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Sample records for earth silicate sealing

  1. Sealing of cracks in cement using microencapsulated sodium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaros, P.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Cement-based materials possess an inherent autogenous self-healing capability allowing them to seal, and potentially heal, microcracks. This can be improved through the addition of microencapsulated healing agents for autonomic self-healing. The fundamental principle of this self-healing mechanism is that when cracks propagate in the cementitious matrix, they rupture the dispersed capsules and their content (cargo material) is released into the crack volume. Various healing agents have been explored in the literature for their efficacy to recover mechanical and durability properties in cementitious materials. In these materials, the healing agents are most commonly encapsulated in macrocontainers (e.g. glass tubes or capsules) and placed into the material. In this work, microencapsulated sodium silicate in both liquid and solid form was added to cement specimens. Sodium silicate reacts with the calcium hydroxide in hydrated cement paste to form calcium-silicate-hydrate gel that fills cracks. The effect of microcapsule addition on rheological and mechanical properties of cement is reported. It is observed that the microcapsule addition inhibits compressive strength development in cement and this is observed through a plateau in strength between 28 and 56 days. The improvement in crack-sealing for microcapsule-containing specimens is quantified through sorptivity measurements over a 28 day healing period. After just seven days, the addition of 4% microcapsules resulted in a reduction in sorptivity of up to 45% when compared to specimens without any microcapsule addition. A qualitative description of the reaction between the cargo material and the cementitious matrix is also provided using x-ray diffraction analysis.

  2. Calcium Isotopic Composition of Bulk Silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Ionov, D. A.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Ca isotopes are used to study the accretion history of the Earth and terrestrial planets, but, Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) remains poorly constrained [1]. To better understand the Ca isotopic composition of BSE, we analyzed 22 well studied peridotite xenoliths from Tariat (Mongolia), Vitim (southern Siberia) and Udachnaya (Siberian Craton). These samples include both fertile and highly depleted garnet and spinel peridotites that show no or only minor post-melting metasomatism or alteration. Ca isotope measurements were done on a Triton-TIMS using double spike method at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS. The data are reported as δ44/40Ca (relative to NIST SRM 915a). Results for geostandards are consistent with those from other laboratories. 2 standard deviations of SRM 915a analyses are 0.13‰ (n=48). δ44/40Ca of both and fertile and refractory peridotites range from 0.79 to 1.07‰ producing an average of 0.93±0.12‰ (2SD). This value defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE, which is consistent with the average δ44/40Ca of oceanic basalts ( 0.90‰)[2,3]. [1] Huang et al (2010) EPSL 292; [2] Valdes et al (2014) EPSL 394; [3]DePaolo (2004) RMG 55.

  3. Thermal Expansion and Thermal Conductivity of Rare Earth Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth silicates are considered promising candidate materials for environmental barrier coatings applications at elevated temperature for ceramic matrix composites. High temperature thermophysical properties are of great importance for coating system design and development. In this study, the thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of hot-pressed rare earth silicate materials were characterized at temperatures up to 1400 C. The effects of specimen porosity, composition and microstructure on the properties were also investigated. The materials processing and testing issues affecting the measurements will also be discussed.

  4. Deep-Earth Equilibration between Molten Iron and Solid Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, M.; Zurkowski, C. C.; Chidester, B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental partitioning between iron-rich metals and silicate minerals influences the properties of Earth's deep interior, and is ultimately responsible for the nature of the core-mantle boundary. These interactions between molten iron and solid silicates were influential during planetary accretion, and persist today between the mantle and liquid outer core. Here we report the results of diamond anvil cell experiments at lower mantle conditions (40 GPa, >2500 K) aimed at examining systems containing a mixture of metals (iron or Fe-16Si alloy) and silicates (peridotite). The experiments were conducted at pressure-temperature conditions above the metallic liquidus but below the silicate solidus, and the recovered samples were analyzed by FIB/SEM with EDS to record the compositions of the coexisting phases. Each sample formed a three-phase equilibrium between bridgmanite, Fe-rich metallic melt, and an oxide. In one experiment, using pure Fe, the quenched metal contained 6 weight percent O, and the coexisting oxide was ferropericlase. The second experiment, using Fe-Si alloy, was highly reducing; its metal contained 10 wt% Si, and the coexisting mineral was stishovite. The distinct mineralogies of the two experiments derived from their different starting metals. These results imply that metallic composition is an important factor in determining the products of mixed phase iron-silicate reactions. The properties of deep-Earth interfaces such as the core-mantle boundary could be strongly affected by their metallic components.

  5. Thermochemistry of Rare Earth Silicates for Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth silicates are promising candidates as environmental protective coatings (EBCs) for silica-forming ceramics and composites in combustion environments since they are predicted to have lower reactivity with the water vapor combustion products. The reactivity of rare earth silicates is assessed by the thermodynamic activity of the silica component which is best measured by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). Here, we discuss a novel method based on a reducing agent to increase the partial pressure of SiO(g) which is then used to calculate thermodynamic activity of silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems. After the KEMS measurements, samples were probed by X-ray diffraction and their phase content was calculated from Rietveld refinement.

  6. CHEMISTRY OF SILICATE ATMOSPHERES OF EVAPORATING SUPER-EARTHS

    SciT

    Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce, E-mail: laura_s@levee.wustl.ed, E-mail: bfegley@levee.wustl.ed

    2009-10-01

    We model the formation of silicate atmospheres on hot volatile-free super-Earths. Our calculations assume that all volatile elements such as H, C, N, S, and Cl have been lost from the planet. We find that the atmospheres are composed primarily of Na, O{sub 2}, O, and SiO gas, in order of decreasing abundance. The atmospheric composition may be altered by fractional vaporization, cloud condensation, photoionization, and reaction with any residual volatile elements remaining in the atmosphere. Cloud condensation reduces the abundance of all elements in the atmosphere except Na and K. We speculate that large Na and K clouds suchmore » as those observed around Mercury and Io may surround hot super-Earths. These clouds would occult much larger fractions of the parent star than a closely bound atmosphere, and may be observable through currently available methods.« less

  7. Iron-magnesium silicate bioweathering on Earth (and Mars?).

    PubMed

    Fisk, M R; Popa, R; Mason, O U; Storrie-Lombardi, M C; Vicenzi, E P

    2006-02-01

    We examined the common, iron-magnesium silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene in basalt and in mantle rocks to determine if they exhibit textures similar to bioweathering textures found in glass. Our results show that weathering in olivine may occur as long, narrow tunnels (1-3 microm in diameter and up to 100 microm long) and as larger irregular galleries, both of which have distinctive characteristics consistent with biological activity. These weathering textures are associated with clay mineral by-products and nucleic acids. We also examined olivine and pyroxene in martian meteorites, some of which experienced preterrestrial aqueous alteration. Some olivines and pyroxenes in the martian meteorite Nakhla were found to contain tunnels that are similar in size and shape to tunnels in terrestrial iron-magnesium silicates that contain nucleic acids. Though the tunnels found in Nakhla are similar to the biosignatures found in terrestrial minerals, their presence cannot be used to prove that the martian alteration features had a biogenic origin. The abundance and wide distribution of olivine and pyroxene on Earth and in the Solar System make bioweathering features in these minerals potentially important new biosignatures that may play a significant role in evaluating whether life ever existed on Mars.

  8. Effects of Low Earth Orbit on Docking Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imka, Emily C.; Asmar, Olivia C.; deGroh, Henry C., III; Banks, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft docking seals are typically made of silicone elastomers. When such seals are exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions, they can suffer damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO, or monoatomic oxygen, the predominant oxygen species in LEO). An experiment flew on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure the effects of LEO on seal materials S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 and various mating counterface materials which included anodized aluminum. Samples flown in different orientations received different amounts of UV and AO. The hypotheses were that most of the damage would be from UV, and 10 days or more of exposure in LEO would badly damage the seals. Eighteen seals were exposed for 543 days in ram (windward), zenith (away from Earth), or wake (leeward) orientations, and 15 control samples (not flown) provided undamaged baseline leakage. To determine post-flight leak rates, each of the 33 seals were placed in an O-ring groove of a leak test fixture and pressure tested over time. Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), pressure transducers, and LabVIEW (National Instruments) programs were used to measure and analyze the temperature and pressure and calculate leakage. Average leakage of control samples was 2.6 x 10(exp -7) lbs/day. LEO exposure did not considerably damage ELA-SA-401. The S0383-70 flight samples leaked at least 10 times more than ELA-SA-401 in all cases except one, demonstrating that ELA-SA-401 may be a more suitable sealing material in LEO. AO caused greater damage than UV; samples in ram orientation (receiving an AO fluence of 4.3 x 10(exp 21) atoms/(sq cm) and in wake (2.9x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)) leaked more than those in zenith orientation (1.58 x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)), whereas variations in UV exposure did not seem to affect the samples. Exposure to LEO did less damage to the seals than hypothesized, and the data did not support the conjecture that UV causes more damage than AO.

  9. Non-Chondritic Ni Isotope Composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaver, M.; Elliott, T.

    2018-05-01

    We present high-precision Ni isotope data of chondritic meteorites and carefully selected mantle peridotites. These data show that the Bulk Silicate Earth is ca. 90 ppm lighter than chondritic meteorites, possibly as the result of core formation.

  10. Experimentally determined Si isotope fractionation between silicate and Fe metal and implications for Earth's core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, Anat; Ziegler, Karen; Young, Edward D.; Ricolleau, Angele; Schauble, Edwin A.; Fei, Yingwei

    2009-10-01

    Stable isotope fractionation amongst phases comprising terrestrial planets and asteroids can be used to elucidate planet-forming processes. To date, the composition of the Earth's core remains largely unknown though cosmochemical and geophysical evidence indicates that elements lighter than iron and nickel must reside there. Silicon is often cited as a light element that could explain the seismic properties of the core. The amount of silicon in the core, if any, can be deduced from the difference in 30Si/ 28Si between meteorites and terrestrial rocks if the Si isotope fractionation between silicate and Fe-rich metal is known. Recent studies (e.g., [Georg R.B., Halliday A.N., Schauble E.A., Reynolds B.C., 2007. Silicon in the Earth's core. Nature 447 (31), 1102-1106.]; [Fitoussi, C., Bourdon, B., Kleine, T., Oberli, F., Reynolds, B. C., 2009. Si isotope systematics of meteorites and terrestrial peridotites: implications for Mg/Si fractionation in the solar nebula and for Si in the Earth's core. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 287, 77-85.]) showing (sometimes subtle) differences between 30Si/ 28Si in meteorites and terrestrial rocks suggest that Si missing from terrestrial rocks might be in the core. However, any conclusion based on Earth-meteorite comparisons depends on the veracity of the 30Si/ 28Si fractionation factor between silicates and metals at appropriate conditions. Here we present the first direct experimental evidence that silicon isotopes are not distributed uniformly between iron metal and rock when equilibrated at high temperatures. High-precision measurements of the silicon isotope ratios in iron-silicon alloy and silicate equilibrated at 1 GPa and 1800 °C show that Si in silicate has higher 30Si/ 28Si than Si in metal, by at least 2.0‰. These findings provide an experimental foundation for using isotope ratios of silicon as indicators of terrestrial planet formation processes. They imply that if Si isotope equilibrium existed during segregation of Earth

  11. Carbon and sulfur budget of the silicate Earth explained by accretion of differentiated planetary embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Tsuno, Kyusei; Monteleone, Brian; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    2016-10-01

    The abundances of volatile elements in the Earth's mantle have been attributed to the delivery of volatile-rich material after the main phase of accretion. However, no known meteorites could deliver the volatile elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur, at the relative abundances observed for the silicate Earth. Alternatively, Earth could have acquired its volatile inventory during accretion and differentiation, but the fate of volatile elements during core formation is known only for a limited set of conditions. Here we present constraints from laboratory experiments on the partitioning of carbon and sulfur between metallic cores and silicate mantles under conditions relevant for rocky planetary bodies. We find that carbon remains more siderophile than sulfur over a range of oxygen fugacities; however, our experiments suggest that in reduced or sulfur-rich bodies, carbon is expelled from the segregating core. Combined with previous constraints, we propose that the ratio of carbon to sulfur in the silicate Earth could have been established by differentiation of a planetary embryo that was then accreted to the proto-Earth. We suggest that the accretion of a Mercury-like (reduced) or a sulfur-rich (oxidized) differentiated body--in which carbon has been preferentially partitioned into the mantle--may explain the Earth's carbon and sulfur budgets.

  12. A general route to hollow mesoporous rare-earth silicate nanospheres as a catalyst support.

    PubMed

    Jin, Renxi; Yang, Yang; Zou, Yongcun; Liu, Xianchun; Xing, Yan

    2014-02-17

    Hollow mesoporous structures have recently aroused intense research interest owing to their unique structural features. Herein, an effective and precisely controlled synthesis of hollow rare-earth silicate spheres with mesoporous shells is reported for the first time, produced by a simple hydrothermal method, using silica spheres as the silica precursors. The as-prepared hollow rare-earth silicate spheres have large specific surface area, high pore volume, and controllable structure parameters. The results demonstrate that the selection of the chelating reagent plays critical roles in forming the hollow mesoporous structures. In addition, a simple and low-energy-consuming approach to synthesize highly stable and dispersive gold nanoparticle-yttrium silicate (AuNPs/YSiO) hollow nanocomposites has also been developed. The reduction of 4-nitrophenol with AuNPs/YSiO hollow nanocomposites as the catalyst has clearly demonstrated that the hollow rare-earth silicate spheres are good carriers for Au nanoparticles. This strategy can be extended as a general approach to prepare multifunctional yolk-shell structures with diverse compositions and morphologies simply by replacing silica spheres with silica-coated nanocomposites. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sulfide in the core and the composition of the silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical composition of the Earth is traditionally explained in terms of evolution from a solar-like composition, similar to that found in primitive 'chondritic' meteorites. It now appears, however, that the silicate Earth is not 'chondritic', but depleted in incompatible elements, including refractory lithophile and heat-producing elements. Either Earth lost material during planet-building due to collisional erosion or else internal differentiation processes produced a hidden reservoir deep in the early Earth. Sulfide in the core may provide a reservoir capable of balancing the composition of the silicate Earth. Recent experimental work suggests that the core contains a significant proportion of sulfide, added during the final stages of accretion and new data suggests that at high pressures sulfide can incorporate a substantial amount of refractory lithophile and heat-producing elements [1]. Pioneering work using the short-lived 146Sm-142Nd system strongly suggests that Earth's silicate mantle is non-chondritic [e.g. 2]. The drawback of such radiogenic isotope systems is that it is not possible to distinguish the fractionation of Sm/Nd that occurs during silicate melting from that occurring during the segregation of a sulfide-melt to form the core. Neodymium stable isotopes have the potential to provide just such a tracer of sulfide segregation, because there is a significant contrast in bonding environment between sulfide and silicate, where heavy isotopes should be preferentially incorporated into high force-constant bonds involving REE3+ (i.e. the silicate mantle). Preliminary data indicate that mantle rocks do indeed possess heavier 146Nd/144Nd values than chondritic meteorites, consistent with the removal of light Nd into sulfide in the core, driving the residual mantle to heavy values. Overall, our isotope and elemental data indicate that the rare earths and other incompatible elements are substantially incorporated into sulfide. While Nd Stable isotope

  14. Sulfide in the core and the Nd isotopic composition of the silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy-West, A.; Millet, M. A.; Nowell, G. M.; Wohlers, A.; Wood, B. J.; Burton, K. W.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of the Earth is traditionally explained in terms of evolution from a solar-like composition, similar to that found in primitive chondritic meteorites. It now appears, however, that the silicate Earth is not chondritic, but depleted in incompatible elements and a resovable 20 ppm excess is observed in 142Nd relative to chondirtes [1, 2]. This anomaly requires a process that occurred within 30 Myr of solar system formation and has been variably ascribed to: a complementary enriched reservoir in the deep Earth [1]; loss to space through collisional erosion [3]; or the inhertence of nucleosynthetic anomalies [4]. Sulfide in the core may provide a reservoir capable of balancing the composition of the silicate Earth. Recent experimental work suggests that the core contains a significant proportion of sulfide, added during the final stages of accretion and new data suggests that at high pressures sulfide can incorporate a substantial amount of refractory lithophile and heat-producing elements [5]. The drawback of the short-lived 146Sm-142Nd radiogenic isotope system is that it is not possible to distinguish between fractionations of Sm/Nd that occurs during silicate melting or segregation of a sulfide-melt. Neodymium stable isotopes have the potential to provide just such a tracer of sulfide segregation, because there is a significant contrast in bonding environment between sulfide and silicate, where heavy isotopes should be preferentially incorporated into high force-constant bonds involving REE3+ (i.e. the silicate mantle). Preliminary data indicate that mantle rocks do indeed possess heavier 146Nd/144Nd values than chondritic meteorites by 0.3 ‰, consistent with the removal of light Nd into sulfide in the core, driving the residual mantle to heavier values. Overall, our isotope and elemental data indicate that the rare earths and other incompatible elements are substantially incorporated into sulfide. While Nd stable isotope data for

  15. Making Earth's earliest continental crust - an analogue from voluminous Neogene silicic volcanism in NE-Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Riishuus, Morten S.; Deegan, Frances M.; Harris, Chris; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2014-05-01

    Borgarfjörður Eystri in NE-Iceland represents the second-most voluminous exposure of silicic eruptive rocks in Iceland and is a superb example of bimodal volcanism (Bunsen-Daly gap), which represents a long-standing controversy that touches on the problem of crustal growth in early Earth. The silicic rocks in NE-Iceland approach 25 % of the exposed rock mass in the region (Gústafsson et al., 1989), thus they significantly exceed the usual ≤ 12 % in Iceland as a whole (e.g. Walker, 1966; Jonasson, 2007). The origin, significance, and duration of the voluminous (> 300 km3) and dominantly explosive silicic activity in Borgarfjörður Eystri is not yet constrained (c.f. Gústafsson, 1992), leaving us unclear as to what causes silicic volcanism in otherwise basaltic provinces. Here we report SIMS zircon U-Pb ages and δ18O values from the region, which record the commencement of silicic igneous activity with rhyolite lavas at 13.5 to 12.8 Ma, closely followed by large caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions from the Breiðavik and Dyrfjöll central volcanoes (12.4 Ma). Silicic activity ended abruptly with dacite lava at 12.1 Ma, defining a ≤ 1 Myr long window of silicic volcanism. Magma δ18O values estimated from zircon range from 3.1 to 5.5 (± 0.3; n = 170) and indicate up to 45 % assimilation of a low-δ18O component (e.g. typically δ18O = 0 ‰, Bindeman et al., 2012). A Neogene rift relocation (Martin et al., 2011) or the birth of an off-rift zone to the east of the mature rift associated with a thermal/chemical pulse in the Iceland plume (Óskarsson & Riishuus, 2013), likely brought mantle-derived magma into contact with fertile hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. The resulting interaction triggered large-scale crustal melting and generated mixed-origin silicic melts. Such rapid formation of silicic magmas from sustained basaltic volcanism may serve as an analogue for generating continental crust in a subduction-free early Earth (e.g. ≥ 3 Ga, Kamber et

  16. Silicate garnet studies at high pressures: A view into the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Pamela Gales

    Silicate garnets are an abundant component in the Earth's upper mantle and transition zone. Therefore, an understanding of garnet behavior under the pressure and temperature conditions of the mantle is critical to the development of models for mantle mineralogy and dynamics. Work from three projects is presented in this report. Each investigation explores an aspect of silicate garnet behavior under high pressures. Moreover, each investigation was made possible by state-of-the-art methods that have previously been unavailable. Brillouin scattering was used to determine the elastic constants and aggregate elastic moduli of three end-member garnets at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. These are the first high-pressure measurements of the elastic constants of end-member silicate garnets by direct measurement of acoustic velocities. The results indicate that the pressure dependence of silicate garnet elastic constants varies with composition. Therefore, extrapolation from measurements on mixed composition garnets is not possible. A new method of laser heating minerals in a diamond anvil cell has made possible the determination of the high-pressure and high-temperature stability of almandine garnet. This garnet does not transform to a silicate perovskite phase as does pyrope garnet, but it decomposes to its constituent oxides: FeO, Alsb2Osb3, and SiOsb2. These results disprove an earlier prediction that ferrous iron may expand the stability field of garnet to the lower mantle. The present results demonstrate that this is not the case. The third topic is a presentation of the results of a new technique for studying inclusions in mantle xenoliths with synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction. The results demonstrate the importance of obtaining structural as well as chemical information on inclusions within diamonds and other high-pressure minerals. An unusual phase with garnet composition is investigated and several other phases are identified from a suite of natural

  17. Metal/Silicate Partitioning, Melt Speciation, Accretion, and Core Formation in the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, M. J.; Hillgren, V. J.; Dearo, J. A.; Capobianco, C. J.

    1993-07-01

    Core formation in terrestrial planets was concomitant with accretion. Siderophile and chalcophile element signatures in the mantles of planets are the result of these processes. For Earth, abundances of most siderophile and chalcophile elements are elevated relative to predictions from simple metal/silicate equilibria at low pressures [1]. This observation has led to three hypotheses for how these abundances were established: heterogeneous accretion [2], inefficient core formation [3], and metal/silicate equilibria at magma ocean pressures and temperatures [4]. Knowledge of speciation of siderophile elements in silicate melts in equilibrium with metal may help distinguish between these hypotheses. But there is some uncertainty regarding speciation. For example, Ni and Co have been reported to be present as 1+ or zero valence species in silicate melts at redox states appropriate to planetary accretion, rather than the expected 2+ state [5-7]. Independent metal/silicate partitioning experiments by three members of this group using two different experimental designs on both synthetic and natural compositions do not show evidence for Ni and Co in valence states other than 2+ over a wide range of redox states. For example, solid metal/silicate melt partition coefficients for Ni at 1260 degrees C obtained by VJH from experiments investigating the partitioning of Ni, Co, Mo, W, and P are indistinguishable from those obtained by JAD in similar experiments investigating the partitioning of Ni, Ge, and Sn. Both datasets define a line with the equation: log D(Ni) = - 0.54log fO2 - 3.14 with r^2 > 0.995. (Note that fO2 was calculated in both studies from thermodynamic data and phase compositions. A small, systematic offset from the true fO2 as measured by a solid electrolyte cell affects both equations similarly, but does not diminish their close agreement.) The valence of Ni in the silicate melt is obtained by multiplying the slope of the line by -4, indicating divalent Ni in

  18. Heterogeneous Delivery of Silicate and Metal to the Earth via Large Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, S.; Canup, R. M.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's mantle abundances of at least some highly siderophile elements, (HSE; Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd, and Au), are much higher than would result from metal-silicate equilibration during terrestrial core formation, and can be better explained as a result of late accretion of a minimum of 0.5% Earth's masses after core formation was complete. Traditional models assume that HSEs delivered by late projectiles completely mixed and chemically equilibrated with the Earth's mantle. This appears likely for undifferentiated, well-mixed projectiles, or for relatively small, differentiated projectiles. However several arguments suggest that late projectiles may have been large (> 1500 km in diameter) and differentiated, and in this case, portions of the projectile's core may merge with the Earth's core, rather than being mixed into the Earth's mantle. We investigate projectile mixing with a suite of SPH simulations of differentiated planetesimal colliding with the Earth. A range of outcomes emerge from our simulations suggesting that for large impactors (>1500 km), the delivery of HSE to the Earth's mantle may be disproportionate with the overall delivery of mass. For impacts with impact angles < 45° , between ˜ 20% to 80% of the impactor's core may merge directly with the Earth's core; while for impact angle > 60°, most of the impactor core escapes for moderate impact speeds. An implication is that the late accreted mass inferred from terrestrial HSE abundances may be a substantial underestimate, by a factor 2-5. In addition, partial mixing of projectiles result in an enrichment in mantle vs core material delivered to the bulk silicate Earth, implying substantial compositional variations in the accreted mass. Such variations could produce initially localized domains in Earth's mantle with distinct, mass independent isotopic signatures, given the isotopic variability resulting from nucleosynthetic heterogeneities among genetically diverse meteorites. In general we find

  19. Metal-silicate Partitioning and Its Role in Core Formation and Composition on Super-Earths

    SciT

    Schaefer, Laura; Petaev, M. I.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    We use a thermodynamic framework for silicate-metal partitioning to determine the possible compositions of metallic cores on super-Earths. We compare results using literature values of the partition coefficients of Si and Ni, as well as new partition coefficients calculated using results from laser shock-induced melting of powdered metal-dunite targets at pressures up to 276 GPa, which approaches those found within the deep mantles of super-Earths. We find that larger planets may have little to no light elements in their cores because the Si partition coefficient decreases at high pressures. The planet mass at which this occurs will depend on themore » metal-silicate equilibration depth. We also extrapolate the equations of state (EOS) of FeO and FeSi alloys to high pressures, and present mass–radius diagrams using self-consistent planet compositions assuming equilibrated mantles and cores. We confirm the results of previous studies that the distribution of elements between mantle and core will not be detectable from mass and radius measurements alone. While observations may be insensitive to interior structure, further modeling is sensitive to compositionally dependent properties, such as mantle viscosity and core freeze-out properties. We therefore emphasize the need for additional high pressure measurements of partitioning as well as EOSs, and highlight the utility of the Sandia Z-facilities for this type of work.« less

  20. The neodymium stable isotope composition of the silicate Earth and chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy-West, Alex J.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Burton, Kevin W.

    2017-12-01

    The non-chondritic neodymium (Nd) 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the silicate Earth potentially provides a key constraint on the accretion and early evolution of the Earth. Yet, it is debated whether this offset is due to the Earth being formed from material enriched in s-process Nd isotopes or results from an early differentiation process such as the segregation of a late sulfide matte during core formation, collisional erosion or a some combination of these processes. Neodymium stable isotopes are potentially sensitive to early sulfide segregation into Earth's core, a process that cannot be resolved using their radiogenic counterparts. This study presents the first comprehensive Nd stable isotope data for chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Stable Nd measurements were made using a double spike technique coupled with thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. All three of the major classes of chondritic meteorites, carbonaceous, enstatite and ordinary chondrites have broadly similar isotopic compositions allowing calculation of a chondritic mean of δ146/144Nd = -0.025 ± 0.025‰ (±2 s.d.; n = 39). Enstatite chondrites yield the most uniform stable isotope composition (Δ146/144Nd = 26 ppm), with considerably more variability observed within ordinary (Δ146/144Nd = 72 ppm) and carbonaceous meteorites (Δ146/144Nd = 143 ppm). Terrestrial weathering, nucleosynthetic variations and parent body thermal metamorphism appear to have little measurable effect on δ146/144Nd in chondrites. The small variations observed between ordinary chondrite groups most likely reflect inherited compositional differences between parent bodies, with the larger variations observed in carbonaceous chondrites being linked to varying modal proportions of calcium-aluminium rich inclusions. The terrestrial samples analysed here include rocks ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition, MORB glasses and residual mantle lithologies. All of these terrestrial rocks possess a broadly similar Nd

  1. The adsorption kinetics of metal ions onto different microalgae and siliceous earth.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D; Müller, A; Csögör, Z; Frimmel, F H; Posten, C

    2001-03-01

    In the present work the adsorption kinetics of the six metal ions aluminum, zinc, mercury, lead, copper, and cadmium onto living microalgae were measured. The freshwater green microalga Scenedesmus subspicatus, the brackish water diatom Cyclotella cryptica, the seawater diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and the seawater red alga Porphyridium purpureum were the subject of investigation. In most cases the adsorption rate of the metals could be well described by using the equation of the Langmuir adsorption rate expression. Inverse parameter estimation allowed the determination of the rate constants of the adsorption process and the maximum metal content of the algae. The highest values for the rate constant were obtained for Porphyridium purpureum followed by Phaeodactylum tricornutum. High values for the maximum content were obtained for Cyclotella cryptica and Scenedesmus subspicatus. The maximum rate constant was 24.21 h-1 for the adsorption of Hg to Porphyridium purpureum whereas the maximum metal content (0.243 g g-1) was obtained for Zn on Cyclotella cryptica. A comparison of these values with those obtained for the mineral siliceous earth exhibiting low maximum content and high adsorption rates reveals that the mechanism of adsorption onto the algae is a mixture of adsorption and accumulation.

  2. Alkaline earth silicate wools - A new generation of high temperature insulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert C; Harrison, Paul T C

    2012-11-01

    Intensive study of the natural asbestiform minerals that cause human diseases, and the consequent understanding of their hazardous characteristics, has enabled the development of manufactured fibres whose physical and/or chemical properties, in particular as they relate to biopersistence, have been adjusted to minimize possible harm to health. A strong driver for the developmentof new high temperature insulation materials wasthe perception of the toxicity of refractory ceramic fibres (RCF)and their classification in the EU as a category 2 carcinogen under Directive 67/548/EEC. Such classification carries with it the requirement for substitution by less hazardous materials. This paper focuses on the development of alkaline earth silicate (AES) wools as a new class of high temperature insulation with the capability of such substitution in a number of applications. These wools have only a low potential to cause harm because they do not persist in lung tissue once deposited, and have produced minimal effects in experimental test systems. AES wools are increasingly being used in a wide range of high temperature applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal Cycling and High-Temperature Corrosion Tests of Rare Earth Silicate Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darthout, Émilien; Gitzhofer, François

    2017-12-01

    Lutetium and yttrium silicates, enriched with an additional secondary zirconia phase, environmental barrier coatings were synthesized by the solution precursor plasma spraying process on silicon carbide substrates. A custom-made oven was designed for thermal cycling and water vapor corrosion testing. The oven can test four specimens simultaneously and allows to evaluate environmental barrier performances under similar corrosion kinetics compared to turbine engines. Coatings structural evolution has been observed by SEM on the polished cross sections, and phase composition has been analyzed by XRD. All coatings have been thermally cycled between 1300 °C and the ambient temperature, without spallation, due to their porosity and the presence of additional secondary phase which increases the thermal cycling resistance. During water vapor exposure at 1200 °C, rare earth disilicates showed a good stability, which is contradictory with the literature, due to impurities—such as Si- and Al-hydroxides—in the water vapor jets. The presence of vertical cracks allowed the water vapor to reach the substrate and then to corrode it. It has been observed that thin vertical cracks induced some spallation after 24 h of corrosion.

  4. Mantle convection and the distribution of geochemical reservoirs in the silicate shell of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walzer, Uwe; Hendel, Roland

    2010-05-01

    We present a dynamic 3-D spherical-shell model of mantle convection and the evolution of the chemical reservoirs of the Earth`s silicate shell. Chemical differentiation, convection, stirring and thermal evolution constitute an inseparable dynamic system. Our model is based on the solution of the balance equations of mass, momentum, energy, angular momentum, and four sums of the number of atoms of the pairs 238U-206Pb, 235U-207Pb, 232Th-208Pb, and 40K-40Ar. Similar to the present model, the continental crust of the real Earth was not produced entirely at the start of the evolution but developed episodically in batches [1-7]. The details of the continental distribution of the model are largely stochastic, but the spectral properties are quite similar to the present real Earth. The calculated Figures reveal that the modeled present-day mantle has no chemical stratification but we find a marble-cake structure. If we compare the observational results of the present-day proportion of depleted MORB mantle with the model then we find a similar order of magnitude. The MORB source dominates under the lithosphere. In our model, there are nowhere pure unblended reservoirs in the mantle. It is, however, remarkable that, in spite of 4500 Ma of solid-state mantle convection, certain strong concentrations of distributed chemical reservoirs continue to persist in certain volumes, although without sharp abundance boundaries. We deal with the question of predictable and stochastic portions of the phenomena. Although the convective flow patterns and the chemical differentiation of oceanic plateaus are coupled, the evolution of time-dependent Rayleigh number, Rat , is relatively well predictable and the stochastic parts of the Rat(t)-curves are small. Regarding the juvenile growth rates of the total mass of the continents, predictions are possible only in the first epoch of the evolution. Later on, the distribution of the continental-growth episodes is increasingly stochastic

  5. Open system models of isotopic evolution in Earth's silicate reservoirs: Implications for crustal growth and mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Seema; Paul, Debajyoti; Stracke, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    An open system evolutionary model of the Earth, comprising continental crust (CC), upper and lower mantle (UM, LM), and an additional isolated reservoir (IR) has been developed to study the isotopic evolution of the silicate Earth. The model is solved numerically at 1 Myr time steps over 4.55 Gyr of Earth history to reproduce both the present-day concentrations and isotope ratios of key radioactive decay systems (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Th-Pb) in these terrestrial reservoirs. Various crustal growth scenarios - continuous versus episodic and early versus late crustal growth - and their effect on the evolution of Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics in the silicate reservoirs have been evaluated. Modeling results where the present-day UM is ∼60% of the total mantle mass and a lower mantle that is non-primitive reproduce the estimated geochemical composition and isotope ratios in Earth's silicate reservoirs. The isotopic evolution of the silicate Earth is strongly affected by the mode of crustal growth; only an exponential crustal growth pattern with crustal growth since the early Archean satisfactorily explains the chemical and isotopic evolution of the crust-mantle system and accounts for the so-called Pb paradoxes. Assuming that the OIB source is located in the deeper mantle, our model could, however, not reproduce its target ɛNd of +4.6 for the UM, which has been estimated from the average isotope ratios of 32 individual ocean island localities. Hence, either mantle plumes sample the LM in a non-representative way, or the simplified model set-up does not capture the full complexity of Earth's lower mantle (Nd isotope) evolution. Compared to the results obtained for a 4.55 Ga Earth, a model assuming a protracted U-Pb evolution of silicate Earth by ca. 100 Myr reproduces a slightly better fit for the Pb isotope ratios in Earth's silicate reservoirs. One notable feature of successful models is the early depletion of incompatible elements (as well as rapid decrease in Th/U) in

  6. Tin isotope fractionation during magmatic processes and the isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueying; Amet, Quentin; Fitoussi, Caroline; Bourdon, Bernard

    2018-05-01

    Tin is a moderately volatile element whose isotope composition can be used to investigate Earth and planet differentiation and the early history of the Solar System. Although the Sn stable isotope composition of several geological and archaeological samples has been reported, there is currently scarce information about the effect of igneous processes on Sn isotopes. In this study, high-precision Sn isotope measurements of peridotites and basalts were obtained by MC-ICP-MS with a double-spike technique. The basalt samples display small variations in δ124/116Sn ranging from -0.01 ± 0.11 to 0.27 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.) relative to NIST SRM 3161a standard solution, while peridotites have more dispersed and more negative δ124Sn values ranging from -1.04 ± 0.11 to -0.07 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.). Overall, basalts are enriched in heavy Sn isotopes relative to peridotites. In addition, δ124Sn in peridotites become more negative with increasing degrees of melt depletion. These results can be explained by different partitioning behavior of Sn4+ and Sn2+ during partial melting. Sn4+ is overall more incompatible than Sn2+ during partial melting, resulting in Sn4+-rich silicate melt and Sn2+-rich residue. As Sn4+ has been shown experimentally to be enriched in heavy isotopes relative to Sn2+, the effect of melting is to enrich residual peridotites in relatively more compatible Sn2+, which results in isotopically lighter peridotites and isotopically heavier mantle-derived melts. This picture can be disturbed partly by the effect of refertilization. Similarly, the presence of enriched components such as recycled oceanic crust or sediments could explain part of the variations in Sn isotopes in oceanic basalts. The most primitive peridotite analyzed in this study was used for estimating the Sn isotope composition of the BSE, with δ124Sn = -0.08 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.) relative to the Sn NIST SRM 3161a standard solution. Altogether, this suggests that Sn isotopes may be a powerful probe of

  7. Deformation and seismic anisotropy of silicate post-perovskite in the Earth's lowermost mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wu, X.; Lin, J.; Mao, Z.; Liu, J.; Kaercher, P. M.; Wenk, H.; Prakapenka, V.; Zhuravlev, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The D' layer in the Earth's lowermost mantle with an average thickness of 250 km right above the core-mantle boundary plays a significant role in the geophysics, geochemistry, and geodynamics of the planet's interior. Seismic observations of the region have shown a number of enigmatic features including shear wave discontinuity and seismic wave anisotropy. The seismic anisotropy, in which the horizontally-polarized shear wave (VSH) travels faster than the vertically-polarized shear wave (VSV) by 1%~3% in areas below the circum Pacific, has been proposed to be a result of the lattice-preferred orientation of silicate post-perovskite (PPv) that is to be the most abundant phase in the D' layer [1]. Therefore, understanding the elasticity and deformation of the PPv phase is critical under relevant P-T conditions of the region. However, experimental results on the textures and the elastic anisotropy of PPv remain largely limited and controversial. Specifically, a number of slip systems of PPv, such as (010), (100), (110) and (001), have been proposed based on experimental and theoretical results [2-4]. Here we have studied the textures and deformation mechanism of iron-bearing PPv ((Mg0.75,Fe0.25)SiO3) at relevant P-T conditions of the lowermost mantle using synchrotron radiation radial x-ray diffraction in a membrane-driven laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The diffraction patterns were recorded from the laser-heated PPv sample during further compression between 130 GPa and 150 GPa. Analyses of the diffraction patterns and simulation results from viscoplastic self-consistent polycrystal plasticity code (VPSC) show that the development of active slip systems can be strongly influenced by experimental pressure-temperature-time conditions. At relevant P-T conditions of the lowermost mantle, our results demonstrate that the dominant slip systems of PPv should be (001)[100] and (001)[010]. Combined these results with the elasticity of PPv, we provide more constrains on the

  8. The Carbonate-Silicate Cycle on Earth-like Planets Near The End Of Their Habitable Lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushby, A. J.; Mills, B.; Johnson, M.; Claire, M.

