5} oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II is a major paradigm for water oxidation catalyst (WOC) development, the comprehensive translation of its key features into active molecular WOCs remains challenging. The [Co(II)3Ln(hmp)4(OAc)5H2O] ({Co(II)3Ln(OR)4}; Ln = Ho-Yb, hmp = 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine) cubane WOC series is introduced as a new springboard to address crucial design parameters, ranging from nuclearity and redox-inactive promoters to operational stability and ligand exchange properties. The {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} cubanes promote bioinspired WOC design by newly combining Ln(3+) centers as redox-inactive Ca(2+) analogues with flexible aqua-/acetate ligands into active and stable WOCs (max. TON/TOF values of 211/9 s(-1)). Furthermore, they open up the important family of 3d-4f complexes for photocatalytic applications. The stability of the {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} WOCs under photocatalytic conditions is demonstrated with a comprehensive analytical strategy including trace metal analyses and solution-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations. The productive influence of the Ln(3+) centers is linked to favorable ligand mobility, and the experimental trends are substantiated with Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics studies.

  19. Intergranular Corrosion Behavior of 304LN Stainless Steel Heat Treated at 623 K (350 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Raghuvir; Kumar, Mukesh; Ghosh, Mainak; Das, Gautam; Singh, P. K.; Chattoraj, I.

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature sensitization of 304LN stainless steel from the two pipes, differing slightly in chemical composition, has been investigated; specimens were aged at 623 K (350 °C) for 20,000 hours and evaluated for intergranular corrosion and degree of sensitization. The base and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the 304LN-1 appear resistant to sensitization, while 304LN-2 revealed a "dual" type microstructure at the transverse section and HAZ. The microstructure at 5.0-mm distance from the fusion line indicates qualitatively less sensitization as compared to that at 2.0 mm. The 304LN-2 base alloy shows overall lower degree of sensitization values as compared to the 304LN-1. A similar trend of degree of sensitization was observed in the HAZ where it was higher in the 304LN-1 as compared to the 304LN-2. The weld zone of both the stainless steels suffered from cracking during ASTM A262 practice E, while the parent metals and HAZs did not show such fissures. A mottled image within the ferrite lamella showed spinodal decomposition. The practice E test and transmission electron microscopy results indicate that the interdendritic regions may suffer from failure due to carbide precipitation and due to the evolution of brittle phase from spinodal decomposition.

  20. Quaternary Chalcogenide-Based Misfit Nanotubes LnS(Se)-TaS(Se)2 (Ln = La, Ce, Nd, and Ho): Synthesis and Atomic Structural Studies.

    PubMed

    Lajaunie, Luc; Radovsky, Gal; Tenne, Reshef; Arenal, Raul

    2018-01-16

    We have synthesized quaternary chalcogenide-based misfit nanotubes LnS(Se)-TaS 2 (Se) (Ln = La, Ce, Nd, and Ho). None of the compounds described here were reported in the literature as a bulk compound. The characterization of these nanotubes, at the atomic level, has been developed via different transmission electron microscopy techniques, including high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. In particular, quantification at sub-nanometer scale was achieved by acquiring high-quality electron energy-loss spectra at high energy (∼between 1000 and 2500 eV). Remarkably, the sulfur was found to reside primarily in the distorted rocksalt LnS lattice, while the Se is associated with the hexagonal TaSe 2 site. Consequently, these quaternary misfit layered compounds in the form of nanostructures possess a double superstructure of La/Ta and S/Se with the same periodicity. In addition, the interlayer spacing between the layers and the interatomic distances within the layer vary systematically in the nanotubes, showing clear reduction when going from the lightest (La atom) to the heaviest (Ho) atom. Amorphous layers, of different nature, were observed at the surface of the nanotubes. For La-based NTs, the thin external amorphous layer (inferior to 10 nm) can be ascribed to a Se deficiency. Contrarily, for Ho-based NTs, the thick amorphous layer (between 10 and 20 nm) is clearly ascribed to oxidation. All of these findings helped us to understand the atomic structure of these new compounds and nanotubes thereof.

  1. Synthesis, structure, and polymorphism of A{sub 3}LnSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K; Ln=Sm, Ho, Yb)

    SciT

    Latshaw, Allison M.; Yeon, Jeongho; Smith, Mark D.

    2016-03-15

    Four new members of the A{sub 3}LnSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} family, K{sub 3}SmSi{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Na{sub 3}HoSi{sub 2}O{sub 7}, and two polymorphs of Na{sub 3}YbSi{sub 2}O{sub 7}, are reported. K{sub 3}SmSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}/mcm, Na{sub 3}HoSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Na{sub 3}YbSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallize in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}/m, and Na{sub 3}YbSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallizes in the trigonal space group P31c. The Na{sub 3}YbSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} composition that crystallizes in P31c is a new structure type. The magnetic properties for the Ho and Yb analogs are reported. - Graphical abstract: The differentmore » structure types and polymorphs of the A{sub 3}LnSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} family reported. - Highlights: • Four new members of the A{sub 3}LnSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} family are presented. • Na{sub 3}YbSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} is reported as two polymorphs, one is a new structure type. • Crystals synthesized out of molten fluoride fluxes.« less

  2. Theoretical study on the anion photoelectron spectra of Ln(COT)2- including the spin-orbit effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajo, Erika; Yabushita, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    The multiplet level splittings for both anion and neutral sandwich complexes Ln(COT)2 (Ln = Ce-Yb, COT = 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene) were calculated with spin-orbit interactions to analyze their anion photoelectron spectra. The theoretically simulated spectra obtained with these energies and the pole strengths are generally consistent with the experimental spectra for the X peak. The magnitudes of the energy splittings, relative peak intensities, and their Ln dependence are reproduced. In comparison to our previous calculations, the inclusion of spin-orbit interactions with the SO-MCQDPT2 method makes the simulated spectra more consistent with the results of the experiment.

  3. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  4. Creep rupture strength of activated-TIG welded 316L(N) stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, T.; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Mathew, M. D.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2011-06-01

    316L(N) stainless steel plates were joined using activated-tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding and conventional TIG welding process. Creep rupture behavior of 316L(N) base metal, and weld joints made by A-TIG and conventional TIG welding process were investigated at 923 K over a stress range of 160-280 MPa. Creep test results showed that the enhancement in creep rupture strength of weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process over conventional TIG welding process. Both the weld joints fractured in the weld metal. Microstructural observation showed lower δ-ferrite content, alignment of columnar grain with δ-ferrite along applied stress direction and less strength disparity between columnar and equiaxed grains of weld metal in A-TIG joint than in MP-TIG joint. These had been attributed to initiate less creep cavitation in weld metal of A-TIG joint leading to improvement in creep rupture strength.

  5. Anomalies of the electronic structure and physical properties of rare-earth cobaltites near spin crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V. A.; Orlov, Yu. S.; Kazak, N. V.; Platunov, M. S.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2016-10-01

    The features of the characteristics of LnCoO3 cobaltites, where Ln is a rare-earth element, are discussed. Both experiment and theory demonstrate that their essentials are related to the low-spin ground state of cobalt ions. The thermally induced occupation of the excited high-spin state gives rise to peaks in the magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and thermal expansion, as well as to a smooth insulator-metal transition. The analysis is based both on the data from the current literature concerning LaCoO3 and in many aspects on our own studies of GdCoO3 and La1- x Gd x CoO3 solid solutions.

  6. Large Hexadecametallic {Mn(III) -Ln(III) } Wheels: Synthesis, Structural, Magnetic, and Theoretical Characterization.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Kuduva R; Langley, Stuart K; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2015-11-09

    The synthesis, gas sorption studies, magnetic properties, and theoretical studies of new molecular wheels of core type {Mn(III) 8 Ln(III) 8 } (Ln=Dy, Ho, Er, Y and Yb), using the ligand mdeaH2 , in the presence of ortho-toluic or benzoic acid are reported. From the seven wheels studied the {Mn8 Dy8 } and {Mn8 Y8 } analogues exhibit SMM behavior as determined from ac susceptibility experiments in a zero static magnetic field. From DFT calculations a S=16 ground state was determined for the {Mn8 Y8 } complex due to weak ferromagnetic Mn(III) -Mn(III) interactions. Ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations on the {Mn8 Dy8 } wheel estimated the Mn(III) -Dy(III) exchange interaction as -0.1 cm(-1) . This weak exchange along with unfavorable single-ion anisotropy of Dy(III) /Mn(III) ions, however, led to the observation of SMM behavior with fast magnetic relaxation. The orientation of the g-anisotropy of the Dy(III) ions is found to be perpendicular to the plane of the wheel and this suggests the possibility of toroidal magnetic moments in the cluster. The {Mn8 Ln8 } clusters reported here are the largest heterometallic Mn(III) Ln(III) wheels and the largest {3d-4f} wheels to exhibit SMM behavior reported to date. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Heterometallic [Mn5-Ln4] single-molecule magnets with high anisotropy barriers.

    PubMed

    Mereacre, Valeriu; Ako, Ayuk M; Clérac, Rodolphe; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Hewitt, Ian J; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2008-01-01

    The reaction of [Mn6O2(Piv)(10)(4-Me-py)(2.5)(PivH)(1.5)] (1) (py: pyridine, Piv: pivilate) with N-methyldiethanolamine (mdeaH2) and Ln(NO3)3 x 6 H2O in MeCN leads to a series of nonanuclear compounds [Mn5Ln4(O)6(mdea)2(mdeaH)2(Piv)6(NO3)4(H2O)2]2 MeCN (Ln=Tb(III) (2), Dy(III) (3), Ho(III) (4), Y(III) (5)). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that compounds 2-5 are isostructural, with the central core composed of two distorted {Mn(IV)Mn(III)Ln2O4} cubanes sharing a Mn(IV) vertex, representing a new heterometallic 3d-4f motif for this class of ligand. The four new compounds display single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour, which is modulated by the lanthanide ion used. Moreover, the values found for Delta(eff) and tau(o) for 3 of 38.6 K and 3.0 x 10(-9) s respectively reveal that the complex 3 exhibits the highest energy barrier recorded so far for 3d-4f SMMs. The slow relaxation of the magnetisation for 3 was confirmed by mu-SQUID measurements on an oriented single crystal and the observation of M versus H hysteresis loops below 1.9 K.

  8. Three series of heterometallic NiII-LnIII Schiff base complexes: synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Liu, Yue; Liu, Xin; Tian, Jinlei; Yan, Shiping

    2017-09-26

    Three series of Ni II -Ln III complexes were synthesized with the general formulae [(μ 3 -CO 3 ) 2 {Ni(HL)(CH 3 -CH 2 OH)Ln(CH 3 COO)} 2 ]·2CH 3 CH 2 OH (1-6) (Ln = Tb (1), Dy (2), Ho (3), Er (4), Tm (5), Yb (6); H 3 L = N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)-1,3-diamino-2-prop-anol), [Ni(HL)Ln(dbm) 3 ]·CH 3 OH 2 ·2CH 2 Cl 2 (7-10) (Ln = Tb (7), Eu (8), Gd (9), Ho (10); Hdbm = 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione) and [Ni(HL)(H 2 O)(tfa)Ln(hfac) 2 ] (11-15) (Ln = Tb (11), Dy (12), Eu (13), Gd (14), Ho (15); Hhfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione, tfa - = trifluoroacetate) using compartmental Schiff base ligands in conjunction with auxiliary ligands. For the NiLn series, the tetranuclear structure could be considered as two Ni II -Ln III dinuclear subunits bridged by two carbonates derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Ln III ions of complexes 1-6 were octa-coordinated with distorted triangular dodecahedral geometry, while the Ln III ions of the dinuclear complexes 7-15 were nona-coordinated with distorted muffin geometry. The magnetic properties of the three series complexes were studied using dc and ac magnetic measurements. For the Ni II -Gd III complexes, the dc magnetic susceptibility measurements suggested the existence of the anticipated ferromagnetic interaction between Ni II and Gd III ions. The fitting of the χ M T vs. T data processed by PHI software provided the parameters g = 2.08 (J = +0.87 cm -1 ) for 9 and g = 2.02 (J = +1.83 cm -1 ) for 14. The interaction exchange was magneto-structurally correlated to the Ni-O-Gd angle (α) and Ni(μ-O)Gd dihedral angle (β). With an applied dc field, complexes 1 (Tb), 2 (Dy), 7 (Tb) and 12 (Dy) exhibited single magnetic relaxation with SMM parameters of U eff /k = 13.60 K, 11.52 K, 7.69 K and 5.14 K, respectively. Analysis of the Cole-Cole plots for complexes 2 and 7 suggested that a single relaxation process was mainly involved in the relaxation process, with α values in the range of 0.37-0.17 and 0

  9. NMR and TRLFS studies of Ln(iii) and An(iii) C5-BPP complexes.

    PubMed

    Adam, Christian; Beele, Björn B; Geist, Andreas; Müllich, Udo; Kaden, Peter; Panak, Petra J

    2015-02-01

    C5-BPP is a highly efficient N-donor ligand for the separation of trivalent actinides, An(iii), from trivalent lanthanides, Ln(iii). The molecular origin of the selectivity of C5-BPP and many other N-donor ligands of the BTP-type is still not entirely understood. We present here the first NMR studies on C5-BPP Ln(iii) and An(iii) complexes. C5-BPP is synthesized with 10% 15 N labeling and characterized by NMR and LIFDI-MS methods. 15 N NMR spectroscopy gives a detailed insight into the bonding of C5-BPP with lanthanides and Am(iii) as a representative for trivalent actinide cations, revealing significant differences in 15 N chemical shift for coordinating nitrogen atoms compared to Ln(iii) complexes. The temperature dependence of NMR chemical shifts observed for the Am(iii) complex indicates a weak paramagnetism. This as well as the observed large chemical shift for coordinating nitrogen atoms show that metal-ligand bonding in Am(C5-BPP) 3 has a larger share of covalence than in lanthanide complexes, confirming earlier studies. The Am(C5-BPP) 3 NMR sample is furthermore spiked with Cm(iii) and characterized by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), yielding important information on the speciation of trace amounts of minor complex species.

  10. Validation of the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W. Z.; Zhu, W. J.; Fischer, A.; Garcia, N. R.; Cheng, J. T.; Chen, J.; Madsen, J.

    2014-12-01

    The CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils were designed with an objective of high lift and low noise emission. In the design process, the aerodynamic performance is obtained using XFOIL while noise emission is obtained with the BPM model. In this paper we present some validations of the designed CQU-DTU-LN118 airfoil by using wind tunnel measurements in the acoustic wind tunnel located at Virginia Tech and numerical computations with the inhouse Q3uic and EllipSys 2D/3D codes. To show the superiority of the new airfoils, comparisons with a NACA64618 airfoil are made. For the aerodynamic features, the designed Cl and Cl/Cd agrees well with the experiment and are in general higher than those of the NACA airfoil. For the acoustic features, the noise emission of the LN118 airfoil is compared with the acoustic measurements and that of the NACA airfoil. Comparisons show that the BPM model can predict correctly the noise changes.

  11. Fatigue induced cracking in aluminum LN-2 shroud of 39 foot vacuum chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen years after completion of Ford's 39-foot space simulation chamber, leaks began to appear in its LN2 shroud. Although the shroud had been tight since its acceptance, cracks appeared in 1983 in some of the field welds of the one inch tubes which interconnect the LN2 panels. The resulting leaks were large enough to prevent pump down to high vacuum and could be heard easily when the chamber was at ambient conditions. New cracks appeared during each thermal cycle making it impossible to utilize the chamber for thermal vacuum testing. The analysis presented here implies that many, if not all, of the aluminum LN2 shrouds now in use may be in various stages of fatigue failure. The probability is high that fatigue cracks are working through the aluminum tubing in heat-affected zones of some field welds. The cracks may not be apparent yet, but after the shroud has experienced a certain number of thermal cycles these cracks will work through the material and become serious leaks. Fortunately, appropriate planning, analysis, and checking can, with a relatively small expenditure of money, help to avoid large and unexpected shroud failures and keep the chamber operational as long as it is needed.

  12. Earth on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

  13. Earth - Pacific Ocean

    1996-01-29

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft early Dec. 12, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.6 million miles from the Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00123

  14. The Earth & Moon

    1998-06-04

    During its flight, NASA’s Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon. Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00342

  15. Oblique Shot of Earth

    2008-09-05

    This highly oblique image shot over northwestern part of the African continent captures the curvature of the Earth and shows its atmosphere as seen by NASA EarthKAM. You can see clouds and even the occasional thunderhead.

  16. Exploring Spaceship Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Noel F.

    1973-01-01

    Describes various activities to understand the nature of the earth as a spaceship and its impact on human life. A figure depicting a holocoenotic environmental complex is given which can be used to illustrate various interacting forces on earth. (PS)

  17. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    Students listen intently while NASA's Director, Earth Science Division, Mike Freilich, speaks at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. Earth - India and Australia

    1996-02-08

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00122

  19. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses for a quick selfie with students who attended the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA announced the "Global Selfie" event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. All selfies posted to social media with the hashtag "GlobalSelfie" will be included in a mosaic image of Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. A combined calorimetric and computational study of the energetics of rare earth substituted UO 2 systems

    SciT

    Zhang, Lei; Solomon, Jonathan M.; Asta, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The energetics of rare earth substituted UO2 solid solutions (U1-xLnxO2-0.5x+y, where Ln = La, Y, and Nd) are investigated employing a combination of calorimetric measurements and density functional theory based computations. Calculated and measured formation enthalpies agree within 10 kJ/mol for stoichiometric oxygen/metal compositions. To better understand the factors governing the stability and defect binding in rare earth substituted urania solid solutions, systematic trends in the energetics are investigated based on the present results and previous computational and experimental thermochemical studies of rare earth substituted fluorite oxides (A1-xLnxO2-0.5x, where A = Hf, Zr, Ce, and Th). A consistent trend towardsmore » increased energetic stability with larger size mismatch between the smaller host tetravalent cation and the larger rare earth trivalent cation is found for both actinide and non-actinide fluorite oxide systems where aliovalent substitution of Ln cations is compensated by oxygen vacancies. However, the large exothermic oxidation enthalpy in the UO2 based systems favors oxygen rich compositions where charge compensation occurs through the formation of uranium cations with higher oxidation states.« less

  1. The Dynamic Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siever, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)

  2. Synthesis and anisotropic properties of single crystalline Ln{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15+x} (Ln=Gd, Tb)

    SciT

    Morrison, Gregory; Prestigiacomo, Joseph; Haldolaarachchige, Neel

    2016-04-15

    Single crystals of Ln{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15+x} (Ln=Gd, Tb) have been grown using the self-flux method under Ru-poor conditions. The structure of the Gd analog is found to be highly dependent on the synthesis method. Gd{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.08} orders antiferromagnetically at 17.5 K. Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.05} enters an antiferromagnetic state at 16.6 K followed by a likely incommensurate-to-commensurate transition at 14.9 K for crystals oriented with H//ab. For crystals oriented with H//c, a broad maximum is observed in the temperature dependent M/H, indicative of a highly anisotropic magnetic system with the hard axis in the c-direction. The magnetizationmore » as a function of field and magnetoresistance along the ab-direction of Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.05} display a stepwise behavior and indicate strong crystalline electric field effects. - Graphical abstract: Single crystal, structure, and highly anisotropic magnetoresistance due to strong crystalline electric field effects of Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.05}. - Highlights: • Single crystals of Ln{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15+x} were grown for the first time via flux growth. • The structure of Gd{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.09} differs from that of arc melted Gd{sub 2}Ru{sub 3.08}Al{sub 15}. • Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.05} exhibits highly anisotropic magnetic and transport properties. • The properties of Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.05} arise due to crystalline electric field effects.« less

  3. Observation of Vacancies, Faults, and Superstructures in Ln 5Mo 2O 12 (Ln = La, Y, and Lu) Compounds with Direct Mo–Mo Bonding

    DOE PAGES

    Colabello, Diane M.; Sobalvarro, Elizabeth M.; Sheckelton, John P.; ...

    2017-10-26

    Among oxide compounds with direct metal–metal bonding, the Y 5Mo 2O 12 (A 5B 2O 12) structural family of compounds has a particularly intriguing low-dimensional structure due to the presence of bioctahedral B 2O 10 dimers arranged in one-dimensional edge-sharing chains along the direction of the metal–metal bonds. Furthermore, these compounds can have a local magnetic moment due to the noninteger oxidation state (+4.5) of the transition metal, in contrast to the conspicuous lack of a local moment that is commonly observed when oxide compounds with direct metal–metal bonding have integer oxidation states resulting from the lifting of orbital degeneracymore » typically induced by the metal–metal bonding. Although a monoclinic C2/m structure has been previously proposed for Ln 5Mo 2O 12 (Ln = La–Lu and Y) members of this family based on prior single crystal diffraction data, it is found that this structural model misses many important structural features. On the basis of synchrotron powder diffraction data, it is shown in this paper that the C2/m monoclinic unit cell represents a superstructure relative to a previously unrecognized orthorhombic Immm subcell and that the superstructure derives from the ordering of interchangeable Mo 2O 10 and LaO 6 building blocks. The superstructure for this reason is typically highly faulted, as evidenced by the increased breadth of superstructure diffraction peaks associated with a coherence length of 1–2 nm in the c* direction. Finally, it is shown that oxygen vacancies can occur when Ln = La, producing an oxygen deficient stoichiometry of La 5Mo 2O 11.55 and an approximately 10-fold reduction in the number of unpaired electrons due to the reduction of the average Mo valence from +4.5 to +4.05, a result confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements. Finally, this represents the first observation of oxygen vacancies in this family of compounds and provides an important means of continuously tuning the magnetic

  4. Observation of Vacancies, Faults, and Superstructures in Ln 5Mo 2O 12 (Ln = La, Y, and Lu) Compounds with Direct Mo–Mo Bonding

    SciT

    Colabello, Diane M.; Sobalvarro, Elizabeth M.; Sheckelton, John P.

