Science.gov

Sample records for earth sheltered buildings

  1. Architecture Earth-Sheltered Buildings. Design Manual 1.4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Bioclimat kpproach to Architectural Regionalismj Princeton, New Jersey, Princetk .niversity Press, 1963. " 7) 3. Givoni, B., Man, Climate and...AD-A 140 831 NAVFAC DM-1.4MARCH 1984 T OF ARCHITECTURE EARTH-SHELTERED BUILDINGS DESIGN MANUAL 1.4 Reproduced From Best Available Copy ~9J)O,3...design are included for the following disciplines: Planniing, Landscape Design, Life-Cycle Analysis, Architectural , Structural, Mechanical (criteria

  2. Radon in earth-sheltered structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    Radon concentration in the indoor air of six residential and three non-residential earth-sheltered buildings in eastern Colorado was monitored quarterly over a nine-month period using passive, integrating detectors. Average radon concentrations during the three-month sampling periods ranged from about 1 to 9 pCi/L, although one building, a poorly ventilated storage bunker, had concentrations as high as 39 pCi/L. These radon concentrations are somewhat greater than those typically reported for conventional buildings (around 1 pCi/L); but they are of the same order of magnitude as radon concentrations reported for energy-efficient buildings which are not earth-sheltered. ?? 1984.

  3. Earth Shelter Buildings Coupled with the Sun: Opportunities and Constraints in Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David J.

    1982-01-01

    The new Civil/Mineral Engineering Building on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus is a demonstration design in energy conservation and innovation in active and passive solar energy applications. Its antecedents at the university represent contributory steps in the identification of issues and the development of design principles. (MLW)

  4. 1966 Architectural Awards. Buildings With Fallout Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Award winning designs are presented demonstrating that economical dual-use shelter space can be incorporated in the designs of new buildings without sacrifice of either function or aesthetic values. The eight award winning designs are discussed, and graphic illustration is provided of the nature of dual-use shelter, which contributes to…

  5. 37. Threequarter view of building 161, fallout shelter, showing building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Three-quarter view of building 161, fallout shelter, showing building 104, mess hall in background, looking southeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  6. View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 1506 in background), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 15-06 in background), facing southeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  7. FIRE SAFETY UPGRADING FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS IN BUILDINGS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    building. Specifically, thermal barriers for window openings, automatic smoke detectors with manual response by fire fighting shelter personnel, and environmental seals for shelter areas are recommended as feasible upgrading remedies.

  8. 38. Overall view showing building 161, fallout shelter on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Overall view showing building 161, fallout shelter on far right, and building 102, officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far left, looking east - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  9. 31. Threequarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Three-quarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter taken from top of water storage mound, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  10. Sheltering in buildings from large-scale outdoor releases

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.R.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2004-06-01

    Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic release (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. Under these circumstances, taking shelter in buildings can be an effective emergency response strategy. Some examples where shelter-in-place was successful at preventing injuries and casualties have been documented [1, 2]. As public education and preparedness are vital to ensure the success of an emergency response, many agencies have prepared documents advising the public on what to do during and after sheltering [3, 4, 5]. In this document, we will focus on the role buildings play in providing protection to occupants. The conclusions to this article are: (1) Under most circumstances, shelter-in-place is an effective response against large-scale outdoor releases. This is particularly true for release of short duration (a few hours or less) and chemicals that exhibit non-linear dose-response characteristics. (2) The building envelope not only restricts the outdoor-indoor air exchange, but can also filter some biological or even chemical agents. Once indoors, the toxic materials can deposit or sorb onto indoor surfaces. All these processes contribute to the effectiveness of shelter-in-place. (3) Tightening of building envelope and improved filtration can enhance the protection offered by buildings. Common mechanical ventilation system present in most commercial buildings, however, should be turned off and dampers closed when sheltering from an outdoor release. (4) After the passing of the outdoor plume, some residuals will remain indoors. It is therefore important to terminate shelter-in-place to minimize exposure to the toxic materials.

  11. A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

  12. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Anguilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Anguilla to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  13. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools, located in Grenada, to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input…

  14. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Dominica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Dominica to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  15. 65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P702988, 24' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P-702-988, 24' x 320', completed May 25, 1932, modified January 15, 1941). Fort McCoy photograph #A-6, undated. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  16. Hazard Mitigation Potential of Earth-Sheltered Residences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    433-451 (1974). z ai’man, G ., R. Duncan, and J. Holbeck, Innovations and Organizations, New York: ~ John Wiley, 1973. Ziebarth, Allan M., Personal...Press Zaltman, G ., Duncan,E. Holbeck,J., Innovations and Organizationa [ 1973.] New York: John Wiley 3. Policy Isplementation PardachE., Ine...AA/3• 3C7 Hazard Mitigation Potential of UIYIONEarth-Sheltered Residecriot CARBIDE C. V. Chester H. B. Shapira G . A. Gristy M. Schw~eitzer S. A

  17. Passive energy design and habitability aspects of earth-sheltered housing in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, L.L.; Grondzik, W.T.; Weber, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    Identified earth-sheltered houses in Oklahoma were examined through a detailed questionnaire during the first phase of a long-range funded project. Preliminary results of energy and habitability aspects are presented here. Saving energy is reported to be the primary incentive for building such structures. Habitability aspects have generally not received much study until recently. The results indicate that although a majority of the respondents feel their energy-savings expectations have been reached, over 40% feel that their energy consumption is much higher than they expected. Preliminary energy performance studies indicate that in a majority of the projects, the potential thermal mass of the structure has been decoupled by insulation and furred interior surface treatments. This situation can lead to a significant reduction in the amount of free earth cooling available during the summer months. Other factors, not yet studied, undoubtedly contribute additional adverse effects. The substantial energy savings that are realized have been achieved with little decrease, and often an increase, in comfort and habitability aspects. Most occupants are particularly satisfied with the safety of the structure and the arrangement of the rooms, which in most cases were custom designed by or for the occupants. However, daylighting and privacy of family members, for example, were not as highly rated. A number of other parameters are identified from the survey that present implications for design enhancement in this contemporary type of residential structure. 14 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  18. Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  19. Shelter-building behavior and natural history of two pyralid caterpillars feeding on Piper stipulaceum.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-03-15

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae) . A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species.

  20. Effectiveness of sheltering in buildings and vehicles for plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, R.J.

    1990-07-30

    The purpose of this paper is to collect and present current knowledge relevant to the protection offered by sheltering against exposure to plutonium particles released to the atmosphere during accidents. For those many contaminants for which effects are linear with the airborne concentration, it is convenient to define a Dose Reduction Factor (DRF). In the past, the DRF has been defined as the ratio of the radiological dose that may be incurred within the shelter to that in the outdoors. As such, it includes the dose through shine from plumes aloft and from material deposited on the surface. For this paper, which is concerned only with the inhalation pathway, the DRF is the ratio of the time-integrated concentration inside the shelter to that outdoors. It is important to note that the range over which effects are linear with concentration may be limited for many contaminants. Examples are when concentrations produce effects that are irreversible, or when concentrations are below effects threshold levels. 71 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. The Immature Stages and Shelter Building Behavior of Falgo Jeconia Ombra Evans, 1955 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Warren, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falga jeconia ombra Evans, 1955 from eastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Larvae in all stadia build shelters and forcibly eject frass with the aid of an anal comb. Later instars possess an eversible prothoracic “neck” gland. Larvae are associated with moving water. PMID:19613872

  2. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: St. Kitts--Nevis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on St. Kitts and Nevis to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with…

  3. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Antigua and Barbuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Antigua and Barbuda to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with…

  4. The Life History and Shelter Building Behavior of Vettius Coryna Coryna Hewitson, 1866 in Eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Warren, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe all life-stages of Vettius coryna coryna Hewitson, 1866 in eastern Ecuador. The details of larval shelter structure and associated shelter building behavior are described and illustrated, as observed on two grass species (Poaceae). We provide brief observations on V. coryna adult behavior and a review of known life history information for other species of Vettius Godman, 1901. PMID:19613868

  5. The analysis of the effects of frame response on basement shelters in tall buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielsen, B.L.; Cuzner, G.J.; Hendricks, J.; Zsutty, T.C.

    1982-10-01

    This report presents the results of a program to develop a theoretical analysis of the effects of frame response on basement shelters in tall buildings. The objective was to determine the effect on an upgraded basement key worker shelter of the aboveground portion of the structure being subjected to a blast wave that would destroy the building. Both steel and reinforced concrete frame structures were investigated, with most emphasis on poured-in-place reinforced concrete beam, slab, and girder type framing and poured-in-place flat-slab and flat-plate construction. A prediction technique usng both hand and computer analysis was developed and tested using a previously demolished 15-story cast-in-place reinforced structure. The analysis indicated that the upgraded basement would have survived even through the aboveground portion of the structure was exposed to 50 psi.

  6. Development of Logistics for Building Radiation Storm Shelters and Their Operational Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three years NASA has been studying the operational effectiveness and astronaut protection efficacy of numerous radiation protection shelters for use in space exploration activities outside of earth's magnetosphere. The work presented was part of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) RadWorks Storm Shelter project. This paper is a summary of the concept development activities of this third year. Fabricated items were integrated into mock up deep space habitat vehicle sections for operational evaluations. Two full scale human-in-loop simulations were designed, fabricated, and implemented through an Institutional Review Board approved solicited participant assessment process. Fabricated items are described, along with usage scenarios of two protection approaches. Existing ISS type logistics along with proposed variations of those logistics were used. Preliminary Discrete Event Simulation (DES) work is noted to be useful in quantifying and documenting operational performance measures for the two primary shelter methods, including some characterization of radiation dose accumulation over a mission timeline. The project also performed correlation analyses between effective radiation dose and the Risk of Exposure Induced Death (REID) to show that concept level work may be able to include such a performance metric in early stages of mission scenario habitat design trade space investigation.

  7. Passive solar/Earth sheltered office/dormitory cooling season thermal performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, J.

    1984-06-01

    Continuous detailed hourly thermal performance measurements were taken since February 1982 in and around an occupied, underground, 4000 ft(2) office/dormitory building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This building has a number of energy saving features which were analyzed relative to their performance in a southeastern US climate and with respect to overall commercial building performance. Cooling season performance is documented, as well as effects of earth constact, interior thermal mass, an economizer cycle and interface of an efficient building envelope with a central three-ton heat pump. The Joint Institute Dormitory obtains a cooling energy savings of about 30% compared with an energy-efficient, above-grade structure and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The proper instllation of the overhand, interior thermal mass, massive supply duct system, and earth contact team up to prevent summertime overheating. From May through September, this building cost a total of $300 (at 5.7) cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate 24 hours per day. Besides thermal performance of the building envelope, extensive comfort data was taken illustrating that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time according to the PMV measurements.

  8. Planetary science: Earth's building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Earth grew by the accretion of meteoritic material. High-precision isotopic data reveal how the composition of this material changed over time, forcing revision of models of our planet's formation. See Letters p.521 & p.525

  9. Determining Possible Building Blocks of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, T. H.; O'Brien, K. M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: One of the fundamental questions concerning the formation of the Earth is what is it made out of. The Earth appears to have condensed out of material from the solar nebula. We sample this "primitive" material in the form of chondritic meteorites. One of the most important constraints on possible building blocks for the Earth is the Earth#s oxygen iso-topic composition. Rocks from the Earth and Moon plot along a line (the terrestrial fractionation line) in diagrams of delta(sup 17)O (% relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water or SMOW) versus delta(sup 18)O (% relative to SMOW). Chondritic meteorites fall above and below this line. Distances from this line are given as Delta(sup 17)O (%) (= delta(sup 17)O - 0.52 x delta(sup 18)O).

  10. Earth sheltered bee wintering and solar honey house. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The construction and operation of an indoor wintering facility and a passive solar honey house are discussed. Goals for the project included both energy savings and financial savings for the beekeeping industry. The underground winter shelter provided a control temperature of approximately 46/sup 0/F in order to decrease both mortality rates and honey consumption rates of the bees. Three hundred square feet of glazing combined with wall insulation maintained comfortable work space temperatures for the ground level storage of honey. (BCS)

  11. Civil defense shelters: a state-of-the-art assessment - 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1986-12-01

    The literature on the design, construction, testing, and cost of blast and fallout shelters was reviewed, and a bibliography of over 1000 documents was assembled. It was found that nuclear weapon effects and shelter design are well understood. The principal technical barrier to construction of permanent shelters is cost. Single-purpose blast shelters cost in the high hundreds to low thousands of dollars per space, depending on size, hardness, location, and whether the shelter is part of new construction or retrofit. The risk area population requiring blast protection is approximately 160 million. The very-low-cost options open to the U.S. Government, with its present civil defense budget, remain: (1) maintain the inventory on fallout shelter and identify space with some blast protection potential; (2) plan for crisis upgrading to improve existing space in a crisis, and (3) plan for construction of expedient shelter in a crisis. Fallout shelters might be mandated in appropriate new construction outside risk areas at little cost to the government. Options in the mid-range of expense, a few tens to a few hundreds of dollars per space include: (1) requiring modified limestone-mining practices, where appropriate, to generate useable shelter space near cities; (2) encouraging the construction of earth-sheltered housing and other buildings, and (3) requiring and/or subsidizing the construction of dual-use basement shelter in new construction.

  12. Deep Space Storm Shelter Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Kathryn; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Cerro, Jeffrey; Simon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Missions outside of Earth's magnetic field are impeded by the presence of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. To overcome this issue, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Radiation Works Storm Shelter (RadWorks) has been studying different radiation protective habitats to shield against the onset of solar particle event radiation. These habitats have the capability of protecting occupants by utilizing available materials such as food, water, brine, human waste, trash, and non-consumables to build short-term shelters. Protection comes from building a barrier with the materials that dampens the impact of the radiation on astronauts. The goal of this study is to develop a discrete event simulation, modeling a solar particle event and the building of a protective shelter. The main hallway location within a larger habitat similar to the International Space Station (ISS) is analyzed. The outputs from this model are: 1) the total area covered on the shelter by the different materials, 2) the amount of radiation the crew members receive, and 3) the amount of time for setting up the habitat during specific points in a mission given an event occurs.

  13. Civil defense shelters: A state-of-the-art assessment, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1987-02-01

    The literature on the design, construction, testing, and cost of blast and fallout shelters was reviewed, and a bibliography of over 1000 documents was assembled. It was found that nuclear weapon effects and shelter design are well understood. An important barrier to construction of permanent shelters is cost. Single-purpose shelters cost in the high hundreds to low thousands of dollars per occupant (or per space), depending on size, hardness, location, and whether the shelter is part of new construction or retrofit. Multiplied by a risk area population of approximately 160 million, the cost of a blast shelter construction program would rival that of a major strategic weapon system. Options in the mid-range of expense, a few tens to a few hundreds of dollars per space include (1) requiring modified limestone mining practices, where appropriate, to generate usable shelter space near cities; (2) encouraging the construction of earth-sheltered housing and other buildings; and (3) requiring and/or subsidizing the construction of dual-use basement shelter in new construction. A program using this approach would require an annual expenditure of approximately 1% of the annual defense budget for 10 or more years. 950 refs., 68 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. An Evolving Model for Capacity Building with Earth Observation Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylak-Glassman, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    For the first forty years of Earth observation satellite imagery, all imagery was collected by civilian or military governmental satellites. Over this timeframe, countries without observation satellite capabilities had very limited access to Earth observation data or imagery. In response to the limited access to Earth observation systems, capacity building efforts were focused on satellite manufacturing. Wood and Weigel (2012) describe the evolution of satellite programs in developing countries with a technology ladder. A country moves up the ladder as they move from producing satellites with training services to building satellites locally. While the ladder model may be appropriate if the goal is to develop autonomous satellite manufacturing capability, in the realm of Earth observation, the goal is generally to derive societal benefit from the use of Earth observation-derived information. In this case, the model for developing Earth observation capacity is more appropriately described by a hub-and-spoke model in which the use of Earth observation imagery is the "hub," and the "spokes" describe the various paths to achieving that imagery: the building of a satellite (either independently or with assistance), the purchase of a satellite, participation in a constellation of satellites, and the use of freely available or purchased satellite imagery. We discuss the different capacity-building activities that are conducted in each of these pathways, such as the "Know-How Transfer and Training" program developed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. , Earth observation imagery training courses run by SERVIR in developing countries, and the use of national or regional remote sensing centers (such as those in Morocco, Malaysia, and Kenya) to disseminate imagery and training. In addition, we explore the factors that determine through which "spoke" a country arrives at the ability to use Earth observation imagery, and discuss best practices for achieving the capability to use

  15. 24 CFR 576.102 - Emergency shelter component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Emergency shelter component. 576... and Eligible Activities § 576.102 Emergency shelter component. (a) General. Subject to the expenditure... families and individuals in emergency shelters, renovating buildings to be used as emergency shelter...

  16. Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters. FEMA 361.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents guidance to engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners concerning the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornado and hurricane events. The manual covers two types of community shelters: stand-alone shelters designed to withstand high winds and the…

  17. Fallout sheltering: is it feasible?

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, R; Ring, J

    1987-03-01

    The feasibility of sheltering the U.S. population from fallout resulting from a large-scale nuclear attack is assessed using a mathematical model. The model is used to calculate the reduction in cumulative dose received by a sheltered survivor, as a function of five adjustable parameters. Three time periods are postulated: time in the shelter, a transition period during which time out of the shelter increases and a final period in which half the time is spent outside the shelter. The parameters are varied independently, and the resulting dose reduction factor is compared with what seems to be necessary for survival in different regions of the country under the postulated attack. Another model developed by K.S. Gant and C.V. Chester is compared with this one. Similarities and differences are pointed out, and where possible the results of the two are checked for compatibility. An important question addressed in this paper is whether under the conditions of a large-scale nuclear attack sheltering a relatively unprepared population is at all feasible. Sensitivity tests of the various parameters in our model show that relatively low protection factor areas such as basements or inner rooms already existing in homes or other buildings could quite adequately serve as shelters for most of the area of the contiguous United States. Furthermore, continuous stays in these shelters of more than three weeks do not seem to be necessary for these large parts of the United States.

  18. Fallout sheltering: is it feasible

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.; Ring, J.

    1987-03-01

    The feasibility of sheltering the U.S. population from fallout resulting from a large-scale nuclear attack is assessed using a mathematical model. The model is used to calculate the reduction in cumulative dose received by a sheltered survivor, as a function of five adjustable parameters. Three time periods are postulated: time in the shelter, a transition period during which time out of the shelter increases and a final period in which half the time is spent outside the shelter. The parameters are varied independently, and the resulting dose reduction factor is compared with what seems to be necessary for survival in different regions of the country under the postulated attack. Another model developed by K.S. Gant and C.V. Chester is compared with this one. Similarities and differences are pointed out, and where possible the results of the two are checked for compatibility. An important question addressed in this paper is whether under the conditions of a large-scale nuclear attack sheltering a relatively unprepared population is at all feasible. Sensitivity tests of the various parameters in our model show that relatively low protection factor areas such as basements or inner rooms already existing in homes or other buildings could quite adequately serve as shelters for most of the area of the contiguous United States. Furthermore, continuous stays in these shelters of more than three weeks do not seem to be necessary for these large parts of the United States.

  19. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  20. Earth Sciences' Capacity Building In Developing Countries through International Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W.

    2007-12-01

    Within the framework of "traditional" programmes, like the joint UNESCO-IUGS "International Geoscience Programme" (IGCP), the "International Continental Scientific Drilling Program" (ICDP), the "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program" (IODP) or the "International Lithosphere Programme" (ILP) numerous opportunities are provided to strengthen postgraduate geo-scientific education of representatives from developing countries. Recently established new initiatives, such as the "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) or UNESCO's Global Network of Geoparks complement these in addition as important components to UNESCO's 'Education for All' programme, notably the youth, as well as to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014). The "International Year of Planet Earth" is a joint initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO. The central aims and ambitions of the Year, proclaimed for 2008 by the UN General Assembly, are to demonstrate the great potential of the Earth sciences in building a safer, healthier and wealthier society, and to encourage more widespread and effective application of this potential by targeting politicians and other decision-makers, educational systems, and the general public. Promotion of international collaboration, as well as capacity building and training of students of developing countries in all fields of Earth Sciences seem to be the most appropriate way to meet also the challenges of the IYPE. Another opportunity to improve the international recognition of Earth Scinces, also in developing countries, is the use of Geoparks as a promotional tool for education and popularization of Earth Sciences. Geoparks, notably those included in the European and/or Global Geoparks Networks, provide an international platform of cooperation and exchange between experts and practitioners in geological heritage matters, and are as such excellent instruments in highlighting Earth sciences. The

  1. Determining Possible Building Blocks of the Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, T. H.; OBrien, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the fundamental questions concerning planetary formation is exactly what material did the planets form from? All the planets in our solar system are believed to have formed out of material from the solar nebula. Chondritic meteorites appear to sample this primitive material. Chondritic meteorites are generally classified into 13 major groups, which have a variety of compositions. Detailed studies of possible building blocks of the terrestrial planets require samples that can be used to estimate the bulk chemistry of these bodies. This study will focus on trying to determine possible building blocks of Earth and Mars since samples of these two planets can be studied in detail in the laboratory.

  2. Schools Built with Fallout Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Fallout protection can be built into a school building with little or no additional cost, using areas that are in continual use in the normal functioning of the building. A general discussion of the principles of shelter design is given along with photographs, descriptions, drawings, and cost analysis for a number of recently constructed schools…

  3. NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE BUILDING - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. COST ESTIMATES FOR PROVIDING BIOLOGICAL AGENT PROTECTION TO FALLOUT SHELTERS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CIVIL DEFENSE , SHELTERS , BIOLOGICAL WARFARE, DECONTAMINATION, COOLING AND VENTILATING EQUIPMENT, AIR FILTERS, BUILDINGS, UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES, CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES, PRESSURE, CONSTRUCTION, FEASIBILITY STUDIES.

  5. Space Shelter. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    Based on a hypothetical situation that aliens have invaded Earth and humans must relocate to another planet, students design a shelter that can be built on another planet to insure their survival. Students research the characteristics of a planet of their choice and consider how to get to that planet from Earth, determine which five items that…

  6. Designing Shelter in New Buildings. A Manual for Architects on the Preliminary Designing of Shielding from Fallout Gamma Radiation in Normally Functioning Spaces in New Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Albert

    Analysis of radiation fallout prevention factors in new construction is presented with emphasis on architectural shielding principles. Numerous diagrams and charts illustrate--(1) radiation and fallout properties, (2) building protection principles, (3) details and planning suggestions, and (4) tabular data interpretation. A series of charts is…

  7. Rapid deployment shelter system

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2006-10-10

    A shelter for the protection of for the protection of persons, animals, equipment, materials, property, and similar things of value from potentially damaging environmental conditions is disclosed. Various embodiments include the use of a frame structure and hinged panels which are unfolded to create the walls of the structure. Optionally flexible surfaces may be added to the ends of the shelter to at least partially close the end of the shelter.

  8. Lunar Shelter Habitability Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. Samuel; Loats, Harry L., Jr.; Hay, George M.

    1971-01-01

    Results are reported of an Investigation to determine the capability of pressure suited personnel to deploy lunar shelter/airlock structures install mockup life support, power and miscellaneous equipment within and outside the shelter, and adequately utilize this equipment after installation. Information was obtained on: (1) dimensional requirements for lunar shelter interiors, hatches, and airlocks, (2) limitations imposed on lunar shelter design by pressure suited crewmen, (3) times associated with various work tasks, and (4) redesign recommendations for a lunar stay time extension module (STEM).

  9. SPERTI Reactor Pit Building (PER605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Reactor Pit Building (PER-605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument Cell (PER-606). Security fencing surrounds complex, to which gate entry is provided next to Guard House (PER-607). Note gravel road leading to control area. Earth-covered conduit leads from instrument cell to terminal building out of view. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: June 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1701 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Education and Capacity Building with Research: A Possible Case for Future Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Ishimura, Gakushi; Komasinski, Andrew James; Omoto, Reiko; Managi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to suggest the structure of a platform for education and capacity building for Future Earth, which is an intensive program open to the eight stakeholders and which utilizes existing research programs/facilities associated with Future Earth. An intention of this paper is to facilitate a policy brief for projects associated…

  11. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHEAST VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHWEST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. THE PARAPET WALL IS SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Tri-trophic effects of seasonally variable induced plant defenses vary across the development of a shelter building moth larva and its parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Rose, Noah H; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history.

  13. Nuclear effects hardened shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindke, Paul

    1990-11-01

    The Houston Fearless 76 Government Projects Group has been actively engaged for more than twenty-five years as a sub-contractor and currently as a prime contractor in the design, manufacture, repair and logistics support of custom mobile ground stations and their equipment accommodations. Other associated products include environmental control units (ECU's), mobilizers for shelters and a variety of mobile power generation units (MPU's). Since 1984, Houston Fearless 76 has designed and manufactured four 8' x 8' x 22' nuclear hardened mobile shelters. These shelters were designed to contain electronic data processing/reduction equipment. One shelter is currently being operated by the Air Force as a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) approved and certified Special Corrpartmented Information Facility (SCIF). During the development and manufacturing process of the shelters, we received continual technical assistance and design concept evaluations from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Operations Analysis and Logistics Engineering Division and the Nondestructive Inspection Lab at McClellan AFB. SAIC was originally employed by the Air Force to design the nuclear hardening specifications applied to these shelters. The specific levels of hardening to which the shelters were designed are classified and will not be mentioned during this presentation.

  14. 15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN THE PURSUIT PLANE BAYS OF AR-9. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER IN AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  17. Deployable Temporary Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Joe R.; Headley, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Compact storable components expand to create large shelter. Fully deployed structure provides large, unobstructed bay. Deployed trusses support wall and roof blankets. Provides temporary cover for vehicles, people, and materials. Terrestrial version used as garage, hangar, or large tent.

  18. Evacuation and Community Shelters

    MedlinePlus

    Evacuation and community shelters − Leave natural gas on unless local officials advise otherwise. Local government officials issue evacuation orders when disaster threatens. Listen to local radio and TV ...

  19. Tri-Trophic Effects of Seasonally Variable Induced Plant Defenses Vary across the Development of a Shelter Building Moth Larva and Its Parasitoid

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Noah H.; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history. PMID:25781029

  20. Earth Science Data Fusion with Event Building Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, C.; Bartle, Ar.; Callaway, E.; Gyurjyan, V.; Mancilla, S.; Oyarzun, R.; Vakhnin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives of the NASA Information And Data System (NAIADS) project are to develop a prototype of a conceptually new middleware framework to modernize and significantly improve efficiency of the Earth Science data fusion, big data processing and analytics. The key components of the NAIADS include: Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) multi-lingual framework, multi-sensor coincident data Predictor, fast into-memory data Staging, multi-sensor data-Event Builder, complete data-Event streaming (a work flow with minimized IO), on-line data processing control and analytics services. The NAIADS project is leveraging CLARA framework, developed in Jefferson Lab, and integrated with the ZeroMQ messaging library. The science services are prototyped and incorporated into the system. Merging the SCIAMACHY Level-1 observations and MODIS/Terra Level-2 (Clouds and Aerosols) data products, and ECMWF re- analysis will be used for NAIADS demonstration and performance tests in compute Cloud and Cluster environments.

  1. View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science departments can blend the physical “bricks and mortar” facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; “a river runs through it” (a pebble tile “stream” inside the entrance); “confluence” lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting

  3. The Earth System Modeling Framework and Earth System Curator: Software Components as Building Blocks of Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, C.; Balaji, V.; da Silva, A.; Dunlap, R.; Hill, C.; Mark, L.; Mechoso, C. R.; Middleton, D.; Nikonov, S.; Rugaber, S.; Suarez, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) is an established U.S. initiative to develop high performance common modeling infrastructure for climate and weather models. ESMF is the technical foundation for the NASA Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (MAP) Climate Variability and Change program and the DoD Battlespace Environments Institute (BEI). It has been incorporated into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model, NOAA NCEP and GFDL models, Army, Navy, and Air Force models, and many others. The new, NSF-funded Earth System Curator is a related database and toolkit that will store information about model configurations, prepare models for execution, and run them locally or in a distributed fashion. The key concept that underlies both ESMF and the Earth System Curator is that of software components. Components are software units that are "composable", meaning they can be combined to form coupled applications. These components may be representations of physical domains, such as atmospheres or oceans; processes within particular domains such as atmospheric radiation or chemistry; or computational functions, such as data assimilation or I/O. ESMF provides interfaces, an architecture, and tools for structuring components hierarchically to form complex, coupled modeling applications. The Earth System Curator will enable modelers to describe, archive, search, compose, and run ESMF and similar components. Together these projects encourage a new paradigm for modeling: one in which the community can draw from a federation of many interoperable components in order to create and deploy applications. The goal is to enable a network of collaborations and new scientific opportunities for the Earth modeling community.

  4. GEOCAB Portal: A gateway for discovering and accessing capacity building resources in Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desconnets, Jean-Christophe; Giuliani, Gregory; Guigoz, Yaniss; Lacroix, Pierre; Mlisa, Andiswa; Noort, Mark; Ray, Nicolas; Searby, Nancy D.

    2017-02-01

    The discovery of and access to capacity building resources are often essential to conduct environmental projects based on Earth Observation (EO) resources, whether they are Earth Observation products, methodological tools, techniques, organizations that impart training in these techniques or even projects that have shown practical achievements. Recognizing this opportunity and need, the European Commission through two FP7 projects jointly with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) teamed up with the Committee on Earth observation Satellites (CEOS). The Global Earth Observation CApacity Building (GEOCAB) portal aims at compiling all current capacity building efforts on the use of EO data for societal benefits into an easily updateable and user-friendly portal. GEOCAB offers a faceted search to improve user discovery experience with a fully interactive world map with all inventoried projects and activities. This paper focuses on the conceptual framework used to implement the underlying platform. An ISO19115 metadata model associated with a terminological repository are the core elements that provide a semantic search application and an interoperable discovery service. The organization and the contribution of different user communities to ensure the management and the update of the content of GEOCAB are addressed.

  5. Handbook for Building Homes of Earth. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfskill, Lyle A.; And Others

    This manual, developed by the Agency for International Development and used by the Peace Corps, explains how to build homes made of earth. Information came from reports, books, and articles from many countries, coupled with research by soil engineers at Texas A & M University. It is presented in the most nontechnical format possible. The…

  6. FET. Control and equipment building (TAN630). Sections. Earth cover. Shielded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FET. Control and equipment building (TAN-630). Sections. Earth cover. Shielded access entries for personnel and vehicles. Ralph M. Parsons 1229-2 ANP/GE-5-630-A-3. Date: March 1957. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 036-0630-00-693-107082 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. A Place to Stay: Building Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    Shelter has been a concern of humans and animals alike for the millennia. Animals, through their natural instincts, build nests and shelters to meet their needs for protection against predators and seasonal changes in the weather. Early humans sought shelter in caves and cliff dwellings and later began to design and build shelters based on the…

  8. Advanced, Energy Efficient Shelter Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-02

    Development Analysis, M&S Thermal Barriers Large Shelter Efficiency System Integration Follow-On Demonstrations Lessons Learned from Initial...UNCLASSIFIED 13 Technology Development: Thermal Barriers Objective: Address the enduring challenge of developing a thermal insulation for shelter systems

  9. 4. November 1986. INTERIOR OF BUILDING FROM DOOR. (Note unfinished ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. November 1986. INTERIOR OF BUILDING FROM DOOR. (Note unfinished rammed earth walls; square holes are from joists used to hold wall forms together during construction. Stairs in view at left go to storage room below.) - Borough House, Dry Well Shelter, State Route 261 & Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  10. Shelter upgrading manual: host area shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, C.; Gabrielsen, B.L.; Tansley, R.S.