    2016-12-01

    The terrestrial cycle of silicate weathering and metamorphic outgassing buffers atmospheric CO2 and global climate over geological time on Earth. To first order, the operation of this cycle is assumed to occur on Earth-like planets in the orbit of other main-sequence stars in the galaxy that exhibit similar continent/ocean configurations. This has important implications for studies of planetary habitability, atmospheric and climatic evolution, and our understanding of the potential distribution of life in the Universe. We present results from a simple biogeochemical carbon cycle model developed to investigate the operation of the carbonate-silicate cycle under conditions of differing planet mass and position within the radiative habitable zone. An active carbonate-silicate cycle does extend the length of a planet's habitable period through the regulation of the CO2 greenhouse. However, the breakdown of the negative feedback between temperature, pCO2, and weathering rates towards the end of a planet's habitable lifespan results in a transitory regime of `carbon starvation' that would inhibit the ability of oxygenic photoautotrophs to metabolize, and result in the collapse of any putative biosphere supported by these organisms, suggesting an earlier limit for the initiation of inhabitable conditions than when considering temperature alone. This conclusion stresses the importance of considering the full suite of planetary properties when determining potential habitability. A small sample of exoplanets was tested using this model, and the length of their habitable periods were found to be significantly longer than that of the Earth, primarily as a function of the differential rates of stellar evolution expected from their host stars. Furthermore, we carried out statistical analysis of a series of model input parameters, determining that both the mass of the planet and the sensitivity of seafloor weathering processes to dissolved CO2 exhibit significant controls on the

  9. The composition of Earth's core from equations of state, metal-silicate partitioning, and core formation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Rebecca; Campbell, Andrew; Ciesla, Fred

    2016-04-01

    The Earth accreted in a series of increasingly large and violent collisions. Simultaneously, the metallic core segregated from the silicate mantle, acquiring its modern composition through high pressure (P), high temperature (T) partitioning reactions. Here we present a model that couples these aspects of early planetary evolution, building on recent accretion simulations and metal-silicate partitioning experiments, constrained by density measurements of Fe-rich alloys. Previously, the equations of state of FeO, Fe-9Si, Fe-16Si, and FeSi were measured to megabar pressures and several thousand K using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. With these equations of state, we determined that the core's density can be reproduced through the addition of 11.3 +/- 0.6 wt% silicon or 8.1 +/- 1.1 wt% oxygen to an Fe-Ni alloy (Fischer et al., 2011, 2014). Metal-silicate partitioning experiments of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Si, and O have been performed in a diamond anvil cell to 100 GPa and 5700 K, allowing the effects of P, T, and composition on the partitioning behaviors of these elements to be parameterized (Fischer et al., 2015; Siebert et al., 2012). Here we apply those experimental results to model Earth's core formation, using N-body simulations to describe the delivery, masses, and original locations of planetary building blocks (Fischer and Ciesla, 2014). As planets accrete, their core and mantle compositions are modified by high P-T reactions with each collision (Rubie et al., 2011). For partial equilibration of the mantle at 55% of the evolving core-mantle boundary pressure and the liquidus temperature, we find that the core contains 5.4 wt% Si and 1.9 wt% O. This composition is consistent with the seismologically-inferred density of Earth's core, based on comparisons to our equations of state, and indicate that the core cannot contain more than ~2 wt% S or C. Earth analogues experience 1.2 +/- 0.2 log units of oxidation during accretion, due to both the effects of high P

  10. Emergence of silicic continents as the lower crust peels off on a hot plate-tectonic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Priyadarshi; Gerya, Taras; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2017-09-01

    The rock record and geochemical evidence indicate that continental recycling has been occurring since the early history of the Earth. The stabilization of felsic continents in place of Earth's early mafic crust about 3.0 to 2.0 billion years ago, perhaps due to the initiation of plate tectonics, implies widespread destruction of mafic crust during this time interval. However, the physical mechanisms of such intense recycling on a hotter, (late) Archaean and presumably plate-tectonic Earth remain largely unknown. Here we use thermomechanical modelling to show that extensive recycling via lower crustal peeling-off (delamination but not eclogitic dripping) during continent-continent convergence was near ubiquitous during the late Archaean to early Proterozoic. We propose that such destruction of the early mafic crust, together with felsic magmatism, may have caused both the emergence of silicic continents and their subsequent isostatic rise, possibly above the sea level. Such changes in the continental character have been proposed to influence the Great Oxidation Event and, therefore, peeling-off plate tectonics could be the geodynamic trigger for this event. A transition to the slab break-off controlled syn-orogenic recycling occurred as the Earth aged and cooled, leading to reduced recycling and enhanced preservation of the continental crust of present-day composition.

  11. Experimental investigation of the partitioning of phosphorus between metal and silicate phases - Implications for the earth, moon and eucrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Drake, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study is reported of the partitioning of Phosphorus between solid metal and basaltic silicate liquid as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity and of the implications for the earth, moon and eucrite parent body (EPB). The relationship established between the partition coefficient and the fugacity is given at 1190 C by log D(P) = -1.12 log fO2 - 15.95 and by log D(P) = -1.53 log fO2 17.73 at 1300 C. The partition coefficient D(P) was determined, and it is found to be consistent with a valence state of 5 for P in the molten silicate. Using the determined coefficient the low P/La ratios of the earth, moon, and eucrites relative to C1 chondrites can be explained. The lowering of the P/La ratio in the eucrites relative to Cl chondrite by a factor of 40 can be explained by partitioning P into 20-25 wt% sulfur-bearing metallic liquid corresponding to 5-25% of the total metal plus silicate system. The low P/La and W/La ratios in the moon may be explained by the partitioning of P and W into metal during formation of a small core by separation of liquid metal from silicate at low degrees of partial melting of the silicates. These observations are consistent with independent formation of the moon and the earth.

  12. Mechanical properties of silicate glasses exposed to a low-Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedlocher, David E.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Nichols, Ron; Kinser, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a 5.8 year exposure to low earth orbit environment upon the mechanical properties of commercial optical fused silica, low iron soda-lime-silica, Pyrex 7740, Vycor 7913, BK-7, and the glass ceramic Zerodur were examined. Mechanical testing employed the ASTM-F-394 piston on 3-ball method in a liquid nitrogen environment. Samples were exposed on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in two locations. Impacts were observed on all specimens except Vycor. Weibull analysis as well as a standard statistical evaluation were conducted. The Weibull analysis revealed no differences between control samples and the two exposed samples. We thus concluded that radiation components of the Earth orbital environment did not degrade the mechanical strength of the samples examined within the limits of experimental error. The upper bound of strength degradation for meteorite impacted samples based upon statistical analysis and observation was 50 percent.

  13. Stability and Solid Solutions of Hydrous Alumino-Silicates in the Earth's Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panero, W. R.; Caracas, R.

    2017-12-01

    The degree to which the Earth's mantle stores and cycles water in excess of the storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals is dependent upon the stability of hydrous phases under mantle-relevant pressures, temperatures, and compositions. Two hydrous phases, phase D and phase H are stable to the pressures and temperatures of the Earth's lower mantle, suggesting that the Earth's lower mantle may participate in the cycling of water. Each phase has a wide solid solution series between MgSi2O6H2-Al2SiO6H2 and MgSiO4H2-2δAlOOH-SiO2, respectively, yet most work addresses end-member compositions for analysis of stability and elastic properties. We present the results of density functional theory calculations on the stability, structure, bonding, partitioning, and elasticity of hydrous phases D and H in the Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-H2O system, addressing the solid solution series through a statistical sampling of site occupancy and calculation of the partition function from the grand canonical ensemble. We find that the addition of Al to the endmember compositions stabilizes each phase to higher temperatures through additional configurational entropy. We further find that solid solutions tend not to undergo hydrogen-bond symmetrization as is found in the end member compositions as a result of non-symmetric bonding environments.

  14. Space shuttle seal material and design development for earth storable propellant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results of a program to investigate and characterize seal materials suitable for space shuttle storable propellant systems are given. Two new elastomeric materials were identified as being potentially superior to existing state-of-the art materials for specific sealing applications. These materials were AF-E-124D and AF-E-411. AF-E-124D is a cured perfluorinated polymer suitable for use with dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizer, and hydrazine base fuels. AF-E-411 is an ethylene propylene terpolymer material for hydrazine base fuel service. Data are presented relative to low and high temperature characteristics as well as propellant exposure effects. Types of data included are: mechanical properties, stress strain curves, friction and wear characteristics, compression set and permeability. Sealing tests with a flat poppet-seal valve were conducted for verification of sealing capability. A bibliography includes over 200 references relating to seal design or materials and presents a concise tabulation of the more useful seal design data sources.

  15. High modulus rare earth and beryllium containing silicate glass compositions. [for glass reinforcing fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 16 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of approximately, by weight, 20 to 43% SiO2, 8 to 21% Al2O3, 4 to 10% BeO, 27 to 58% of at least one oxide selected from a first group consisting of Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Ce2O3, Ce2O3, and the mixed rare earth oxides, and 3 to 12% of at least one oxide selected from a second group consisting of MgO, ZrO2, ZnO and CaO are described. The molar ratio of BeO to the total content of the first group oxides is from 1.0 to 3.0.

  16. The distribution of Sr and REE between diopside and silicate liquid. [Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grutzeck, M.; Kridelbaugh, S.; Weill, D.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental determination of the distribution coefficients in diopside-liquid pairs for strontium and nine rare-earth elements in the system CaMgSi2O6-NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8. In experiments in air at 1265 C it is found that most of the Sr(2+), Eu(2+), and RE(3+) ions substitute for Ca(2+) and, in addition, a coupled substitution of Al(3+) for Si(4+) occurs. All of the trace ions considered are found to be excluded from the diopside lattice relative to the liquid. In the case of the trivalent ions the exclusion is much more pronounced for La and Ce, which have ionic radii larger than that of Ca(2+) in 8-fold oxygen coordination. Divalent Sr and Eu with even larger radii are also strongly excluded.

  17. Dissolution of glass wool, rock wool and alkaline earth silicate wool: morphological and chemical changes in fibers.

    PubMed

    Campopiano, Antonella; Cannizzaro, Annapaola; Angelosanto, Federica; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Ramires, Deborah; Olori, Angelo; Canepari, Silvia; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of alkaline earth silicate (AES) wool and of other biosoluble wools in saline solution simulating physiological fluids was compared with that of a traditional wool belonging to synthetic vitreous fibers. Morphological and size changes of fibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elements extracted from fibers were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SEM analysis showed a larger reduction of length-weighted geometric mean fiber diameter at 4.5 pH than at 7.4 pH. At the 7.4 pH, AES wool showed a higher dissolution rate and a dissolution time less than a few days. Their dissolution was highly non-congruent with rapid leaching of calcium. Unlike rock wool, glass wool dissolved more rapidly at physiological pH than at acid pH. Dissolution of AES and biosoluble rock wool is accompanied by a noticeable change in morphology while by no change for glass wool. Biosoluble rock wool developed a leached surface with porous honeycomb structure. SEM analysis showed the dissolution for glass wool is mainly due to breakage transverse of fiber at pH 7.4. AES dissolution constant (Kdis) was the highest at pH 7.4, while at pH 4.5 only biosoluble rockwool 1 showed a higher Kdis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. On the formation of continental silicic melts in thermochemical mantle convection models: implications for early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Thienen, P.; van den Berg, A. P.; Vlaar, N. J.

    2004-12-01

    Important constituents of Archean cratons, formed in the early and hot history of the Earth, are Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) plutons and greenstone belts. The formation of these granite-greenstone terrains is often ascribed to plate-tectonic processes. Buoyancy considerations, however, do not allow plate tectonics to take place in a significantly hotter Earth. We therefore propose an alternative mechanism for the coeval and proximate production of TTG plutons and greenstone-like crustal successions. That is, when a locally anomalously thick basaltic crust has been produced by continued addition of extrusive or intrusive basalts due to partial melting of the underlying convecting mantle, the transition of a sufficient amount of basalt in the lower crust to eclogite may trigger a resurfacing event, in which a complete crustal section of over 1000 km long sinks into the mantle in less than 2 million years. Pressure release partial melting in the complementary upwelling mantle produces large volumes of basaltic material replacing the original crust. Partial melting at the base of this newly produced crust may generate felsic melts which are added as intrusives and/or extrusives to the generally mafic crustal succession, adding to what resembles a greenstone belt. Partial melting of metabasalt in the sinking crustal section produces a significant volume of TTG melt which is added to the crust directly above the location of 'subduction', presumably in the form of a pluton. This scenario is self-consistently produced by numerical thermochemical mantle convection models, presented in this paper, including partial melting of mantle peridotite and crustal (meta)basalt. The metamorphic p, T conditions under which partial melting of metabasalt takes place in this scenario are consistent with geochemical trace element data for TTGs, which indicate melting under amphibolite rather than eclogite facies. Other geodynamical settings which we have also investigated

  19. A volatile topic: Parsing out the details of Earth's formation through experimental metal-silicate partitioning of volatile and moderately volatile elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, B. M.; Siebert, J.; Blanchard, I.; Badro, J.; Sossi, P.; Moynier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile and moderately volatile elements display different volatilities and siderophilities, as well as varying sensitivity to thermodynamic controls (X, P, T, fO2) during metal-silicate differentiation. The experimental determination of the metal-silicate partitioning of these elements permits us to evaluate processes controlling the distribution of these elements in Earth. In this work, we have combined metal-silicate partitioning data and results for S, Sn, Zn and Cu, and input these characterizations into Earth formation models. Model parameters such as source material, timing of volatile delivery, fO2 path, and degree of impactor equilibration were varied to encompass an array of possible formation scenarios. These models were then assessed to discern plausible sets of conditions that can produce current observed element-to-element ratios (e.g. S/Zn) in the Earth's present-day mantle, while also satisfying current estimates on the S content of the core, at no more than 2 wt%. The results of our models indicate two modes of accretion that can maintain chondritic element-to-element ratios for the bulk Earth and can arrive at present-day mantle abundances of these elements. The first mode requires the late addition of Earth's entire inventory of these elements (assuming a CI-chondritic composition) and late-stage accretion that is marked by partial equilibration of large impactors. The second, possibly more intuitive mode, requires that Earth accreted - at least initially - from volatile poor material preferentially depleted in S relative to Sn, Zn, and Cu. From a chemical standpoint, this source material is most similar to type I chondrule rich (and S poor) materials (Hewins and Herzberg, 1996; Mahan et al., 2017; Amsellem et al., 2017), such as the metal-bearing carbonaceous chondrites.

  20. Partitioning of Moderately Siderophile Elements Among Olivine, Silicate Melt, and Sulfide Melt: Constraints on Core Formation in the Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaetani, Glenn A.; Grove, Timothy L.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of Variations in the fugacities of oxygen and sulfur on the partitioning of first series transition metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni. and Cu) and W among coexisting sulfide melt, silicate melt, and olivine. Experiments were performed at 1 atm pressure, 1350 C, with the fugacities of oxygen and sulfur controlled by mixing CO2, CO, and SO2 gases. Starting compositions consisted of a CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO-Na2O analog for a barred olivine chondrule from an ordinary chondrite and a synthetic komatiite. The f(sub O2)/f(sub S2), conditions ranged from log of f(sub O2) = -7.9 to - 10.6, with log of f(sub S2) values ranging from - 1.0 to -2.5. Our experimental results demonstrate that the f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependencies of sulfide melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for the first series transition metals arc proportional to their valence states. The f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependencies for the partitioning of Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu are weaker than predicted on the basis of their valence states. Variations in conditions have no significant effect on olivine/melt partitioning other than those resulting from f(sub O2)-induced changes in the valence state of a given element. The strong f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependence for the olivine/silicate melt partitioning of V is attributable to a change of valence state, from 4+ to 3+, with decreasing f(sub O2). Our experimentally determined partition coefficients are used to develop models for the segregation of sulfide and metal from the silicate portion of the early Earth and the Shergottite parent body (Mars). We find that the influence of S is not sufficient to explain the overabundance of siderophile and chalcophile elements that remained in the mantle of the Earth following core formation. Important constraints on core formation in Mars are provided by our experimental determination of the partitioning of Cu between silicate and sulfide melts. When combined with existing estimates for siderophile

  1. Seals and Sealing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Developments by the aerospace industry in seals and sealing techniques are announced for possible use in other areas. The announcements presented are grouped as: sealing techniques for cryogenic fluids, high pressure applications, and modification for improved performance.

  2. Some properties of lithium aluminium silicate (LAS) glass-ceramics used in glass-ceramic to metal compressive seal for vacuum applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Kumar, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Shrikhande, V. K.; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2008-05-01

    We report here the preparation of LAS glass-ceramics and some studies on their thermo-physical properties and microstructure, for compressive seals in vacuum applications. Glass of composition 12.6Li2O-71.7SiO2-5.1Al2O3-4.9K2O-3.2B2O3-2.5P2O5 was prepared by the conventional melt quench technique. Based on differential thermal analysis (DTA) data, glass samples were nucleated at 600°C for 2hr and were then crystallized at 800°C for 2-5hr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed lithium disilicate to be the major phase. A dwell time of 3hr yielded a sample of good crystallinity. Dilatometric measurements of this sample on a thermo-mechanical analyzer (TMA) measured a thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of 94.61×10-7°C-1. Glass transition temperature (Tg), and dilatometric softening temperature (Tds) of the sample was recorded as 585°C and 830°C respectively. Considering TEC and Tds compression type seals were prepared with SS304 (TEC = 172×10-7°C-1) housing of length 15mm, outer diameter 30mm and inner diameter 15mm. After pre-heat treatment of the metal components, sealing was carried out under a protective atmosphere of flowing Argon gas. The finished seal was tested for leak tightness on a He leak detector. The seal was capable of withstanding a vacuum of 10-6 Torr; at a leak rate of 10-9 Torr lit s-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out on LAS before and after fabrication of compressive seal to elucidate the effect of compressive stress and the presence of metal near the interface. We observe a significant difference in microstructure due to compressive stresses of sealing and due to the presence of metal. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) revealed no interdiffusion of species from glass-ceramic to metal or vice-versa.

  3. Calcium isotopic fractionation in mantle peridotites by melting and metasomatism and Ca isotope composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin-Ting; Ionov, Dmitri A.; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Chen-Lei; Golovin, Alexander V.; Qin, Li-Ping; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Huang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    To better constrain the Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) and explore the Ca isotope fractionation in the mantle, we determined the Ca isotopic composition of 28 peridotite xenoliths from Mongolia, southern Siberia and the Siberian craton. The samples are divided in three chemical groups: (1) fertile, unmetasomatized lherzolites (3.7-4.7 wt.% Al2O3); (2) moderately melt-depleted peridotites (1.3-3.0 wt.% Al2O3) with no or very limited metasomatism (LREE-depleted cpx); (3) strongly metasomatized peridotites (LREE-enriched cpx and bulk rock) further divided in subgroups 3a (harzburgites, 0.1-1.0% Al2O3) and 3b (fertile lherzolites, 3.9-4.3% Al2O3). In Group 1, δ44/40Ca of fertile spinel and garnet peridotites, which experienced little or no melting and metasomatism, show a limited variation from 0.90 to 0.99‰ (relative to SRM 915a) and an average of 0.94 ± 0.05‰ (2SD, n = 14), which defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE. In Group 2, the δ44/40Ca is the highest for three rocks with the lowest Al2O3, i.e. the greatest melt extraction degrees (average 1.06 ± 0.04 ‰, i.e. ∼0.1‰ heavier than the BSE estimate). Simple modeling of modal melting shows that partial melting of the BSE with 103 ln ⁡αperidotite-melt ranging from 0.10 to 0.25 can explain the Group 2 data. By contrast, δ44/40Ca in eight out of nine metasomatized Group 3 peridotites are lower than the BSE estimate. The Group 3a harzburgites show the greatest δ44/40Ca variation range (0.25-0.96‰), with δ44/40Ca positively correlated with CaO and negatively correlated with Ce/Eu. Chemical evidence suggests that the residual, melt-depleted, low-Ca protoliths of the Group 3a harzburgites were metasomatized, likely by carbonate-rich melts/fluids. We argue that such fluids may have low (≤0.25‰) δ44/40Ca either because they contain recycled crustal components or because Ca isotopes, similar to trace elements and their ratios, may be fractionated by kinetic and

  4. Titanium hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1995-07-04

    Titanium is prenitrided by being heated in a nitrogen environment under conditions which give rise to the formation of a titanium-nitride surface layer on the titanium. Titanium thus prenitrided may be used in electrical components which are hermetically sealed using silicate glasses and standard glass sealing techniques. According to the method of the invention, alkali volatilization and formation of deleterious interfacial silicide are inhibited.

  5. Titanium hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1995-01-01

    Titanium is prenitrided by being heated in a nitrogen environment under conditions which give rise to the formation of a titanium-nitride surface layer on the titanium. Titanium thus prenitrided may be used in electrical components which are hermetically sealed using silicate glasses and standard glass sealing techniques. According to the method of the invention, alkali volatilization and formation of deleterious interfacial silicide are inhibited.

  6. Tracing metal-silicate segregation and late veneer in the Earth and the ureilite parent body with palladium stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creech, J. B.; Moynier, F.; Bizzarro, M.

    2017-11-01

    Stable isotope studies of highly siderophile elements (HSE) have the potential to yield valuable insights into a range of geological processes. In particular, the strong partitioning of these elements into metal over silicates may lead to stable isotope fractionation during metal-silicate segregation, making them sensitive tracers of planetary differentiation processes. We present the first techniques for the precise determination of palladium stable isotopes by MC-ICPMS using a 106Pd-110Pd double-spike to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. Results are expressed as the per mil (‰) difference in the 106Pd/105Pd ratio (δ106Pd) relative to an in-house solution standard (Pd_IPGP) in the absence of a certified Pd isotopic standard. Repeated analyses of the Pd isotopic composition of the chondrite Allende demonstrate the external reproducibility of the technique of ±0.032‰ on δ106Pd. Using these techniques, we have analysed Pd stable isotopes from a range of terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples. We find that chondrites define a mean δ106Pdchondrite = -0.19 ± 0.05‰. Ureilites reveal a weak trend towards heavier δ106Pd with decreasing Pd content, similar to recent findings based on Pt stable isotopes (Creech et al., 2017), although fractionation of Pd isotopes is significantly less than for Pt, possibly related to its weaker metal-silicate partitioning behaviour and the limited field shift effect. Terrestrial mantle samples have a mean δ106Pdmantle = -0.182 ± 0.130‰, which is consistent with a late-veneer of chondritic material after core formation.

  7. Simultaneous alloy-silicate fractionation of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur at high pressures and temperatures: Implications for establishing the volatile budget of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewal, D. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Sun, C.; Tsuno, K.

    2017-12-01

    Constraining the origin, distribution and evolution of volatiles such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) in terrestrial planets is essential to understand planetary differentiation, habitability and comparative planetology [1]. C/N ratio of Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) is superchondritic (40 ± 8), while C/S ratio is nearly chondritic (0.49 ± 0.14) [2]. Accretion, core formation, and magma ocean (MO) crystallization are the key processes that could have set the relative budgets of C, N and S in different planetary reservoirs [3]. However, experiments using either C-N or C-S-bearing systems have shown that C is more siderophile than N and S, consequently core formation would have left behind subchondritic C/N and C/S ratios in BSE [4-6]. Accretion of extremely C-rich bodies during core formation or/and as a late veneer along with an early atmospheric blow-off are amongst the scenarios that have been suggested to explain C/N ratio while the addition of a differentiated body with a C-rich mantle has been suggested to explain C/S ratio in BSE [4-6]. However, no internally consistent explanations exist on the origin of all the volatile elements. We performed piston cylinder and multi-anvil experiments, using Fe-Ni-N-C±S alloy with variable amounts of S and mafic-ultramafic silicate mixtures in graphite saturated conditions at 1-7 GPa, 1600-1800 °C, and fO2 ranging from ΔIW of -1.1 to -0.3. EPMA and SIMS were used to determine major elements and volatile abundances in the coexisting alloy and silicate melt phases, while the speciation of the volatiles was determined using Raman spectroscopy. Our experimental data reveals that C becomes less siderophile in the presence of N and S during core-mantle differentiation involving an S-rich alloy. Using a set of inverse Monte-Carlo simulations, we propose that a disequilibrium merger of a Mars-sized planetary embryo with a C-saturated, S-rich core to a volatile-depleted proto-Earth during the main stage of accretion

  8. Effect of H2O on metal-silicate partitioning of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe: Implications for the oxidation state of the Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clesi, V.; Bouhifd, M. A.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Manthilake, G.; Fabbrizio, A.; Andrault, D.

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the metal-silicate partitioning of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe during core mantle differentiation of terrestrial planets under hydrous conditions. For this, we equilibrated a molten hydrous CI chondrite model composition with various Fe-rich alloys in the system Fe-C-Ni-Co-Si-S in a multi-anvil over a range of P, T, fO2 and water content (5-20 GPa, 2073-2500 K, from 1 to 5 log units below the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer and for XH2O varying from 500 ppm to 1.5 wt%). By comparing the present experiments with the available data sets on dry systems, we observes that the effect of water on the partition coefficients of moderately siderophile elements is only moderate. For example, for iron we observed a decrease in the partition coefficient of Fe (Dmet/silFe) from 9.5 to 4.3, with increasing water content of the silicate melt, from 0 to 1.44 wt%, respectively. The evolution of metal-silicate partition coefficients of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe are modelled based on sets of empirical parameters. These empirical models are then used to refine the process of core segregation during accretion of Mars and the Earth. It appears that the likely presence of 3.5 wt% water on Mars during the core-mantle segregation could account for ∼74% of the FeO content of the Martian mantle. In contrast, water does not play such an important role for the Earth; only 4-6% of the FeO content of its mantle could be due to the water-induced Fe-oxidation, for a likely initial water concentration of 1.8 wt%. Thus, in order to reproduce the present-day FeO content of 8 wt% in the mantle, the Earth could initially have been accreted from a large fraction (between 85% and 90%) of reducing bodies (similar to EH chondrites), with 10-15% of the Earth's mass likely made of more oxidized components that introduced the major part of water and FeO to the Earth. This high proportion of enstatite chondrites in the original constitution of the Earth is consistent with the 17O,48Ca,50Ti,62Ni

  9. Metal-silicate thermochemistry at high temperature - Magma oceans and the 'excess siderophile element' problem of the earth's upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capobianco, Christopher J.; Jones, John H.; Drake, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Low-temperature metal-silicate partition coefficients are extrapolated to magma ocean temperatures. If the low-temperature chemistry data is found to be applicable at high temperatures, an important assumption, then the results indicate that high temperature alone cannot account for the excess siderophile element problem of the upper mantle. For most elements, a rise in temperature will result in a modest increase in siderophile behavior if an iron-wuestite redox buffer is paralleled. However, long-range extrapolation of experimental data is hazardous when the data contains even modest experimental errors. For a given element, extrapolated high-temperature partition coefficients can differ by orders of magnitude, even when data from independent studies is consistent within quoted errors. In order to accurately assess siderophile element behavior in a magma ocean, it will be necessary to obtain direct experimental measurements for at least some of the siderophile elements.

  10. The Stability of Hydrous Silicates in Earth's Lower Mantle: Experimental constraints from the System MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, M. J.; Thomson, A. R.; Wang, W.; Lord, O. T.; Kleppe, A. K.; Ross, J.; Kohn, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments were performed at pressures from ~ 30 to 125 GPa on bulk compositions in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (MASH) to constrain the stability of hydrous phases in Earth's lower mantle. Phase identification in run products by synchrotron powder diffraction reveals a consistent set of stability relations for the high-pressure, dense hydrous silicate phases D and H. Experiments show that aluminous phase D is stable to ~ 55 GPa. Aluminous phase H becomes stable at ~ 40 GPa and remains stable to higher pressures throughout the lower mantle depth range in both model peridotitic and basaltic lithologies. Preliminary FEG-probe analyses indicate that Phase H is alumina-rich at ~ 50 GPa, with only 5 to 10 wt% each of MgO and SiO2. Variations in ambient unit cell volumes show that Mg-perovskite becomes more aluminous with pressure throughout the pressure range studied, and that Phase H may become more Mg- and Si-rich with pressure. We also find that at pressures above ~ 90 GPa stishovite is replaced in Si-rich compositions by seifertite, at which point there is a corresponding increase in the Al-content of phase H. The melting curves of MASH compositions have been determined using thermal perturbations in power versus temperature curves, and are observed to be shallow with dT/dP slopes of ~ 4K/GPa. Our results show that hydrated peridotitic or basaltic compositions in the lower mantle should be partially molten at all depths along an adiabatic mantle geotherm. Aluminous Phase H will be stable in colder, hydrated subducting slabs, potentially to the core-mantle boundary. Thus, aluminous phase H is the primary vessel for transport of hydrogen to the deepest mantle, but hydrous silicate melt will be the host of hydrogen at ambient mantle temperatures.

  11. Boson peak of alkali and alkaline earth silicate glasses: influence of the nature and size of the network-modifying cation.

    PubMed

    Richet, Nicolas F

    2012-01-21

    The influence of the size of the alkaline earth cation on the boson peak of binary metasilicate glasses, MSiO(3) (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), has been investigated from vibrational densities of states determined by inversion of low-temperature heat capacities. As given both by C(p)/T(3) and g(ω)/ω(2), the intensity of the boson peak undergoes a 7-fold increase from Mg to Ba, whereas its temperature and frequency correlatively decrease from 18 to 10 K and from 100 to 20 cm(-1), respectively. The boson peak results from a combination of librations of SiO(4) tetrahedra and localized vibrations of network-modifying cations with non-bridging oxygens whose contribution increases markedly with the ionic radius of the alkaline earth. As a function of ionic radii, the intensity for Sr and Ba varies in the same way as previously found for alkali metasilicate glasses. The localized vibrations involving alkali and heavy alkaline earth cations appear to be insensitive to the overall glass structure. Although the new data are coherent with an almost linear relationship between the temperature of the boson peak and transverse sound velocity, pure SiO(2) and SiO(2)-rich glasses make marked exceptions to this trend because of the weak transverse character of SiO(4) librations. Finally, the universality of the calorimetric boson peak is again borne out because all data for silicate glasses collapse on the same master curve when plotted in a reduced form (C(P)∕/T(3))/(C(P)/T(3))(b) vs. T/T(b). © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  12. Partitioning of carbon between Fe-rich alloy melt and silicate melt in a magma ocean - Implications for the abundance and origin of volatiles in Earth, Mars, and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Han; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Duncan, Megan S.; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    2014-08-01

    The budget and origin of carbon in Earth and other terrestrial planets are debated and one of the key unknowns is the fate of carbon during early planetary processes including accretion, core formation, and magma ocean (MO) crystallization. Here we determine, experimentally, the solubility of carbon in coexisting Fe-Ni alloy melt and basaltic silicate melt in shallow MO conditions, i.e., at 1-3 GPa, 1500-1800 °C. Oxygen fugacity of the experiments, estimated based on Fe (in metallic alloy melt)-FeO (in silicate melt) equilibrium, varied between ∼IW-0.4 and IW-1.0, where IW refers to the oxygen fugacity imposed by the coexistence of iron and wüstite. Four different starting mixes, each with 7:3 silicate:metal mass ratio and silicate melt NBO/T (estimated proportion of non-bridging oxygen with respect to tetrahedral cations; NBO/T=2×/total OT -4, where T = Si + Ti + Al + Cr + P) ranging from 0.81 to 1.54 were studied. Concentrations of carbon in the alloy melt were determined using electron microprobe whereas carbon contents of quenched basaltic glasses were determined using secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Identification of carbon and hydrogen-bearing species in silicate glasses was performed using Raman and Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Our results show that carbon in the metallic melt varies between 4.4 wt.% and 7.4 wt.% and increases with increasing temperature and modestly with increasing pressure but decreases with increasing Ni content of the alloy melt. Carbon concentration in the silicate melts, on the other hand, varies from 11 ± 1 ppm to 111 ± 7 ppm and is negatively correlated with pressure but positively correlated with temperature, the NBO/T, the oxygen fugacity and the water content of the silicate melts. Raman and FTIR results show that at our experimental conditions, carbon in silicate melt is dissolved both as hydrogenated species and CO32-. The calculated carbon partition coefficient DCmetal/silicate varies

  13. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2 and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  14. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-12-02

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 2 figs.