    Among oxide compounds with direct metal–metal bonding, the Y 5Mo 2O 12 (A 5B 2O 12) structural family of compounds has a particularly intriguing low-dimensional structure due to the presence of bioctahedral B 2O 10 dimers arranged in one-dimensional edge-sharing chains along the direction of the metal–metal bonds. Furthermore, these compounds can have a local magnetic moment due to the noninteger oxidation state (+4.5) of the transition metal, in contrast to the conspicuous lack of a local moment that is commonly observed when oxide compounds with direct metal–metal bonding have integer oxidation states resulting from the lifting of orbital degeneracymore » typically induced by the metal–metal bonding. Although a monoclinic C2/m structure has been previously proposed for Ln 5Mo 2O 12 (Ln = La–Lu and Y) members of this family based on prior single crystal diffraction data, it is found that this structural model misses many important structural features. On the basis of synchrotron powder diffraction data, it is shown in this paper that the C2/m monoclinic unit cell represents a superstructure relative to a previously unrecognized orthorhombic Immm subcell and that the superstructure derives from the ordering of interchangeable Mo 2O 10 and LaO 6 building blocks. The superstructure for this reason is typically highly faulted, as evidenced by the increased breadth of superstructure diffraction peaks associated with a coherence length of 1–2 nm in the c* direction. Finally, it is shown that oxygen vacancies can occur when Ln = La, producing an oxygen deficient stoichiometry of La 5Mo 2O 11.55 and an approximately 10-fold reduction in the number of unpaired electrons due to the reduction of the average Mo valence from +4.5 to +4.05, a result confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements. Finally, this represents the first observation of oxygen vacancies in this family of compounds and provides an important means of continuously tuning the magnetic

  5. Observation of Vacancies, Faults, and Superstructures in Ln5Mo2O12 (Ln = La, Y, and Lu) Compounds with Direct Mo-Mo Bonding.

    PubMed

    Colabello, Diane M; Sobalvarro, Elizabeth M; Sheckelton, John P; Neuefeind, Joerg C; McQueen, Tyrel M; Khalifah, Peter G

    2017-11-06

    Among oxide compounds with direct metal-metal bonding, the Y 5 Mo 2 O 12 (A 5 B 2 O 12 ) structural family of compounds has a particularly intriguing low-dimensional structure due to the presence of bioctahedral B 2 O 10 dimers arranged in one-dimensional edge-sharing chains along the direction of the metal-metal bonds. Furthermore, these compounds can have a local magnetic moment due to the noninteger oxidation state (+4.5) of the transition metal, in contrast to the conspicuous lack of a local moment that is commonly observed when oxide compounds with direct metal-metal bonding have integer oxidation states resulting from the lifting of orbital degeneracy typically induced by the metal-metal bonding. Although a monoclinic C2/m structure has been previously proposed for Ln 5 Mo 2 O 12 (Ln = La-Lu and Y) members of this family based on prior single crystal diffraction data, it is found that this structural model misses many important structural features. On the basis of synchrotron powder diffraction data, it is shown that the C2/m monoclinic unit cell represents a superstructure relative to a previously unrecognized orthorhombic Immm subcell and that the superstructure derives from the ordering of interchangeable Mo 2 O 10 and LaO 6 building blocks. The superstructure for this reason is typically highly faulted, as evidenced by the increased breadth of superstructure diffraction peaks associated with a coherence length of 1-2 nm in the c* direction. Finally, it is shown that oxygen vacancies can occur when Ln = La, producing an oxygen deficient stoichiometry of La 5 Mo 2 O 11.55 and an approximately 10-fold reduction in the number of unpaired electrons due to the reduction of the average Mo valence from +4.5 to +4.05, a result confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements. This represents the first observation of oxygen vacancies in this family of compounds and provides an important means of continuously tuning the magnetic interactions within the one

  6. LN-1-255, a penicillanic acid sulfone able to inhibit the class D carbapenemase OXA-48.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Juan A; Martínez-Guitián, Marta; Vázquez-Ucha, Juan C; González-Bello, Concepción; Poza, Margarita; Buynak, John D; Bethel, Christopher R; Bonomo, Robert A; Bou, German; Beceiro, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    Carbapenemases are the most important mechanism responsible for carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. Among carbapenemases, OXA-48 presents unique challenges as it is resistant to β-lactam inhibitors. Here, we test the capacity of the compound LN-1-255, a 6-alkylidene-2'-substituted penicillanic acid sulfone, to inhibit the activity of the carbapenemase OXA-48. The OXA-48 gene was cloned and expressed in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in order to obtain MICs in the presence of inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam and sulbactam) and LN-1-255. OXA-48 was purified and steady-state kinetics was performed with LN-1-255 and tazobactam. The covalent binding mode of LN-1-255 with OXA-48 was studied by docking assays. Both OXA-48-producing clinical and transformant strains displayed increased susceptibility to carbapenem antibiotics in the presence of 4 mg/L LN-1-255 (2-32-fold increased susceptibility) and 16 mg/L LN-1-255 (4-64-fold increased susceptibility). Kinetic assays demonstrated that LN-1-255 is able to inhibit OXA-48 with an acylation efficiency (k2/K) of 10 ± 1 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and a slow deacylation rate (koff) of 7 ± 1 × 10(-4) s(-1). IC50 was 3 nM for LN-1-255 and 1.5 μM for tazobactam. Lastly, kcat/kinact was 500-fold lower for LN-1-255 than for tazobactam. In these studies, carbapenem antibiotics used in combination with LN-1-255 are effective against the carbapenemase OXA-48, an important emerging mechanism of antibiotic resistance. This provides an incentive for further investigations to maximize the efficacy of penicillin sulfone inhibition of class D plasmid-carried Enterobacteriaceae carbapenemases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Recent Advanced in Rare Earth Chemistry: IREC (International Rare Earth Conference) 85 Held at Zurich (Switzerland) on 4-8 Mar 85.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-04

    compounds were employed since 1979. The polyfunc- studied using time-resolved spectro- tlonal ligands (L) included crown ethers scopy, and the...structure of rare earth * Aqueous complexes with cyclic poly - compounds (for example Cs3Ln2X9), was ethers crown ethers , Alstad, Univer- presented by A...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited U.S. Office of Naval Research, London ag - ’ 3 k) I 5.’ - ~1 I 9 ’<I. A -i I. 4. -A kA IS7 ASS

  8. Earth Science Information Center

    ,

    1991-01-01

    An ESIC? An Earth Science Information Center. Don't spell it. Say it. ESIC. It rhymes with seasick. You can find information in an information center, of course, and you'll find earth science information in an ESIC. That means information about the land that is the Earth, the land that is below the Earth, and in some instances, the space surrounding the Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of Earth Science Information Centers that sell earth science products and data. There are more than 75 ESIC's. Some are operated by the USGS, but most are in other State or Federal agencies. Each ESIC responds to requests for information received by telephone, letter, or personal visit. Your personal visit.

  9. Host-sensitized luminescence properties in CaNb2O6:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+)) phosphors with abundant colors.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xuejiao; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-05

    A series of Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+)) ion doped CaNb2O6 (CNO) phosphors have been prepared via the conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and structure refinement, diffuse reflection, photoluminescence (PL), and fluorescent decay curves were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. Under UV radiation, the CNO host present a broad emission band from about 355 to 605 nm centered around 460 nm originating from the NbO6 octahedral groups, which has spectral overlaps with the excitation of f-f transitions of Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) samples. They show both host emission and respective emission lines derived from the characteristic f-f transitions of activators, which present different emission colors owing to the energy transfer from the NbO6 group in the host to Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) with increasing activator concentrations. The decreases of decay lifetimes of host emissions in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) demonstrate the energy transfer from the hosts to Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+). The energy transfer mechanisms in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) phosphors have been determined to be a resonant type via dipole-dipole mechanisms. For CNO:Sm(3+), the metal-metal charge transfer transition (MMCT) might contribute to the different variations of decay lifetimes and emission intensity from CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) samples. The best quantum efficiency is 71.2% for CNO:0.01/0.02Dy(3+). The PL properties of as-prepared materials indicate the promising application in UV-pumped white-emitting lighting diodes field.

  10. Self-assembled 3D sphere-like SrMoO4 and SrMoO4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy) microarchitectures: facile sonochemical synthesis and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjun; Li, Ruiqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Linlin; Zou, Lianchun; Gan, Shucai; Ji, Guijuan

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) well-defined SrMoO4 and SrMoO4:Ln(3+) (Ln=Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy) hierarchical structures of obvious sphere-like shape have been successfully synthesized using a large-scale and facile sonochemical route without using any catalysts or templates. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the samples. The intrinsic structural feature of SrMoO4 and external factor, namely the ultrasonic time and the pH value, are responsible for the ultimate shape evolutions of the product. The possible formation mechanism for the product is presented. Additionally, the PL properties of SrMoO4 and SrMoO4:Ln(3+) (Ln=Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy) hierarchical structures were investigated in detail. The Ln(3+) ions doped SrMoO4 samples exhibit respective bright red-orange, yellow, green and white light of Eu(3+), Sm(3+), Tb(3+) and Dy(3+) under ultraviolet excitation, and have potential application in the field of color display. Simultaneously, this novel and efficient pathway could open new opportunities for further investigating about the properties of molybdate materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Facile in-situ reduction: Crystal growth and magnetic studies of reduced vanadium (III/IV) silicates CaxLn1-xVSiO5 (Ln = Ce-Nd, Sm-Lu, Y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysinghe, Dileka; Smith, Mark D.; Morrison, Gregory; Yeon, Jeongho; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2018-04-01

    A series of lanthanide containing mixed-valent vanadium (III/IV) silicates of the type CaxLn1-xVSiO5 (Ln = Ce-Nd, Sm-Lu, Y) was synthesized as high quality single crystals from a molten chloride eutectic flux, BaCl2/NaCl. Utilizing Ca metal as the reducing agent, an in-situ reduction of V5+ to V3+/4+ as well as of Ce4+ to Ce3+ was achieved. The structures of 14 reported isostructural compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. They crystallize in the tilasite (CaMgAsO4F) structure type in the monoclinic space group C2/c. The extended structure contains 1D chains of VO6 octahedra that are connected to each other via SiO4 groups and (Ca/Ln)O7 polyhedra. The magnetic susceptibility and the field dependent magnetization data were measured for CaxLn1-xVSiO5 (Ln = Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu, Y), and support the existence of antiferromagnetic behavior at low temperatures.

  12. Family of defect-dicubane Ni4Ln2 (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and Ni4Y2 complexes: rare Tb(III) and Ho(III) examples showing SMM behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lang; Wu, Jianfeng; Ke, Hongshan; Tang, Jinkui

    2014-04-07

    Reactions of Ln(III) perchlorate (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho), NiCl2·6H2O, and a polydentate Schiff base resulted in the assembly of novel isostructural hexanuclear Ni4Ln2 complexes [Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4)] with an unprecedented 3d-4f metal topology consisting of two defect-dicubane units. The corresponding Ni4Y2 (5) complex containing diamagnetic Y(III) atoms was also isolated to assist the magnetic studies. Interestingly, complexes 2 and 3 exhibit SMM characteristics and 4 shows slow relaxation of the magnetization. The absence of frequency-dependent in-phase and out-of-phase signals for the Ni-Y species suggests that the Ln ions' contribution to the slow relaxation must be effectual as previously observed in other Ni-Dy samples. However, the observation of χ″ signals with zero dc field for the Ni-Tb and Ni-Ho derivatives is notable. Indeed, this is the first time that such a behavior is observed in the Ni-Tb and Ni-Ho complexes.

  13. Impact of Na- and K-C pi-interactions on the structure and binding of M3(sol)n(BINOLate)3Ln catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Alfred J; Carroll, Patrick J; Walsh, Patrick J

    2007-08-16

    Shibasaki's heterobimetallic complexes M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln [M = Li, Na, K; Ln = lanthanide(III)] are among the most successful asymmetric Lewis acid catalysts. Why does M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln readily bind substrates when M = Li but not when M = Na or K? Structural studies herein indicate Na- and K-C cation-pi interactions and alkali metal radius may be more important than even lanthanide radius. Also reported is a novel polymeric [K3(THF)2(BINOLate)3Yb]n structure that provides the first evidence of interactions between M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln complexes.

  14. Impact of Na- and K-C π-Interactions on the Structure and Binding of M3(sol)n(BINOLate)3Ln Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Alfred J.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Shibasaki’s heterobimetallic complexes M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln [M = Li, Na, K, Ln = lanthanide(III)] are among the most successful asymmetric Lewis acid catalysts. Why does M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln readily bind substrates when M = Li but not when M = Na or K? Structural studies herein indicate Na- and K-C cation-π interactions and alkali metal radius may be more important than even lanthanide radius. Also reported is a novel polymeric [K3(THF)2(BINOLate)3Yb]n structure that provides the first evidence of interactions between M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln complexes. PMID:17658838

  15. Femtomolar Ln(III) affinity in peptide-based ligands containing unnatural chelating amino acids.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiecka, Agnieszka; Cisnetti, Federico; Lebrun, Colette; Delangle, Pascale

    2012-05-07

    The incorporation of unnatural chelating amino acids in short peptide sequences leads to lanthanide-binding peptides with a higher stability than sequences built exclusively from natural residues. In particular, the hexadentate peptide P(22), which incorporates two unnatural amino acids Ada(2) with aminodiacetate chelating arms, showed picomolar affinity for Tb(3+). To design peptides with higher denticity, expected to show higher affinity for Ln(3+), we synthesized the novel unnatural amino acid Ed3a(2) which carries an ethylenediamine triacetate side-chain and affords a pentadentate coordination site. The synthesis of the derivative Fmoc-Ed3a(2)(tBu)(3)-OH, with appropriate protecting groups for direct use in the solid phase peptide synthesis (Fmoc strategy), is described. The two high denticity peptides P(HD2) (Ac-Trp-Ed3a(2)-Pro-Gly-Ada(2)-Gly-NH(2)) and P(HD5) (Ac-Trp-Ada(2)-Pro-Gly-Ed3a(2)-Gly-NH(2)) led to octadentate Tb(3+) complexes with femtomolar stability in water. The position of the high denticity amino acid Ed3a(2) in the hexapeptide sequence appears to be critical for the control of the metal complex speciation. Whereas P(HD5) promotes the formation of polymetallic species in excess of Ln(3+), P(HD2) forms exclusively the mononuclear complex. The octadentate coordination of Tb(3+) by both P(HD) leads to total dehydration of the metal ion in the mononuclear complexes with long luminescence lifetimes (>2 ms). Hence, we demonstrated that unnatural amino acids carrying polyaminocarboxylate side-chains are interesting building blocks to design high affinity Ln-binding peptides. In particular the novel peptide P(HD2) forms a unique octadentate Tb(3+) complex with femtomolar stability in water and an improvement of the luminescence properties with respect to the trisaquo TbP(22) complex by a factor of 4.

  16. People and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John James William; Feiss, P. Geoffrey

    1998-03-01

    People and the Earth examines the numerous ways in which this planet enhances and limits our lifestyles. Written with wit and remarkable insight, and illustrated with numerous case histories, it provides a balanced view of the complex environmental issues facing our civilization. The authors look at the geologic restrictions on our ability to withdraw resources--food, water, energy, and minerals--from the earth, the effect human activity has on the earth, and the lingering damage caused by natural disasters. People and the Earth examines the basic components of our interaction with this planet, provides a lucid, scientific discussion of each issue, and speculates on what the future may hold. It provides the fundamental concepts that will enable us to make wise and conscientious choices on how to live our day-to-day lives. People and the Earth is an ideal introductory textbook and will also appeal to anyone concerned with our evolving relationship to the earth.

  17. Fatigue Properties of Modified 316LN Stainless Steel at 4 K for High Field Cable-In Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toplosky, V. J.; Walsh, R. P.; Han, K.

    2010-04-01

    Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) alloys, exposed to Nb3Sn reaction heat-treatments, such as modified 316LN require a design specific database. A lack of fatigue life data (S-n curves) that could be applied in the design of the ITER CS and the NHMFL Series Connected Hybrid magnets is the impetus for the research presented here. The modified 316LN is distinguished by a lower carbon content and higher nitrogen content when compared to conventional 316LN. Because the interstitial alloying elements affect the mechanical properties significantly, it is necessary to characterize this alloy in a systematic way. In conjunction, to ensure magnet reliability and performance, several criteria and expectations must be met, including: high fatigue life at the operating stresses, optimal stress management at cryogenic temperatures and thin walled conduit to reduce coil mass. Tension-tension load control axial fatigue tests have good applicability to CICC solenoid magnet design, thus a series of 4 K strength versus fatigue life curves have been generated. In-situ samples of 316LN base metal, seam welded, butt welded and seam plus butt welded are removed directly from the conduit in order to address base and weld material fatigue life variability. The more than 30 fatigue tests show good grouping on the fatigue life curve and allow discretionary 4 K fatigue life predictions for conduit made with modified 316LN.

  18. EarthExplorer

    Houska, Treva

    2012-01-01

    The EarthExplorer trifold provides basic information for on-line access to remotely-sensed data from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) client/server interface allows users to search and download aerial photography, satellite data, elevation data, land-cover products, and digitized maps. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.

  19. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Huntress, Wesley T.

    1990-01-01

    The rationale behind Mission to Planet Earth is presented, and the program plan is described in detail. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to collect muultidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented large amount of information about the earth and how it functions as a system. Attention is given to the space observatories, the data and information systems, and the interdisciplinary research.

  20. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  1. Earth on the Horizon

    2004-03-13

    This is the first image ever taken of Earth from the surface of a planet beyond the Moon. It was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit one hour before sunrise on the 63rd martian day, or sol, of its mission. Earth is the tiny white dot in the center. The image is a mosaic of images taken by the rover's navigation camera showing a broad view of the sky, and an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera of Earth. The contrast in the panoramic camera image was increased two times to make Earth easier to see. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05560

  2. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA Astronaut John Mace Grunsfeld takes a quick selfie with astronauts at the International Space Station at the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA announced the "Global Selfie" event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. All selfies posted to social media with the hashtag "GlobalSelfie" will be included in a mosaic image of Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Origin of middle rare earth element enrichments in acid waters of a Canadian high Arctic lake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, Kevin H.; Zhou, Xiaoping

    1999-01-01

    -Middle rare earth element (MREE) enriched rock-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of a dilute acidic lake (Colour Lake) in the Canadian High Arctic, were investigated by quantifying whole-rock REE concentrations of rock samples collected from the catchment basin, as well as determining the acid leachable REE fraction of these rocks. An aliquot of each rock sample was leached with 1 N HNO 3 to examine the readily leachable REE fraction of each rock, and an additional aliquot was leached with a 0.04 M NH 2OH · HCl in 25% (v/v) CH 3COOH solution, designed specifically to reduce Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides. Rare earth elements associated with the leachates that reacted with clastic sedimentary rock samples containing petrographically identifiable Fe-Mn oxide/oxyhydroxide cements and/or minerals/amorphous phases, exhibited whole-rock-normalized REE patterns similar to the lake waters, whereas whole-rock-normalized leachates from mafic igneous rocks and other clastic sedimentary rocks from the catchment basin differed substantially from the lake waters. The whole-rock, leachates, and lake water REE data support acid leaching or dissolution of MREE enriched Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides contained and identified within some of the catchment basin sedimentary rocks as the likely source of the unique lake water REE patterns. Solution complexation modelling of the REEs in the inflow streams and lake waters indicate that free metal ions (e.g., Ln 3+, where Ln = any REE) and sulfate complexes (LnSO 4+) are the dominant forms of dissolved REEs. Consequently, solution complexation reactions involving the REEs during weathering, transport to the lake, or within the lake, cannot be invoked to explain the MREE enrichments observed in the lake waters.

  4. Enhancement of superconductivity near the pressure-induced semiconductor-metal transition in the BiS₂-based superconductors LnO₀.₅F₀.₅BiS₂ (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd).

    PubMed

    Wolowiec, C T; White, B D; Jeon, I; Yazici, D; Huang, K; Maple, M B

    2013-10-23

    Measurements of electrical resistivity were performed between 3 and 300 K at various pressures up to 2.8 GPa on the BiS2-based superconductors LnO0.5F0.5BiS2 (Ln=Pr, Nd). At lower pressures, PrO0.5F0.5BiS2 and NdO0.5F0.5BiS2 exhibit superconductivity with critical temperatures Tc of 3.5 and 3.9 K, respectively. As pressure is increased, both compounds undergo a transition at a pressure Pt from a low Tc superconducting phase to a high Tc superconducting phase in which Tc reaches maximum values of 7.6 and 6.4 K for PrO0.5F0.5BiS2 and NdO0.5F0.5BiS2, respectively. The pressure-induced transition is characterized by a rapid increase in Tc within a small range in pressure of ∼0.3 GPa for both compounds. In the normal state of PrO0.5F0.5BiS2, the transition pressure Pt correlates with the pressure where the suppression of semiconducting behaviour saturates. In the normal state of NdO0.5F0.5BiS2, Pt is coincident with a semiconductor-metal transition. This behaviour is similar to the results recently reported for the LnO0.5F0.5BiS2 (Ln=La, Ce) compounds. We observe that Pt and the size of the jump in Tc between the two superconducting phases both scale with the lanthanide element in LnO0.5F0.5BiS2 (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd).

  5. Syntheses, crystal structures and properties of series of 4d-4f ln(III)-Ag(I) heterometallic coordination polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Xing-Rui; Wang, Ning; Xie, Wei-Ping; Xiong, Yan-Ju; Cheng, Qian; Long, Yi; Yue, Shan-Tang; Liu, Ying-Liang

    2015-05-01

    By control of the experimental parameters such as ligands, pH value and reacting temperature, series of three-dimensional (3D) 4d-4f Ln(III)-Ag(I) porous coordination polymers (PCPs) with interesting chain-layer construction, namely, {[LnIIIAgI(na)(ina)(ox)]·2(H2O)}n [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3), Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6), Y(7), Yb(8)], have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized. All the complexes are characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Furthermore, the luminescence properties of compounds 2 and 4 and the magsnetic properties of complexes 3 and 5 were also investigated in detail.

  6. Rare-earth organic frameworks involving three types of architecture tuned by the lanthanide contraction effect: hydrothermal syntheses, structures and luminescence.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhao-Peng; Kang, Wei; Huo, Li-Hua; Zhao, Hui; Gao, Shan

    2010-07-21

    The first example of rare-earth organic frameworks with 3-aminopyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (Hapca) was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, PL, TG, powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These ten complexes exhibit three different structure types with decreasing lanthanide radii: [La(apca)(3)](n) () for type I, {[Ln(apca)(ox)(H(2)O)(2)].H(2)O}(n) (Ln = Pr (2), Nd (3), ox = oxalate) for type II, and [Ln(2)(apca)(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n) (Ln = Sm (4), Eu (5), Gd (6), Tb (7), Dy (8), Er (9), Y (10)) for type III. The structure of type I consists of 1D "snowflake" chains along a-axis, which are further interconnected by hydrogen bonds to produce a 3D sra net topology containing infinite (-C-O-La-)(n) rod-shaped SBU. Type II has 2D Ln-apca-ox 4(4)-net, in which a planar udud water tetramers (H(2)O)(4) are formed by coordinated and free water molecules. Type III also comprises of 2D 4(4)-layer network constructed from Ln-apca-OH. The structure diversity is mainly caused by the variation of coordinated ligand and lanthanide contraction effect. Remarkably, the oxalate in type II was in situ synthesized from 3-aminopyrazine-2-carboxylic acid through an oxidation-hydrolysis reaction. The luminescent investigations reveal that complex exhibits strong blue emission and complex exhibits characteristic luminescence of Eu(3+).