    1980-03-01

    The manual is one of a series being developed in support of the civil defense concept of crisis relocation planning. One basic element of crisis relocation is shelter protection of the people in the relocated environment. This manual is designed to be used by planners in host areas. It presents a methodology for evaluating floors, roofs, and openings; develops a variety of ways to provide the necessary structural upgrading for blast and fallout protection; develops a framework for the practical use of the manual by all persons of interest; and contains charts, pictorial representations, and worksheets that complement and simplify the utility of the manual. The manual is in looseleaf form to permit removal of pertinent worksheets and charts for developing upgrading plans for a specific building, and to permit the addition of new and replacement material as the work progresses.

  11. Sheltering Retirement Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, E. Lewis; Cash, L. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Eligibility for an IRA has been severely changed by the Tax Reform Act of 1986. In 1987 educators who have a retirement plan administered by their employer will face new eligibility rules. For self-employment income, a Keogh plan is an excellent way to shelter income and provide retirement income. (MLW)

  12. An Early Shelter for Life on Earth? S and O Isotope Evidence From the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt, Northeastern Superior Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomassot, E.; O'Neil, J.; Francis, D.; Cartigny, P.; Rumble, D.; Wing, B.

    2009-05-01

    The Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt (NGB,) is one of Earth's oldest Eoarchean volcano-sedimentary suites, and was emplaced prior to 3.75 Ga (Cates and Mojzsis, S.J. 2007), and likely as early as 4.28 Ga (O'Neil et al. 2008). As revealed by recent detailed mapping, the NGB geology is dominated by cummingtonite-bearing amphibolites (formerly called Faux-amphibolite, (O'Neil et al. 2008)) and a series of conformable gabbroic and ultra mafic sills. Minor horizons in the belt include banded iron formations (BIF) with cm-scale quartz-rich and magnetite-rich laminations, and a pyrite-bearing quartzite in gradational contact with the BIF. These rocks and may represent the oldest remains of the sedimentary record on Earth. We performed multiple O-isotope measurements of individual minerals (quartz, garnet, amphibole and magnetite) from three NGB lithologies (BIF, faux amphibolites and quartzite). In BIF samples, δ18O values cover a narrow range (from 1.36 per mil magnetite to 4.98 per mil with one outlier at 9.99 per mil), whereas silicate minerals in the faux reveal a more scattered range that is more depleted in light isotopes (7.77 per mil ≤ δ18O ≤ 13.38 per mil). One quartzite sample has also been analyzed and reveals the most 16O-depleted composition yet measured from the belt (δ18O = 15.44 per mil). The δ17O and δ18O values from these samples define a fractionation line for multiple oxygen isotopes with a slope of 0.528 ± 0.004 (MSWD = 0.47), statistically indistinguishable from the slope (0.524 +± 0.002) of the Archean Terrestrial Fractional Line (TFL) determined from other Archean rocks and minerals. These results show no evidence for the drastic O-isotope heterogeneity that would likely accompany the late heavy bombardment of the Earth-Moon system. We also performed multiple S-isotope ratio measurements (δ34S, Δ33S, Δ36S) in samples covering the entire lithological suite of the NGB. Samples from the quartzite and BIF display a narrow range of δ34S

  13. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations: Best Practices for Monitoring Programmatic Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searby, N. D.; Saad, M.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Cripps, G. S.; Fonseca, C.; Hemmings, S. N.; Prados, A. I.; Ruiz, M. L.; Irwin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Current and future decision makers in the U.S. and developing countries need skills to access and apply Earth science for societal benefit. NASA's Applied Sciences' Capacity Building Program (CBP) offers training, project collaboration, and decision support tool co-development to decision-makers through three program elements called ARSET, DEVELOP, and SERVIR. With a portfolio that includes multiple capacity building approaches, it is important to monitor progress over time to assess impact and identify improvements. The diversity of activities requires a monitoring approach that tracks overall impact as well as the impacts of individual program elements. Building on ongoing element-level monitoring, CBP recently established a set of overarching standardized targets, identified indicators for each target, and developed a methodology to collect the data across the program. This presentation will include program and element case studies highlighting the capacity building approaches and current practices for monitoring progress and assessing impact.

  14. Survey of animal shelter managers regarding shelter veterinary medical services.

    PubMed

    Laderman-Jones, B E; Hurley, K F; Kass, P H

    2016-04-01

    Veterinary services are increasingly used in animal shelters, and shelter medicine is an emerging veterinary specialty. However, little is known about working relationships between animal shelters and veterinarians. The aims of this survey were to characterize working relationships that shelter personnel have and want with veterinarians, identify opinions that shelter managers have regarding the veterinarians they work with, and determine areas for relationship growth between veterinarians and shelter managers. An electronic survey was distributed to 1373 managers of North American animal shelters; 536 (39.0%) responded. Almost all shelters had some veterinary relationship, and most had regular relationships with veterinarians. The proportion of shelters that used local clinics (73.9%) was significantly higher than the proportion that retained on-site paid veterinarians (48.5%). The proportion of respondents who did not have but wanted a paid on-site veterinarian (42%) was significantly higher than the proportion of respondents who did not use local clinics but wanted to (7.9%). These data suggest shelter managers valued veterinary relationships, and wished to expand on-site veterinary services. Almost all shelters in this study provided some veterinary care, and all respondents identified at least one common infectious disease, which, for most, had a substantial negative impact on shelter successes. Respondents indicated that the most important roles and greatest expertise of veterinarians were related to surgery, diagnosis and treatment of individual animals. Education of both veterinarians and shelter managers may help ensure that shelters benefit from the full range of services veterinarians can provide, including expertise in disease prevention and animal behavior.

  15. Evaluation of shelter ventilation by model tests. Option 2. Final report, August 1983-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnakumar, C.K.; Schafer, C.K.; Henninger, R.H.; Fields, S.F.

    1984-09-01

    Wind tunnel tests were carried out using models of fallout shelters to determine correlations between shelter ventilation rate, area and distribution of wall openings, wind speed and its direction relative to the orientation of the shelter. Models of bermed shelters with five different opening configurations were used. A simple correlation was formulated between the shelter ventilation rate, the total area of windward openings, the ratio of leeward to windward opening areas and the velocity of the approach wind. Results were compared with those projected from available correlations for general type buildings. Originator provided keywords include: Flow visualization and Relative wind angle.

  16. A Multipurpose Method for Global Capacity Building in Using Earth Observations for Wetlands and Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring and surveying biodiversity and wetlands involves the collection of vast amounts of data, most of which are Earth observations. Observations on the ground or from space and everything in between, across all time and spatial scales, represent precious information for our understanding and management of both biodiversity and wetlands. Cross-disciplinary problem solving and development of new tools are the most efficient ways to enhance our capabilities to monitor biodiversity and wetlands. To accomplish that, experts from different communities need to refresh and upgrade their knowledge of other field(s). An event based method that consists of both live active participation and the production of capacity building material for re-use in other settings, will be presented. The method includes using the vast global networks of international organizations representing the application areas as well as the field of Earth observations. An example from a cooperation between the Group of Earth Observations and the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands will be used to illustrate the method. Within the global Earth observation community there is a great potential for efficient capacity building, targeting both experts, decision-makers and the general public. The method presented is demonstrating one way of tapping into that potential.

  17. Shelter upgrading manual: host area shelters. Revisions and additions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, C.; Gabrielsen, B.L.; Tansley, R.S.

    1981-05-01

    The Shelter Upgrading Manual: Host Area Shelters, which was originally developed under Contract No. DCPA01-78-C-0215, Work Unit 1127H, is in looseleaf form to permit removal of pertinent worksheets and charts for developing upgrading plans for a specific building and to permit the addition of new and replacement material as the work progresses. The manual is one of a series being developed in support of the civil defense concept of crisis relocation planning and is designed to be used by planners in host areas. It presents a methodology for evaluating floors, roofs, and openings and develops a variety of ways to provide the necessary structural upgrading for blast and fallout protection. The revisions included here are based on a testing program and are generally in the area of modified survival ratings. Additional new material on expedient shelters is included in an appendix.

  18. Shelter for the Sky

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieman, Eric A.

    2007-07-01

    A solemn ceremony in Slavutich Ukraine on April 26th 2007 marked the twenty-first anniversary of the most catastrophic accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. Significant progress has recently been made toward transformation of Chernobyl to an environmentally sound site. Many readers will recall that in only eight months following the 1986 accident, the Soviets constructed an enormous facility to contain the radioactive contamination in the remains of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit-4. Popularly known as the “sarcophagus”, but correctly referred to as the “Object Shelter”, it has deteriorated with time and is now in danger of collapse. STABILIZATION Several measures to structurally stabilize the Object Shelter and prevent its collapse have recently been completed. These measures are the largest construction projects undertaken in the local zone since the completion of the Object Shelter. The most significant risk reduction was accomplished by Measure-2 in December 2006. Stabilization

  19. Protective Vertical Shelters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-29

    on Generic MX Structures" by John Betz. 5. (AFCMD/82-013) "Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of th, DCT-2 Models" by Barry Bingham . 61 (AFCMD/82-017) "MX...facility to define the HEST structure for the GOVS tests. A SAMSON dynamic finite-element computer code provided pretest predictions of strdsses and...as piecewise linear, elastic- plastic materials. TEST DESCRIPTION Shel ter Models The generic MX vertical shelter is basically a large, reinforced

  20. Building the EarthChem System for Advanced Data Management in Igneous Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Walker, J. D.; Carlson, R. W.; Hofmann, A. W.; Sarbas, B.

    2004-12-01

    wide variety of rock types of global distribution. We also hope to implement more mapping and query functions to open the application of these data across the spectrum of geoscientists. Lastly, we want to facilitate data submission and data entry in anticipation of incorporating more data directly from publishers and from a broader cross section of researchers. The building of interfaces for the transfer of raw and reduced data will allow data to be archived, and most importantly accessed, in a manner that will facilitate the use of geochemical data to address a wide variety of problems in the solid earth sciences.

  1. 24 CFR 576.55 - Building standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.55 Building standards. (a) Any building for which emergency shelter...

  2. 24 CFR 576.55 - Building standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.55 Building standards. (a) Any building for which emergency shelter...

  3. Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Senay Habtezion (shabtezion@start.org) / Hassan Virji (hvirji@start.org)Global Change SySTem for Analysis, Training and Research (START) (www.start.org) 2000 Florida Avenue NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20009 USA As part of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) project partnership effort to promote use of earth observations in advancing scientific knowledge, START works to bridge capacity needs related to earth observations (EOs) and their applications in the developing world. GOFC-GOLD regional networks, fostered through the support of regional and thematic workshops, have been successful in (1) enabling participation of scientists for developing countries and from the US to collaborate on key GOFC-GOLD and Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC) issues, including NASA Global Data Set validation and (2) training young developing country scientists to gain key skills in EOs data management and analysis. Members of the regional networks are also engaged and reengaged in other EOs programs (e.g. visiting scientists program; data initiative fellowship programs at the USGS EROS Center and Boston University), which has helped strengthen these networks. The presentation draws from these experiences in advocating for integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building through the lens of the GOFC-GOLD partnership effort. Specifically, this presentation describes the role of the GODC-GOLD partnership in nurturing organic networks of scientists and EOs practitioners in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

  4. Technology Learning Activities: Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue, the Cellular Connection, Emergency Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etchison, Cindy; Deal, Walter F., III

    1992-01-01

    Presents learning activities such as planning and building a sailboat, manufacturing cellular phone cases, and designing and building emergency shelters. Includes the context, the challenge, resources used, objectives, materials needed, and an evaluation. (JOW)

  5. Technological characteristics of compressed earth blocks for its use as a building material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Villalba, Luz Stella; Camacho-Perez, Nancy; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Becerra-Becerra, Javier; Esmeralda Corredor-Pulido, Dery; Fort, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    We present here an innovative building technique, which uses ecological, inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials. These compressed earth blocks seem to be very good for building purposes and that is why we have characterized three types of compressed earth blocks (CEB, named by their color as yellow, grey and red) mineralogically by means of X ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM (both blocks and raw materials), petrographically by polarizing optical light microscopy POLM, and SEM, and, mainly, petrophysically: their hydric, physical and physico-mechanical properties by means of determining their capillary water absorption, porosity (open or accessible to water, pore size distribution and micro/macroporosity), and densities, color and ultrasound velocity (together with anisotropy). The particularities of these analyzed materials show that some varieties are more durable than others, and that all of them can be used as building materials with some restrictions related to their appropriate placing in the structures and the exposure to water. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) programmes. Thanks also to the UCM (Complutense University of Madrid) Research Group "Alteración y conservación de los materiales pétreos del patrimonio" / Alteration and conservation of heritage stone materials (ref. 921349).

  6. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  7. The EPOS Implementation Phase: building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, Massimo; Epos Consortium, the

    2015-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) has a scientific vision and approach aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support a safe and sustainable society. To follow this vision, the EPOS mission is integrating a suite of diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures (RIs) in Europe relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system. To this goal, the EPOS Preparatory Phase has designed a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data and products as well as access to facilities from mainly distributed existing and new research infrastructures for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. Since its conception EPOS has been built as "a single, Pan-European, sustainable and distributed infrastructure". EPOS is, indeed, the sole infrastructure for solid Earth Science in ESFRI and its pan-European dimension is demonstrated by the participation of 23 countries in its preparatory phase. EPOS is presently moving into its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase project (EPOS IP) builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS preparatory phase project. The EPOS IP objectives are synergetic and coherent with the establishment of the new legal subject (the EPOS-ERIC in Italy). EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and builds the

  8. Building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences: the EPOS integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    EPOS has been designed with the vision of creating a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. In accordance with this scientific vision, the EPOS mission is to integrate the diverse and advanced European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and unravel the dynamic and complex Earth System. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. To accomplish its mission, EPOS is engaging different stakeholders, not limited to scientists, to allow the Earth sciences to open new horizons in our understanding of the planet. EPOS also aims at contributing to prepare society for geo-hazards and to responsibly manage the exploitation of geo-resources. Through integration of data, models and facilities, EPOS will allow the Earth science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and human welfare. A long-term integration plan is necessary to accomplish the EPOS mission. EPOS is presently in its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS Preparatory Phase project and consists of two key activities: the legal establishment of the EPOS-ERIC and the EPOS IP project. The EPOS implementation phase will last from 2015 to 2019. Key objectives of the project are: implementing Thematic Core Services (TCS), the domain-specific service hubs for coordinating and harmonizing national resources/plans with the European dimension of EPOS; building the Integrated Core

  9. Sheltered Instruction Techniques for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pray, Lisa; Monhardt, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The suggestions described here to adapt instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs) are based on the concept of "sheltered instruction," a model of language-support methods for instruction for ELLs derived primarily through the Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP) developed by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt, and Deborah Short…

  10. AIRCRAFT SHELTER-DICE THROW Data Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    SHELTER-OICE THROW Test Site Layout for 9 AFWL Test Structures 4 AIRCRAFT SHELTER-DICE THROW ANFO Charge Configuration 10 5 Upgraded Aircraft Shelter...including Ilast pressures, accelerometers, velocity gages, displacement gages, and strain gages. Four pressure sensitive gages were also installed in the...approximately 150 meters (500 ft). This shelter is the same as Shelter "$", but with a heavy overlay of concrete. As with Shelter "B", end walls were

  11. Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Spitzmesser, AIA

    2005-11-22

    The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted in an attempt to improve the public's perception of shelter animals. Additionally, the Regional Animal Campus will be a ''green building'', embodying a design intent on balancing environmental responsiveness, resource efficiency and cultural and community sensitivity. Designing an energy-efficient building helps reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels, reduce disturbance of natural habitats for the harvesting of resources and minimizes global warming. The project will be a leader in the use of renewable energy by relying on photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and solar collectors to produce a portion of the project's energy needs The building will operate more efficiently in comparison to a typical shelter through the use of monitoring and specialized cooling/heating equipment. Windows bringing in natural daylight will reduce the center's demand for electricity.

  12. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a...

  13. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a...

  14. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a...

  17. SOME TRAINING IMPLICATIONS OF LARGE SHELTERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEND, EMIL

    BASED LARGELY ON AIR RESEARCH ON SHELTER MANAGEMENT SIMULATION, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE IMPACT OF THE LARGE, COMPLEX SHELTER ON SHELTER MANAGEMENT TRAINING NEEDS. THE LARGE SHELTER REQUIRES THE TYPE OF LEADERSHIP THAT ONLY THOSE WHO ALREADY HAVE SUPERVISORY SKILLS CAN SUPPLY. SUCH PEOPLE ARE NEITHER ATTRACTED NOR HELPED BY THE USUAL SHELTER…

  18. To Stay or to Leave: Factors Influencing Victims' Decisions to Stay or Leave a Domestic Violence Emergency Shelter.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Elisa M; Stylianou, Amanda M

    2016-04-28

    Domestic violence (DV) emergency shelters play a vital role in supporting victims who seek to leave abusive partners and gain independence. Research indicates that numerous positive outcomes for victims and their children are associated with utilization of DV shelter programs. Yet, research also suggests that DV shelter programs may be unable to comprehensively meet the needs of all victims, and many choose to leave shelters soon after their arrival. To better understand the ways in which DV shelter programs support victims but also fail to meet their needs, this article explores the factors that influence victims' decisions to stay or leave a DV emergency shelter program through qualitative interviews with 33 DV shelter residents. Study participants indicate that three types of factors influence their decision to stay or leave the shelter program: (a) contextual factors, (b) partner or family relationship factors, and (c) shelter-specific factors. Shelter-specific factors cited as important contributors to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with shelter living include policies, staff and services, displacement from one's home community, and facilities. Findings provide information from the perspective of victims on the factors that influence one's decision to stay or leave a DV program and can be used to support service providers and advocates in building programs that are both supportive of victims' needs and conductive to longer shelter stays.

  19. Agent-based evacuation simulation for spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia; Wen, Jiahong; Jiang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The construction of urban shelters is one of the most important work in urban planning and disaster prevention. The spatial allocation assessment is a fundamental pre-step for spatial location-allocation of urban shelters. This paper introduces a new method which makes use of agent-based technology to implement evacuation simulation so as to conduct dynamic spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters. The method can not only accomplish traditional geospatial evaluation for urban shelters, but also simulate the evacuation process of the residents to shelters. The advantage of utilizing this method lies into three aspects: (1) the evacuation time of each citizen from a residential building to the shelter can be estimated more reasonably; (2) the total evacuation time of all the residents in a region is able to be obtained; (3) the road congestions in evacuation in sheltering can be detected so as to take precautionary measures to prevent potential risks. In this study, three types of agents are designed: shelter agents, government agents and resident agents. Shelter agents select specified land uses as shelter candidates for different disasters. Government agents delimitate the service area of each shelter, in other words, regulate which shelter a person should take, in accordance with the administrative boundaries and road distance between the person's position and the location of the shelter. Resident agents have a series of attributes, such as ages, positions, walking speeds, and so on. They also have several behaviors, such as reducing speed when walking in the crowd, helping old people and children, and so on. Integrating these three types of agents which are correlated with each other, evacuation procedures can be simulated and dynamic allocation assessment of shelters will be achieved. A case study in Jing'an District, Shanghai, China, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A scenario of earthquake disaster which occurs in nighttime

  20. Strategies for Building a Reliable, Diverse Pipeline of Earth Data Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, R.; Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The grand challenges facing the geosciences are increasingly data-driven and require large-scale collaboration. Today's geoscience community is primarily self-taught or peer-taught as neither data science nor collaborative skills are traditionally part of the geoscience curriculum. This is not a sustainable model. By increasing understanding of the role of data science and collaboration in the geosciences, and Earth and space science informatics, an increased number of students pursuing STEM degrees may choose careers in these fields. Efforts to build a reliable pipeline of future Earth data scientists must incorporate the following: (1) improved communication: covering not only what data science is, but what a data scientist working in the geosciences does and the impact their work has; (2) effective identification and promotion of the skills and knowledge needed, including possible academic and career paths, the availability and types of jobs in the geosciences, and how to develop the necessary skills for these careers; (3) the employment of recruitment and engagement strategies that result in a diverse data science workforce, especially the recruitment and inclusion of underrepresented minority students; and (4) changing organizational cultures to better retain and advance women and other minority groups in data science. In this presentation we'll discuss strategies to increase the number of women and underrepresented minority students pursuing careers in data science, with an emphasis on effective strategies for recruiting and mentoring these groups, as well as challenges faced and lessons learned.

  1. Evaluating the Data and Service Ecosystem: Implications for Successfully Building EarthCube and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S.; Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Lopez, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Interoperability, discoverability, and simple accessibility all play a role in the overall success of NSF's EarthCube program and for the research community as a whole. As we discuss new technologies and solutions to build integrated, interoperable systems to address big data questions in the geosciences, we find ourselves on far shakier ground than expected. As part of the BCube open web harvesting effort, we have undertaken a metadata and web service documentation retrospective across a broad range of repositories and service platforms. Based on a preliminary characterization of over a million documents, we highlight some of the issues contributing to this shaky ground, from incomplete metadata records, ambiguous identifiers, and limited service descriptions and the implications of these issues on data provenance, reusability, reproducibility, and the promise of open data. Finally, we discuss potential paths forward. Attention is paid to those efforts that help codify and promote good community practices. From this foundation, with both data and the web services built on them, we can move forward on the promises inherent in EarthCube.

  2. Shelter from the Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Corey; Metz, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why most schools need to upgrade the spaces they use to protect students and staff from tornadoes. School building areas commonly used as safe havens during tornadoes are assessed, followed by information on disaster damage reimbursements and Federal Emergency Management Agency guidelines (FEMA 361) for building tornado and hurricane…

  3. Building Capacity in Using Earth Observations Under the GOFC-GOLD and TAT Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) is a coordinated international effort to provide ongoing space-based and in-situ observations of forests and other vegetation cover. The main goal of GOFC/GOLD is to support a forum for international information exchange, observation and data coordination, and a framework for establishing the necessary long-term monitoring systems. GOFC-GOLD has two Implementation Teams: Land Cover Characteristics and Change, and Fire Monitoring and Mapping. Additionally, it includes two working groups: the Working Group on Biomass Monitoring and the Working group on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), the latter being aligned with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Regional networks are an integral part of the GOFC-GOLD program, with some networks fully developed and some still emerging. GOFC-GOLD provides training workshops to build capacity in the regions. Capacity building in using Earth Observation techniques and applications is also promoted by cooperation of NASA and ESA under the Trans-Atlantic Training (TAT) program. The main objective of TAT is training of early career scientists and students in East European and Baltic countries emphasizing outstanding technical issues in remote sensing of land-cover/land-use change and ecosystems processes. TAT promotes data sharing and advanced research methods and technologies through series of training sessions. Three TAT sessions have been held until now, each session consisting of 5-10 tutors and about 30 early career scientists and students from Eastern Europe. The sessions include lectures on remote sensing covering the full solar spectrum and hands-on practice. The experience obtained in capacity building activities under GOFC-GOLD and TAT will be shared with the audience.

  4. 'Do-it-yourself' fallout/blast shelter evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, P.T.; Baker, W.E.; Esparza, E.D.; Westine, P.S.; Blaylock, N.W.

    1984-03-01

    Expedient fallout shelters recommended to the general public were evaluated for their potential to provide safety to occupants during nuclear blast. The blast threat was in the 2 to 50 psi overpressure range from a 1 megaton (MT) yield weapon. Research included a literature search for expedient shelter designs and evaluations of the designs to certify their ability to protect occupants. Shelters were evaluated systematically by first analyzing each design for expected failure loads. Next, scale model tests were planned and conducted in the Fort Cronkhite shock tunnel. Structural responses and blast pressures were recorded in a series of twelve experiments involving 96 structural response models. Two rigid models were included in each test to measure internal blast pressure leakage. Probabilities of survival were determined for each of the shelters tested. Expected failure mechanisms were identified for each of the eight U.S. shelters. One shelter, tilt-up doors and earth, was eliminated from consideration because of uncertainties for the associated permanent structure. Failure loads of the remaining seven shelters were determined through analysis. Analyses included failure by overturning/translation, trench collapse, or roof collapse. A car-over-trench shelter was evaluated solely through analysis. The threshold for human tolerance to blast pressures (lung damage) was calculated as 8 psi with a 99 percent survival rate at 28 psi. Thresholds for trench wall stability were calculated based on material strengths and shelter geometries.

  5. 13. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING "B" FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - "B" FACE LOADING DOCK AND PERSONNEL ACCESS RAMP TO FALLOUT SHELTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

    2012-12-01

    Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote

  7. Q & A with Kathleen M. Reilly, Author of "Planet Earth: 25 Environmental Projects You Can Build Yourself"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Kathleen M. Reilly, author of "Planet Earth: 25 Environmental Projects You Can Build Yourself." Environmental awareness needs to begin in childhood, and, through this book, Kathleen M. Reilly encourages children to learn about ecology and ecosystems to begin conservation early in their lives. Children ages 9…

  8. [Housing of dogs and cats in animal shelters].

    PubMed

    Rusch, T

    1999-04-01

    The results of an examination of 10 animal shelters was, that anyone was unical. The everyday and fundamental problems in administration, housing animals and animal care were the same: Most of them employ laity, which do their job with a lot of commitment but without knowledge. Therefore they come into conflict with the demands of animal protection. Veterinary surgeons, responsible authorities and communities are strongly asked to take steps against the situation. The reason for the fact, that such steps are missed, is, that there is no guideline or recommendation available for these persons, which handles animal shelters relative to "animal justice" and the right housing of animals. The results of the survey helps to make a guideline for animal home owners and builders, veterinary surgeons, veterinary authorities and communities, which gives suggestions to build, equip and run animal shelters for cats and dogs responsible regarding the individual circumstances and in the best way for animals.

  9. Direct estimation of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Kevin M; Sutter, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    This article estimates the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters using the annual probability of a tornado and new data on fatalities per building struck by a tornado. This approach differs from recent estimates of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters in Reference 1 that use historical casualties. Historical casualties combine both tornado risk and resident action. If residents of tornado-prone states take greater precautions, observed fatalities might not be much higher than in states with lower risk. Estimation using the tornado probability avoids this potential bias. Despite the very different method used, the estimates are 68 million US dollars in permanent homes and 6.0 million US dollars in mobile homes in Oklahoma using a 3% real discount rate, within about 10% of estimates based on historical fatalities. The findings suggest that shelters provide cost-effective protection for mobile homes in the most tornado-prone states but not for permanent homes.

  10. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  11. DataStreme Earth's Climate System: Building a Climate Literate Society through Effective Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Effective partnerships are key to increasing climate and overall environmental literacy. Financial support from NSF, NASA, and NOAA has allowed the American Meteorological Society (AMS) to offer DataStreme courses for almost 20 years. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and Earth's Climate System (ECS) are offered each fall and spring semester by Local Implementation Teams (LITs) across the country in coordination with AMS Education Program scientists and educators who develop instructional materials, provide logistical support to the LITs, and administer the project. A long-standing partnership with State University of New York's The College at Brockport gives teachers the opportunity to receive 3 tuition-free graduate credits upon successful completion of each DataStreme course and construction of a Plan of Action for educational peer-training. DataStreme ECS investigates the fundamental science of Earth's climate system, explores humans' impact on it, and identifies actions needed in response to climate change. The course provides participants with the knowledge to make informed climate decisions. In fact, according to a recent three-year study conducted by AMS, 98% of DataStreme ECS participants reported an increase in environmental literacy as a result of the course. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and ECS content has been improved because of AMS partnerships with NOAA and NASA. Specifically, hundreds of NASA and NOAA scientists and faculty from numerous institutions both domestic and abroad have contributed and reviewed DataStreme ECS content. Additional collaborations with Consortium for Ocean Leadership and the U.S. Ice Drilling Program greatly improved the course's paleoclimate content. Looking ahead, the Climate Resilience Toolkit from NOAA's Climate Program Office will further bolster the course this fall. These partnerships have resulted in a powerful, content-rich climate science course for K-12 teachers, building the foundation to a climate literate society.

  12. Shelter upgrading manual: key worker shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tansley, R.S.; Bernard, R.D.

    1981-05-01

    This manual is one of a series being developed in support of the civil defense concept of crisis location planning. One basic element of crisis relocation is plant site protection of key industry people who operate essential facilities through a crisis period. The manual is intended to provide a framework for the practical development of key worker shelters by any interested party. The information contained herein was developed under Contract EMW-C-0153, Work Unit 1128A, and is based on previously developed structural information, but has yet to be tested in the field. The manual is designed to be used by planners and plant personnel in risk areas. It presents a methodology for evaluating basement areas and expedient shelters and provides alternative methods to develop the necessary structural upgrading for blast and fallout protection. Expedient shelters are proposed for industries without available basements, and upgrading methods and the resources required for each are presented. Included are sketches and figures that assist in the evaluation of a structure for use as a potential shelter, provide data and charts for closing small openings, and illustrate alternative details of shoring systems. Tables and charts for sizing the shoring or other materials required for each alternative have been provided to simplify applications. The manual is in looseleaf format so that worksheets, tables, and charts can be removed to develop upgrading plans for a specific structure. This format also allows for the insertion of new data and techniques as they become available.

  13. Multi-Hazard Shelter Incentive Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    etc., for the shelter analyst cadre training function are estimated at $1,478,000. (4) FEMA Regional Program Support. Involvement of FEMA Regional ...anticipated that FEMA Regional staff involvement would be primarily directed to the Shelter Advisory Centers and cadre training programs. For a...standard. B-10 Section 11.1. Shock isolation for shelter occupants is not a design requirement. Access and Egress Section 12.0. Public shelters shall have no

  14. Family Friends in Homeless Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Aging, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Family Friends is a nationwide outreach program that enlists the support of senior volunteers in providing nurturing help to children and their parents. Homeless Children is a branch of the program in which volunteers are matched to homeless families with young children, and, during biweekly visits to homeless shelters, become surrogate…

  15. V-2 Emerges from Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    In this undated file photo, probably from World War II, a V-2 rocket emerges from its camouflaged shelter. The team of German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States after World War II and worked for the U. S. Army at Fort Bliss, Texas and Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.