  15. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  16. Effect of aluminizing of Cr-containing ferritic alloys on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell sealing glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    A novel high-temperature alkaline earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two metallic coupons of Cr-containing ferritic stainless steel for seal strength evaluation. In previous work, SrCrO 4 was found to form along the glass/steel interface, which led to severe strength degradation. In the present study, aluminization of the steel surface was investigated as a remedy to minimize or prevent the strontium chromate formation. Three different processes for aluminization were evaluated with Crofer22APU stainless steel: pack cementation, vapor-phase deposition, and aerosol spraying. It was found that pack cementation resulted in a rough surface with occasional cracks in the Al-diffused region. Vapor-phase deposition yielded a smoother surface, but the resulting high Al content increased the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), resulting in the failure of joined coupons. Aerosol spraying of an Al-containing salt resulted in the formation of a thin aluminum oxide layer without any surface damage. The room temperature seal strength was evaluated in the as-fired state and in environmentally aged conditions. In contrast to earlier results with uncoated Crofer22APU, the aluminized samples showed no strength degradation even for samples aged in air. Interfacial and chemical compatibility was also investigated. The results showed aluminization to be a viable candidate approach to minimize undesirable chromate formation between alkaline earth silicate sealing glass and Cr-containing interconnect alloys for SOFC applications.

  17. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  18. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  19. Rare Earth Element Behavior During Incongruent Weathering and Varying Discharge Conditions in Silicate Dominated River Systems: The Australian Victorian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, K. B.; Cartwright, I.

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements was measured by ICP-MS on fresh, slightly weathered and weathered granite and surface water samples from a network of 11 pristine rivers draining the Australian Victorian Alps during (i) high and (ii) low discharge conditions. River water REE concentrations are largely derived from atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow), as indicated by similar Chondrite normalized REE patterns (higher LREE over HREE; negative Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies) and similar total REE concentrations during both dry and wet seasons. Calculations based on the covariance between REE and Cl concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate precipitation input coupled with subsequent evaporation may account for 30% o 100% of dissolved REE in stream waters. The dissolved contribution to the granitic substratum to stream water comes mainly from the transformation of plagioclase to smectite, kaolinite and gibbsite and minor apatite dissolution. However, since most REE of the regional granite are present in accessory minerals (titanite, zircon, etc.) they do not significantly contribute to the river REE pool. REE concentrations drop sharply downstream as a result of dilution and chemical attenuation. A trend of downstream enrichment of the heavier REE is due to selective partitioning of the lighter REE (as both free REE or REECO3 complexes) to hydrous oxides of suspended Al which, in turn, is controlled by a downstream increase of pH to values > 6.1 (for free REE) and > 7.3 (for REECO3 complexes). Although most circumneutral waters were supersaturated with REE phosphate compounds, precipitation of LnPO4 is not believed to have been a dominant process because the predicted phosphate fractionation pattern is inconsistent with the observed trends. Negative saturation indices of hydrous ferric oxides also militate against surface complexation onto goethite. Instead, REE attenuation most likely resulted from adsorption onto

  20. Glass sealing

    SciT

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  1. Sealing device

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  2. Coining seal

    DOEpatents

    Mancebo, Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    A bakeable high pressure-vacuum seal is provided in which an inductile sealing element having a butterfly shaped crosssection with protruding sharp edges at each of the four corners, is sandwiched between two ductile sealing elements, the sandwiched assembly then being compressed between the surfaces of the flange elements of a high pressure or high vacuum vessel to coin the ductile sealing element into the surface of the inductile sealing element as well as the surfaces of the flange elements.

  3. The effects of sulfur on carbon partitioning and solubility in high pressure-temperature alloy-silicate systems: Implications for fractionation of carbon and sulfur during accretion and core formation of Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuno, K.; Dasgupta, R.; Grewal, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Constraining the carbon (C) fractionation between the silicate magma ocean (MO) and core-forming alloy liquid is required to determine the origin and evolution of C between reservoirs such as atmosphere, crust, mantle, and core of terrestrial planets. [1]. Alloy-silicate partitioning experiments of C have shown that preferential fractionation of C into the alloy liquid would have left the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) devoid of C [2-4]. Merger of a sulfur (S)-rich differentiated planetary embryo into the proto-Earth could have supplied almost the entire C budget of the present-day BSE [5], however, experimental data on the systematic effect of S on C solubility in Fe-Ni alloy liquid and its partitioning between the alloy liquid and silicate melt are lacking. We have performed multi anvil experiments with alloy-silicate±glassy carbon mixtures at 6-13 GPa and 1800-2000 °C, fO2 of ΔIW of -0.4 to -2.3, using graphite or MgO capsules and varying alloy S content from 10 to 36 wt.%. We find that C content of the alloy liquid decreases from 4.6 to 0.2 wt.% with increasing alloy S content of 10 to 36 wt.%. Temperature has a small positive effect and pressure has little effect on alloy C solubility. Alloy-silicate partition coefficient of C also decreases with increasing alloy S content at a given P-T-fO2. We used the data to quantify the distribution of C between the silicate MO and core-forming alloy liquid of an S-rich planetary embryo. The model calculations using our data suggest that the addition of a relatively oxidized, C-poor ( 0.3 wt.%) and S-rich ( 3 wt.%) large embryo (6-20% of the present-day Earth mass) to a volatile-poor growing Earth can establish the C and S contents [6, 7] and C/S ratio [8] in BSE. The resulting core composition after the accretion and core formation process is estimated to be C- and S-poor ( 0.05 wt.% and 0.6 wt.%, respectively). On the other hand, a single stage core formation on Mars that results in a core with 8-10 wt.% S can yield a

  4. Security seal

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  5. Conformable seal

    DOEpatents

    Neef, W.S.; Lambert, D.R.

    1982-08-10

    Sealing apparatus and method, comprising first and second surfaces or membranes, at least one of which surfaces is deformable, placed in proximity to one another. Urging means cause these surfaces to contact one another in a manner such that the deformable surface deforms to conform to the geometry of the other surface, thereby creating a seal. The seal is capable of undergoing multiple cycles of sealing and unsealing.

  6. Partitioning of Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Ir and Pt between liquid metal and silicate at high pressures and high temperatures - Implications for the origin of highly siderophile element concentrations in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ute; Frost, Daniel J.; Rubie, David C.; Becker, Harry; Audétat, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    The apparent overabundance of the highly siderophile elements (HSEs: Pt-group elements, Re and Au) in the mantles of Earth, Moon and Mars has not been satisfactorily explained. Although late accretion of a chondritic component seems to provide the most plausible explanation, metal-silicate equilibration in a magma ocean cannot be ruled out due to a lack of HSE partitioning data suitable for extrapolations to the relevant high pressure and high temperature conditions. We provide a new data set of partition coefficients simultaneously determined for Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Ir and Pt over a range of 3.5-18 GPa and 2423-2773 K. In multianvil experiments, molten peridotite was equilibrated in MgO single crystal capsules with liquid Fe-alloy that contained bulk HSE concentrations of 53.2-98.9 wt% (XFe = 0.03-0.67) such that oxygen fugacities of IW - 1.5 to IW + 1.6 (i.e. logarithmic units relative to the iron-wüstite buffer) were established at run conditions. To analyse trace concentrations of the HSEs in the silicate melt with LA-ICP-MS, two silicate glass standards (1-119 ppm Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Ir, Pt) were produced and evaluated for this study. Using an asymmetric regular solution model we have corrected experimental partition coefficients to account for the differences between HSE metal activities in the multicomponent Fe-alloys and infinite dilution. Based on the experimental data, the P and T dependence of the partition coefficients (D) was parameterized. The partition coefficients of all HSEs studied decrease with increasing pressure and to a greater extent with increasing temperature. Except for Pt, the decrease with pressure is stronger below ˜6 GPa and much weaker in the range 6-18 GPa. This change might result from pressure induced coordination changes in the silicate liquid. Extrapolating the D values over a large range of potential P-T conditions in a terrestrial magma ocean (peridotite liquidus at P ⩽ 60-80 GPa) we conclude that the P-T-induced decrease of D

  7. Seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  8. Influence of Silicate Melt Composition on Metal/Silicate Partitioning of W, Ge, Ga and Ni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singletary, S. J.; Domanik, K.; Drake, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The depletion of the siderophile elements in the Earth's upper mantle relative to the chondritic meteorites is a geochemical imprint of core segregation. Therefore, metal/silicate partition coefficients (Dm/s) for siderophile elements are essential to investigations of core formation when used in conjunction with the pattern of elemental abundances in the Earth's mantle. The partitioning of siderophile elements is controlled by temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and by the compositions of the metal and silicate phases. Several recent studies have shown the importance of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of siderophile elements between silicate and metallic liquids. It has been demonstrated that many elements display increased solubility in less polymerized (mafic) melts. However, the importance of silicate melt composition was believed to be minor compared to the influence of oxygen fugacity until studies showed that melt composition is an important factor at high pressures and temperatures. It was found that melt composition is also important for partitioning of high valency siderophile elements. Atmospheric experiments were conducted, varying only silicate melt composition, to assess the importance of silicate melt composition for the partitioning of W, Co and Ga and found that the valence of the dissolving species plays an important role in determining the effect of composition on solubility. In this study, we extend the data set to higher pressures and investigate the role of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of the siderophile elements W, Ge, Ga and Ni between metallic and silicate liquid.

  9. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hartley, James N.; Jansen, Jr., George

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole.

  10. Nozzle seal

    DOEpatents

    Groff, Russell Dennis; Vatovec, Richard John

    1978-06-11

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with annular sealing members operatively disposed between the outlet nozzle and the hoop and partly within a retaining annulus formed in the hoop. The sealing members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop and one of the sealing members is provided with a piston type pressure ring sealing member which effectively closes the path between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle establishing a leak-proof condition. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel.

  11. Nozzle seal

    DOEpatents

    Herman, Richard Frederick

    1977-10-25

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing members operatively disposed between the outlet nozzle and the hoop. The sealing members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop and are connected by a leak restraining member establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel.

  12. Ferrules seals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.

    1984-01-01

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible.

  13. Ferrules seals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.L.

    1984-07-10

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible. 3 figs.

  14. How Deep and Hot was Earth's Magma Ocean? Combined Experimental Datasets for the Metal-silicate Partitioning of 11 Siderophile Elements - Ni, Co, Mo, W, P, Mn, V, Cr, Ga, Cu and Pd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Since approximately 1990 high pressure and temperature (PT) experiments on metal-silicate systems have showed that partition coefficients (D) for siderophile (iron-loving) elements are much different than those measured at low PT conditions. The high PT data have been used to argue for a magma ocean during growth of the early Earth. Initial conclusions were based on experiments and calculations for a small number of elements such as Ni and Co. However, for many elements only a limited number of experimental data were available then, and they only hinted at values of metal-silicate D's at high PT conditions. In the ensuing decades there have been hundreds of new experiments carried out and published on a wide range of siderophile elements. At the same time several different models have been advanced to explain the siderophile elements in the earth's mantle: a) intermediate depth magma ocean; 25-30 GPa, b) deep magma ocean; up to 50 GPa, and c) early reduced and later oxidized magma ocean. Some studies have drawn conclusions based on a small subset of siderophile elements, or a set of elements that provides little leverage on the big picture (like slightly siderophile elements), and no single study has attempted to quantitatively explain more than 5 elements at a time. The purpose of this abstract is to update the predictive expressions outlined by Righter et al. (1997) with new experimental data from the last decade, test the predictive ability of these expressions against independent datasets (there are more data now to do this properly), and to apply the resulting expressions to the siderophile element patterns in Earth's upper mantle. The predictive expressions have the form: lnD = alnfO2 + b/T + cP/T + d(1Xs) + e(1Xc) + SigmafiXi + g These expressions are guided by the thermodynamics of simple metal-oxide equilibria that control each element, include terms that mimic the activity coefficients of each element in the metal and silicate, and quantify the effect of

  15. A Cesium Rare-Earth Silicate Cs3 RESi6 O15 (RE=Dy-Lu, Y, In): The Parent of an Unusual Structural Class Featuring a Remarkable 57 Å Unit Cell Axis.

    PubMed

    Terry, Rylan; Vinton, Daniel; McMillen, Colin D; Kolis, Joseph W

    2018-02-19

    The structure of Cs 3 RESi 6 O 15 , where RE=Dy-Lu, Y, In, is unusual in that it contains octahedrally coordinated rare-earth ions; their relative orientation dictates the structure, as they rotate about the c-axis supported by the cyclic Si 6 O 15 framework. The repeat unit of the rotation is eight units generating a very long (ca. 57 Å) unit cell axis. This unusual repeat unit is created by the structural flexibility of the hexasilicate ring, which is in turn affected by the size of the rare earth ion as well as the size of alkali ion residing within the silicate layers. Previous work showed for the smaller Sc 3+ ion, the rotation of the octahedra is not sufficient to achieve closure at an integral repeat unit and an incommensurate structure results. The products are prepared as large, high quality single crystals using a high-temperature (650 °C) hydrothermal method with CsOH and F - mineralizers. The presence of fluoride is essential to the formation of the product. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Silicate-catalyzed chemical grouting compositions

    SciT

    Not Available

    1972-09-28

    Chemical grouting compositions for stabilizing earth, sand, and other porous particulate formations or agglomerates of solids are described. The composition for producing a chemically grouting structure consists of an aqueous base solution of: (1) vegetative polyphenolic material consisting of condensed type tannins, and an aqueous catalyst solution of (2) a water-soluble alkali metal silicate. The polyphenolic material is present in an amount from 5% to 40% based on the weight of the base solution, and the water- soluble alkali metal silicate is present in an amount to provide from 1% to 15% SiOD2U in the silicate compound based on themore » weight of the polyphenolic material. These grouting compositions are completely safe to operating personnel and to surrounding environment, since the potassium or sodium silicate catalysts are nontoxic. (15 claims)« less

  17. A Sample Return Container with Hermetic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Kin Yuen; Rafeek, Shaheed; Sadick, Shazad; Porter, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    A sample return container is being developed by Honeybee Robotics to receive samples from a derivative of the Champollion/ST4 Sample Acquisition and Transfer Mechanism or other samplers and then hermetically seal samples for a sample return mission. The container is enclosed in a phase change material (PCM) chamber to prevent phase change during return and re-entry to earth. This container is designed to operate passively with no motors and actuators. Using the sampler's featured drill tip for interfacing, transfer-ring and sealing samples, the container consumes no electrical power and therefore minimizes sample temperature change. The circular container houses a few isolated canisters, which will be sealed individually for samples acquired from different sites or depths. The drill based sampler indexes each canister to the sample transfer position, below the index interface for sample transfer. After sample transfer is completed, the sampler indexes a seal carrier, which lines up seals with the openings of the canisters. The sampler moves to the sealing interface and seals the sample canisters one by one. The sealing interface can be designed to work with C-seals, knife edge seals and cup seals. Again, the sampler provides all sealing actuation. This sample return container and co-engineered sample acquisition system are being developed by Honeybee Robotics in collaboration with the JPL Exploration Technology program.

  18. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  19. Lattice thermal conductivity of silicate glasses at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Hsieh, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic and transport properties of magma holds the key to understanding the thermal evolution and chemical differentiation of Earth. The discovery of the remnant of a deep magma ocean above the core mantle boundary (CMB) from seismic observations suggest that the CMB heat flux would strongly depend on the thermal conductivity, including lattice (klat) and radiative (krad) components, of dense silicate melts and major constituent minerals around the region. Recent measurements on the krad of dense silicate glasses and lower-mantle minerals show that krad of dense silicate glasses could be significantly smaller than krad of the surrounding solid mantle phases, and therefore the dense silicate melts would act as a thermal insulator in deep lower mantle. This conclusion, however, remains uncertain due to the lack of direct measurements on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicate melts under relevant pressure-temperature conditions. Besides the CMB, magmas exist in different circumstances beneath the surface of the Earth. Chemical compositions of silicate melts vary with geological and geodynamic settings of the melts and have strong influences on their thermal properties. In order to have a better view of heat transport within the Earth, it is important to study compositional and pressure dependences of thermal properties of silicate melts. Here we report experimental results on lattice thermal conductivities of silicate glasses with basaltic and rhyolitic compositions up to Earth's lower mantle pressures using time-domain thermoreflectance coupled with diamond-anvil cell techniques. This study not only provides new data for the thermal conductivity of silicate melts in the Earth's deep interior, but is crucial for further understanding of the evolution of Earth's complex internal structure.

  20. Earth

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  1. Environmental and customer-driven seal requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Public awareness of environmental hazards, well-publicized effects of hazardous leakages (Three Mile Island, Challenger), and a general concern for planet earth have precipitated emission limits that drive the design requirements for seals applications. Types of seals, barrier fluids, and the necessity of thin lubricating films and stable turbomachine operation to minimize leakage and material losses generated by rubbing contact are discussed.

  2. Environmental and customer-driven seal requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1994-07-01

    Public awareness of environmental hazards, well-publicized effects of hazardous leakages (Three Mile Island, Challenger), and a general concern for planet earth have precipitated emission limits that drive the design requirements for seals applications. Types of seals, barrier fluids, and the necessity of thin lubricating films and stable turbomachine operation to minimize leakage and material losses generated by rubbing contact are discussed.

  3. GAS SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

    1961-07-11

    A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

  4. Constraints on cosmic silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossenkopf, V.; Henning, Th.; Mathis, J. S.

    1992-08-01

    Observational determinations of opacities of circumstellar silicates, relative to the peak value near 10 microns, are used to estimate the optical constants n and k, the real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction. Circumstellar dust is modified by processing within the interstellar medium. This leads to higher band strengths and a somewhat larger ratio of the opacities at the 18 and 10-micron peaks, compared with circumstellar silicates. By using an effective-medium theory, we calculate the effects of small spherical inclusions of various materials (various oxides, sulfides, carbides, amorphous carbon, and metallic iron) upon silicate opacities. Some of these can increase the absorption coefficient k in the 2-8 micron region appreciably, as is needed to reconcile laboratory silicate opacities with observations of both the interstellar medium and envelopes around late-type stars. We give tables of two sets of optical constants for warm oxygen-deficient and cool oxygen-rich silicates, representative for circumstellar and interstellar silicates. The required opacity in the 2-8 micron region is provided by iron and magnetite.

  5. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of the Atomic Structure of Zirconium-Doped Lithium Silicate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics, Zirconium-Doped Lithium Borate Glasses, and Vitreous Rare-Earth Phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Changhyeon

    In the first part of this work, the atomic-scale structure around rare-earth (RE = Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy, and Er) cations (RE3+) in rare-earth sodium ultraphosphate (REUP) glasses were investigated using RE LIII -edge (RE = Nd, Er, Dy, and Eu) and K-edge (RE = Pr and Dy) Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. (RE2O 3)x(Na2O)y(P2O5) 1-x-y glasses in the compositional range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.14 and 0.3 ≤ x + y ≤ 0.4 were studied. For the nearest oxygen shell, the RE-oxygen (RE-O) coordination number decreases from 10.8 to 6.5 with increasing RE content for Pr-, Nd-, Dy-, and Er-doped sodium ultraphosphate glasses. For Eu-doped samples, the Eu-O coordination number was between 7.5 and 8.8. Also, the RE-O mean distance ranges were between 2.43-2.45 A, 2.40-2.43 A, 2.36-2.38 A, 2.30-2.35 A, and 2.28-2.30 A for Pr-, Nd-, Eu-, Dy-, and Er-doped samples, respectively. In the second part, a series of Zr-doped (3-10 mol%) lithium silicate (ZRLS) glass-ceramics and their parent glasses and a series of Zr-doped (2-6 mol% ZrO2) lithium borate (ZRLB) glasses were investigated using Zr K-edge EXAFS and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Immediate coordination environments of all ZRLS glasses are remarkably similar for different compositions. For the nearest oxygen shell, the Zr-O coordination number ranges were between 6.1 and 6.3 for nucleated and crystallized samples, respectively. Also, the Zr-O mean distance remains similar around 2.10 A. For these glasses, the composition dependence of structural parameters was small. Small changes in the coordination environment were observed for ZRLS glass-ceramics after thermal treatments. In contrast, Zr coordination environment in ZRLB glasses appear to depend appreciably on the Zr concentration. For the nearest oxygen shell, the Zr-O coordination number increased from 6.1 to 6.8 and the Zr-O distance decreased from 2.18 A to 2.14 A with decreasing ZrO2 content.

  6. Turbine with radial acting seal

    DOEpatents

    Eng, Darryl S; Ebert, Todd A

    2016-11-22

    A floating brush seal in a rim cavity of a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where the floating brush seal includes a seal holder in which the floating brush seal floats, and a expandable seal that fits within two radial extending seal slots that maintains a seal with radial displacement of the floating brush seal and the seal holder.

  7. Regenerator seal design

    DOEpatents

    Eckart, Francis H.

    1982-01-01

    A rotary regenerator disc matrix has a face seal with a cross arm and arcuate rim segments joined by prestress clamps to prestrain the arcuate rim seals so as to compensate seal rim twisting or coning and resultant disc face seal leakage as produced by operating thermal gradients across the seal.

  8. Regenerator seal

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Leonard C.; Pacala, Theodore; Sippel, George R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a hot side regenerator cross arm seal assembly having a thermally stablilized wear coating with a substantially flat wear surface thereon to seal between low pressure and high pressure passages to and from the hot inboard side of a rotary regenerator matrix includes the steps of forming a flat cross arm substrate member of high nickel alloy steel; fixedly securing the side edges of the substrate member to a holding fixture with a concave surface thereacross to maintain the substrate member to a slightly bent configuration on the fixture surface between the opposite ends of the substrate member to produce prestress therein; applying coating layers on the substrate member including a wear coating of plasma sprayed nickel oxide/calcium flouride material to define a wear surface of slightly concave form across the restrained substrate member between the free ends thereon; and thereafter subjecting the substrate member and the coating thereon to a heat treatment of 1600.degree. F. for sixteen hours to produce heat stabilizing growth in the coating layers on the substrate member and to produce a thermally induced growth stress in the wear surface that substantially equalizes the prestress in the substrate whereby when the cross arm is removed from the fixture surface following the heat treatment step a wear face is formed on the cross arm assembly that will be substantially flat between the ends.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    DOEpatents

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  10. National Aerospace Plane Engine Seals: High Temperature Seal Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1991-01-01

    The key to the successful development of the single stage to orbit National Aerospace Plane (NASP) is the successful development of combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines that can propel the vehicle to 17,000 mph to reach low Earth orbit. To achieve engine performance over this speed range, movable engine panels are used to tailor engine flow that require low leakage, high temperature seals around their perimeter. NASA-Lewis is developing a family of new high temperature seals to form effective barriers against leakage of extremely hot (greater than 2000 F), high pressure (up to 100 psi) flow path gases containing hydrogen and oxygen. Preventing backside leakage of these explosive gas mixtures is paramount in preventing the potential loss of the engine or the entire vehicle. Seal technology development accomplishments are described in the three main areas of concept development, test, and evaluation and analytical development.

  11. Improved circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Comparative tests of modified and unmodified carbon ring seals showed that addition of helical grooves to conventional segmented carbon ring seals reduced leakage significantly. Modified seal was insensitive to shaft runout and to flooding by lubricant.

  12. Triple acting radial seal

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A [West Palm Beach, FL; Carella, John A [Jupiter, FL

    2012-03-13

    A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.

  13. A Comparison of Candidate Seal Designs for Future Docking Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick, H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce, M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, and other destinations. A key component of this system is the seal at the main docking interface which inhibits the loss of cabin air once docking is complete. Depending on the mission, the seal must be able to dock in either a seal-on-flange or seal-on-seal configuration. Seal-on-flange mating would occur when a docking system equipped with a seal docks to a system with a flat metal flange. This would occur when a vehicle docks to a node on the International Space Station. Seal-on-seal mating would occur when two docking systems equipped with seals dock to each other. Two types of seal designs were identified for this application: Gask-O-seals and multi-piece seals. Both types of seals had a pair of seal bulbs to satisfy the redundancy requirement. A series of performance assessments and comparisons were made between the candidate seal designs indicating that they meet the requirements for leak rate and compression and adhesion loads under a range of operating conditions. Other design factors such as part count, integration into the docking system tunnel, seal-on-seal mating, and cost were also considered leading to the selection of the multi-piece seal design for the new docking system. The results of this study can be used by designers of future docking systems and other habitable volumes to select the seal design best-suited for their particular application.

  14. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  15. X-38 Seal Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.; Lewis, Ronald K.; Hagen, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    An X-38 Crew Return Vehicle Seal Development is presented. The contents include: 1) X-38 Crew Return Vehicle; 2) X-38 TPS Configuration; 3) X-38 Seal Locations; 4) X-38 Rudder/Fin Seal Assembly; 5) Baseline X-38 Rudder/Fin Seal Design; 6) Rudder/Fin Seal to Bracket Assembly; 7) X-38 Rudder/Fin Vertical Rub Surface Inconel-0.10 inches; 8) X-38 Rudder/Fin Seal Analysis; 9) Seal Analysis Model; and 10) Governing Differential Equations for Equilibrium Thermal Assumption. The X-38 Rudder/Fin Seal temperature and pressure properties are also given.

  16. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  17. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  18. Indium sealing techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochuli, U.; Haldemann, P.

    1972-01-01

    Gold films are used as an alloying flux to form 5-micron-thick indium film seals at temperatures below 300 C. Pyrex was sealed to quartz, ULE, CER-VIT, Irtran 2, Ge, GaAs, Invar, Kovar, Al, and Cu. The seals can also be used as current feedthroughs and graded seals.

  19. Turbine blade platform seal

    DOEpatents

    Zagar, Thomas W.; Schiavo, Anthony L.

    2001-01-01

    A rotating blade group 90 for a turbo-machine having an improved device for sealing the gap 110 between the edges 112,114 of adjacent blade platforms 96,104. The gap 110 between adjacent blades 92,100 is sealed by a seal pin 20 its central portion 110 and by a seal plate 58,60 at each of the front 54 and rear 56 portions. The seal plates 58,60 are inserted into corresponding grooves 62,64 formed in the adjacent edges 112,114 of adjoining blades 92,100 and held in place by end plates 40,42. The end of the seal plates 58,60 may be chamfered 78,80 to improve the seal against the end plate 40,42. The seal pin 20 provides the required damping between the blades 92,100 and the seal plates 58,60 provide improved sealing effectiveness.

  20. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  1. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  2. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  3. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  4. Solubility of copper in silicate melts as function of oxygen and sulfur fugacities, temperature, and silicate composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzheid, A.; Lodders, K.

    2001-06-01

    liquid CuO 0.5 at 1300°C for the silicate melts used here. A comparison with literature data shows that log γ CuO 0.5 increases in proportion to the mass percentages [CaO +(Al 2O 3)/2] in silicate melts. We recommend the following equations for Cu metal/silicate and sulfide/silicate partitioning for geochemical and cosmochemical modeling if silicate composition and the activity of Cu in the metal or sulfide is known: log D met/sil = -0.48 - 0.25 · log fO 2 - log γ Cu metal + 0.02 · [CaO + (Al 2O 3)/2; wt%] silicate logD sul/sil=+0.76-0.25 · logfO 2+0.25logfS 2-logγ CS 0.5,sulfide +0.02 · [CaO+Al 2O 3/2;wt%] silicate. The derived Cu metal/silicate and metal/sulfide partition coefficients are applied to core formation in the Earth and Mars. The observed Cu abundances in the Earth cannot be easily explained by simple core-mantle equilibrium, but the observed Cu abundances for Mars are consistent with core-mantle equilibrium at low pressure and temperatures.

  5. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. <10 GPa, and in two cases at or near 20 GPa. According to those data, the stronger influences on the distribution coefficient of W are temperature, composition, and oxygen fugacity with a relatively slight influence in pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  6. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    DOEpatents

    McEdwards, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.

  7. Water in silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Paul; Stolper, Edward

    Water is one of the more important volatile species in magmas, both in terms of its abundance and its influence on the properties of a given magma. Many workers in the geological sciences have measured, modeled, and speculated on the interaction of water with silicate melts as a function of pressure. At the same time, glass and materials scientists have collected a considerable body of data on the effect of water on the properties of liquid and glassy silicates at 1 atmosphere (1.01325×105 N m-2) and below. A special session on “Solubility and Transport Properties of Water in Silicate Melts” was held during the 1983 AGU Spring Meeting, May 30-June 3, in Baltimore. The session had three main objectives: (1) review the present data base and discuss the status of current models in order to identify areas where further work is needed; (2) introduce interested geologists to the large body of work being carried out in the glass and materials sciences; and (3) consider static properties, such as thermodynamic relations, structure of hydrous melts, and dynamic properties including diffusion and viscosity. This report summarizes the major topics discussed. More detailed information may be found in the published abstracts (Eos, May 3, 1983, pp. 338-343).

  8. Thermochemistry of Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of vapor and condensed phases of silicates are crucial in many fields of science. These quantities address fundamental questions on the formation, stability, transformation, and physical properties of silicate minerals and silicate coating compositions. Here the thermodynamic activities of silica and other species in solid solution have been measured by the analysis of the corresponding high temperature vapors using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS). In first set of experiments KEMS has been used to examine the volatility sequence of species (Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O) present in the vapor phase during heating of fosterite-rich olivine (Fo93Fa7) up to 2400 C and to measure the Fe, SiO and Mg activities in its solid solution. The data of fosterite-rich olivine are essential for thermochemical equilibrium models to predict the atmospheric and surface composition of hot, rocky exoplanets (Lava Planets). In the second set of experiments the measured thermodynamic activities of the silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems are used to assess their reactivity and degradation recession as environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments (e.g. non-moveable parts of gas turbine engine).

  9. Equation of state of silicate liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zhicheng

    Equation of state of silicate liquids is crucial to our understanding of melting processes such as the generation and differentiation of silicate melts in Earth and hence to explore the geophysical and geochemical consequences of melting. A comparison of compressional properties reveals fundamental differences in compressional mechanisms between silicate liquids and solids. Due to a liquid's ability to change structures, the compression of liquids is largely controlled by the entropic contribution to the free energy in addition to the internal energy contribution that is available to solids. In order to account for the entropic contribution, a new equation of state of silicate liquids is proposed based on the theory of hard-sphere mixtures. The equation of state is calibrated for SiO2-Al 2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO liquids and other systems. The new equation of state provides a unified explanation for the experimental observations on compressional properties of liquids including the bulk moduli of silicate liquids as well as the pressure dependence of Gruneisen parameter. The effect of chemical composition on melt density can be studied by the equation of state. Results show that FeO and H2O are the most important components in melts that control the melt density at high pressure due to their very different mean atomic masses from other melt components. Adding SiO2 can make a melt more compressible at high pressure due to its continuous change of coordination from 4-fold to 6-fold. The effect of 1-120 on melt density is further investigated by high-pressure experiments at the conditions of 9 to 15 GPa (corresponding to the depths of 300-500 km in the Earth) and 1900 °C to 2200 °C. The density of three dry melts and four hydrous melts with 2-7 wt% H2O was determined. Density data are analyzed by both the Birch-Mumaghan equation of state and the hard sphere equation of state. The partial molar volume of H2O is determined to be 8.8 cm3/mol at 14 GPa and 2173 K. The hypothesis

  10. Inboard seal mounting

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, John R.

    1983-01-01

    A regenerator assembly for a gas turbine engine has a hot side seal assembly formed in part by a cast metal engine block having a seal recess formed therein that is configured to supportingly receive ceramic support blocks including an inboard face thereon having a regenerator seal face bonded thereto. A pressurized leaf seal is interposed between the ceramic support block and the cast metal engine block to bias the seal wear face into sealing engagement with a hot side surface of a rotary regenerator matrix.

  11. Metal/Silicate Partitioning of P, Ga, and W at High Pressures and Temperatures: Dependence on Silicate Melt Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Edward; Drake, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The distinctive pattern of element concentrations in the upper mantle provides essential evidence in our attempts to understand the accretion and differentiation of the Earth (e.g., Drake and Righter, 2002; Jones and Drake, 1986; Righter et al., 1997; Wanke 1981). Core formation is best investigated through use of metal/silicate partition coefficients for siderophile elements. The variables influencing partition coefficients are temperature, pressure, the major element compositions of the silicate and metal phases, and oxygen fugacity. Examples of studies investigating the effects of these variables on partitioning behavior are: composition of the metal phase by Capobianco et al. (1999) and Righter et al. (1997); silicate melt composition by Watson (1976), Walter and Thibault (1995), Hillgren et al. (1996), Jana and Walker (1997), and Jaeger and Drake (2000); and oxygen fugacity by Capobianco et al. (1999), and Walter and Thibault (1995). Here we address the relative influences of silicate melt composition, pressure and temperature.

  12. Apollo Seals: A Basis for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently designing the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a replacement for the Space Shuttle for manned missions to the International Space Station, as a command module for returning astronauts to the moon, and as an earth reentry vehicle for the final leg of manned missions to the moon and Mars. The CEV resembles a scaled-up version of the heritage Apollo vehicle; however, the CEV seal requirements are different than those from Apollo because of its different mission requirements. A review is presented of some of the seals used on the Apollo spacecraft for the gap between the heat shield and backshell and for penetrations through the heat shield, docking hatches, windows, and the capsule pressure hull.