  7. Coordinating properties of uridine 5'-monophosphate with selected Ln(3+) ions in ionic micellar media.

    PubMed

    Sudhiranjan Singh, M; Homendra, Naorem; Lonibala, R K

    2012-12-01

    Coordinating properties of uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) towards trivalent La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd ions in presence of cationic and anionic micelles have been investigated by potentiometric pH-titration and spectroscopic methods. Stability constants of the 2:1 complexes have been determined and the change in free energy, enthalpy and entropy associated with the complexation are also calculated. Nd(III) complexes isolated from aqueous and aqueous-micellar media do not show any significant structural difference. Formation of Ln(III) complexes in all cases completes below pH 7.5 showing that UMP best interacts with Ln(3+) ions at the physiological pH range 7.3-7.5. The nucleobase is not involved in the complexation and the metal ion coordination of UMP is through the phosphate moiety only. Coordinating tendency of UMP with lanthanides, Nd(III) ion in particular, at different pH is also discussed. Luminescent properties of Eu(III) complex and its decay lifetime are also presented. This information may prove helpful regarding the use of lanthanides as biological probes for calcium/magnesium ions.

  8. Kramers non-magnetic superconductivity in LnNiAsO superconductors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuke; Luo, Yongkang; Li, Lin; Chen, Bin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Dai, Jianhui; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Li; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu-an

    2014-10-22

    We investigated a series of nickel-based oxyarsenides LnNiAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) compounds. CeNiAsO undergoes two successive anti-ferromagnetic transitions at TN1=9.3 K and TN2=7.3 K; SmNiAsO becomes an anti-ferromagnet below TN≃3.5 K; NdNiAsO keeps paramagnetic down to 2 K but orders anti-ferromagnetically below TN≃1.3 K. Superconductivity was observed only in Kramers non-magnetic LaNiAsO and PrNiAsO with Tc=2.7 K and 0.93 K, respectively. The superconductivity of PrNiAsO is further studied by upper critical field and specific heat measurements, which reveal that PrNiAsO is a weakly coupled Kramers non-magnetic superconductor. Our work confirms that the nickel-based oxyarsenide superconductors are substantially different in mechanism to iron-based ones, and are likely to be described by the conventional superconductivity theory.

  9. Phase transformations in Ln2O3 materials irradiated with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Lang, Maik; Zhang, Fuxiang; Trautmann, Christina; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2015-11-01

    Phase transformations induced in the cubic C-type lanthanide sesquioxides, Ln2O3 (Ln = Sm, Gd, Ho, Tm, and Lu), by dense electronic excitation are investigated. The structural modifications resulting from exposure to beams of 185 MeV Xe and 2246 MeV Au ions are characterized using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The formation of a B-type polymorph, an X-type nonequilibrium phase, and an amorphous phase are observed. The specific phase formed and the transformation rate show dependence on the material composition, as well as the ion beam mass and energy. Atomistic mechanisms for these transformations are determined, indicating that formation of the B-type phase results from the production of anti-Frenkel defects and the aggregation of anion vacancies into planar clusters, whereas formation of the X-type and amorphous phases requires extensive displacement of both anions and cations. The observed variations in phase behavior with changing lanthanide ionic radius and deposited electronic energy density are related to the energetics of these transformation mechanisms.

  10. Phase transformation pathways of Ln2O3 irradiated by ultrafast laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittman, Dylan; Solomon, Jonathan; Chen, Curtis; Tracy, Cameron; Yalisove, Steven; Asta, Mark; Mao, Wendy; Ewing, Rodney

    Ultrafast laser irradiation induces highly non-equilibrium conditions in materials through intense electronic excitation over very short timescales. Here, we show that ultrafast laser irradiation drives an irreversible cubic-to-monoclinic phase transformation in Ln2O3 (Ln = Er-Lu). A combination of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy is used to characterize the amount and depth-dependence of the phase transformation. Results indicate that-although all materials experience the same transformation-it is achieved through different damage mechanisms (pressure vs. thermal), and the short timescales associated with damage provides non-equilibrium routes of material modification. Ab initio molecular dynamics are used to isolate the effects of electronic excitations, and results are shown to be consistent with the trend in radiation resistance observed experimentally. Overall, this study provides a path to gain insight into the relationship between a material's equilibrium phase diagram and its behavior under highly non-equilibrium conditions. DOE/BES.

  11. Study on the dynamic recrystallization model and mechanism of nuclear grade 316LN austenitic stainless steel

    SciT

    Wang, Shenglong; Zhang, Mingxian; Wu, Huanchun

    In this study, the dynamic recrystallization behaviors of a nuclear grade 316LN austenitic stainless steel were researched through hot compression experiment performed on a Gleeble-1500 simulator at temperatures of 900–1250 °C and strain rates of 0.01–1 s{sup −1}. By multiple linear regressions of the flow stress-strain data, the dynamic recrystallization mathematical models of this steel as functions of strain rate, strain and temperature were developed. Then these models were verified in a real experiment. Furthermore, the dynamic recrystallization mechanism of the steel was determined. The results indicated that the subgrains in this steel are formed through dislocations polygonization and thenmore » grow up through subgrain boundaries migration towards high density dislocation areas and subgrain coalescence mechanism. Dynamic recrystallization nucleation performs in grain boundary bulging mechanism and subgrain growth mechanism. The nuclei grow up through high angle grain boundaries migration. - Highlights: •Establish the DRX mathematical models of nuclear grade 316LN stainless steel •Determine the DRX mechanism of this steel •Subgrains are formed through dislocations polygonization. •Subgrains grow up through subgrain boundaries migration and coalescence mechanism. •DRX nucleation performs in grain boundary bulging mechanism and subgrain growth mechanism.« less

  12. On the Constitutive Model of Nitrogen-Containing Austenitic Stainless Steel 316LN at Elevated Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Xin; Liu, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    The nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel 316LN has been chosen as the material for nuclear main-pipe, which is one of the key parts in 3rd generation nuclear power plants. In this research, a constitutive model of nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel is developed. The true stress-true strain curves obtained from isothermal hot compression tests over a wide range of temperatures (900–1250°C) and strain rates (10−3–10 s−1), were employed to study the dynamic deformational behavior of and recrystallization in 316LN steels. The constitutive model is developed through multiple linear regressions performed on the experimental data and based on an Arrhenius-type equation and Zener-Hollomon theory. The influence of strain was incorporated in the developed constitutive equation by considering the effect of strain on the various material constants. The reliability and accuracy of the model is verified through the comparison of predicted flow stress curves and experimental curves. Possible reasons for deviation are also discussed based on the characteristics of modeling process. PMID:25375345

  13. Remote refilling of LN2 cryostats for high sensitivity astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    l'Allemand, J. L. Lizon a.

    2017-12-01

    The most sensitive observation mode of the ESO VLT (European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope) is the interferometric mode, where the 4 Units Telescopes are directed to the same stellar object in order to operate as a gigantic interferometer. The beam is then re-combined in the main interferometry laboratory and fed into the analyzing instruments. In order not to disturb the performance of the Interferometer, this room is considered as a sanctuary where one enters only in case of extreme need. A simple opening of the door would create air turbulences affecting the stability for hours. Any cold spot in the room could also cause convection which might change the optical path by fraction of a micron. Most of the instruments are operating at cryogenic temperatures using passive cooling based on LN2 bath cryostat. For this reason, dedicated strategy has been developed for the transfer of LN2 to the various instruments. The present document describes the various aspects and care taken in order to guarantee the very high thermal and mechanical environmental stability.

  14. Wheel-like Ln18 Cluster Organic Frameworks for Magnetic Refrigeration and Conversion of CO2.

    PubMed

    Song, Tian-Qun; Dong, Jie; Yang, An-Fei; Che, Xue-Jing; Gao, Hong-Ling; Cui, Jian-Zhong; Zhao, Bin

    2018-03-19

    Two isostructural 2D MOFs ([Ln 7 (CDA) 6 (HCOO) 3 (μ 3 -OH) 6 (H 2 O) 8 ] n , abbreviated as 1-Gd and 2-Dy) were successfully synthesized under solvothermal conditions. The self-assembly of lanthanide(III) nitrate and 1,1'-cyclopropane-dicarboxylic acid (H 2 CDA) resulted in wheel-like Ln 18 cluster second building units (SBU), which are further linked to six neighboring wheels to generate a 2D ordered honeycomb array. Both 1-Gd and 2-Dy exhibit high thermal stability and decompose above 330 °C. Moreover, they have good solvent stability in ten common solvents and pH stability with pH values from 1 to 13. Magnetic studies reveal that 1-Gd exhibits weak antiferromagnetic coupling between adjacent Gd 3+ ions and has a large magnetocaloric effect of 47.30 J kg -1 K -1 (Δ H = 7.0 T at 2 K), while 2-Dy shows ferromagnetic interaction between adjacent Dy 3+ ions. Interestingly, 1-Gd and 2-Dy can catalyze the cycloaddition of CO 2 to epoxides under mild conditions and can be reused at least five rounds with negligible loss of catalytic performance.

  15. Earth System Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  16. Crescent Earth and Moon

    1996-08-29

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon, the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft, was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles 11.66 million kilometers from Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00013

  17. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  18. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-17

    During the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Shari Blissett-Clark of the Florida Bat Conservancy displays one of the mammals. The event took place during the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests have an opportunity to learn more about energy awareness, the environment and sustainability.

  19. Spaceship Earth Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Noel; And Others

    Three separate papers from the Project are included in this document. One of these, by the Center staff, is entitled "Potentials of the Spaceship Earth Metaphor". It discusses static, dynamic, and analogic representations of spaceship earth and their educational value. A second paper, "Some Resources for Introducing Environmental…

  20. The Earth's Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  1. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    An attendee of NASA's Earth Day event observes the glow from a bracelet that is part of an exhibit at the event. The Earth Day event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. Cool Earth Solar

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan,

    2018-05-30

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  3. Hands On Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  4. The Earth Charter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Humanity is part of a vast evolving universe. Earth is alive with a unique community of life. The forces of nature make existence a demanding and uncertain adventure, but Earth has provided the conditions essential to life's evolution. The resilience of the community of life and the well-being of humanity depend upon preserving a healthy biosphere…

  5. Skylab Explores the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This book describes the Skylab 4 Earth Explorations Project. Photographs of the earth taken by the Skylab astronauts are reproduced here and accompanied by an analytical and explanatory text. Some of the geological and geographical topics covered are: (1) global tectonics - some geological analyses of observations and photographs from Skylab; (2)…

  6. Earth and ocean modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezovich, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  7. The Earth Needs You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Celebrated annually on April 22, schools and communities organize numerous activities during Earth Day to promote awareness. To help teachers plan their own initiatives and to learn more about what is happening around the world, they can join the Earth Day Network at: http://network.earthday.net/. Once they have joined, they can create a webpage…

  8. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A W

    2015-04-21

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters.

  9. Influence of Secondary Cyclic Hardening on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Nitrogen Alloyed 316LN Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Reddy, G. V.; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M. D.; Sankaran, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this article, the occurrence of secondary cyclic hardening (SCH) and its effect on high-temperature cyclic deformation and fatigue life of 316LN Stainless steel are presented. SCH is found to result from planar slip mode of deformation and enhance the degree of hardening over and above that resulted from dynamic strain aging. The occurrence of SCH is strongly governed by the applied strain amplitude, test temperature, and the nitrogen content in the 316LN SS. Under certain test conditions, SCH is noticed to decrease the low cycle fatigue life with the increasing nitrogen content.

  10. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes nearly 150 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies. Remote Sensing; Earth Science Informatics, Data Systems; Data Services; Metadata

  11. Radioluminescence studies of colloidal oleate-capped β-Na(Gd,Lu)F4:Ln3+ nanoparticles (Ln = Ce, Eu, Tb).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Daniel R; Capobianco, John A; Seuntjens, Jan

    2018-04-26

    We report on the synthesis, characterization, and radioluminescence quantification of several new varieties of nanoparticles with the general composition β-NaLnF4, incorporating known luminescent activator/sensitizer pairs. Using Monte Carlo modeling to complement luminescence measurements, we have calculated the radioluminescence yields and intrinsic conversion efficiencies of colloidally-dispersed nanoparticles by comparison to an organic liquid scintillator. While five of the compositions had low to modest radioluminescence yields relative to bulk materials, colloidal β-Na(Lu0.65Gd0.2Tb0.15)F4 displayed a strong output of 39 460 photons per MeV absorbed, comparable to some of the best non-hygroscopic bulk crystal scintillators and X-ray phosphors such as Gd2O2S:Tb. Measurements of β-Na(Lu0.65Gd0.2Tb0.15)F4 powder samples revealed persistent luminescence as well as stable charge trapping, warranting further investigation.

  12. Earth as art three

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  13. Early Earth slab stagnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrusta, R.; Van Hunen, J.

    2016-12-01

    At present day, the Earth's mantle exhibits a combination of stagnant and penetrating slabs within the transition zone, indicating a intermittent convection mode between layered and whole-mantle convection. Isoviscous thermal convection calculations show that in a hotter Earth, the natural mode of convection was dominated by double-layered convection, which may imply that slabs were more prone to stagnate in the transition zone. Today, slab penetration is to a large extent controlled by trench mobility for a plausible range of lower mantle viscosity and Clapeyron slope of the mantle phase transitions. Trench mobility is, in turn, governed by slab strength and density and upper plate forcing. In this study, we systematically investigate the slab-transition zone internation in the Early Earth, using 2D self-consistent numerical subduction models. Early Earth's higher mantle temperature facilitates decoupling between the plates and the underlying asthenosphere, and may result in slab sinking almost without trench retreat. Such behaviour together with a low resistance of a weak lower mantle may allow slabs to penetrate. The ability of slab to sink into the lower mantle throughout Earth's history may have important implications for Earth's evolution: it would provide efficient mass and heat flux through the transition zone therefore provide an efficient way to cool and mix the Earth's mantle.

  14. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon.

  15. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.

  16. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  17. Reversing Conventional Reactivity of Mixed Oxo/Alkyl Rare-Earth Complexes: Non-Redox Oxygen Atom Transfer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jianquan; Tian, Haiwen; Zhang, Lixin; Zhou, Xigeng; Del Rosal, Iker; Weng, Linhong; Maron, Laurent

    2018-01-22

    The preferential substitution of oxo ligands over alkyl ones of rare-earth complexes is commonly considered as "impossible" due to the high oxophilicity of metal centers. Now, it has been shown that simply assembling mixed methyl/oxo rare-earth complexes to a rigid trinuclear cluster framework cannot only enhance the activity of the Ln-oxo bond, but also protect the highly reactive Ln-alkyl bond, thus providing a previously unrecognized opportunity to selectively manipulate the oxo ligand in the presence of numerous reactive functionalities. Such trimetallic cluster has proved to be a suitable platform for developing the unprecedented non-redox rare-earth-mediated oxygen atom transfer from ketones to CS 2 and PhNCS. Controlled experiments and computational studies shed light on the driving force for these reactions, emphasizing the importance of the sterical accessibility and multimetallic effect of the cluster framework in promoting reversal of reactivity of rare-earth oxo complexes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Precipitation synthesis of lanthanide hydroxynitrate anion exchange materials, Ln{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O (Ln=Y, Eu-Er)

    SciT

    Hindocha, Sheena A.; McIntyre, Laura J.; Fogg, Andrew M., E-mail: afogg@liverpool.ac.u

    2009-05-15

    Layered lanthanide hydroxynitrate anion exchange host lattices have been prepared via a room temperature precipitation synthesis. These materials have the composition Ln{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and are formed for Y and the lanthanides from Eu to Er and as such include the first Eu containing nitrate anion exchange host lattice. The interlayer separation of these materials, approximately 8.5 A, is lower than in the related phases Ln{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3}.1.5H{sub 2}O which have a corresponding value of 9.1 A and is consistent with the reduction in the co-intercalated water content of these materials. These new intercalation hosts have beenmore » shown to undergo facile anion exchange reactions with a wide range of organic carboxylate and sulfonate anions. These reactions produce phases with up to three times the interlayer separation of the host lattice demonstrating the flexibility of these materials. - Graphical abstract: New anion exchangeable layered hydroxynitrates, Ln{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O (Ln=Y, Eu - Er) have been synthesized via a precipitation route. These materials have been shown to be very flexible intercalation hosts undergoing facile exchange reactions with organic carboxylate and sulfonate anions.« less

  19. Rethinking Sensitized Luminescence in Lanthanide Coordination Polymers and MOFs: Band Sensitization and Water Enhanced Eu Luminescence in [Ln(C15H9O5)3(H2O)3]n (Ln = Eu, Tb).

    PubMed

    Einkauf, Jeffrey D; Kelley, Tanya T; Chan, Benny C; de Lill, Daniel T

    2016-08-15

    A coordination polymer [Ln(C15H9O9)3(H2O)3]n (1-Ln = Eu(III), Tb(III)) assembled from benzophenonedicarboxylate was synthesized and characterized. The organic component is shown to sensitize lanthanide-based emission in both compounds, with quantum yields of 36% (Eu) and 6% (Tb). Luminescence of lanthanide coordination polymers is currently described from a molecular approach. This methodology fails to explain the luminescence of this system. It was found that the band structure of the organic component rather than the molecular triplet state was able to explain the observed luminescence. Deuterated (Ln(C15H9O9)3(D2O)3) and dehydrated (Ln(C15H9O9)3) analogues were also studied. When bound H2O was replaced by D2O, lifetime and emission increased as expected. Upon dehydration, lifetimes increased again, but emission of 1-Eu unexpectedly decreased. This reduction is reasoned through an unprecedented enhancement effect of the compound's luminescence by the OH/OD oscillators in the organic-to-Eu(III) energy transfer process.

  20. Rare earth gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  1. Earth before life.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  2. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses for a selfie after a quick rap performance by some young professionals during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  4. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project on New England water resources during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  5. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    Lisa Waldron and Justin Roberts-Pierel present their project on Texas health and air quality during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  6. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    Michael Gao presents his project on Southeast Asian disasters during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  7. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden asks young professionals about their projects after posing for a group photo during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  8. Earth Day 2017

    2017-12-08

    Happy Earth Day! Explore the diverse colors, unique shapes and striking patterns of our very favorite planet, Earth - as only NASA can see it. Credit: NASA/Goddard #nasagoddard NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  9. Earth Eclipses the Sun

    2017-02-21

    Several times a day for a few days the Earth completely blocked the Sun for about an hour due to NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory's orbital path (Feb. 15, 2017). The edge of the Earth is not crisp, but kind of fuzzy due to Earth's atmosphere. This frame from a video shows the ending of one such eclipse over -- just seven minutes. The sun is shown in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. These eclipses re-occur about every six months. The Moon blocks SDO's view of the sun on occasion as well. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21461

  10. Synthesis, structure, luminescent, and magnetic properties of carbonato-bridged Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes [(μ4-CO3)2{Zn(II)L(n)Ln(III)(NO3)}2] (Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III); L(1) = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato, L(2) = N,N'-bis(3-ethoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato).

    PubMed

    Ehama, Kiyomi; Ohmichi, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Naohide; Mochida, Naotaka; Ishida, Takayuki; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Tsuchimoto, Masanobu; Re, Nazzareno

    2013-11-04

    Carbonato-bridged Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes [(μ4-CO3)2{Zn(II)L(n)Ln(III)(NO3)}2]·solvent were synthesized through atmospheric CO2 fixation reaction of [Zn(II)L(n)(H2O)2]·xH2O, Ln(III)(NO3)3·6H2O, and triethylamine, where Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III); L(1) = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato, L(2) = N,N'-bis(3-ethoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato. Each Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 structure possessing an inversion center can be described as two di-μ-phenoxo-bridged {Zn(II)L(n)Ln(III)(NO3)} binuclear units bridged by two carbonato CO3(2-) ions. The Zn(II) ion has square pyramidal coordination geometry with N2O2 donor atoms of L(n) and one oxygen atom of a bridging carbonato ion at the axial site. Ln(III) ion is coordinated by nine oxygen atoms consisting of four from the deprotonated Schiff-base L(n), two from a chelating nitrate, and three from two carbonate groups. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities in the range 1.9-300 K, field-dependent magnetization from 0 to 5 T at 1.9 K, and alternating current magnetic susceptibilities under the direct current bias fields of 0 and 1000 Oe were measured. The magnetic properties of the Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes are analyzed on the basis of the dicarbonato-bridged binuclear Ln(III)-Ln(III) structure, as the Zn(II) ion with d(10) electronic configuration is diamagnetic. ZnGd1 (L(1)) and ZnGd2 (L(2)) show a ferromagnetic Gd(III)-Gd(III) interaction with J(Gd-Gd) = +0.042 and +0.028 cm(-1), respectively, on the basis of the Hamiltonian H = -2J(Gd-Gd)ŜGd1·ŜGd2. The magnetic data of the Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes (Ln(III) = Tb(III), Dy(III)) were analyzed by a spin Hamiltonian including the crystal field effect on the Ln(III) ions and the Ln(III)-Ln(III) magnetic interaction. The Stark splitting of the ground state was so evaluated, and the energy pattern indicates a strong easy axis (Ising type) anisotropy. Luminescence spectra of Zn(II)2Tb(III)2 complexes were observed, while those

  11. Multi-site evaluation of the LN34 pan-lyssavirus real-time RT-PCR assay for post-mortem rabies diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Dettinger, Lisa; Powell, James W.; Seiders, Melanie; Condori, Rene Edgar Condori; Griesser, Richard; Okogi, Kenneth; Carlos, Maria; Pesko, Kendra; Breckenridge, Mike; Simon, Edson Michael M.; Chu, Maria Yna Joyce V.; Davis, April D.; Brunt, Scott J.; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Carson, William C.; Hartloge, Claire; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Deldari, Mojgan; Hsieh, Kristina; Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Wilkins, Kimberly; Rabideau, Patricia; Gruhn, Nina; Cadet, Rolain; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Nath, Sujith S.; Joseph, Tomy; Gao, Jinxin; Wallace, Ryan; Reynolds, Mary; Olson, Victoria A.