  16. Evaluation of Sheltered Employment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgarten, Allan; And Others

    The report evaluates the functions and effectiveness of sheltered workshops for handicapped students in Minnesota. The initial chapter reviews the history of the workshops, discusses participation in state workshops, describes programs and services of vocational rehabilitation, and summarizes funding of rehabilitation facilities. A chapter on…

  17. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  18. Evaluation of Shelter Ventilation by Model Tests. Option 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    HUMUERS, 7449 N. Natchez Ave. FEMPL Work Unit 12.171 Niles, Illinois 60648 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS IL REPORT DATE Federal Emergency...lights could be controlled through a voltage regulator. These lights 2-1 GARD ELEVATION VIEW Earth Berm Wndow 3’ x 3’ Winindow Interior of Shelter 32...Nationale 1 36 Rue J. B. Esch Luxembourg (Grand-Duche) Ministero dell Interno 1 Director General Protectione Civile Rome, Italy Civile Emergency Planning

  19. Pentagon. Civil Defense and Fire Instructions. Part 2: Shelter Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Army Headquarters Commandant, Washington, DC.

    This instructional guide to civil defense shelter management is given as an aid to shelter survival techniques rather than to shelter comfort. The basis, purposes, and organization of shelter administration are outlined, with instructions on--(1) shelter management, (2) shelter teams and functions, (3) supplies and locations, and (4) daily shelter…

  20. Civil defense home shelters: A viable defense strategy for the 1990s. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, V.J.

    1990-09-01

    This study investigated the question 'Why are fallout shelters not a part of U.S. national defense strategy and policy ' Initial research determined that the U.S. has the technology to design and build shelters, they are effective protection from radioactive fallout, and nuclear agression against the U.S. remains a potential national threat. The research examined the physical threats posed by nuclear weapons, followed by a brief description of fallout shelters and their ability to shield against fallout radiation in terms of the ration of time in shelter to amount of exposure. Several opposing arguments from opponents and proponents of a national fallout shelter program were categorized and expressed within U.S. National Security Strategy, military, economic, and political terms. The principal argument against a national fallout shelter program, including home fallout shelters, is the momentum of over 30 years of successful deterrence. On the other hand, the relatively simple technology, the affordability, and the potential for saving millions of lives in low-risk areas that would otherwise be lost should deterrence fail, argue strongly in favor of a national home fallout shelter system.

  1. Building Lasting Impact: Ten Years of the Earth to Sky Interagency Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A.; Lacome, B.; Merrick, B.; Morris, J.; Paglierani, R.; Spakoff, S.

    2014-12-01

    Beginning in Fall of 2004, NASA and the National Park Service (NPS) embarked on collaborative work aimed at bringing the wonders of NASA science and education content into the hands of outstanding and highly regarded science "communicators" - interpreters in NPS. What began as a showcase of NASA content delivered in an interpretive workshop has evolved and matured into a long-standing, and growing partnership focused on climate change communication. The partnership has been fruitful and successful, producing a variety of professional development events that have resulted in participants reaching millions of Park and Refuge visitors and thousands of interpreters and educators, with content derived from our courses. Earth to Sky (ETS) now includes the US Fish and Wildlife Service and NOAA, and is working towards establishment of a network of regional networks made up of alumni and their communities. The key to our success has been the careful building and nurturing of the partnership, and its resulting community of practice, beginning with excellent facilitated meetings of the parties involved, and continuing through implementation of best practices in partnership and collaborative work. Project design, development, and execution were accomplished in true partnership with leaders from our intended audience, NPS interpreters, and later USFWS environmental educators. Our partners were fully involved, from the inception of the first workshop design, through its implementation and assessment, to strategic planning for sustainability and all subsequent efforts. ETS can serve as a model of an effective partnership in climate communication efforts, drawing upon the strengths of partners with widely different areas of expertise to produce cohesive work with high impact. We will share the ETS model of partnership, and discuss how this model might be useful as the climate communication community moves towards a more coherent approach to improve climate literacy.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  3. Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

  4. Design concepts for pressurized lunar shelters utilizing indigenous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happel, John Amin; Willam, Kaspar; Shing, Benson

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to design a pressurized shelter build of indigenous lunar material. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar conditions which impact design; secondary factors; review of previously proposed concepts; cross section of assembly facility; rationale for indigenous materials; indigenous material choices; cast basalt properties; design variables; design 1, cylindrical segments; construction sequence; design 2, arch-slabs with post-tensioned ring girders; and future research.

  5. 1. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building 800 in the background, facing east. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  6. Building Cyberinfrastructures for Earth and Space Sciences so that they will come: lessons learnt from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, L. A.; Woodcock, R.

    2013-12-01

    environments and workflows. The eResearch Infrastructure Stack is designed to support 12 individual domain-specific capabilities. Four are relevant to the Earth and Space Sciences: (1) AuScope (a national Earth Science Infrastructure Program), (2) the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), (3) the Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Network (TERN) and (4) the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN). The two main research integration infrastructures, ANDS and NeCTAR, are seen as pivotal to the success of the Australian eResearch Infrastructure. Without them, there was a risk that that the investments in new computers and data storage would provide physical infrastructure, but few would come to use it as the skills barriers to entry were too high. ANDS focused on transforming Australia's research data environment. Its flagship is Research Data Australia, an Internet-based discovery service designed to provide rich connections between data, projects, researchers and institutions, and promote visibility of Australian research data collections in search engines. NeCTAR focused on building eResearch infrastructure in four areas: virtual laboratories, tools, a federated research cloud and a hosting service. Combined, ANDS and NeCTAR are ensuring that people ARE coming and ARE using the physical infrastructures that were built.

  7. Effect of shelter porosity on downwind flow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Š.; Kellnerová, R.; Jurčáková, K.; Jaňour, Z.; Chaloupecká, H.; Jakubcová, M.

    2016-03-01

    Previous wind-tunnel studies were focused mainly on lonely standing windbreaks or wind fences with respect to their wind velocity reduction efficiency and effective shelter distance. In presented wind-tunnel study, we investigated the effects of a three different fence porosities (0.5, 0.25 and 0) embodied in a shelter-like building for coal convey by means of two-component Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). The turbulent flow characteristics behind the fences were compared with those performed without the fence. For characterization of the fence effectiveness we used following quantities: wind-speed and turbulence kinetic energy reduction, and time fractions of the turbulent coherent structures associated with the sediment transport (sweeps and outward interactions). Results from mentioned quantities revealed that for the case of embodied fence the shelter construction has significant impact on the flow characteristics behind. The fence of the 0.5 porosity has been indicated as the most shelter effective considering the studied quantities.

  8. Analyzing evacuation versus shelter-in-place strategies after a terrorist nuclear detonation.

    PubMed

    Wein, Lawrence M; Choi, Youngsoo; Denuit, Sylvie

    2010-09-01

    We superimpose a radiation fallout model onto a traffic flow model to assess the evacuation versus shelter-in-place decisions after the daytime ground-level detonation of a 10-kt improvised nuclear device in Washington, DC. In our model, ≈ 80k people are killed by the prompt effects of blast, burn, and radiation. Of the ≈ 360k survivors without access to a vehicle, 42.6k would die if they immediately self-evacuated on foot. Sheltering above ground would save several thousand of these lives and sheltering in a basement (or near the middle of a large building) would save of them. Among survivors of the prompt effects with access to a vehicle, the number of deaths depends on the fraction of people who shelter in a basement rather than self-evacuate in their vehicle: 23.1k people die if 90% shelter in a basement and 54.6k die if 10% shelter. Sheltering above ground saves approximately half as many lives as sheltering in a basement. The details related to delayed (i.e., organized) evacuation, search and rescue, decontamination, and situational awareness (via, e.g., telecommunications) have very little impact on the number of casualties. Although antibiotics and transfusion support have the potential to save ≈ 10k lives (and the number of lives saved from medical care increases with the fraction of people who shelter in basements), the logistical challenge appears to be well beyond current response capabilities. Taken together, our results suggest that the government should initiate an aggressive outreach program to educate citizens and the private sector about the importance of sheltering in place in a basement for at least 12 hours after a terrorist nuclear detonation.

  9. Identifying Evacuees' Demand of Tsunami Shelters using Agent Based Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, E.; Adriano, B.; Koshimura, S.; Imamura, F.; Kuroiwa, J.; Yamazaki, F.; Zavala, C.; Estrada, M.

    2012-12-01

    Amongst the lessons learned in tsunami events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Great Tohoku Japan earthquake is that sometimes nature exceeds structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or tsunami gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people in plain areas to find sheltering places. The vertical evacuation to multistory buildings is one alternative to provide areas for sheltering in a complex environment of evacuation. However, if the spatial distribution and the available capacity of these structures are not well displayed, conditions of evacuee over-demand or under-demand might be observed in several structures. In this study, we present the integration of the tsunami numerical modeling and the agent based simulation of evacuation as the method to estimate the sheltering demand of evacuees in an emergent behavior approach. The case study is set in La Punta district in Peru. Here, we used in the tsunami simulation a seismic source of slip distribution model (Pulido et.al. ,2011; Chlieh et.al, 2011) for a possible future tsunami scenario in the central Andes. We modeled three alternatives of evacuation. First, the horizontal evacuation scenario was analyzed to support the necessity of the sheltering-in-place option for the district. Second, the vertical evacuation scenario and third, the combination of vertical and horizontal evacuation scenarios of pedestrians and vehicles were conducted. In the last two alternatives, the demand of evacuees were measured at each official tsunami evacuation building and compared to the sheltering capacity of the structure. Results showed that out of twenty tsunami evacuation buildings, thirteen resulted with over-demands and seven were still with available space. Also it is confirmed that in this case the horizontal evacuation might lead to a high number of casualties due to the traffic congestion at the neck of the district. Finally the vertical evacuation would be a suitable solution for this area

  10. The potential risk from 222radon posed to archaeologists and earth scientists: reconnaissance study of radon concentrations, excavations, and archaeological shelters in the Great Cave of Niah, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Gavin; Gilbertson, David; Grattan, John; Hunt, Chris; McLaren, Sue; Pyatt, Brian; Mani Banda, Richard; Barker, Graeme; Denman, Antony; Phillips, Paul; Reynolds, Tim

    2005-02-01

    This reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in the Great Cave of Niah in Sarawak shows that in relatively deep pits and trenches in surficial deposits largely covered by protective shelters with poor ventilation, excavators are working in a micro-environment in which radon concentrations at the ground surface can exceed those of the surrounding area by a factor of > x 2. Although radon concentrations in this famous cave are low by world standards (alpha track-etch results ranging from 100 to 3075 Bq m(-3)), they still may pose a health risk to both excavators (personal dosemeter readings varied from 0.368 to 0.857 mSv for 60 days of work) and cave occupants (1 yr exposure at 15 h per day with an average radon level of 608 Bq m(-3) giving a dose of 26.42 mSv). The data here presented also demonstrate that there is considerable local variation in radon levels in such environments as these.

  11. Collaboration and Community Building in Summer Undergraduate Research Programs in the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevle, R. J.; Watson Nelson, T.; Harris, J. M.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    In 2012, the School of Earth Sciences (SES) at Stanford University sponsored two summer undergraduate research programs. Here we describe these programs and efforts to build a cohesive research cohort among the programs' diverse participants. The two programs, the Stanford School of Earth Sciences Undergraduate Research (SESUR) Program and Stanford School of Earth Sciences Summer Undergraduate Research in Geoscience and Engineering (SURGE) Program, serve different undergraduate populations and have somewhat different objectives, but both provide students with opportunities to work on strongly mentored yet individualized research projects. In addition to research, enrichment activities co-sponsored by both programs support the development of community within the combined SES summer undergraduate research cohort. Over the course of 6 to 9 months, the SESUR Program engages Stanford undergraduates, primarily rising sophomores and juniors, with opportunities to deeply explore Earth sciences research while learning about diverse areas of inquiry within SES. Now in its eleventh year, the SESUR experience incorporates the breadth of the scientific endeavor: finding an advisor, proposal writing, obtaining funding, conducting research, and presenting results. Goals of the SESUR program include (1) providing a challenging and rewarding research experience for undergraduates who wish to explore the Earth sciences; (2) fostering interdisciplinary study in the Earth sciences among the undergraduate population; and (3) encouraging students to major or minor in the Earth sciences and/or to complete advanced undergraduate research in one of the departments or programs within SES. The SURGE Program, now in its second year, draws high performing students, primarily rising juniors and seniors, from 14 colleges and universities nationwide, including Stanford. Seventy percent of SURGE students are from racial/ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in STEM fields, and approximately one

  12. Highly Erectable Dome Shelter: Results and Recommendations of Shelter Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-22

    redesigned to fit on a pallet. Shipped in an 8 by 8 by 20 ISO Container Yes Approx. Weight of Heaviest Item ...... 200 pounds Approx. Shipping Weight...Force erected this shelter ir the arctic area It also requires ladders and scaffolds to erect and dismantle. The configuration f th. isO ., n", , lend...Shipped on a 463L Pallet ..... Yes Shipped in an 8 by 8 by 20 ISO Container Yes Approx. Weight of Heaviest Item ...... 100 pounds Approx. Shipping Weight

  13. Aerodynamic considerations in open shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.

    1984-11-01

    Aerodynamic factors are addressed bearing on the suitability of open structures as blast shelters. Blast closures and attenuator designs are discussed. The research on shelter filling is reviewed; this includes both experimental and theoretical work on scale models and full-scale structures of large dimensions. Shock-dominated and pressure-gradient-dominated shelter-filling mechanisms are described and their potential effects on people are discussed.

  14. Tsunami damages assessment: vulnerability functions on buildings based on field and earth observation survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauraz, A. L.; Valencia, N.; Koscielny, M.; Guillande, R.; Gardi, A.; Leone, F.; Salaun, T.

    2009-04-01

    The assessment of damages caused by tsunami scenarios on coastal buildings requires using vulnerability matrixes or functions to carry out a relation between the magnitude of the phenomena and the damage expected. These functions represent the probability for a building belonging to a class of vulnerability to suffer from a mean damage level. The physical vulnerability of buildings depends on two parameters: the solicitation level applied by the tsunami on buildings and their resistance capacity. According to the authors after post-tsunami observations (Reese et al. 2007; Ruangrassamee et al. 2006; Leone et al. 2006; Peiris 2006), the level of damage is clearly linked to the water elevation of the inundated areas and the type of observed buildings. Very few works propose relations based on velocity or hydrodynamic pressure of the waves. An approach developed for the estimation of the building vulnerability consists in deriving empirical damage functions starting from field observations. As part of the SCHEMA European Project on the vulnerability assessment for tsunami hazards in the Atlantic and Mediterranean area, vulnerability functions have been elaborated for different classes of buildings in order to produce vulnerability maps for exposed areas with emphasis on extraction of building characteristics using remote sensing data. The damage detection has been carried out by field data collected after the 24 December 2006 tsunami event on the southwest area of Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Thailand) completed by photo-interpretation of satellite images to get representative functions with large population of samples. The building classes consist in several categories depending mainly on the type of construction material (timber/bamboo, traditional brick, reinforced concrete …), the type of structure (beam, pillars, etc) and the number of storeys. The level of damage has been also classified in five categories, from D0 (no damage) to D5 (total destruction). Vulnerability

  15. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

  16. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Koch, J; Tadmor, J

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

  17. Automatic building detection based on Purposive FastICA (PFICA) algorithm using monocular high resolution Google Earth images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffarian, Saman; Ghaffarian, Salar

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes an improved FastICA model named as Purposive FastICA (PFICA) with initializing by a simple color space transformation and a novel masking approach to automatically detect buildings from high resolution Google Earth imagery. ICA and FastICA algorithms are defined as Blind Source Separation (BSS) techniques for unmixing source signals using the reference data sets. In order to overcome the limitations of the ICA and FastICA algorithms and make them purposeful, we developed a novel method involving three main steps: 1-Improving the FastICA algorithm using Moore-Penrose pseudo inverse matrix model, 2-Automated seeding of the PFICA algorithm based on LUV color space and proposed simple rules to split image into three regions; shadow + vegetation, baresoil + roads and buildings, respectively, 3-Masking out the final building detection results from PFICA outputs utilizing the K-means clustering algorithm with two number of clusters and conducting simple morphological operations to remove noises. Evaluation of the results illustrates that buildings detected from dense and suburban districts with divers characteristics and color combinations using our proposed method have 88.6% and 85.5% overall pixel-based and object-based precision performances, respectively.

  18. Will Duct Tape and Plastic Really Work? Issues Related to Expedient Shelter-In-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    Expedient sheltering involves the use of common materials to enhance the safety of a room inside a building against the impacts of a chemical plume. The central premise behind taping and sealing with duct tape and plastic is to reduce airflow into a room. This paper reviews issues associated with the use of expedient sheltering materials and the effectiveness of this strategy. Expedient sheltering provides additional protection to people sheltering in place beyond that provided by the house and by a safe room without expedient measures. The materials chosen for taping and sealing--duct tape and plastic--are appropriate because they effectively reduce infiltration and the materials should withstand a vapor challenge. Taping is essential to reduce air infiltration. Plastic sheeting is not a critical element for reducing air infiltration, but it makes sealing off large windows easier.

  19. Shelter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weather Snowstorms & Extreme Cold Space Weather Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Make an Emergency Plan Plan ... safe for that hazard. For example, for a tornado, a room should be selected that is in ...

  20. Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

  1. Putting Art in Its Place: Earth-Centered Celebration Builds Community in Concord.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Lucille

    1999-01-01

    In Concord (Massachusetts), the Emerson Umbrella Center for the Arts holds seasonal workshops that invite people outdoors to explore woods, fields, and rivers and then process their discoveries through art. Each spring, a colorful community Earth Day celebration demonstrates the link between community art and community activism. The center also…

  2. How to Cope with Sheltering in Place

    MedlinePlus

    ... your own or a relative’s home, school, or work. Sheltering in place may be required because of an emergency such ... things to keep yourself calm while sheltering in place. Relax your body often by doing things that work for you—take deep breaths, stretch, meditate or ...

  3. DUAL USE OF SCHOOL FALLOUT SHELTER SPACE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAYERS, JOHN

    THIS REPORT DISCUSSES CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF FALLOUT SHELTER SPACE FOR NORMAL SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, INCLUDING THE REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS AND PROBLEMS RELATED TO WINDOWLESS ROOMS. THE PRESENT LACK OF INFORMATION ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO WINDOWLESS ROOMS IS MENTIONED. THE BEST USES FOR WINDOWLESS SPACE ARE NOTED--(1)…

  4. Ventilation of Animal Shelters in Wildland Fire Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bova, A. S.; Bohrer, G.; Dickinson, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of wildland fires on cavity-nesting birds and bats, as well as fossorial mammals and burrow-using reptiles, are of considerable interest to the fire management community. However, relatively little is known about the degree of protection afforded by various animal shelters in wildland fire events. We present results from our ongoing investigation, utilizing NIST’s Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and experimental data, of the effectiveness of common shelter configurations in protecting animals from combustion products. We compare two sets of simulations with observed experimental results. In the first set, wind tunnel experiments on single-entry room ventilation by Larsen and Heiselberg (2008) were simulated in a large domain resolved into 10 cm cubic cells. The set of 24 simulations comprised all combinations of incident wind speeds of 1,3 and 5 m/s; angles of attack of 0, 45, 90 and 180 degrees from the horizontal normal to the entrance; and temperature differences of 0 and 10 degrees C between the building interior and exterior. Simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data, thus providing a validation of FDS code for further ventilation experiments. In the second set, a cubic simulation domain of ~1m on edge and resolved into 1 cm cubic cells, was set up to represent the experiments by Ar et al. (2004) of wind-induced ventilation of woodpecker cavities. As in the experiments, we simulated wind parallel and perpendicular to the cavity entrance with different mean forcing velocities, and monitored the rates of evacuation of a neutral-buoyancy tracer from the cavity. Simulated ventilation rates in many, though not all, cases fell within the range of experimental data. Reasons for these differences, which include vagueness in the experimental setup, will be discussed. Our simulations provide a tool to estimate the viability of an animal in a shelter as a function of the shelter geometry and the fire intensity. In addition to the above

  5. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  6. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs

    PubMed Central

    Zea Escamilla, E.; Habert, G.

    2015-01-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI). All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount) into mass (kg) units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road) and international (freight ship), which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article “Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs”[5] PMID:26217807

  7. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs.

    PubMed

    Zea Escamilla, E; Habert, G

    2015-09-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI). All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount) into mass (kg) units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road) and international (freight ship), which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article "Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs"[5].

  8. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-12-01

    In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case-study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

  9. The Pilgram's Progress: Reflections on the journey building Australia's solid earth information infrastructure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, R.

    2013-12-01

    Australia's AuScope provides world class research infrastructure as a framework for understanding the structure and evolution of the Australian continent. Since it conception in 2005, Data Scientists have led the Grid and Interoperability component of AuScope. The AuScope Grid is responsible for the effective management, curation, preservation and analysis of earth science data across the many organisations collaborating in AuScope. During this journey much was learned about technology and architectures but even more about organisations and people, and the role of Data Scientists in the science ecosystem. With the AuScope Grid now in operation and resulting techniques and technologies now underpinning Australian Government initiatives in solid earth and environmental information, it is beneficial to reflect upon the journey and observe what has been learned in order to make data science routine. The role of the Data Scientist is a hybrid one, of not quite belonging and yet highly valued. With the skills to support domain scientists with data and computational needs and communicate across domains, yet not quite able to do the domain science itself. A bridge between two worlds, there is tremendous satisfaction from a job well done, but paradoxically it is also best when it is unnoticeable. In the years since AuScope started much has changed for the Data Scientist. Initially misunderstood, Data Scientists are now a recognisable part of the science landscape in Australia. Whilst the rewards and incentives are still catching up, there is wealth of knowledge on the technical and soft skills required and recognition of the need for Data Scientists. These will be shared from the AuScope journey so other pilgrims may progress well.

  10. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  11. Needs assessment for remote systems technology at the Chornobyl Unit 4 shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Carteret, B.A.; Holliday, M.A.; Jones, E.D.

    1997-12-01

    The accident at Chornobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986, resulted in a series of unprecedented scientific and technical challenges. The reactor building was damaged extensively. Following the accident, immediate action was needed to seal off the gaping crater created by the accident, which was a continuing source of airborne contamination. Under extreme conditions, a structure called the {open_quotes}Shelter{close_quotes} was built over the remains of the reactor building. The Shelter, which was quickly completed in November 1986, was meant to provide immediate but temporary containment. Now, 11 years later, there are significant concerns about its structural integrity and projected life expectancy. The United States and other participating G-7 countries are supporting nuclear safety upgrade efforts in Eastern Europe with a primary focus on placing the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Shelter in a stable and environmentally acceptable condition. Application of remote systems technologies will play an important part in achieving the goals of this program. The G-7 nations have agreed to support these efforts, including the identification and development of remote system technologies for fuel removal. However at this time they have taken a firm stance against funding actual fuel removal activities. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology requested that a needs assessment be performed to evaluate the requirements for applying remote systems, including robotics, at the Shelter. This document is intended to be used to identify remote systems needs and requirements at the Shelter and to provide general information on the conditions in the Shelter that could impact the use of remote systems. This document is intended as a source of information to assist those who will be implementing the Shelter Implementation Plan tasks. The document provides background information and general guidance on the application of remote systems.

  12. Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of rare earth coordination polymers constructed from paddle-wheel building blocks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaodan; Zhu, Guangshan; Fang, Qianrong; Xue, Ming; Tian, Ge; Sun, Jinyu; Li, Xiaotian; Qiu, Shilun

    2005-05-30

    A series of three-dimensional (3D) novel coordination polymers M(bpdc)1.5(H2O) x 0.5DMF (M = Tb (1), Ho (2), Er (3), or Y (4)) have been synthesized by reaction of the rare earth ions (M3+) with 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (H2bpdc) in a mixed solution of DMF and C2H5OH. They possess the same 3D architectures and crystallize in monoclinic space group C2/c. Two seven-coordinated metal centers and four dimonodentate bpdc groups construct a paddle-wheel building block. These building blocks connect with two carboxyl groups to lead to a one-dimensional inorganic chain, ---M-O-C-O-M---, along the [001] direction. The inorganic chains are linked with two biphenyl groups to form 25.15 A x 17.09 A rhombic channels along the c axis without interpenetration. These complexes exhibit strong fluorescence in the visible region, and complex 3 shows Er3+ characteristic emission in the range of 1450-1650 nm at room temperature. These complexes could be anticipated as potential fluorescent probes and an IR-emitter, respectively.

  13. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheltered housing facilities. 3.77... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.77 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities must be...

  14. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheltered housing facilities. 3.77... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.77 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities must be...

  15. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... placed in the housing facility so as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive light. (d) Shelter from the elements. Sheltered housing facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter..., and from any weather conditions that may occur. (e) Capacity: multiple shelters. Both the...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  18. Shelters for Houseless Youth: A Follow-Up Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat; Spiro, Shimon E.

    2003-01-01

    Follows Israeli youngsters who had been residents of shelters for runaway and homeless youths. A majority of the youngsters had either returned to their family homes, or had been placed out of home. Post-shelter place of residence was related to length of stay at the shelter, amount of contact with their family while at the shelter, and manner of…

  19. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  1. Recent Incarceration History among a Sheltered Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Stephen; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined incarceration histories and shelter use patterns of 7,022 persons staying in public shelters in New York City. Through matching administrative shelter records with data on releases from New York State prisons and New York City jails, 23.1% of a point-prevalent shelter population was identified as having had an incarceration…

  2. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... placed in the housing facility so as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive light. (d) Shelter from the elements. Sheltered housing facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter..., and from any weather conditions that may occur. (e) Capacity: multiple shelters. Both the...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  4. A Hybrid Backward-Forward Iterative Model for Improving Capacity Building of Earth Observations for Sustainable Societal Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, F.; Iqbal, N.; Lee, H.; Muhammad, A.

    2015-12-01

    When it comes to building durable capacity for implementing state of the art technology and earth observation (EO) data for improved decision making, it has been long recognized that a unidirectional approach (from research to application) often does not work. Co-design of capacity building effort has recently been recommended as a better alternative. This approach is a two-way street where scientists and stakeholders engage intimately along the entire chain of actions from design of research experiments to packaging of decision making tools and each party provides an equal amount of input. Scientists execute research experiments based on boundary conditions and outputs that are defined as tangible by stakeholders for decision making. On the other hand, decision making tools are packaged by stakeholders with scientists ensuring the application-specific science is relevant. In this talk, we will overview one such iterative capacity building approach that we have implemented for gravimetry-based satellite (GRACE) EO data for improved groundwater management in Pakistan. We call our approach a hybrid approach where the initial step is a forward model involving a conventional short-term (3 day) capacity building workshop in the stakeholder environment addressing a very large audience. In this forward model, the net is cast wide to 'shortlist' a set of highly motivated stakeholder agency staffs who are then engaged more directly in 1-1 training. In the next step (the backward model), these short listed staffs are then brought back in the research environment of the scientists (supply) for 1-1 and long-term (6 months) intense brainstorming, training, and design of decision making tools. The advantage of this backward model is that it allows for a much better understanding for scientists of the ground conditions and hurdles of making a EO-based scientific innovation work for a specific decision making problem that is otherwise fundamentally impossible in conventional

  5. Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place

    MedlinePlus

    ... shelter room: First aid kit Flashlight, battery-powered radio, and extra batteries for both A working telephone ... severe” terror alert, you should pay attention to radio and television broadcasts to know right away whether ...

  6. Food and Shelter Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil

    2015-10-01

    The number of disasters, both natural as well as man-made, has been increasing in frequency in the recent years. This leads to short as well as long-term effects on food security and shelter, requiring humanitarian assistance. This article aims to identify the principles and standards that are applicable to food and shelter related aid that needs to be provided by the co-operation of the local government as well as the relevant supporting organizations. Also, food and shelter security during a disaster response is achieved through better preparedness. The level of preparedness must include risk assessment, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, emergency services and stand-by arrangements, communications, information management and coordination arrangements between various agencies involved. Discussing these issues would contribute to a better understanding of the implications of the right to adequate food and shelter, which in complex humanitarian emergencies, is one of the key necessities of the affected population.

  7. Prefabricated panelized nuclear-hardened shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.A.

    1987-08-18

    This patent describes a shelter for protecting occupants therein from dynamic blast waves and barometric overpressure created by an above ground nuclear detonation proximate to the shelter, the shelter being buried below ground under soil, the soil comprising means for the attenuation of the dynamic blast wave generated by the detonation, the shelter having a semipherical domed roof and a base means supporting the roof, the semipherical domed roof being downwardly displaceable and having a lower edge which is vertically and downwardly movable in response to barometric overpressure generated by the detonation, the base means being a ring made up of a plurality of arcuate sections, the arcuate sections of the base means being crushable in response to the vertical downward movement of the roof to enable the roof to move downwardly to a lower position where it is supported on the crushed base member, the overpressure being transmitted through the soil surrounding the roof.

  8. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Role for Earth System Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation. PMID:22470302

  9. Building climate resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: a role for Earth system sciences.

    PubMed

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D

    2012-02-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation.

  10. An Investigation of Best Practices for Evacuating and Sheltering Individuals with Special Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has conducted "a literature search and review to identify best practices in [school] building design for accommodating the evacuation and sheltering needs of individuals with special needs or…

  11. The Sombrero Marsh Education Program: Diverse partnerships building strong Earth System science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. K.; Bierbaum, V.

    2003-12-01

    Broad-based science education partnerships can create exemplary education programs because each partner brings their particular expertise to the table. The Sombrero Marsh Education Program provides an example of such a program where a school district, a local government agency, a non-profit organization, and an institute of higher learning developed a field-based watershed curriculum for upper elementary students at Sombrero Marsh, a recently restored rare saline marsh located in Boulder Valley. The partners' expertise, ranging from wetland ecology and restoration to pedagogy, yielded a curriculum that includes many of the characteristics that are highlighted within the National Science Education Standards, such as inquiry-based, hands-on activities where students serve as scientists and collect real data that will be used to monitor the progress of marsh restoration. Once established, these diverse partnerships can attract further funding and expand their programs from the local to the national level, thus providing a successful model with a widespread impact. The Sombrero Marsh Program will soon be making this transition because the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), along with 4 other departments of the University of Colorado, was awarded a NSF GK-12 Grant to expand the marsh program to the secondary science level. Using the initial Sombrero Marsh Program as a guide, eight GK-12 Fellows from the departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Geological Sciences, Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, and Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences will develop a secondary science level program at Sombrero Marsh, which initially will be delivered to schools with a significant population of students from under-represented groups. Several dimensions of the marsh program, such as community-based research and ecological sterwardship, can serve as a national model for similar science education programs that aim to promote Earth System science.

  12. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Building a Global Infrastructure for Climate Change Research

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Ahrens, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bell, G.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I. T.; Fox, P.; Hankin, S.; Harper, D.; Hook, N.; Jones, P.; Middleton, D. E.; Miller, R.; Nienhouse, E.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shipman, G.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wang, F.; Wilcox, H.; Wilhelmi, N.