  13. Apollo Seals: A Basis for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently designing the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a replacement for the Space Shuttle for manned missions to the International Space Station, as a command module for returning astronauts to the moon, and as an earth reentry vehicle for the final leg of manned missions to the moon and Mars. The CEV resembles a scaled-up version of the heritage Apollo vehicle; however, the CEV seal requirements are different than those from Apollo because of its different mission requirements. A review is presented of some of the seals used on the Apollo spacecraft for the gap between the heat shield and backshell and for penetrations through the heat shield, docking hatches, windows, and the capsule pressure hull.

  14. Sealed container sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Sampling device, by means of a tapered needle, pierces a sealed container while maintaining the seal and either evacuates or pressurizes the container. This device has many applications in the chemical, preservative and battery-manufacturing industries.

  15. Seal coat research project

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-12-01

    This study evaluates the use of seal coating as a method to protect bituminous pavements from oxidation, water infiltration, and raveling. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) applied seal coating to a roadway segment of Trunk Highway ...

  16. Energy efficient face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.

  17. Fog seal guidelines.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-10-01

    Fog seals are a method of adding asphalt to an existing pavement surface to improve sealing or waterproofing, prevent further stone loss by holding aggregate in place, or simply improve the surface appearance. However, inappropriate use can result in...

  18. Evolution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi intensifies silicate mineral weathering

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, Joe; Beerling, David J.; Banwart, Steve A.; Kakonyi, Gabriella; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria E.; Leake, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Forested ecosystems diversified more than 350 Ma to become major engines of continental silicate weathering, regulating the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by driving calcium export into ocean carbonates. Our field experiments with mature trees demonstrate intensification of this weathering engine as tree lineages diversified in concert with their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. Preferential hyphal colonization of the calcium silicate-bearing rock, basalt, progressively increased with advancement from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to later, independently evolved ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, and from gymnosperm to angiosperm hosts with both fungal groups. This led to ‘trenching’ of silicate mineral surfaces by AM and EM fungi, with EM gymnosperms and angiosperms releasing calcium from basalt at twice the rate of AM gymnosperms. Our findings indicate mycorrhiza-driven weathering may have originated hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously recognized and subsequently intensified with the evolution of trees and mycorrhizas to affect the Earth's long-term CO2 and climate history. PMID:22859556

  19. Evolution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi intensifies silicate mineral weathering.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Joe; Beerling, David J; Banwart, Steve A; Kakonyi, Gabriella; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria E; Leake, Jonathan R

    2012-12-23

    Forested ecosystems diversified more than 350 Ma to become major engines of continental silicate weathering, regulating the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by driving calcium export into ocean carbonates. Our field experiments with mature trees demonstrate intensification of this weathering engine as tree lineages diversified in concert with their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. Preferential hyphal colonization of the calcium silicate-bearing rock, basalt, progressively increased with advancement from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to later, independently evolved ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, and from gymnosperm to angiosperm hosts with both fungal groups. This led to 'trenching' of silicate mineral surfaces by AM and EM fungi, with EM gymnosperms and angiosperms releasing calcium from basalt at twice the rate of AM gymnosperms. Our findings indicate mycorrhiza-driven weathering may have originated hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously recognized and subsequently intensified with the evolution of trees and mycorrhizas to affect the Earth's long-term CO(2) and climate history.

  20. Resilient Braided Rope Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Kren, Lawrence A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A resilient braided rope seal for use in high temperature applications. The resilient braided rope seal includes a center core of fibers, a resilient 5 member overbraided by at least one layer of braided sheath fibers tightly packed together. The resilient member adds significant stiffness to the seal while maintaining resiliency. Furthermore, the seal permanent set and hysteresis are greatly reduced. Finally, improved load capabilities are provided.

  1. Security seal. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, G.W.

    1981-11-17

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to fingerprints are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  2. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  3. Investigation of positive shaft seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfouts, J. O.

    1970-01-01

    Welded metal bellows secondary seals prevent secondary seal leakage with a minimum number of potential leak paths. High performance seal is obtained by controlling the potentially unstable seal-face movements induced by mechanical vibrations and fluid pressure pulsations.

  4. Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal

    DOEpatents

    Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.

    2001-01-01

    A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.

  5. Collapsable seal member

    DOEpatents

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1983-12-08

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  6. Circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal comprising two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band is disclosed. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  7. Circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal is described which comprises two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  8. Collapsable seal member

    DOEpatents

    Sherrell, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  9. Overview of LIDS Docking Seals Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Pat; Steinetz, Bruce; Daniels, Chris

    2008-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit, the Moon, and Mars. This mechanism, called the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS), is designed to connect pressurized space vehicles and structures including the Crew Exploration Vehicle, International Space Station, and lunar lander. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is playing a key role in developing the main interface seal for this new docking system. These seals will be approximately 147 cm (58 in.) in diameter. GRC is evaluating the performance of candidate seal designs under simulated operating conditions at both sub-scale and full-scale levels. GRC is ultimately responsible for delivering flight hardware seals to NASA Johnson Space Center around 2013 for integration into LIDS flight units.

  10. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, S.; Degen, M.F.; Peters, H.F.

    1982-08-13

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over th item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection. The seal is particularly applicable to UF/sub 6/ cylinder valves.

  11. SEAL FOR ROTATING SHAFT

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1957-12-10

    A seal is described for a rotatable shaft that must highly effective when the shaft is not rotating but may be less effective while the shaft is rotating. Weights distributed about a sealing disk secured to the shaft press the sealing disk against a tubular section into which the shiilt extends, and whem the shaft rotates, the centrifugal forces on the weights relieve the pressurc of the sealing disk against the tubular section. This action has the very desirible result of minimizing the wear of the rotating disk due to contact with the tubular section, while affording maximum sealing action when it is needed.

  12. Fuel cell manifold sealing system

    DOEpatents

    Grevstad, Paul E.; Johnson, Carl K.; Mientek, Anthony P.

    1980-01-01

    A manifold-to-stack seal and sealing method for fuel cell stacks. This seal system solves the problem of maintaining a low leak rate manifold seal as the fuel cell stack undergoes compressive creep. The seal system eliminates the problem of the manifold-to-stack seal sliding against the rough stack surface as the stack becomes shorter because of cell creep, which relative motion destroys the seal. The seal system described herein utilizes a polymer seal frame firmly clamped between the manifold and the stack such that the seal frame moves with the stack. Thus, as the stack creeps, the seal frame creeps with it, and there is no sliding at the rough, tough to seal, stack-to-seal frame interface. Here the sliding is on a smooth easy to seal location between the seal frame and the manifold.

  13. Rotary kiln seal

    DOEpatents

    Drexler, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  14. NEA Multi-Chamber Sample Return Container with Hermetic Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafeek, Shaheed; Kong, Kin Yuen; Sadick, Shazad; Porter, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    A sample return container is being developed by Honeybee Robotics to receive samples from a derivative of the Champollion/ST4 Sample Acquisition and Transfer Mechanism or other samplers such as the 'Touch and Go' Surface Sampler (TGSS), and then hermetically seal the samples for a sample return mission. The container is enclosed in a phase change material (PCM) chamber to prevent phase change during return and re-entry to earth. This container is designed to operate passively with no motors and actuators. Using the rotation axis of the TGSS sampler for interfacing, transferring and sealing samples, the container consumes no electrical power and therefore minimizes sample temperature change. The circular container houses multiple isolated canisters, which will be sealed individually for samples acquired from different sites or depths. The TGSS based sampler indexes each canister to the sample transfer position, below the index interface for sample transfer. After sample transfer is completed, the sampler indexes a seal carrier, which lines up seals with the openings of the canisters. The sampler moves to the sealing interface and seals the sample canisters one by one. The sealing interface can be designed to work with C-seals, knife edge seals and cup seals. This sample return container is being developed by Honeybee Robotics in collaboration with the JPL Exploration Technology program. A breadboard system of the sample return container has been recently completed and tested. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. COMPRESSION SEAL AND SEALING MATERIAL THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Branin, T.G.

    1962-05-29

    This patent relates to compression seal and more particularly to a seaiing material therefor. The sealing surface is a coating consisting of alternate layers of gold and of a non-gold metal having similar plastic flow properties under pressure as gold. The coating is substantially free from oxidation effects when exposed to ambient atmosphere and does not become brittle when worked, as in a valve. (AEC)

  16. Polysilicate binding for silicate paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovna, Loganina Valentina; Nikolaevna, Kislitsyna Svetlana; Bisengalievich, Mazhitov Yerkebulan

    2018-06-01

    It was suggested, that the polysilicate solutions obtained by mixing liquid glass and silicic acid sol as a binder in the manufacture of silicate paints. Information is provided on the structure and a property of the sodium polysilicate binder is presented. It has been found that the addition of silica powder to a liquid glass causes gelling in the course of time. It has been established that the introduction of the sol (increasing the silicate module) contributes to an increase in the fraction of high-polymer fractions of silicic anion, with the increase in the sol content of the polymer form of silica increasing. The research results the structure of sols and polysilicate solutions by the method of violation of total internal reflection. By the method of IR spectroscopy, the molybdate method established the presence of silica in the polysilicate binder polymeric varieties, which provides an increase in the stability of silicate coatings.

  17. Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy.

    PubMed

    Jurkić, Lela Munjas; Cepanec, Ivica; Pavelić, Sandra Kraljević; Pavelić, Krešimir

    2013-01-08

    Silicon (Si) is the most abundant element present in the Earth's crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4), as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K), the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel), silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide), and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4) in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation)-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources.

  18. Shaft seal system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

  19. Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin X. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals are disclosed which use the different properties of thermal contraction and expansion of selected dissimilar materials in accord with certain design criteria to yield self-tightening seals via sloped-surface sealing. The seals of the subject invention are reusable, simple to assemble, adaptable to a wide variety of cryogenic applications.

  20. Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin X. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals are disclosed which use the different properties of thermal contraction and expansion of selected dissimilar materials in accord with certain design criteria to yield self-tightening seals via sloped-surface sealing. The seals of the subject invention are reusable, simple to assemble, and adaptable to a wide variety of cryogenic applications.

  1. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1983-07-19

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces is described. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluid tight barrier. A counter rotation removes the barrier. 6 figs.

  2. Compliant Turbomachine Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braun, M. J.; Deng, D.; Hendricks, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Sealing interface materials and coatings are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Seals that are compliant while still controlling leakage, dynamics, and coolant flows are sought to enhance turbomachine performance. Herein we investigate the leaf-seal configuration. While the leaf seal is classified as contacting, a ready modification using the leaf-housing arrangement in conjunction with an interface film rider (a bore seal, for example) provides for a film-riding noncontact seal. The leaf housing and leaf elements can be made from a variety of materials from plastic to ceramic. Four simplistic models are used to identify the physics essential to controlling leakage. Corroborated by CFD, these results provide design parameters for applications to within reasonable engineering certainty. Some potential improvements are proposed.

  3. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  4. Air Force seal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Ellen R.

    1994-07-01

    Seal technology development is an important part of the Air Force's participation in the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative, the joint DOD, NASA, ARPA, and industry endeavor to double turbine engine capabilities by the turn of the century. Significant performance and efficiency improvements can be obtained through reducing internal flow system leakage, but seal environment requirements continue to become more extreme as the engine thermodynamic cycles advance towards these IHPTET goals. Brush seal technology continues to be pursued by the Air Force to reduce leakage at the required conditions. Likewise, challenges in engine mainshaft air/oil seals are also being addressed. Counter-rotating intershaft applications within the IHPTET initiative involve very high rubbing velocities. This viewgraph presentation briefly describes past and current seal research and development programs and gives a summary of seal applications in demonstrator and developmental engine testing.

  5. Damped flexible seal

    DOEpatents

    DuBois, Neil J.; Amaral, Antonio M.

    1992-10-27

    A damped flexible seal assembly for a torpedo isolates the tailcone thereof rom vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly. A pair of outside flanges, each of which include an inwardly facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, provide a watertight seal against the outer non-rotating surface of the drive shaft assembly. An inside flange includes an outwardly-facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, and provides a watertight seal against the inner surface of the tail cone. Two cast-in-place elastomeric seals provide a watertight seal between the flanges and further provide a damping barrier between the outside flanges and the inside flanges for damping vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly before the energy can reach the tailcone through the seal assembly.

  6. Layered seal for turbomachinery

    SciT

    Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Morgan, Victor John; Weber, David Wayne

    2015-11-20

    The present application provides seal assemblies for reducing leakages between adjacent components of turbomachinery. The seal assemblies may include outer shims, and at least a portion of the outer shims may be substantially impervious. At least one of the outer shims may be configured for sealing engagement with seal slots of the adjacent components. The seal assemblies may also include at least one of an inner shim and a filler layer positioned between the outer shims. The at least one inner shim may be substantially solid and the at least one filler layer may be relatively porous. The seal assembliesmore » may be sufficiently flexible to account for misalignment between the adjacent components, sufficiently stiff to meet assembly requirements, and sufficiently robust to operating meet requirements associated with turbomachinery.« less

  7. Dynamic sealing principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  8. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  9. An Overview of Advanced Elastomeric Seal Development and Testing Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated elastomeric seals to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and other destinations. This includes seals for a new docking system and vehicle hatches. These seals must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow the sealed interface to be separated when required (e.g., during undocking or hatch opening). NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a number of unique test fixtures to measure the leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate seal designs under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed on fullscale seals with diameters on the order of 50 in., subscale seals that are about 12 in. in diameter, and smaller specimens such as O-rings. Test conditions include temperatures ranging from -238 to 662degF (-150 to 350degC), operational pressure gradients, and seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange mating configurations. Nominal and off-nominal conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features and capabilities of each type of test apparatus and provides an overview of advanced seal development activities at NASA Glenn.

  10. An Overview of Advanced Elastomeric Seal Development and Testing Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated elastomeric seals to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and other destinations. This includes seals for a new docking system and vehicle hatches. These seals must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow the sealed interface to be separated when required (e.g., during undocking or hatch opening). NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a number of unique test fixtures to measure the leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate seal designs under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed on full-scale seals with diameters on the order of 50 in., subscale seals that are about 12 in. in diameter, and smaller specimens such as O-rings. Test conditions include temperatures ranging from -238 to 662 F (-150 to 350 C), operational pressure gradients, and seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange mating configurations. Nominal and off-nominal conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features and capabilities of each type of test apparatus and provides an overview of advanced seal development activities at NASA Glenn.

  11. Compliant seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  12. Seals Flow Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

  13. Liquid Annular Seal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Venkataraman, Balaji; Padavala, Sathya S.; Ryan, Steve; Vallely, Pat; Funston, Kerry

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights the accomplishments on a joint effort between NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center and Texas A and M University to develop accurate seal analysis software for use in rocket turbopump design, design audits and trouble shooting. Results for arbitrary clearance profile, transient simulation, thermal effects solution and flexible seal wall model are presented. A new solution for eccentric seals based on cubic spline interpolation and ordinary differential equation integration is also presented.

  14. Compliant seal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  15. Bidirectional Brush Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Wilson, Jack; Wu, Tom; Flower, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Presented is a study of the use of a set of I.D./O.D. bidirectional press seals to reduce the leakage losses in a wave rotor. Relative to the baseline configuration, data indicate the use of brush seals enhanced wave rotor efficiency from 36 to 45 percent at low leakages (small rotor endwall gap spacings) and from 15 to 33 percent at high leakages (larger endwall gap spacings). These brush seals are capable of sealing positive or negative pressure drops with respect to the axial direction. Surface tribology for these tests suggested little evidence of grooving although the bristles appeared polished.

  16. Foil Face Seal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  17. Ceramic brush seals development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this viewgraph presentation: ceramic brush seals, research and development, manufacturing, brazed assembly development, controlling braze flow, fiber selection, and braze results.

  18. Liquid zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  19. Experimental study of the electrolysis of silicate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Rudolf

    1992-01-01

    Melting and electrolyzing lunar silicates yields oxygen gas and potentially can be practiced in situ to produce oxygen. With the present experiments conducted with simulant oxides at 1425-1480 C, it was ascertained that oxygen can be obtained anodically at feasible rates and current efficiencies. An electrolysis cell was operated with platinum anodes in a sealed vessel, and the production of gas was monitored. In these electrolysis experiments, stability of anodes remained a problem, and iron and silicon did not reduce readily into the liquid silver cathode.

  20. Magmatic (silicates/saline/sulfur-rich/CO2) immiscibility and zirconium and rare-earth element enrichment from alkaline magma chamber margins : Evidence from Ponza Island, Pontine Archipelago, Italy

    Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Torok, K.

    1996-01-01

    Fluid inclusions were measured from a feldspathoid-bearing syenite xenolith entrained in trachyte from Ponza, one of the islands of the Pontine Archipelago, located in the Gulf of Gaeta, Italy. The feldspathoid-bearing syenite consists mainly of potassium feldspar, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, titanite, manganoan magnetite, apatite with minor nosean, Na-rich feldspar, pyrrhotite, and rare cheralite. Baddeleyite and zirkelite occur associated with manganoan magnetite. Detailed electron-microprobe analysis reveals enrichments in REE, Y, Nb, U, Th as well as Cl and F in appropriate phases. Fluid inclusions observed in potassium feldspar are either silicate-melt or aqueous inclusions. The aqueous inclusions can be further classified as. (1) one-phase vapor, (2) two-phase (V + L) inclusions, vapor-rich inclusions with a small amount of CO2 in most cases; homogenization of the inclusions always occurred in the vapor phase between 359 and 424??C, salinities vary from 2.9 to 8.5 wt. % NaCl equivalent; and. (3) three-phase and multiphase inclusions (hypersaline/sulfur-rich aqueous inclusions sometimes with up to 8 or more solid phases). Daughter minerals dissolve on heating before vapor/liquid homogenization. Standardless quantitative scanning electron microscope X-ray fluorescence analysis has tentatively identified the following chloride and sulfate daughter crystals; halite, sylvite, glauberite. arcanite, anhydrite, and thenardite. Melting of the daughter crystals occurs between 459 and 536??C (54 to 65 wt. % NaCI equivalent) whereas total homogenization is between 640 and 755??C. The occurrence of silicate-melt inclusions and high-temperature, solute-rich aqueous inclusions suggests that the druse or miarolitic texture of the xenolith is late-stage magmatic. The xenolith from Ponza represents a portion of the peripheral magma chamber wall that has recorded the magmatic/hydrothermal transition and the passage of high solute fluids enriched in chlorides, sulfur, and

  1. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of chondrites and silicate planetary reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenberg, Ronny; Merdian, Alexandra; Holmden, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Haßler, Kathrin; Wille, Martin; Reitter, Elmar

    2016-06-01

    The depletion of chromium in Earth's mantle (∼2700 ppm) in comparison to chondrites (∼4400 ppm) indicates significant incorporation of chromium into the core during our planet's metal-silicate differentiation, assuming that there was no significant escape of the moderately volatile element chromium during the accretionary phase of Earth. Stable Cr isotope compositions - expressed as the ‰-difference in 53Cr/52Cr from the terrestrial reference material SRM979 (δ53/52CrSRM979 values) - of planetary silicate reservoirs might thus yield information about the conditions of planetary metal segregation processes when compared to chondrites. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of 7 carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, 5 HED achondrites and 2 martian meteorites determined by a double spike MC-ICP-MS method are within uncertainties indistinguishable from each other and from the previously determined δ53/52CrSRM979 value of -0.124 ± 0.101‰ for the igneous silicate Earth. Extensive quality tests support the accuracy of the stable Cr isotope determinations of various meteorites and terrestrial silicates reported here. The uniformity in stable Cr isotope compositions of samples from planetary silicate mantles and undifferentiated meteorites indicates that metal-silicate differentiation of Earth, Mars and the HED parent body did not cause measurable stable Cr isotope fractionation between these two reservoirs. Our results also imply that the accretionary disc, at least in the inner solar system, was homogeneous in its stable Cr isotopic composition and that potential volatility loss of chromium during accretion of the terrestrial planets was not accompanied by measurable stable isotopic fractionation. Small but reproducible variations in δ53/52CrSRM979 values of terrestrial magmatic rocks point to natural stable Cr isotope variations within Earth's silicate reservoirs. Further and more detailed studies are required to investigate whether silicate

  2. Performance of Subscale Docking Seals Under Simulated Temperature Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ian M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2008-01-01

    A universal docking system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit (LEO), to the moon, and to Mars. The candidate docking seals for the system are a composite design consisting of elastomer seal bulbs molded into the front and rear sides of a metal ring. The test specimens were subscale seals with two different elastomer cross-sections and a 12-in. outside diameter. The seal assemblies were mated in elastomer seal-on-metal plate and elastomer seal-on-elastomer seal configurations. The seals were manufactured from S0383-70 silicone elastomer compound. Nominal and off-nominal joint configurations were examined. Both the compression load required to mate the seals and the leak rate observed were recorded while the assemblies were subjected to representative docking system operating temperatures of -58, 73, and 122 F (-50, 23, and 50 C). Both the loads required to fully compress the seals and their leak rates were directly proportional to the test temperature.

  3. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  4. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  5. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  6. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  7. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  8. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  9. Seals and Scrolls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2000-01-01

    Describes an art unit in which students sculpt a signature seal out of clay and use Chinese brush painting techniques to paint a scroll. Discusses the seal and its historical use in China. Lists materials needed and explains the procedure. (CMK)

  10. Resilient Braided Rope Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Kren, Lawrence A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A resilient braided rope seal for use in high temperature applications includes a center core of fibers. a resilient canted spring member supporting the core and at least one layer of braided sheath fibers tightly packed together overlying the spring member. The seal provides both improved load bearing and resiliency. Permanent set and hysteresis are greatly reduced.

  11. Seal ring installation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haselmaier, L. Haynes (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A seal ring tool that allows an installer to position a primary seal ring between hub ends of pipe flanges that are being assembled together. The tool includes a pivoting handle member and extension arms attached to the pivoting handle member. The ends of the arms have side indentation type longitudinal grooves angled toward one another for holding the primary seal ring in place between the hubs of respective pipes that are to be attached together. The arms of the tool can also have flat sides that can be used to abut against an optional second larger seal that is supported within a groove in one of the hub ends so that the second hub end can then be moved against the other side of the primary seal ring. Once the seal ring is positioned between the pipe hubs, the pipe hubs can be moved about the seal ring due to the flat sides of the arms of the tool. The tool eliminates the chances of damaging and contaminating seal rings being installed within pipe hubs that are being attached to one another.

  12. Improved cryogenic shaft seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillon, W. A., Jr.; Tellier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Seals are designed for use with liquid propellant ball valves at temperatures ranging from -400 F to 130 F and 8,000 psig. Seals are capable of sustaining 90 degree rotation, with substantial amount of lateral and axial play, caused by large pressure loads and differential thermal contraction.

  13. MOLDED SEALING ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bradford, B.W.; Skinner, W.J.

    1959-03-24

    Molded sealing elements suitable for use under conditions involving exposure to uranium hexafluoride vapor are described. Such sealing elements are made by subjecting graphitic carbons to a preliminary treatment with uranium hexafluoride vapor, and then incorporating polytetrafluorethylene in them. The resulting composition has good wear resistant and frictional properties and is resistant to disintegration by uranium hexafluoride over long periods of exposure.

  14. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  15. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, Clair O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  16. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  17. Transmission seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brien, M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

  18. Sealing in Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2006-01-01

    Clearance control is of paramount importance to turbomachinery designers and is required to meet today's aggressive power output, efficiency, and operational life goals. Excessive clearances lead to losses in cycle efficiency, flow instabilities, and hot gas ingestion into disk cavities. Insufficient clearances limit coolant flows and cause interface rubbing, overheating downstream components and damaging interfaces, thus limiting component life. Designers have put renewed attention on clearance control, as it is often the most cost effective method to enhance system performance. Advanced concepts and proper material selection continue to play important roles in maintaining interface clearances to enable the system to meet design goals. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing to control clearances. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.

  19. The Earth's Mantle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and dynamics of the earth's mantle is discussed. Research indicates that the silicate mantle is heated by the decay of radioactive isotopes and that the heat energizes massive convention currents in the upper 700 kilometers of the ductile rock. These currents and their consequences are considered. (JN)

  20. Thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Kunal; Burnley, Pamela; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations under mantle conditions have identified a suite of dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases that could be conduits to transport water to at least the 660 km discontinuity via mature, relatively cold, subducting slabs. Water released from successive dehydration of these phases during subduction could be responsible for deep focus earthquakes, mantle metasomatism and a host of other physico-chemical processes central to our understanding of the earth's deep interior. In order to construct a thermodynamic data base that can delineate and predict the stability ranges for DHMS phases, reliable thermochemical and thermophysical data are required. One of the major obstacles in calorimetric studies of phases synthesized under high pressure conditions has been limitation due to the small (less than 5 mg) sample mass. Our refinement of calorimeter techniques now allow precise determination of enthalpies of solution of less than 5 mg samples of hydrous magnesium silicates. For example, high temperature solution calorimetry of natural talc (Mg(0.99) Fe(0.01)Si4O10(OH)2), periclase (MgO) and quartz (SiO2) yield enthalpies of drop solution at 1044 K to be 592.2 (2.2), 52.01 (0.12) and 45.76 (0.4) kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpy of formation from oxides at 298 K for talc is minus 5908.2 kJ/mol agreeing within 0.1 percent to literature values.

  1. Seals Flow Code Development 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Anita D. (Compiler); Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1993 code releases include SPIRALI for spiral grooved cylindrical and face seal configurations; IFACE for face seals with pockets, steps, tapers, turbulence, and cavitation; GFACE for gas face seals with 'lift pad' configurations; and SCISEAL, a CFD code for research and design of seals of cylindrical configuration. GUI (graphical user interface) and code usage was discussed with hands on usage of the codes, discussions, comparisons, and industry feedback. Other highlights for the Seals Workshop-93 include environmental and customer driven seal requirements; 'what's coming'; and brush seal developments including flow visualization, numerical analysis, bench testing, T-700 engine testing, tribological pairing and ceramic configurations, and cryogenic and hot gas facility brush seal results. Also discussed are seals for hypersonic engines and dynamic results for spiral groove and smooth annular seals.

  2. Damping seals for turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Rotor whirl stabilization of high performance turbomachinery which operates at supercritical speed is discussed. Basic whirl driving forces are reviewed. Stabilization and criteria are discussed. Damping seals are offered as a solution to whirl and high vibration problems. Concept, advantages, retrofitting, and limits of damping seals are explained. Dynamic and leakage properties are shown to require a rough stator surface for stability and efficiency. Typical seal characteristics are given for the case of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump of the Space Shuttle. Ways of implementation and bearing load effects are discussed.

  3. Bellow seal and anchor

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    An annular seal is made of a collapsible bellows. The bellows can function as an anchor or a seal and is easily set into position using relative component movement. The bellows folds can be slanted and their outer sealing edges can have different profiles to meet expected conditions. The bellows is expanded for insertion to reduce its outer dimension and sets by compaction as a result of relative movement. The bellows can be straight or tapered and is settable with a minimal axial force.

  4. Review of Full-Scale Docking Seal Testing Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Penney, Nicholas; Wasowski, Janice L.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit, the Moon, and Mars. This mechanism, called the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS), is designed to connect pressurized space vehicles and structures including the Crew Exploration Vehicle, International Space Station, and lunar lander. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is playing a key role in developing the main interface seal for this new docking system. These seals will be approximately 147 cm (58 in.) in diameter. To evaluate the performance of the seals under simulated operating conditions, NASA GRC is developing two new test rigs: a non-actuated version that will be used to measure seal leak rates and an actuated test rig that will be able to measure both seal leak rates and loads. Both test rigs will be able to evaluate the seals under seal-on-seal or seal-on-plate configurations at temperatures from -50 to 50 C (-58 to 122 F) under operational and pre-flight checkout pressure gradients in both aligned and misaligned conditions.

  5. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. F.

    2003-12-01

    Silicates constitute more than 90% of the rocks exposed at Earth's land surface (Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971). Most primary minerals comprising these rocks are thermodynamically unstable at surface pressure/temperature conditions and are therefore susceptible to chemical weathering. Such weathering has long been of interest in the natural sciences. Hartt (1853) correctly attributed chemical weathering to "the efficacy of water containing carbonic acid in promoting the decomposition of igneous rocks." Antecedent to the recent interest in the role of vegetation on chemical weathering, Belt (1874) observed that the most intense weathering of rocks in tropical Nicaragua was confined to forested regions. He attributed this effect to "the percolation through rocks of rain water charged with a little acid from decomposing vegetation." Chamberlin (1899) proposed that the enhanced rates of chemical weathering associated with major mountain building episodes in Earth's history resulted in a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that led to periods of global cooling. Many of the major characteristics of chemical weathering had been described when Merrill (1906) published the groundbreaking volume Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils.The major advances since that time, particularly during the last several decades, have centered on understanding the fundamental chemical, hydrologic, and biologic processes that control weathering and in establishing quantitative weathering rates. This research has been driven by the importance of chemical weathering to a number environmentally and economically important issues. Undoubtedly, the most significant aspect of chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks to form soils, a process that makes life possible on the surface of the Earth. The availability of many soil macronutrients such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and PO4 is directly related to the rate at which primary minerals weather. Often such nutrient balances are upset by anthropogenic

  6. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A general thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in the ablation simulation of the meteoroid and the glassy ablator for spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems. Time-dependent axisymmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. The predicted mass loss rates will be compared with available data for model validation, and parametric studies will also be performed for meteoroid earth entry conditions.

  7. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in ablation simulations of the meteoroid or glassy Thermal Protection Systems for spacecraft. Time-dependent axi-symmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. For model validation, the surface recession of fused amorphous quartz rod is computed, and the recession predictions reasonably agree with available data. The present parametric studies for two groups of meteoroid earth entry conditions indicate that the mass loss through moving molten layer is negligibly small for heat-flux conditions at around 1 MW/cm(exp. 2).

  8. Multilayer compressive seal for sealing in high temperature devices

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2007-08-21

    A mica based compressive seal has been developed exhibiting superior thermal cycle stability when compared to other compressive seals known in the art. The seal is composed of compliant glass or metal interlayers and a sealing (gasket) member layer composed of mica that is infiltrated with a glass forming material, which effectively reduces leaks within the seal. The compressive seal shows approximately a 100-fold reduction in leak rates compared with previously developed hybrid seals after from 10 to about 40 thermal cycles under a compressive stress of from 50 psi to 100 psi at temperatures in the range from 600.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C.

  9. Sealing device for providing a seal in a turbomachine

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward; Weber, David Wayne

    2016-08-16

    Sealing device for providing seals between adjacent components, and turbomachines utilizing such sealing devices, are provided. A sealing device includes a seal plate insertable between the adjacent components, the seal plate comprising a first face and an opposing second face. The sealing device further includes a plurality of pins extending from one of the first face or the second face, the plurality of pins configured to space the one of the first face or the second face from contact surfaces of the adjacent components.

  10. Turbine seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  11. Ingestion resistant seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A [Chuluota, FL

    2011-12-13

    A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange. The wing member extends axially from the blade structure toward the annular inner shroud. The first wing flange extends radially outwardly from the wing member toward the annular inner shroud. A plurality of regions including one or more recirculation zones are defined between the blade structure and the annular inner shroud that recirculate working gas therein back toward the hot gas path.

  12. Tamper indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Juan A [Albuquerque, NM; Walker, Charles A [Albuquerque, NM; Blair, Dianna S [Albuquerque, NM; Bodmer, Connie C [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-29

    Seals have a flexible wire that can be looped through a hasp-like device. The seals include a body having a recess, a plug insertable into the recess and a snap ring for fastening the plug to the body. The plug and/or body can have access holes for inserting the wire into the recess. "Teeth" on the outer diameter and through-holes through the thickness of the snap ring allow for passing the ends of the flexible wire from the recess through the snap ring. The ends of the wire can be folded back over the snap ring and into engagement with the teeth. Assembly of the seal causes the ends of the wire to be securely fastened between the teeth of the snap ring and the sidewall of the recess. Seals can include a plug and/or body made of a frangible material such as glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic or brittle polymer.

  13. Rotatable seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.; Garibaldi, Jack L.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  14. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  15. Comparison of light harmonic generation in Al and Ge consisted silicate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Vitaly A.; Vostrikova, Liubov I.

    2018-04-01

    The silicate materials are perspective for different areas of laser physics and photonics. In this paper the comparison of the nonlinear conversion with the generation of the light harmonic in Al- and Ge-containing silicate materials is presented. The peculiarities of the processes of the light harmonic generation in dependence on the concentrations of the chemical components are discussed and the influences of the additional small inclusion of the elements of fifth group and the rare-earth elements are estimated.

  16. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1989-01-24

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side. 5 figs.

  17. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side.

  18. Mg-perovskite/silicate melt and magnesiowuestite/silicate melt partition coefficients for KLB-1 at 250 Kbars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Michael J.; Rubie, David C.; Mcfarlane, Elisabeth A.

    1992-01-01

    The partitioning of elements amongst lower mantle phases and silicate melts is of interest in unraveling the early thermal history of the Earth. Because of the technical difficulty in carrying out such measurements, only one direct set of measurements was reported previously, and these results as well as interpretations based on them have generated controversy. Here we report what are to our knowledge only the second set of directly measured trace element partition coefficients for a natural system (KLB-1).

  19. Core disruptive accident margin seal

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for sealing the annulus defined within a substantially cylindrical rotatable riser assembly and plug combination of a nuclear reactor closure head. The apparatus comprises an inflatable sealing mechanism disposed in one portion of the riser assembly near the annulus such that upon inflation the sealing mechanism is radially actuated against the other portion of the riser assembly thereby sealing the annulus. The apparatus further comprises a connecting mechanism which places one end of the sealing mechanism in fluid communication with the reactor cover gas so that overpressurization of the reactor cover gas will increase the radial actuation of the sealing mechanism thus enhancing sealing of the annulus.

  20. Seal system with integral detector

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, S.

    1982-08-12

    A seal system is disclosed for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials. The seal is tamper-indicating, indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to bypass the seal, is unique and cost effective. The seal system is comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

  1. Self-acting shaft seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Self-acting seals are described in detail. The mathematical models for obtaining a seal force balance and the equilibrium operating film thickness are outlined. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis reveals three different vibration models with secondary seal friction being an important parameter. Leakage flow inlet pressure drop and affects of axisymmetric sealing face deformations are discussed. Experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given. Also a spiral groove seal design operated to 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) is described.