    2018-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease that requires fast, accurate diagnosis to prevent disease in an exposed individual. The current gold standard for post-mortem diagnosis of human and animal rabies is the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test. While the DFA test has proven sensitive and reliable, it requires high quality antibody conjugates, a skilled technician, a fluorescence microscope and diagnostic specimen of sufficient quality. The LN34 pan-lyssavirus real-time RT-PCR assay represents a strong candidate for rabies post-mortem diagnostics due to its ability to detect RNA across the diverse Lyssavirus genus, its high sensitivity, its potential for use with deteriorated tissues, and its simple, easy to implement design. Here, we present data from a multi-site evaluation of the LN34 assay in 14 laboratories. A total of 2,978 samples (1,049 DFA positive) from Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East were tested. The LN34 assay exhibited low variability in repeatability and reproducibility studies and was capable of detecting viral RNA in fresh, frozen, archived, deteriorated and formalin-fixed brain tissue. The LN34 assay displayed high diagnostic specificity (99.68%) and sensitivity (99.90%) when compared to the DFA test, and no DFA positive samples were negative by the LN34 assay. The LN34 assay produced definitive findings for 80 samples that were inconclusive or untestable by DFA; 29 were positive. Five samples were inconclusive by the LN34 assay, and only one sample was inconclusive by both tests. Furthermore, use of the LN34 assay led to the identification of one false negative and 11 false positive DFA results. Together, these results demonstrate the reliability and robustness of the LN34 assay and support a role for the LN34 assay in improving rabies diagnostics and surveillance. PMID:29768505

  12. Covalency in lanthanides. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory study of LnCl6(x-) (x = 3, 2).

    PubMed

    Löble, Matthias W; Keith, Jason M; Altman, Alison B; Stieber, S Chantal E; Batista, Enrique R; Boland, Kevin S; Conradson, Steven D; Clark, David L; Lezama Pacheco, Juan; Kozimor, Stosh A; Martin, Richard L; Minasian, Stefan G; Olson, Angela C; Scott, Brian L; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wilkerson, Marianne P; Zehnder, Ralph A

    2015-02-25

    Covalency in Ln-Cl bonds of Oh-LnCl6(x-) (x = 3 for Ln = Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III); x = 2 for Ln = Ce(IV)) anions has been investigated, primarily using Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT); however, Ce L3,2-edge and M5,4-edge XAS were also used to characterize CeCl6(x-) (x = 2, 3). The M5,4-edge XAS spectra were modeled using configuration interaction calculations. The results were evaluated as a function of (1) the lanthanide (Ln) metal identity, which was varied across the series from Ce to Gd, and (2) the Ln oxidation state (when practical, i.e., formally Ce(III) and Ce(IV)). Pronounced mixing between the Cl 3p- and Ln 5d-orbitals (t2g* and eg*) was observed. Experimental results indicated that Ln 5d-orbital mixing decreased when moving across the lanthanide series. In contrast, oxidizing Ce(III) to Ce(IV) had little effect on Cl 3p and Ce 5d-orbital mixing. For LnCl6(3-) (formally Ln(III)), the 4f-orbitals participated only marginally in covalent bonding, which was consistent with historical descriptions. Surprisingly, there was a marked increase in Cl 3p- and Ce(IV) 4f-orbital mixing (t1u* + t2u*) in CeCl6(2-). This unexpected 4f- and 5d-orbital participation in covalent bonding is presented in the context of recent studies on both tetravalent transition metal and actinide hexahalides, MCl6(2-) (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, U).

  13. Room temperature synthesis of hydrophilic Ln(3+)-doped KGdF4 (Ln = Ce, Eu, Tb, Dy) nanoparticles with controllable size: energy transfer, size-dependent and color-tunable luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongmei; Li, Guogang; Kang, Xiaojiao; Cheng, Ziyong; Ma, Ping'an; Peng, Chong; Lian, Hongzhou; Li, Chunxia; Lin, Jun

    2012-06-07

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple, template-free, reproducible and one-step synthesis of hydrophilic KGdF(4): Ln(3+) (Ln = Ce, Eu, Tb and Dy) nanoparticles (NPs) via a solution-based route at room temperature. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are used to characterize the samples. The results indicate that the use of water-diethyleneglycol (DEG) solvent mixture as the reaction medium not only allows facile particle size control but also endows the as-prepared samples with good water-solubility. In particular, the mean size of NPs is monotonously reduced with the increase of DEG content, from 215 to 40 nm. The luminescence intensity and absolute quantum yields for KGdF(4): Ce(3+), Tb(3+) NPs increase remarkably with particle sizes ranging from 40 to 215 nm. Additionally, we systematically investigate the magnetic and luminescence properties of KGdF(4): Ln(3+) (Ln = Ce, Eu, Tb and Dy) NPs. They display paramagnetic and superparamagnetic properties with mass magnetic susceptibility values of 1.03 × 10(-4) emu g(-1)·Oe and 3.09 × 10(-3) emu g(-1)·Oe at 300 K and 2 K, respectively, and multicolor emissions due to the energy transfer (ET) process Ce(3+)→ Gd(3+)→ (Gd(3+))(n)→ Ln(3+), in which Gd(3+) ions play an intermediate role in this process. Representatively, it is shown that the energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) occurs mainly via the dipole-quadrupole interaction by comparison of the theoretical calculation and experimental results. This kind of magnetic/luminescent dual-function materials may have promising applications in multiple biolabels and MR imaging.

  14. New family of lanthanide-based inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks: Ln2(OH)4[O3S(CH2)nSO3]·2H2O (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm; n = 3, 4) and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianbo; Ma, Renzhi; Ebina, Yasuo; Geng, Fengxia; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2013-02-18

    We report the synthesis and structure characterization of a new family of lanthanide-based inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks, Ln(2)(OH)(4)[O(3)S(CH(2))(n)SO(3)]·2H(2)O (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm; n = 3, 4), and their oxide derivatives. Highly crystallized samples were synthesized by homogeneous precipitation of Ln(3+) ions from a solution containing α,ω-organodisulfonate salts promoted by slow hydrolysis of hexamethylenetetramine. The crystal structure solved from powder X-ray diffraction data revealed that this material comprises two-dimensional cationic lanthanide hydroxide {[Ln(OH)(2)(H(2)O)](+)}(∞) layers, which are cross-linked by α,ω-organodisulfonate ligands into a three-dimensional pillared framework. This hybrid framework can be regarded as a derivative of UCl(3)-type Ln(OH)(3) involving penetration of organic chains into two {LnO(9)} polyhedra. Substitutional modification of the lanthanide coordination promotes a 2D arrangement of the {LnO(9)} polyhedra. A new hybrid oxide, Ln(2)O(2)[O(3)S(CH(2))(n)SO(3)], which is supposed to consist of alternating {[Ln(2)O(2)](2+)}(∞) layers and α,ω-organodisulfonate ligands, can be derived from the hydroxide form upon dehydration/dehydroxylation. These hybrid frameworks provide new opportunities to engineer the interlayer chemistry of layered structures and achieve advanced functionalities coupled with the advantages of lanthanide elements.

  15. Down to earth relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concepts of the special and general theories of relativity are described. Simple examples are given to illustrate the effect of relativity on measurements of time and frequency in the near-earth environment.

  16. The Earth Tides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Judah

    1982-01-01

    In addition to oceans, the earth is subjected to tidal stresses and undergoes tidal deformations. Discusses origin of tides, tidal stresses, and methods of determining tidal deformations (including gravity, tilt, and strain meters). (JN)

  17. Earth study from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  18. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA's Administrator, Charles Bolden, conducts an experiment using circuits at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  19. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA's Administrator, Charles Bolden watches as some students conduct an experiment with a balloon at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    Students listen intently while an exhibitor conducts an experiment at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  1. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    Students listen intently while Astronaut John Mace Grunsfeld speaks at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    Daughton, Bill

    2018-02-13

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  3. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  4. Observing earth from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.

  5. Olivine on Earth

    2012-10-30

    The semi-precious gem peridot is a variety of olivine. NASA Curiosity rover shows the diffraction signature, or fingerprint, of the mineral olivine, shown here on Earth in the form of tumbled crystals.

  6. Earth science: Extraordinary world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic compositions of objects that formed early in the evolution of the Solar System have been found to be similar to Earth's composition -- overturning notions of our planet's chemical distinctiveness. See Letters p.394 & p.399

  7. Earth retaining structures manual

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-10-29

    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  8. Orthopositronium Lifetime: Analytic Results in O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3}ln{alpha})

    SciT

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kotikov, Anatoly V.; Veretin, Oleg L.

    2008-11-07

    We present the O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3}ln{alpha}) corrections to the total decay width of orthopositronium in closed analytic form, in terms of basic irrational numbers, which can be evaluated numerically to arbitrary precision.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of cavitation resistance of type 316LN stainless steel in mercury using a vibratory horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawel, S. J.; Manneschmidt, E. T.

    2003-05-01

    Type 316LN stainless steel in a variety of conditions (annealed, cold-worked, surface-modified) was exposed to cavitation conditions in stagnant mercury using a vibratory horn. The test conditions included peak-to-peak displacement of the specimen surface of 25 μm at a frequency of 20 kHz and a mercury temperature in the range -5 to 80 °C. Following a brief incubation period in which little or no damage was observed, specimens of annealed 316LN exhibited increasing weight loss and surface roughening with increasing exposure times. Examination of test surfaces with the scanning electron microscope revealed primarily general/uniform wastage in all cases but, for long exposure times, a few randomly oriented 'pits' were also observed. Type 316LN that was 50% cold-worked was considerably more resistant to cavitation erosion damage than annealed material, but the surface modifications (CrN coating, metallic glass coating, laser treatment to form a diamond-like surface) provided little or no protection for the substrate. In addition, the cavitation erosion resistance of other materials - Inconel 718, Nitronic 60, and Stellite 3 - was also compared with that of 316LN for identical screening test conditions.

  10. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of Ln3+-TiO2 nanomaterial using fluorescence technique for real wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Saif, M; Aboul-Fotouh, S M K; El-Molla, S A; Ibrahim, M M; Ismail, L F M

    2014-07-15

    Evaluation the photocatalytic activity of different Ln(3+) modified TiO2 nanomaterials using fluorescence based technique has rarely been reported. In the present work, xmol Ln(3+) modified TiO2 nanomaterials (Ln = Nd(3+), Sm(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Dy(3+) and Er(3+) ions; x = 0.005, 0.008, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized using different advanced techniques. The photocatalytic efficiency of the modified TiO2 expressed in the charge carrier separation and OH radicals formation were assigned using TiO2 fluorescence quenching and fluorescence probe methods, respectively. The obtained fluorescence measurements confirm that doping treatment significantly decreases the electron-hole recombination probability in the obtained Ln(3+)/TiO2. Moreover, the rate of OH radicals formation is increased by doping. The highly active nanoparticles (0.02Gd(3+)/TiO2 and 0.01Eu(3+)/TiO2) were applied for industrial wastewater treatment using solar radiation as a renewable energy source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutual separation of Am/Cm/Ln by the use of Novel-Triamide, NTAamide and water-soluble diglycolamide

    SciT

    Sasaki, Yuji; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro

    2013-07-01

    The new extractant, NTAamide (C8) (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexa-octyl-nitriro-tri-acetamide) is a triamide having nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the central frame, then NTAamide (C8) has hybrid performance of complexation to metals by soft and hard donors. It is clear that NTAamide(C8) can extract trivalent An from diluted nitric acid showing small D(Ln), then the separation of An from Ln can be carried out. The separation factor (SF) of Am/Cm by NTAamide(C8) is approximate 1.78-2.08, which is not so high to separate each other. The combination of NTAamide(C8) of extractant and TEDGA (N,N,N',N'-tetraethyl-diglycolamide) as a masking agent shows relatively high SF(Am/Cm) of maximal 6.5.more » It is obvious that NTAamide(C8) is a promising extractant to achieve the mutual separation among Am/Cm/Ln. The concept of flow-sheet for Am/Cm/Ln separation is designed using NTAamide(C8) and TEDGA. (authors)« less

  12. Describing complex cells in primary visual cortex: a comparison of context and multi-filter LN models.

    PubMed

    Westö, Johan; May, Patrick J C

    2018-05-02

    Receptive field (RF) models are an important tool for deciphering neural responses to sensory stimuli. The two currently popular RF models are multi-filter linear-nonlinear (LN) models and context models. Models are, however, never correct and they rely on assumptions to keep them simple enough to be interpretable. As a consequence, different models describe different stimulus-response mappings, which may or may not be good approximations of real neural behavior. In the current study, we take up two tasks: First, we introduce new ways to estimate context models with realistic nonlinearities, that is, with logistic and exponential functions. Second, we evaluate context models and multi-filter LN models in terms of how well they describe recorded data from complex cells in cat primary visual cortex. Our results, based on single-spike information and correlation coefficients, indicate that context models outperform corresponding multi-filter LN models of equal complexity (measured in terms of number of parameters), with the best increase in performance being achieved by the novel context models. Consequently, our results suggest that the multi-filter LN-model framework is suboptimal for describing the behavior of complex cells: the context-model framework is clearly superior while still providing interpretable quantizations of neural behavior.

  13. Replication of Beta- and Gammaretroviruses Is Restricted in I/LnJ Mice via the Same Genetic Mechanism▿

    PubMed Central

    Case, Laure K.; Petell, Lydia; Yurkovetskiy, Leonid; Purdy, Alexandra; Savage, Katherine J.; Golovkina, Tatyana V.

    2008-01-01

    Mice of the I/LnJ inbred strain are unique in their ability to mount a robust and sustained humoral immune response capable of neutralizing infection with a betaretrovirus, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). Virus-neutralizing antibodies (Abs) coat MMTV virions secreted by infected cells, preventing virus spread and hence the formation of mammary tumors. To investigate whether I/LnJ mice resist infection with other retroviruses besides MMTV, the animals were infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV), a gammaretrovirus. MuLV-infected I/LnJ mice produced virus-neutralizing Abs that block virus transmission and virally induced disease. Generation of virus-neutralizing Abs required gamma interferon but was independent of interleukin-12. This unique mechanism of retrovirus resistance is governed by a single recessive gene, virus infectivity controller 1 (vic1), mapped to chromosome 17. In addition to controlling the antivirus humoral immune response, vic1 is also required for an antiviral cytotoxic response. Both types of responses were maintained in mice of the susceptible genetic background but congenic for the I/LnJ vic1 locus. Although the vic1-mediated resistance to MuLV resembles the mechanism of retroviral recovery controlled by the resistance to Friend virus 3 (rfv3) gene, the rfv3 gene has been mapped to chromosome 15 and confers resistance to MuLV but not to MMTV. Thus, we have identified a unique virus resistance mechanism that controls immunity against two distinct retroviruses. PMID:18057254

  14. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-18

    Students from Rockledge High School in Rockledge, Fla., make “plarn” – plastic yarn -- out of used plastic bags during Kennedy Space Center’s annual Earth Day celebration. The plarn was donated to be woven into mats for homeless veterans. The two-day Earth Day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  15. Earth and Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    1999-01-01

    Workshop for middle and high school teachers to enhance their knowledge of the Earth as a system. NASA data and materials developed by teachers (all available via the Internet) will be used to engage participants in hands-on, investigative approaches to the Earth system. All materials are ready to be applied in pre-college classrooms. Remotely-sensed data will be used in combination with familiar resources, such as maps, to examine global climate change.

  16. Fuller's earth (montmorillonite) pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, A R; Pooley, F D

    1994-01-01

    A fuller's earth worker developed signs of pneumoconiosis. Pathological examination of the lung tissues showed interstitial collections of dust laden macrophages associated with mild fibrosis. Mineralogical analysis showed a high content of montmorillonite. This study shows that a pneumoconiosis can result from prolonged heavy exposure to calcium montmorillonite (fuller's earth) in the absence of quartz. The disease is relatively mild and associated with little clinical disability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7951799

  17. Skylab explores the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data from visual observations are integrated with results of analyses of approxmately 600 of the nearly 2000 photographs taken of Earth during the 84-day Skylab 4 mission to provide additional information on (1) Earth features and processes; (2) operational procedures and constraints in observing and photographing the planet; and (3) the use of man in real-time analysis of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena.

  18. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-18

    Organizers and volunteers for Kennedy Space Center’s Earth Day celebration gather for a photo at the NASA Exchange raffle booth. From left to right are Jeanne Ryba, Environmental Sustainability program specialist; Robert Smith, Earth Day volunteer; and Natasha Darre, Cultural Resources Specialist. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  19. Effect of surface polishing and vacuum firing on electron stimulated desorption from 316LN stainless steel

    SciT

    Malyshev, Oleg B., E-mail: oleg.malyshev@stfc.ac.uk; Hogan, Benjamin T.; Pendleton, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The reduction of thermal outgassing from stainless steel by surface polishing or vacuum firing is well-known in vacuum technology, and the consequent use of both techniques allows an even further reduction of outgassing. The aim of this study was to identify the effectiveness of surface polishing and vacuum firing for reducing electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) from 316LN stainless steel, which is a frequently used material for particle accelerator vacuum chambers and components. It was found that, unlike for thermal outgassing, surface polishing does not reduce the ESD yield and may even increase it, while vacuum firing of nonpolished sample reduces onlymore » the H{sub 2} ESD yield by a factor 2.« less

  20. Tensile Deformation Temperature Impact on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AISI 316LN Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yi; He, Tiantian; Lu, Yan; Ren, Fengzhang; Volinsky, Alex A.; Cao, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on AISI 316LN austenitic stainless steel from - 40 to 300 °C at a rate of 0.5 mm/min. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the deformed steel were investigated by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, x-ray diffraction, and microhardness testing. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and microhardness increase with the decrease in the test temperature. The tensile fracture morphology has the dimple rupture feature after low-temperature deformations and turns to a mixture of transgranular fracture and dimple fracture after high-temperature ones. The dominating deformation microstructure evolves from dislocation tangle/slip bands to large deformation twins/slip bands with temperature decrease. The deformation-induced martensite transformation can only be realized at low temperature, and its quantity increases with the decrease in the temperature.

  1. [The characteristics of type I, III collagen and LN in pulmonary fibrosis induced by uranium ore dust in rats].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying-chun; Luo, Zhen-hua; Yuan, Xing-jiang; Yang, Li-ping; Wang, Shou-feng; Li, Guang-yue; He, Xing-peng

    2011-02-01

    To explore the characteristics of LN and type I, III collagen in pulmonary fibrosis induced by uranium ore dust in rats. 60 adult Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups, control group (30 rats) and uranium ore dust group (30 rats). Non-exposed intratracheal instillation method was used. Uranium ore dust group was exposed 20 mg/ml uranium ore dust suspension 1ml per rat, meanwhile control group was exposed normal saline 1ml per rat. Post-exposed the 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 d, 6 rats in each group were killed randomly, lung tissue were collected. The pathological changes in lung tissue were observed by microscope using HE staining, the collagen I and III in lungs were observed by polarizing microscope using Biebrich scarlet staining. The expression of LN protein in lung tissue was observed by immunohistochemistry-SP. During lung fibrosis, a large amount of the proliferated I and III collagen in lungs were observed. Post-exposure to uranium ore dust, the characteristics in proliferated collagen in lungs were type I collagen deposited in lung interstitium mainly in the early stage. The area percentage of collagen I and III was increased significantly at 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60d in the experimental group as compared with that in the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The over expression of LN in the lung tissue were observed. The expression of LN was distributed in the lung tissue as thickening of the linear or cluster. The integral optical density of LN was increased significantly at 21, 30 and 60 d in the experimental group as compared with that in the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). After exposure to uranium ore dust, the characteristics in proliferated collagen in lungs are the type of I collagen deposited in lung interstitium mainly in the early stage, while the type of III collagen increase significantly at the later period. The overexpression of LN exists in the process of pulmonary fibrosis. It suggests that LN has a role effect in the process of

  2. Biosignatures of early earths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    2003-01-01

    A major goal of NASA's Origins Program is to find habitable planets around other stars and determine which might harbor life. Determining whether or not an extrasolar planet harbors life requires an understanding of what spectral features (i.e., biosignatures) might result from life's presence. Consideration of potential biosignatures has tended to focus on spectral features of gases in Earth's modern atmosphere, particularly ozone, the photolytic product of biogenically produced molecular oxygen. But life existed on Earth for about 1(1/2) billion years before the buildup of atmospheric oxygen. Inferred characteristics of Earth's earliest biosphere and studies of modern microbial ecosystems that share some of those characteristics suggest that organosulfur compounds, particularly methanethiol (CH(3)SH, the sulfur analog of methanol), may have been biogenic products on early Earth. Similar production could take place on extrasolar Earth-like planets whose biota share functional chemical characteristics with Earth life. Since methanethiol and related organosulfur compounds (as well as carbon dioxide) absorb at wavelengths near or overlapping the 9.6-microm band of ozone, there is potential ambiguity in interpreting a feature around this wavelength in an extrasolar planet spectrum.

  3. Guided earth boring tool

    SciT

    Mc Donald, W.J.; Pittard, G.T.; Maurer, W.C.

    A controllable tool for drilling holes in the earth is described comprising a hollow elongated rigid supporting drill pipe having a forward end for entering the earth, means supporting the drill pipe for earth boring or piercing movement, including means for moving the drill pipe longitudinally for penetrating the earth, the drill pipe moving means being constructed to permit addition and removal of supporting drill pipe during earth penetrating operation, a boring mole supported on the forward end of the hollow low drill pipe comprising a cylindrical housing supported on and open to the forward end of the drill pipe,more » a first means on the front end for applying a boring force to the soil comprising an anvil having a striking surface inside the housing and a boring surface outside the housing, a second means comprising a reciprocally movable hammer positioned in the housing to apply a percussive force to the anvil striking surface for transmitting a percussive force to the boring force applying means, and means permitting introduction of air pressure supplied through the hollow pipe into the housing for operating the hammer and for discharging spent air from the housing to the hole being bored, and the tool being operable to penetrate the earth upon longitudinal movement of the drill rod by the longitudinal rod moving means and operation of the mole by reciprocal movement of the hammer.« less

  4. Biosignatures of early earths.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Carl B

    2003-01-01

    A major goal of NASA's Origins Program is to find habitable planets around other stars and determine which might harbor life. Determining whether or not an extrasolar planet harbors life requires an understanding of what spectral features (i.e., biosignatures) might result from life's presence. Consideration of potential biosignatures has tended to focus on spectral features of gases in Earth's modern atmosphere, particularly ozone, the photolytic product of biogenically produced molecular oxygen. But life existed on Earth for about 1(1/2) billion years before the buildup of atmospheric oxygen. Inferred characteristics of Earth's earliest biosphere and studies of modern microbial ecosystems that share some of those characteristics suggest that organosulfur compounds, particularly methanethiol (CH(3)SH, the sulfur analog of methanol), may have been biogenic products on early Earth. Similar production could take place on extrasolar Earth-like planets whose biota share functional chemical characteristics with Earth life. Since methanethiol and related organosulfur compounds (as well as carbon dioxide) absorb at wavelengths near or overlapping the 9.6-microm band of ozone, there is potential ambiguity in interpreting a feature around this wavelength in an extrasolar planet spectrum.