    2010-08-16

    Established within DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-) 2 program, with support from ASCR and BER, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) is a consortium of seven laboratories (Argonne National Laboratory [ANL], Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL], Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], National Center for Atmospheric Research [NCAR], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], and Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory [PMEL]), and two institutes (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [RPI] and the University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute [USC/ISI]). The consortium’s mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with a science gateway to access data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to evaluate extreme-scale data sets. Its stated goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing collaborative technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet the specific needs that national and international climate projects have for distributed databases, data access, and data movement; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad-based multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide range of climate data-analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. To this end, the ESG-CET is working to integrate all highly publicized climate data sets—from climate simulations to observations—using distributed storage management, remote high-performance units, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and user desktop platforms in a collaborative problem-solving environment.

  13. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making: A Case Study of NASA's DEVELOP National Program Methods and Best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Crepps, G.; Miller, T. N.; Favors, J. E.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Bender, M. R.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's DEVELOP National Program fosters an immersive research environment for dual capacity building. Through rapid feasibility Earth science projects, the future workforce and current decision makers are engaged in research projects to build skills and capabilities to use Earth observation in environmental management and policy making. DEVELOP conducts over 80 projects annually, successfully building skills through partnerships with over 150 organizations and providing over 350 opportunities for project participants each year. Filling a void between short-term training courses and long-term research projects, the DEVELOP model has been successful in supporting state, local, federal and international government organizations to adopt methodologies and enhance decision making processes. This presentation will highlight programmatic best practices, feedback from participants and partner organizations, and three sample case studies of successful adoption of methods in the decision making process.

  14. Solar energy utilization in a greenhouse/animal shelter combination

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, C.K.; Greig, J.K.; Johnson, G.A.; Hartford, J.R.; Koch, B.A.; Hines, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two greenhouses are being used at Kansas State Univesity to evaluate use of exhaust air from an animal shelter and its effect on greenhouse production. The control greenhouse is attached to the headquarters building and operated conventionally. The experimental house is attached to a swine finishing building and has air handling equipment to introduce hoghouse air to the greenhouse at 680 m/sup 3//h (400 cfm) or 1200 m/sup 3//h (700 cfm) and has a rock storage system with about 1 m/sup 3/ of rock for each 2 m/sup 2/ of greenhouse floor space. Cucumber, tomato, and broccoli plants in the experimental greenhouse have darker green foliage than plants in the control house regardless of nitrogen levels. The fall cucumber study indicated a 31 percent increase in number of marketable fruits from the experimental house. Marketable fruits from the experimental house weighed 40 percent more than those from the control house.

  15. 3. View of Building 802 from the Guard Shack (Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Building 802 from the Guard Shack (Building 801), Buildings 800 and 804 beside, facing north. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  16. Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

  17. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  18. 1. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF THE NORTH ELEVATION OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF THE NORTH ELEVATION OF BUILDING 114. BUILDING 114 SERVED AS THE BUS STOP SHELTER WHEN PERSONAL VEHICLES WERE BANNED ON THE SITE PROPERTY. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bus Stop Shelter, West side of Fourth Street, south of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  20. FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST WALLS - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN CENTER PORTION WITH SLEEPING BUNKS AT EACH END - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  5. View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has been installed to prevent entry, view facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Interior view of entry stair into bomb shelter, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of entry stair into bomb shelter, taken from below grade, view facing south - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has been installed to prevent entry, view facing north - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. Closeup view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. Selling to Industry for Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Intended for staffs of sheltered workshops for handicapped individuals, the guide presents a plan for selling the workshop idea to industry, hints on meeting obstacles, and ideas for expanding and upgrading workshop contract promotion. Brief sections cover the following topics (example subtopics are in parentheses): finding work contract prospects…

  11. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  12. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  13. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  14. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  15. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  16. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  17. Sheltered Employment for Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visier, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    Across nations, sheltered workshops for people with disabilities follow several models: therapeutic (protection vs. employee status), intermediate (disabled worker as "quasi-employee"), mixed/dual, and wage employment (protection and labor legislation). Impairment should present no insurmountable obstacle to integration into working life. (SK)

  18. Strategies for a Children's Shelter Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    A reading program was described for students who stay at the Suffolk Children's Shelter, located in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. Its goals were to stimulate students, considered uncontrollable and incorrigible, to select their reading materials independently, to read those materials at comfortable rates, and to develop their reading…

  19. 1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT SHAKES AND LOG BEAM SUPPORTS AND PORCH STEP; NOTE SHELTER NAME 'LAFITTE' OVER EYEBROW - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  20. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s). (b)...

  1. 24 CFR 576.53 - Use as an emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use as an emergency shelter. 576.53... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.53 Use as an emergency shelter. (a)(1) Restrictions and...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s). (b)...

  3. 24 CFR 576.53 - Use as an emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use as an emergency shelter. 576.53... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.53 Use as an emergency shelter. (a)(1) Restrictions and...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s). (b)...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s). (b)...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s). (b)...

  7. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  8. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  9. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  10. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  11. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  12. 24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) carried out with ESG assistance must use Energy Star and WaterSense products and appliances. (2) Access... intended for day use only, the shelter must provide each program participant in the shelter with an... sufficient electrical sources to permit the safe use of electrical appliances in the shelter. (9)...

  13. Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

    2011-12-01

    With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will

  14. How Effective Homelessness Prevention Impacts the Length of Shelter Spells.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O'Flaherty, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    Homelessness prevention programs intervene with households apparently in imminent danger of becoming homeless, and try to keep them housed. If they are at least partially successful, how do they change the average shelter spell of households actually becoming homeless? We use data from 2003 to 2008 for Homebase, a New York City homelessness prevention program that studies have found to be effective in reducing shelter entries. Homebase made no difference in average shelter spells at the community level. This result, like many results about shelter spell length, is not easy to reconcile with the idea that shelter spell length is a reflection of the seriousness of underlying problems.

  15. UV radiation impacts body weight, oxygen consumption, and shelter selection in the intertidal vertebrate Girella laevifrons.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, José; Waldisperg, Melany; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Maturana, Diego; Pulgar, Victor M; Aldana, Marcela

    2017-02-01

    The amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the earth's surface has increased due to ozone layer depletion, and this fact represents an opportunity to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of animals to this global-scale stressor. The transitory fish Girella laevifrons inhabits pools in the upper intertidal zone, which is characterized by exposure to a wide range of stressors, including UV radiation. We documented the field magnitude and the impact of UV radiation on oxygen consumption, body mass variations, and shelter (rocky and algae) selection by G. laevifrons. UV-exposed animals showed increased oxygen consumption, slower body weight increase, and active rocky shelter selection. Control fish showed increased body weight and no evident shelter selection. The results indicated that UV exposure affects fish energetic balance and habitat selection to favor greater protection against radiation. Increased UV exposure in transitory intertidal animals at levels observed in upper intertidal pools may alter the residency time of fish before leaving for the subtidal zone. Therefore, UV-induced energetic changes may determine animal performance and ontogenetic physiological itineraries, whereas shelter quality might determine habitat use.

  16. [Analysis of Factors on Clinical Application of Vehicle CT Shelter].

    PubMed

    Shuai, Wanjun; Chao, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Dong, Can; Gao, Huayong; Tan, Shulin; Niu, Fu

    2015-09-01

    To assure the clinical quality and requirement of CT shelter used in field environment, the factors related with the practical application were studied. The evaluation indicators of CT equipment were investigated. Based on the technical modification of vehicle shelter CT, the scanning conditions of shelter CT were analyzed. Moreover, the comparative study was done between shelter CT and common CT in hospitals. In result, in order to meet maneuverability application in the field, vehicle shelter CT was restrictive by the field conditions, traffic impacts and running requirement. The application of vehicle shelter CT was affected by the factors, such as mechanical stabilization, moving precision, power fluctuations and variations of temperature and humidity, etc. The results were helpful to improve the clinical quality of vehicle shelter CT and made a base for the quality control study in the future.

  17. The role of PTSD and length of shelter stay in battered women's severity of re-abuse after leaving shelter.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sara; Johnson, Dawn M; Johnson, Nicole; Walter, Kristen H

    2012-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is associated with significant morbidity, including high rates of re-abuse even after women have taken steps to achieve safety. This study evaluated the roles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and length of shelter stay in the severity of re-abuse in 103 IPV victims over a six month period after leaving a battered women's shelter. Results suggest that the length of shelter stay is inversely related to re-abuse severity after leaving shelter. Additionally, more severe PTSD symptoms upon shelter exit were associated with greater re-abuse severity after leaving shelter. Furthermore, additional study findings support prior research suggesting that the emotional numbing symptoms of PTSD are a significant risk factor for re-abuse among IPV victims after leaving shelter.

  18. 2. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building 800 and 804 in the background, facing northeast. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  19. 5. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Buildings 800 and 801 in the background, facing southeast. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  20. Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

    2012-01-01

    An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

  1. New Buildings with Fallout Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Fallout protection can be built into a building with little or no additional expense, using areas that are in continuous use in the normal functioning of the building. A general discussion of principles of shelter design is given along with photographs, descriptions, drawings, and cost analysis for a large number of recently constructed buildings…

  2. Barriers and facilitators to shelter utilization among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yoonsook; Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Rates of shelter use among homeless youth are low compared to use of other supportive services, yet research on barriers to shelter use has been conducted in limited regions, specifically in West Coast or Midwest cities. Additionally, while studies have generally focused on barriers to shelter use, studies on what might facilitate shelter use are lacking. This study explores barriers and facilitators to shelter use among homeless young adults from a large city in the Southwest region. Focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 49 homeless young adults ages 18-24. Drawing on models of health service use, findings were categorized into two domains--attitudinal and access. Themes related to attitudinal barriers include stigma/shame and self-reliance/pride. Attitudinal facilitators include the desire to extricate themselves from street life and turn their lives in a new direction. Access-related themes include barriers such as a lack of shelters and services available to meet the needs of youth, adverse shelter conditions, staff attitudes that are not acceptable to youth, restrictive shelter rules, restrictive definitions of homelessness, and a desire to differentiate themselves from older homeless individuals. Certain characteristics or circumstances (e.g., being pregnant), having supportive others, and shelters' ability to connect them to other services emerged as access facilitators to shelter use. Implications for policymakers, service providers, and future research are discussed.

  3. Vulnerability evaluation of the keyworker blast shelter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Slawson, T.R.

    1987-04-01

    The 100-man keyworker blast shelter that survived MINOR SCALE (a high explosive event) was retested using the High Explosive Simulation Technique (HEST) in August 1986. The test was conducted at White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex. The existing structure sustained minor damage (1/8-inch permanent midspan deflection) during MINOR SCALE at the predicted 75-psi peak overpressure level, and a retest was proposed to investigate the shelter's large deformation behavior. The shelter was tested using a 1-MT nuclear weapon simulation at 130- to 16-psi (depending on the duration of the simulation). The shelter survived the test with large plastic roof deformations ranging from 8 to 17 inches at roof midspan. The failure mode of the shelter roof was very ductile, and the shelter had adequate reserve capacity to withstand large deformations without catastrophic failure. Survivability of occupants and mechanical equipment at this overpressure was investigated. The mechanical equipment inside the shelter was fully functional after the test except for the roof-mounted fluorescent-light fixtures. In-structure shock was within acceptable limits for shelter occupants, and high-speed movies of the mannequin movement reinforced this conclusion. Based on this test result, it is concluded that the shelter performed as designed in the buried configuration under ideal backfill conditions. Additional scale-model tests validated the shelter design in the bermed configuration and in various backfill types.

  4. RadWorks Storm Shelter Design for Solar Particle Event Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Cerro, Jeffrey; Clowdsley, Martha

    2013-01-01

    In order to enable long-duration human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit, the risks associated with exposure of astronaut crews to space radiation must be mitigated with practical and affordable solutions. The space radiation environment beyond the magnetosphere is primarily a combination of two types of radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). While mitigating GCR exposure remains an open issue, reducing astronaut exposure to SPEs is achievable through material shielding because they are made up primarily of medium-energy protons. In order to ensure astronaut safety for long durations beyond low-Earth orbit, SPE radiation exposure must be mitigated. However, the increasingly demanding spacecraft propulsive performance for these ambitious missions requires minimal mass and volume radiation shielding solutions which leverage available multi-functional habitat structures and logistics as much as possible. This paper describes the efforts of NASA's RadWorks Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Project to design minimal mass SPE radiation shelter concepts leveraging available resources. Discussion items include a description of the shelter trade space, the prioritization process used to identify the four primary shelter concepts chosen for maturation, a summary of each concept's design features, a description of the radiation analysis process, and an assessment of the parasitic mass of each concept.

  5. Modeling shelter-in-place including sorption on indoor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W.; Loosmore, Gwen A.; Sugiyama, Gayle A.

    2003-11-01

    Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic releases (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. As part of an emergency response plan, shelter-in-place (SIP) can be an effective response option, especially when evacuation is infeasible. Reasonably tight building envelopes provide some protection against exposure to peak concentrations when toxic release passes over an area. They also provide some protection in terms of cumulative exposure, if SIP is terminated promptly after the outdoor plume has passed. The purpose of this work is to quantify the level of protection offered by existing houses, and the importance of sorption/desorption to and from surfaces on the effectiveness of SIP. We examined a hypothetical chlorine gas release scenario simulated by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC). We used a standard infiltration model to calculate the distribution of time dependent infiltration rates within each census tract. Large variation in the air tightness of dwellings makes some houses more protective than others. Considering only the median air tightness, model results showed that if sheltered indoors, the total population intake of non-sorbing toxic gas is only 50% of the outdoor level 4 hours from the start of the release. Based on a sorption/desorption model by Karlsson and Huber (1996), we calculated that the sorption process would further lower the total intake of the population by an additional 50%. The potential benefit of SIP can be considerably higher if the comparison is made in terms of health effects because of the non-linear acute effect dose-response curve of many chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial substances.

  6. Daytime shelter use of individually kept horses during Swedish summer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Hopkins, R J; Blomgren, E; Ventorp, M; von Brömssen, C; Dahlborn, K

    2015-02-01

    In Sweden, no provision for summer shelter to protect horses from heat and insects is required, although access to shelter for horses kept outdoors 24 h during winter is a requirement. This study investigated horses' daytime shelter-seeking behavior in relation to weather conditions and insect activity during a 2-wk period in summer. Eight Warmblood riding horses had access to 2 shelters of different design to test which shelter design is preferred by horses. Furthermore, rectal and skin temperatures and insect-defensive behavior were measured to test whether horses would benefit from the provision of shade. The horses were kept alone in paddocks for 4 d. During 2 d, horses had access to 2 shelters: 1) open shelter with roof and uncovered sides and 2) closed shelter with roof, wind nets on 2 sides, and opaque plastic opposite the entrance. Weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed) were recorded every 10 min. The number of insects (flies, mosquitos) was counted from insect traps placed in each shelter and outside. Behavior (shelter use, insect-defensive behavior, locomotion, grazing) was recorded at 5-min intervals between 0900 to 1200 h and 1300 to 1600 h and rectal and skin temperatures were measured at 0800 h, 1200 h, and 1600 h. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure for Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Ambient temperature ranged from 16 to 25°C (average temperature humidity index 65.7 ± 1.4). Five horses preferred the closed shelter and were observed inside up to 2.5 h continuously. Greater wind speed decreased the likelihood of observing horses inside the shelter ( < 0.001), as did lower numbers of flies ( < 0.001). The insect-defensive behaviors, skin shiver and ear flick, were performed less frequently when horses were using the closed shelter ( < 0.001), indicating that they were less disturbed by insects. Thirty-minute shelter use had no effect on rectal and skin temperatures ( > 0

  7. The German Earth observation programme: building on the success of TerraSAR-X and RapidEye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaadt, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In addition to five years of routine operations of SCIAMACHY on-board of ESA's ENVISAT mission, the launches of the TerraSAR-X and RapidEye missions and the beginning of both their operational phases are the major milestones for the German Space Programme in 2007 and 2008. These two missions will contribute significantly to the European GMES-Initiative and to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and enhance the knowledge about state and dynamics of the Earth's system. Both missions are implemented under public-private-partnership between government and industry, an innovative economic scheme for space mission implementation. With the TanDEM-X and the Hyperspectral EnMAP mission this efficient way of sharing competences, costs and responsibilities on one hand and benefits on the other hand will be further followed. In addition, with MetImage Germany started the development of an imaging radiometer for the European post-EPS satellite system of EUMETSAT. These five attractive missions are important contributions of the German Earth Observation Community to the global system. This investment underlines the political objective of Europe and Germany to advance the environmental agenda. In parallel technology developments for next generation Earth Observation instruments have started, namely High Resolution Wide Swath SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), IR detectors and coolers, optical components and mechanisms for LEO and GEO and high power Mixed Garnet laser transmitters for LIDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging) applications. With these activities Germany will be able to provide future Earth Observation missions with suitable technologies as an answer to the increasing complexity of user requirements. In this paper the objectives and the strategy of the German Earth Observation Programme will be explained and the main elements, i.e. missions and technology developments as well as the plans for the future will be introduced.

  8. Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant - An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, Daniel P.; Gronier, Serge; Heriot, Ian D.; Hogg, Charles; Novak, Vince; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2005-08-08

    Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant ? An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site Abstract?The 1986 accident at the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the reactor building. The Chornobyl accident released an enormous quantity of radionuclides into the environment, significantly contaminating a large region around the plant. Within seven months of the accident, the damaged Unit 4 was encased in a massive concrete and steel enclosure known as the Shelter. Deterioration of the Shelter over time poses increasing risks. The Shelter is subject to structural damage or collapse due to wind, snow loading, or seismic activity. Collapse could lead to the release of radioactive fallout. Leakage of rainwater into the Shelter has caused the accumulation of a large quantity of highly radioactive liquid, corrosion of extremely contaminated nuclear fuel debris, and creation of hazardous radioactive dust. To address these concerns, the government of Ukraine, the G7 nations, and additional donor countries adopted the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) in 1997. The SIP's objectives are to reduce the risk and potential consequences of accidental collapse of the Shelter; improve nuclear, industrial and environmental safety; and develop a long-term strategy for conversion to an environmentally safe site. Implementation of the SIP has made significant progress that will lead to the construction of a new confinement facility by 2009. (Full paper available by contacting lead author, Dan Couch)

  9. Investigating the key indicators for evaluating post-disaster shelter.

    PubMed

    Nath, Ronita; Shannon, Harry; Kabali, Conrad; Oremus, Mark

    2016-09-22

    This study sought to identify the primary indicators for evaluating shelter assistance following natural disasters and then to develop a shelter evaluation instrument based on these indicators. Electronic databases and the 'grey' literature were scoured for publications with a relation to post-disaster shelter assistance. Indicators for evaluating such assistance were extracted from these publications. In total, 1,525 indicators were extracted from 181 publications. A preliminary evaluation instrument was designed from these 1,525 indicators. Shelter experts checked the instrument for face and content validity, and it was revised subsequently based on their input. The revised instrument comprises a version for use by shelter agencies (48 questions that assess 23 indicators) and a version for use by beneficiaries (52 questions that assess 22 indicators). The instrument can serve as a standardised tool to enable groups to gauge whether or not the shelter assistance that they supply meets the needs of disaster-affected populations.

  10. Building a 15-Year Cloud Climatology using Lidar in Space Observations: CALIOP and CloudSat now, EarthCARE next.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdy, M.; Chepfer, H.; Donovan, D. P.; Noel, V.; Marchand, R.; Cesana, G.; Hoareau, C.; Chiriaco, M.; Bastin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Today, the CALIOP lidar and CloudSat radar have collected more than seven years of observations, and willhopefully still operate in 2016, after the EarthCARE-ATLID/CPR launch. Lidars and Radars in space providecutting edge information on the detailed vertical structure of clouds: a key element for both the evaluation ofthe description of clouds in climate models, and the survey of the clouds inter-annual evolution in variousclimatic conditions (El Nino, variation of North Atlantic Oscillations, polar regions, etc). For this purpose,the observations collected by CALIOP and by ATLID as well as CloudSat and EarthCARE CPR need to bemerged into a long-term (15 years) cloud climatology. Here, we examine the possibility of building such a climatology, with the aim of defining its accuracy andrelevance for cloud inter-annual studies. We examine the differences between the instruments (wavelengths,satellite's altitudes, telescope fields of view, multiple scattering processes, spatial resolutions) and theirability to detect the same clouds consistently. Then, we define a set of cloud detection thresholds for ATLID,CALIOP, CloudSat and EarthCARE-CPR and test against synthetic cloud scenes (cirrus and shallowcumulus) over small areas (about 200km) produced by a lidar and radar instrument simulator (ECSIM)running on Large Eddy Simulations. Doing so, we verify that the fourth instruments will be able to detect thesame clouds despite their differences (e.g. their sensitivities to noise). Finally, we use the COSP lidar andradar simulator to predict the global scale cloud cover that ATLID, CALIOP, CloudSat and EarthCARE CPRwould observe if they were overflying the same atmosphere predicted by a GCM. Our results suggest that amerged CALIOP/ATLID and CloudSat/CPR cloud climatology could be to be useful for clouds inter-annualstudies, if the post-launch sensitivity of EarthCARE instruments is in line with what is predicted today.

  11. Emergence of intercolonial variation in termite shelter tube patterns and prediction of its underlying mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Building behaviours occur in various organisms from bacteria to humans. Social insects build various structures such as large nests and underground galleries, achieved by self-organization. Structures built by social insects have recently been demonstrated to vary widely in size and shape within a species, even under the same environmental conditions. However, little is known about how intraspecific variation in structures emerges from collective behaviours. Here we show that the colony variation of structures can be generated by simply changing two behavioural parameters of group members, even with the same building algorithm. Our laboratory experiment of termite shelter tube construction demonstrated clear intercolonial variation, and a two-dimensional lattice model showed that it can be attributed to the extent of positive feedback and the number of individuals engaged in building. This study contributes to explaining the great diversity of structures emerging from collective building in social insects. PMID:26715997

  12. From Suns to Life: A Chronological Approach to the History of Life on Earth 4. Building of a Habitable Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Hervé; Albarède, Francis; Claeys, Philippe; Gargaud, Muriel; Marty, Bernard; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Pinti, Daniele L.

    2006-06-01

    Except the old Jack Hills zircon crystals, it does not exit direct record of the first 500 Ma of the Earth history. Consequently, the succession of events that took place during this period is only indirectly known through geochemistry, comparison with other telluric planets, and numerical modelling. Just after planetary accretion several episodes were necessary in order to make life apparition and development possible and to make the Earth surface habitable. Among these stages are: the core differentiation, the formation of a magma ocean, the apparition of the first atmosphere, oceans and continents as well as the development of magnetic field and of plate tectonics. In the same time, Earth has been subject to extraterrestrial events such as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) between 3.95 and 3.8 Ga. Since 4.4 4.3 Ga, the conditions for pre-biotic chemistry and appearance of life were already met (liquid water, continental crust, no strong meteoritic bombardment, etc...). This does not mean that life existed as early, but this demonstrates that all necessary conditions assumed for life development were already present on Earth.

  13. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

  14. Predicting shelter residence in women experiencing recent intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Galano, Maria M; Hunter, Erin C; Howell, Kathryn H; Miller, Laura E; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2013-04-01

    This study sought to determine factors associated with shelter residence in women with recent histories of intimate partner violence (IPV). The sample included 113 women, approximately half of whom resided in a shelter over the past year. Participating women provided demographic information and completed standardized measures of IPV, trauma, and depression. Ethnicity, income, housing stability, and mental health, but not violence exposure, differentiated the shelter and community groups. Trauma symptoms, housing instability, and ethnicity best predicted shelter residence. Future research should focus on determining what types of services and interventions will best address the unique needs of each population.

  15. OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP FAIRWAY #1 - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  16. Application of Systems Analysis to Sheltered Workshops. Organization and Administration of Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, William H.

    This paper discusses a set of concepts which have been developed for the analysis of the organization and administrative problems which confront sheltered workshops. The concept of systems analysis is introduced to examine the activities of the workshop and to indicate the manner in which the conceptual framework developed may be applied to…

  17. Teaching as Sheltering: A Metaphorical Analysis of Sheltered Instruction for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritzen, Anny

    2011-01-01

    The term "sheltered instruction" (SI) has become a widely used metaphor representing a common pedagogical intervention intended to help English language learners simultaneously gain English proficiency and academic content knowledge. While existing research places considerable emphasis on observable pedagogical techniques that characterize SI,…

  18. Earthdata Code Collaborative: Building a Reuseable and Shared Platform for Earth Science Collaboration, Development, and Application Hosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. D.; Pilone, D.

    2014-12-01

    An ever-growing number of applications to expose, utilize, and process Earth Science data are developed every year. These applications are sometimes developed by large organizations with significant budgets, and at other times by graduate students or professors with short-term grant money and little else. Because of this wide variance in environments, these applications are rarely consistent in their approach to testing, hosting, presentation of information, and approach to maintenance. Many of these applications also continually re-invent solutions to common problems such as bug tracking, collaboration, source code management, user support and feedback, and deployment of new features. The Earthdata Code Collaborative (https://ecc.earthdata.nasa.gov, typically referred to as the ECC) provides a unified and consistent environment for Earth Science application development, whether an application is developed by a team of 10, 50, or even 1. By using commercial products such as the Atlassian suite of tools (https://www.atlassian.com) and custom APIs, the ECC allows Earth Science applications to focus on science rather than infrastructure and tooling. This session will detail the process by which the Earthdata Code Collaborative was developed, as well as the initial requirements that drove its inception. It will go on to demonstrate the current state of the ECC, and explore how bringing on applications-both internal to Earthdata and external-has shaped its requirements and implementation. Concepts such as code management, continuous integration (testing), and one-touch deployment will be explored in the context of Earth Science applications.

  19. Research on Academic Literacy Development in Sheltered Instruction Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Echevarria, Jana; Richards-Tutor, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an extended program of research in sheltered instruction and the effects on the academic literacy development of English language learners. It also highlights the challenges of scaling up an instructional intervention. The intervention was the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model, an approach that teaches…

  20. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  1. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  2. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  3. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  4. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  5. 26 CFR 53.4965-3 - Prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-3 Section 53.4965-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) In general. Under section 4965(e), the term prohibited tax...

  6. Successful Transitions of Runaway/Homeless Youth from Shelter Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; House, Laura E.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Pollio, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicates that runaway and homeless youth often achieve positive outcomes after shelter stays however few studies have examined how these outcomes are achieved. This study employs qualitative methods to explicate this phenomenon. Twenty-five providers and 21 youth from four shelters participated in this study. Youth were…

  7. Domestic Violence Shelters as Prevention Agents for HIV/AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…

  8. Implementing an Art Program for Children in a Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Donalyn; MacGillivray, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research study designed to analyze the implementation of an art program for children in a homeless shelter. Using a socio-cultural lens and the framework of resilience theory, teacher researchers implemented community-art programs for children residing in a family emergency shelter. Data collection included…

  9. 26 CFR 53.4965-3 - Prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-3 Section 53.4965-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) In general. Under section 4965(e), the term prohibited tax...

  10. View to east northeast. Southwest operating shelters in foreground to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to east northeast. Southwest operating shelters in foreground to left. East-end operating shelters in distant background, to right center - St. Mary's Falls Canal, Soo Locks, Sabin Lock Subcomplex, St. Mary's River at Falls, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. 26 CFR 53.4965-3 - Prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-3 Section 53.4965-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) In general. Under section 4965(e), the term prohibited tax...

  12. 26 CFR 53.4965-3 - Prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-3 Section 53.4965-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) In general. Under section 4965(e), the term prohibited tax...

  13. Lessons Learned: A "Homeless Shelter Intervention" by a Medical Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Yasmin; Kunik, Mark; Coverdale, John; Shah, Asim; Primm, Annelle; Harris, Toi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored the process of implementing a medical student-initiated program designed to provide computerized mental health screening, referral, and education in a homeless shelter. Method: An educational program was designed to teach homeless shelter staff about psychiatric disorders and culturally-informed treatment…

  14. National Fallout Shelter Design Competition. Community Center. Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Award winning designs for dual-use fallout shelters are presented, representing contributions by the design professions toward development of the national defense resource. The focus and concept of the competition is described as the basis for judging. The nature of dual-use shelter is discussed, which contributes to understanding of the…

  15. Closing the Shop: Conversion from Sheltered to Integrated Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Stephen T.; Rogan, Patricia M.

    Designed as a hands-on guide for job development specialists, vocational rehabilitation professionals, and agency leaders and staff, this book provides an indepth analysis of the conversion process of Pioneer, a sheltered workshop in Syracuse, New York. The book moves from an examination of the historical roots of sheltered workshops in chapter 1…

  16. 14. View inside Building 802, the "Escape Hatch" at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View inside Building 802, the "Escape Hatch" at the rear of the "Sleeping Quarters", facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  17. 15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. 9. View inside Building 802, "Toilet", facing east. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View inside Building 802, "Toilet", facing east. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  19. 16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  20. 6. View of Building 802 towards front entry, facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View of Building 802 towards front entry, facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  1. 8. View inside Building 802, "Control Area", facing southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View inside Building 802, "Control Area", facing southeast. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  2. 4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing northwest. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  3. The determinants of transitions into sheltered accommodation in later life in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Vlachantoni, Athina; Maslovskaya, Olga; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Population ageing is a global challenge and understanding the dynamics of living arrangements in later life and their implications for the design of appropriate housing and long-term care is a critical policy issue. Existing research has focused on the study of transitions into residential care in the UK. This paper investigates transitions into sheltered accommodation among older people in England and Wales between 1993 and 2008. Methods The study uses longitudinal data constructed from pooled observations across waves 2–18 of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) data, focusing on individuals aged 65 and over who lived in private housing at baseline and who were observed for two consecutive time points. A discrete-time logistic regression model was used to examine the association of transitioning into sheltered accommodation with a range of demographic, health and socioeconomic predictors. Results Demographic (age, region), socioeconomic factors (housing tenure, having a washing machine) and contact with health professionals (number of visits to the general practitioner, start in use of health visitor) were significant determinants of an older person's move into sheltered accommodation. Conclusions Transitions into sheltered accommodation are associated with a range of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as service use but not with health. Such results indicate that this type of housing option may be accessible by individuals with relatively good health, but may be limited to those who are referred by gatekeepers. Policymakers could consider making such housing option available to everyone, as well as providing incentives for building lifecourse-sensitive housing in the future. PMID:26896519

  4. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhorn, J.; Khazai, B.

    2014-06-01

    In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index (OSSI) uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites, and a second quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment, implementation issues, environmental considerations, and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of a case study in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC). According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two third (59.5%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

  5. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhorn, J.; Khazai, B.