  2. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  3. Determining the Metal/Silicate Partition Coefficient of Germanium: Implications for Core and Mantle Differentiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, C.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Lee, C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently there are several hypotheses for the thermal state of the early Earth. Some hypothesize a shallow magma ocean, or deep magma ocean, or heterogeneous accretion which requires no magma ocean at all. Previous models are unable to account for Ge depletion in Earth's mantle relative to CI chondrites. In this study, the element Ge is used to observe the way siderophile elements partition into the metallic core. The purpose of this research is to provide new data for Ge and to further test these models for Earth's early stages. The partition coefficients (D(sub Ge) = c(sub metal)/c(sub silicate), where D = partition coefficient of Ge and c = concentration of Ge in the metal and silicate, respectively) of siderophile elements were studied by performing series of high pressure, high temperature experiments. They are also dependent on oxygen fugacity, and metal and silicate composition. Ge is a moderately siderophile element found in both the mantle and core, and has yet to be studied systematically at high temperatures. Moreover, previous work has been limited by the low solubility of Ge in silicate melts (less than 100 ppm and close to detection limits for electron microprobe analysis). Reported here are results from 14 experiments studying the partitioning of Ge between silicate and metallic liquids. The Ge concentrations were then analyzed using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) which is sensitive enough to detect ppm levels of Ge in the silicate melt.

  4. Membrane Switches Check Seal Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgetts, P. J.; Stuckenberg, F. H.; Morrissey, E. T.

    1984-01-01

    Array of flexible membrane switches used to indicate closure of seal. Switch membrane responds to pressure exerted by rigid surface on compliant sealing medium and provides switch contacts monitored electronically. Membrane switches connected in series and placed under seal. When all switches are closed lamp or LED lights up, indicating requisite seal pressure has been realized at all switch positions. Principle used to ensure integrity of seals on refrigerator and oven doors, weatherstripping, hatches, spacecraft, airplanes, and submarines.

  5. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Collins P.; Brown, Donald P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates.

  6. Pressure Actuated Leaf Seals for Improved Turbine Shaft Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grondahl, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a shaft seal in which leaf seal elements are constructed from slotted shim material formed and layered into a frusto-conical assembly. Limited elastic deflection of seal leaves with increasing system pressure close large startup clearance to a small, non-contacting, steady state running clearance. At shutdown seal elements resiliently retract as differential seal pressure diminishes. Large seal clearance during startup and shutdown provides a mechanism for rub avoidance. Minimum operating clearance improves performance and non-contacting operation promises long seal life. Design features of this seal, sample calculations at differential pressures up to 2400 psid and benefit comparison with brush and labyrinth seals is documented in paper, AIAA 2005 3985, presented at the Advanced Seal Technology session of the Joint Propulsion Conference in Tucson this past July. In this presentation use of bimetallic leaf material will be discussed. Frictional heating of bimetallic leaf seals during a seal rub can relieve the rub condition to some extent with a change in seal shape. Improved leaf seal rub tolerance is expected with bimetallic material.

  7. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M [Albuquerque, NM; Reinhardt, Frederick W [Albuquerque, NM; Odinek, Judy G [Rio Rancho, NM

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  8. Calcium silicate-based cements and functional impacts of various constituents

    PubMed Central

    SAGHIRI, Mohammad Ali; ORANGI, Jafar; ASATOURIAN, Armen; GUTMANN, James L.; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; LOTFI, Mehrdad; SHEIBANI, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Calcium silicate-based cements have superior sealing ability, bioactivity, and marginal adaptation, which make them suitable for different dental treatment applications. However, they exhibit some drawbacks such as long setting time and poor handling characteristics. To overcome these limitations calcium silicates are engineered with various constituents to improve specific characteristics of the base material, and are the focus of this review. An electronic search of the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE via OVID databases using appropriate terms and keywords related to the use, application, and properties of calcium silicate-based cements was conducted. Two independent reviewers obtained and analyzed the full texts of the selected articles. Although the effects of various constituents and additives to the base Portland cement-like materials have been investigated, there is no one particular ingredient that stands out as being most important. Applying nanotechnology and new synthesis methods for powders most positively affected the cement properties. PMID:27773894

  9. Characterization of iron-phosphate-silicate chemical garden structures.

    PubMed

    Barge, Laura M; Doloboff, Ivria J; White, Lauren M; Stucky, Galen D; Russell, Michael J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-02-28

    Chemical gardens form when ferrous chloride hydrate seed crystals are added or concentrated solutions are injected into solutions of sodium silicate and potassium phosphate. Various precipitation morphologies are observed depending on silicate and phosphate concentrations, including hollow plumes, bulbs, and tubes. The growth of precipitates is controlled by the internal osmotic pressure, fluid buoyancy, and membrane strength. Additionally, rapid bubble-led growth is observed when silicate concentrations are high. ESEM/EDX analysis confirms compositional gradients within the membranes, and voltage measurements across the membranes during growth show a final potential of around 150-200 mV, indicating that electrochemical gradients are maintained across the membranes as growth proceeds. The characterization of chemical gardens formed with iron, silicate, and phosphate, three important components of an early earth prebiotic hydrothermal system, can help us understand the properties of analogous structures that likely formed at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents in the Hadean-structures offering themselves as the hatchery of life. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Sulfur Saturation Limits in Silicate Melts and their Implications for Core Formation Scenarios for Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzheid, Astrid; Grove, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    This study explores the controls of temperature, pressure, and silicate melt composition on S solubility in silicate liquids. The solubility of S in FeO-containing silicate melts in equilibrium with metal sulfide increases significantly with increasing temperature but decreases with increasing pressure. The silicate melt structure also exercises a control on S solubility. Increasing the degree of polymerization of the silicate melt structure lowers the S solubility in the silicate liquid. The new set of experimental data is used to expand the model of Mavrogenes and O'Neill(1999) for S solubility in silicate liquids by incorporating the influence of the silicate melt structure. The expected S solubility in the ascending magma is calculated using the expanded model. Because the negative pressure dependence of S solubility is more influential than the positive temperature dependence, decompression and adiabatic ascent of a formerly S-saturated silicate magma will lead to S undersaturation. A primitive magma that is S-saturated in its source region will, therefore, become S-undersaturated as it ascends to shallower depth. In order to precipitate magmatic sulfides, the magma must first cool and undergo fractional crystallization to reach S saturation. The S content in a metallic liquid that is in equilibrium with a magma ocean that contains approx. 200 ppm S (i.e., Earth's bulk mantle S content) ranges from 5.5 to 12 wt% S. This range of S values encompasses the amount of S (9 to 12 wt%) that would be present in the outer core if S is the light element. Thus, the Earth's proto-mantle could be in equilibrium (in terms of the preserved S abundance) with a core-forming metallic phase.

  11. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  12. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  14. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  15. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  16. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  17. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  19. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  20. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  1. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  2. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  3. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  4. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  5. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  6. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  7. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2227 Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate...

  8. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  9. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  10. Shaft seal assembly and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - This seal illustrates the mission of the Gravity Probe B spacecraft and the organizations who developed the experiment: Stanford University, NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and Lockheed Martin. The Gravity Probe B mission will test the theory of curved spacetime and "frame-dragging," depicted graphically in the lower half, that was developed by Einstein and other scientists. Above the graphic is a drawing of GP-B circling the Earth.

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - This seal illustrates the mission of the Gravity Probe B spacecraft and the organizations who developed the experiment: Stanford University, NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and Lockheed Martin. The Gravity Probe B mission will test the theory of curved spacetime and "frame-dragging," depicted graphically in the lower half, that was developed by Einstein and other scientists. Above the graphic is a drawing of GP-B circling the Earth.

  12. Chemistry of the subalkalic silicic obsidians

    MacDonald, Ray; Smith, Robert L.; Thomas, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhydrated obsidians are quenched magmatic liquids that record in their chemical compositions details of the tectonic environment of formation and of the differentiation mechanisms that affected their subsequent evolution. This study attempts to analyze, in terms of geologic processes, the compositional variations in the subalkalic silicic obsidians (Si02≥70 percent by weight, molecular (Na2O+K20)>Al2O3). New major- and trace-element determinations of 241 samples and a compilation of 130 published major-element analyses are reported and interpreted. Obsidians from five different tectonic settings are recognized: (1) primitive island arcs, (2) mature island arcs, (3) continental margins, (4) continental interiors, and (5) oceanic extensional zones. Tectonomagmatic discrimination between these groups is successfully made on Nb-Ta, Nb-FeOt and Th-Hf-Ta plots, and compositional ranges and averages for each group are presented. The chemical differences between groups are related to the type of crust in which magmas were generated. With increasingly sialic (continental type) crust, the obsidians show overall enrichment in F, Be, Li, Mo, Nb, Rb, Sn, Ta, U, W, Zn, and the rare-earth elements, and depletion in Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, Sc, Sr, and Zr. They become more potassic, have higher Fe/Mg and F/Cl ratios, and lower Zr/Hf, Nb/Ta, and Th/U ratios. Higher values of total rare-earth elements are accompanied by light rare-earth-element enrichment and pronounced negative Eu anomalies. An attempt is made to link obsidian chemistry to genetic mechanlism. Two broad groups of rocks are distinguished: one generated where crystal-liquid processes dominated (CLPD types), which are the products of crustal anatexis, possibly under conditions of low halogen fugacity, ± crystal fractionation ± magma mixing; and a second group represented by rocks formed in the upper parts of large magma chambers by interplays of crystal fractionation, volatile transfer, magma mixing, and possibly various

  13. Seal system with integral detector

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a seal system for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials, which is tamper-indicating, which indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to by-pass the seal, which is unique and cost effective, said seal system comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

  14. Sealing and External Sterilization of a Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Olorunsola, Ayoola

    2008-01-01

    A method of (1) sealing a sample of material acquired in a possibly b iologically contaminated ("dirty") environment into a hermetic conta iner, (2) sterilizing the outer surface of the container, then (3) d elivering the sealed container to a clean environment has been propos ed. The method now proposed was originally intended to be used to ret urn samples from Mars to Earth, but could also be used on Earth to t ransport material samples acquired in environments that contain biol ogical hazards and/or, in some cases, chemical hazards.

  15. Design guide for helicopter transmission seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, T. S.; Keller, C. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed approach for the selection and design of seals for helicopter transmissions is presented. There are two major types of seals presently being used and they are lip type seals and mechanical type seals. Lip type seals can be divided in conventional lip seals and hydrodynamic lip seals. Conventional lip seals can be used for slow-speed, low-pressure, low-temperature sealing. Hydrodynamic lip seals although they are as pressure and temperature limited as conventional lip seals, can operate at a higher speed. Mechanical types seals are comprised of face seals and circumferential seals. Face seals are capable of high speed, high pressure, and high temperature. Circumferential seals can be used in high-speed and high-temperature applications, but will leak excessively at moderate pressures. The performance goals of transmission seals are a life that is at least equal to the scheduled overhaul interval of the gearbox component and a leakage rate of near zero.

  16. Corneal seal device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A corneal seal device is provided which, when placed in an incision in the eye, permits the insertion of a surgical tool or instrument through the device into the eye. The device includes a seal chamber which opens into a tube which is adapted to be sutured to the eye and serves as an entry passage for a tool. A sealable aperture in the chamber permits passage of the tool through the chamber into the tube and hence into the eye. The chamber includes inlet ports adapted to be connected to a regulated source of irrigation fluid which provides a safe intraocular pressure.

  17. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  18. Emerging Sealing Technologies Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Under this Cooperative Agreement, the objective was to investigate several emerging sealing technologies of interest to the Mechanical Components Branch of National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (NASA GRC). The majority of the work conducted was to support the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for application to aeronautic auxiliary power units, though technical investigations of interest to other groups and projects were also conducted. In general, accomplishments and results were periodically reported to the NASA Technical Monitor, the NASA GRC Seal Team staff, and NASA GRC project management. Several technical reports, journal articles, and presentations were given internally to NASA GRC and to the external public.

  19. REACTOR COOLANT TUBE SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Morris, W.J.

    1958-12-01

    A plle-flattenlng control element and a fluid seal therefore to permit movement of the element into a liquld contnining region of a neutronlc reactor are described. The device consists of flattened, thin-walled aluminum tubing contalnlng a uniform mixture of thermal neutron absorbing material, and a number of soft rubber closures for the process tubes, having silts capable of passing the flattened elements therethrough, but effectively sealing the process tubes against fluld leaknge by compression of the rubber. The flattened tubing is sufficiently flexible to enable it to conform to the configuratlon of the annular spacing surrounding the fuel elements ln the process tubes.

  20. Method of sealing

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F.; Cassidy, Dale A.

    1978-01-01

    A thermocouple lead or other small diameter wire, cable or tube is passed through a thin material such as sheet metal and sealed thereinto by drawing complementary longitudinally angled, laterally rounded grooves terminating at their base ends in a common plane in both sides of the thin material with shearing occuring at the deep end faces thereof to form a rounded opening in the thin material substantially perpendicular to the plane of the thin material, passing a thermocouple lead or similar object through the opening so formed and sealing the opening with a sealant which simultaneously bonds the lead to the thin material.

  1. Advanced Seal Sessions I and II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Sarawate, Neelesh

    2013-01-01

    As aircraft operators continue to seek higher fuel efficiency, lower emissions, and longer on-wing performance, turbine engine designers are scrutinizing all components for areas of improvement. To achieve overall goals, turbine pressure ratios and by-pass ratios continue to climb. Also, designers are seeking to minimize parasitic and cooling flows to extract the most useful work out of the flow stream, placing a renewed interest on seal technology and secondary flow path management. In the area of future manned spacecraft, advancements are being examined for both habitat seals and re-entry thermal protection system thermal barrierseals. For long duration space craft, designers are continuing to look for savings in parasitic losses to reduce the amount of cabin re-supply air that needs to be brought along. This is placing greater demands on seal designs and materials to exhibit low leakage and be resistant to space environments. For future missions to and from distant planets, the re-entry heating will be higher than for low-earth orbit or lunar return motivating advanced thermal barrier development. This presentation will provide an overview of the seal challenges and opportunities in these diverse areas.

  2. Metal/Silicate Partitioning of W, Ge, Ga and Ni: Dependence on Silicate Melt Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singletary, S.; Drake, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    Metal/silicate partition coefficients (Dm/s) for siderophile elements are essential to investigations of core formation when used in conjunction with the pattern of elemental abundances in the Earth's mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Jones and Drake, 1986; Righter et al. 1997). The partitioning of siderophile elements is controlled by temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and by the compositions of the metal and silicate phases. In this work, we investigate the role of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of the siderophile elements W, Ge, Ga and Ni between metallic and silicate liquid. Experiments were performed in the Experimental Geochemistry Laboratory at the University of Arizona utilizing a non-end loaded piston cylinder apparatus with a barium carbonate pressure medium. Starting materials were created by combining the mafic and silicic compositions of Jaeger and Drake (2000) with Fe powder (~25 wt% of the total mixture) to achieve metal saturation. Small amounts of W, Ge, Ga2O3 and NiO powder (less than 2 wt% each) were also added to the starting compositions. The experiments were contained in a graphite capsule and performed with temperature and pressure fixed at 1400ºC and 1.5 GPa. Experimental run products were analyzed with the University of Arizona Cameca SX50 electron microprobe with four wavelength dispersive spectrometers and a PAP ZAF correction program. All experiments in our set are saturated with metal and silicate liquid, indicating that oxygen fugacity is below IW. Several of the runs also contain a gallium-rich spinel as an additional saturating phase. Quench phases are also present in the silicate liquid in all runs. The experimentally produced liquids have nbo/t values (calculated using the method of Mills, 1993) that range from 1.10 to 2.97. These values are higher than those calculated for the liquids in the Jaeger and Drake (2000) study. The higher nbo/t values are due to uptake of Fe by the melt. The initial silicate

  3. Phospho-silicate and silicate layers modified by hydroxyapatite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, M.; Brożek, A.; Handke, M.

    2005-06-01

    Common used metal materials do not ensure good connection between an implant and biological neighbourhood. Covering implants by thin silicate or phosphate layers enable to improve biological properties of implants and create conditions for producing the non-concrete bonding between the implant and tissue. The project includes preparing silicate sols of different concentrations and proper (powder) fraction of synthetic as well as natural ox hydroxyapatite, depositing the sol mixed with hydroxyapatite onto the base material (metal, ceramic carbon) and heat treatment. Our work includes also preparation of phospho-silicate layers deposited onto different base materials using sol-gel method. Deposited sols were prepared regarding composition, concentration and layer heat treatment conditions. The prepared layers are examined to determine their phase composition (XRD, IR spectroscopy methods), density and continuity (scanning microscopy with EDX methods). Biological activity of layers was evaluated by means of estimation of their corrosive resistance in synthetic body fluids ('in vitro' method) and of bone cells growth on the layers surface. Introducing hydroxyapatite to the layer sol should improve connection between tissue and implant as well as limit the disadvantageous, corrosive influence of implant material (metal) on the tissue.

  4. Thermochemistry of Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminum-Silicate (CMAS) and Components of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo C. C.; Acosta, Waldo A.; Zhu, Dongming; Ghoshal, Anindya

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the degradation mechanism studies of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) of gas turbines by molten CaO-MgO-Al(exp. 2)O(exp. 3)-SiO(exp. 2) CMAS). CMAS minerals are usually referred as silicon-containing sand dust and volcano ash materials that are carried by the intake air into gas turbines, e.g. in aircraft engines, and their deposits often react at high temperatures (greater than 1200 degrees C) with the engine turbine coating systems and components. The high temperature reactions causes degradation and accelerated failure of the static and rotating components of the turbine engines. We discuss some results of the reactions between the CMAS and Rare-Earth (RE = Y, Yb, Dy, Gd, Nd and Sm) - oxide stabilized ZrO(exp. 2) or HfO(exp. 2) systems, and the stability of the resulting oxides and silicates. Plasma sprayed hollow tube samples (outside diameter = 4.7 mm, wall thickness = 0.76 mm and = 26 mm height) were half filled with CMAS powder, wrapped and sealed with platinum foil, and heat treated at 1310 degrees C for 5h. Samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, and cross-section electron microscopy analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was found that CMAS penetrated the samples at the grain boundaries and dissolved the TEBC materials to form silicate phases containing the rare-earth elements. Furthermore, it was found that apatite crystalline phases were formed in the samples with total rare-earth content higher than 12 mol% in the reaction zone for the ZrO(exp. 2) system. In general, samples with the nominal compositions (30YSZ), HfO(exp. 2)-7Dy(exp. 2)O(exp. 2) and ZrO(exp. 2)-9.5Y(exp. 2)O(exp. 3)-2.25Gd(exp. 2)O(exp. 3)-2.25Yb(exp. 2)O(exp. 3) exhibited lower reactivity or more resistance to CMAS than the other coating compositions of this work.

  5. Metal/Silicate Partitioning at High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shofner, G.; Campbell, A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Rahman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of siderophile elements during metal-silicate segregation, and their resulting distributions provide insight into core formation processes. Determination of partition coefficients allows the calculation of element distributions that can be compared to established values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Moderately siderophile elements, including W, are particularly useful in constraining core formation conditions because they are sensitive to variations in T, P, oxygen fugacity (fO2), and silicate composition. To constrain the effect of pressure on W metal/silicate partitioning, we performed experiments at high pressures and temperatures using a multi anvil press (MAP) at NASA Johnson Space Center and laser-heated diamond anvil cells (LHDAC) at the University of Maryland. Starting materials consisted of natural peridotite mixed with Fe and W metals. Pressure conditions in the MAP experiments ranged from 10 to 16 GPa at 2400 K. Pressures in the LHDAC experiments ranged from 26 to 58 GPa, and peak temperatures ranged up to 5000 K. LHDAC experimental run products were sectioned by focused ion beam (FIB) at NASA JSC. Run products were analyzed by electron microprobe using wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Liquid metal/liquid silicate partition coefficients for W were calculated from element abundances determined by microprobe analyses, and corrected to a common fO2 condition of IW-2 assuming +4 valence for W. Within analytical uncertainties, W partitioning shows a flat trend with increasing pressure from 10 to 16 GPa. At higher pressures, W becomes more siderophile, with an increase in partition coefficient of approximately 0.5 log units.

  6. Coating for hot sliding seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, J.

    1979-01-01

    Heat resistant paint is effective surface coating for sliding seals that must operate at elevated temperatures. Economical paint is easy to apply, offers minimal friction, and improves reliability of seals.

  7. Cost saving synergistic shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1976-01-01

    Segmented carbon rings, used to replace elastomeric seal lip, provide resistance to high temperatures generated in lubricating film. Machining and close manufacturing tolerances of conventional segmented seal are avoided by mounting segmented rings in elastomeric flex section.

  8. Static seal for turbine engine

    SciT

    Salazar, Santiago; Gisch, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    A seal structure for a gas turbine engine, the seal structure including first and second components located adjacent to each other and forming a barrier between high and low pressure zones. A seal cavity is defined in the first and second components, the seal cavity extending to either side of an elongated gap extending generally in a first direction between the first and second components. A seal member is positioned within the seal cavity and spans across the elongated gap. The seal member includes first and second side edges extending into each of the components in a second direction transversemore » to the first direction, and opposing longitudinal edges extending between the side edges generally parallel to the first direction. The side edges include a groove formed therein for effecting a reduction of gas flow around the seal member at the side edges.« less

  9. Seal For Precooling A Turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Samuel S.; Mulready, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Diaphragm reduces misalignment. Rotary seal retains precooling fluid in pump section of cryogenic turbopump, preventing fluid from entering turbine section. Precooling fluid held in pump section of turbopump by knife-edge labyrinth seal on diaphragm.

  10. Feather seal slot for vanes

    SciT

    Del Mastro, B. P.; Eckart, F.

    1985-10-22

    The slots for accommodating feather seals in the turbine vanes of a gas turbine engine has the end thereof sealed off by use of weld wire inserted into the slot and simultaneously welded and cut to the required length.

  11. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces

  12. Keepers of the Seals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momatiuk, Yva; Eastcott, John

    1998-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands Stewardship Program aims to preserve the rich species diversity of the islands and recover the sense of connectedness that once linked local Aleuts and their environment. The summer program draws on both science and traditional knowledge, offering Aleut youth the chance to assist scientists, protect the seals, and participate…

  13. Piston rod seal

    DOEpatents

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal of the type comprising a gland through which the piston rod is passed the piston is provided with a sleeve surrounding the piston rod and extending axially so as to axially partly overlap the gland when the piston is in its bottom dead center position.

  14. "The Seventh Seal."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Peter M.

    1969-01-01

    The significance of Bergman's "Seventh Seal" lies not in the speeches nor in the actions of the central characters but rather in the film's form, its totality created by the emotive elements of imagery and sound together with the intellectual elements of actions and words. The scene-units are related to a central motif (the opening of…

  15. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  16. Sealing an ultracapacitor

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, Patricia Chapman; Feist, Thomas Paul

    2001-10-16

    An ultracapacitor comprises at least one cell comprising two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the current collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying pores in the electrodes and separator. The cell is sealed with a reclosable hermetic closure.

  17. Properties of Tricalcium Silicate Sealers.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Issam; Naaman, Alfred; Camilleri, Josette

    2016-10-01

    Sealers based on tricalcium silicate cement aim at an interaction of the sealer with the root canal wall, alkalinity with potential antimicrobial activity, and the ability to set in a wet field. The aim of this study was to characterize and investigate the properties of a new tricalcium silicate-based sealer and verify its compliance to ISO 6876 (2012). A new tricalcium silicate-based sealer (Bio MM; St Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon), BioRoot RCS (Septodont, St Maure de Fosses, France), and AH Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) were investigated. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed. Furthermore, sealer setting time, flow, film thickness, and radiopacity were performed following ISO specifications. pH and ion leaching in solution were assessed by pH analysis and inductively coupled plasma. Bio MM and BioRoot RCS were both composed of tricalcium silicate and tantalum oxide in Bio MM and zirconium oxide in BioRoot RCS. In addition, the Bio MM contained calcium carbonate and a phosphate phase. The inorganic components of AH Plus were calcium tungstate and zirconium oxide. AH Plus complied with the ISO norms for both flow and film thickness. BioRoot RCS and Bio MM exhibited a lower flow and a higher film thickness than that specified for sealer cements in ISO 6876. All test sealers exhibited adequate radiopacity. Bio MM interacted with physiologic solution, thus showing potential for bioactivity. Sealer properties were acceptable and comparable with other sealers available clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chip seal design and specifications : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-01

    Chip seals or seal coats, are a pavement preservation method constructed using a layer of asphalt binder that is covered by a uniformly graded aggregate. The benefits of chip seal include: sealing surface cracks, keeping water from penetrating the su...

  19. Status of Seal Development at Technetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappel, Doug

    2002-10-01

    Technetics has recently reported results for blade tip seal rub characteristics. Expanding on this work, Technetics will share rub characteristics for knife edge abradable seal systems typical of those found at vane inner air seal and shaft seal locations.

  20. Shaft Seal Compensates for Cold Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Seal components easy to install. Ring seal for rotating or reciprocating shafts spring-loaded to compensate for slow yielding (cold flow) of sealing material. New seal relatively easy to install because components preassembled, then installed in one piece.

  1. Scenario of Growing Crops on Silicates in Lunar Gargens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrovska, N.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negutska, V.; Lar, O.; Korniichuk, O.; Alpatov, A.; Rogutskiy, I.; Kordyum, V.; Foing, B.

    Self-perpetuating gardens will be a practical necessity for humans, living in permanently manned lunar bases. A lunar garden has to supplement less appetizing packaged food brought from the Earth, and the ornamental plants have to serve as valuable means for emotional relaxation of crews in a hostile lunar environment. The plants are less prone to the inevitable pests and diseases when they are in optimum condition, however, in lunar greenhouses there is a threat for plants to be hosts for pests and predators. Although the lunar rocks are microorganism free, there will be a problem with the acquired infection (pathogens brought from the Earth) in the substrate used for the plant growing. On the Moon pests can be removed by total fumigation, including seed fumigation. However, such a treatment is not required when probiotics (biocontrol bacteria) for seed inoculation are used. A consortium of bacteria, controlling plant diseases, provides the production of an acceptable harvest under growth limiting factors and a threatening infection. To model lunar conditions we have used terrestrial alumino-silicate mineral anorthosite (Malyn, Ukraine) which served us as a lunar mineral analog for a substrate composition. With the idea to provide a plant with some essential growth elements siliceous bacterium Paenibacillus sp. has been isolated from alumino-silicate mineral, and a mineral leaching has been simulated in laboratory condition. The combination of mineral anorthosite and siliceous bacteria, on one hand, and a consortium of beneficial bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases, on the other hand, are currently used in model experiments to examine the wheat and potato growth and production in cultivating chambers under controlled conditions.

  2. Fiber Optic Safeguards Sealing System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    8217 or trade names does not constitute an official indorsement or approval of the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not...an intergrity check of a seal than to photograph the seal’s fingerprints and to match positive/negative overlays. The seal identification time and

  3. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.; Ricks, Herbert E.

    1978-01-01

    A system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and or wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities.

  4. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  5. Aspirating Seal Development: Analytical Modeling and Seal Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagepalli, Bharat

    1996-01-01

    This effort is to develop large diameter (22 - 36 inch) Aspirating Seals for application in aircraft engines. Stein Seal Co. will be fabricating the 36-inch seal(s) for testing. GE's task is to establish a thorough understanding of the operation of Aspirating Seals through analytical modeling and full-scale testing. The two primary objectives of this project are to develop the analytical models of the aspirating seal system, to upgrade using GE's funds, GE's 50-inch seal test rig for testing the Aspirating Seal (back-to-back with a corresponding brush seal), test the aspirating seal(s) for seal closure, tracking and maneuver transients (tilt) at operating pressures and temperatures, and validate the analytical model. The objective of the analytical model development is to evaluate the transient and steady-state dynamic performance characteristics of the seal designed by Stein. The transient dynamic model uses a multi-body system approach: the Stator, Seal face and the rotor are treated as individual bodies with relative degrees of freedom. Initially, the thirty-six springs are represented as a single one trying to keep open the aspirating face. Stops (Contact elements) are provided between the stator and the seal (to compensate the preload in the fully-open position) and between the rotor face and Seal face (to detect rub). The secondary seal is considered as part of the stator. The film's load, damping and stiffness characteristics as functions of pressure and clearance are evaluated using a separate (NASA) code GFACE. Initially, a laminar flow theory is used. Special two-dimensional interpolation routines are written to establish exact film load and damping values at each integration time step. Additionally, other user-routines are written to read-in actual pressure, rpm, stator-growth and rotor growth data and, later, to transfer these as appropriate loads/motions in the system-dynamic model. The transient dynamic model evaluates the various motions, clearances

  6. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  7. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  8. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Shorey, Mark W.; Steinetz, Bruce (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 lb payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs. During the first phase of this program the existing launch vehicle control surface sealing concepts were reviewed, the aerothermal environment for a high temperature seal design was analyzed and a mock up of an arc-jet test fixture for evaluating seal concepts was fabricated.

  9. Brush seals for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.

    1994-07-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents test results of brush seals for cryogenic applications. Leakage for a single brush seal was two to three times less than for a 12-tooth labyrinth seal. The maximum temperature rise for a single brush seal was less than 50 R and occurred at 25 psid across the seal and 35,000 rpm. A static blowout test demonstrated sealing capability up to 550 psid. The seal limit was not obtained. The power loss for a single brush at 35,000 rpm and 175 psid was 2.45 hp. Two brushes far apart leak less than two brushes tight packed. Rotor wear was approximately 0.00075 mils and bristle wear was 1-3 mils after 4-1/2 hours.

  10. Evidence against a chondritic Earth.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ian H; O'Neill, Hugh St C

    2012-03-28

    The (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratio of the Earth is greater than the solar ratio as inferred from chondritic meteorites, which challenges a fundamental assumption of modern geochemistry--that the composition of the silicate Earth is 'chondritic', meaning that it has refractory element ratios identical to those found in chondrites. The popular explanation for this and other paradoxes of mantle geochemistry, a hidden layer deep in the mantle enriched in incompatible elements, is inconsistent with the heat flux carried by mantle plumes. Either the matter from which the Earth formed was not chondritic, or the Earth has lost matter by collisional erosion in the later stages of planet formation.

  11. Bellows sealed plug valve

    DOEpatents

    Dukas, Jr., Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    A bellows sealed plug valve includes a valve body having an inlet passage and an outlet passage, a valve chamber between the inlet and outlet passages. A valve plug has substantially the same shape as the valve chamber and is rotatably disposed therein. A shaft is movable linearly in response to a signal from a valve actuator. A bellows is sealingly disposed between the valve chamber and the valve actuator and means are located between the bellows and the valve plug for converting linear movement of the shaft connected to the valve actuator to rotational movement of the plug. Various means are disclosed including helical thread mechanism, clevis mechanism and rack and pinion mechanism, all for converting linear motion to rotational motion.

  12. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  13. Method of processing ``BPS`` glass ceramic and seals made therewith

    DOEpatents

    Reed, S.T.; Stone, R.G.; McCollister, H.L.; Wengert, P.R.

    1998-10-13

    A glass ceramic composition, a glass ceramic-to-metal seal, and more specifically a hermetic glass ceramic-to-metal seal prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight percent, SiO{sub 2} (65--80%), LiO{sub 2} (8--16%), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (2--8%), K{sub 2}O (1--8%), P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (1--5%), B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.5--7%), and ZnO (0--5%) to the following processing steps: (1) heating the glass composition in a belt furnace to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass and crystallize lithium phosphate, (2) holding at a temperature and for a time sufficient to create cristobalite nuclei, (3) cooling at a controlled rate and to a temperature to cause crystallization of lithium silicates and growth of cristobalite, and (4) still further cooling in stages to ambient temperature. This process produces a glass ceramic whose high coefficient of thermal expansion (up to 200{times}10{sup {minus}7} in/in/C) permits the fabrication of glass ceramic-to-metal seals, and particularly hermetic glass ceramic seals to nickel-based and stainless steel alloys and copper. 5 figs.

  14. Method of processing "BPS" glass ceramic and seals made therewith

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Scott T.; Stone, Ronald G.; McCollister, Howard L.; Wengert, deceased, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    A glass ceramic composition, a glass ceramic-to-metal seal, and more specifically a hermetic glass ceramic-to-metal seal prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight percent, SiO.sub.2 (65-80%), LiO.sub.2 (8-16%), Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 (2-8%), K.sub.2 O (1-8%), P.sub.2 O.sub.5 (1-5%), B.sub.2 O.sub.3 (0.5-7%), and ZnO (0-5%) to the following processing steps: 1) heating the glass composition in a belt furnace to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass and crystallize lithium phosphate, 2) holding at a temperature and for a time sufficient to create cristobalite nuclei, 3) cooling at a controlled rate and to a temperature to cause crystallization of lithium silicates and growth of cristobalite, and 4) still further cooling in stages to ambient temperature. This process produces a glass ceramic whose high coefficient of thermal expansion (up to 200.times.10.sup.-7 in/in/.degree.C.) permits the fabrication of glass ceramic-to-metal seals, and particularly hermetic glass ceramic seals to nickel-based and stainless steel alloys and copper.

  15. Pt, Au, Pd and Ru Partitioning Between Mineral and Silicate Melts: The Role of Metal Nanonuggets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malavergne, V.; Charon, E.; Jones, J.; Agranier, A.; Campbell, A.