  5. Fatigue properties of type 316LN stainless steel in air and mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strizak, J. P.; Tian, H.; Liaw, P. K.; Mansur, L. K.

    2005-08-01

    An extensive fatigue testing program on 316LN stainless steel was recently carried out to support the design of the mercury target container for the spallation neutron source (SNS) that is currently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The major objective was to determine the effects of mercury on fatigue behavior. The S- N fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel is characterized by a family of bilinear fatigue curves which are dependent on frequency, environment, mean stress and cold work. Generally, fatigue life increases with decreasing stress and levels off in the high cycle region to an endurance limit below which the material will not fail. For fully reversed loading as well as tensile mean stress loading conditions mercury had no effect on endurance limit. However, at higher stresses a synergistic relationship between mercury and cyclic loading frequency was observed at low frequencies. As expected, fatigue life decreased with decreasing frequency, but the response was more pronounced in mercury compared with air. As a result of liquid metal embrittlement (LME), fracture surfaces of specimens tested in mercury showed widespread brittle intergranular cracking as opposed to typical transgranular cracking for specimens tested in air. For fully reversed loading (zero mean stress) the effect of mercury disappeared as frequency increased to 10 Hz. For mean stress conditions with R-ratios of 0.1 and 0.3, LME was still evident at 10 Hz, but at 700 Hz the effect of mercury had disappeared ( R = 0.1). Further, for higher R-ratios (0.5 and 0.75) fatigue curves for 10 Hz showed no environmental effect. Finally, cold working (20%) increased tensile strength and hardness, and improved fatigue resistance. Fatigue behavior at 10 and 700 Hz was similar and no environmental effect was observed.

  6. Controlled processing of (Gd,Ln)2O3:Eu (Ln = Y, Lu) red phosphor particles and compositional effects on photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bin; Li, Ji-Guang; Sakka, Yoshio

    2013-12-01

    Synthesis of (Gd0.95-xLnxEu0.05)2O3 (Ln = Y and Lu, x = 0-0.95) powders via ammonium hydrogen carbonate (AHC) precipitation has been systematically studied. The best synthesis parameters are found to be an AHC/total cation molar ratio of 4.5 and an ageing time of 3 h. The effects of Y3+ and Lu3+ substitution for Gd3+, on the nucleation kinetics of the precursors and structural features and optical properties of the oxides, have been investigated. The results show that (i) different nucleation kinetics exist in the Gd-Y-Eu and Gd-Lu-Eu ternary systems, which lead to various morphologies and particle sizes of the precipitated precursors. The (Gd,Y)2O3:Eu precursors display spherical particle morphologies and the particle sizes increase along with more Y3+ addition. The (Gd,Lu)2O3:Eu precursors, on the other hand, are hollow spheres and the particle sizes increase with increasing Lu3+ incorporation, (ii) the resultant oxide powders are ultrafine, narrow in size distribution, well dispersed and rounded in particle shape, (iii) lattice parameters of the two kinds of oxide solid solutions linearly decrease at a higher Y3+ or Lu3+ content. Their theoretical densities linearly decrease with increasing Y3+ incorporation, but increase along with more Lu3+ addition and (iv) the two kinds of phosphors exhibit typical red emissions at ˜613 nm and their charge-transfer bands blue shift at a higher Y3+ or Lu3+ content. Photoluminescence/photoluminescence excitation intensities and external quantum efficiency are found to decrease with increasing value of x, and the fluorescence lifetime mainly depends on the specific surface areas of the powders.

  7. Effect of ligand substitution on the SMM properties of three isostructural families of double-cubane Mn4Ln2 coordination clusters.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Lan, Yanhua; AlDamen, Murad A; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2018-03-06

    Three isostructural lanthanide series with a core of MnMnLn 2 are reported. These three families have the formulae of [MnMnLn 2 (μ 4 -O) 2 (H 2 edte) 2 (piv) 6 (NO 3 ) 2 ] {no crystallization solvent, Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu (1-4, 6); solv = 3MeCN, Ln = Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Y (5, 7-13)}, where H 2 edte = N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine and piv = pivalate; [MnMnLn 2 (μ 4 -O) 2 (H 2 edte) 2 (benz) 6 (NO 3 ) 2 ], where benz = benzoate, or [MnMnLn 2 (μ 4 -O) 2 (edteH 2 ) 2 (benz) 6 (NO 3 ) 2 ]·2MeCN {Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy (14-16); and [MnMnLn 2 (μ 4 -O) 2 (edteH 2 ) 2 (piv) 8 ].solv {solv = 4MeCN, Ln = La (17); solv = 2MeCN·tol·H 2 O, Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb (18-20, 22); solv = 2MeCN·H 2 O, Ln = Gd (21). These compounds crystallize in two different systems, namely, monoclinic in the space groups P2 1 /n for 1-4, 6, and 14-16 and C2/c for 5, 7-13, 18-20, and 22 and triclinic in the space group P1[combining macron] for 17 and 21. The crystal structures of these compounds display a face-fused dicubane structure connected by different types of bridged oxygen atoms. Solid-state dc magnetic susceptibility characterization was carried out for 1-22, and fitting showed that Mn III Mn III is antiferromagnetically (AF) coupled and Mn II Mn III , Mn II Ln and Mn III Ln are weakly ferromagnetically coupled. In addition, ac measurements were carried out and showed that only 7, 15, and 22 for Tb, 8 and 16 for Dy, and 20 for Sm exhibited slow magnetization relaxation. In the case of 15, it was possible to determine the energy barrier of the slow-relaxation behavior by fitting peak temperatures to the Arrhenius law, which gave a value of U eff = 21.2 K and a pre-exponential factor of τ 0 = 4.0 × 10 -9 s.

  8. A family of acetato-diphenoxo triply bridged dimetallic Zn(II)Ln(III) complexes: SMM behavior and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, Itziar; Artetxe, Beñat; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio; García, JoséÁngel; Seco, José Manuel; Colacio, Enrique

    2016-06-21

    Eleven dimetallic Zn(II)-Ln(III) complexes of the general formula [Zn(µ-L)(µ-OAc)Ln(NO3)2]·CH3CN (Ln(III) = Pr (1), Nd (2), Sm (3), Eu (4), Gd (5), Tb (6), Dy (7), Ho (8), Er (9), Tm (10), Yb (11)) have been prepared in a one-pot reaction from the compartmental ligand N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-3-formyl-5-bromo-benzyl)ethylenediamine (H2L). In all these complexes, the Zn(II) ions occupy the internal N2O2 site whereas the Ln(III) ions show preference for the O4 external site. Both metallic ions are bridged by an acetate bridge, giving rise to triple mixed diphenoxido/acetate bridged Zn(II)Ln(III) compounds. The Nd, Dy, Er and Yb complexes exhibit field induced single-ion magnet (SIM) behaviour, with Ueff values ranging from 14.12 to 41.55 K. The Er complex shows two relaxation processes, but only the second relaxation process with an energy barrier of 21.0 K has been characterized. The chromophoric L(2-) ligand is able to act as an "antenna" group, sensitizing the near-infrared (NIR) Nd(III) and Yb(III)-based luminescence in complexes 2 and 11 and therefore, both compounds can be considered as magneto-luminescent materials. In addition, the Sm(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III) derivatives exhibit characteristic emissions in the visible region.

  9. Preparation and cathodoluminescence characteristics of rare earth activated BaAl2O4 phosphors.

    PubMed

    Benourdja, S; Kaynar, Ümit H; Ayvacikli, M; Karabulut, Y; Guinea, J Garcia; Canimoglu, A; Chahed, L; Can, N

    2018-04-18

    Undoped and Pr, Sm and Tb activated BaAl 2 O 4 phosphors have been synthesized by solid state reaction method and combustion method. The structure and morphological observation of the phosphor samples were monitored by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) coupled to an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The all diffraction peaks are well assigned to standard data card (PDF♯17-306). Emission properties of the samples were explored using light emission induced by an electron beam (i.e cathodoluminescence, CL) at room temperature (RT). Undoped BaAl 2 O 4 sample exhibits a broad defect emission from 300 to 500 nm from the aluminate defect centres. CL spectra recorded at room temperature display that the as-prepared BaAl 2 O 4 :Ln (Ln=Pr, Sm and Tb) phosphors exhibit different luminescence colors coming from different rare earth activator ions. The transition 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 located at 606 and 610 nm for Sm 3+ can occur as hypersensitive transition having the selection rule ΔJ = ± 1. For the Tb 3+ doped samples, they exhibit D45 green line emissions. The proposed luminescent mechanisms of all doped rare earth ions are also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Earth's earliest atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth's atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth's subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases.

  11. Earth views and an illuminated earth limb

    1998-11-20

    STS047-54-016 (12 - 20 Sept 1992) --- The colors in this photograph provide insight into the relative density of the atmosphere. The crew members had many opportunities to witness sunrises and sunsets, considering they orbit the Earth every 90 minutes, but few, they said, compared to this scene. It captures the silhouette of several mature thunderstorms with their cirrus anvil tops spreading out against the tropopause (the top of the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere) at sunset. The lowest layer (troposphere) is the densest and refracts light at the red end of the visible spectrum (7,400 Angstroms), while the blues (4,000 Angstroms) are separated in the least dense portion of the atmosphere (middle and upper atmosphere, or stratosphere and mesosphere). Several layers of blue can be seen. NASA scientists studying the photos believe this stratification to be caused by the scattering of light by particulate trapped in the stratosphere and mesosphere particulate that generally originate from volcanic eruptions, such as those of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines and, most recently, Mt. Spurr in Alaska.

  12. Venus, Earth, Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Xenon has been regarded as an important goal of many proposed missions to Venus. This talk is intended to explain why. Despite its being the heaviest gas found in natural planetary atmospheres, there is more evidence that Xe escaped from Earth than for any element apart from helium: (i) Atmospheric Xe is very strongly mass fractionated (at about 4% per amu) from any known solar system source. This suggests fractionating escape that preferentially left the heavy Xe isotopes behind. (ii) Xe is underabundant compared to Kr, a lighter noble gas that is not strongly mass fractionated in air. (iii) Radiogenic Xe is strongly depleted by factors of several to ~100 compared to the quantities expected from radioactive decay of primordial solar system materials. In these respects Xe on Mars is similar to Xe on Earth, but with one key difference: Xe on Mars is readily explained by a simple process like hydrodynamic escape that acts on an initially solar or meteoritic Xe. This is not so for Earth. Earth's Xe cannot be derived by an uncontrived mass fractionating process acting on any known type of Solar System Xe. Earth is a stranger, made from different stuff than any known meteorite or Mars or even the Sun. Who else is in Earth's family? Comets? We know nothing. Father Zeus? Data from Jupiter are good enough to show that jovian Xe is not strongly mass-fractionated but not good enough to determine whether Jupiter resembles the Earth or the Sun. Sister Venus? Noble gas data from Venus are incomplete, with Kr uncertain and Xe unmeasured. Krypton was measured by several instruments on several spacecraft. The reported Kr abundances are discrepant and were once highly controversial. These discrepancies appear to have been not so much resolved as forgotten. Xenon was not detected on Venus. Upper limits were reported for the two most abundant xenon isotopes 129Xe and 132Xe. From the limited data it is not possible to tell whether Venus's affinities lie with the solar wind, or with

  13. Earth Orientation - Naval Oceanography Portal

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › USNO › Earth Orientation USNO Logo USNO Navigation Earth Orientation Products GPS -based Products VLBI-based Products EO Information Center Publications about Products Software Info Earth

  14. The Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  15. Earth - Moon Conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    On December 16, 1992, 8 days after its encounter with Earth, the Galileo spacecraft looked back from a distance of about 6.2 million kilometers (3.9 million miles) to capture this remarkable view of the Moon in orbit about Earth. The composite photograph was constructed from images taken through visible (violet, red) and near-infrared (1.0-micron) filters. The Moon is in the foreground; its orbital path is from left to right. Brightly colored Earth contrasts strongly with the Moon, which reacts only about one-third as much sunlight as our world. To improve the visibility of both bodies, contrast and color have been computer enhanced. At the bottom of Earth's disk, Antarctica is visible through clouds. The Moon's far side can also be seen. The shadowy indentation in the Moon's dawn terminator--the boundary between its dark and lit sides--is the South Pole-Aitken Basin, one of the largest and oldest lunar impact features. This feature was studied extensively by Galileo during the first Earth flyby in December 1990.

  16. Crescent Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  17. The Sun and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  18. NASA Sun Earth

    2017-12-08

    CME blast and subsequent impact at Earth -- This illustration shows a CME blasting off the Sun’s surface in the direction of Ea CME blast and subsequent impact at Earth -- This illustration shows a CME blasting off the Sun’s surface in the direction of Earth. This left portion is composed of an EIT 304 image superimposed on a LASCO C2 coronagraph. Two to four days later, the CME cloud is shown striking and beginning to be mostly deflected around the Earth’s magnetosphere. The blue paths emanating from the Earth’s poles represent some of its magnetic field lines. The magnetic cloud of plasma can extend to 30 million miles wide by the time it reaches earth. These storms, which occur frequently, can disrupt communications and navigational equipment, damage satellites, and even cause blackouts. (Objects in the illustration are not drawn to scale.) Credit: NASA/GSFC/SOHO/ESA To learn more go to the SOHO website: sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/home.html To learn more about NASA's Sun Earth Day go here: sunearthday.nasa.gov/2010/index.php

  19. Observation of Slow Relaxation and Single-Molecule Toroidal Behavior in a Family of Butterfly-Shaped Ln4 Complexes.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Das, Sourav; Gupta, Tulika; Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Pissas, Michael; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2016-12-19

    A family of five isostructural butterfly complexes with a tetranuclear [Ln 4 ] core of the general formula [Ln 4 (LH) 2 (μ 2 -η 1 η 1 Piv)(η 2 -Piv)(μ 3 -OH) 2 ]⋅x H 2 O⋅y MeOH⋅z CHCl 3 (1: Ln=Dy III , x=2, y=2, z=0; 2: Ln=Tb III , x=0, y=0, z=6; 3: Ln=Er III , x=2, y=2, z=0; 4: Ln=Ho III , x=2, y=2, z=0; 5: Ln=Yb III , x=2, y=2, z=0; LH 4 =6-{[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]methyl}-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)picolinohydrazide; PivH=pivalic acid) was isolated and characterized both structurally and magnetically. Complexes 1-5 were probed by direct and alternating current (dc and ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements and, except for 1, they did not display single-molecule magnetism (SMM) behavior. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements show frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals with one relaxation process for complex 1 and the estimated effective energy barrier for the relaxation process was found to be 49 K. We have carried out extensive ab initio (CASSCF+RASSI-SO+SINGLE_ANISO+POLY_ANISO) calculations on all the five complexes to gain deeper insights into the nature of magnetic anisotropy and the presence and absence of slow relaxation in these complexes. Our calculations yield three different exchange coupling for these Ln 4 complexes and all the extracted J values are found to be weakly ferro/antiferromagentic in nature (J 1 =+2.35, J 2 =-0.58, and J 3 =-0.29 cm -1 for 1; J 1 =+0.45, J 2 =-0.68, and J 3 =-0.29 cm -1 for 2; J 1 =+0.03, J 2 =-0.98, and J 3 =-0.19 cm -1 for 3; J 1 =+4.15, J 2 =-0.23, and J 3 =-0.54 cm -1 for 4 and J 1 =+0.15, J 2 =-0.28, and J 3 =-1.18 cm -1 for 5). Our calculations reveal the presence of very large mixed toroidal moment in complex 1 and this is essentially due to the specific exchange topology present in this cluster. Our calculations also suggest presence of single-molecule toroics (SMTs) in complex 2. For complexes 3-5 on the other hand, the transverse anisotropy was computed to be large

  20. Better Than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René

    2015-01-01

    Do we inhabit the best of all possible worlds? German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz thought so, writing in 1710 that our planet, warts and all, must be the most optimal one imaginable. Leibniz's idea was roundly scorned as unscientific wishful thinking, most notably by French author Voltaire in his magnum opus, Candide. Yet Leibniz might find sympathy from at least one group of scientists - the astronomers who have for decades treated Earth as a golden standard as they search for worlds beyond our own solar system. Because earthlings still know of just one living world - our own - it makes some sense to use Earth as a template in the search for life elsewhere, such as in the most Earth-like regions of Mars or Jupiter's watery moon Europa. Now, however, discoveries of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars other than our sun - exoplanets, that is - are challenging that geocentric approach.

  1. High-quality draft genome sequence of Effusibacillus lacus strain skLN1T, facultative anaerobic spore-former isolated from freshwater lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Miho; Tokizawa, Riho; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    10.1601/nm.25721 strain skLN1 T is the type strain of the type species in the genus 10.1601/nm.25720 which is the one of the genera in the family 10.1601/nm.5070 within the phylum 10.1601/nm.3874. 10.1601/nm.25721 strain skLN1 T is a Gram-positive, spore-forming thermophilic neutrophile isolated from freshwater lake sediment. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain skLN1 T , which consists of 3,902,380 bp with a G + C content of 50.38%.

  2. The structures and luminescence properties of lanthanide (Ln = Sm, Eu and Tb) metal-organic coordination polymers based on 5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)isophthalate ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Qin, Jie; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Three unreported isomorphous Ln-containing metal-organic coordination polymeric complexes {LnL(HL)ṡ(H2O)2}n (Ln = Sm (1), Eu (2) and Tb (3), CCDC 971815-971817) were synthesized based on 5-(2-hydroxyethoxy) isophthalic acid (H2L) under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained coordination polymers were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction In solid state, these polymers featured 3-D supramolecular structures constructed by 2-D sheets through H-bonds. Investigation of photoluminescence properties of H2L and 1-3 showed all of them exhibited intense fluorescent emissions in the solid state at room temperature.

  3. Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, Noel

    2013-04-01

    The Google Earth Engine platform is a system designed to enable petabyte-scale, scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets. Earth Engine provides a consolidated environment including a massive data catalog co-located with thousands of computers for analysis. The user-friendly front-end provides a workbench environment to allow interactive data and algorithm development and exploration and provides a convenient mechanism for scientists to share data, visualizations and analytic algorithms via URLs. The Earth Engine data catalog contains a wide variety of popular, curated datasets, including the world's largest online collection of Landsat scenes (> 2.0M), numerous MODIS collections, and many vector-based data sets. The platform provides a uniform access mechanism to a variety of data types, independent of their bands, projection, bit-depth, resolution, etc..., facilitating easy multi-sensor analysis. Additionally, a user is able to add and curate their own data and collections. Using a just-in-time, distributed computation model, Earth Engine can rapidly process enormous quantities of geo-spatial data. All computation is performed lazily; nothing is computed until it's required either for output or as input to another step. This model allows real-time feedback and preview during algorithm development, supporting a rapid algorithm development, test, and improvement cycle that scales seamlessly to large-scale production data processing. Through integration with a variety of other services, Earth Engine is able to bring to bear considerable analytic and technical firepower in a transparent fashion, including: AI-based classification via integration with Google's machine learning infrastructure, publishing and distribution at Google scale through integration with the Google Maps API, Maps Engine and Google Earth, and support for in-the-field activities such as validation, ground-truthing, crowd-sourcing and citizen science though the Android Open Data

  4. Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Google Earth Engine platform is a system designed to enable petabyte-scale, scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets. Earth Engine provides a consolidated environment including a massive data catalog co-located with thousands of computers for analysis. The user-friendly front-end provides a workbench environment to allow interactive data and algorithm development and exploration and provides a convenient mechanism for scientists to share data, visualizations and analytic algorithms via URLs. The Earth Engine data catalog contains a wide variety of popular, curated datasets, including the world's largest online collection of Landsat scenes (> 2.0M), numerous MODIS collections, and many vector-based data sets. The platform provides a uniform access mechanism to a variety of data types, independent of their bands, projection, bit-depth, resolution, etc..., facilitating easy multi-sensor analysis. Additionally, a user is able to add and curate their own data and collections. Using a just-in-time, distributed computation model, Earth Engine can rapidly process enormous quantities of geo-spatial data. All computation is performed lazily; nothing is computed until it's required either for output or as input to another step. This model allows real-time feedback and preview during algorithm development, supporting a rapid algorithm development, test, and improvement cycle that scales seamlessly to large-scale production data processing. Through integration with a variety of other services, Earth Engine is able to bring to bear considerable analytic and technical firepower in a transparent fashion, including: AI-based classification via integration with Google's machine learning infrastructure, publishing and distribution at Google scale through integration with the Google Maps API, Maps Engine and Google Earth, and support for in-the-field activities such as validation, ground-truthing, crowd-sourcing and citizen science though the Android Open Data

  5. How Big is Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  6. Our Impact on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, A.

    This paper discusses the problem of understanding the causes of changes in the Earth's environments. It reviews very briefly the role of the atmosphere, because it is an important element of the total picture. It discusses even more briefly the oceans, and then the land, moving from the wetter parts to the drier ones, these last being the writer's speciality as a desert geomorphologist. No apology is made for concentrating on the terrestrial deserts, for Mars is more like our deserts than any other part of Earth.

  7. STS-34 earth observations

    1989-10-20

    STS034-44-023 (20 Oct. 1989) --- The Southern Lights or Aurora Australis were photographed by the STS-34 crewmembers aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis. From the Shuttle astronauts can photograph expanses of auroras, an advantage over scientists on Earth who can only get small sections at a time in a frame of photography. The space position allows for large-scale changes. This scene was one of 26 shown to the press by the five STS-34 crewmembers at their post-flight press conference.

  8. Coronal Hole Facing Earth

    2018-05-08

    An extensive equatorial coronal hole has rotated so that it is now facing Earth (May 2-4, 2018). The dark coronal hole extends about halfway across the solar disk. It was observed in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. This magnetically open area is streaming solar wind (i.e., a stream of charged particles released from the sun) into space. When Earth enters a solar wind stream and the stream interacts with our magnetosphere, we often experience nice displays of aurora. Videos are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00624

  9. Coronal Hole Facing Earth

    2018-05-15

    An extensive equatorial coronal hole has rotated so that it is now facing Earth (May 2-4, 2018). The dark coronal hole extends about halfway across the solar disk. It was observed in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. This magnetically open area is streaming solar wind (i.e., a stream of charged particles released from the sun) into space. When Earth enters a solar wind stream and the stream interacts with our magnetosphere, we often experience nice displays of aurora. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00577

  10. Teaching earth science

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, Michael F.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.