    2015-04-01

    In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites and another quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment implementation issues, environmental considerations and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. A geographic information system is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of an earthquake hazard case study in the Kathmandu Metropolitan City. According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two-thirds (59.55%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

  6. Acoustics of fish shelters: frequency response and gain properties.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Many teleosts emit sounds from cavities beneath stones and other types of submerged objects, yet the acoustical properties of fish shelters are virtually unexplored. This study examines the gain properties of shelters commonly used by Mediterranean gobies as hiding places and/or nest sites in the field (flat stones, shells belonging to five bivalve species), or within aquarium tanks (tunnel-shaped plastic covers, concrete blocks, concrete cylinder pipe, halves of terracotta flower pots). All shelters were acoustically stimulated using a small underwater buzzer, placed inside or around the shelter to mimic a fish calling from the nest site, and different types of driving stimuli (white noise, pure tones, and artificial pulse trains). Results showed the presence of significant amplitude gain (3-18 dB) at frequencies in the range 100-150 Hz in all types of natural shelters but one (Mytilus), terracotta flower pots, and concrete blocks. Gain was higher for stones and artificial shelters than for shells. Gain peak amplitude increased with the weight of stones and shells. Conclusions were verified by performing analogous acoustical tests on flat stones in the stream. Results draw attention to the use of suitable shelters for proper recording of sounds produced by fishes kept within laboratory aquaria.

  7. Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

    2014-03-01

    The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus

  8. An interdisciplinary network for young scientists in Earth System Science: building bridges between human and environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Mahowald, N.; Balogun, A.; Dawson, R.; Scholze, M.

    2006-12-01

    The goal of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes' Analysis, Integration and Modeling of the Earth System (IGBP/AIMES) project Young Scientist's Network (YSN) is to promote communication and collaboration between young scientists from the biogeochemical, climate system and social dimension communities to best meet the emerging challenges in global change science. A primary goal of the YSN is to foster cross-disciplinary collaborations and discuss ways to provide relevant research findings for decision-makers. We focus on young scientists as the integrators, and include participants from many disciplines across both natural and social sciences from around the world. In collaboration with the Global Carbon Projects' Urban Regional Carbon Management Conference in Mexico City, our most recent workshop focused on Urbanization Interactions with Biogeochemistry and Climate. The goal of the workshop was to synthesize existing literature, propose a framework for discussing urban interactions to the global biogeochemical cycles, discuss gaps in our scientific understanding and literature and propose solutions to bridge those gaps.

  9. Birth control sabotage and forced sex: experiences reported by women in domestic violence shelters.

    PubMed

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Rostovtseva, Daria P; Khera, Satin; Godhwani, Nita

    2010-05-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence often experience birth control sabotage, forced sex, and partner's unwillingness to use condoms. We interviewed 53 women at four domestic violence shelters. Participants reported that their abusive partners frequently refused to use condoms, impeded them from accessing health care, and subjected them to birth control sabotage, infidelity, and forced sex. However, women also reported strategies to counteract these actions, particularly against birth control sabotage and attempts to force them to abort or continue a pregnancy. Domestic violence counselors can focus on these successful strategies to validate coping skills and build self-esteem.

  10. Assessing the Congregate Disaster Shelter: Using Shelter Facility Assessment Data for Evaluating Potential Hazards to Occupants During Disasters.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Miguel A; Garcia, Stephanie; Chowdhury, Muhammad A B; Malilay, Josephine; Perea, Nancy; Williams, O Dale

    Disaster shelter assessments are environmental health assessments conducted during disaster situations to evaluate the living environment of shelters for hygiene, sanitation, and safety conditions. We conducted a secondary data analysis of shelter assessment records available (n = 108) on ice storms, floods, and tornado events from 1 state jurisdiction. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze results of environmental health deficiencies found in the facilities. The greater numbers of environmental health deficiencies were associated with sanitation (26%), facility physical issues (19%), and food areas (17%). Most deficiencies were reported following ice storms, tornadoes, and flood events. This report describes the first analysis of environmental health deficiencies found in disaster shelters across a spectrum of disaster events. Although the number of records analyzed for this project was small and results may not be generalizable, this new insight into the living environment in shelter facilities offers the first analysis of deficiencies of the shelter operation and living environment that have great potential to affect the safety and health of shelter occupants.

  11. Building Nationally-Focussed, Globally Federated, High Performance Earth Science Platforms to Solve Next Generation Social and Economic Issues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, Lesley; Evans, Ben; Foster, Clinton; Pugh, Timothy; Uhlherr, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    Digital geoscience data and information are integral to informing decisions on the social, economic and environmental management of natural resources. Traditionally, such decisions were focused on regional or national viewpoints only, but it is increasingly being recognised that global perspectives are required to meet new challenges such as predicting impacts of climate change; sustainably exploiting scarce water, mineral and energy resources; and protecting our communities through better prediction of the behaviour of natural hazards. In recent years, technical advances in scientific instruments have resulted in a surge in data volumes, with data now being collected at unprecedented rates and at ever increasing resolutions. The size of many earth science data sets now exceed the computational capacity of many government and academic organisations to locally store and dynamically access the data sets; to internally process and analyse them to high resolutions; and then to deliver them online to clients, partners and stakeholders. Fortunately, at the same time, computational capacities have commensurately increased (both cloud and HPC): these can now provide the capability to effectively access the ever-growing data assets within realistic time frames. However, to achieve this, data and computing need to be co-located: bandwidth limits the capacity to move the large data sets; the data transfers are too slow; and latencies to access them are too high. These scenarios are driving the move towards more centralised High Performance (HP) Infrastructures. The rapidly increasing scale of data, the growing complexity of software and hardware environments, combined with the energy costs of running such infrastructures is creating a compelling economic argument for just having one or two major national (or continental) HP facilities that can be federated internationally to enable earth and environmental issues to be tackled at global scales. But at the same time, if

  12. Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET)

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bernholdt, D. E.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I.; Fox, P.; Fraser, D.; Halliday, K.; Hankin, S.; Jones, P.; Kesselman, C.; Middleton, J. E.; Schwidder, J.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wilhelmi, N.; Su, M.; Williams, Dean N.

    2007-07-13

    The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4) has generated significant media attention. Much has been said about the U.S. role in this report, which included significant support from the Department of Energy through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) and other Department of Energy (DOE) programs for climate model development and the production execution of simulations. The SciDAC-supported Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) also played a major role in the IPCC AR4: all of the simulation data that went into the report was made available to climate scientists worldwide exclusively via the ESG-CET. At the same time as the IPCC AR4 database was being developed, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a leading U.S. climate science laboratory and a ESG participant, began publishing model runs from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), and its predecessor the Parallel Coupled Model (PCM) through ESG. In aggregate, ESG-CET provides seamless access to over 250 terabytes of distributed climate simulation data to over 6,000 registered users worldwide, who have taken delivery of more than 280 terabytes from the archive. Not only does this represent a substantial advance in scientific knowledge, it is also a major step forward in how we conduct the research process on a global scale. Moving forward, the next IPCC assessment report, AR5, will demand multi-site metadata federation for data discovery and cross-domain identity management for single signon of users in a more diverse federation enterprise environment. Towards this aim, ESG is leading the effort in the climate community towards standardization of material for the global federation of metadata, security, and data services required to standardize, analyze, and access data worldwide.

  13. The Griggs Dynamic Convection Model: a Resource for Learning About Mountain-Building Processes in the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, G.

    2013-12-01

    Using a physical analog model in the classroom/laboratory setting is just one of the many ways teachers can provide a resource for learning through inquiry; however, well developed physical analog models of natural processes that can be measured and manipulated scientifically by students can be challenging for teachers to obtain. This research analyzes a historical physical analog model--the David Griggs (1939) Dynamic Convection Model, which was used 'to study the effect of sub-crustal convection currents on the continental crust.'--to determine if the model is capable of supporting model-based inquiry-oriented classroom activities. An analogical structure-mapping method developed for assessing the affordances of scale models (Kastens and Rivet, 2010) is used to show that the model has highly transparent surface and structural features, which correspond to Griggs' theory of mountain-building at the levels of attributes, simple relations, higher order relations and systematicity. A variety of experimental parameters for the model (i.e., using different materials, and varying the speeds of the convection cells) are described to give teachers support for developing inquiry-oriented classroom activities. Furthermore, the Griggs dynamic convection model, along with a replica for people to try, will be at the poster session.

  14. 26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions... Taxes § 53.4965-7 Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) Entity-level taxes—(1) In general... prohibited tax shelter transactions. (i) Prohibited tax shelter transactions other than subsequently...

  15. 26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions... Taxes § 53.4965-7 Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) Entity-level taxes—(1) In general... prohibited tax shelter transactions. (i) Prohibited tax shelter transactions other than subsequently...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions... Taxes § 53.4965-7 Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) Entity-level taxes—(1) In general... prohibited tax shelter transactions. (i) Prohibited tax shelter transactions other than subsequently...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions... Taxes § 53.4965-7 Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) Entity-level taxes—(1) In general... prohibited tax shelter transactions. (i) Prohibited tax shelter transactions other than subsequently...

  18. Building web service interfaces to geoscience data sets: EarthCube GeoWS project activities at the IRIS DMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, C. M.; Ahern, T. K.; Stults, M.

    2015-12-01

    At the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) we have been developing web service data access interfaces for our, primarily seismological, repositories for five years. These interfaces have become the primary access mechanisms for all data extraction from the DMC. For the last two years the DMC has been a principal participant in the GeoWS project, which aims to develop common web service interfaces for data access across hydrology, geodesy, seismology, marine geophysics, atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines. By extending our approach we have converged, along with other project members, on a web service interface and presentation design appropriate for geoscience and other data. The key principles of the approach include using a simple subset of RESTful concepts, common calling conventions whenever possible, a common tabular text data set convention, human-readable documentation and tools to help scientific end users learn how to use the interfaces. The common tabular text format, called GeoCSV, has been incorporated into the DMC's seismic station and event (earthquake) services. In addition to modifying our existing services, we have developed prototype GeoCSV web services for data sets managed by external (unfunded) collaborators. These prototype services include interfaces for data sets at NGDC/NCEI (water level tides and meteorological satellite measurements), INTERMAGNET repository and UTEP gravity and magnetic measurements. In progress are interfaces for WOVOdat (volcano observatory measurements), NEON (ecological observatory measurements) and more. An important goal of our work is to build interfaces usable by non-technologist end users. We find direct usability by researchers to be a major factor in cross-discipline data use, which itself is a key to solving complex research questions. In addition to data discovery and collection by end users, these interfaces provide a foundation upon which federated data access and brokering systems are already being

  19. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program.

    PubMed

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-04-24

    The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education.

  20. Facilitating a Collaborative Partnership with a Homeless Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marsha D.; Weyer, Mary E.

    2002-01-01

    Nursing faculty initiated a partnership with a homeless shelter through which nursing students experienced community nursing and health promotion. Lessons learned from partnership development included the importance of ongoing dialogue and negotiation and clarification of expectations and responsibilities. (SK)

  1. 214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN BUS STOP WIDENING, 1932. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  2. 14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Efficacy of bomb shelters: with lessons from the Hamburg firestorm.

    PubMed

    Lucas, K A; Orient, J M; Robinson, A; Maccabee, H; Morris, P; Looney, G; Klinghoffer, M

    1990-07-01

    Shelters for protection against the effects of nuclear weapons are often stated to be useless, largely because of firestorms. Recent models purport to show that nuclear weapons are more likely to cause firestorms than previously thought. These controversial models are based on uncertain assumptions, which are difficult or impossible to test. Regardless of the predictive validity of fire models, conclusions about the ability of shelters to protect their occupants against firestorms, if they occur, are based primarily on historical experience. A review of the original data from the Hamburg firestorm shows that almost all persons in adequate shelters survived, contradicting a currently prevailing belief that all died. The results of the strategic bombing during World War II and of nuclear weapons tests show that a considerable level of population protection can be achieved through attention to proper shelter design.

  4. Efficacy of bomb shelters: With lessons from the Hamburg firestorm

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, K.A.; Orient, J.M.; Robinson, A.; Maccabee, H.; Morris, P.; Looney, G.; Klinghoffer, M. )

    1990-07-01

    Shelters for protection against the effects of nuclear weapons are often stated to be useless, largely because of firestorms. Recent models purport to show that nuclear weapons are more likely to cause firestorms than previously thought. These controversial models are based on uncertain assumptions, which are difficult or impossible to test. Regardless of the predictive validity of fire models, conclusions about the ability of shelters to protect their occupants against firestorms, if they occur, are based primarily on historical experience. A review of the original data from the Hamburg firestorm shows that almost all persons in adequate shelters survived, contradicting a currently prevailing belief that all died. The results of the strategic bombing during World War II and of nuclear weapons tests show that a considerable level of population protection can be achieved through attention to proper shelter design.

  5. 50. Stream gaging station in steelpipe well and shelter, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Stream gaging station in steel-pipe well and shelter, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  6. 6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  7. STAIRWAY FROM THE PROMENADE TO THE BASEMENT SHOWING SHELTER SIGNAGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STAIRWAY FROM THE PROMENADE TO THE BASEMENT SHOWING SHELTER SIGNAGE. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Blast response of a hardened Army ISO shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, R.W.; Lush, A.; Crenshaw, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    A prototype shelter was designed to withstand a blast loading corresponding to a 10.0 psi (68.9 kPa) incident overpressure. The hardened shelter was then constructed, instrumented and subjected to a simulated nuclear blast loading. Test results demonstrated that a design featuring shear stiffened sandwich panels with aluminum face materials could withstand a nominal 10.0 psi incident shock loading.

  9. A bus stop shelter evaluated from the user's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ely, Vera Helena Moro Bins; de Oliveira, Jonara Machado; Logsdon, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the current bus stop shelter model used in Florianópolis, Brazil, through a functional analysis--focused in the relationship between the shelter, the users and their activities--and also to analyse users' perceptions. The methodology consisted of exploratory visits, anthropometric analysis, observation and interviews. The exploratory visit intended to survey the physical characteristics of the shelter (dimensions, materials, colors, displayed information) and its position on the sidewalk. The anthropometric analysis was made to verify whether the dimensions of the shelters were adequate to users' needs. The observation provided data for the analysis of users' behavior, which involved a biomechanical study of their postures, an ownership/occupancy analysis in terms of territoriality and studies about spatial requirements of interpersonal relations (proxemics). The interviews helped to analyze how the user perceives the quality of some of the main functions of the shelter: to provide physical and psychological comfort and to display information about the public transportation system. As a result, the overall conclusion is that shelters do not meet users' needs. Recommendations are provided in order to improve physical and psychological comfort and to display relevant information about the transportation system.

  10. Blast testing of expedient shelters in model scale

    SciTech Connect

    Esparza, E.D.

    1986-08-01

    A research program was conducted to evaluate the blast resistance of expedient fallout shelters designed for the civilian population in the event of a nuclear attack. As part of this research, model-size shelters of six different designs were tested in a shock tunnel at average overpressure levels of 2.8, 4.6, and 8.8 psi. Measurements of the external blast pressures and internal pressure leakage into the model shelters were made. The expedient shelters tested utilize, in general, shallow soil excavation, load-bearing members of timber or doors, and soil-covered roofs. Replica model sizes were selected so that the shock tunnel load durations were long enough to test in the quasi-static load realm. Some of the shelter designs survived at every overpressure level very well, while other tests items suffered structural failures in almost every case. This paper presents a brief description of the experiments, including some details of the shelters, of the model fabrication and pressure measurement system, and a summary of the results.

  11. Protecting red oak seedlings with tree shelters in northwestern Pennsylvania. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.S.

    1993-10-01

    The report examines the growth and survival of planted and natural red oak seedlings and seedlings from planted acorns within translucent tan tree shelters, fences, and unprotected controls under a shelterwood seed-cut stand. Seedlings planted within tree shelters and fences were inside tree shelters. Natural seedlings grew very little and their height inside and outside of tree shelters did not differ. Recommendations based on these results should improve results from the use of tree shelters.

  12. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, A.; Figueiredo, A. M. G.; Felice, G. D.; Lage, M. C. S. M.; Guidon, N.; Baffa, O.

    2008-02-01

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho’s limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 ± 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245 14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guérin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes/ Earth & Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, [1

  13. Association between a shelter-neuter-return program and cat health at a large municipal animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Edinboro, Charlotte H; Watson, Heather N; Fairbrother, Anne

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of a shelter-neuter-return (SNR) program on cat admissions and health at a large municipal animal shelter in Northern California. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 117,383 cats for which data were recorded in the San Jose Animal Care Center database between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2013. PROCEDURES Shelter records were analyzed for trends in cat demographic data, shelter intake and outcome types, and prevalence of upper respiratory infection (URI) over the 8-year period and before and after initiation of an SNR program on March 8, 2010. RESULTS Number of cats admitted to the shelter each year decreased significantly over 8 years; beginning in 2010, duration of stay decreased. Proportion of cats euthanized decreased from 66.6% (28,976/43,517) in the pre-SNR period to 34.9% (11,999/34,380) in the post-SNR period, whereas prevalence of URI increased from 5.5% to 6.8%, and median duration of shelter stay decreased from 6 to 5 days for cats < 4 months of age and from 8 to 6 days for older cats. With implementation of the SNR program and a new treatment policy for cats with URI, more cats received treatment with less medication, yielding cost savings. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Initiation of the SNR program was associated with a decreased number of cats admitted to the shelter and a lower proportion euthanized. With increased resources to care for cats with URI and changes in the URI treatment protocol, fewer cats were euthanized for URI and more cats were treated at lower cost and with a briefer shelter stay.

  14. Economic impacts of adoption and fundraising strategies in animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Lord, Emily; Olynk Widmar, Nicole; Litster, Annette

    2014-03-01

    The adoption strategies used in animal shelters can have a large impact on the total number of adoptions and donations that take place. Reducing adoption fees during peak kitten or puppy season is one way to reduce inventories and increase the number of open spaces to save more lives, but does not necessarily increase the financial well-being of the shelter if the per-animal costs exceed the revenues generated. We developed a stochastic model to simulate the expected costs, revenues, and net income of a hypothetical animal shelter for various alternative management strategies, based on US conditions. A total of 8 scenarios were developed and compared to the base-case scenario (BC). In the model, scenarios which decreased or waived adoption fees caused total costs to increase due to the escalating costs associated with increasing the total number and density of animals housed. This effect was especially pronounced when adoptions were free. When the return on money invested in additional fundraising was predetermined to be 'good' (rather than 'fair' or 'poor'), net shelter income did exceed costs - but even 'fair' return increased net shelter income compared to the BC. Of the eight scenarios compared to BC, the mean monthly net income was significantly different from that in the BC in all eight scenarios (p<0.01). In contrast, variances were different (p<0.01) in five of the eight scenarios (and the uncertainty that comes with high variance would make planning difficult for shelter managers); however, the variance in net income did not differ from the BC for any of the scenarios investigating returns to additional spending on promotion and fundraising. In these scenarios, because the extra cost involved is relatively low compared to the other scenarios, the potential risk of a reduction in net shelter revenue is reduced. When shelters are aware of the positive and negative impacts of various adoption strategies on mean net income and variation in net income, shelter

  15. NPP and the Earth System

    NASA Video Gallery

    NPP is a continuation of the existing Earth-observing satellites and it builds on the legacy of multi decades of critical data. NPP will continue to deliver data to all users on Earth who will use ...

  16. STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS IN SCHOOL BUILDING ECONOMY. SCHOOL BUILDING ECONOMY SERIES, NUMBER 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    ALL SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE BASICALLY SHELTER STRUCTURES. THEIR ELEMENTARY COMPONENTS ARE (1) STRUCTURAL MEMBERS, (2) WEATHER PROTECTION ELEMENTS, (3) MECHANICAL INSTALLATIONS, (4) FINISHING ELEMENTS, AND (5) BUILT-IN EQUIPMENT. THE CHOICE OF BUILDING SYSTEMS IS DEPENDENT ON (1) SUBSOIL CONDITIONS, (2) SITE CONTOURS, AND (3) CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.…

  17. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  18. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  19. Characteristics of women who do and do not receive onsite shelter services from domestic violence programs.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Susan F; Lundy, Marta

    2011-08-01

    Shelter services are an essential means of providing help to women who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV), but not all victims receive shelter. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of statewide data from women using IPV services, comparing victims who did and did not obtain shelter. The demographic characteristics, abuse experiences, and service patterns of these survivors are examined. A model predicting characteristics associated with the likelihood of shelter receipt indicates that women who obtain shelter are more vulnerable and obtain more services than women who do not obtain shelter. The implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Teaching an Interdisciplinary Unit on Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert L.; Starkey, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    The authors--a second grade classroom teacher and a university professor of education--decided to collaborate. Melanie wanted to find out if she could help her students increase their reading and writing comprehension by presenting a sequence of events in an activity (for example, the steps in building a house) and then have the students write the…

  1. Gimme Shelter!: Doghouse Project Hones Construction Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray; Griffis, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    In Rover's House project, students practice planning, measurement, layout, and processing skills in building a doghouse. The project is more than a doghouse--it is a learning activity that helps students develop and enhance their ability to work with reinforced concrete, steel and wood studs, trusses, roofing materials and a variety of…

  2. Building Student Awareness of Societal Decision-Making Challenges about Energy through the Study of Earth System Data and Innovations in Energy-Related Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.; Berding, M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy literacy requires knowledge about the trade-offs inherent in energy alternatives, about how humans use energy and have choices in how much energy to use, and about what changes to the Earth system are occurring from energy uses. It also requires collaborative decision-making skills coupled with awareness about what values we bring to the table as we negotiate solutions that serve both personal needs and the common good. Coming up with a notion of the common good requires delineating how environmental crises occurring in other parts of the world compare to our own. We also need to understand criteria for judging what might be viable solutions. This presentation describes work that SRI International is carrying out to meet these awareness-building needs. SRI educational researchers created a curriculum that immerses students in studying regional climate change data about California in comparison to global climate change. Students ponder solution energy-related strategies and impact analyses. The curriculum will be described, as will a collaboration between SRI educational researchers and materials scientists. The scientists are designing and testing technologies for producing biofuels and solar power, and for sequestering carbon from coal fired power plants. As they apply principles of science and engineering to test materials intended to meet these energy challenges, they understand that even if the tests prove successful, if there is not economic feasibility or environmental advantage, the technology may not stand as a viable solution. This educator-scientist team is using the Essential Energy Principles and Next Generation Science Standards to articulate milestones along a trajectory of energy learning. The trajectory starts with simple understandings of what energy is and what constitute our energy challenges. It ends with more the types of more sophisticated understandings needed for designing and testing energy technology solutions.

  3. Emergency shelter care utilization in child welfare: Who goes to shelter care? How long do they stay?

    PubMed

    Leon, Scott C; Jhe Bai, Grace; Fuller, Anne K; Busching, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Emergency shelter care for children entering foster care is widely used as a temporary first placement, despite its contraindications. However, little research has examined predictors of utilization (e.g., entry into care, length of stay in care). A sample of 123 children (ages 6-13) entering foster care was studied to explore the variables associated with an initial placement in shelter care versus kinship care and variables associated with children staying less than 30 days in the shelter versus 30 days or longer. After applying a classification tree analysis (CTA via Optimal Data Analysis), results indicated that variables across the child's ecology--specifically the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem--were associated with increased emergency shelter utilization, including older age, entering as a dependency case, more relatives and fictive kin with barriers to involvement in the child's life, and the child welfare agency serving the child. These results suggest that although emergency shelter care utilization may be determined by a complex interaction of variables across the child's ecology, policy and programmatic attention to some of these risk factors might be effective in limiting utilization so that children can enter care with a more long-term, family-based placement.

  4. Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: attitudes and effects.

    PubMed

    Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2015-01-01

    Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health.

  5. Rock shelters in Gorges Valley, Mount Kenya Afroalpine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Barendregt, R. W.; Churcher, C. S.; Spence, John R.

    Two rock shelters were located during the course of a field survey of important Quaternary sections on Mount Kenya. Located in dense riverine vegetation, in and around a sequence of end moraines, in the Ericaceous zone on the mountain, they appear to contain the remains of relatively recent ephemeral occupation by transient hunters. The origin of the shelters, their relationship to multiple glaciation on the mountain, and the remains of fragments and bones found in associated hearths are described and discussed. Fragments of wood and bone from a pigeon or dove? ( Streptopelia sp.) and from a small artiodactyl mammal (? Cephalophus grimmia) were recovered, some from within hearths.

  6. Development of damage and casualty functions for basement shelters. Final report on phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, C.; Zsutty, T.C.; Willoughby, A.B.

    1983-09-01

    This report describes progress during the second year's work on a Civil Defense program to provide FEMA with a range of damage functions and casualty functions to determine the survivability fo people in various basement shelters. The characteristics of flat and two-way slab systems and the effects of code specified design procedures, engineering practice, and construction procedures were discussed. Non-upgraded two-way slabs are approximately twice as strong as the flat plate slabs. For upgraded (shored) systems, however, specific building characteristics are not important factors: any shored slab, with standard reinforcing and dimensions, has about the same capacity as any other slab. A mathematical model for the fragility curve of slab systems was developed. Fatality curves have been developed for ceiling collapse and a variety of other casualty mechanism(nuclear weapons effects) with emphasis to date on non-upgraded shelters areas. This review of casualty producing mechanisms is continuing and all casualty curves should be considered as provisional.

  7. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  8. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  9. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  10. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  11. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  12. Wind sheltering of lakes and wetlands: the effect of stability on turbulent canopy wakes and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, C. D.; Porte-Agel, F.; Stefan, H. G.

    2010-12-01

    Topographic features and heterogeneous vegetation cover of the landscape, as well as atmospheric stability present significant challenges for predicting fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, and climate-controlling trace gases across land and water surfaces from and into the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Changes in landscape roughness and boundary layer separation in the wake of canopies, buildings and large-scale topographic obstructions contribute to these challenges. The particular case of a canopy edge at the shoreline of a lake or wetland is known to significantly reduce momentum transport to the surface of these water bodies, especially if they are of small size. The wind sheltering effect of canopies must be considered to predict surface layer mixing as well as mass transfer at the air-water interface, but few studies have addressed how canopy heterogeneity affects the ABL. Finding ideal field cases, and uncertainty in numerical approaches to high Reynolds number simulation of separated flows within the ABL have been major obstacles. Atmospheric stability can also affect sheltering due to the suppression of turbulence, potentially decreasing surface flux. The effect of atmospheric stability is of particular interest because it poses significant challenges for subgrid-scale models in large-eddy simulations. Wind tunnel experiments provide an ideal environment to simulate a stationary stable boundary layer and test how the ABL adjusts across the transition from a canopy to a lake. We conducted experiments in the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory thermally stratified boundary layer wind tunnel to determine the effects of atmospheric stability on the boundary layer evolution in the wake of a homogeneous (2h x 1v) canopy patch over a smooth flat surface. We applied the findings to investigate the potential effect on wind sheltering of lakes. We compared results from PIV and custom x-wire/cold-wire anemometry for stable and neutral conditions and find marked

  13. Blast tests of expedient shelters in the Misers Bluff event. Final report, February 1978-January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.; Chester, C.V.; York, E.N.

    1980-01-01

    Expedient shelters were blast-tested by a conventional explosion equivalent to a 0.2 KT nuclear explosion. The estimated survivabilities in a large nuclear explosion are: (1) improved Small-Pole Shelter, 345 kPa (50 psi); (228) triangular entryway and blastdoor made of poles, 173 kPa (25 psi); (3) Chinese A-Frame Pole Shelter, 48 kPa (7 psi); and (4) lightly shored Pole-Covered Trench Shelters, 103 kPa (15 psi).

  14. Shelter Deployment at Former Army Camp Tuto, Greenland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-29

    thermal liner rolled up into a cylinder shaped bundle (Figure 5) that was no more than 6 in. larger in diameter than the shelter rolled up without a... Liner pre-installation ....................................................................................................... 4 2.3 Weather-station...4 The sleeved-pin assembly pushed through a liner grommet and the installed liner

  15. Models of Shelter Management Training and Delivery Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-31

    33 d. Feedback ..... .................... ... 33 B. The Audience for Shelter Management Training ... ....... 34 1. Procedures and...knowledge. Eliciting the performance. Practice of performance. Providing feedback Quality control assessing performance. Enhancing retention and trans...operations: input, transformation, output, and feedback /adjustment (Banathy, 1977). These operations may be defined as follows: 9 Input consists of

  16. Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L; Fehér, Enikő; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2015-04-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A-H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I.

  17. STUDY OF SHOCK ISOLATION METHODS FOR CIVIL DEFENCE SHELTERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    defense shelters for protection of personnel and equipment against ground shock effects from nuclear weapons. The report includes a comprehensive review of...The results are presented of a study devoted to the establishment of basic criteria and shock isolation techniques applicable to hardened civil

  18. 9. Photocopy of sketch from Elliott, Clifford A., 'Shelters and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of sketch from Elliott, Clifford A., 'Shelters and Stations on Pacific Electric's Interurban Lines', Electric Railway Journal, V. 53, No. 15, April 12, 1919, p. 733 - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Conceptions and Practices of Educators at Child Sheltering Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrêa, Laiane da Silva; Cavalcante, Lília Iêda Chaves; Magalhães, Celina Maria Colino; Reis, Daniela Castro dos

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil there are at least 2.247 shelters for children and adolescents, and of these 5% are in the North Region. The conceptions of development exert influence on the care practices adopted and vice versa, both being mutually altered by the institutional environment. This study investigated the association between the conceptions of child…

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPEDIENT SHELTERING IN PLACE IN A RESIDENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of expedient sheltering in place in a residence for protection against airborne hazards, as outlined in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) guidance to the public. An improved method was developed to determi...

  1. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  2. Design of a Corrosion Detection System for a Shelter Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Directorate Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center And Thomas C. Null Avnik Defense Solutions, Inc. 7262 Governors West...and long term storage; this paper will focus on monitoring of the S-280 shelter. Since the US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and

  3. The Bullfrog in the Bomb Shelter and Other Backyard Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, David O.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of a bullfrog in an abandoned fallout shelter in the backyard of his parents' newly acquired farmhouse, the author challenges the reader to look for other "backyard beasties" in their own environment for help in gaining an understanding of how, when, and why interactions take place as a method of acquiring…

  4. College-Level Sheltered Instruction: Revisiting the Issue of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoblock, Natalia; Youngquist, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Finding an effective instruction mode for ESL students in the US educational system has not been an easy task. The country's secondary and tertiary institutions continue to struggle to meet the needs of their large non-native student populations. The article revisits the debate whether sheltered instruction is an effective model to follow. In our…

  5. 24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) carried out with ESG assistance must use Energy Star and WaterSense products and appliances. (2) Access... sufficient electrical sources to permit the safe use of electrical appliances in the shelter. (9) Food... the safe use of electrical appliances in the structure. (8) Food preparation. All food...

  6. 24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) carried out with ESG assistance must use Energy Star and WaterSense products and appliances. (2) Access... sufficient electrical sources to permit the safe use of electrical appliances in the shelter. (9) Food... the safe use of electrical appliances in the structure. (8) Food preparation. All food...