    2012-01-01

    The partition coefficients of Pt and other Pt Group Elements (PGE) between metal and silicate D(sub Metal-Silicate) and also between silicate minerals and silicate melts D(sub Metal-Silicate) are among the most challenging coefficients to obtain precisely. The PGE are highly siderophile elements (HSE) with D(sub Metal-Silicate) >10(exp 3) due to the fact that their concentrations in silicates are very low (ppb to ppt range). Therefore, the analytical difficulty is increased by the possible presence of HSE-rich-nuggets in reduced silicate melts during experiments). These tiny HSE nuggets complicate the interpretation of measured HSE concentrations. If the HSE micro-nuggets are just sample artifacts, then their contributions should be removed before calculations of the final concentration. On the other hand, if they are produced during the quench, then they should be included in the analysis. We still don't understand the mechanism of nugget formation well. Are they formed during the quench by precipitation from precursor species dissolved homogeneously in the melts, or are they precipitated in situ at high temperature due to oversaturation? As these elements are important tracers of early planetary processes such as core formation, it is important to take up this analytical and experimental challenge. In the case of the Earth for example, chondritic relative abundances of the HSE in some mantle xenoliths have led to the concept of the "late veneer" as a source of volatiles (such as water) and siderophiles in the silicate Earth. Silicate crystal/liquid fractionation is responsible for most, if not all, the HSE variation in the martian meteorite suites (SNC) and Pt is the element least affected by these fractionations. Therefore, in terms of reconstructing mantle HSE abundances for Mars, Pt becomes a very important player. In the present study, we have performed high temperature experiments under various redox conditions in order to determine the abundances of Pt, Au

  16. Pulsed deposition of silicate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Solanki, R.; Conley, J. F.; Ono, Y.

    2003-09-01

    A sequential pulsed process is utilized for deposition of nonstoichiometric silicate films without employing an oxidizing agent. The metal precursors were HfCl4, AlCl3, and ZrCl4, as well as Hf(NO3)4 and the silicon source was tris(tert-butoxy)silanol. Unlike atomic layer deposition, the growth per cycle was several monolayers thick, where the enhancement in growth was due to a catalytic reaction. The bulk and electrical properties of these films are similar to those of silicon dioxide. Silicon carbide devices coated with these films show good insulating characteristics.

  17. A review of bioactive silicate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Silicate bioceramics, as a new family of biomaterials, have received significant attention in their application to hard tissue regeneration. Some silicate bioceramics have shown excellent apatite mineralization in simulated body fluids and their ionic products have been shown to enhance the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and gene expression of stem cells. In this paper, we review the advances in the research of silicate system bioceramics, including preparation methods, mechanical strength, apatite mineralization, dissolution and in vitro and in vivo biological properties. The biological properties and the corresponding mechanism have been highlighted. A look forward to the application of silicate bioceramics to bone regeneration is further suggested.

  18. Effect of silicate ions on electrode overvoltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gras, J. M.; Seite, C.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of the addition of a silicate to a caustic solution (KOH) is studied in order to determine the degree to which silicates inhibit the corrosion of chrysotile under conditions of electrolysis at working temperatures of 100 C and above. In an alkaline solution containing various silicate concentrations, current density was increased and electrode overvoltage was measured. Results show that silicate ion concentrations in the electrolyte increase with temperature without effecting electrochemical performance up to 115 C at 700 MA/sqcm. At this point the concentration is about 0.5 g Si/100 g KOH. Beyond this limit, electrolytic performance rapidly degenerates due to severe oxidation of the electrodes.

  19. Seals Having Textured Portions for Protection in Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Christopher (Inventor); Garafolo, Nicholas (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A sealing construct for a space environment includes a seal-bearing object, a seal on the seal-bearing object, and a seal-engaging object. The seal includes a seal body having a sealing surface, and a textured pattern at the sealing surface, the textured pattern defining at least one shaded channel surface. The seal-engaging object is selectively engaged with the seal-bearing object through the seal. The seal-engaging object has a sealing surface, wherein, when the seal-engaging object is selectively engaged with the seal-bearing object, the sealing surface of the seal-engaging object engages the sealing surface of the seal, and the seal is compressed between the seal-bearing object and the seal-engaging object such that at least one shaded channel surface engages the sealing surface of the seal-engaging object.

  20. High-temperature silicate volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.R.; Schubert, G.; Matson, D.L.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Klaasen, K.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Head, J.W.; Geissler, P.; Fagents, S.; Davies, A.G.; Carr, M.H.; Breneman, H.H.; Belton, M.J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrared wavelength observations of Io by the Galileo spacecraft show that at last 12 different vents are erupting lavas that are probably hotter than the highest temperature basaltic eruptions on Earth today. In at least one case, the eruption near Pillan Patea, two independent instruments on Galileo show that the lava temperature must have exceeded 1700 kelvin and may have reached 2000 kelvin. The most likely explanation is that these lavas are ultramafic (magnesium-rich) silicates, and this idea is supported by the tentative identification of magnesium-rich orthopyroxene in lava flows associated with thse high-temperature hot spots.

  1. Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2005-06-28

    Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  2. Nanoscale zinc silicate from phytoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, S. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Rath, B. B.; Feng, C. R.; Amarasinghe, R.; Freitas, J. A.; Culbertson, J. C.; Wollmershauser, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    We report a faster, less expensive method of producing zinc silicate nanoparticles. Such particles are used in high volume to make phosphors and anti-corrosion coatings. The approach makes use of phytoliths (plant rocks), which are microscopic, amorphous, and largely silicate particles embedded in plants, that lend themselves to being easily broken down into nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of Zn2SiO4 were produced in a two stage process. In the refinement stage, plant residue, mixed with an appropriate amount of ZnO, was heated in an argon atmosphere to a temperature exceeding 1400 °C for four to six hours and then heated in air at 650 °C to remove excess carbon. TEM shows 50-100 nm nanoparticles. Raman scattering indicates that only the -Zn2SiO4 crystalline phase was present. X-ray analysis indicated pure rhombohedral R 3 bar phase results from using rice/wheat husks. Both samples luminesced predominantly at 523 nm when illuminated with X-rays or UV laser light.

  3. High temperature braided rope seals for static sealing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael L.; Olsen, Andrew; Darolia, Ram; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1996-01-01

    Achieving efficiency and performance goals of advanced aircraft and industrial systems are leading designers to implement high temperature materials such as ceramics and intermetallics. Generally these advanced materials are applied selectively in the highest temperature sections of the engine system including the combustor and high pressure turbine, amongst others. Thermal strains that result in attaching the low expansion-rate components to high expansion rate superalloy structures can cause significant life reduction in the components. Seals are being designed to both seal and to serve as compliant mounts allowing for relative thermal growths between high temperature but brittle primary structures and the surrounding support structures. Designers require high temperature, low-leakage, compliant seals to mitigate thermal stresses and control parasitic and cooling airflow between structures. NASA is developing high temperature braided rope seals in a variety of configurations to help solve these problems. This paper will describe the types of seals being developed, describe unique test techniques used to assess seal performance, and present leakage flow data under representative pressure, temperature and scrubbing conditions. Feasibility of the braided rope seals for both an industrial tube seal and a turbine vane seal application is also demonstrated.

  4. Mantle Mineral/Silicate Melt Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, E. A.; Drake, M. J.

    1992-07-01

    Introduction: The partitioning of elements among mantle phases and silicate melts is of interest in unraveling the early thermal history of the Earth. It has been proposed that the elevated Mg/Si ratio of the upper mantle of the Earth is a consequence of the flotation of olivine into the upper mantle (Agee and Walker, 1988). Agee and Walker (1988) have generated a model via mass balance by assuming average mineral compositions to generate upper mantle peridotite. This model determines that upper mantle peridotite could result from the addition of 32.7% olivine and 0.9% majorite garnet into the upper mantle, and subtraction of 27.6% perovskite from the upper mantle (Agee and Walker, 1988). The present contribution uses experimental data to examine the consequences of such multiple phase fractionations enabling an independent evaluation of the above mentioned model. Here we use Mg-perovskite/melt partition coefficients from both a synthetic and a natural system (KLB-1) obtained from this laboratory. Also used are partition coefficient values for majorite garnet/melt, beta spinel/melt and olivine/melt partitioning (McFarlane et al., 1991b; McFarlane et al., 1992). Multiple phase fractionations are examined using the equilibrium crystallization equation and partition coefficient values. The mineral proportions determined by Agee and Walker (1988) are converted into weight fractions and used to compute a bulk partition coefficient value. Discussion: There has been a significant debate concerning whether measured values of trace element partition coefficients permit large-scale fractionation of liquidus phases from an early terrestrial magma ocean (Kato et al., 1988a,b; Walker and Agee, 1989; Drake, 1989; Drake et al., 1991; McFarlane et al., 1990, 1991). It should be noted that it is unclear which, if any, numerical values of partition coefficients are appropriate for examining this question, and certainly the assumptions for the current model must be more fully

  5. Improved method for preparing rare earth sesquichalcogenides

    DOEpatents

    Takeshita, T.; Beaudry, B.J.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1982-04-14

    An improved method for the preparation of high purity rare earth sesquichalcogenides is described. The rare earth, as one or more pieces of the metal, is sealed under a vacuum with a stoichiometric amount of sulfur or selenium and a small amount of iodine into a quartz reaction vessel. The sealed vessel is then heated to above the vaporization temperature of the chalcogen and below the melting temperature of the rare earth metal and maintained until the product has been formed. The iodine is then vaporized off leaving a pure product. The rare earth sulfides and selenides thus formed are useful as semiconductors and as thermoelectric generators. 3 tables.

  6. Some developments on ceramic-to-metal and glass-ceramics-to-metal seals and related studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothiyal, G. P.; Goswami, M.; Shrikhande, V. K.

    2008-05-01

    Seals and coatings based on ceramics and glass-ceramics find numerous applications in different disciplines of science and technology including space, accelerators, nuclear energy, chemical industry. Ceramic-to-metal (CM) seals based on conventional design (using brazing alloys) and glass-ceramics have been prepared. While Ag-Cu brazing alloy has been used in conventional CM seal, we have employed lithium zinc silicate (LZS) and lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass-ceramics for glass-ceramics-to-metal (GCM) seals. LZS glass-ceramics based on two different compositions; (a) LZSL composition (wt.%)- Li2O: 12.65, ZnO: 1.85, SiO2: 74.4, Al2O3: 3.8, K2O: 2.95, P2O5: 3.15, and B2O3: 1.2 (low ZnO) and (b) LZSH composition (wt.%)- Li2O: 8.9, ZnO: 24.03, SiO2: 53.7, Na2O: 5.42, P2O5: 2.95, and B2O3: 5.0 (high ZnO) were prepared with desired sealing characteristics for matched type seals. In addition, (wt.%) 12.6Li2O-71.7SiO2-5.1Al2O3-4.9K2O-3.2B2O3-2.5P2O5 (LAS-GC) was investigated for compressive type of seal. LZS glass-ceramics-to-Cu as well as SS-321 seals were found to withstand a vacuum of 10-6 Torr with leak rate 10-9 Torr. 1/s and LAS GC-to-SS304 seal showed high pressure endurance of 12000psi. In order to understand the mechanism of sealing, glass-ceramics-to-metal interface study has also been carried out.

  7. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

    1991-08-27

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

  8. Development of helicopter engine seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynwander, P.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of main shaft seals for helicopter gas turbine engines was conducted with shaft speeds to 213 m/s(700 ft/sec), air pressures to 148 N/sq cm (215 psia), and air temperatures to 645 K (675 F). Gas leakage test results indicate that conventional seals will not be satisfactory for high-pressure sealing because of excessive leakage. The self-acting face seal, however, had significantly lower leakage and operated with insignificant wear during a 150-hour endurance test at sliding speeds to 145 m/s (475 ft/sec), air pressures to 124 N/sq cm (180 psia), and air temperatures to 408 K (275 F). Wear measurements indicate that noncontact operation was achieved at shaft speeds of 43,000 rpm. Evaluation of the self-acting circumferential seal was inconclusive because of seal dimensional variations.

  9. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, John V.; Novak, Robert F.; McBride, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

  10. Immunogenetics of the Elephant Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garza, John Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The goals of this cooperative agreement fall into three categories: 1) A basic description of Immunogenetic variation in the northern elephant seal genome; 2) A basic genetic map of the northern elephant seal genome; 3). Microevolutionary forces in the northern elephant seal genome. The results described in this report were acquired using funds from this cooperative agreement together with funds from a National Science Foundation Dissertation Improvement Grant.

  11. Rim seal for turbine wheel

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Boyd, Gary L.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine wheel assembly includes a disk having a plurality of blades therearound. A ceramic ring is mounted to the housing of the turbine wheel assembly. A labyrinth rim seal mounted on the disk cooperates with the ceramic ring to seal the hot gases acting on the blades from the disk. The ceramic ring permits a tighter clearance between the labyrinth rim seal and the ceramic ring.

  12. Low-Torque Seal Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Borowski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The EcoTurn Class K production prototypes have passed all AAR qualification tests and received conditional approval. The accelerated life test on the second set of seals is in progress. Due to the performance of the first set, no problems are expected.The seal has demonstrated superior performance over the HDL seal in the test lab with virtually zero torque and excellent contamination exclusion and grease retention.

  13. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2437 Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium...

  14. High Pressure Response of Siliceous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    quartz, Starphire soda lime silicate glass, hydrated Starphire, BOROFLOAT borosilicate glass, an iron-containing soda lime silicate glass, opal (a hydrated... Opal (hydrated amorphous silica). .............................................................................. 10 2.7. ROBAX glass ceramic...spectrum as a function of stress for BOROFLOAT borosilicate glass. .......... 29 4.8. Raman spectrum as a function of stress for opal (hydrated

  15. High Pressure Response of Siliceous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    iron-containing soda lime silicate glass, opal (a hydrated silicate glass), ROBAX glass ceramic, and others were single crystal (α-quartz) and...10 2.6. Opal (hydrated amorphous silica...Raman spectrum as a function of stress for opal (hydrated silica) glass. ................... 29 4.9. Raman spectrum as a function of stress for

  16. Calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying-Jie; Guo, Xiao-Xuan; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2017-02-01

    Compared with other inorganic materials such as silica, metal oxides, noble metals and carbon, calcium silicate-based materials, especially nanostructured calcium silicate materials, have high biocompatibility, bioactivity and biodegradability, high specific surface area, nanoporous/hollow structure, high drug-loading capacity, pH-responsive drug release behavior and desirable drug release properties, and thus they are promising for the application in drug delivery. Calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems have a long drug-release time, which can significantly prolong the therapeutic effect of drugs. Another advantage of calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems is their pH-responsive drug release property, which can act as an ideal platform for targeted drug delivery. Areas covered: In recent years, studies have been carried out on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems, and important results and insights have been documented. This article is not intended to offer a comprehensive review on the research on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems, but presents some examples reported in the literature, and includes new insights obtained by tracking the interactions between drug molecules and calcium silicate carriers on the molecular level using the synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy. Expert opinion: Finally, our opinions on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems are provided, and several research directions for the future studies are proposed.

  17. Sealed nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudszus, W.; Kiehne, H. A.; Cloke, F. R.

    1982-10-01

    The design, manufacture, and application of maintenance-free sealed NiCd batteries are surveyed. The principles of electrochemical power supplies and the history of the development of NiCd cells are reviewed. The batteries produced by Varta Batterie AG are presented; topics discussed include design parameters, electrical and physical characteristics, performance under adverse conditions, type range, production, and quality control. Application techniques, including cell-type choice, charging units and charging circuits, and the construction of standby power supplies, are considered, with reference to national and international standards of performance and classification. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  18. Advanced Duct Sealing Testing

    SciT

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have typically shown that these seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been testing sealant durability for several years. Typical duct tape (i.e. fabric backed tapes with naturalmore » rubber adhesives) was found to fail more rapidly than all other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing of five UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (three cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The first test involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet metal ''collar-to-plenum joints'' pressurized with 200 F (93 C) air. The second test consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212 F (100 C) oven following the UL 181B-FX ''Temperature Test'' requirements. Additional tests were also performed on only two tapes using sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints. Since an unsealed flexible duct joint can have a variable leakage depending on the positioning of the flexible duct core, the durability of the flexible duct joints could not be based on the 10% of unsealed leakage criteria. Nevertheless, the leakage of the sealed specimens prior to testing could be considered as a basis for a failure criteria. Visual inspection was also documented throughout the tests. The flexible duct core-to-collar joints were inspected monthly, while the sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints were

  19. Internal coaxial cable seal system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Sneddon, Cameron; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-07-25

    The invention is a seal system for a coaxial cable and is placed within the coaxial cable and its constituent components. A series of seal stacks including load ring components and elastomeric rings are placed on load bearing members within the coaxial cable sealing the annular space between the coaxial cable and an electrical contact passing there through. The coaxial cable is disposed within drilling components to transmit electrical signals between drilling components within a drill string. The seal system can be used in a variety of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  20. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  1. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  2. Pressure sensor for sealed containers

    DOEpatents

    Hodges, Franklin R.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

  3. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  4. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  5. Brush seals for turbine engine fuel conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Mike

    1994-07-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate brush seals for replacing labyrinth seals in turboprop engines. The approach taken was to design and procure brush seals with assistance from Sealol, modify and instrument an existing T407 low pressure turbine test rig, replace inner balance piston and outer balance piston labyrinth seals with brush seals, conduct cyclic tests to evaluate seal leakage at operating pressures and temperatures, and evaluate effect of seal pack width and rotor eccentricity. Results are presented in viewgraph format and show that brush seals offer performance advantages over labyrinth seals.

  6. 30 CFR 57.8535 - Seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals. 57.8535 Section 57.8535 Mineral....8535 Seals. Seals shall be provided with a means for checking the quality of air behind the seal and a means to prevent a water head from developing unless the seal is designed to impound water. ...

  7. 30 CFR 57.8535 - Seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals. 57.8535 Section 57.8535 Mineral....8535 Seals. Seals shall be provided with a means for checking the quality of air behind the seal and a means to prevent a water head from developing unless the seal is designed to impound water. ...

  8. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Melde, Brian J.; Johnson, Brandy J.; Charles, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through co-condensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules. PMID:27873810

  9. Inheritance of silicate differentiation during lunar origin by giant impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    It is pointed out that the implication of the popular giant impact model of lunar origin (e.g., Hartmann and Davis, 1975; Cameron and Ward, 1976; Stevenson, 1987) is that any depth-related silicate differentiation within the impactor (and/or the earth) at the time of the impact must be partly inherited by the preferentially peripheral matter that forms the moon. This paper presents calculations of the magnitude of the net differentiation of the protolunar matter for a variety of elements and scenarios, with different assumptions regarding the geometries of the 'sampled' peripheral zones, the relative proportions of the earth-derived to impactor-derived matter in the final moon, and the degree to which the impactor mantle had crystallized prior to the giant impact. It is shown that these differention effects constrain the overall plausibility of the giant impact hypothesis.

  10. Geochemical Constraints on Core Formation in the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.; Drake, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    New experimental data on the partitioning of siderophile and chalcophile elements among metallic and silicate phases may be used to constrain hypotheses of core formation in the Earth. Three current hypotheses can explain gross features of mantle geochemistry, but none predicts siderophile and chalcophile element abundances to within a factor of two of observed values. Either our understanding of metal-silicate interactions and/or our understanding of the early Earth requires revision.

  11. REM-containing silicate concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, V. F.; Shabanova, O. V.; Pavlov, I. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Shabanov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    A new method of advanced complex processing of ores containing rare-earth elements (REE) is proposed to obtain porous X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate material with a stable chemical composition which concentrates oxides of rare-earth metals (REM). The ferromanganese oxide ores of Chuktukon deposit (Krasnoyarsk Region, RF) were used for the experiment. The obtained aluminosilicate material is appropriate for treatment with 5 - 15% solutions of mineral acids to leach REM.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Elastomer Docking Seal Compression Set, Adhesion, and Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Oswald, Jay J.; Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Smith, Ian; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    A universal docking and berthing system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support all future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), to the Moon, and to Mars. An investigation of the compression set of two seals mated in a seal-on-seal configuration and the force required to separate the two seals after periods of mating was conducted. The leakage rates of seals made from two silicone elastomer compounds, S0383-70 and S0899-50, configured in seal-on-seal mating were quantified. The test specimens were sub-scale seals with representative cross-sections and a 12 inch outside diameter. The leakage rate of the seals manufactured from S0899-50 was higher than that of the seals made from S0383-70 by a factor of 1.8. Similarly, the adhesion of the 50 durometer elastomer was significantly higher than that of the 70 durometer compound. However, the compression set values of the S0899-50 material were observed to be significantly lower than those for the S0383-70.

  13. Melting in super-earths.

    PubMed

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  14. Seals. Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Explanations of a marine mammal rescue program and information on seals and sea lions are presented in this curriculum package for intermediate grade teachers. Activities are highlighted which focus on the natural history of harbor seals. This unit contains: (1) pre-trip activities (including fact sheets and worksheets on the different types of…

  15. Conical O-ring seal

    DOEpatents

    Chalfant, Jr., Gordon G.

    1984-01-01

    A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials which has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

  16. Conical O-ring seal

    DOEpatents

    Chalfant, G.G. Jr.

    A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

  17. High temperature autoclave vacuum seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. R.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Aluminum sheet forms effective sealing film at temperatures up to 728 K. Soft aluminum wire rings provide positive seal between foil and platen. For applications at temperatures above aluminum's service temperature, stainless steel is used as film material and copper wire as sealant.

  18. Development of advanced seal verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kosten, Susan E.; Abushagur, Mustafa A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a technique to monitor and insure seal integrity with a sensor that has no active elements to burn-out during a long duration activity, such as a leakage test or especially during a mission in space. The original concept proposed is that by implementing fiber optic sensors, changes in the integrity of a seal can be monitored in real time and at no time should the optical fiber sensor fail. The electrical components which provide optical excitation and detection through the fiber are not part of the seal; hence, if these electrical components fail, they can be easily changed without breaking the seal. The optical connections required for the concept to work does present a functional problem to work out. The utility of the optical fiber sensor for seal monitoring should be general enough that the degradation of a seal can be determined before catastrophic failure occurs and appropriate action taken. Two parallel efforts were performed in determining the feasibility of using optical fiber sensors for seal verification. In one study, research on interferometric measurements of the mechanical response of the optical fiber sensors to seal integrity was studied. In a second study, the implementation of the optical fiber to a typical vacuum chamber was implemented and feasibility studies on microbend experiments in the vacuum chamber were performed. Also, an attempt was made to quantify the amount of pressure actually being applied to the optical fiber using finite element analysis software by Algor.

  19. Transuranic sealed source recovery project.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, J A; Pearson, M W

    2001-11-01

    If you have transuranic sealed sources (239Pu, 238Pu, or 241Am) that have no potential for recycle or commercial disposal, the Off Site Source Recovery Project at LANL can assist in recovering the sealed sources from your facility to a DOE storage site.

  20. Glassy composition for hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Wilder, Jr., James A.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a glassy composition adaptable for sealing to aluminum-based alloys to form a hermetically-sealed insulator body. The composition may either be employed as a glass or, after devitrifying heat treatment, as a glass-ceramic.

  1. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tervo, John N.

    1992-01-01

    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  2. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1977-01-01

    A bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing.

  3. Toward an Improved Hypersonic Engine Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange,Jeffrey J.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2003-01-01

    High temperature, dynamic seals are required in advanced engines to seal the perimeters of movable engine ramps for efficient, safe operation in high heat flux environments at temperatures from 2000 to 2500 F. Current seal designs do not meet the demanding requirements for future engines, so NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing advanced seals to overcome these shortfalls. Two seal designs and two types of seal preloading devices were evaluated in a series of compression tests at room temperature and 2000 F and flow tests at room temperature. Both seals lost resiliency with repeated load cycling at room temperature and 2000 F, but seals with braided cores were significantly more flexible than those with cores composed of uniaxial ceramic fibers. Flow rates for the seals with cores of uniaxial fibers were lower than those for the seals with braided cores. Canted coil springs and silicon nitride compression springs showed promise conceptually as potential seal preloading devices to help maintain seal resiliency.

  4. Compliant high temperature seals for dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Rynders, Steven Walton; Minford, Eric; Tressler, Richard Ernest; Taylor, Dale M.

    2001-01-01

    A high temperature, gas-tight seal is formed by utilizing one or more compliant metallic toroidal ring sealing elements, where the applied pressure serves to activate the seal, thus improving the quality of the seal. The compliant nature of the sealing element compensates for differences in thermal expansion between the materials to be sealed, and is particularly useful in sealing a metallic member and a ceramic tube art elevated temperatures. The performance of the seal may be improved by coating the sealing element with a soft or flowable coating such as silver or gold and/or by backing the sealing element with a bed of fine powder. The material of the sealing element is chosen such that the element responds to stress elastically, even at elevated temperatures, permitting the seal to operate through multiple thermal cycles.

  5. Crack sealing and filling: best practices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the current state of practice for crack sealing/filling. In addition, the INDOT crack sealing/filling practice was : experimentally evaluated for the effectiveness of crack sealing/filling, the effectiveness of routing, the pe...

  6. Seal between metal and ceramic conduits

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2015-02-03

    A seal between a ceramic conduit and a metal conduit of an ion transport membrane device consisting of a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a single gasket body, and a single compliant interlayer.

  7. SILICATE COMPOSITION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciT

    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.

    2016-10-20

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth alongmore » lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.« less

  8. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    SciT

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir

    2016-02-09

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include amore » secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.« less

  9. Sealed head access area enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder power reactor is provided with a sealed head access area enclosure disposed above the reactor vessel head consisting of a plurality of prefabricated structural panels including a center panel removably sealed into position with inflatable seals, and outer panels sealed into position with semipermanent sealant joints. The sealant joints are located in the joint between the edge of the panels and the reactor containment structure and include from bottom to top an inverted U-shaped strip, a lower layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material, a separator strip defining a test space therewithin, and an upper layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material. The test space is tapped by a normally plugged passage extending to the top of the enclosure for testing the seal or introducing a buffer gas thereinto.

  10. Interactions between tectonics, silicate weathering, and climate explored with carbon cycle modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penman, D. E.; Caves Rugenstein, J. K.; Ibarra, D. E.; Winnick, M.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's long-term carbon cycle is thought to benefit from a stabilizing negative feedback in the form of CO2 consumption by the chemical weathering of silicate minerals: during periods of elevated atmospheric pCO2, chemical weathering rates increase, thus consuming more atmospheric CO2 and cooling global climate, whereas during periods of low pCO2, weathering rates decrease, allowing buildup of CO2 in the atmosphere and warming. At equilibrium, CO2 consumption by silicate weathering balances volcanic CO2 degassing at a specific atmospheric pCO2 dictated by the relationship between total silicate weathering rate and pCO2: Earth's "weathering curve." We use numerical carbon cycle modeling to demonstrate that the shape and slope of the weathering curve is crucial to understanding proposed tectonic controls on pCO2 and climate. First, the shape of the weathering curve dictates the equilibrium response of the carbon cycle to changes in the rate of background volcanic/solid Earth CO2 degassing, which has been suggested to vary significantly with plate tectonic reorganizations over geologic timescales. Second, we demonstrate that if tectonic events can significantly change the weathering curve, this can act as an effective driver of pCO2 and climate on tectonic timescales by changing the atmospheric pCO2 at which silicate weathering balances a constant volcanic/solid Earth degassing rate. Finally, we review the complex interplay of environmental factors that affect modern weathering rates in the field and highlight how the resulting uncertainty surrounding the shape of Earth's weathering curve significantly hampers our ability to quantitatively predict the response of pCO2 and climate to tectonic forcing, and thus represents a substantial knowledge gap in Earth science. We conclude with strategies for closing this knowledge gap by using precise paleoclimatic reconstructions of intervals with known tectonic forcings.

  11. Antipilferage Seal User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    seal is properly installed, ensure that there is no free play between the seal body and the wire. Verify and record the serial number. During post...and Record - Once the seal is properly installed, ensure that there is no free play between the seal body and the wire. During post-mortem...seal is properly installed, ensure that there is no free play between the seal body and the wire. Verify and record the serial number. During post

  12. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  13. High pressure mechanical seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  14. High pressure mechanical seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Fuson, Phillip L. (Inventor); Chickles, Colin D. (Inventor); Jones, Cherie A. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting, prior to swaging the fitting onto the tube. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, nickel, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After swaging, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as meaured using the Helium leak test.

  15. Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

    1964-01-01

    The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

  16. Abradable dual-density ceramic turbine seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clingman, D. L.; Schechter, B.; Cross, K. R.; Cavanagh, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A plasma sprayed dual density ceramic abradable seal system for direct application to the HPT seal shroud of small gas turbine engines. The system concept is based on the thermal barrier coating and depends upon an additional layer of modified density ceramic material adjacent to the gas flow path to provide the desired abradability. This is achieved by codeposition of inert fillers with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to interrupt the continuity of the zirconia struture. The investigation of a variety of candidate fillers, with hardness values as low as 2 on Moh's scale, led to the conclusion that solid filler materials in combination with a YSZ matrix, regardless of their hardness values, have a propensity for compacting rather than shearing as originally expected. The observed compaction is accompanied by high energy dissipation in the rub interaction, usually resulting in the adhesive transfer of blade material to the stationary seal member. Two YSZ based coating systems which incorported hollow alumino silicate spheres as density reducing agents were surveyed over the entire range of compositions from 100 percent filler to 100 percent YSZ. Abradability and erosion characteristics were determined, hardness and permeability characterized, and engine experience acquired with several system configurations.

  17. SEALING MEANS FOR RELATIVELY ROTATABLE MEMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.S.

    1960-10-25

    A sealing means is offered for maintaining a seal between a pair of relatively rotatable members, panticularly between a rotating shaft and a stationary member surrounding the shaft. The sealing is accomplished by means of a flange extending outward radially on each of a plurality of sealing rings mounted on the rotating member which fit into annular grooves in the stationary member and are held in sealing relation therewith by means of spring rings. In addition, means are provided for passing a sealing gas through the seal sunfaces to prevent accumulation of lubricant and for scavenging any gas which may have leaked from the internal member into the seal area.

  18. Results of continuous synchronous orbit testing of sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Test results from continuous synchronous orbit testing of sealed nickel cadmium cells are presented. The synchronous orbit regime simulates a space satellite maintaining a position over a fixed point on earth as the earth rotates on its axis and revolves about the sun. Characteristics of each lot of cells, test conditions, and charge control methods are described.

  19. Prometheus Silicates/Sulfur dioxide/NIMS

    2000-05-18

    The Prometheus region of Jupiter moon Io was imaged by NASA Galileo spacecraft in 1999. The maps made from spectrometer data show the interplay between hot silicates on the surface and sulfur dioxide frost.

  20. Silicate Emission in the TW Hydrae Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.

    2000-11-01

    The TW Hydrae association is the nearest young stellar association. Among its members are HD 98800, HR 4796A, and TW Hydrae itself, the nearest known classical T Tauri star. We have observed these three stars spectroscopically between 3 and 13 μm. In TW Hya, the spectrum shows a silicate emission feature that is similar to many other young stars' with protostellar disks. The 11.2 μm feature indicative of significant amounts of crystalline olivine is not as strong as in some young stars and solar system comets. In HR 4796A, the thermal emission in the silicate feature is very weak, suggesting little in the way of (small silicate) grains near the star. The silicate band of HD 98800 (observed by us, but also reported by Sylvester & Skinner) is intermediate in strength between TW Hya and HR 4796A.

  1. Rim seal arrangement having pumping feature

    SciT

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Myers, Caleb

    A rim seal arrangement for a gas turbine engine includes a first seal face on a rotor component, and a second seal face on a stationary annular rim centered about a rotation axis of the rotor component. The second seal face is spaced from the first seal face along an axial direction to define a seal gap. The seal gap is located between a radially outer hot gas path and a radially inner rotor cavity. The first seal face has a plurality of circumferentially spaced depressions, each having a depth in an axial direction and extending along a radial extentmore » of the first seal face. The depressions influence flow in the seal gap such that during rotation of the rotor component, fluid in the seal gap is pumped in a radially outward direction to prevent ingestion of a gas path fluid from the hot gas path into the rotor cavity.« less

  2. Silicate calculi, a rare cause of kidney stones in children.

    PubMed

    Taşdemir, Mehmet; Fuçucuoğlu, Dilara; Özman, Oktay; Sever, Lale; Önal, Bülent; Bilge, Ilmay

    2017-02-01

    Urinary silicate calculi in humans are extremely rare. Reported cases of silicate calculi are mostly documented in adults and are commonly related to an excessive intake of magnesium trisilicate in food or drugs. Published studies on the presence of silicate calculi in children are scarce. Three cases of silicate kidney stones without prior silicate intake are reported. Two patients underwent surgical treatment, and the third patient was treated using conservative methods. Urinalysis revealed no underlying metabolic abnormalities. Analyses revealed that silicate was the major component of the stones. Siliceous deposits in urinary stones may be more common than anticipated, and the underlying pathophysiology remains to be clarified.

  3. Full-Scale System for Quantifying Loads and Leak Rates of Seals for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Robbie, Malcolm G.; Erker, Arthur H.; Drlik, Gary J.; Mayer, John J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated vacuum seals in support of future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and other destinations. These seals may be 50 to 60 in. (127 to 152 cm) in diameter and must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions to the International Space Station or the Moon. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them during docking or mating, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow two mated systems to separate when required. NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new test apparatus to measure leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed in seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange configurations at temperatures from -76 to 140 F (-60 to 60 C) under operational pressure gradients. Nominal and off-nominal mating conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features of the test apparatus as well as techniques used to overcome some of the design challenges.

  4. Q-Speciation and Network Structure Evolution in Invert Calcium Silicate Glasses.

    PubMed

    Kaseman, Derrick C; Retsinas, A; Kalampounias, A G; Papatheodorou, G N; Sen, S

    2015-07-02

    Binary silicate glasses in the system CaO-SiO2 are synthesized over an extended composition range (42 mol % ≤ CaO ≤ 61 mol %), using container-less aerodynamic levitation techniques and CO2-laser heating. The compositional evolution of Q speciation in these glasses is quantified using (29)Si and (17)O magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicate progressive depolymerization of the silicate network upon addition of CaO and significant deviation of the Q speciation from the binary model. The equilibrium constants for the various Q species disproportionation reactions for these glasses are found to be similar to (much smaller than) those characteristic of Li (Mg)-silicate glasses, consistent with the corresponding trends in the field strengths of these modifier cations. Increasing CaO concentration results in an increase in the packing density and structural rigidity of these glasses and consequently in their glass transition temperature Tg. This apparent role reversal of conventional network-modifying cations in invert alkaline-earth silicate glasses are compared and contrasted with that in their alkali silicate counterparts.