  11. Nimbus earth resources observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatini, R. R.; Rabchevsky, G. A.; Sissala, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The potential for utilizing data gathered by Nimbus satellites to study the earth surface and its physical properties is illustrated. The Nimbus data applicable to investigations of the earth and its resources, and to the problems of resolution and cloud cover are described. Geological, hydrological, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Applications of the data to other fields, such as cartography, agriculture, forestry, and urban analysis are presented. Relevant information is also given on the Nimbus orbit and experiments; surface and atmospheric effects on HRIR and THIR radiation measurements; and noise problems in the AVCS, IDCS, HRIR, and THIR data.

  12. Coordination geometries of solvated lanthanide(II) ions: Molecular structures of the cationic species [(DIME)[sub 3]Ln][sup 2+] (DIME = diethylene glycol dimethyl ether; Ln[sup 2+] = Sm, Yb), [(DIME)[sub 2]Yb(CH[sub 3]CN)[sub 2

    SciT

    White, J.P. III; Deng, H.; Boyd, E.P.

    1994-04-13

    The first lanthanide(II) cationic species with coordination numbers 7,8, and 9 have been structurally characterized. Mercury amalgams of the elemental lanthanides (Ln(Hg) where Ln = Sm, Eu, Yb) cleanly reduce Mn[sub 2](CO)[sub 10] and Co[sub 2](CO)[sub 8] in polydentate ethers to [Mn(CO)[sub 5

  13. Near-infrared photoluminescence in La0.98AlO3: 0.02Ln3+(Ln = Nd/Yb) for sensitization of c-Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawala, N. S.; Koparkar, K. A.; Bajaj, N. S.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The host matrix LaAlO3 was synthesized by conventional solid state reaction method in which the Nd3+ ions and Yb3+ ions successfully doped at 2mol% concentrations. The phase purity was confirmed by X ray powder diffraction (XRD) method. The photoluminescence (PL) properties were studied by spectrophotometer in near infra red (NIR) and ultra violet visible (UV-VIS) region. The Nd3+ ion doped LaAlO3 converts a visible (VIS) green photon (587 nm) into near infrared (NIR) photon (1070 nm) while Yb3+ ion doped converts ultra violet (UV) photon (221 nm) into NIR photon (980 nm). The La0.98AlO3: 0.02Ln3+(Ln = Nd / Yb) can be potentiality used for betterment of photovoltaic (PV) technology. This result further indicates its potential application as a luminescence converter layer for enhancing solar cells performance.

  14. The Earth's Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere is an inner part of the magneteosphere. It is located just outside the upper ionosphere located in Earth's atmosphere. It is a region of dense, cold plasma that surrounds the Earth. Although plasma is found throughout the magnetosphere, the plasmasphere usually contains the coldest plasma. Here's how it works: The upper reaches of our planet's atmosphere are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun, and they are ionized with electrons that are freed from neutral atmospheric particles. The results are electrically charged negative and positive particles. The negative particles are electrons, and the positive particles are now called ions (formerly atoms and molecules). If the density of these particles is low enough, this electrically charged gas behaves differently than it would if it were neutral. Now this gas is called plasma. The atmospheric gas density becomes low enough to support the conditions for a plasma around earth at about 90 kilometers above Earth's surface. The electrons in plasma gain more energy, and they are very low in mass. They move along Earth's magnetic field lines and their increased energy is enough to escape Earth's gravity. Because electrons are very light, they don't have to gain too much kinetic energy from the Sun's ultraviolet light before gravity loses its grip on them. Gravity is not all that holds them back, however. As more and more electrons begin to escape outward, they leave behind a growing net positive electric charge in the ionosphere and create a growing net negative electric charge above the ionosphere; an electric field begins to develop (the Pannekoek-Rosseland E-field). Thus, these different interacting charges result in a positively charged ionosphere and negatively charged region of space above it. Very quickly this resulting electric field opposed upward movement of the electrons out of the ionosphere. The electrons still have this increased energy, however, so the electric field doesn't just

  15. Heterometallic Zn3 Ln3 Ensembles Containing (μ6 -CO3 ) Ligand and Triangular Disposition of Ln3+ ions: Analysis of Single-Molecule Toroic (SMT) and Single-Molecule Magnet (SMM) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Goura, Joydeb; Colacio, Enrique; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Suturina, Elizaveta A; Kuprov, Ilya; Lan, Yanhua; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2017-11-21

    Two new heterometallic Zn 3 Ln 3 (Ln 3+ =Dy, Tb) complexes, with a double triangular topology of the metal ions, have been assembled from the polytopic Mannich base ligand 6,6'-{[2-(dimethylamino)ethylazanediyl]bis(methylene)}bis(2-methoxy-4-methylphenol) (H 2 L) with the aid of an in situ generated carbonate ligand from atmospheric CO 2 fixation. Theoretical calculations indicate axial ground states for the Ln 3+ ions in these complexes, with their local magnetic moments being almost coplanar and tangential to the Ln 3+ atoms that define the equilateral triangle. Therefore, they can be considered as single-molecule toroics (SMTs) with almost zero total magnetic moment. Micro-SQUID measurements on the Dy 3+ counterpart show hysteresis loops below 3 K that have an S-shape, with large coercive fields opening upon cooling. This behavior is typical of a single molecule magnet (SMM) with very slow zero-field relaxation. At around ±0.35 T, the loops have a broad step, which is due to a direct relaxation process and corresponds to an acceleration of the relaxation of the magnetization, also observed at this magnetic field from ac susceptibility measurements. Simulations suggest that the broad step corresponds to two level avoidance of crossing points where the spin chiral Kramers doublet meets excited states of the coupled manifold, whose position is defined by exchange and dipole interactions. The Tb 3+ counterpart does not exhibit SMM behavior, which is due to the fact that the degeneracy of the ground state of the exchange coupled system is lifted at zero field, thus favoring quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Nickel(0)-Catalyzed Inert C-O Bond Functionalization: Organo Rare-Earth Metal Complex as the Coupling Partner.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiangqian; Yang, Fanzhi; Cai, Guilong; Meng, Qingwei; Li, Xiaofang

    2018-02-02

    An organo rare-earth metal complex has been employed as a highly efficient nucleophile in Ni(0)-catalyzed C-O bond functionalization. The optimized catalytic system which consists of Ni(cod) 2 , PCy 3 , and t-BuONa could smoothly convert 1 equiv of naphthyl ethers to alkylated naphthalene analogues with 0.4 equiv of Ln(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 3 (THF) 2 , delivering good to excellent yields. The reaction system could also activate the ArCH 2 -O bond with mild base.

  17. Exploring the Earth's Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindaman, Arnold D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Describes three approaches to a study of the earth's past: (1) development of a time line of the ages; (2) a study of rocks and how each was formed; and (3) a study of fossils as found in certain kinds of stone. (Editor)

  18. Bones of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  19. The Island Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Margaret

    1970-01-01

    Dr. Mead, the world-renowned anthropologist and expert behavioral scientist, is associated with the American Museum of Natural History, which acts as her headquarters as she documents her observations on Man, society and technology. She discusses the need to develop specialists with concern for saving the endangered planet earth. (Editor/GR)

  20. Earth Sciences Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division's research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth's crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989, a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will, in the coming years, be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.

  1. The Earth's Mantle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and dynamics of the earth's mantle is discussed. Research indicates that the silicate mantle is heated by the decay of radioactive isotopes and that the heat energizes massive convention currents in the upper 700 kilometers of the ductile rock. These currents and their consequences are considered. (JN)

  2. Google Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  3. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  4. How life shaped Earth.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  5. Earth - Antarctica Mosaic

    1996-02-01

    This color picture of the limb of the Earth, looking north past Antarctica, is a mosaic of 11 images taken during a ten-minute period near 5:45 p.m. PST Dec. 8, 1990, by NASA’s Galileo imaging system. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00116

  6. "Galileo Calling Earth..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  7. Earth Science Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, William C.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

  8. Beyond Earth's Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    This resource for teachers of elementary age students provides a foundation for building a life-long interest in the U.S. space program. It begins with a basic understanding of man's attempt to conquer the air, then moves on to how we expanded into near-Earth space for our benefit. Students learn, through hands-on experiences, from projects…

  9. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-18

    Employees stop by the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences booth at Kennedy Space Center’s annual Earth Day celebration. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  10. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  11. Earth as art 4

    ,

    2016-03-29

    Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?

  12. 51F earth observations

    2009-06-25

    51F-37-014 (29 July-6 Aug 1985) --- This Earth view shows Oregon and Washington including metropolitan Portland at the center. The Columbia River can be seen from Goble (upper left) upstream to Bonneville (upper right). The Willamette River is at the lower photo and seen upstream to east of McMinnville.

  13. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-18

    Employees discuss one of the electric vehicles on display during Kennedy Space Center’s annual Earth Day celebration. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  14. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-17

    During the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests have an opportunity to learn more about energy awareness, the environment and sustainability. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  15. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-18

    An array of electric vehicles are on display for Kennedy Space Center employees during the center’s annual Earth Day celebration. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  16. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-18

    Employees had the opportunity to take a look under the hood of an electric vehicle on display during Kennedy Space Center’s annual Earth Day celebration. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  17. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-17

    During the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests have an opportunity to get an up-close look at experimental electric vehicles. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  18. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-18

    An employee learns about indoor air quality at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Environmental and Medical Contract (KEMCON) booth at the center’s annual Earth Day celebration. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  19. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-17

    During the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests have an opportunity to learn about the environment. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  20. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-17

    During the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests have an opportunity to learn about the environment and meet Butterfly Dan” Dunwoody. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  1. Spaceship Earth Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pultorak, Robert W.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a self-paced undergraduate environmental science course focusing on a theme that earth is similar to a spaceship inasmuch as: (1) both possess finite room and resources, and (2) living things are dependent upon life-support systems for continued survival. Includes a list of laboratory and learning activities. (DS)

  2. integrated Earth System Model

    SciT

    Jones, Andew; Di Vittorio, Alan; Collins, William

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human-Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human-Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems.« less

  3. Modeling Earth's Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun; Pryputniewicz, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Systems thinking suggests that one can best understand a complex system by studying the interrelationships of its component parts rather than looking at the individual parts in isolation. With ongoing concern about the effects of climate change, using innovative materials to help students understand how Earth's systems connect with each other is…

  4. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  5. 2012 Earth Day

    2012-04-24

    Bonnie Humphrey of NASA (l to r), Van Ward of NASA, Kim Maddox of the Naval Oceanographic Office, and Al Bryden of the NASA Shared Services Center learn about the Crosby Arboretum in Picayune, Miss., during the Earth Day celebration at Stennis Space Center on April 24, 2012.

  6. 2011 Earth Day

    2011-04-21

    Pat Drackett of the Crosby Arboretum in Picayune (l) speaks with Helen Robinson and Arlene Brown, both employees of the Naval Oceanographic Office at Stennis Space Center, during Earth Day 2011 activities April 21. During the day, Stennis employees were able to visit various exhibits featuring environmentally friendly and energy-conscious items and information. The activities were coordinated by the Stennis Environmental Office.

  7. An Earth Day Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presents what the author believes to be some of the most important environmental books published since Earth Day 1970. Discusses each selection and how it provides the historical background, basic information, and appreciation necessary to understand the character of our environmental dilemma and our need to address it. (MCO)

  8. Venus - Lessons for earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    The old idea that Venus might possess surface conditions to those of an overcast earth has been thoroughly refuted by space-age measurements. Instead, the two planets may have started out similar, but diverged because of the greater solar flux at Venus. This cannot be proved, but is consistent with everything known. A runaway greenhouse effect could have evaporated an 'ocean'. The hydrogen would escape, and most of the oxygen would be incorporated into the crust. Without liquid water, CO2 would remain in the atmosphere. Chlorine atoms would catalyze the recombination of any free oxygen back to CO2. The same theories apply to the future of the earth, and to the explanation of the polar ozone holes; the analogies are striking. There is no likelihood that the earth will actually come to resemble Venus, but Venus serves both as a warning that major environmental effects can flow from seemingly small causes, and as a testbed for the predictive models of the earth.

  9. Rates of Earth degassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onions, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    The degassing of the Earth during accretion is constrained by Pu-U-I-Xe systematics. Degassing was much more efficient during the first 100-200 Ma than subsequently, and it was more complete for Xe than for the lighter gases. More than 90 percent of the degassed Xe escaped from the atmosphere during this period. The combination of fractional degassing of melts and rare gas escape from the atmosphere is able to explain the deficit of terrestrial Xe as a simple consequence of this early degassing history. By the time Xe was quantitatively retained in the atmosphere, the abundances of Kr and the lighter gases in the Earth's interior were similar to or higher than the present-day atmospheric abundances. Subsequent transfer of these lighter rare gases into the atmosphere requires a high rate of post-accretion degassing and melt production. Considerations of Pu-U-Xe systematics suggest that relatively rapid post-accretion degassing was continued to ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga. The present-day degassing history of the Earth is investigated through consideration of rare gas isotope abundances. Although the Earth is a highly degassed body, depleted in rare gases by many orders of magnitude relative to their solar abundances, it is at the present-day losing primordial rare gases which were trapped at the time of accretion.

  10. Earth Sky- GT-7

    1965-12-12

    S65-63766 (12 Dec. 1965) --- Ras Azir on the coast of the Republic of Somali, looking east, as seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spacecraft during its 117th revolution of Earth. Taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the…

  12. Earth Science in 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews advancements in earth science during 1970 in each of these areas: economic geology (fuels), economic geology (metals), economic geology (nonmetals), environmental geology, geochemistry, manpower, hydrology, mapping, marine geology, mineralogy, paleontology, plate tectonics, politics and geology, remote sensing, and seismology. (PR)

  13. Mission: New Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, David

    1997-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary unit on the environment and space travel in which students plan a fictional departure from Earth which is on the brink of destruction from environmental waste and neglect. Students travel through concepts in environmental education, math, art, English, and astronomy before reaching their destination with a clearer…

  14. Sun-Earth Day

    2007-04-11

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  15. Trees for Mother Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sandy

    1993-01-01

    Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis and photoluminescent properties of hierarchical GdPO4·H2O:Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+) flower-like clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amurisana, Bao.; Zhiqiang, Song.; Haschaolu, O.; Yi, Chen; Tegus, O.

    2018-02-01

    3D hierarchical GdPO4·H2O:Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+) flower clusters were successfully prepared on glass slide substrate by a simple, economical hydrothermal process with the assistance of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na2H2L, where L4- = (CH2COO)2N(CH2)2N(CH2COO)24-). In this process, Na2H2L was used as both a chelating agent and a structure-director. The hierarchical flower clusters have an average diameter of 7-12 μm and are composed of well-aligned microrods. The influence of the molar ratio of Na2H2L/Gd3+ and reaction time on the morphology was systematically studied. A possible crystal growth and formation mechanism of hierarchical flower clusters is proposed based on the evolution of morphology as a function of reaction time. The self-assembled GdPO4·H2O:Ln3+ superstructures exhibit strong orange-red (Eu3+, 5D0 → 7F1), green (Tb3+, 5D4 → 7F5) and near ultraviolet emissions (Ce3+, 5d → 7F5/2) under ultraviolet excitation, respectively. This study may provide a new channel for building hierarchically superstructued oxide micro/nanomaterials with optical and new properties.

  17. Re-dispersion and film formation of GdVO4 :  Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Dy3+, Eu3+, Sm3+, Tm3+) nanoparticles: particle size and luminescence studies.

    PubMed

    Shanta Singh, N; Ningthoujam, R S; Phaomei, Ganngam; Singh, S Dorendrajit; Vinu, A; Vatsa, R K

    2012-04-21

    GdVO(4) : Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Dy(3+), Eu(3+), Sm(3+), Tm(3+)) nanoparticles are prepared by a simple chemical route at 140 °C. The crystallite size can be tuned by varying the pH of the reaction medium. Interestingly, the crystallite size is found to increase significantly when pH increases from 6 to 12. This is related to slower nucleation of the GdVO(4) formation with increase of VO(4)(3-) present in solution. The luminescence study shows an efficient energy transfer from vanadate absorption of GdVO(4) to Ln(3+) and thereby enhanced emissions are obtained. A possible reaction mechanism at different pH values is suggested in this study. As-prepared samples are well dispersed in ethanol, methanol and water, and can be incorporated into polymer films. Luminescence and its decay lifetime studies confirm the decrease in non-radiative transition probability with the increase of heat treatment temperature. Re-dispersed particles will be useful in potential applications of life science and the film will be useful in display devices.

  18. Oxygen ionic conductivity of NTE materials of cubic Zr 1- xLn xW 2- yMo yO 8- x/2 (Ln = Er, Yb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Hua; Xia, Hai-Ting; Jing, Xi-Ping; Zhao, Xin-Hua

    2008-08-01

    Cubic Zr 1- xLn xW 2- yMo yO 8- x/2 (Ln = Er: x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03; y = 0; Ln = Yb: x = 0.02, 0.03; y = 0.4) solid solutions, well-known negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials were prepared by using conventional solid state reactions. The morphology and the composition of the fracture surfaces of the ceramic pellets were determined by SEM and EDX technology. The conductance properties of the pellets, such as conductivity and conductance activation energy, were studied by AC impedance spectroscopy and the materials perform clearly oxygen ionic conduction with the conductivity of about 10 -4 S cm -1 at 673 K, a comparable value to that of ceria based solid electrolytes. The substitution of Mo for W enhanced the thermal stability of ZrW 2O 8, so that the conductivity of Zr 0.98Yb 0.02W 1.6Mo 0.4O 7.99 ceramic can be measured up to 873 K, which is about 5.9 × 10 -4 S cm -1.

  19. Photoinduced dynamics to photoluminescence in Ln3+ (Ln = Ce, Pr) doped β-NaYF4 nanocrystals computed in basis of non-collinear spin DFT with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yulun; Vogel, Dayton J.; Inerbaev, Talgat M.; May, P. Stanley; Berry, Mary T.; Kilin, Dmitri S.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, non-collinear spin DFT + U approaches with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) are applied to Ln3+ doped β-NaYF4 (Ln = Ce, Pr) nanocrystals in Vienna ab initio Simulation Package taking into account unpaired spin configurations using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional in a plane wave basis set. The calculated absorption spectra from non-collinear spin DFT + U approaches are compared with that from spin-polarised DFT + U approaches. The spectral difference indicates the importance of spin-flip transitions of Ln3+ ions. Suite of codes for nonadiabatic dynamics has been developed for 2-component spinor orbitals. On-the-fly nonadiabatic coupling calculations provide transition probabilities facilitated by nuclear motion. Relaxation rates of electrons and holes are calculated using Redfield theory in the reduced density matrix formalism cast in the basis of non-collinear spin DFT + U with SOC. The emission spectra are calculated using the time-integrated method along the excited state trajectories based on nonadiabatic couplings.

  20. Synthesis of the new quaternary sulfides K[sub 2]Y[sub 4]Sn[sub 2]S[sub 11] and BaLnAgS[sub 3] (Ln = Er, Y, Gd) and the structures of K[sub 2]Y[sub 4]Sn[sub 2]S[sub 11] and BaErAgS[sub 3

    SciT

    Wu, Ping; Ibers, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    Several new quarternary sulfides, K[sub 2]Y[sub 4]Sn[sub 2]S[sub 11] and BaLnAgS[sub 3] (Ln = Er, Y, Gd), have been synthesized by the reaction of the constituent binary chalcogenides and elements at 1000[degrees]C. The crystal structures of K[sub 2]Y[sub 4]Sn[sub 2]S[sub 11] and BaErAgS[sub 3] have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Crystal data: K[sub 2]Y[sub 4]Sn[sub 2]S[sub 11]-space group D[sup 8][sub 4h] - P4/ncc, M = 1023.88, Z = 4, a = 8.587(1), c = 27.892(4) [angstrom] (T = 115 K), V = 2056.7(4) [angstrom][sup 3], R[sub W](F[sup 2]) = 0.093 for 1965 observations having F[sup 2][sub 0] >more » 2[sigma](F[sup 2][sub 0]); BaEr AgS[sub 3]-space group C[sup 3][sub 2H] - C2/m, M = 508.65, Z = 4, a = 17.340(4), b = 4.014(1), x = 8.509(2) [angstrom], [beta] = 103.23(3)[degrees], (T = 115 K), V = 576.5(2) [angstrom][sup 3], R[sub W](F[sup 2]) = 0.049 for 1404 observations and 48 variables, R(F) = 0.018 for 1299 observations having F[sup 2][sub 0] > 2[sigma](F[sup 2][sub 0]). In both structures, the rare-earth atoms have octahedral coordination and the octahedra form slabs through edge- and corner-sharing. These slabs are separated by K[sup +] Ba[sup 2+] cations, and are crosslinked into three-dimensional frameworks by Sn[sub 2]S[sub 6] units as edge-sharing SnS[sub 4] tetrahedral pairs in K[sub 2]Y[sub 4]Sn[sub 2]S[sub 11], and by Ag[sub 2]S[sub 9] units as corner-sharing trigonal-bipyramidal AgS[sub 5] pairs in BaEr AgS[sub 3]. From their powder diffraction patterns, BaYAgS[sub 3] and Ba GdAgS[sub 3] appear to be isostructural with BaErAgS[sub 3].« less

  1. The Earth's Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  2. LN2-free Operation of the MEG Liquid Xenon Calorimeter by using a High-power Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    SciT

    Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Nishiguchi, H.

    2006-04-27

    A high-power coaxial pulse tube cryocooler, originally developed in KEK and technology-transferred to Iwatani Industrial Gases Corp (IIGC), has been installed in a large liquid xenon calorimeter to evaluate liquid nitrogen-free (LN2-free) operation of the rare {mu}-particle decay experiment (MEG). Features of this pulse tube cryocooler include the cold-end heat exchanger, designed with sufficient surface area to ensure high-power cooling, and a cylindrical regenerator placed inside the pulse tube giving compact design and ease of fabrication. This production-level cryocooler provides a cooling power of {approx}200 W at 165 K, using a 6 kW Gifford-McMahon (GM)-type compressor. The paper describes themore » detailed configuration of the cryocooler, and the results of the continuous LN2-free operation of the large prototype liquid xenon calorimeter, which ran for more than 40 days without problems.« less

  3. Structural mechanism of the formation of mineral Na-tveitite-a new type of phase with a fluorite-derivative structure-in the NaF-CaF{sub 2}-(Y,Ln)F{sub 3} natural system

    SciT

    Golubev, A. M., E-mail: fluorides@ns.crys.ras.ru; Otroshchenko, L. P.; Sobolev, B. P.