  7. Implications of Inservice Training Requests from Sheltered Workshop Paraprofessionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Gerard P.

    1981-01-01

    Letters were sent to 27 directors of sheltered workshops serving the developmentally disabled requesting their suggestions for topics considered relevant for the inservice training of direct line staff. The area of concern most frequently selected and rated as highest priority by direct line staff was ways to deal with the low-functioning client.…

  8. 66. VIEW OF DELUGE CHANNEL; NORTH FACE OF THEODOLITE SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VIEW OF DELUGE CHANNEL; NORTH FACE OF THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 788); TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER; CAMERA TOWER FROM SOUTH END OF LAUNCH DECK - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Assessing the Physical and Architectural Features of Sheltered Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Lemke, Sonne

    1980-01-01

    The Physical and Architectural Features Checklist (PAF) measures physical resources of sheltered care settings in terms of nine derived dimensions. Data show that facilities which have more physical resources are seen as attractive by outside observers and pleasant by residents. Cost is not related to any PAF dimension. (Author)

  10. DIRECTORY OF SHELTERED WORKSHOPS SERVING THE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GADLIN, WALTER; AND OTHERS

    A NATIONWIDE QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYED 490 SHELTERED WORKSHOPS SERVING THE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED. LISTINGS BY STATES OF SUCH CENTERS PROVIDE ADDRESSES, REFERRAL SOURCES, AGE RANGE OF CLIENTS, YEAR PROGRAMS BEGAN, NUMBER OF PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED CLIENTS DAILY, NUMBER OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CLIENTS DAILY, AND TYPES OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED.…

  11. DESIGN FOR A CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE SHELTER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Criteria and plans for a 100-man shotcrete shelter are presented which will provide protection against an overpressure of 100 psi and concomitant...effects from nuclear weapons. Shotcrete is recommended because of the economic advantages gained from using a single lightweight form as opposed to the

  12. Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

  13. 75 FR 46844 - Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 53 and 54 RIN 1545-BG18 Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter... Shelter Transactions; Requirement of Return and Time for Filing; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue...-level and manager-level excise taxes with respect to prohibited tax shelter transactions to which...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter... Returns and Records § 301.6111-1T Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. The following questions and answers relate to the tax shelter registration requirements of section 6111 of...

  15. 78 FR 16862 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Emergency Shelter Grants Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Emergency Shelter... titled, Emergency Shelter Grants Program and changed to match the new program name created through the.... This notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposed: Emergency Shelter Grants...

  16. 50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event of emergency conditions....

  17. For Youth, by Youth: A Third Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    This past winter, the third student-run homeless shelter in the United States came into being. Two recent Harvard graduates, Sam Greenberg and Sarah Rosenkrantz, who had volunteered at the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter as college students, saw a need within the Boston and Cambridge communities for a homeless shelter serving young adults. Drawing…

  18. Shelter and Service Receipt for Victims of Domestic Violence in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; George, Christine C.; Crabtree-Nelson, Sonya

    2010-01-01

    There is little empirical research about the services victims of violence in shelters receive and when, yet such information would increase our understanding of their unmet service needs especially after they leave shelter. This article utilizes data from a randomly selected sample of individuals in shelter to examine their service trajectories.…

  19. 75 FR 38700 - Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ..., 53, 54, 301 and 602 [TD 9492] RIN 1545-BG18 Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements; Disclosure Requirements With Respect to Prohibited Tax Shelter...-level and manager-level excise taxes with respect to prohibited tax shelter transactions to which...

  20. 77 FR 40626 - RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact Sheet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact... Sheet RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters. The purpose of this new fact sheet is to... shelters under the Category B, Emergency Protective Measures provision of FEMA's Public Assistance...

  1. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter... Returns and Records § 301.6111-1T Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. The following questions and answers relate to the tax shelter registration requirements of section 6111 of...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter... Returns and Records § 301.6111-1T Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. The following questions and answers relate to the tax shelter registration requirements of section 6111 of...

  3. 50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event of emergency conditions....

  4. 50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event of emergency conditions....

  5. 50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event of emergency conditions....

  6. 50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event of emergency conditions....

  7. A pollinators' eye view of a shelter mimicry system

    PubMed Central

    Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Dorchin, Achik; Dafni, Amots; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Watts, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims ‘Human-red’ flowers are traditionally considered to be rather unpopular with bees, yet some allogamous species in the section Oncocyclus (genus Iris, Iridaceae) have evolved specialized interactions with their pollinators, a narrow taxonomic range of male solitary bees. The dark-red, tubular flowers of these irises are nectarless but provide protective shelters (i.e. a non-nutritive form of reward) primarily to male solitary bees (Apidae, Eucerini) that pollinate the flowers while looking for a shelter. An earlier study on orchids suggested that species pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of different n-alkenes (unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons). Whether or not this also applies to the Oncocyclus irises and whether pollinators are attracted by specific colours or scents of these flowers is unknown. Methods Using Iris atropurpurea, recording of pollinator preferences for shelters with different spatial parameters was combined with analyses of floral colours (by spectrophotometry) and scents (by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) to test the hypotheses that (a) pollinators significantly prefer floral tunnels facing the rising sun (floral heat-reward hypothesis), and that (b) flowers pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons (n-alkenes) in their floral scent (preadaptation to sexual-deception hypothesis). Key Results Male bees do not significantly prefer shelters facing the rising sun or with the presence of high absolute/relative amounts and numbers of n-alkenes in the floral scent. Conclusions The results suggest that the flowers of I. atropurpurea probably evolved by pollinator-mediated selection acting primarily on floral colours to mimic large achromatic (‘bee-black’) protective shelters used preferentially by male solitary bees, and that pollinator visits are

  8. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  9. VIEW ALONG FLIGHT LINE FROM SECURITY GUARD TOWER (BUILDING 30631, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG FLIGHT LINE FROM SECURITY GUARD TOWER (BUILDING 30631, LOOKING TOWARD FB-1 11A AIRCRAFT SHELTERS (BUILDINGS 3066, 3067,3068,3069,3071,3072,3073,3074,3076). VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  10. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face. PMID:26332928

  11. Training veterinary students in shelter medicine: a service-learning community-classroom technique.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience.

  12. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face.

  13. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M.; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing parasites within shelters. Almost all shelters employed nematocides (98% to 99%), but cestocides and ectoparasiticides were used less frequently. Shelters identified cost as an important consideration in choosing to perform fecal diagnostic testing and administer anthelmintics, and this motivated many shelters to selectively perform testing (66%) or never to test (32%), and to use drugs extralabel (80%). PMID:26345387

  14. 26 CFR 53.4965-4 - Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tax shelter transaction. 53.4965-4 Section 53.4965-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4965-4 Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter... prohibited tax shelter transaction if the entity— (1) Facilitates a prohibited tax shelter transaction...

  15. 26 CFR 53.4965-4 - Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tax shelter transaction. 53.4965-4 Section 53.4965-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4965-4 Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter... prohibited tax shelter transaction if the entity— (1) Facilitates a prohibited tax shelter transaction...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4965-4 - Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... tax shelter transaction. 53.4965-4 Section 53.4965-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4965-4 Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter... prohibited tax shelter transaction if the entity— (1) Facilitates a prohibited tax shelter transaction...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4965-4 - Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tax shelter transaction. 53.4965-4 Section 53.4965-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4965-4 Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter... prohibited tax shelter transaction if the entity— (1) Facilitates a prohibited tax shelter transaction...

  18. The fence experiment — a first evaluation of shelter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bechmann, Andreas; Conti, Davide; Angelou, Nikolas; Mann, Jakob

    2016-09-01

    We present a preliminary evaluation of shelter models of different degrees of complexity using full-scale lidar measurements of the shelter on a vertical plane behind and orthogonal to a fence. Model results accounting for the distribution of the relative wind direction within the observed direction interval are in better agreement with the observations than those that correspond to the simulation at the center of the direction interval, particularly in the far-wake region, for six vertical levels up to two fence heights. Generally, the CFD results are in better agreement with the observations than those from two engineering-like obstacle models but the latter two follow well the behavior of the observations in the far-wake region.

  19. [Infections with endoparasites in dogs in Dutch animal shelters].

    PubMed

    le Nobel, W E; Robben, S R; Döpfer, D; Hendrikx, W M; Boersema, J H; Fransen, F; Eysker, M

    2004-01-15

    Faecal samples from 224 dogs from 23 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined for endoparasites. In total 20.5% of the faecal sample were positive for helminth and/or protozoa infections. Eggs of Toxocara canis were found in 8.5% of the faecal samples. Other endoparasites found were Toxascaris leonina (0.5%), Trichuris vulpis (4.9%), Uncinaria stenocephala (2.2%), Dipylidium caninum (1.3%), Taenia spp. (0.5%), Cystoïsospora canis (1.3%), and C. ohioensis (1.3%). Dogs younger than 1 year and stray dogs showed the highest prevalence of infection. T. vulpis was found more often in dogs from shelters with a high cleaning frequency.

  20. EMP Design and Test Guidelines for Systems in Mobile Shelters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    interfaces and should come together at only one point in the total system. The inner skin of the shelter is usually aluminum and serves as the...incorporated. Producibility considerations may require tests. A very thin alumi- num skin can provide adequate panel shielding but cannot be mated to other...I circuit test. V)It Figure 44ePowertor Synchronous pulserFiure 44ower P test setup. Is Gerwator YOUT ve |vs Figure 45. Power test 3-+ sync Rording

  1. PIONEER: A Robot for Structural Assessment of the Chornobyl Shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A. ); Thompson, Bruce R.; Dan G. Cacuci

    2001-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored the design and fabrication of a radiation-hardened mobile diagnostic robot dubbed Pioneer. Pioneer was designed to operate in the most hazardous locations within the Chornobyl Shelter. Pioneer was delivered to the Ukraine in the spring of 1999. Initial system training and cold testing was performed after delivery.

  2. Infra-Free® (IF) Architecture System as the Method for Post-Disaster Shelter Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Huai-Chien; Anilir, Serkan

    Currently, International Space Station (ISS) is capable to support 3 to 4 astronauts onboard for at least 6 months using an integrated life support system to support the need of crew onboard. Waste from daily life of the crew members are collected by waste recycle systems, electricity consumption depends on collecting solar energy, etc. though it likes the infrastructure we use on Earth, ISS can be comprehended nearly a self-reliant integrated architecture so far, this could be given an important hint for current architecture which is based on urban centralized infrastructure to support our daily lives but could be vulnerable in case of nature disasters. Comparatively, more and more economic activities and communications rely on the enormous urban central infrastructure to support our daily lives. Therefore, when in case of natural disasters, it may cut-out the infrastructure system temporarily or permanent. In order to solve this problem, we propose to design a temporary shelter, which is capable to work without depending on any existing infrastructure. We propose to use some closed-life-cycle or integrated technologies inspired by the possibilities of space and other emerging technologies into current daily architecture by using Infra-free® design framework; which proposes to integrate various life supporting infrastructural elements into one-closed system. We try to work on a scenario for post-disaster management housing as the method for solving the lifeline problems such as solid and liquid waste, energy, and water and hygiene solution into one system. And trying to establish an Infra-free® model of shelter for disaster area. The ultimate objective is to design a Temp Infra-free® model dealing with the sanitation and environment preservation concerns for disaster area.

  3. Evaluation of shelter ventilation by model tests, option 1 - below ground shelters. Final report Sep 82-Dec 83

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnakumar, C.K.; Koh, J.B.; Fields, S.F.; Henninger, R.H.

    1983-12-01

    Wind-induced ventilation rates that could be achieved in a 100-man below-ground shelter with simple designs of passive flow enhancement devices (FEDs) were estimated by scale model tests in a low-speed wind tunnel. Air volume flow rates through the model were determined by using bubble flow tracers and motion photography. Test results indicate that adequate ventilation can be achieved in the type of shelter considered by the use of FEDs even at relatively low wind speeds. The study also generated guidelines for the relatively low speeds. The study also generated guidelines for the design of FEDs and their placement around stairway openings. In addition, estimates of reductions in ventilation rates due to an obstruction upstream of the windward FED and due to a decrease in the area of wall openings were made.

  4. Dynamic test of a corrugated steel keyworker blast shelter MISTY PICTURE. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.L.; Slawson, T.R.; Harris, A.L.

    1987-11-01

    The 18-man blast shelter was tested dynamically on May 14, 1987 in the MISTY PICTURE event at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The main section of the shelter was fabricated from a 9-foot-diameter, 27.5-foot-long section of 10-gage, galvanized, corrugated steel culvert. The shelter included a vertical entryway and air intake and exhaust stacks. The shelter design was found to be conservative during a previous 50-psi validation test, and some constructibility problems were encountered with the entryway-to-shelter connections. This test was conducted to validate the modifications made to the shelter design. The modifications were made to reduce construction costs and improve constructibility. Primary modifications included: replacing the stiffened endwalls with lighter-weight unstiffened plates, connecting the entryway to an endwall rather than to the main section of the shelter, and the inclusion of an emergency exit. The structure was located at the anticipated 200-psi peak overpressure level. Post-test inspection revealed that the main section of the shelter suffered very little damage during the test. Due to the failure of the emergency exit cover plate, it was necessary to determine if enough pressure entered the shelter to affect its structural response. This test also investigated the shock environment inside the shelter.

  5. Design of Two RadWorks Storm Shelters for Solar Particle Event Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew; Cerro, Jeffery; Latorella, Kara; Clowdsley, Martha; Watson, Judith; Albertson, Cindy; Norman, Ryan; Le Boffe, Vincent; Walker, Steven

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable long-duration human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit, the risks associated with exposure of astronaut crews to space radiation must be mitigated with practical and affordable solutions. The space radiation environment beyond the magnetosphere is primarily a combination of two types of radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). While mitigating GCR exposure remains an open issue, reducing astronaut exposure to SPEs is achievable through material shielding because they are made up primarily of medium-energy protons. In order to ensure astronaut safety for long durations beyond low-Earth orbit, SPE radiation exposure must be mitigated. However, the increasingly demanding spacecraft propulsive performance for these ambitious missions requires minimal mass and volume radiation shielding solutions which leverage available multi-functional habitat structures and logistics as much as possible. This paper describes the efforts of NASA's RadWorks Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Project to design two minimal mass SPE radiation shelter concepts leveraging available resources: one based upon reconfiguring habitat interiors to create a centralized protection area and one based upon augmenting individual crew quarters with waterwalls and logistics. Discussion items include the design features of the concepts, a radiation analysis of their implementations, an assessment of the parasitic mass of each concept, and the result of a human in the loop evaluation performed to drive out design and operational issues.

  6. [Estimation of shelter forest area in Three-North Shelter Forest Program region based on multi-sensor remote sensing data].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; Zhu, Jiao-jun

    2013-08-01

    The Three-North Shelter Forest Program is a key forestry ecological project in China. The quantity and spatial distribution of the shelter forest in the program affect the ecological environment of the entire Three-North region. In this paper, multi-sensor remote sensing data were used to scientifically, objectively and comprehensively estimate the quantity and spatial distribution pattern of the shelter forest in this region in 1978-2008. Firstly, the Landsat TM images (30 m in resolution) were adopted to extract the shelter forest data in this region in 2008. Then, based on random sampling techniques, the calibration formulae for the shelter forest area in different precipitation climate regions estimated by the SPOT5 (2.5 m in resolution) and Landsat TM were constructed. By using the above-mentioned results, the shelter forest area in the Three-North region in 2008 was estimated. In 2008, the total area of the shelter forest (canopy density of arbor shelter forest was >0.3, coverage of shrub shelter forest was > 40%, and accuracy was about 85%) in this region was 328360.03 km2, with 116244.55 km2 in Northeast China, 42981.32 km2 in North China, 76767.05 km2 in Loess Plateau, and 92367.11 km2 in Mongolia-Xinjiang Region. According to the classification of shelter forest types, the areas of coniferous forest, broadleaved forest, mixed broadleaf-conifer forest and shrubland were 62614.74, 121628.51, 22144.09 and 121972.69 km2, respectively.

  7. Sensitivity analysis to aid shelter management decisions: how does altering expenditure affect operational viability?

    PubMed

    Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Lord, Emily; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Streamlining purchasing in nonhuman animal shelters can provide multiple financial benefits. Streamlining shelter inputs and thus reducing shelter costs can include trading paid labor and management for fewer, more involved volunteers or purchasing large quantities of medical supplies from fewer vendors to take advantage of bulk-purchasing discounts. Beyond direct savings, time and energy spent on purchasing and inventory control can be reduced through careful management. Although cost-cutting measures may seem attractive, shelter managers are cautioned to consider the potential unintended consequences of short-term cost reduction measures that could limit revenues or increase costs in the future. This analysis illustrates an example of the impact of cost reductions in specific expense categories and the impact on shelter net revenue, as well as the share of expenses across categories. An in-depth discussion of labor and purchasing cost-reducing strategies in the real world of animal shelter management is provided.

  8. Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.

    2015-05-01

    Earth has continents, subduction and mobile lid plate tectonics, but details of the early evolution are poorly understood. Here I summarize the Hadean-Archean record, review evidence for a hotter Earth and consider geodynamic models for early Earth.

  9. Method of and means for passively cooling a shelter containing a heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Rambach, C.

    1981-10-06

    The passive cooling of a shelter containing a heat source is achieved by utilizing a thermal liquid in an accumulator, a first heat transfer loop for thermosiphonically transferring heat from the interior of the shelter to the liquid in the accumulator when the liquid is cooler than the interior of the shelter, and a second heat transfer loop for thermosiphonically transferring heat from the liquid in the accumulator to the environment when the latter is cooler than the liquid in the accumulator.

  10. Chasing the Black Smoke: Building Software for CALIPSO Satellite Data to Aid in Tracking and Identifying Sources of Aerosols and their Impact on the Earth's Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite is a NASA Earth observation that analyzes aerosol particles suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. Researchers use visualized CALIPSO data to track the global distribution, dispersion, and source of aerosols. There currently exists a tool for displaying CALIPSO data, but this tool does not support needed features for tracking aerosols such as selecting regions of data and sharing those selected regions, making tracking specific airborne objects difficult for researchers. Adding these necessary features to the current CALIPSO visualization tool is difficult, as the tool is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL), a proprietary and obscure language and writing additional features for the tool would require a specialized development team. This topic will focus on release of a new tool for visualization CALIPSO's atmospheric data, or the Visualization of CALIPSO (VOCAL) open source Python program. The talk will explain why VOCAL will serve as the successor to the current visualization tool for CALIPSO data, what new features VOCAL brings to the table for researchers, and how this new tool can further support the tracking and identification of aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

  11. Civil Defense Home Shelters: a Viable Defense Strategy for the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    These figures assume some warning, but mainly a duck-and-cover level of defense. The number of deaths and injuries can be reduced with civil defense shelters . Civil...cost when compared to single-use shelters. In Civil Defense Shelters : A State-of-the-Art Assessment, Chester and Zimmerman say: Slightly altering new...usually listed in the white pages of most phone books. Additionally, the research of C.V. Chester and G.P. Zimmerman titled, " Civil Defense Shelters - A

  12. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-08-14

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  13. Differences in competitive ability for the occupancy of shelters in triatomines.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, C A; Minoli, S A; Manrique, G

    2017-02-01

    Triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) are nocturnal blood-sucking insects. During daylight hours they remain in an akinetic state inside their shelters, whereas at dusk they become active and move outside. When they are outside their shelters during the photophase, triatomines are vulnerable to diurnal predators and the period just before dawn is critical to their survival. This work analyses the existence of competitive interactions involved in the occupancy of shelters by triatomines. Behavioural assays were performed in which nymphs of different stages, nutritional status or species were released in an experimental arena containing a space-limited artificial shelter. The proportions of individuals occupying the shelter during the photophase were quantified to estimate the competitive abilities of each stage and species. Intraspecific comparisons showed higher levels of shelter occupancy for fourth over fifth instars and fed over unfed nymphs of Triatoma infestans. Interspecific comparisons showed higher rates of shelter occupancy for Triatoma sordida in comparison with T. infestans, and for T. infestans over Rhodnius prolixus. Arrival order was also relevant to determining shelter occupancy levels: early arrival was advantageous in comparison with later arrival. The study of intra- and interspecific competitive interactions for shelter occupancy provides relevant information about colonization and recolonization processes in the natural environments of triatomines.

  14. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  15. Beyond Earth's Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    This resource for teachers of elementary age students provides a foundation for building a life-long interest in the U.S. space program. It begins with a basic understanding of man's attempt to conquer the air, then moves on to how we expanded into near-Earth space for our benefit. Students learn, through hands-on experiences, from projects…

  16. The significance of ultra-refracted surface gravity waves on sheltered coasts, with application to San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanes, D.M.; Erikson, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean surface gravity waves propagating over shallow bathymetry undergo spatial modification of propagation direction and energy density, commonly due to refraction and shoaling. If the bathymetric variations are significant the waves can undergo changes in their direction of propagation (relative to deepwater) greater than 90° over relatively short spatial scales. We refer to this phenomenon as ultra-refraction. Ultra-refracted swell waves can have a powerful influence on coastal areas that otherwise appear to be sheltered from ocean waves. Through a numerical modeling investigation it is shown that San Francisco Bay, one of the earth's largest and most protected natural harbors, is vulnerable to ultra-refracted ocean waves, particularly southwest incident swell. The flux of wave energy into San Francisco Bay results from wave transformation due to the bathymetry and orientation of the large ebb tidal delta, and deep, narrow channel through the Golden Gate. For example, ultra-refracted swell waves play a critical role in the intermittent closure of the entrance to Crissy Field Marsh, a small restored tidal wetland located on the sheltered north-facing coast approximately 1.5 km east of the Golden Gate Bridge.

  17. A Storm's Approach; Hurricane Shelter Training in a Digital Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyarsky, Andrew; Burden, David; Gronstedt, Anders; Jinman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    New York City's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) originally ran hundreds of classroom based courses, where they brought together civil servants to learn how to run a Hurricane Shelter (HS). This approach was found to be costly, time consuming and lacked any sense of an impending disaster and need for emergency response. In partnership with the City of New York University School of Professional studies, Gronstedt Group and Daden Limited, the OEM wanted to create a simulation that overcame these issues, providing users with a more immersive and realistic approach at a lower cost. The HS simulation was built in the virtual world Second Life (SL). Virtual worlds are a genre of online communities that often take the form of a computer-based simulated environments, through which users can interact with one another and use or create objects. Using this technology allowed managers to apply their knowledge in both classroom and remote learning environments. The shelter simulation is operational 24/7, guiding users through a 4 1/2 hour narrative from start to finish. This paper will describe the rationale for the project, the technical approach taken - particularly the use of a web based authoring tool to create and manage the immersive simulation, and the results from operational use.

  18. Estimating Sediment Mass Fluxes on Surfaces Sheltered by Live Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Benjamin; Voegeli, Christian; Horender, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    We present a simple model based on already existing and widely used equations for estimating particle mass fluxes on surfaces sheltered by live vegetation. Wind-tunnel measurements of vertical profiles of mass flux in three different dense live plant canopies, and as a function of the spatially averaged skin friction velocity {u_{τ }}' , provide the baseline set of data. For the bare-sand surface, the total mass flux Q shows the typical b({u_τ }' - {u_{τ t}}')^{3 } increase with increasing skin friction velocity {u_{τ }}' , where b is a constant and {u_{τ t}}' is the threshold at the onset of particle erosion. Similar relations, however, with different values for b and {u_{τ t}}' compared to the bare-sand surface were found for experiments with 5.25 and 24.5 plants m^{-2} and can be explained by the spatial variations of u_{τ } for the canopy cases. Based on the resulting parameters b and {u_{τ t}}' , which are found to be functions of the roughness density λ , we present a final simple relation Q(λ , {u_{τ }}') used for estimating the total mass flux for surfaces sheltered by live vegetation.

  19. Oblique, Stratified Winds about a Shelter Fence. Part I: Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John D.

    2004-08-01

    Wind statistics were measured using cup and sonic anemometers, placed upwind and downwind from a porous plastic windbreak fence (height h = 1.25 m, length Y = 114 m, resistance coefficient kr0 = 2.4, and porosity p = 0.45) standing on otherwise uniform land (short grass with roughness length z0 1.9 cm). Intercomparison with collocated two-dimensional sonic anemometers suggested that, except in strongly stratified winds, cup anemometers (distance constant 1.5 m), subjected to a uniform overspeeding correction (here 10%), provide a reasonably accurate transect of the mean wind across the disturbed flow region. The measurements, binned with respect to mean wind direction and stratification, establish that the resistance coefficient of a windbreak of this type implies the maximum (or “potential”) mean wind reduction, a potential that is realized in neutral, perpendicular flow and for which a semiempirical formula is derived. Obliquity of the approaching wind reduces actual shelter effectiveness below the potential value, as was already known. However, a systematic influence of stratification could only be discriminated in winds that were not too far (say, within about ±30°) from perpendicular, under which conditions both stable and unstable stratification reduced shelter effectiveness. The “quiet zone,” in which velocity standard deviations (σu, σ) are reduced relative to the approach flow, was found to extend farther downwind for the normal velocity component (u) than for the parallel component ().


  20. Predicting emergency evacuation and sheltering behavior: a structured analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Dombroski, Matt; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischbeck, Paul

    2006-12-01

    We offer a general approach to predicting public compliance with emergency recommendations. It begins with a formal risk assessment of an anticipated emergency, whose parameters include factors potentially affecting and affected by behavior, as identified by social science research. Standard procedures are used to elicit scientific experts' judgments regarding these behaviors and dependencies, in the context of an emergency scenario. Their judgments are used to refine the model and scenario, enabling local emergency coordinators to predict the behavior of citizens in their area. The approach is illustrated with a case study involving a radiological dispersion device (RDD) exploded in downtown Pittsburgh, PA. Both groups of experts (national and local) predicted approximately 80-90% compliance with an order to evacuate workplaces and 60-70% compliance with an order to shelter in place at home. They predicted 10% lower compliance for people asked to shelter at the office or to evacuate their homes. They predicted 10% lower compliance should the media be skeptical, rather than supportive. They also identified preparatory policies that could improve public compliance by 20-30%. We consider the implications of these results for improving emergency risk assessment models and for anticipating and improving preparedness for disasters, using Hurricane Katrina as a further case in point.

  1. Underground and earth sheltered food storage: historical, geographic, and economic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkel, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    Storage structures now used for bulk grain and beans have been derived from a combination of scientific experiments and tradition. Recent generations of US farmers have grown up with the understanding that grain is best stored in round metal bins or wooden cribs aboveground. It is generally thought that natural wind movements in the crib structures and forced air flow from aeration fans in metal bins will keep grain and beans safe, i.e., free of moisture accumulation and the resulting insect and fungal growth, and protected from germination, all of which deteriorate the commodity. North American farmers further believe that the low temperature of northern winters combined with careful use of aerating fans will keep the grain dry or beans safe (less than 14% moisture content) for years of storage. Traditional forms of grain and bean storage in other parts of the world have evolved differently. With the exception of North America, the people of every continent in the world have developed underground structures for long-term storage of food. A review of the varieties of underground structures that have evolved throughout the world, and research related to underground storage of grain and beans is presented.

  2. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory in Alaska: Building on Existing Infrastructure to Provide a Platform for Integrated Research and Hazard-monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R. M.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Enders, M.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's geodetic component in Alaska, the UNAVCO-operated Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, includes 139 continuous GPS sites and 41 supporting telemetry relays. These are spread across a vast area, from northern AK to the Aleutians. Forty-five of these stations were installed or have been upgraded in cooperation with various partner agencies and currently provide data collection and transmission for more than one group. Leveraging existing infrastructure normally has multiple benefits, such as easier permitting requirements and costs savings through reduced overall construction and maintenance expenses. At some sites, PBO-AK power and communications systems have additional capacity beyond that which is needed for reliable acquisition of GPS data. Where permits allow, such stations could serve as platforms for additional instrumentation or real-time observing needs. With the expansion of the Transportable Array (TA) into Alaska, there is increased interest to leverage existing EarthScope resources for station co-location and telemetry integration. Because of the complexity and difficulty of long-term O&M at PBO sites, however, actual integration of GPS and seismic equipment must be considered on a case-by-case basis. UNAVCO currently operates two integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, and three with the Alaska Volcano Observatory. By the end of 2014, PBO and TA plan to install another four integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While three of these are designed around existing PBO stations, one will be a completely new TA installation, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data collection in Alaska within the limited operations and maintenance phase of the project. We will present some of the design considerations, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing projects to integrate seismometers and other instrumentation at PBO-Alaska stations. Developing the PBO

  3. Interrelationships Among Length of Stay in a Domestic Violence Shelter, Help Received, and Outcomes Achieved.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Cris M; Virden, Tyler

    2017-04-10

    Survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have a variety of reasons for turning to domestic violence shelter programs. Some are seeking temporary respite and immediate safety while others are seeking longer term assistance to heal from their trauma and begin new lives. In line with these differing needs, some survivors only stay in shelter for a few days, while others may need to stay for months or even years. The current study involved secondary data analysis of an 8-state study that collected information from survivors shortly after they arrived in shelter and shortly before exit. The relationships between length of shelter stay and survivors' needs, help received, and outcomes achieved were examined. As hypothesized, length of stay was related to the number of needs reported by survivors at shelter entry, as well as the type of needs identified. Length of stay did not relate to outcomes achieved nor overall satisfaction with help received, supporting the argument that many shelter staff work from an empowering, survivor-driven philosophy to meet the myriad needs of shelter residents, and that the help they provide leads to positive outcomes. These findings substantiate the assertion that domestic violence shelters are critical resources that address far more than immediate safety needs of IPV survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Criteria for Determining the Effectiveness of Shelter Programs for Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gwendolyn Morrison

    According to the California State Department of Justice there were 182,000 reported cases of domestic violence in 1988 that required police intervention. This descriptive study, an explorative evaluation survey, examined 47 shelter programs in California to determine what components are essential to a shelter's effectiveness in facilitating…

  5. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  6. Using Multiple Perspectives in Observations of Diverse Classrooms: The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Jana; Short, Deborah J.

    This paper introduces a research-based model of sheltered instruction that promotes teaching practices that make teachers more effective in promoting the learning of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The model is instantiated in an observation instrument, the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). The SIOP may be used as part…

  7. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to...

  8. 77 FR 13695 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IN THE SHELTER; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IN THE SHELTER... the vessel IN THE SHELTER is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``The vessel is a 38 foot...

  9. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to...

  10. Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanmugam, Amy

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

  11. Dimensions and Correlates of Client Satisfaction: An Evaluation of a Shelter for Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Shimon E.; Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat

    2009-01-01

    Client satisfaction surveys give clients a voice in the planning and management of services. While their use is quite widespread, they have hardly at all been used in the evaluation of shelters for homeless youths. In this article, the authors present findings of a client satisfaction survey conducted among residents of a shelter for homeless…

  12. The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Few, April L.

    2005-01-01

    Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…

  13. Questions and Answers Regarding Actions to Take When Ending Shelter-in-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Shumpert, B.