  5. Interpreting the 10 micron Astronomical Silicate Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowey, Janet E.

    1998-11-01

    10micron spectra of silicate dust in the diffuse medium towards Cyg OB2 no. 12 and towards field and embedded objects in the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) were obtained with CGS3 at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). Cold molecular-cloud silicates are sampled in quiescent lines of sight towards the field stars Taurus-Elias 16 and Elias 13, whilst observations of the embedded young stellar objects HL Tau, Taurus-Elias 7 (Haro6-10) and Elias 18 also include emission from heated dust. To obtain the foreground silicate absorption profiles, featureless continua are estimated using smoothed astronomical and laboratory silicate emissivities. TMC field stars and Cyg OB2 no. 12 are modelled as photospheres reddened by foreground continuum and silicate extinction. Dust emission in the non-photospheric continua of HL Tau and Elias 7 (Haro6-10) is distinguished from foreground silicate absorption using a 10micron disk model, based on the IR-submm model of T Tauri stars by Adams, Lada & Shu (1988), with terms added to represent the foreground continuum and silicate extinction. The absorption profiles of HL Tau and Elias 7 are similar to that of the field star Elias 16. Fitted temperature indices of 0.43 (HL Tau) and 0.33 (Elias 7) agree with Boss' (1996) theoretical models of the 200-300K region, but are lower than those of IR-submm disks (0.5-0.61; Mannings & Emerson 1994); the modelled 10micron emission of HL Tau is optically thin, that of Elias 7 is optically thick. A preliminary arcsecond-resolution determination of the 10micron emissivity near θ1 Ori D in the Trapezium region of Orion and a range of emission temperatures (225-310K) are derived from observations by T. L. Hayward; this Ney-Allen emissivity is 0.6micron narrower than the Trapezium emissivity obtained by Forrest et al. (1975) with a large aperture. Published interstellar grain models, elemental abundances and laboratory studies of Solar System silicates (IDPs, GEMS and meteorites), the 10micron

  6. Self Sealing Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Aulock, Felix W.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Lavallee, Yan

    2015-04-01

    During ascent of magma, pressure decreases and bubbles form. If the volume increases more rapidly than the relaxation timescale, the magma fragments catastrophically. If a permeable network forms, the magma degasses non-violently. This process is generally assumed to be unidirectional, however, recent studies have shown how shear and compaction can drive self sealing. Here, we additionally constrain skin formation during degassing and sintering. We heated natural samples of obsidian in a dry atmosphere and monitored foaming and impermeable skin formation. We suggest a model for skin formation that is controlled by diffusional loss of water and bubble collapse at free surfaces. We heated synthetic glass beads in a hydrous atmosphere to measure the timescale of viscous sintering. The beads sinter at drastically shorter timescales as water vapour rehydrates an otherwise degassed melt, reducing viscosity and glass transition temperatures. Both processes can produce dense inhomogeneities within the timescales of magma ascent and effectively disturb permeabilities and form barriers, particularly at the margins of the conduit, where strain localisation takes place. Localised ash in failure zones (i.e. Tuffisite) then becomes associated with water vapour fluxes and alow rapid rehydration and sintering. When measuring permeabilities in laboratory and field, and when discussing shallow degassing in volcanoes, local barriers for degassing should be taken into account. Highlighting the processes that lead to the formation of such dense skins and sintered infills of cavities can help understanding the bulk permeabilities of volcanic systems.

  7. Seal material development test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A program designed to characterize an experimental fluoroelastomer material designated AF-E-124D, is examined. Tests conducted include liquid nitrogen load compression tests, flexure tests and valve seal tests, ambient and elevated temperature compression set tests, and cleaning and flushing fluid exposure tests. The results of these tests indicate the AF-E-124D is a good choice for a cryogenic seal, since it exhibits good low temperature sealing characteristics and resistance to permanent set. The status of this material as an experimental fluorelastomer is stressed and recommended. Activity includes definition and control of critical processing to ensure consistent material properties. Design, fabrication and test of this and other materials is recommended in valve and static seal applications.

  8. Seal device for ferromagnetic containers

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, R.E.; Jason, A.J.

    1994-10-18

    A temporary seal or patch assembly prevents the escape of contents, e.g., fluids and the like, from within a container having a breach there through until the contents can be removed and/or a repair effected. A frame that supports a sealing bladder can be positioned over the breach and the frame is then attached to the container surface, which must be of a ferromagnet material, by using switchable permanent magnets. The permanent magnets are designed to have a first condition that is not attracted to the ferromagnetic surface and a second conditions whereby the magnets are attracted to the surface with sufficient force to support the seal assembly on the surface. Latching devices may be attached to the frame and engage the container surface with hardened pins to prevent the lateral movement of the seal assembly along the container surface from external forces such as fluid drag or gravity. 10 figs.

  9. Reactor vessel seal service fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ritz, W.C.

    1975-12-01

    An apparatus for the preparation of exposed sealing surfaces along the open rim of a nuclear reactor vessel comprised of a motorized mechanism for traveling along the rim and simultaneously brushing the exposed surfaces is described.

  10. Seal coat binder performance specifications.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    Need to improve seal coat binder specs: replace empirical tests (penetration, ductility) with : performance-related tests applicable to both : unmodified and modified binders; consider temperatures that cover entire in service : range that are tied t...

  11. Seal device for ferromagnetic containers

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Ross E.; Jason, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    A temporary seal or patch assembly prevents the escape of contents, e.g., fluids and the like, from within a container having a breach therethrough until the contents can be removed and/or a repair effected. A frame that supports a sealing bladder can be positioned over the breach and the frame is then attached to the container surface, which must be of a ferromagnet material, by using switchable permanent magnets. The permanent magnets are designed to have a first condition that is not attracted to the ferromagnetic surface and a second conditions whereby the magnets are attracted to the surface with sufficient force to support the seal assembly on the surface. Latching devices may be attached to the frame and engage the container surface with hardened pins to prevent the lateral movement of the seal assembly along the container surface from external forces such as fluid drag or gravity.

  12. Remotely Monitored Sealing Array Software

    SciT

    2012-09-12

    The Remotely Monitored Sealing Array (RMSA) utilizes the Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) framework to establish the fundamental operating capabilities for communication, security, power management, and cryptography. In addition to the SSP framework the RMSA software has unique capabilities to support monitoring a fiber optic seal. Fiber monitoring includes open and closed as well as parametric monitoring to detect tampering attacks. The fiber monitoring techniques, using the SSP power management processes, allow the seals to last for years while maintaining the security requirements of the monitoring application. The seal is enclosed in a tamper resistant housing with software to support activemore » tamper monitoring. New features include LED notification of fiber closure, the ability to retrieve the entire fiber optic history via translator command, separate memory storage for fiber optic events, and a more robust method for tracking and resending failed messages.« less

  13. Selection of labyrinth seals in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency, vibration stability, operational durability, and cost of the main types of peripheral seals used in steam turbines are considered. A comparison between the conventional and honeycomb seals is given. Conditions subject to which replacement of conventional seals by honeycomb ones can be justified are pointed out. The use of variable-pitch multicomb seals as the most promising ones is recommended.

  14. 30 CFR 75.339 - Seals records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals records. 75.339 Section 75.339 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.339 Seals records. (a) The table entitled “Seal.... Table—§ 75.339(a) Seal Recordkeeping Requirements Record Section reference Retention time (1) Approved...

  15. 7 CFR 29.35 - Lot seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot seal. 29.35 Section 29.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.35 Lot seal. A seal approved by the Director for sealing lots of...

  16. 36 CFR 901.6 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 901.6 Section 901.6... CORPORATION § 901.6 Seal. The Corporation may adopt a corporate seal which shall have the name of the Corporation and year of incorporation printed upon it. The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile...

  17. 9 CFR 381.98 - Official seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official seal. 381.98 Section 381.98... Certificates; Certification Procedures § 381.98 Official seal. The official mark for use in sealing means of... and a serial number as shown below, and any seals approved by the Administrator for applying such mark...

  18. 46 CFR 501.11 - Official seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official seal. 501.11 Section 501.11 Shipping FEDERAL... Seal § 501.11 Official seal. (a) Description. Pursuant to section 201(c) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 U.S.C. 301(d)), the Commission prescribes its official seal, as adopted by the...

  19. 39 CFR 3002.3 - Official seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official seal. 3002.3 Section 3002.3 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION § 3002.3 Official seal. (a) Authority. The Seal described in this section is hereby established as the official seal of the Postal Rate Commission...

  20. 19 CFR 101.7 - Customs seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs seal. 101.7 Section 101.7 Customs Duties U... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.7 Customs seal. (a) Design. According to the design furnished by the Department of the Treasury, the Customs seal of the United States shall consist of the seal of the Department of...

  1. 39 CFR 3002.3 - Official seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Official seal. 3002.3 Section 3002.3 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION § 3002.3 Official seal. (a) Authority. The Seal described in this section is hereby established as the official seal of the Postal Rate Commission...

  2. 7 CFR 29.34 - Sample seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sample seal. 29.34 Section 29.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.34 Sample seal. A seal approved by the Director for sealing official...

  3. 14 CFR 65.133 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seal. 65.133 Section 65.133 Aeronautics and...: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.133 Seal. Each certificated parachute rigger must have a seal with an identifying mark prescribed by the Administrator, and a seal press. After...

  4. 30 CFR 75.339 - Seals records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals records. 75.339 Section 75.339 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.339 Seals records. (a) The table entitled “Seal.... Table—§ 75.339(a) Seal Recordkeeping Requirements Record Section reference Retention time (1) Approved...

  5. 46 CFR 501.11 - Official seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official seal. 501.11 Section 501.11 Shipping FEDERAL... Seal § 501.11 Official seal. (a) Description. Pursuant to section 201(c) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 U.S.C. 301(d)), the Commission prescribes its official seal, as adopted by the...

  6. 9 CFR 381.98 - Official seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official seal. 381.98 Section 381.98... Certificates; Certification Procedures § 381.98 Official seal. The official mark for use in sealing means of... and a serial number as shown below, and any seals approved by the Administrator for applying such mark...

  7. 19 CFR 101.7 - Customs seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Customs seal. 101.7 Section 101.7 Customs Duties U... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.7 Customs seal. (a) Design. According to the design furnished by the Department of the Treasury, the Customs seal of the United States shall consist of the seal of the Department of...

  8. 36 CFR 901.6 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seal. 901.6 Section 901.6... CORPORATION § 901.6 Seal. The Corporation may adopt a corporate seal which shall have the name of the Corporation and year of incorporation printed upon it. The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile...

  9. 7 CFR 29.35 - Lot seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lot seal. 29.35 Section 29.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.35 Lot seal. A seal approved by the Director for sealing lots of...

  10. 7 CFR 29.34 - Sample seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample seal. 29.34 Section 29.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.34 Sample seal. A seal approved by the Director for sealing official...

  11. 14 CFR 65.133 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seal. 65.133 Section 65.133 Aeronautics and...: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.133 Seal. Each certificated parachute rigger must have a seal with an identifying mark prescribed by the Administrator, and a seal press. After...

  12. Flow induced force of labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, T.; Motooka, N.; Kawai, R.

    1982-01-01

    Flow induced instability force due to a labyrinth seal is analyzed. An approximate solution is given for the partial differential equation representing the flow in labyrinth seal and it is compared with the finite difference method in order to verify the accuracy of both methods. The effects of difference of inlet and outlet pressures of the seal, deflection of pressure and mass flow from the steady state, rotor diameter, seal clearance, seal interval and seal number on the flow induced force of the seal are investigated and it is known that some of these factors are very influential on the flow induced force.

  13. Seals Research at AlliedSignal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullah, M. Rifat

    1996-01-01

    A consortium has been formed to address seal problems in the Aerospace sector of Allied Signal, Inc. The consortium is represented by makers of Propulsion Engines, Auxiliary Power Units, Gas Turbine Starters, etc. The goal is to improve Face Seal reliability, since Face Seals have become reliability drivers in many of our product lines. Several research programs are being implemented simultaneously this year. They include: Face Seal Modeling and Analysis Methodology; Oil Cooling of Seals; Seal Tracking Dynamics; Coking Formation & Prevention; and Seal Reliability Methods.

  14. Reusable, tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    A reusable, tamper-indicating seal comprises a drum confined within a fixed body and rotatable in one direction therewithin, the top of the drum constituting a tray carrying a large number of small balls of several different colors. The fixed body contains parallel holes for looping a seal wire therethrough. The base of the drums carries cams adapted to coact with cam followers to lock the wire within the seal at one angular position of the drum. A channel in the fixed body -- visible from outside the seal -- adjacent the tray constitutes a segregated location for a small plurality of the colored balls. A spring in the tray forces colored balls into the segregated location at one angular position of the drum, further rotation securing the balls in position and the wires in the seal. A wedge-shaped plough removes the balls from the segregated location, at a different angular position of the drum, the wire being unlocked at the same position. A new pattern of colored balls will appear in the segregated location when the seal is relocked.

  15. Status of Understanding for Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    Material selection for mainshaft face and ring seals, labyrinth seals, accessory gearbox face seals, and lip seals are discussed in light of tribology requirements and a given seal application. Carbon graphite has been found to be one of the best sealing materials and it is widely used in current gas turbine mainshaft and accessory gearbox seals. Its popularity is due to its unique combination of properties which consists of dimensional stability, corrosion resistance, low friction, good self lubricating characteristics, high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion, the latter two properties combining to provide good thermal shock resistance. A brief description of the seals and the requirements they must meet are discussed to provide insight into the limitations and advantages of the seals in containing the lubricant. A forecast is made of the operational requirements of main shaft and gearbox seals for advanced engines and candidate materials and coatings that may satisfy these advanced engine requirements.

  16. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  17. Siliceous Shrubs in Yellowstone's Hot Springs: Implications for Exobiological Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    Potential relict hot springs have been identified on Mars and, using the Earth as an analog, Martian hot springs are postulated to be an optimal locality for recognizing preserved evidence of extraterrestrial life. Distinctive organic and inorganic biomarkers are necessary to recognize preserved evidence of life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial hot spring accumulations. Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., contain a wealth of information about primitive microbial life and associated biosignatures that may be useful for future exobiological investigations. Numerous siliceous hot springs in Yellowstone contain abundant, centimeter-scale, spinose precipitates of opaline silica (opal-A). Although areally extensive in siliceous hot spring discharge channel facies, these spinose forms have largely escaped attention. These precipitates referred to as shrubs, consist of porous aggregates of spinose opaline silica that superficially resemble miniature woody plants, i.e., the term shrubs. Shrubs in carbonate precipitating systems have received considerable attention, and represent naturally occurring biotically induced precipitates. As such, shrubs have great potential as hot spring environmental indicators and, more importantly, proxies for pre-existing microbial life.

  18. Hydrodynamic perception in true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae).

    PubMed

    Hanke, Wolf; Wieskotten, Sven; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Pinnipeds, that is true seals (Phocidae), eared seals (Otariidae), and walruses (Odobenidae), possess highly developed vibrissal systems for mechanoreception. They can use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate objects by direct touch. At least in Phocidae and Otariidae, the vibrissae can also be used to detect and analyse water movements. Here, we review what is known about this ability, known as hydrodynamic perception, in pinnipeds. Hydrodynamic perception in pinnipeds developed convergently to the hydrodynamic perception with the lateral line system in fish and the sensory hairs in crustaceans. So far two species of pinnipeds, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) representing the Phocidae and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) representing the Otariidae, have been studied for their ability to detect local water movements (dipole stimuli) and to follow hydrodynamic trails, that is the water movements left behind by objects that have passed by at an earlier point in time. Both species are highly sensitive to dipole stimuli and can follow hydrodynamic trails accurately. In the individuals tested, California sea lions were clearly more sensitive to dipole stimuli than harbour seals, and harbour seals showed a superior trail following ability as compared to California sea lions. Harbour seals have also been shown to derive additional information from hydrodynamic trails, such as motion direction, size and shape of the object that caused the trail (California sea lions have not yet been tested). The peculiar undulated shape of the harbour seals' vibrissae appears to play a crucial role in trail following, as it suppresses self-generated noise while the animal is swimming.

  19. Self-degradable Cementitious Sealing Materials

    SciT

    Sugama, T.; Butcher, T., Lance Brothers, Bour, D.

    2010-10-01

    A self-degradable alkali-activated cementitious material consisting of a sodium silicate activator, slag, Class C fly ash, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) additive was formulated as one dry mix component, and we evaluated its potential in laboratory for use as a temporary sealing material for Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells. The self-degradation of alkali-activated cementitious material (AACM) occurred, when AACM heated at temperatures of {ge}200 C came in contact with water. We interpreted the mechanism of this water-initiated self-degradation as resulting from the in-situ exothermic reactions between the reactants yielded from the dissolution of the non-reacted or partially reacted sodium silicatemore » activator and the thermal degradation of the CMC. The magnitude of self-degradation depended on the CMC content; its effective content in promoting degradation was {ge}0.7%. In contrast, no self-degradation was observed from CMC-modified Class G well cement. For 200 C-autoclaved AACMs without CMC, followed by heating at temperatures up to 300 C, they had a compressive strength ranging from 5982 to 4945 psi, which is {approx}3.5-fold higher than that of the commercial Class G well cement; the initial- and final-setting times of this AACM slurry at 85 C were {approx}60 and {approx}90 min. Two well-formed crystalline hydration phases, 1.1 nm tobermorite and calcium silicate hydrate (I), were responsible for developing this excellent high compressive strength. Although CMC is an attractive, as a degradation-promoting additive, its addition to both the AACM and the Class G well cement altered some properties of original cementitious materials; among those were an extending their setting times, an increasing their porosity, and lowering their compressive strength. Nevertheless, a 0.7% CMC-modified AACM as self-degradable cementitious material displayed the following properties before its breakdown by water; {approx}120 min initial- and {approx}180 min

  20. Experimentally determined sulfur isotope fractionation between metal and silicate and implications for planetary differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labidi, J.; Shahar, A.; Le Losq, C.; Hillgren, V. J.; Mysen, B. O.; Farquhar, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Earth's mantle displays a subchondritic 34S/32S ratio. Sulfur is a moderately siderophile element (i.e. iron-loving), and its partitioning into the Earth's core may have left such a distinctive isotope composition on the terrestrial mantle. In order to constrain the sulfur isotope fractionation occurring during core-mantle differentiation, high-pressure and temperature experiments were conducted with synthetic mixtures of metal and silicate melts. With the purpose to identify the mechanism(s) responsible for the S isotope fractionations, we performed our experiments in different capsules - namely, graphite and boron nitride capsules - and thus at different fO2, with varying major element chemistry of the silicate and metal fractions. The S isotope fractionations Δ34Smetal-silicate of equilibrated metal alloys versus silicate melts is +0.2 ± 0.1‰ in a boron-free and aluminum-poor system quenched at 1-1.5 GPa and 1650 °C. The isotope fractionation increases linearly with increasing boron and aluminum content, up to +1.4 ± 0.2‰, and is observed to be independent of the silicon abundance as well as of the fO2 over ∼3.5 log units of variations explored here. The isotope fractionations are also independent of the graphite or nitride saturation of the metal. Only the melt structural changes associated with aluminum and boron concentration in silicate melts have been observed to affect the strength of sulfur bonding. These results establish that the structure of silicate melts has a direct influence on the S2- average bonding strengths. These results can be interpreted in the context of planetary differentiation. Indeed, the structural environments of silicate evolve strongly with pressure. For example, the aluminum, iron or silicon coordination numbers increase under the effect of pressure. Consequently, based on our observations, the sulfur-bonding environment is likely to be affected. In this scheme, we tentatively hypothesize that S isotope fractionations

  1. Pressure Seal For Frequently Opened Hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Steven E.; Kramer, Joel M.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure-assisted seal for frequently opened hatch includes two sealing rings retained positively so not pulled out during opening. Seal makes contact with hatch well before hatch starts to squeeze rings extending distance over which seal becomes engaged. Improvements include more-secure mounting, redundancy, and better initial sealing action. Also minimizes loss of gas during closure by deflecting inward and closing gap. This action helps differential pressure to force hatch closed.

  2. Probe insertion apparatus with inflatable seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sealing apparatus is disclosed for inserting a probe into a pressure vessel having an elongated opening includes a pair of resiliently deformable seals opposingly disposed in sealing engagement with each other. A retainer is connected to the pressure vessel around the elongated opening and holds the pair of seals rigidly to the pressure vessel. A wedge is engageable with the pair of seals and carries the probe, for longitudinally translating the probe in pressure vessel.

  3. Venusian pancake domes: Insights from terrestrial voluminous silicic lavas and thermal modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manley, Curtis R.

    1993-01-01

    The so-called 'pancake' domes, and several other volcanoes on Venus, appear to represent large extrusions of silicic lava. Similar voluminous rhyolite lava flows, often associated with mantle plumes, are known on Earth. Venus' high ambient temperature, and insulation by the dome's brecciated carapace, both act to prolong cooling of a dome's interior, allowing for episodic lava input over an extended period of time. Field relations and aspect ratios of terrestrial voluminous rhyolite lavas imply continuous, non-episodic growth, reflecting tapping of a large volume of dry, anatectic silicic magma. Petrogenetically, the venusian domes may be analogous to chains of small domes on Earth, which represent 'leakage' of evolved material from magma bodies fractionating from much more mafic liquids.

  4. Phosphorus Equilibria Among Mafic Silicate Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlin, Jana; Xirouchakis, Dimitris

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus incorporation in major rock-forming silicate minerals has the following implications: (1) Reactions between phosphorus-hosting major silicates and accessory phosphates, which are also major trace element carriers, may control the stability of the latter and thus may affect the amount of phosphorus and other trace elements released to the coexisting melt or fluid phase. (2) Less of a phosphate mineral is needed to account for the bulk phosphorus of planetaty mantles. (3) During partial melting of mantle mineral assemblages or equilibrium fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas, and in the absence or prior to saturation with a phosphate mineral, silicate melts may become enriched in phosphorus, especially in the geochemically important low melt fraction regime, Although the small differences in the ionic radii of IVp5+, IVSi4+, and IV Al3+ makes phosphoms incorporation into crystalline silicates perhaps unsurprising, isostructural silicate and phosphate crystalline solids do not readily form solutions, e.g., (Fe, Mg)2SiO4 vs. LiMgPO4, SiO)2 VS. AlPO4. Nonetheless, there are reports of, poorly characterized silico-phosphate phases in angrites , 2-4 wt% P2O5 in olivine and pyroxene grains in pallasites and reduced terestrial basalts which are little understood but potentially useful, and up to 17 wt% P2O5 in olivine from ancient slags. However, such enrichments are rare and only underscore the likelihood of phosphoms incorporation in silicate minerals. The mechanisms that allow phosphorus to enter major rock-forming silicate minerals (e.g., Oliv, Px, Gt) remain little understood and the relevant data base is limited. Nonetheless, old and new high-pressure (5-10 GPa) experimental data suggest that P2O5 wt% decreases from silica-poor to silica-rich compositions or from orthosilicate to chain silicate structures (garnet > olivine > orthopyroxene) which implies that phosphorus incorporation in silicates is perhaps more structure-than site-specific. The

  5. Overview of NASA Glenn Seal Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Proctor, Margaret P.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Delgado, Irebert; DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Lattime, Scott B.

    2003-01-01

    The Seal Team is divided into four primary areas. These areas include turbine engine seal development, structural seal development, acoustic seal development, and adaptive seal development. The turbine seal area focuses on high temperature, high speed shaft seals for secondary air system flow management. The structural seal area focuses on high temperature, resilient structural seals required to accommodate large structural distortions for both space- and aero-applications. Our goal in the acoustic seal project is to develop non-contacting, low leakage seals exploiting the principles of advanced acoustics. We are currently investigating a new acoustic field known as Resonant Macrosonic Synthesis (RMS) to see if we can harness the large acoustic standing pressure waves to form an effective air-barrier/seal. Our goal in the adaptive seal project is to develop advanced sealing approaches for minimizing blade-tip (shroud) or interstage seal leakage. We are planning on applying either rub-avoidance or regeneration clearance control concepts (including smart structures and materials) to promote higher turbine engine efficiency and longer service lives.

  6. Experimental evidence for the absence of iron isotope fractionation between metal and silicate liquids at 1 GPa and 1250-1300 °C and its cosmochemical consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, Remco C.; Schmidt, Max W.; Bourdon, Bernard

    2012-09-01

    Iron isotope fractionation during metal-silicate differentiation has been proposed as a cause for differences in iron isotope compositions of chondrites, iron meteorites and the bulk silicate Earth. Stable isotope fractionation, however, rapidly decreases with increasing temperature. We have thus performed liquid metal-liquid silicate equilibration experiments at 1250-1300 °C and 1 GPa to address whether Fe isotope fractionation is resolvable at the lowest possible temperatures for magmatic metal-silicate differentiation. A centrifuging piston cylinder apparatus enabled quantitative metal-silicate segregation. Elemental tin or sulphur was used in the synthetic metal-oxide mixtures to lower the melting temperature of the metal. The analyses demonstrate that eight of the 10 experimental systems equilibrated in a closed isotopic system, as was assessed by varying run durations and starting Fe isotope compositions. Statistically significant iron isotope fractionation between quenched metals and silicates was absent in nine of the 10 experiments and all 10 experiments yield an average metal-silicate fractionation factor of 0.01 ± 0.04‰, independent of whether graphite or silica glass capsules were used. This implies that Fe isotopes do not fractionate during low pressure metal-silicate segregation under magmatic conditions. In large bodies such as the Earth, fractionation between metal and high pressure (>20 GPa) silicate phases may still be a possible process for equilibrium fractionation during metal-silicate differentiation. However, the 0.07 ± 0.02‰ heavier composition of bulk magmatic iron meteorites relative to the average of bulk ordinary/carbonaceous chondrites cannot result from equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation during core segregation. The up to 0.5‰ lighter sulphide than metal fraction in iron meteorites and in one ordinary chondrite can only be explained by fractionation during subsolidus processes.

  7. The Effect of Core-Mantle Differentiation on V, Cr, and Mn: Experimental Metal/Silicate Partitioning Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chabot, N. L.; Agee, C. B.

    2001-01-01

    The abundances of V, Cr, and Mn are similarly depleted in the Earth and Moon. We present metal/silicate partitioning results which examine if the depletions can be explained by a core formation event. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Experimental determination of the Mo isotope fractionation factor between metal and silicate liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, R. C.; Burkhardt, C.; Schmidt, M. W.; Bourdon, B.

    2011-12-01

    The conditions and chemical consequences of core formation have mainly been reconstructed from experimentally determined element partition coefficients between metal and silicate liquids. However, first order questions such as the mode of core formation or the nature of the light element(s) in the Earth's core are still debated [1]. In addition, the geocentric design of most experimental studies leaves the conditions of core formation on other terrestrial planets and asteroids even more uncertain than for Earth. Through mass spectrometry, records of mass-dependent stable isotope fractionation during high-temperature processes such as metal-silicate segregation are detectable. Stable isotope fractionation may thus yield additional constrains on core formation conditions and its consequences for the chemical evolution of planetary objects. Experimental investigations of equilibrium mass-dependent stable isotope fractionation have shown that Si isotopes fractionate between metal and silicate liquids at temperatures of 1800°C and pressures of 1 GPa, while Fe isotopes leave no resolvable traces of core formation processes [2,3]. Molybdenum is a refractory and siderophile trace element in the Earth, and thus much less prone to complications arising from mass balancing core and mantle and from potential volatile behaviour than other elements. To determine equilibrium mass-dependent Mo isotope fractionation during metal-silicate segregation, we have designed piston cylinder experiments with a basaltic silicate composition and an iron based metal with ~8 wt% Mo, using both graphite and MgO capsules. Metal and silicate phases are completely segregated by the use of a centrifuging piston cylinder at ETH Zurich, thus preventing analysis of mixed metal and silicate signatures. Molybdenum isotope compositions were measured using a Nu Instruments 1700 MC-ICP-MS at ETH Zurich. To ensure an accurate correction of analytical mass fractionation a 100Mo-97Mo double spike was admixed

  9. Spray sealing: A breakthrough in integral fuel tank sealing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Martin D.; Zadarnowski, J. H.

    1989-11-01

    In a continuing effort to increase readiness, a new approach to sealing integral fuel tanks is being developed. The technique seals potential leak sources by spraying elastomeric materials inside the tank cavity. Laboratory evaluations project an increase in aircraft supportability and reliability, an improved maintainability, decreasing acquisition and life cycle costs. Increased usable fuel volume and lower weight than conventional bladders improve performance. Concept feasibility was demonstrated on sub-scale aircraft fuel tanks. Materials were selected by testing sprayable elastomers in a fuel tank environment. Chemical stability, mechanical properties, and dynamic durability of the elastomer are being evaluated at the laboratory level and in sub-scale and full scale aircraft component fatigue tests. The self sealing capability of sprayable materials is also under development. Ballistic tests show an improved aircraft survivability, due in part to the elastomer's mechanical properties and its ability to damp vibrations. New application equipment, system removal, and repair methods are being investigated.

  10. Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W [Los Alamos, NM; Wagh, Arun S [Orland Park, IL

    2003-05-13

    Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  11. Thermal Analysis of Brazing Seal and Sterilizing Technique to Break Contamination Chain for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2015-01-01

    The potential to return Martian samples to Earth for extensive analysis is in great interest of the planetary science community. It is important to make sure the mission would securely contain any microbes that may possibly exist on Mars so that they would not be able to cause any adverse effects on Earth's environment. A brazing sealing and sterilizing technique has been proposed to break the Mars-to-Earth contamination chain. Thermal analysis of the brazing process was conducted for several conceptual designs that apply the technique. Control of the increase of the temperature of the Martian samples is a challenge. The temperature profiles of the Martian samples being sealed in the container were predicted by finite element thermal models. The results show that the sealing and sterilization process can be controlled such that the samples' temperature is maintained below the potentially required level, and that the brazing technique is a feasible approach to break the contamination chain.

  12. Molybdenum Valence in Basaltic Silicate Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.

    2010-01-01

    The moderately siderophile element molybdenum has been used as an indicator in planetary differentiation processes, and is particularly relevant to core formation [for example, 1-6]. However, models that apply experimental data to an equilibrium differentiation scenario infer the oxidation state of molybdenum from solubility data or from multivariable coefficients from metal-silicate partitioning data [1,3,7]. Partitioning behavior of molybdenum, a multivalent element with a transition near the J02 of interest for core formation (IW-2) will be sensitive to changes in JO2 of the system and silicate melt structure. In a silicate melt, Mo can occur in either 4+ or 6+ valence state, and Mo6+ can be either octahedrally or tetrahedrally coordinated. Here we present first XANES measurements of Mo valence in basaltic run products at a range of P, T, and JO2 and further quantify the valence transition of Mo.

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Dicalcium Silicate Based Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, N.; Chatterjee, A.

    2017-06-01

    It is imperative to develop low energy alternative binders considering the large amounts of energy consumed as well as carbon dioxide emissions involved in the manufacturing of ordinary Portland cement. This study is on the synthesis of a dicalcium silicate based binder using a low temperature hydrothermal route.The process consists of synthesizing an intermediate product consisting of a calcium silicate hydrate phase with a Ca:Si ratio of 2:1 and further thermal treatment to produce the β-Ca2SiO4 (C2S) phase.Effect of various synthesis parameters like water to solid ratio, dwell time and temperature on the formation of the desired calcium silicate hydrate phase is reported along with effect of heating conditions for formation of the β-C2S phase. Around 77.45% of β-C2S phase was synthesized by thermal treatment of the intermediate phase at 820°C.

  14. Seal Related Development Activities at EG/G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, Harold F.

    1991-01-01

    Seal related development activities including modeling, analysis, and performance testing are described for several current seal related projects. Among the current seal related projects are the following: high pressure gas sealing systems for turbomachinery; brush seals for gas path sealing in gas turbines; and tribological material evaluation for wear surfaces in sealing systems.

  15. Full-Scale System for Quantifying Leakage of Docking System Seals for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Erker, Arthur H.; Robbie, Malcolm G.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Drlik, Gary J.; Tong, Michael T.; Penney, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking and berthing system to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit, the Moon, and Mars. This mechanism, called the Low Impact Docking System, is designed to connect pressurized space vehicles and structures. NASA Glenn Research Center is playing a key role in developing advanced technology for the main interface seal for this new docking system. The baseline system is designed to have a fully androgynous mating interface, thereby requiring a seal-on-seal configuration when two systems mate. These seals will be approximately 147 cm (58 in.) in diameter. NASA Glenn has designed and fabricated a new test fixture which will be used to evaluate the leakage of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. This includes testing under seal-on-seal or seal-on-plate configurations, temperatures from -50 to 50 C (-58 to 122 F), operational and pre-flight checkout pressure gradients, and vehicle misalignment (plus or minus 0.381 cm (0.150 in.)) and gapping (up to 0.10 cm (0.040 in.)) conditions. This paper describes the main design features of the test rig and techniques used to overcome some of the design challenges.

  16. Computational and experimental studies of iron-bearing carbonates and silicate glasses at lower mantle pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomatova, N. V.; Jackson, J. M.; Asimow, P. D.; Sturhahn, W.; Rossman, G. R.; Roskosz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Decomposition of carbonates may be responsible for creating silicate melts within the lower mantle by lowering the melting temperature of surrounding rock. Identifying and characterizing the stability of carbonates is therefore a necessary step towards understanding the transport of carbon in Earth's interior. Dolomite is one of the major mineral forms in which carbon is subducted into the Earth's mantle. Although iron-free dolomite is expected to break down upon compression, high-pressure polymorphs of iron-bearing dolomite may resist decomposition. Using a genetic algorithm that predicts crystal structures, we found a monoclinic phase with space group C2/c that has a lower energy than all previously reported dolomite structures at pressures above 15 GPa, where the substitution of iron for magnesium stabilizes monoclinic dolomite at certain pressures of the lower mantle. Thus, an iron-bearing dolomite polymorph may be an important carbon carrier in regions of Earth's lower mantle. The depth at which carbonates will decompose is dependent on the age, temperature and density of subducting slabs. Decarbonation reactions may lower the melting temperature of surrounding rocks to produce silicate melts. In regions of the mantle where silicate melts may exist, it is important to understand the physical properties and dynamic behavior of the melts because they affect the chemical and thermal evolution of its interior. Composition, degree of polymerization, and iron's spin state affect such properties. The behavior of iron in silicate melts is poorly understood but, in some cases, may be approximated by iron-bearing glasses. We measured the hyperfine parameters of iron-bearing rhyolitic and basaltic glasses up to 120 GPa and 100 GPa, respectively, in a neon pressure medium using time-domain synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy. The spectra for rhyolitic and basaltic glasses are well explained by three high-spin Fe2+-like sites with distinct quadrupole splittings, reflecting

  17. Further Investigations of Hypersonic Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    Durable, flexible sliding seals are required in advanced hypersonic engines to seal the perimeters of movable engine ramps for efficient, safe operation in high heat flux environments at temperatures of 2000 to 2500 F. Current seal designs do not meet the demanding requirements for future engines, so NASA's Glenn Research Center is developing advanced seals and preloading devices to overcome these shortfalls. An advanced ceramic wafer seal design and two silicon nitride compression spring designs were evaluated in a series of compression, scrub, and flow tests. Silicon nitride wafer seals survived 2000 in. (50.8 m) of scrubbing at 2000 F against a silicon carbide rub surface with no chips or signs of damage. Flow rates measured for the wafers before and after scrubbing were almost identical and were up to 32 times lower than those recorded for the best braided rope seal flow blockers. Silicon nitride compression springs showed promise conceptually as potential seal preload devices to help maintain seal resiliency.