    2012-03-15

    Relationships between the chemical compositions and structures of the mineral tveitite from the southern Norway pegmatites (with the idealized formula Ca{sub 14}Y{sub 5}F{sub 43}) and Na-tveitite from the Rov mountain (Keivy, Kola Peninsula) Na{sub 2.5}Ca{sub 10}Ln{sub 1.5}Y{sub 5}F{sub 42} are considered. According to the structural mechanism of its formation, Na-tveitite is a nanocomposite crystal based on the crystalline matrix Ca{sub 14}Y{sub 5}F{sub 43} with the ordered arrangement of {l_brace}Ca{sub 8}[CaY{sub 5}]F{sub 69}{r_brace} clusters which contain anionic {l_brace}F{sub 13}{r_brace} cuboctahedra with F{sup 1-} at the center. When Na-tveitite is formed, 29% of these clusters are statistically replaced by Na-'Y' clusters {l_brace}[Na{submore » 0.5}(Y,Ln){sub 0.5}]{sub 14}F{sub 64}{r_brace} with {l_brace}F{sub 8}{r_brace} cubes at the center (analogs of matrix fluorite groups {l_brace}Ca{sub 14}F{sub 64}{r_brace}). This replacement gives rise to composition-imperfect (Na, Ca, 'Y') cationic positions and occupancy-deficient F positions, which correspond to {l_brace}F{sub 13}{r_brace} cuboctahedra and the {l_brace}F{sub 8}{r_brace} cubes that replace them. The difference between Na-tveitite and fluorite phases M{sub 1-x}R{sub x}F{sub 2+x} is as follows: its matrix is the structure of the ordered phase (tveitite) into which Na-containing rare earth fragments of fluorite-type structure are incorporated instead of ordered-phase structural blocks (clusters).« less

  4. TES/Aura L2 Ammonia (NH3) Lite Nadir V6 (TL2NH3LN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-07-20

    TES/Aura L2 Ammonia (NH3) Lite Nadir (TL2NH3LN) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Instrument:  TES/Aura L2 Ammonia Spatial Coverage:  5.3 km nadir Spatial ... OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Ammonia Order Data:  Earthdata Search:   Order Data ...

  5. Synthesis, characterization and antitumor activity of Ln(III) complexes with hydrazone Schiff base derived from 2-acetylpyridine and isonicotinohydrazone

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jing; Shen, Shanshan; Chen, Ruhua; Xu, Jun; Dong, Kun; Huang, Jiancui; Lu, Qin; Zhu, Wenjiao; Ma, Tieliang; Jia, Lei; Cai, Hongxin; Zhu, Taofeng

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, two isostructural lanthanide (Ln)(III) complexes, namely Ln(HL)2(NO3)(CH3OH)2)·CH3OH, where Ln = La in complex 1 and Ce in complex 2, and hydrogen ligand (HL) = (E)-N'-[1-(2-pyridinyl)ethylidene]isonicotinohydrazone, have been isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The results revealed that the acylhydrazone ligand HL in each complex was deprotonated as an anionic ligand and coordinated to the central La(III) ion via enolization of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Furthermore, the antitumor effects and potential mechanisms of the two complexes were explored in the human lung cancer cell line A549 and in the human gastric cancer cell lines BGC823 and SGC7901. In the present study, the roles the two complexes on the proliferation and apoptosis of the above tumor cell lines were determined by MTT assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry, respectively. Furthermore, various apoptosis-associated key genes, including caspase 3, B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2, were detected by western blotting to explore the possible antitumor mechanisms of the two complexes. The results revealed that the two complexes had comparable antitumor activities in terms of inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in tumor cell lines. The changes in the protein expression levels of caspase 3, Bax and Bcl-2 further verified the apoptosis-promoting mechanisms of the two complexes in tumor cell lines. These findings have a great potential in biomedical applications of novel Ln(III) complexes. PMID:28599443

  6. A series of Ln-p-chlorobenzoic acid–terpyridine complexes: lanthanide contraction effects, supramolecular interactions and luminescent behavior

    SciT

    Carter, Korey P.; Pope, Simon J. A.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    Fifteen new lanthanide p-chlorobenzoic acid complexes, [PrL3(terpy)(H2O)]2 (1), [LnL3(terpy)(H2O)]2 (Ln = Nd (2), Sm (3), and Eu (4)), and [LnL3(terpy)(H2O)] (Ln = Sm (3'), Eu (4'), Gd (5), Tb (6), Dy (7), Ho (8), Er (9), Tm (10), Yb (11), Lu (12), and Y (13); HL: p-chlorobenzoic acid; terpy: 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine), have been synthesized hydrothermally at varying temperatures and structurally characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. The series is comprised of binuclear molecular units (Pr–Eu) that give way to mononuclear molecular complexes (Sm–Y) as the lanthanide contraction takes effect. All fifteen complexes feature a tridentate terpyridine ligand, p-chlorobenzoic acidmore » ligands exhibiting multiple binding modes, bidentate, bridging bidentate, and monodentate, and a bound water molecule. Binuclear complexes 1–4 are stitched together via intermolecular interactions: aromatic–aromatic interactions for 1, halogen•••halogen interactions for 2–4, to form 1D chains. Mononuclear complexes 3', 4', and 5–13 utilize supramolecular hydrogen and halogen bonding to form 2D sheets. Visible and near-IR solid state luminescence studies were performed on complexes 2, 3, 3', 4, 4', 6, 7 and 11 and the characteristic visible luminescence of Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), and Dy(III) was exhibited. The near-IR spectra of the Nd(III) and Yb(III) complexes exhibit weak characteristic luminescence, showing that terpy can act as a sensitizing chromophore in these systems.« less

  7. Aqueous Binary Lanthanide(III) Nitrate Ln(NO3)3 Electrolytes Revisited: Extended Pitzer and Bromley Treatments

    SciT

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Campbell, Emily L.; Neiner, Doinita

    To date, only limited thermodynamic models describing activity coefficients of the aqueous solutions of lanthanide ions are available. This work expands the existing experimental osmotic coefficient data obtained by classical isopiestic technique for the aqueous binary trivalent lanthanide nitrate Ln(NO3)3 solutions using a combination of water activity and vapor pressure osmometry measurements. The combined osmotic coefficient database for each aqueous lanthanide nitrate at 25°C, consisting of literature available data as well as data obtained in this work, was used to test the validity of Pitzer and Bromley thermodynamic models for the accurate prediction of mean molal activity coefficients of themore » Ln(NO3)3 solutions in wide concentration ranges. The new and improved Pitzer and Bromley parameters were calculated. It was established that the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients in the solutions with ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 can be estimated by both Pitzer and single-parameter Bromley models, even though the latter provides for more accurate prediction, particularly in the lower ionic strength regime (up to 6 mol kg-1). On the other hand for the concentrated solutions, the extended three-parameter Bromley model can be employed to predict the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients with remarkable accuracy. The accuracy of the extended Bromley model in predicting the activity coefficients was greater than ~95% and ~90% for all solutions with the ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 and and 20 mol kg-1, respectively. This is the first time that the activity coefficients for concentrated lanthanide solutions have been predicted with such a remarkable accuracy.« less

  8. LnPO 4 Nanoparticles Doped with Ac-225 and Sequestered Daughters for Targeted Alpha Therapy

    SciT

    McLaughlin, Mark F.; Robertson, David; Pevsner, Paul H.

    2014-02-01

    For targeted alpha therapy (TAT) with 225Ac, daughter radioisotopes from the parent emissions should be controlled. We report on a second-generation layered nanoparticle (NP) with improved daughter retention that can mediate TAT of lung tumor colonies. NPs of La 3+, Gd 3+, and 225Ac 3+ ions were coated with additional layers of GdPO 4 and then coated with gold via citrate reduction of NaAuCl 4. MAb 201b, targeting thrombomodulin in lung endothelium, was added to a polyethylene glycol (dPEG)-COOH linker. Furthermore, we quantified the NPs:mAb ratio by labeling the mAb with 125I. NPs showed 30% injected dose/organ antibody-mediated uptake inmore » the lung, which increased to 47% in mice pretreated with clodronate liposomes to reduce phagocytosis. Retention of daughter 213Bi in lung tissue was more than 70% at one hour and about 90% at 24 hours postinjection. Treatment of mice with lung-targeted 225Ac NP reduced EMT-6 lung colonies relative to cold antibody competition for targeting or phosphate-buffered saline injected controls. Finally, we show that LnPO 4 NPs represent a viable solution to deliver the 225Ac as an in vivo α generator. The NPs successfully retain a large percentage of the daughter products without compromising the tumoricidal properties of the α-radiation.« less

  9. Cold work study on a 316LN modified alloy for the ITER TF coil conduit

    DOE PAGES

    Walsh, Robert; Toplosky, V. J.; McRae, D. M.; ...

    2012-06-01

    The primary structural component of the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) magnets, such as the ITER TF coils is the conduit. This function creates requirements for 4 K strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and ductility after exposure to the superconductor's reaction heat treatment. The tensile ductility of a steel is a quality factor related to fatigue and fracture resistance that can be evaluated more economically with tensile tests rather than fatigue and fracture tests. We subject 316LN modified base metal and welds to a range of cold work from 0% to 20% and a subsequent Nb 3Sn reaction heat treatment to evaluatemore » the effects on the tensile properties. With the addition of cold work, the 4 K yield strength increases while tensile elongation decreases in both the base metal and weld. Our results are compared to previously published data on the same alloy to evaluate the use of tensile ductility parameters as a materials qualification specification in magnet design.« less

  10. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    SciT

    Pawel, Steven J; Hsu, Julia

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C weremore » found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.« less

  11. Effects of pre-creep on the dislocations of 316LN Austenite stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Hai-xiang; Hui, Jun; Hua, Hou; Feng, Zai-xin; Xu, Xiao-long

    2017-09-01

    The 316LN Austenite stainless steels (316LNASS) were pre-creep treated, the evolution of microstructure were investigated. The samples were pre-creep at 593 K and from 500 to 2000 h at 873 K with a stress in the range of 20 to 150 MPa, Then the evolution of microstructure and precipitation were investigated by optical microscope (OM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that the crystal surface slipping resulted in dislocations and original dislocations decomposition during the pre-creep process, and generate quadrilateral or hexagonal dislocation network was obviously. The sub-grain boundary gradually became narrow with the increasing of pre-creep treatment time and temperature. When the pre-creep temperature was 593 K and 873 K, dislocation network gradually disappear with the increasing of pre-creep time and load. When the pre-creep temperature was 873 K under 120 MPa, and the treatment time was 2000 h, the hexagonal dislocation network (HDN) would completely disappeared. When the pre-creep temperature was 593 K under 20 MPa, and the treatment time was 500 h, the quadrilateral dislocation network (QDN) would completely disappeared.

  12. Optimization of hybrid laser - TIG welding of 316LN steel using response surface methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragavendran, M.; Chandrasekhar, N.; Ravikumar, R.; Saxena, Rajesh; Vasudevan, M.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, the hybrid laser - TIG welding parameters for welding of 316LN austenitic stainless steel have been investigated by combining a pulsed laser beam with a TIG welding heat source at the weld pool. Laser power, pulse frequency, pulse duration, TIG current were presumed as the welding process parameters whereas weld bead width, weld cross-sectional area and depth of penetration (DOP) were considered as the process responses. Central composite design was used to complete the design matrix and welding experiments were conducted based on the design matrix. Weld bead measurements were then carried out to generate the dataset. Multiple regression models correlating the process parameters with the responses have been developed. The accuracy of the models were found to be good. Then, the desirability approach optimization technique was employed for determining the optimum process parameters to obtain the desired weld bead profile. Validation experiments were then carried out from the determined optimum process parameters. There was good agreement between the predicted and measured values.

  13. Model-free nuclear magnetic resonance study of intermolecular free energy landscapes in liquids with paramagnetic Ln3+ spotlights: theory and application to Arg-Gly-Asp.

    PubMed

    Fries, Pascal H

    2012-01-28

    We propose an easily applicable method for investigating the pair distribution function of a lanthanide Ln(3+) complex LnL (L = ligand) with respect to any solvent or solute molecule A carrying observable nuclear spins. Let r be the distance of Ln(3+) to the observed nuclear spin I. We derive a simple expression of the experimental value of the configurational average of 1/r(6) in terms of longitudinal paramagnetic relaxation (rate) enhancements (PREs) of the spin I measured on a standard high-resolution NMR spectrometer and due to well-chosen concentrations of LnL complexes in which Ln(3+) is a fast-relaxing paramagnetic lanthanide or the slowly-relaxing gadolinium Gd(3+). The derivation is justified in the general case of a molecule A which is by turns in a bound state where it follows the complex and a free state where it moves independently. It rests on the expression of the underlying PRE theory in terms of the angle-dependent pair distribution function of LnL and A. The simplifications of this theory in the high-field regime and under the condition of fast exchange between bound and free states are carefully discussed. We also show that original information on the angle dependence of the molecular pair distribution function can be gained from the measured paramagnetic dipolar shifts induced by complexed fast-relaxing Ln(3+) ions. The method is illustrated by the case study of the anionic Lnttha(3-) = [Ln(3+)(ttha)](3-) (ttha(6-) = triethylene tetraamine hexacetate) complex interacting with the biologically important tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) which carries peripheral ionic groups. The usefulness of an auxiliary reference outer sphere probe solute is emphasized. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  14. Earth: A Ringed Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, L. O.; Povenmire, H.

    2010-12-01

    Among the most beautiful findings of the Space Age have been the discoveries of planetary rings. Not only Saturn but also Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune have rings; Saturn’s ring system has structures newly discovered; even Saturn's moon Rhea itself has a ring. All these are apparently supplied by material from the planetary moons (Rhea's ring by Rhea itself). The question naturally arises, why should the Earth not have a ring, and on the other hand, if it does, why has it not been observed? No rings have yet been observed in the inner solar system, but after all, rings in the inner solar system might simply tend to be fainter and more transient than those of the outer solar system: the inner solar system is more affected by the solar wind, and the Sun’s perturbing gravitational influence is greater. J.A. O’Keefe first suggested (1980) that Earth might have a ring system of its own. An Earth ring could account for some climate events. O’Keefe remarked that formation or thickening of a ring system in Earth’s equatorial plane could drive glaciation by deepening the chill of the winter hemisphere. (It is very well established that volcanic dust is an effective agent for the extinction of sunlight; this factor can be overwhelmingly apparent in eclipse observations.) O’Keefe died in 2000 and the speculation was not pursued, but the idea of an Earth ring has a prima facie reasonableness that calls for its renewed consideration. The program of this note is to hypothesize that, as O’Keefe proposed: (a) an Earth ring system exists; (b) it affects Earth's weather and climate; (c) the tektite strewn fields comprise filaments of the ring fallen to Earth's surface on various occasions of disturbance by comets or asteroids. On this basis, and drawing on the world's weather records, together with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis by NCEP/CIRES covering the period 1870-2010 and the geology of the tektite strewn fields, we herein propose the hypothesized Earth ring

  15. Chiroptical methods in a wide wavelength range for obtaining Ln3+ complexes with circularly polarized luminescence of practical interest.

    PubMed

    Górecki, Marcin; Carpita, Luca; Arrico, Lorenzo; Zinna, Francesco; Di Bari, Lorenzo

    2018-05-29

    We studied enantiopure chiral trivalent lanthanide (Ln3+ = La3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tm3+, and Yb3+) complexes with two fluorinated achiral tris(β-diketonate) ligands (HFA = hexafluoroacetylacetonate and TTA = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate), incorporating a chiral bis(oxazolinyl)pyridine (PyBox) unit as a neutral ancillary ligand, by the combined use of optical and chiroptical methods, ranging from UV to IR both in absorption and circular dichroism (CD), and including circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Ultimately, all the spectroscopic information is integrated into a total and a chiroptical super-spectrum, which allows one to characterize a multidimensional chemical space, spanned by the different Ln3+ ions, the acidity and steric demand of the diketone and the chirality of the PyBox ligand. In all cases, the Ln3+ ions endow the systems with peculiar chiroptical properties, either allied to f-f transitions or induced by the metal onto the ligand. In more detail, we found that Sm3+ complexes display interesting CPL features, which partly superimpose and partly integrate the more common Eu3+ properties. Especially, in the context of security tags, the pair Sm/Eu may be a winning choice for chiroptical barcoding.

  16. Earth Science Multimedia Theater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation will begin with the latest 1998 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. A compilation of the 10 days of animations of Hurricane Georges which were supplied daily on NASA to Network television will be shown. NASA's visualizations of Hurricane Bonnie which appeared in the Sept 7 1998 issue of TIME magazine. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1 -min GOES images that will appear in the October BAMS. The visualizations are produced by the Goddard Visualization & Analysis Laboratory, and Scientific Visualization Studio, as well as other Goddard and NASA groups using NASA, NOAA, ESA, and NASDA Earth science datasets. Visualizations will be shown from the "Digital-HyperRes-Panorama" Earth Science ETheater'98 recently presented in Tokyo, Paris and Phoenix. The presentation in Paris used a SGI/CRAY Onyx Infinite Reality Super Graphics Workstation at 2560 X 1024 resolution with dual synchronized video Epson 71 00 projectors on a 20ft wide screen. Earth Science Electronic Theater '999 is being prepared for a December 1 st showing at NASA HQ in Washington and January presentation at the AMS meetings in Dallas. The 1999 version of the Etheater will be triple wide with at resolution of 3840 X 1024 on a 60 ft wide screen. Visualizations will also be featured from the new Earth Today Exhibit which was opened by Vice President Gore on July 2, 1998 at the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in Washington, as well as those presented for possible use at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC), Disney EPCOT, and other venues. New methods are demonstrated for visualizing, interpreting, comparing, organizing and analyzing immense Hyperimage remote sensing datasets and three dimensional numerical model results. We call the data from many new Earth sensing satellites

  17. Visualizing Earth Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.

    2016-12-01

    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  18. Student Geoscientists Explore the Earth during Earth Science Week 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    Taking place October 9-15, Earth Science Week 2005 will celebrate the theme "Geoscientists Explore the Earth." The American Geological Institute (AGI) is organizing the event, as always, to help people better understand and appreciate the Earth sciences and to encourage stewardship of the planet. This year, the focus will be on the wide range of…

  19. South Polar Projection of Earth

    1997-09-10

    This view of the Earth shows a wonderfully unique but physically impossible view of the southern hemisphere and Antarctica. While a spacecraft could find itself directly over the Earth pole, roughly half of the image should be in darkness!

  20. Heat-pipe Earth.

    PubMed

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  1. Physics of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Frank D.; Davis, Paul M.

    he fourth edition of Physics of the Earth maintains the original philosophy of this classic graduate textbook on fundamental solid earth geophysics, while being completely revised, updated, and restructured into a more modular format to make individual topics even more accessible. Building on the success of previous editions, which have served generations of students and researchers for nearly forty years, this new edition will be an invaluable resource for graduate students looking for the necessary physical and mathematical foundations to embark on their own research careers in geophysics. Several completely new chapters have been added and a series of appendices, presenting fundamental data and advanced mathematical concepts, and an extensive reference list, are provided as tools to aid readers wishing to pursue topics beyond the level of the book. Over 140 student exercises of varying levels of difficulty are also included, and full solutions are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521873628.

  2. Phaethon Near Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, David

    2017-08-01

    Planet-crossing asteroid (3200) Phaethon, source of the Geminid meteoroid stream, will pass close to Earth in December 2017. Observations with HST are proposed to image debris ejected from this object at 1 AU heliocentric distance, to estimate the ejection velocities as the Earth passes through the orbit plane, and to estimate the dust production rate for comparison with the rates needed to sustain the Geminid stream in steady-state. These measurements will help determine the mechanism behind the ejection of the Geminids, a long-standing puzzle. While the release of micron-sized particles (probably by thermal fracture) has been recorded at Phaethon's perihelion (0.14 AU), mass loss has never been detected otherwise, raising the puzzle of the ejection mechanism and duration. The close approach (0.07 AU) on December 17 gives a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to observe Phaethon at high sensitivity with a resolution of a few kilometers.

  3. NASA Benefits Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  4. Earth from Orbit 2014

    2015-04-20

    Every day of every year, NASA satellites provide useful data about our home planet, and along the way, some beautiful images as well. This video includes satellite images of Earth in 2014 from NASA and its partners as well as photos and a time lapse video from the International Space Station. We’ve also included a range of data visualizations, model runs, and a conceptual animation that were produced in 2014 (but in some cases might have been utilizing data from earlier years.) Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  5. Earth Sky GT-7

    1965-12-07

    S65-63829 (5 Dec. 1965) --- Algeria, south of the Fort Flatters area, as seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s Gemini-7 spacecraft during its 13th revolution of Earth. The orange color area is the Tifermine Sand Dunes that reach a height of 1,000 feet. The photograph was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, with Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Earth Sky GT-7

    1965-12-07

    S65-63784 (7 Dec. 1965) --- Algeria, south of Celemb Bechar, as seen from the orbiting Gemini-7 spacecraft during its 42nd revolution of Earth. Note rain runoff on the desert floor. Astronaut Frank Borman and James A. Lovell Jr. were aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s Gemini-7 spacecraft. The photograph was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Sunrise, Earth Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This sunrise scene (5.5S, 29.5E) was taken early in the morning, when the sun was still below the horizon and not yet illuminating the dark band of low level clouds on the Earth limb. Ranging from 13 to 18 km. above these low level clouds is a brown layer at the tropopause, an atmospheric temperature inversion which isolates the troposphere from the stratosphere and effectively concentrates particulates from both above and below this level.

  8. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-18

    Employees get an up-close look at some Florida marine life during a visit to the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences booth at Kennedy Space Center’s annual Earth Day celebration. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  9. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-17

    David Bell of Renew Merchandise was one of 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more. The event took place during the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests have an opportunity to learn more about energy awareness, the environment and sustainability.

  10. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-17

    During the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests have an opportunity to get an up-close look at experimental electric vehicles. The "Remove Before Flight" tag is on a Polaris GEM electric car. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  11. GT-12 - EARTH SKY

    1966-11-14

    S66-63030 (14 Nov. 1966) --- Gulf Coast area from Matagorda Bay, Texas, to Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, looking east, as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during its 44th revolution of Earth. Galveston Bay is in center of picture. Houston and its environs are clearly visible. Note network of freeways and superhighways. Large lake near left center of picture is the Sam Rayburn Reservoir. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  13. Photosynthesis and early Earth.