    2003-12-30

    Shelter-in-place has found increasing acceptance as an effective protective action option for communities participating in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Studies have confirmed that it can provide optimum protection under certain accident conditions. However, emergency managers and planners, as well as the public, continue to be troubled by the need to end sheltering when the plume has passed in order to avoid sustained exposure to the small amount of agent that has penetrated the shelter. One of the concerns posed by this necessity is uncertainty regarding what hazards will then be faced in the environment outside the shelter and what actions can be taken to avoid those hazards. This report attempts to address those uncertainties. It recognizes that there is an extremely low probability that the environment outside the shelter will be contaminated with chemical agent residue. However, as people comply with an official recommendation to leave their shelters, they probably can't be certain that the environment is free from contamination. Therefore, this report identifies and explains specific and simple actions they can take to avoid the possibility of exposure to chemical agent hazards outside their shelters. It addresses such issues as the actions people should take upon ending shelter-in-place, what clothing they should wear, how they should handle animals, and what they should do about food in their homes and produce in their gardens.

  14. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to...

  15. Libraries, Churches, and Schools: The Literate Lives of Mothers and Children in a Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Ardell, Amy Lassiter; Curwen, Margaret Sauceda

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the question, "How do mothers and children in a homeless shelter interact with literacy?" We drew on the theoretical framework of social literacy practices in which cultural context is foregrounded. Data for this qualitative study included participant observation in one homeless shelter and interviews with one…

  16. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to...

  17. The Quality of Life of "Street Children" Accommodated at Three Shelters in Pretoria: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2006-01-01

    This research project is an exploratory study that aims to describe and examine the state and nature of the quality of life of street children accommodated at three shelters. A non-probability sample of 48 street children at three shelters was purposively selected. An interview schedule was constructed and administered to gather data. The…

  18. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to...

  19. Investigation of Millennial Students' Responses to a Shelter-in-Place Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas C.; Frick, Melodie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated millennial students' responses to an armed gunman threat and shelter-in-place warnings that occurred on a university campus. Using descriptive statistics and quantitative analysis, several significant differences were found for students' responses for sheltering-in-place and engaging in protective behaviors. Baxter Magolda'…

  20. Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

    1991-01-01

    Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

  1. No evidence of shelter providing a metabolic advantage to the false clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris.

    PubMed

    Kegler, P; Kunzmann, A; Bröhl, S; Herbert, N A

    2013-02-01

    There was no evidence that shelter conveyed a metabolic advantage to the false clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris in terms of standard and routine rates of oxygen uptake. The metabolic and fitness benefit of shelter might not, therefore, be widespread among all fish species.

  2. 76 FR 51381 - Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Care Providers AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: The Office of Refugee... Shelter Care Providers. CFDA Number: 93.676. Statutory Authority: Awards announced in this notice are... supplement grants to seven unaccompanied alien shelter care providers for a total of $5,016,218....

  3. Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

    This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. It serves as a blueprint for planning and preparedness. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal…

  4. When Rescue Is Urgent: Children in Shelter Placement for Seven Days or Less.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenberg, Esther; Luke, Katherine; Cornelius, Molly; Menke, Jennifer

    This study examined the circumstances of children in Hennepin County, Minnesota, who were removed from their homes under urgent circumstances and placed for 7 days or less in emergency shelter care. It investigated whether shelter placement was the least intrusive response for the safety of the children in emergency situations and clarified the…

  5. Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

  6. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Shelter as a Cultural Universal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

    The traditional K-3 social studies curriculum has focused on food, clothing, shelter, communication, transportation, and other cultural universals. A study was designed to provide information with respect to the topic of shelter, and in the process, to assess claims that primary grade students do not need instruction in the topic because they…

  7. Solid-State and solution studies of [Ln(n)(SiW11O39)] polyoxoanions: an example of building block condensation dependent on the nature of the rare earth.

    PubMed

    Mialane, Pierre; Lisnard, Laurent; Mallard, Alain; Marrot, Jérôme; Antic-Fidancev, Elisabeth; Aschehoug, Patrick; Vivien, Daniel; Sécheresse, Francis

    2003-03-24

    The reactivity of the [alpha-SiW(11)O(39)](8-) monovacant polyoxometalate with lanthanide has been investigated for four different trivalent rare-earth cations (Ln = Nd(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Yb(III)). The crystal structures of KCs(4)[Yb(alpha-SiW(11)O(39))(H(2)O)(2)] x 24H(2)O (1), K(0.5)Nd(0.5)[Nd(2)(alpha-SiW(11)O(39))(H(2)O)(11)] x 17H(2)O (2a), and Na(0.5)Cs(4.5)[Eu(alpha-SiW(11)O(39))(H(2)O)(2)] x 23H(2)O (3a) are reported. The solid-state structure of compound 1 consists of linear wires built up of [alpha-SiW(11)O(39)](8-) anions connected by Yb(3+) cations, while the linkage of the building blocks by Eu(3+) centers in 3a leads to the formation of zigzag chains. In 2a, dimeric [Nd(2)(alpha-SiW(11)O(39))(2)(H(2)O)(8)](10-) entities are linked by four Nd(3+) cations. The resulting chains are connected by lanthanide ions, leading to a bidimensional arrangement. Thus, the dimensionality, the organization of the polyoxometalate building units, and the Ln/[alpha-SiW(11)O(39)](8-) ratio in the solid state can be tuned by choosing the appropriate lanthanide. The luminescent properties of compound 3a have been studied, showing that, in solution, the polymer decomposes to give the monomeric complex [Eu(alpha-SiW(11)O(39))(H(2)O)(4)](5-). The lability of the four exogenous ligands connected to the rare earth must allow the functionalization of this lanthanide polyanion.

  8. Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the

  9. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karen L; Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  10. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-09-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  11. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  12. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  13. 11. View inside Building 802, the "Sitting Area" looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View inside Building 802, the "Sitting Area" looking from the "Sleeping Quarters" toward the doors to the "Control Area", facing north. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  14. 13. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down the west side, bunks on the left, escape hatch at rear, facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  15. 10. View inside Building 802, the "Sitting Area" looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View inside Building 802, the "Sitting Area" looking from the "Control Area" towards the doors to the "Sleeping Quarters", facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  16. 12. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down the east side, bunks on the right, facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  17. 7. View into Building 802, front entry hall to "U" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View into Building 802, front entry hall to "U" turn. Light and shower spigot seen through chain-link fence, facing east. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. 72. View of tunnel intake building, looking southwest. The winches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of tunnel intake building, looking southwest. The winches for the trash racks, sheltered by a wood-frame structure with a gable roof, are to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  19. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  20. 12 CFR 220.124 - Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as...) Interpretations § 220.124 Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit. (a) The Board has been asked whether the sale by brokers and dealers of tax-shelter programs containing a provision...

  1. 12 CFR 220.124 - Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as....124 Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit. (a) The Board has been asked whether the sale by brokers and dealers of tax-shelter programs containing a provision that payment...

  2. "No Matter How You Word It, It's for Me": Mandated Writing Practices in a Homeless Shelter for Mothers in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Curwen, Margie Sauceda; Ardell, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This case study is part of a larger investigation of literacy practices at New Beginnings shelter, a long-term transitional homeless shelter for addicted mothers and their children. We asked, "What is the nature of writing in a homeless shelter committed to the rehabilitation and recovery of mothers from addiction?" At New Beginnings,…

  3. 26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section 301.6708-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Additional Amounts § 301.6708-1T Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters... the penalty for failure to maintain a list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters. Q-1:...

  4. 12 CFR 220.124 - Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as...) Interpretations § 220.124 Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit. (a) The Board has been asked whether the sale by brokers and dealers of tax-shelter programs containing a provision...

  5. 12 CFR 220.124 - Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as....124 Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit. (a) The Board has been asked whether the sale by brokers and dealers of tax-shelter programs containing a provision that payment...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section 301.6708-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Additional Amounts § 301.6708-1T Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters... the penalty for failure to maintain a list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters. Q-1:...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section 301.6708-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Additional Amounts § 301.6708-1T Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters... the penalty for failure to maintain a list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters. Q-1:...

  8. 12 CFR 220.124 - Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as....124 Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit. (a) The Board has been asked whether the sale by brokers and dealers of tax-shelter programs containing a provision that payment...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section 301.6708-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Additional Amounts § 301.6708-1T Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters... the penalty for failure to maintain a list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters. Q-1:...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section 301.6708-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Additional Amounts § 301.6708-1T Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters... the penalty for failure to maintain a list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters. Q-1:...

  11. Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.C.

    1993-04-01

    Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

  12. Sun-Earth Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  13. Half full or half empty? Shelter after the Jogjakarta earthquake.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Graeme; Hodgkin, David

    2011-01-01

    The international shelter response to the Jogjakarta earthquake in Indonesia in May 2006 is widely regarded as a success story, especially when compared with the response to the Indian Ocean tsunami 16 months earlier. This evaluation is largely in terms of the international aid system itself, which emphasises statistical measures of 'success' and internal coordination and efficiency. From the perspective of those closer to the ground, however, it was less successful, especially in terms of coordination and communication with and participation of local agencies and affected communities. This paper, by an aid worker resident in Jogjakarta and an anthropologist, examines the response from a perspective grounded both within and outside the aid system, local as well as global. It recognises the relative success of the response, but argues for an approach more grounded in local knowledge and responsive to local concerns, while also providing practical suggestions for improvement.

  14. [Shelter as an interdisciplinary practice in a university extension program].

    PubMed

    Hennington, Elida Azevedo

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Interdisciplinary Health Promotion and Health Care Program at Vale do Rio dos Sinos University in Brazil. Beginning with an exploratory process, the study aims to analyze and comprehend the role of this community-oriented program in the education of students from different health-related disciplines at the University, as well as the program's health care role in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The central concept is that of "acolhimento" ("refuge" or "shelter"). The program involves internship grants and services to the community and aims to enhance health-related practices in various fields such as Psychology, Nutrition, Nursing, Physical Education, and Collective Health, besides interfaces with Social Service, Law, and Medicine.

  15. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S; Hardy, Amanda R; Angeloni, Lisa M; Crooks, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

  16. Behavioral Responses Associated with a Human-Mediated Predator Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S.; Hardy, Amanda R.; Angeloni, Lisa M.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume - with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the ‘predator shelter hypothesis’, suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

  17. The Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  18. Creative computing with Landlab: an open-source toolkit for building, coupling, and exploring two-dimensional numerical models of Earth-surface dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobley, Daniel E. J.; Adams, Jordan M.; Nudurupati, Sai Siddhartha; Hutton, Eric W. H.; Gasparini, Nicole M.; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Tucker, Gregory E.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to model surface processes and to couple them to both subsurface and atmospheric regimes has proven invaluable to research in the Earth and planetary sciences. However, creating a new model typically demands a very large investment of time, and modifying an existing model to address a new problem typically means the new work is constrained to its detriment by model adaptations for a different problem. Landlab is an open-source software framework explicitly designed to accelerate the development of new process models by providing (1) a set of tools and existing grid structures - including both regular and irregular grids - to make it faster and easier to develop new process components, or numerical implementations of physical processes; (2) a suite of stable, modular, and interoperable process components that can be combined to create an integrated model; and (3) a set of tools for data input, output, manipulation, and visualization. A set of example models built with these components is also provided. Landlab's structure makes it ideal not only for fully developed modelling applications but also for model prototyping and classroom use. Because of its modular nature, it can also act as a platform for model intercomparison and epistemic uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. Landlab exposes a standardized model interoperability interface, and is able to couple to third-party models and software. Landlab also offers tools to allow the creation of cellular automata, and allows native coupling of such models to more traditional continuous differential equation-based modules. We illustrate the principles of component coupling in Landlab using a model of landform evolution, a cellular ecohydrologic model, and a flood-wave routing model.

  19. Life cycle assessment of the production and use of polypropylene tree shelters.

    PubMed

    Arnold, J C; Alston, S M

    2012-02-01

    A detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted for the manufacture, use and disposal of polypropylene tree shelters, which are used to protect young seedlings in the first few years of growth. The LCA was conducted using Simapro software, the Ecoinvent database and ReCiPe assessment methodology. Detailed information on materials, manufacturing, packaging and distribution of shelters was obtained from Tubex Ltd. in South Wales, UK. Various scenarios based on different forest establishment methods, with or without tree shelters were derived and analysed using data from published literature and independent sources. The scenarios included commercial forestry in northern temperate conditions, amenity forest establishment in temperate conditions, and forest establishment in semi-arid conditions. For commercial forestry, a reduction in required seedling production and planting as well as additional time-averaged wood production led to significant benefits with tree shelters, both compared to unprotected and fenced cases. For the amenity forest scenarios, tree shelter use had a net environmental impact, while for semi-arid forestry, the benefits of reduction in water use outweighed shelter production impacts. The current practice of in-situ degradation was compared to collection and disposal and it was found that in-situ degradation was slightly preferable in terms of overall environmental impact. Use of biopolymer-based shelters would improve the environmental performance slightly.

  20. Positive effects of shade and shelter construction by ants on leafhopper-ant mutualism.

    PubMed

    Moya-Raygoza, Gustavo; Larsen, Kirk J

    2008-12-01

    The myrmecophilous five-spotted gamagrass leafhopper, Dalbulus quinquenotatus DeLong and Nault, and its tending ants on gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides L. were examined to determine the influence of shade and ant-constructed shelters on the population sizes of D. quinquenotatus and ants. Gamagrass plants hosting ants and leafhoppers were exposed to 50, 30, or 0% artificially constructed shade. The greatest numbers of leafhoppers and ants were found on plants that received 50% shade. Shelters made by the ant Solenopsis geminata (F.) contained large numbers of leafhoppers and ants but were found only on T. dactyloides exposed to 50% shade in artificially constructed habitats. Additional sampling was conducted on wild gamagrass plants in the field to explore the presence of ants tending leafhoppers in shelters and to evaluate whether ant-constructed shelters protect leafhopper nymphs from parasitoid wasps. Large aggregations of S. geminata in shelters were also found in natural gamagrass habitats. Leafhopper nymphs living in shelters made by S. geminata may be protected against the dryinid wasp parasitoid Anteon ciudadi Olmi. No sheltered nymphs were parasitized by dryinids, whereas 24% of unsheltered nymphs had dryinid parasitism.

  1. Demonstration test of the keyworker blast shelter. MINOR SCALE. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, S.C.; Slawson, T.R.

    1986-12-01

    A 100-man keyworker blast shelter was constructed and tested at the predicted 75-psi peak overpressure level in the MINOR SCALE Event in June 1985 at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The MINOR SCALE Event was a high-explosive test simulating the air-blast effects of an 8-KT nuclear weapon. The reinforced concrete shelter was designed by the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville and the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station under the sponsorship of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The experiment was conducted to verify the structural design of the shelter. The full-scale structure was complete with air-handling equipment, bunks, and instrumented anthropomorphic mannequins. The survivability of mechanical air-moving equipment inside the shelter and occupant survivability were investigated. The structure experienced minor damage during the test. Permanent roof deflections were 1/8 inch or less. The mechanical equipment incurred no damage, and in-structure shock in the shelter was within acceptable limits for occupants. The test indicated that the shelter will safely protect personnel when subjected to the design peak overpressure of 50 psi from a 1-MT nuclear weapon. Recommendations resulting from the experiment included the retesting of the structure using a High-Explosive Simulation Technique (HEST) test to introduce significant damage to the shelter.

  2. Shelter availability, stress level and digestive performance in the aspic viper.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Xavier; Fizesan, Alain; Michel, Catherine Louise

    2013-03-01

    The lack of shelter can perturb behaviors, increase stress level and thus alter physiological performance (e.g. digestive, immune or reproductive functions). Although intuitive, such potential impacts of lack of shelter remain poorly documented. We manipulated shelter availability and environmental and physiological variables (i.e. access to a heat source, predator attack, feeding status) in a viviparous snake, and assessed sun-basking behavior, digestive performance (i.e. digestive transit time, crude estimate of assimilation, regurgitation rate) and plasma corticosterone levels (a proxy of stress level). Shelter deprivation provoked a strong increase in sun-basking behavior and thus elevated body temperature, even in unfed individuals for which energy savings would have been otherwise beneficial. The lack of heat was detrimental to digestive performance; simulated predator attacks worsened the situation and entailed a further deterioration of digestion. The combination of the lack of shelter with cool ambient temperatures markedly elevated basal corticosterone level and was associated with low digestive performance. This hormonal effect was absent when only one negative factor was involved, suggesting a threshold response. Overall, our results revealed important non-linear cascading impacts of shelter availability on stress-hormone levels, behaviors and physiological performance. These results infer that shelter availability is important for laboratory studies, captive husbandry and possibly conservation plans.

  3. Public health response to a rabid dog in an animal shelter --- North Dakota and Minnesota, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-01-07

    On March 31, 2010, the North Dakota Department of Health (NDDoH) was notified by a local public health department that a stray dog found in rural Minnesota and housed during March 9-20 in a North Dakota animal shelter had been found to have rabies. NDDoH, along with the local public health department, the North Dakota Board of Animal Health (BOAH), the Minnesota Board of Animal Health, and the Minnesota Department of Health, immediately began an investigation to identify persons requiring rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) and to prevent further rabies transmission. This report summarizes the public health investigation, which used animal shelter records and public notification to identify possible human and animal contacts of the rabid dog. Among 32 persons who might have been exposed to the rabid dog at the shelter, 21 persons, including nine shelter employees and one volunteer, received PEP. In accordance with 2009 Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control guidance, the 25 dogs in the shelter with the rabid dog were euthanized. Among 25 other dogs without an up-to-date rabies vaccination that were adopted or claimed from the shelter and might have been exposed, 11 were euthanized, 13 were isolated for 6 months in their owners' homes, and one was unintentionally killed. No additional cases of rabies in dogs or humans had been identified as of December 2010. This event supports consideration of preexposure vaccination of animal shelter employees and highlights the continued importance of routine rabies vaccination of domestic animals.

  4. [Medical and psychological problems relating to emergency shelters in case of war].

    PubMed

    Stoffel, R; Binswanger, R; Kind, H

    1975-02-01

    Modern warfare requires protection of the entire civilian population, and a main feature of Swiss planning is the provision of adequate shelter space for every inhabitant. The medical and psychologic problems of prolonged shelter living are considered, with reference to the literature on experience in other countries. The study centers on description of a shelter occupancy experiment. 25 men with an average age of 37 years spent 7 days in a closed shelter during the hottest part of the year. Floor space was 1.2 m2 and room volume 2.5 m3 per person. The experiment revealed that in-shelter climatic conditions remained tolerable. Initially several members of the group suffered from insomnia and nausea, while sleep disturbances, headache and gastrointestinal symptoms also occurred in the course of the stay. Daily self-rating of condition with appropriate scales showed a positive correlation of "irritability" with air humidity and a negative correlation of "vitality" with room temperature. Good shelter management and a trained leader are essential prerequisites for prolonged shelter occupancy.

  5. Criteria for Site Selection of Temporary Shelters after Earthquakes: a Delphi Panel

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Ahmad; Ardalan, Ali; Darvishi Boloorani, Ali; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: After a devastating earthquake, the site selection for the sheltering of earthquake victims is an important task. In order to generate a list of appropriate criteria for deciding on temporary sheltering site selection, we systematically combined the experience of experts and the findings of published documents in this study. Methods: Having explored published papers, we generated a list of criteria for the selection of the best location for temporary sheltering. In the next step, all criteria were presented to a group of experts in Iran and after a scientific discussion, the list was updated. In the last step, the final list of criteria was developed using the Delphi method in three rounds. Results: Based on our previous systematic review, 27 criteria were presented for sheltering site selection. Expert interviews added 12 more items to them. The Delphi process approved 21 criteria of all proposed ones. These items then grouped into four categories: land suitability, socio-cultural considerations, service availability and disaster risk reduction. Discussion: After an earthquake, our list of criteria may help the disaster team to select the best locations for temporary sheltering with minimum confusion. The consent of the earthquake victims and cost reduction of the operation would be the minimum benefits of using the appropriate criteria. These criteria also could be used by researchers to make objective and reproducible assessments of temporary sheltering site selection. Key words: Criteria, Earthquake, Model, Site selection, Temporary shelter, PMID:26693079

  6. An Empirical Study of Earth Covered Schools in Oklahoma. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaccor, James V.

    A study of earth-covered schools in Oklahoma was conducted for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to assess the viability of these structures as learning and teaching environments, as cost beneficial investments, and as potential shelters from natural and man-made disasters. The study was aimed at identifying what information is…

  7. 7. WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. TENT-ROOFED COVER IN RIGHT OF VIEW IS A TEMPORARY WEATHER-PROOFING SHELTER OVER THE BLOWER PIT IN CONNECTION WITH DEMOLITION PROCEDURES. SMALL BUILDING CPP-667 IN CENTER OF VIEW WAS USED FOR SUPPLEMENTARY OFFICE SPACE BY HEALTH PHYSICISTS AND OTHERS. INEEL PROOF SHEET NOT NUMBERED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Hurricane Sandy's impact on the predisaster homeless and homeless shelter services in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Settembrino, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is little research on how people experiencing homelessness prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Existing emergency management literature does not provide an understanding of how disasters affect homeless shelter services. The present study seeks to fill these gaps by examining how Hurricane Sandy impacted homeless shelters and their guests in New Jersey. Presenting findings from ethnographic research in Atlantic City and Hoboken, this study identifies several areas in which homeless shelters and their guests may be able to assist in emergency response and disaster recovery such as preparing meals for victims, sorting and processing donated items, and assisting victims in filing for emergency assistance.

  9. Coercive control and abused women's decisions about their pets when seeking shelter.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Jennifer L; Khaw, Lyndal; Ridgway, Marcella D; Weber, Cheryl; Miles, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The importance of pets in families, especially during major life stressors, is well documented. Research suggests links between pet ownership and intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored abused women's decisions about pets when seeking help from a shelter. Interviews were conducted with 19 women who were pet owners. Using grounded theory methods, two patterns emerged surrounding abusers' treatment of pets, bonds to pets, women's decisions about pets upon seeking shelter, and future plans for pets. The presence of coercive control was central to these patterns. Women also discussed their experiences with and needs from shelter professionals and veterinarians with implications for practice.

  10. The Analysis of the Effects of Frame Response on Basement Shelters in Tall Buildings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    PAGE(Wbhin DOtI Enterd) 20. ABSTRACT (contd) most emphasis on poured-in-place reinforced concrete beam , slab, and girder type framing and poured-in...structures with the most emphasis on poured-in-place reinforced concrete beam , slab, and girder type framing and the poured-in-place flat-slab and flat...Plan in Figure 3-1b 20 3-2a Post and Beam Shoring of Concrete Joist 22 3-2b Post and Beam Shoring 23 3-3 Post Shoring Detail of Concrete Girder 24 3-4

  11. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  12. Make Earth science education as dynamic as Earth itself

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautenbacher, Conrad C.; Groat, Charles G.

    2004-12-01

    The images of rivers spilling over their banks and washing away entire towns, buildings decimated to rubble by the violent shaking of the Earth's plates, and molten lava flowing up from inside the Earth's core are constant reminders of the power of the Earth. Humans are simply at the whim of the forces of Mother Nature—or are we? Whether it is from a great natural disaster, a short-term weather event like El Nino, or longer-term processes like plate tectonics, Earth processes affect us all. Yet,we are only beginning to scratch the surface of our understanding of Earth sciences. We believe the day will come when our understanding of these dynamic Earth processes will prompt better policies and decisions about saving lives and property. One key place to start is in America's classrooms.

  13. Dagik Earth and IUGONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Koyama, Y.; Saito, A.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, M.; Kumano, Y.; Hazumi, Y.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we introduce two independent projects in progress in Japan. Dagik Earth is a visualization project of the Earth and planets on a spherical screen using only a standard PC and a projector. Surface images of the Earth or planets (or whatever having spherical shape) in the equirectangular (plate carre) projection are projected on a spherical screen in the orthographic projection. As a result, the spherical screen becomes a virtual digital globe, which can be rotated using mouse or remote controller. Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) is a collaboration of five Japanese institutes to build a comprehensive database system for the metadata of the upper-atmospheric data taken by these institutes. We explain the IUGONET metadata database and iUgonet Data Analysis Software (UDAS) for upper atmospheric research.

  14. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... convenience and have no substantive effect. In General Overview of tax shelter registration, A-1 Overview of..., an advertisement stating that “purchase of restaurant includes trade fixtures (5-year write-off...

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia.

  16. A comparison of lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulse response of tactical shelters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perala, R. A.; Rudolph, T. H.; Mckenna, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The internal response (electromagnetic fields and cable responses) of tactical shelters is addressed. Tactical shelters are usually well-shielded systems. Apart from penetrations by signal and power lines, the main leakage paths to the interior are via seams and the environment control unit (ECU) honeycomb filter. The time domain in three-dimensional finite-difference technique is employed to determine the external and internal coupling to a shelter excited by nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP) and attached lightning. The responses of interest are the internal electromagnetic fields and the voltage, current, power, and energy coupled to internal cables. Leakage through the seams and ECU filter is accomplished by their transfer impedances which relate internal electric fields to external current densities. Transfer impedances which were experimentally measured are used in the analysis. The internal numerical results are favorably compared to actual shelter test data under simulated NEMP illumination.

  17. Shelter recovery in urban Haiti after the earthquake: the dual role of social capital.

    PubMed

    Rahill, Guitele J; Ganapati, N Emel; Clérismé, J Calixte; Mukherji, Anuradha

    2014-04-01

    This paper documents the culture-specific understanding of social capital among Haitians and examines its benefits and downsides in post-disaster shelter recovery following the 12 January 2010 earthquake. The case study of shelter recovery processes in three socioeconomically diverse communities (Pétion-Ville, Delmas and Canapé Vert) in Port-au-Prince suggests that social capital plays dual roles in post-disaster shelter recovery of the displaced population in Haiti. On the one hand, it provides enhanced access to shelter-related resources for those with connections. On the other hand, it accentuates pre-existing inequalities or creates new inequalities among displaced Haitians. In some cases, such inequalities lead to tensions between the haves and have-nots and instigate violence among the displaced.

  18. Listen to the Voices of Unwed Teenage Mothers in Malaysian Shelter Homes: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Saim, Nor Jana; Dufåker, Mona; Eriksson, Malin; Ghazinour, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to explore the daily life experiences of Malaysian unwed teenage mothers in shelter homes. The research is based on the thematic analysis of interviews with seventeen respondents aged from 12 to 18 years. Eight sub-themes described the experience of the unwed teenage mothers in the shelter home and led to three overall themes: rules and regulations, relationship with the staff and relationship with the other girls at the shelter home. The findings indicated that the shelter homes involved were not fulfilling the standard of the Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. We strongly suggest that the authorities provide a clear guideline concerning the implementation of Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:23985103

  19. High explosive testing of a corrugated metal blast shelter with membrane blast doors

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Chester, C.V.

    1984-12-01

    In October 1983 the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) sponsored a high-explosive blast test, nicknamed DIRECT COURSE. This event simulated the blast effects from a one-kiloton nuclear detonation and provided an environment for the testing of selected blast and fallout shelters for their structural integrity. Under work for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fielded a set of experiments at the DIRECT COURSE event which were directed toward reducing the cost of blast shelter for small groups of people, such as workers in critical industries (keyworkers). Six items were tested: three scale models of a corrugated metal blast shelter and three full-size blast door closures for such a shelter. The three shelters survived blast overpressures up to 2.55 MPa (225 psi), a level which is equivalent to being approximately 800 m (0.5 mile) from a 1 megaton nuclear detonation. Each shelter model was 180 cm (6 ft.) long by 60 cm (2 ft.) in diameter, was buried about 60 cm (2 ft.) below ground level, and represented a 1/4-scale version of a full-size blast shelter which would be capable of supporting 12 to 18 occupants. The three full-size, 90 cm (35 in.) diameter, blast doors for such a shelter also successfully resisted the same range of blast overpressure. Each door weighed less than 45 kg (100 lb) and incorporated a novel, yielding-membrane design. These sheet metal membranes were between 1.3 and 2.0 mm (0.050 and 0.080 in.) thick and were supported by an edge beam (hoop).

  20. Adequacy of wind ventilation in upgraded shelters. Final report Oct 78-May 80

    SciTech Connect

    Henninger, R.H.; Tsal, R.J.; Krishnakumar, C.K.

    1980-05-01

    Experimental and analytical investigations were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of natural ventilation in upgraded shelters. A unique low-speed wind tunnel which uses photographic measurement techniques for flow tracing of neutrally buoyant bubbles through openings was utilized to conduct scaled model tests of three shelter models to determine the ventilation air throughput CFM as a function of wind speed, relative wind approach angle and opening pattern.

  1. Psychosocial care and shelter following the Bijlmermeer air disaster.

    PubMed

    Kroon, M B; Overdijk, W I

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the organization of the psychosocial aid and aftercare for survivors in the context of the Bijlmermeer air disaster that took place in 1992 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. It is based on an examination of the relevant city documents and media coverage, and on interviews with city officials and disaster workers. The aid operation was complicated by the fact that the disaster struck a socially vulnerable multicultural community. The experiences illustrate the difficulties involved in coordinating the psychosocial care and aftercare provided by different agencies, and suggest a need for ample planning and training in this respect. In addition, they point to the importance of tailoring interventions to survivors' specific needs, careful registration of survivors and helpers, and limitation of the number of shelters and the distance between them. Finally, a two-edged strategy for dealing with the news media is advocated. Survivors should be maximally protected, but at the same time the press must be regularly and appropriately briefed, in order to use their potential for disseminating information to the survivors and the public.

  2. Leaving Homelessness Behind: Housing Decisions among Families Exiting Shelter1

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Benjamin W.; Mayberry, Lindsay; Shinn, Marybeth; Khadduri, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Because homelessness assistance programs are designed to help families, it is important for policymakers and practitioners to understand how families experiencing homelessness make housing decisions, particularly when they decide not to use available services. This study explores those decisions using in-depth qualitative interviews with 80 families recruited in shelters across four sites approximately six months after they were assigned to one of four conditions (permanent housing subsidies, project-based transitional housing, community-based rapid re-housing, and usual care). Familiar neighborhoods near children’s schools, transportation, family and friends, and stability were important to families across conditions. Program restrictions on eligibility constrained family choices. Subsidized housing was the most desired intervention and families leased up at higher rates than in other studies of poor families. Respondents were least comfortable in and most likely to leave transitional housing. Uncertainty associated with community-based rapid re-housing generated considerable anxiety. Across interventions, many families had to make unhappy compromises, often leading to further moves. Policy recommendations are offered. PMID:25258503

  3. DIRECT COURSE blast shelter entranceway and blast door experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kiger, S.A.; Hyde, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The DIRECT COURSE Event is a high-explosive simulation of a 1-kt height-of-burst nuclear weapon. DIRECT COURSE is sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency and is scheduled for September 1983 at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Three entranceway experiments will be fielded, one full size complete with two blast doors to document structural response and loading in the simulated 1-kt blast environment. Also, two 1/10-scale models, one double and one single entrance configuration, will be used to obtain blast pressure data that can be scaled to a 1-Mt blast environment. Results from these experiments will be used to evaluate and improve structural response calculations for the 1-kt environment, and to obtain loading data for a 1-Mt environment. These data will be used to design entranceways and blast environment. Results from these experiments will be used to evaluate and improve structural response calculations for the 1-kt environment, and to obtain loading data for a 1-Mt environment. These data will be used to design entranceways and blast doors for the key worker blast shelter.

  4. How cockroaches exploit tactile boundaries to find new shelters.

    PubMed

    Daltorio, Kathryn A; Mirletz, Brian T; Sterenstein, Andrea; Cheng, Jui Chun; Watson, Adam; Kesavan, Malavika; Bender, John A; Martin, Joshua; Ritzmann, Roy E; Quinn, Roger D

    2015-10-23

    Animals such as cockroaches depend on exploration of unknown environments, and their strategies may inspire robotic approaches. We have previously shown that cockroach behavior, with respect to shelters and the walls of an otherwise empty arena, can be captured with a stochastic state-based algorithm. We call this algorithm RAMBLER, randomized algorithm mimicking biased lone exploration in roaches. In this work, we verified and extended this model by adding a barrier in the previously used arena and conducted more cockroach experiments. In two arena configurations, our simulated model's path length distribution was similar to the experimental distribution (mean experimental path length 3.4 and 3.2 m, mean simulated path length 3.9 and 3.3 m). By analyzing cockroach behavior before, along, and at the end of the barrier, we have generalized RAMBLER to address arbitrarily complex 2D mazes. For biology, this is an abstract behavioral model of a decision-making process in the cockroach brain. For robotics, this is a strategy that may improve exploration for goals, especially in unpredictable environments with non-convex obstacles. Generally, cockroach behavior seems to recommend variability in the absence of planning, and following paths defined by walls.

  5. Service learning: Priority 4 Paws mobile surgical service for shelter animals.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lynetta J; Ferguson, Nancy; Litster, Annette; Arighi, Mimi

    2013-01-01

    The increasing attention given to competencies needed to enter the workforce has revealed a need for veterinary students to gain more experience in performing small-animal elective surgery before graduation. In addition, guidelines for standards of care for shelter animals recommend that all dogs and cats should be spayed or neutered before adoption. Teaching surgical skills while serving the needs of local animal shelters represents an ideal service-learning opportunity. Following a pilot study and the benchmarking of other programs, an elective course in shelter medicine and surgery was created at Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine (PVM) to allow senior DVM students an opportunity to spend 2 weeks on a mobile surgery unit (Priority 4 Paws) and 1 week at an animal shelter. With financial assistance from sponsors and donors, PVM purchased and equipped a mobile surgery unit, hired a full-time veterinarian and a registered veterinary technician, and established relationships with 12 animal shelters. From July 30, 2012, to March 22, 2013, 1,941 spays and neuters were performed with excellent postsurgical outcomes while training 33 veterinary students on rotation and 26 veterinary technician students. The program was well accepted by both students and the shelters being served. The Priority 4 Paws program is an example of an integrated, community-based service-learning opportunity that not only helps to improve the surgical skills of veterinary students but also helps to meet an identified community need.

  6. Stability of mineral matter in aqueous media of the Chernobyl Unit-4 Shelter: Thermodynamic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinitsyn, V.A. |; Kurepin, V.A.; Shurpach, N.A.; Kulik, D.A.; Khodorivski, M.S.; Abramis, A.Y.; Kolyabina, I.L.

    1997-12-31

    A special geochemical environment exists within the Shelter (Sarcophagus) erected in 1986 over the destroyed Unit-4 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP). Based upon the available in situ and compositional data, thermodynamic models of solid-aqueous interactions were developed to clarify the leaching behavior of various materials within the Shelter. The Selektor-A code, based on a convex programming approach to Gibbs free energy minimization, was used for the calculations. A built-in flexible hybrid thermodynamic database for the system Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-S-N-H-O-Si-P-Fe-Al-Sr-Cs was extended with the critically selected and matched parameters for aqueous species and solid phases in the U-Zr-Si-O-H subsystem, secondary U-minerals, mineral phases of fully hydrated Portland cements and U-bearing zircons. Modeling results show that the Shelter Waters can selectively leach a significant quantity of U and Si from the fuel-containing masses, while Zr, Fe, Ca, Mg and some other components are rather insoluble. Serpentinite, assemblages of fully-hydrated phases of Portland cements, and oxidation products of steel structural elements are estimated to be sufficiently stable in the aqueous environment of the Shelter. Calculations also define some feasible pathways for secondary mineral formation from evaporation of Shelter water solutions and interactions between these waters with the mineral matter inside the Shelter.

  7. A theory-based approach to understanding suicide risk in shelter-seeking women.

    PubMed

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Smith, Phillip N

    2015-04-01

    Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence are at an increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to women in the general population. Control-based violence, which is common among shelter-seeking women, may play a pivotal role in the development of suicide ideation and attempts. Current risk assessment and management practices for shelter-seeking women are limited by the lack of an empirically grounded understanding of increased risk in this population. We argue that in order to more effectively promote risk assessment and management, an empirically supported theory that is sensitive to the experiences of shelter-seeking women is needed. Such a theory-driven approach has the benefits of identifying and prioritizing targetable areas for intervention. Here, we review the evidence for the link between coercive control and suicide ideation and attempts from the perspective of Baumeister's escape theory of suicide. This theory has the potential to explain the role of coercive control in the development of suicide ideation and eventual attempts in shelter-seeking women. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention in domestic violence shelters are discussed.

  8. Food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Junehee; Zottarelli, Lisa; Kwon, Sockju; Lee, Yee Ming; Ryu, Dojin

    2013-09-01

    The authors conducted a survey to identify food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in four hurricane-prone states. Five thousand randomly selected FBO leaders were asked questions about their food safety attitudes and food handling practices at evacuation shelters. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were calculated to summarize and prioritize the responses. Results from 138 leaders revealed that on average, 590 +/- 4,787 evacuees were served for 36 +/- 72 days at FBO-operated shelters. Only 19.6% felt they were well prepared for the shelter. Only 5.8% had professional food preparation staff and many accepted hot (47.8%) and cold (37%) prepared food donations. Some lacked adequate refrigerator (18.8%) or freezer (16.7%) spaces, but 40% kept hot food leftovers for later use. The majority did not provide food safety training before opening the shelters (73.2%), yet 76.9% said they will provide food to evacuation shelters again. The results show a need for food safety training and specific strategies for training at FBOs.

  9. Association between shelter crowding and incidence of sleep disturbance among disaster evacuees: a retrospective medical chart review study

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Takahisa; Nishiyama, Kei; Morita, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Osamu; Hiraide, Atsuchi; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined whether crowding at emergency shelters is associated with a higher incidence of sleep disturbance among disaster evacuees and identified the minimum required personal space at shelters. Design Retrospective review of medical charts. Setting 30 shelter-based medical clinics in Ishinomaki, Japan, during the 46 days following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011. Participants Shelter residents who visited eligible clinics. Outcome measures Based on the result of a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing technique assessing the relationship between the mean space per evacuee and cumulative incidence of sleep disturbance at the shelter, eligible shelters were classified into crowded and non-crowded shelters. The cumulative incidence per 1000 evacuees was compared between groups, using a Mann-Whitney U test. To assess the association between shelter crowding and the daily incidence of sleep disturbance per 1000 evacuees, quasi–least squares method adjusting for potential confounders was used. Results The 30 shelters were categorised as crowded (mean space per evacuee <5.0 m2, 9 shelters) or non-crowded (≥5.0 m2, 21 shelters). The study included 9031 patients. Among the eligible patients, 1079 patients (11.9%) were diagnosed with sleep disturbance. Mean space per evacuee during the study period was 3.3 m2 (SD, 0.8 m2) at crowded shelters and 8.6 m2 (SD, 4.3 m2) at non-crowded shelters. The median cumulative incidence of sleep disturbance did not differ between the crowded shelters (2.3/1000 person-days (IQR, 1.6–5.4)) and non-crowded shelters (1.9/1000 person-days (IQR, 1.0–2.8); p=0.20). In contrast, after adjusting for potential confounders, crowded shelters had an increased daily incidence of sleep disturbance (2.6 per 1000 person-days; 95% CI 0.2 to 5.0/1000 person-days, p=0.03) compared to that at non-crowded shelters. Conclusions Crowding at shelters may exacerbate sleep disruptions in disaster

  10. Rainbow Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation;…

  11. Earth tides

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

  12. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE BRICKEDIN WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE BRICKED-IN WINDOW ON RIGHT SIDE (BELOW PAINTED NUMERALS "665"). SLIDING METAL DOOR ON COVERED RAIL AT UPPER LEVEL. SHELTERED ENTRANCE TO STEEL SHIELDING DOOR. DOOR INTO MTR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, STANDS OPEN. MTR BEHIND CHOPPER BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Stability in the Social Support Networks of Homeless Families in Shelter: Findings from a Study of Families in a Faith-Based Shelter Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Craig, Patricia; Koehly, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The following article outlines a longitudinal study tracking changes of the social support networks of 28 homeless families in shelter. Weekly changes in support networks of homeless mothers were tracked including 482 dyadic ties between mothers and supportive persons. Findings suggested that informal social support and persons who provided…

  14. "I Am Not a Shelter!": Stigma and Social Boundaries in Teachers' Accounts of Students' Experience in Separate "Sheltered" English Learner Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabach, Dafney Blanca

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how teachers interact with immigrant-origin youth in school-based contexts of reception that mediate youth's educational opportunities. One understudied context is sheltered instruction, where English learners (ELs) are placed into separate content-area courses to target their linguistic needs. This qualitative study…

  15. Comparison of Adding Treatment of PTSD During and After Shelter Stay to Standard Care in Residents of Battered Women’s Shelters: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Johnson, Nicole L.; Perez, Sara K.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Zlotnick, Caron

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of an expanded version of a PTSD treatment developed for residents of battered women’s shelters, Helping to Overcome PTSD through Empowerment (HOPE) in women who received standard shelter services (SSSs). A Phase I randomized clinical trial comparing HOPE + SSSs (n = 30) to SSSs (n = 30) was conducted. Primary outcome measures included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (Blake et al., 1995) and the Revised Conflict Tactic Scales (Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy, & Sugarman, 1996). Participants were followed at 1-week, and 3- and 6-months posttreatment. Only 2 women dropped out of HOPE + SSS treatment. Latent growth curve analyses found significant treatment effects for PTSD from intimate partner violence (IPV) (β = −.007, p = .021), but not for future IPV (β = .002, p = .709) across follow-up points. Significant effects were also found for secondary outcomes of depression severity (β = −.006, p = .052), empowerment (β = .155, p = .022), and resource gain (β = .158, p = .036). Additionally, more women in HOPE + SSSs were employed at 3- and 6-month follow-up compared to those in SSSs only. Results showed the acceptability and feasibility of adding IPV-related treatment to standard services. They also suggested that HOPE may be a promising treatment for residents of battered women’s shelters. Further research with a larger sample, utilizing more diverse shelter settings and a more rigorous control condition, is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27459503

  16. Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2011-08-01

    Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.

  17. Variation of the Earth's magnetic field strength in South America during the last two millennia: New results from historical buildings of Buenos Aires and re-evaluation of regional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Schavelzon, Daniel; Vásquez, Carlos; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Loponte, Daniel; Rapalini, Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The causes of the systematic decay of the Earth's Magnetic Field strength since eighteen century have been a matter of debate during the last decade. It is also well known that such variations may have completely different expressions under an area characterized with strong magnetic anomalies, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. To fully understand these atypical phenomena, it is crucial to retrieve the past evolution of Earth's magnetic field beyond the observatory records. We report on detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity investigations from some well-studied historical buildings of Buenos Aires city, located at the heart of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Samples consist of bricks, tiles, fireplaces and pottery, which are considered as highly suitable materials for archaeointensity studies. The dating is ascertained by historical documents complemented by archeological constraints. Eighteen out of 26 analyzed samples yield reliable absolute intensity determinations. The site-mean archaeointensity values obtained in this study range from 28.5 to 43.5 μT, with corresponding virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) ranging from 5.3 to 8.04 × 1022 Am2. Most determinations obtained in the present study are in remarkable agreement with the values predicted by the time varying field model CALS10k.1b (Korte et al., 2011). For the older periods the recently available SHA.DIF.14 model (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2014) seems to have greater resolution. South American archaeointensity database now includes absolute intensities from 400 to 1930 AD based on 63 selected archaeointensity determinations. The data set reveals several distinct periods of quite large fluctuations of intensity. However, most data are concentrated into a relatively narrow interval from AD 1250 to AD 1450. At the beginning of the record, values between 400 AD and 830 AD match well with ARCH3k.1 model. Some general features may be detected: the time intervals from about AD 400 to 950 and

  18. Knowledge synthesis and application of crisis-expectant lodging/shelter guidance. Final report, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.W.; Hecht, J.C.; Studebaker, D.P.; Banathy, B.H.

    1981-09-30

    The report presents literature reviews and synthesis on selected topics related to the training of lodging/shelter managers in a crisis-expectant period. Two principle task areas were addressed and the following products are reported: a content outline for shelter management training with an accompanying proposal for course elements of a complete training package for lodging/shelter managers; and detailed outlines and specifications for two of the elements (training modules) from this package - shelter organization and radiological defense. Also included in this report are: a review of and a set of recommendations for procedures that would allow for staff expansion and rapid training of lodging/shelter managers in a crisis-expectant period; a review of techniques and recommendations for insuring trainee motivation and commitment during peacetime; and a brief summary of ancillary knowledge consolidation and application tasks related to lodging/shelter guidance.

  19. Epidemiological evaluation of cats rescued at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Miharu, Fukushima, after the Great East Japan Earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Aki; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Kass, Philip

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI). Disease and cat behavior were unassociated with adoption. Cats in group housing had lower stress metrics than cats individually housed. Prevalences of URI pathogens exceeded 80%, but symptomatic cats were uncommon. Environmental enrichment and stress reduction strategies are important in controlling URI and reducing the need for corticosteroids and antibiotics in shelters. Preemptive protocols are important in preventing shelter admission of cats during disasters.

  20. Development of a Fuel Containing Material Removal and Waste Management Strategy for the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarevsky, V. V.; Shibetsky, Y. A.; Leister, P.; Davison, W. R.; Follin, J. F.; McNair, J.; Lins, W.; Edler, G.

    2002-02-27

    A study was performed to develop a strategy for the removal of fuel-containing material (FCM) from the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter and for the related waste management. This study was performed during Phase 1 of the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) and was funded by the Chernobyl Shelter Fund. The main objective for Phase 2 of the SIP is to stabilize the Shelter and to construct a New Confinement (NC) by the year 2007. In addition, the SIP includes studies on the strategy and on the conceptual design implications of the removal of FCM from the Shelter. This is considered essential for the ultimate goal, the transformation of the Shelter into an environmentally safe system.

  1. From Blue to Green: The Development and Implementation of a Therapeutic Horticulture Program for Residents of a Battered Women's Shelter.

    PubMed

    Renzetti, Claire M; Follingstad, Diane R

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutic services to clients is influenced by service providers' understanding of the "fit" of a specific program with their service mandate as well as their perceptions of the potential benefits of the program. This article discusses the development and implementation of a therapeutic horticulture (TH) program at a battered women's shelter that serves 17 counties in Central Kentucky. Through semistructured interviews, we gauge the shelter staff's perceptions of the relationship of the TH program to the shelter's overall mission; their sense of the program's benefits for residents, for the shelter as a community organization, and for themselves; and their concerns about the TH program. We consider how these findings may impact future programming at the shelter, and we discuss plans for further evaluation of the TH program in terms of its impact on shelter residents' long-term outcomes.

  2. Detection of respiratory viruses in shelter dogs maintained under varying environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Francielle Liz; Cargnelutti, Juliana Felipetto; Martins, Mathias; Anziliero, Deniz; Erhardt, Magnólia Martins; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    Three dog shelters in Rio Grande do Sul were investigated for associations between the occurrence of respiratory viruses and shelter environmental conditions. Nasal secretions randomly collected during the cold season were tested via PCR, and this data collection was followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons. In shelter #1 (poor sanitary and nutritional conditions, high animal density and constant contact between dogs), 78% (58/74) of the nasal samples were positive, 35% (26/74) of which were in single infections and 44% (32/74) of which were in coinfections. Shelters #2 and #3 had satisfactory sanitary and nutritional conditions, outdoors exercise areas (#2) and animal clustering by groups (#3). In shelter #2, 9% (3/35) of the samples were positive for Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and 6% (2/35) were positive for Canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1). In shelter #3, 9% (7/77) of the samples were positive for Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2), and 1% (1/77) were positive for Canine distemper virus (CDV). The amplicon sequences (CPIV and CDV nucleoprotein gene; CAdV-2 E3 gene; CaHV-1 glycoprotein B gene) showed 94-100% nucleotide identity with GenBank sequences. Our results demonstrate that CPIV, CAdV-2 and CDV are common in dog shelters and that their frequencies appear to be related with environmental and nutritional conditions. These results indicate the need for control/prevention measures, including vaccination and environmental management, to minimize these infections and improve dog health.

  3. Inconsistent identification of pit bull-type dogs by shelter staff.

    PubMed

    Olson, K R; Levy, J K; Norby, B; Crandall, M M; Broadhurst, J E; Jacks, S; Barton, R C; Zimmerman, M S

    2015-11-01

    Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs. The terms American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, pit bull, and their mixes were included in the study definition of 'pit bull-type breeds.' Using visual identification only, the median inter-observer agreements and kappa values in pair-wise comparisons of each of the staff breed assignments for pit bull-type breed vs. not pit bull-type breed ranged from 76% to 83% and from 0.44 to 0.52 (moderate agreement), respectively. Whole blood was submitted to a commercial DNA testing laboratory for breed identification. Whereas DNA breed signatures identified only 25 dogs (21%) as pit bull-type, shelter staff collectively identified 62 (52%) dogs as pit bull-type. Agreement between visual and DNA-based breed assignments varied among individuals, with sensitivity for pit bull-type identification ranging from 33% to 75% and specificity ranging from 52% to 100%. The median kappa value for inter-observer agreement with DNA results at each shelter ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 (poor to moderate). Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pit bull-type dogs was unreliable.

  4. Service quality and corporate social responsibility, influence on post-purchase intentions of sheltered employment institutions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual disabilities. When they are not yet capable of obtaining a job in the open market, they must receive job training and daily care in sheltered employment institutions. If the sheltered employment institutions cannot operate properly, they will greatly affect intellectual disabilities. From the study of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions are one kind of food service business that has been found to request and improve service quality and execution of CSR. These are two main factors which can enhance brand value and create a good reputation for sheltered employment institutions. The questionnaire results indicate that perceived service quality has a positive relationship with customer satisfaction and the reliability dimension is the most important factor for customers to assess service quality. Meanwhile, correlation analysis shows that customer satisfaction regarding service quality influences post-purchase intentions, indicating that friendly and helpful employees can please customers and enhance their satisfaction level and also induce positive post-purchase intentions of consumers. Regarding the CSR of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions, the analysis reveals a statistical significance: the greater customer satisfaction of CSR, the higher the post-purchase intention. In addition, in the work, paired-sample t test analysis reveals there is a significant difference (p<.05) in service quality and CSR in terms of "perceived" and "expected" responses. In summary, since those with intellectual disabilities usually are enthusiastic at work and do their

  5. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  6. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  7. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T.

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  8. Shelter type and birth number influence the birth and death sites of lambs and ewe movement around lambing time.

    PubMed

    Broster, J C; Dehaan, R L; Swain, D L; Robertson, S M; King, B J; Friend, M A

    2017-01-01

    A significant number of lambs born each yr in Australia die within 72 h of birth. Periods of high wind, combined with rain and low temperatures, can lead to marked increases in the level of mortality. Under these weather conditions mortality levels may be reduced with the provision of shelter, provided it is utilized by lambs. This study used GPS collars to determine the use of shelter by ewes and lambs, to compare the movement of ewes with twin lambs across 2 types of shelter (hedgerows and shrubs), while also comparing ewes with single and twin lambs in a single shelter type (hedgerows). Additionally, the birth sites of 364 lambs and death sites of 252 lambs were recorded across the 3 shelter type and litter size combinations (Twins in shrubs, Twins in hedgerows, Singles in hedgerows) plus an unsheltered group (Singles in unsheltered). A higher (P < 0.001) than randomly expected percentage of ewes lambed in the areas closest to both shelter types; in the shrub shelter 42% of ewes lambed within 2.5 m of shrub rows compared to an expected 11% based on the proportion of the paddock this area constituted. Despite the higher than expected percentage of ewes lambing close to the shelter rows, ewes in both twin lamb shelter types avoided the areas close to the shelter before and after lambing (Hedgerows-2.5 m; Shrubs- 6.25 m) and single bearing ewes showed no preference for or against these areas. With a high proportion of twin bearing ewes lambing close to the shelter, a design that reduces the potential for ewe and offspring separation while providing good shelter will offer the greatest potential reduction in newborn twin lamb mortality arising from exposure.

  9. Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Beaujardiere, J.

    2001-05-01

    Digital Earth (DE) seeks to make geospatial information broadly and easily available. Vast amounts of natural and cultural information are gathered about the Earth, but it is often difficult to find needed data, to share knowledge across disciplines, and to combine information from several sources. DE defines a framework for interoperability by selecting relevant open standards from the information technology community. These standards specify the technical means by which publishers can provide or sell their data, and by which client applications can find and access data in an automated fashion. The standardized DE framework enables many types of clients--from web browsers to museum kiosks to research-grade virtual environments--to use a common geospatial information infrastructure. Digital Earth can benefit Earth system education in general, and DLESE in particular, in several ways. First, educators, students and creators of instructional material will benefit from standardized access to georeferenced data. Secondly, educational lesson plans that focus on a region or aspect of the Earth can themselves be considered geospatial information resources that could be cataloged and retrieved through DE. Finally, general public knowledge about our planet will by increased by Digital Earth.

  10. Partners in Earth System Science: a Field, Laboratory and Classroom Based Professional Development Program for K-12 Teachers Designed to Build Scientific and Pedagogical Understandings of Teaching Climate Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slattery, W.; Lunsford, S.; Diedrick, A.; Crane, C.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the Partners in Earth System Science summer and academic year professional development program for Ohio K-12 teachers is to build their understandings of the scientific observations, methods and resources that scientists use when studying past and present climate change. Participants then use these tools to develop inquiry-based activities to teach their K-12 students how the scientific method and data are used to understand the effects of global climate change. The summer portion of the program takes teachers from throughout Ohio to the Duke University Marine Laboratory in Beaufort, North Carolina. There they engage in a physical and biological exploration of the modern and ancient ocean. For example, they collect samples of sediment and test water samples collected from modern coastal environments and connect their findings with evidence of the fauna living in those environments. Then, using observations from the geological record of the Eocene through Pleistocene sediments exposed in eastern North Carolina and inferences from observations made from the modern ocean they seek to answer scientifically testable questions regarding the physical and biological characteristics of the ocean during Cenozoic climate change events. During the academic year participants connect with each other and project faculty online to support the development of inquiry based science activities for their K-12 students. These activities focus on how evidence and observations such as outcrop extent, sediment type and biological assemblages can be used to infer past climates. The activities are taught in participant's classrooms and discussed with other participants in an online discussion space. Assessment of both teachers and K-12 students document significant positive changes in science knowledge, their confidence in being able to do science and a clearer understanding of how oceans are impacted by global climate change.

  11. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles.

  12. The effect of shelter on welfare of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reared under a feed restriction regimen.

    PubMed

    Persson, L; Alanärä, A

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated whether shelter (presence or absence) affected the frequency of fin damage in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar exposed to feed restrictions (0·73 or 0·33% of body mass day(-1) ). The presence of shelter had a positive effect on the pectoral fins at both feed ration levels and on the dorsal fin at the higher ration level but it had a negative effect on survival. The reduced feed rations resulted in fish of the same size and nutritional status as wild fish. The provision of shelter has potential to mitigate the negative effects of feed restrictions on fin quality, but the optimal shelter design requires some additional investigation.

  13. Predicting Abused Women With Children Who Return to a Shelter: Development and Use of a Rapid Assessment Triage Tool.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Judith; Pennings, Jacquelyn; Liu, Fuqin; Gilroy, Heidi; Nava, Angeles; Maddoux, John A; Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Paulson, René

    2016-02-01

    To develop a tool to predict risk for return to a shelter, 150 women with children, exiting a domestic violence shelter, were evaluated every 4 months for 24 months to determine risk factors for returning to a shelter. The study identified four risk factors, including danger for murder, woman's age (i.e., older women), tangible support (i.e., access to money, transportation), and child witness to verbal abuse of the mother. An easy to use, quick triage tool with a weighted score was derived, which can identify with 90% accuracy abused women with children most likely to return to shelters.

  14. Separating the effects of shelter from additional cage enhancements for group-housed BALB/cJ mice.

    PubMed

    Swetter, Brentt J; Karpiak, Christie P; Cannon, J Timothy

    2011-05-20

    Enrichment studies with rodents have demonstrated that cage enhancements can improve animal welfare and performance on common behavioral measures, but few studies have compared more than one type of enrichment or controlled for confounds, and some have revealed undesirable effects including increased aggression. We compared effects on male (n=51) and female (n=52) BALB/cJ mice of three common additions to a standard home cage: shelter, shelter+running wheel, and shelter+novel objects. Mice in all conditions lived in standard sized cages with 3-4 mice per cage. Males evidenced significant condition effects. Shelter increased longevity and maintained low levels of aggression. Adding a running wheel increased aggression over shelter alone, changed behavior in the elevated plus (EP) and open field (OF), and maintained the improved longevity seen in all shelter conditions. Novel objects impacted behavioral measures compared to the standard condition. An Igloo shelter without running wheel creates a very different home cage environment than the same shelter with the running wheel attached. Shelter, with positive impact on animal welfare, minimal effects on some common behavioral measures, and some positive effects on test variance, warrants consideration for routine inclusion with group-housed BALB/cJ males.

  15. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

    PubMed Central

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the “naïve” treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the “exposed” treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  16. Examining the utility of satellite-based wind sheltering estimates for lake hydrodynamic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.; Montesano, Paul; Markfort, Corey D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of vegetation canopy structure have been in common use for the last decade but have never been used to estimate canopy's impact on wind sheltering of individual lakes. Wind sheltering is caused by slower winds in the wake of topography and shoreline obstacles (e.g. forest canopy) and influences heat loss and the flux of wind-driven mixing energy into lakes, which control lake temperatures and indirectly structure lake ecosystem processes, including carbon cycling and thermal habitat partitioning. Lakeshore wind sheltering has often been parameterized by lake surface area but such empirical relationships are only based on forested lakeshores and overlook the contributions of local land cover and terrain to wind sheltering. This study is the first to examine the utility of satellite imagery-derived broad-scale estimates of wind sheltering across a diversity of land covers. Using 30 m spatial resolution ASTER GDEM2 elevation data, the mean sheltering height, hs, being the combination of local topographic rise and canopy height above the lake surface, is calculated within 100 m-wide buffers surrounding 76,000 lakes in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Uncertainty of GDEM2-derived hs was compared to SRTM-, high-resolution G-LiHT lidar-, and ICESat-derived estimates of hs, respective influences of land cover type and buffer width on hsare examined; and the effect of including satellite-based hs on the accuracy of a statewide lake hydrodynamic model was discussed. Though GDEM2 hs uncertainty was comparable to or better than other satellite-based measures of hs, its higher spatial resolution and broader spatial coverage allowed more lakes to be included in modeling efforts. GDEM2 was shown to offer superior utility for estimating hs compared to other satellite-derived data, but was limited by its consistent underestimation of hs, inability to detect within-buffer hs variability, and differing accuracy across land cover types. Nonetheless

  17. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  18. Composite material structures for tactical shelters - a cost/weight study

    SciTech Connect

    Fanucci, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    As part of an overall program sponsored by the U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories (NLABS) to develop a nuclear hardened, mobile, tactical shelter of minimum weight and cost, the application of three composite materials in future tactical shelters has been investigated. Nine shelter wall panels were designed using various combinations of material and panel cross sectional geometry. Acquisition cost and weight of the individual designs were estimated. The best of the graphite/epoxy configurations resulted in a 50% weight reduction from a baseline aluminum panel. The projected acquisition cost of this graphite panel was 3.3 times higher than the equivalent aluminum design. Predicted weight trends compared favorably with design experience reported by a variety of manufacturers. Aerospace industry pricing of composite versus metal production hardware suggests that predicted shelter panel acquisition costs have been substantially overestimated. Because composite technology is currently in a state of rapid growth and change, reliable cost information is relatively scarce. Evidence suggests that an expected reduction in composite shelter maintenance cost could result in a lower overall life cycle cost for the composite designs.

  19. E-mail Use among a sample of intimate partner violence shelter residents.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Meade, Jennifer; Decker, Michele R

    2009-06-01

    Although it is estimated that approximately 75% of U.S. adults have e-mail access, the proportion of battered women's shelter residents who use e-mail is currently unknown. Remaining in contact with residents following shelter stays is challenging. E-mail might hold promise for follow-up contact if a sufficient number of survivors use e-mail and safety concerns can be addressed. Among a convenience sample of residents of 11 Massachusetts shelters (N = 57), the authors find that 47% had a current e-mail account. Among those with e-mail accounts, 89% used e-mail in locations other than their own homes; 81% reported that, to their knowledge, their e-mail accounts had never been accessed by unauthorized dating partners; and 88% reported that they thought it would be safe for the shelter to e-mail them following their departure. Additional research assessing the feasibility (i.e., safety, acceptability, and cost benefit) of remaining in contact with shelter residents via the Internet would be beneficial.

  20. Vocational aspirations of sheltered workshop workers with intellectual disability in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Li, E P

    1998-06-01

    In Hong Kong, the understanding of the vocational experience of sheltered workshop workers with intellectual disability is still relatively meagre. Twenty-three participants with intellectual disability and four professionals from their sheltered workshops were interviewed using mainly open-ended questions. Content analysis and constant comparative method were adopted to categorize the descriptive data into themes that were salient to the participants' vocational aspirations to try open employment. The insider perspective showed that all participants were motivated to have employment. Thirteen participants with intellectual disability preferred to try open employment and they had individual vocational preferences which mainly belonged to unskilled and manual work. The professionals pointed out that sheltered workshop workers with intellectual disability needed professionals' assistance and parents' consent in moving on to open employment, and parents were the key people in this decision-making process. These findings indicate that sheltered workshop workers with intellectual disability have limited self-determination in the work arena. The need to empower people with intellectual disability, improve the quality of sheltered employment services and increase the involvement of their family members are discussed.