    PubMed

    Shih, Patrick M

    2015-10-05

    Life has been built on the evolution and innovation of microbial metabolisms. Even with our scant understanding of the full diversity of microbial life, it is clear that microbes have become integral components of the biogeochemical cycles that drive our planet. The antiquity of life further suggests that various microbial metabolisms have been core and essential to global elemental cycling for a majority of Earth's history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Lisa Robock

    1992-01-01

    The restructuring of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), designed to provide comprehensive long term observations from space of changes occurring on the Earth from natural and human causes in order to have a sound scientific basis for policy decisions on protection of the future, is reported. In response to several factors, the original program approved in the fiscal year 1991 budget was restructured and somewhat reduced in scope. The resulting program uses three different sized launch vehicles to put six different spacecraft in orbit in the first phase, followed by two replacement launches for each of five of the six satellites to maintain a long term observing capability to meet the needs of global climate change research and other science objectives. The EOS system, including the space observatories, the data and information system, and the interdisciplinary global change research effort, are approved and proceeding. Elements of EOS are already in place, such as the research investigations and initial data system capabilities. The flights of precursor satellite and Shuttle missions, the ongoing data analysis, and the evolutionary enhancements to the integrated Earth science data management capabilities are all important building blocks to the full EOS program.

  15. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  16. The Earth Science Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rychekewkitsch, Michael; Andrucyk, Dennis; McConaughy, Gail; Meeson, Blanche; Hildebrand, Peter; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's long range vision is to enable the development of a national proactive environmental predictive capability through targeted scientific research and technological innovation. Proactive environmental prediction means the prediction of environmental events and their secondary consequences. These consequences range from disasters and disease outbreak to improved food production and reduced transportation, energy and insurance costs. The economic advantage of this predictive capability will greatly outweigh the cost of development. Developing this predictive capability requires a greatly improved understanding of the earth system and the interaction of the various components of that system. It also requires a change in our approach to gathering data about the earth and a change in our current methodology in processing that data including its delivery to the customers. And, most importantly, it requires a renewed partnership between NASA and its sister agencies. We identify six application themes that summarize the potential of proactive environmental prediction. We also identify four technology themes that articulate our approach to implementing proactive environmental prediction.

  17. The Far Infrared Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, John; Carli, Bruno; Rizzi, Rolando; Serio, Carmine; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Palchetti, Luca; Maestri, T.; Brindley, H.; Masiello, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the far infrared (FIR) properties of the Earth's atmosphere, and the role of these properties in climate. These properties have been relatively poorly understood, and it is one of the purposes of this review to demonstrate that, in recent years, we have made great strides in improving this understanding. Seen from space, the Earth is a cool object, with an effective emitting temperature of about 255 K. This contrasts with a global mean surface temperature of 288 K, and is due primarily to strong absorption of outgoing longwave energy by water vapour, carbon dioxide and clouds (especially ice). A large fraction of this absorption occurs in the FIR, and so the Earth is effectively a FIR planet. The FIR is important in a number of key climate processes, for example the water vapour and cloud feedbacks (especially ice clouds). The FIR is also a spectral region which can be used to remotely sense and retrieve atmospheric composition in the presence of ice clouds. Recent developments in instrumentation have allowed progress in each of these areas, which are described, and proposals for a spaceborne FIR instrument are being formulated. It is timely to review the FIR properties of the clear and cloudy atmosphere, the role of FIR processes in climate, and its use in observing our planet from space.

  18. Rare earth elements geochemistry in springs from Taftan geothermal area SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Ata; Ghoreyshinia, Sayedkazem; Mehrabi, Behzad; Delavari, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in springs and andesitic-dacitic rocks of Taftan geothermal field. Hydrochemical results of major ions indicate that thermal springs are Na-SO4-Cl and Ca-SO4-Cl types. Concentrations of REEs are in ranges of 10- 4 to 1.2 and 49 to 62 times of chondrite for springwater and rock samples, respectively. The thermal (STS and TTS) and the cold (APS) springs with low pH values exhibit a very high REE contents (0.64 to 3.15 mg/l). Saturation index indicates that Fe and Al phases can control dissolved REE concentration in FTS and PF cold springs. The speciation of REE complexes indicates dominant presence of LnSO4+ and free ion in the Taftan thermal springs. In APS cold spring with pH 4, fluoride complexes are dominate over the free ion and sulfate species, while in PF and FTS cold springs with pH 6.4 and 7, respectively, carbonate complexes (LnCO3+) are predominant species. Chondrite-normalized pattern for the low-pH waters show very distinctive gull-wing patterns, characteristic feature of acid-sulfate geothermal systems, and are similar to those of the host rocks. Chemical characteristics of rare earth elements in spring and volcanic rock samples indicate that REEs are originated from the andesitic-dacitic host rocks. Whole-rock-normalized REE patterns and petrographic evidences show that rare earth elements leached mainly from marginal alteration of minerals and matrix decomposition in volcanic rocks. In chondrite-normalized REE patterns, significant negative Eu anomaly in the cold springs compare to the thermal and acidic springs indicates that alteration of plagioclase is more intense in the later, corresponding to increasing in temperature and acidic state of reactant water.

  19. Tidal Locking Of The Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohafkan, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The Moon's orbit and spin period are nearly synchronized, or tidally locked. Could the Moon's orbit and the Earth's spin eventually synchronize as well? The Moon's gravitational pull on the Earth produces tides in our oceans, and tidal friction gradually lengthens our days. Less obvious gravitational interactions between the Earth and Moon may also have effects on Earth's spin. The Earth is slightly distorted into an egg-like shape, and the torque exerted by the Moon on our equatorial bulge slowly changes the tilt of our spin axis. How do effects such as these change as the Moon drifts away from Earth? I will examine gravitational interactions between Earth and Moon to learn how they contribute to the deceleration of the Earth's rotation. My goal is to determine the amount of time it would take for the Earth's rotational speed to decelerate until the period of a single rotation matches the period of the Moon's orbit around Earth -- when the Earth is ``tidally locked'' with the Moon. I aim to derive a general mathematical expression for the rotational deceleration of the Earth due to Moon's gravitational influences.

  20. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    NASA's Earth Dome is seen at Union Station, Monday, April 22, 2013 in Washington. The Earth Dome housed two of NASA's Science Gallery exhibits as part of a NASA-sponsored Earth Day event at Union Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    Jennifer Brennan, NASA EOSDIS Outreach Lead at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center, speaks to participants at a NASA Earth Day sponsored exhibit about satellite earth imagery, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Earth Education: A New Beginning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    The Institute for Earth Education is a nonprofit volunteer group made up of an international network of individuals and member organizations devoted to helping people live more lightly on the earth. This book proposes an alternative path to solve environmental problems. The program, called the earth education path, seeks to accomplish one of…

  3. Earth Science: Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgren, James R.

    1969-01-01

    Reviews history of earth science in secondary schools. From early nineteenth century to the present, earth science (and its antecedents, geology, physical geography, and astronomy) has had an erratic history for several reasons, but particularly because of lack of earth science teacher-training programs. (BR)

  4. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2017-12-11

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  5. Strategy for earth explorers in global earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the current NASA Earth System Science initiative is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the Earth as an integrated, dynamic system. The centerpiece of the Earth System Science initiative will be a set of instruments carried on polar orbiting platforms under the Earth Observing System program. An Earth Explorer program can open new vistas in the earth sciences, encourage innovation, and solve critical scientific problems. Specific missions must be rigorously shaped by the demands and opportunities of high quality science and must complement the Earth Observing System and the Mission to Planet Earth. The committee believes that the proposed Earth Explorer program provides a substantial opportunity for progress in the earth sciences, both through independent missions and through missions designed to complement the large scale platforms and international research programs that represent important national commitments. The strategy presented is intended to help ensure the success of the Earth Explorer program as a vital stimulant to the study of the planet.

  6. Carbonato-bridged Ni(II)2Ln(III)2 (Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) complexes generated by atmospheric CO2 fixation and their single-molecule-magnet behavior: [(μ4-CO3)2{Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(MeOH or H2O)Ln(III)(NO3)}2]·solvent [3-MeOsaltn = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Soichiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Nishi, Koshiro; Matsumoto, Naohide; Mochida, Naotaka; Ishida, Takayuki; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Re, Nazzareno

    2013-06-17

    Atmospheric CO2 fixation of [Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(H2O)2]·2.5H2O [3-MeOsaltn = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato], Ln(III)(NO3)3·6H2O, and triethylamine occurred in methanol/acetone, giving a first series of carbonato-bridged Ni(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes [(μ4-CO3)2{Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(MeOH)Ln(III)(NO3)}2] (1Gd, 1Tb, and 1Dy). When the reaction was carried out in acetonitrile/water, it gave a second series of complexes [(μ4-CO3)2{Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(H2O)Ln(III)(NO3)}2]·2CH3CN·2H2O (2Gd, 2Tb, and 2Dy). For both series, each Ni(II)2Ln(III)2 structure can be described as two di-μ-phenoxo-bridged Ni(II)Ln(III) binuclear units bridged by two carbonato CO3(2-) units to form a carbonato-bridged (μ4-CO3)2{Ni(II)2Ln(III)2} structure. The high-spin Ni(II) ion has octahedral coordination geometry, and the Ln(III) ion is coordinated by O9 donor atoms from Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn), bidentate NO3(-), and one and two oxygen atoms of two CO3(2-) ions. The NO3(-) ion for the first series roughly lie on Ln-O(methoxy) bonds and are tilted toward the outside, while for the second series, the two oxygen atoms roughly lie on one of the Ln-O(phenoxy) bonds due to the intramolecular hydrogen bond. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities indicated a ferromagnetic interaction between the Ni(II) and Ln(III) ions (Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) for all of the complexes, with a distinctly different magnetic behavior between the two series in the lowest-temperature region due to the Ln(III)-Ln(III) magnetic interaction and/or different magnetic anisotropies of the Tb(III) or Dy(III) ion. Alternating-current susceptibility measurements under the 0 and 1000 Oe direct-current (dc) bias fields showed no magnetic relaxation for the Ni(II)2Gd(III)2 complexes but exhibited an out-of-phase signal for Ni(II)2Tb(III)2 and Ni(II)2Dy(III)2, indicative of slow relaxation of magnetization. The energy barriers, Δ/kB, for the spin flipping were estimated from the Arrhenius

  7. Modifying the size and uniformity of upconversion Yb/Er:NaGdF4 nanocrystals through alkaline-earth doping.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Daqin; Huang, Ping; Xu, Ju; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-11-21

    NaGdF4 is regarded as an ideal upconversion (UC) host material for lanthanide (Ln(3+)) activators because of its unique crystal structure, high Ln(3+) solubility, low phonon energy and high photochemical stability, and Ln(3+)-doped NaGdF4 UC nanocrystals (NCs) have been widely investigated as bio-imaging and magnetic resonance imaging agents recently. To realize their practical applications, controlling the size and uniformity of the monodisperse Ln(3+)-doped NaGdF4 UC NCs is highly desired. Unlike the routine routes by finely adjusting the multiple experimental parameters, herein we provide a facile and straightforward strategy to modify the size and uniformity of NaGdF4 NCs via alkaline-earth doping for the first time. With the increase of alkaline-earth doping content, the size of NaGdF4 NCs increases gradually, while the size-uniformity is still retained. We attribute this "focusing" of size distribution to the diffusion controlled growth of NaGdF4 NCs induced by alkaline-earth doping. Importantly, adopting the Ca(2+)-doped Yb/Er:NaGdF4 NCs as cores, the complete Ca/Yb/Er:NaGdF4@NaYF4 core-shell particles with excellent size-uniformity can be easily achieved. However, when taking the Yb/Er:NaGdF4 NCs without Ca(2+) doping as cores, they could not be perfectly covered by NaYF4 shells, and the obtained products are non-uniform in size. As a result, the UC emission intensity of the complete core-shell NCs increases by about 30 times in comparison with that of the cores, owing to the effective surface passivation of the Ca(2+)-doped cores and therefore protection of Er(3+) in the cores from the non-radiative decay caused by surface defects, whereas the UC intensity of the incomplete core-shell NCs is enhanced by only 3 times.

  8. Laser shock peening studies on SS316LN plate with various sacrificial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yella, Pardhu; Venkateswarlu, P.; Buddu, Ramesh K.; Vidyasagar, D. V.; Sankara Rao, K. Bhanu; Kiran, P. Prem; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V.

    2018-03-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP) has been utilized to modify the surface characteristics of SS316LN plates of 6 mm thickness. Laser pulse widths employed are 30 ps and 7 ns and the laser energy was varied in the range 5-90 mJ. Peening was performed in direct ablation mode as well as with various sacrificial layers such as black paint, transparent adhesive tape and absorbing adhesive tape. The surface characteristics were greatly influenced by the type of sacrificial layer employed. The average surface roughness values are about 0.4 μm when the black paint and transparent adhesive tape were used as sacrificial layers. In contrast to this, using absorbent adhesive tape as a sacrificial layer has resulted in an average surface roughness of about 0.04 μm. Irrespective of pulse durations (30 ps or 7 ns), absorbent adhesive tape has always resulted in compressive residual stresses whereas other layers appear to be not that effective. In case of 30 ps pulse, as the laser energy was increased from 5 mJ to 25 mJ, there was a texture observed in (111) reflection of X-ray diffractograms and the center of the peak has also gradually shifted to left. X-ray line profile analysis suggests that with the increase in laser energy, lattice microstrain also has increased. This lattice microstrain appears to be resulting from the increased dislocation density in the peened sample as evidenced during transmission electron microscopic investigations. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy performed on peened samples suggests that absorbing adhesive tape brings no surface damage to the samples whereas other sacrificial layers have resulted in some surface damage. Based on all these structural and microstructural details, it is recommended that absorbent tape could be used as a sacrificial layer during LSP process which induces surface residual stresses with no damage to the sample surface.

  9. Estimation of Low Cycle Fatigue Response of 316 LN Stainless Steel in the Presence of Notch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Richa; Veerababu, J.; Goyal, Sunil; Sandhya, R.; Uddanwadiker, Rashmi; Padole, Pramod

    2018-02-01

    Notches introduced in the plain specimen result in the multiaxial state of stress that exists in the actual components due to the presence of flaws and defects. In the present work, low cycle fatigue life estimation of plain and notched specimens of 316 LN stainless steel is carried out at room temperature and 823 K. The plain and notched specimens with different notch radii were subjected to varying strain amplitudes ranging from ± 0.25 to ± 1.0% at a strain rate of 3 × 10-3 s-1. The fatigue life decreased in the presence of notch for all strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The decrease in fatigue life was found to be more at room temperature than at 823 K. The fatigue life of the notched specimen decreased by approximately 94.2% compared to plain specimen at room temperature. However, at 823 K the decrease in fatigue life for notched specimen was approximately 84.6%. Low cycle fatigue life of the plain and notched specimens was estimated by Neuber's rule and finite element analysis approach. Neuber's rule overestimated the fatigue life by maximum factor of 2.6 for specimens at room temperature and by maximum factor of 5 for specimens at 823 K. However, it gives closer approximation at higher strain amplitudes at 823 K. Life estimation by finite element analysis at room temperature was within a factor of 1.5 as compared to experimental life, whereas it underestimated the fatigue life within a factor of 6 at high temperature.

  10. Cathodoluminescence response of natural and synthetic lanthanide-rich phosphates (Ln3+: Ce, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Villatoro, A.; Boronat, C.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Correcher, V.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Zarate-Medina, J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on the cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both natural and synthetic lanthanide-rich phosphates (Ln3+: Ce, Nd) previously characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Environmental Scanning Electronic Microscopy (ESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. The thermal treatment at 700 °C performed on the synthetic sample obtained by chemical precipitation, promotes increasing of the crystallinity degree giving rise to a phase transition from the hexagonal (comprising monazite and rabdophane) into the monoclinic (cerianite and monazite) structures detected by XRD. Despite the size and the morphology of the grains are similar under ESEM, it could be appreciated significant differences among CL signals attending to the shape (with well-defined peaks for the annealed sample) and intensity (with lower emission for the non-thermally pretreated synthetic phosphate). The main wavebands centered at (i) 360, 380 and 490 nm are associated respectively with 5D3/2 → 2F5/2 and 5D3/2 → 2F7/2 transitions as well as a redox reaction assigned to the presence of Ce3+, (ii) 276, 424, 516 and 531 nm are linked respectively to 2G9/2→4I9/2, 2P1/2→4I9/2, 4G9/2→4I9/2 and 4G7/2→4I9/2 Nd3+ transitions and (iii) 400-490 nm is due to non-bridging oxygen hole centers related to the tetrahedral PO43- groups or structural defects for the heated synthetic samples. The natural sample from Madagascar, with a very complex CL spectrum, displays a characteristic band emission in the green-yellow and red regions corresponding to [UO2]2+ groups and Sm3+ respectively.

  11. Rare Earth Polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Boskovic, Colette

    2017-09-19

    Longstanding and important applications make use of the chemical and physical properties of both rare earth metals and polyoxometalates of early transition metals. The catalytic, optical, and magnetic features of rare earth metal ions are well-known, as are the reversible multielectron redox and photoredox capabilities of polyoxomolybdates and polyoxotungstates. The combination of rare earth ions and polyoxometalates in discrete molecules and coordination polymers is of interest for the unique combination of chemical and physical properties that can arise. This Account surveys our efforts to synthesize and investigate compounds with rare earth ions and polyoxometalates (RE-POMs), sometimes with carboxylate-based organic coligands. Our general synthetic approach is "bottom-up", which affords well-defined nanoscale molecules, typically in crystalline form and amenable to single-crystal X-ray diffraction for structure determination. Our particular focus is on elucidation of the physical properties conferred by the different structural components with a view to ultimately being able to tune these properties chemically. For this purpose, we employ a variety of spectroscopic, magnetochemical, electrochemical, and scattering techniques in concert with theoretical modeling and computation. Studies of RE-POM single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have utilized magnetic susceptibility, inelastic neutron scattering, and ab initio calculations. These investigations have allowed characterization of the crystal field splitting of the rare earth(III) ions that is responsible for the SMM properties of slow magnetic relaxation and magnetization quantum tunneling. Such SMMs are promising for applications in quantum computing and molecular spintronics. Photophysical measurements of a family of hybrid RE-POMs with organic ligands have afforded insights into sensitization of Tb(III) and Eu(III) emission through both organic and polyoxometalate chromophores in the same molecule. Detailed

  12. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  13. Coronal Hole Faces Earth

    2017-08-14

    A substantial coronal hole rotated into a position where it is facing Earth (Aug. 9-11, 2017). Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field that spew out charged particles as solar wind that spreads into space. If that solar wind interacts with our own magnetosphere it can generate aurora. In this view of the sun in extreme ultraviolet light, the coronal hole appears as the dark stretch near the center of the sun. It was the most distinctive feature on the sun over the past week. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21874

  14. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-17

    During the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests have an opportunity to get an up-close look at experimental electric vehicles and see and Apollo era Lunar Roving Vehicle used in astronaut training. The battery-operated car was used on Apollos 15, 16 and 17 in 1971 and 1972. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  15. Climate in Earth history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  16. A Star on Earth

    Prager, Stewart; Zwicker, Andrew; Hammet, Greg; Tresemer, Kelsey; Diallo, Ahmed

    2018-02-14

    At the Energy Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, scientists are trying to accomplish what was once considered the realm of science fiction: create a star on Earth. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a magnetic fusion device that is used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which, under the right conditions, nuclear fusion will occur. Fusion is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. Not just limited to theoretical work, the NSTX is enabling cutting-edge research to develop fusion as a future energy source.

  17. Supra-Earth affairs.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mazlan

    2011-02-13

    The United Nations briefly considered the issue of extra-terrestrial intelligence at the 32nd session of the General Assembly in 1977. As a result, the Office of Outer Space Affairs was tasked to prepare a document on issues related to 'messages to extra-terrestrial civilizations', but this area has not been followed through in more recent times. This discussion paper describes the United Nations' activities in the field of near-Earth objects in some detail, and suggests that this might be used as a model of how Member States could proceed with dealing with this issue in case the existence of extra-terrestrial life/intelligence is established.

  18. The Solid Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, C. M. R.

    2004-12-01

    The second edition of this acclaimed textbook has been brought fully up-to-date to reflect the latest advances in geophysical research. It is designed for students in introductory geophysics courses who have a general background in the physical sciences, including introductory calculus. New to this edition are a section of color plates and separate sections on the earth's mantle and core. The book also contains an extensive glossary of terms, and includes numerous exercises for which solutions are available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org. First Edition Hb (1990): 0-521-37025-6 First Edition Pb (1990): 0-521-38590-3

  19. The Solid Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, C. M. R.

    2005-02-01

    The second edition of this acclaimed textbook has been brought fully up-to-date to reflect the latest advances in geophysical research. It is designed for students in introductory geophysics courses who have a general background in the physical sciences, including introductory calculus. New to this edition are a section of color plates and separate sections on the earth's mantle and core. The book also contains an extensive glossary of terms, and includes numerous exercises for which solutions are available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org. First Edition Hb (1990): 0-521-37025-6 First Edition Pb (1990): 0-521-38590-3

  20. Highly efficient hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes and unactivated ketones catalyzed by methylene-linked pyrrolyl rare earth metal amido complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuangliu; Wu, Zhangshuan; Rong, Jiewei; Wang, Shaowu; Yang, Gaosheng; Zhu, Xiancui; Zhang, Lijun

    2012-02-27

    A series of rare earth metal amido complexes bearing methylene-linked pyrrolyl-amido ligands were prepared through silylamine elimination reactions and displayed high catalytic activities in hydrophosphonylations of aldehydes and unactivated ketones under solvent-free conditions for liquid substrates. Treatment of [(Me(3)Si)(2)N](3)Ln(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) with 2-(2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3)NHCH(2))C(4)H(3)NH (1, 1 equiv) in toluene afforded the corresponding trivalent rare earth metal amides of formula {(μ-η(5):η(1)):η(1)-2-[(2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))NCH(2)](C(4)H(3)N)LnN(SiMe(3))(2)}(2) [Ln=Y (2), Nd (3), Sm (4), Dy (5), Yb (6)] in moderate to good yields. All compounds were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analyses. The yttrium complex was also characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses. The structures of complexes 2, 3, 4, and 6 were determined by single-crystal X-ray analyses. Study of the catalytic activities of the complexes showed that these rare earth metal amido complexes were excellent catalysts for hydrophosphonylations of aldehydes and unactivated ketones. The catalyzed reactions between diethyl phosphite and aldehydes in the presence of the rare earth metal amido complexes (0.1 mol%) afforded the products in high yields (up to 99%) at room temperature in short times of 5 to 10 min. Furthermore, the catalytic addition of diethyl phosphite to unactivated ketones also afforded the products in high yields of up to 99% with employment of low loadings (0.1 to 0.5 mol%) of the rare earth metal amido complexes at room temperature in short times of 20 min. The system works well for a wide range of unactivated aliphatic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ketones, especially for substituted benzophenones, giving the corresponding α-hydroxy diaryl phosphonates in moderate to high yields. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.