  18. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1987-01-01

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  19. Cryogenic Flange and Seal Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The assembly of flanges, seals, and pipes are used to carry cryogenic fluid from a storage tank to the vehicle at launch sites. However, after a certain amount of cycles these raised face flanges with glass-filled Teflon gaskets have been found to have torque relaxation and are as a result susceptible to cryogenic fluid leakage if not re-torqued. The intent of this project is to identify alternate combinations of flanges and seals which may improve thermal cycle performance and decrease re-torque requirements. The general approach is to design a test fixture to evaluate leak characteristics between spiral and concentric serrations and to test alternate flange and seal combinations. Due to insufficient time, it was not possible to evaluate these different types of combinations for the combination that improved thermal cycle performance the most. However, the necessary drawings for the test fixture were designed and assembled along with the collection of the necessary parts.

  20. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall

    DOEpatents

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian

    2017-02-14

    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  1. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  2. Energy conservation through sealing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stair, W. K.; Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in fluid film sealing resulting from a proposed research program could lead to an annual energy saving, on a national basis, equivalent to about 37 million bbl of oil or 0.3% of the total U.S. energy consumption. Further, the application of known sealing technology can result in an annual saving of an additional 10 million bbl of oil. The energy saving would be accomplished by reduction in process heat energy loss, reduction of frictional energy generated, and minimization of energy required to operate ancillary equipment associated with the seal system. In addition to energy saving, cost effectiveness is further enhanced by reduction in maintenance and in minimization of equipment for collecting leakage and for meeting environmental pollution standards.

  3. Self-acting and hydrodynamic shaft seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    Self-acting and hydrodynamic seals are described. The analytical procedures are outlined for obtaining a seal force balance and the operating film thickness. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis revealed three different vibration modes. Proposed applications of self-acting seals in gas turbine engines and in rocket vehicle turbopumps are described. Also experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given; these data show the feasibility of operating the seal at conditions of 345 newtons per square centimeter (500 psi) and 152 meters per second (500 ft/sec) sliding speed.

  4. Army Research Concerns in Engine Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    The Army Propulsion Directorate is primarily concerned with small engine technology, where sealing performance is most critical. Tip leakage and secondary flow losses have a much greater performance impact on small engine aero-components than on large engines. A brief survey and critique of presently employed sealing concepts is presented. Some recent new research thrusts that show promise for substantial improvement are discussed. An especially promising approach for small engine applications is brush seals. Brush seal concepts are being considered for outer air seal and secondary airflow system seal locations.

  5. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  6. Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid

    DOEpatents

    Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen

    2016-06-21

    A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.

  7. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  8. High temperature sealed electrochemical cell

    SciT

    Valentin Chung, Brice Hoani; Burke, Paul J.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2015-10-06

    A cell for high temperature electrochemical reactions is provided. The cell includes a container, at least a portion of the container acting as a first electrode. An extension tube has a first end and a second end, the extension tube coupled to the container at the second end forming a conduit from the container to said first end. A second electrode is positioned in the container and extends out of the container via the conduit. A seal is positioned proximate the first end of the extension tube, for sealing the cell.

  9. Electrically insulating and sealing frame

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.

    1983-11-08

    A combination gas seal and electrical insulator having a closed frame shape interconnects a fuel cell stack and a reactant gas plenum of a fuel cell generator. The frame can be of rectangular shape including at least one slidable spline connection in each side to permit expansion or contraction consistent with that of the walls of the gas plenum and fuel cell stack. The slidable spline connections in the frame sides minimizes lateral movement between the frame side members and sealing material interposed between the frame and the fuel cell stack or between the frame and the reactant gas plenum.

  10. Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

    1983-06-16

    The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

  11. Material Properties of Three Candidate Elastomers for Space Seals Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Oswald, Jay J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    A next-generation docking system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support Constellation Space Exploration Missions to low Earth orbit (LEO), to the Moon, and to Mars. A number of investigations were carried out to quantify the properties of candidate elastomer materials for use in the main interface seal of the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). This seal forms the gas pressure seal between two mating spacecraft. Three candidate silicone elastomer compounds were examined: Esterline ELA-SA-401, Parker Hannifin S0383-70, and Parker Hannifin S0899-50. All three materials were characterized as low-outgassing compounds, per ASTM E595, so as to minimize the contamination of optical and solar array systems. Important seal properties such as outgas levels, durometer, tensile strength, elongation to failure, glass transition temperature, permeability, compression set, Yeoh strain energy coefficients, coefficients of friction, coefficients of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and diffusivity were measured and are reported herein.

  12. Sealing Assembly for Sealing a Port and the Like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Jon W. (Inventor); Haupt, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The sealing assembly for a port of a valve or the like is disclosed. In detail, the sealing assembly includes the port having a circular shaped end with a circular shaped knife-edge thereon. The sealing assembly further includes a hollow cap having a closed first end with an aperture therethrough and an open second end. The cap further includes internal threads adapted to mate with the external threads of the port. A gasket is mounted within the cap having flat first and second principle sides and made of a deformable metal, the first principle side of the gasket for mounting against the circular shaped knife edge of the port. A plunger having a circular shaped disc portion is adapted to fit within the hollow cap and is engagable with the first principle surface of the gasket and includes a shaft portion extending out of the aperture. The cap and shaft of the plunger include external wrenching flats. Thus when the cap is screwed onto the port and the plunger is prevented from rotating by a wrench mounted on the wrenching flats of the shaft portion of the plunger, the gasket is forced into engagement with the knife edge in pure compression and no rotation of the gasket occurs causing the knife edge to locally deform the gasket sealing of the port.

  13. Microfabrics in Siliceous Hotsprings: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.; Westall, F.

    2001-01-01

    Microfabrics shed light on the mechanisms governing siliceous sinter precipitation, the profound effects of microorganisms, as well as a conventional facies model for siliceous hotsprings. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Stabilizing geometry for hydrodynamic rotary seals

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2010-08-10

    A hydrodynamic sealing assembly including a first component having first and second walls and a peripheral wall defining a seal groove, a second component having a rotatable surface relative to said first component, and a hydrodynamic seal comprising a seal body of generally ring-shaped configuration having a circumference. The seal body includes hydrodynamic and static sealing lips each having a cross-sectional area that substantially vary in time with each other about the circumference. In an uninstalled condition, the seal body has a length defined between first and second seal body ends which varies in time with the hydrodynamic sealing lip cross-sectional area. The first and second ends generally face the first and second walls, respectively. In the uninstalled condition, the first end is angulated relative to the first wall and the second end is angulated relative to the second wall. The seal body has a twist-limiting surface adjacent the static sealing lip. In the uninstalled condition, the twist-limiting surface is angulated relative to the peripheral wall and varies along the circumference. A seal body discontinuity and a first component discontinuity mate to prevent rotation of the seal body relative to the first component.

  15. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  16. Laser cutting of sodium silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanov, V. V.; Kazarian, M. A.; Kustov, M. E.; Mashir, Yu. I.; Murav'ev, E. N.; Revenko, V. I.; Solinov, E. F.

    2018-04-01

    The problems of through laser cutting of sodium silicate glasses by laser-controlled thermal cleavage are considered. A wide variety of obtained end face shapes is demonstrated. It is shown that the strength of glass samples cut by the laser is about two times higher than that of samples cut by a glass cutter.

  17. Chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung Y.; Lohan, Dirk; Elizabeth, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic formed by chemically reacting a monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and a sparsely soluble oxide, with a sparsely soluble silicate in an aqueous solution. The monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and sparsely soluble oxide are both in powder form and combined in a stochiometric molar ratio range of (0.5-1.5):1 to form a binder powder. Similarly, the sparsely soluble silicate is also in powder form and mixed with the binder powder to form a mixture. Water is added to the mixture to form a slurry. The water comprises 50% by weight of the powder mixture in said slurry. The slurry is allowed to harden. The resulting chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic exhibits high flexural strength, high compression strength, low porosity and permeability to water, has a definable and bio-compatible chemical composition, and is readily and easily colored to almost any desired shade or hue.

  18. Dynamic Fatigue of a Titanium Silicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nettles, Alan T.; Cagle, Holly A.; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic fatigue study was performed on a Titanium Silicate Glass in order to assess its susceptibility to delayed failure. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions for optical elements made from this material. The material has reasonably good resistance (N=23 to stress corrosion in ambient conditions).

  19. Synthesis of non-siliceous mesoporous oxides.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dong; Schüth, Ferdi

    2014-01-07

    Mesoporous non-siliceous oxides have attracted great interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Since the discovery of mesoporous silicates in 1990s, organic-inorganic assembly processes by using surfactants or block copolymers as soft templates have been considered as a feasible path for creating mesopores in metal oxides. However, the harsh sol-gel conditions and low thermal stabilities have limited the expansion of this method to various metal oxide species. Nanocasting, using ordered mesoporous silica or carbon as a hard template, has provided possibilities for preparing novel mesoporous materials with new structures, compositions and high thermal stabilities. This review concerns the synthesis, composition, and parameter control of mesoporous non-siliceous oxides. Four synthesis routes, i.e. soft-templating (surfactants or block copolymers as templates), hard-templating (mesoporous silicas or carbons as sacrificial templates), colloidal crystal templating (3-D ordered colloidal particles as a template), and super lattice routes, are summarized in this review. Mesoporous metal oxides with different compositions have different properties. Non-siliceous mesoporous oxides are comprehensively described, including a discussion of constituting elements, synthesis, and structures. General aspects concerning pore size control, atomic scale crystallinity, and phase control are also reviewed.

  20. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  1. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  2. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  3. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  4. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  5. Textural constraints on effusive silicic volcanism - Beyond the permeable foam model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Jonathan H.; Anderson, Steven W.; Manley, Curtis R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports textural observations and presents isotopic evidence from active and recent silicic lava flows which show that at least some vesiculation occurs during surface advance of extrusions, after magma has reached the earth's surface. This view is in contrast to the widely promoted 'permeable foam' model, which states that all volatiles escape during ascent of the magma, and that all dense glassy material in lava flows forms from the collapse of pumiceous lava, i.e., that silicic lavas emerge as highly inflated foam flows. The permeable foam model also implies the unlikely requirement that explosive-to-effusive transitions be associated with an increase in the eruption rate. A more comprehensive model for the emplacement of silicic extrusions that allows for early gas loss during ascent, as well as late-stage vesiculation, is presented. The way in which the redistribution of volatiles during surface flow can increase explosive hazards from silicic lavas days, weeks, or months after the lava emerges from the event is discussed.

  6. The importance of the Maillard-metal complexes and their silicates in astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesch, Patrick J.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2007-09-01

    The Maillard reaction occurs when sugars and amino acids are mixed together in the solid state or in the aqueous solution. Since both amino acids and sugar-like compounds are found on meteorites, we hypothesized that they would also undergo the Maillard reaction. Our recent work supports this idea. We have shown previously that the water-insoluble Maillard products have substantial similarities with the insoluble organic materials from the meteorites. The Maillard organic materials are also part of the desert varnish on Earth, which is a dark, shiny, hard rock coating that contains iron and manganese and is glazed in silicate. Rocks that are similar in appearance to the desert varnish have been observed on the Martian surface. They may also contain the organic materials. We have undertaken study of the interactions between the Maillard products, iron and other metals, and silicates, to elucidate the role of the Maillard products in the chemistry of desert varnish and meteorites. Specifically, we have synthesized a series of the Maillard-metal complexes, and have tested their reactivity towards silicates. We have studied the properties of these Maillard-metal-silicate products by the IR spectroscopy. The astrobiological potential of the Maillard-metal complexes is assessed.

  7. Carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility upon impact melting, Ries Crater, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graup, Guenther

    1999-05-01

    The 24-km-diameter Ries impact crater in southern Germany is one of the most studied impact structures on Earth. The Ries impactor struck a Triassic to Upper Jurassic sedimentary sequence overlying Hercynian crystalline basement. At the time of impact (14.87 +/- 0.36 Ma; Storzer et al., 1995), the 350 m thick Malm limestone was present only to the S and E of the impact site. To the N and W, the Malm had been eroded away, exposing the underlying Dogger and Lias. The largest proportion of shocked target material is in the impact melt-bearing breccia suevite. The suevite had been believed to be derived entirely from the crystalline basement. Calcite in the suevite has been interpreted as a post-impact hydrothermal deposit. From optical inspection of 540 thin sections of suevite from 32 sites, I find that calcite in the suevite shows textural evidence of liquid immiscibility with the silicate impact melt. Textural evidence of liquid immiscibility between silicate and carbonate melt in the Ries suevite includes: carbonate globules within silicate glass, silicate globules embedded in carbonate, deformable and coalescing carbonate spheres within silicate glass, sharp menisci or cusps and budding between silicate and carbonate melt, fluidal textures and gas vesicles in carbonate schlieren, a quench crystallization sequence of the carbonate, spinifex textured quenched carbonate, separate carbonate spherules in the suevite mineral-fragment-matrix, and inclusions of mineral fragments suspended in carbonate blebs. Given this evidence of liquid immiscibility, the carbonate in the suevite has, therefore, like the silicate melt a primary origin by impact shock melting. Evidence of carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility is abundant in the suevites to the SW to E of the Ries crater. The rarer suevites to the W to NE of the crater are nearly devoid of carbonate melts. This correspondence between the occurrence of outcropping limestones at the target surface and the formation of

  8. Exploring Iron Silicate Precursors of Ancient Iron Formations through Rock Record, Laboratory and Field Analogue Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. E.; Rasmussen, B.; Muhling, J.; Benzerara, K.; Jezequel, D.; Cosmidis, J.; Templeton, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    crater lakes that are variably iron- and silica-rich. As we continue to probe the mechanism of Fe(II/III)-silicate formation, we can constrain the activity of silica, pH, and pO2 on early Earth and describe any potential influence of microbial activity on the precipitation of these phases.

  9. High chloride content calcium silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojing; Karpukhina, Natalia; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2017-03-08

    Chloride is known to volatilize from silicate glass melts and until now, only a limited number of studies on oxychloride silicate glasses have been reported. In this paper we have synthesized silicate glasses that retain large amounts of CaCl 2 . The CaCl 2 has been added to the calcium metasilicate composition (CaO·SiO 2 ). Glasses were produced via a melt quench route and an average of 70% of the chloride was retained after melting. Up to 31.6 mol% CaCl 2 has been successfully incorporated into these silicate glasses without the occurrence of crystallization. 29 Si MAS-NMR spectra showed the silicon being present mainly as a Q 2 silicate species. This suggests that chloride formed Cl-Ca(n) species, rather than Si-Cl bonds. Upon increasing the CaCl 2 content, the T g reduced markedly from 782 °C to 370 °C. Glass density and glass crystallization temperature decreased linearly with an increase in the CaCl 2 content. However, both linear regressions revealed a breakpoint at a CaCl 2 content just below 20 mol%. This might be attributed to a significant change in the structure and is also correlated with the nature of the crystallizing phases formed upon heat treatment. The glasses with less than 19.2 mol% CaCl 2 crystallized to wollastonite, whilst the compositions with CaCl 2 content equal to or greater than 19.2 mol% are thought to crystallize to CaCl 2 . In practice, the crystallization of CaCl 2 could not occur until the crystallization temperature fell below the melting point of CaCl 2 . The implications of the results along with the high chloride retention are discussed.

  10. Grain Growth and Silicates in Dense Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendeleton, Yvonne J.; Chiar, J. E.; Ennico, K.; Boogert, A.; Greene, T.; Knez, C.; Lada, C.; Roellig, T.; Tielens, A.; Werner, M.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Interstellar silicates are likely to be a part of all grains responsible for visual extinction (Av) in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and dense clouds. A correlation between Av and the depth of the 9.7 micron silicate feature (measured as optical depth, tau(9.7)) is expected if the dust species are well 'mixed. In the di&se ISM, such a correlation is observed for lines of sight in the solar neighborhood. A previous study of the silicate absorption feature in the Taurus dark cloud showed a tendency for the correlation to break down at high Av (Whittet et al. 1988, MNRAS, 233,321), but the scatter was large. We have acquired Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph data of several lines of sight in the IC 5 146, Barnard 68, Chameleon I and Serpens dense clouds. Our data set spans an Av range between 2 and 35 magnitudes. All lines of sight show the 9.7 micron silicate feature. The Serpens data appear to follow the diffuse ISM correlation line whereas the data for the other clouds show a non-linear correlation between the depth of the silicate feature relative to Av, much like the trend observed in the Taurus data. In fact, it appears that for visual extinctions greater than about 10 mag, tau(9.7) begins to level off. This decrease in the growth of the depth of the 9.7 micron feature with increasing Av could indicate the effects of grain growth in dense clouds. In this poster, we explore the possibility that grain growth causes an increase in opacity (Av) without causing a corresponding increase in tau(9.7).

  11. Silicate Dust in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yanxia; Li, Aigen; Hao, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The unification theory of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) hypothesizes that all AGNs are surrounded by an anisotropic dust torus and are essentially the same objects but viewed from different angles. However, little is known about the dust that plays a central role in the unification theory. There are suggestions that the AGN dust extinction law appreciably differs from that of the Galaxy. Also, the silicate emission features observed in type 1 AGNs appear anomalous (I.e., their peak wavelengths and widths differ considerably from that of the Galaxy). In this work, we explore the dust properties of 147 AGNs of various types at redshifts z≲ 0.5, with special attention paid to 93 AGNs that exhibit the 9.7 and 18 μm silicate emission features. We model their silicate emission spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find that 60/93 of the observed spectra can be well explained with “astronomical silicate,” while the remaining sources favor amorphous olivine or pyroxene. Most notably, all sources require the dust to be micron-sized (with a typical size of ˜1.5 ± 0.1 μm), much larger than submicron-sized Galactic interstellar grains, implying a flat or “gray” extinction law for AGNs. We also find that, while the 9.7 μm emission feature arises predominantly from warm silicate dust of temperature T ˜ 270 K, the ˜5-8 μm continuum emission is mostly from carbon dust of T ˜ 640 K. Finally, the correlations between the dust properties (e.g., mass, temperature) and the AGN properties (e.g., luminosity, black hole mass) have also been investigated.

  12. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  15. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  16. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  17. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  19. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  20. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  1. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  2. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  3. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. Seal Apparatus and Methods to Manufacture Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    In some implementations, apparatus and methods are provided through which a dynamic cryogenic seal is manufactured. In some implementations, the seal includes a retainer and a spring-seal assembly, the assembly being comprised of a main spring housing and fluorine-containing polymer seals. In some implementations, either a radial seal, or an axial (or "piston seal") is provided. In some implementations, methods of manufacturing the dynamic cryogenic seal are also provided. In some implementations, the methods include assembling the components while either heated or cooled, taking advantage of thermal expansion and contraction, such that there is a strong interference fit between the components at room temperature. In some implementations, this process ensures that the weaker fluorine-containing polymer seal is forced to expand and contract with the stronger retainer and spring and is under constant preload. In some implementations, the fluorine-containing polymer is therefore fluidized and retained, and can not lift off.

  8. Film riding seals for rotary machines

    SciT

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Wolfe, Christopher Edward

    A seal assembly for a rotary machine is provided. The seal assembly includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having one or more labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device includes a stator interface element having a groove or slot for allowing disposal of a spline seal for preventing segment leakages. The sealing device segment also includes multiple bellow springs or flexures connected to the shoe plate and to the stator interface element. Further,more » the sealing device segments include a secondary seal integrated with the stator interface element at one end and positioned about the multiple bellow springs or flexures and the shoe plate at the other end.« less

  9. High temperature seal for large structural movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Dunlap, Jr., Patrick H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A high temperature sealing system is operative to seal an interface between adjacent hot structures and to minimize parasitic flow between such structures that move relative to one another in-plane or out-of-plane. The sealing system may be used to seal thrust-directing ramp structures of a reusable launch vehicle and includes a channel and a plurality of movable segmented sealing elements. Adjacent ramp structures include edge walls which extend within the channel. The sealing elements are positioned along the sides of the channel and are biased to engage with the inner surfaces of the ramp structures. The segmented sealing elements are movable to correspond to the contour of the thrust-directing ramp structures. The sealing system is operative to prevent high temperature thrust gases that flow along the ramp structures from infiltrating into the interior of the vehicle.

  10. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  11. Mainshaft seals for small gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Lynwander, P.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of mainshaft seals for small gas turbine engines was conducted with shaft speeds to 213 m/s (700 ft/sec), air pressures to 148 Newtons per square centimeter abs. (215 psia), and air temperatures to 412k(282 F). A radial face seal incorporating self-acting geometry for lift augmentation was evaluated. In addition, three conventional carbon seal types (face, circumferential segmented, and rotating ring) were run for comparison. Test results indicated that the conventional seals used in this evaluation may not be satisfactory in future advanced engines because of excessive air leakage. On the other hand, the self-acting face seal was shown to have the potential capability of limiting leakages to one-half that of the conventional face seals and one-fifth that of conventional ring seals. A 150-hour endurance test of the self-acting face seal was conducted.

  12. Evaluation of modified single seal surface treatments.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a field study of a multicourse asphalt emulsion chip seal, designated as a modified single seal. The treatment, already used in North Carolina, consists of an application of emulsion and coarse aggregate followed by another appl...

  13. Conference on Deep Earth and Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are covered in the presented papers: (1) rare gases systematics and mantle structure; (2) volatiles in the earth; (3) impact degassing of water and noble gases from silicates; (4) D/H ratios and H2O contents of mantle-derived amphibole megacrysts; (5) thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates; (6) modeling of the effect of water on mantle rheology; (7) noble gas isotopes and halogens in volatile-rich inclusions in diamonds; (8) origin and loss of the volatiles of the terrestrial planets; (9) structure and the stability of hydrous minerals at high pressure; (10) recycling of volatiles at subduction zones and various other topics.

  14. FLUID PURIFIER AND SEALING VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Swanton, W.F.

    1962-04-24

    An improved cold trap designed to condense vapors and collect foreign particles in a flowing fluid is described. In the arrangement, a valve is provided to prevent flow reversal in case of pump failure and to act as a sealing valve. Provision is made for reducing the temperature of the fluid being processed, including a pre-cooling stage. (AEC)

  15. Compressor seal rub energetics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laverty, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The rub mechanics of compressor abradable blade tip seals at simulated engine conditions were investigated. Twelve statistically planned, instrumented rub tests were conducted with titanium blades and Feltmetal fibermetal rubstrips. The tests were conducted with single stationary blades rubbing against seal material bonded to rotating test disks. The instantaneous rub torque, speed, incursion rate and blade temperatures were continuously measured and recorded. Basic rub parameters (incursion rate, rub depth, abradable density, blade thickness and rub velocity) were varied to determine the effects on rub energy and heat split between the blade, rubstrip surface and rub debris. The test data was reduced, energies were determined and statistical analyses were completed to determine the primary and interactive effects. Wear surface morphology, profile measurements and metallographic analysis were used to determine wear, glazing, melting and material transfer. The rub energies for these tests were most significantly affected by the incursion rate while rub velocity and blade thickness were of secondary importance. The ratios of blade wear to seal wear were representative of those experienced in engine operation of these seal system materials.

  16. Sealing ducts to save energy

    SciT

    Siuru, B.

    1996-07-01

    Large amounts of energy are wasted when heat leaks through ductwork located in uninsulated spaces. The Electric Power Research INstitute recently did a study that accurately measured these losses, then substantially reduced them by sealing the leaky ductwork. Six homes in the Pacific Northwest with significant duct leakage to the outside were selected for the study. The homes had electric resistance or heat pump, forced-air heating systems with a major portion of the supply and return ductwork in crawl spaces, attics, garages, etc. Measurements of duct leakage and heating system efficiency were done on all the homes before starting themore » duct sealing. Retrofitting included finding holes, gaps, cracks and disconnected joints in supply and return ducts as well as in plenums. When necessary, plenums were cut open for repairs. Leaks were sealed with Latex mastic and fiberglass tape. Outside ducts were covered or wrapped with insulation. Unducted returns were sealed with duct board. In some cases, leakage was corrected by merely reconnecting ducts and boots.« less

  17. Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to

  18. Sealing apparatus utilizing a conformable member

    DOEpatents

    Neef, William S.; Lambert, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    Sealing apparatus and method, comprising first and second surfaces or membranes, at least one of which surfaces is deformable, placed in proximity to one another. Urging means cause these surfaces to contact one another in a manner such that the deformable surface "deforms" to conform to the geometry of the other surface, thereby creating a seal. The seal is capable of undergoing multiple cycles of sealing and unsealing.

  19. 39 CFR 2.4 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES... (ARTICLE II) § 2.4 Seal. (a) The Seal of the Postal Service is filed by the Board in the Office of the Secretary of State, and is required by 39 U.S.C. 207 to be judicially noticed. The Seal shall be in the...

  20. 39 CFR 2.4 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES... (ARTICLE II) § 2.4 Seal. (a) The Seal of the Postal Service is filed by the Board in the Office of the Secretary of State, and is required by 39 U.S.C. 207 to be judicially noticed. The Seal shall be in the...

  1. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  2. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-09-14

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  3. Manifold seal for fuel cell stack assembly

    DOEpatents

    Schmitten, Phillip F.; Wright, Maynard K.

    1989-01-01

    An assembly for sealing a manifold to a stack of fuel cells includes a first resilient member for providing a first sealing barrier between the manifold and the stack. A second resilient member provides a second sealing barrier between the manifold and the stack. The first and second resilient members are retained in such a manner as to define an area therebetween adapted for retaining a sealing composition.

  4. Detrital zircons and Earth system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, R.

    2016-12-01

    Zircon is a mineral commonly produced in silicic magmatism. Therefore, due to its resilience and exceedingly long residence times in the continental crust, detrital zircon records can be used to track processes associated with silicic magmatism throughout Earth history. In this contribution I will address the potential role of preservational biases in zircon record, and further discuss how zircon datasets can be used to help better understand the relationship between lithospheric and Earth system evolution. I will use large compilations of zircon data to trace the composition and weatherability of the continental crust, to evaluate temporal rates of crustal recycling, and finally to track spatiotemporal variation in continental arc magmatism and volcanic CO2 outgassing throughout Earth history. These records demonstrate that secular changes in plate tectonic regimes played a prominent role in modulating conditions of the ocean+atmosphere system and long-term climate state for the last 3 billion years.

  5. High-Temperature, Bellows Hybrid Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Sirocky, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A high-temperature hybrid seal is constructed of multiple elements to meet the many demands placed on the seal. The primary elements are: a central high-temperature bellows, a braided ceramic sheath covering the bellows, an outer abrasion resistant sheath covering the ceramic sheath, and a structurally-sound seal-end termination.

  6. Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery

    SciT

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.

  7. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents and for affixation of the seal for a certification or validation are the same as those provided in subpart...

  8. 1 CFR 18.8 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seal. 18.8 Section 18.8 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.8 Seal. Use of a seal on an original document or...

  9. 28 CFR 0.146 - Seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals. 0.146 Section 0.146 Judicial... Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.146 Seals. The Director of the Federal Bureau of... the U.S. Marshals Service shall each have custody of the seal pertaining to his respective...

  10. 40 CFR 147.3103 - Fluid seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fluid seals. 147.3103 Section 147.3103... Tribes § 147.3103 Fluid seals. Notwithstanding §§ 144.28(f)(2) and 146.12(c) of this chapter, owners and operators shall not use a fluid seal as an alternative to a packer. ...

  11. 40 CFR 147.3103 - Fluid seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluid seals. 147.3103 Section 147.3103... Tribes § 147.3103 Fluid seals. Notwithstanding §§ 144.28(f)(2) and 146.12(c) of this chapter, owners and operators shall not use a fluid seal as an alternative to a packer. ...

  12. 29 CFR 4002.11 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 4002.11 Section 4002.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL BYLAWS OF THE PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION § 4002.11 Seal. The seal of the Corporation shall be in such form as may be approved from time to...

  13. 29 CFR 4002.11 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seal. 4002.11 Section 4002.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL BYLAWS OF THE PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION § 4002.11 Seal. The seal of the Corporation shall be in such form as may be approved from time to...

  14. 28 CFR 0.146 - Seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals. 0.146 Section 0.146 Judicial... Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.146 Seals. The Director of the Federal Bureau of... the U.S. Marshals Service shall each have custody of the seal pertaining to his respective...

  15. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents and for affixation of the seal for a certification or validation are the same as those provided in subpart...

  16. 1 CFR 18.8 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seal. 18.8 Section 18.8 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.8 Seal. Use of a seal on an original document or...

  17. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal.

  18. 19 CFR 113.25 - Seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS... signatures of principal and surety, if individuals, and the corporate seal shall be affixed close to the... requires its acts to be evidenced by its corporate seal, such seal is required. ...

  19. 19 CFR 113.25 - Seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS... signatures of principal and surety, if individuals, and the corporate seal shall be affixed close to the... requires its acts to be evidenced by its corporate seal, such seal is required. ...

  20. 19 CFR 113.25 - Seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS... signatures of principal and surety, if individuals, and the corporate seal shall be affixed close to the... requires its acts to be evidenced by its corporate seal, such seal is required. ...

  1. 19 CFR 113.25 - Seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS... signatures of principal and surety, if individuals, and the corporate seal shall be affixed close to the... requires its acts to be evidenced by its corporate seal, such seal is required. ...

  2. 19 CFR 113.25 - Seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS... signatures of principal and surety, if individuals, and the corporate seal shall be affixed close to the... requires its acts to be evidenced by its corporate seal, such seal is required. ...

  3. Improved Seals for High Temperature Airframe Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2006-01-01

    Current thermal barrier seals, such as those used on the Space Shuttle, are insufficient to fully meet the demands of future hypersonic vehicles and reentry spacecraft. Previous investigations have demonstrated limited usage temperatures, as evidenced by a decreased ability to maintain sealing effectiveness at high temperatures (i.e., inadequate resiliency). In order to improve resiliency at elevated temperatures, Rene 41 (Allvac) was substituted for Inconel X-750 (Special Metals Corp.) as the spring tube material in the existing seal design. A seal construction incorporating the Rene 41 spring tube was fabricated and tested against the baseline Inconel X-750 spring tube seal. Although resiliency improvements were not as dramatic as in previous tests with the spring tubes alone, seals incorporating the Rene 41 spring tube exhibited an average 20 percent resiliency enhancement up to 1750 F when compared to seals containing the Inconel spring tube. In addition, the seals with the Rene 41 spring tubes showed less reduction in resiliency as temperatures increased above 1200 F. Results also indicated the Saffil (Saffil Ltd.) insulation in the core of the seal contributed more to resiliency than previously thought. Leakage data did not demonstrate an improvement with the seal containing the Rene 41 spring tube. However, based upon resiliency results, one could reasonably expect the Rene 41 version of the seal to track gap openings over a wider range. Therefore it would exhibit lower leakage than the Inconel X-750 version as the seal gap opens during a typical mission.

  4. Effects of Hypervelocity Impacts on Silicone Elastomer Seals and Mating Aluminum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    While in space silicone based elastomer seals planned for use on NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) are exposed to threats from micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD). An understanding of these threats is required to assess risks to the crew, the CEV orbiter, and missions. An Earth based campaign of hypervelocity impacts on small scale seal rings has been done to help estimate MMOD threats to the primary docking seal being developed for the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). LIDS is being developed to enable the CEV to dock to the ISS (International Space Station) or to Altair (NASA's next lunar lander). The silicone seal on LIDS seals against aluminum alloy flanges on ISS or Altair. Since the integrity of a seal depends on both sealing surfaces, aluminum targets were also impacted. The variables considered in this study included projectile mass, density, speed, incidence angle, seal materials, and target surface treatments and coatings. Most of the impacts used a velocity near 8 km/s and spherical aluminum projectiles (density = 2.7 g/cubic centimeter), however, a few tests were done near 5.6 km/s. Tests were also performed using projectile densities of 7.7, 2.79, 2.5 or 1.14 g/cubic centimeter. Projectile incidence angles examined included 0 degrees, 45 degrees , and 60 degrees from normal to the plane of the target. Elastomer compounds impacted include Parker's S0383-70 and Esterline's ELA-SA-401 in the as received condition, or after an atomic oxygen treatment. Bare, anodized and nickel coated aluminum targets were tested simulating the candidate mating seal surface materials. After impact, seals and aluminum plates were leak tested: damaged seals were tested against an undamaged aluminum plate; and undamaged seals were placed at various locations over craters in aluminum plates. It has been shown that silicone elastomer seals can withstand an impressive level of damage before leaking beyond allowable limits. In general on the tests performed to date, the

  5. Effects of Hypervelocity Impacts on Silicone Elastomer Seals and Mating Aluminum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    While in space silicone based elastomer seals planned for use on NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) are exposed to threats from micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD). An understanding of these threats is required to assess risks to the crew, the CEV orbiter, and missions. An Earth based campaign of hypervelocity impacts on small scale seal rings has been done to help estimate MMOD threats to the primary docking seal being developed for the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). LIDS is being developed to enable the CEV to dock to the ISS (International Space Station) or to Altair (NASA's next lunar lander). The silicone seal on LIDS seals against aluminum alloy flanges on ISS or Altair. Since the integrity of a seal depends on both sealing surfaces, aluminum targets were also impacted. The variables considered in this study included projectile mass, density, speed, incidence angle, seal materials, and target surface treatments and coatings. Most of the impacts used a velocity near 8 km/s and spherical aluminum projectiles (density = 2.7 g/cubic cm), however, a few tests were done near 5.6 km/s. Tests were also performed using projectile densities of 7.7, 2.79, 2.5 or 1.14 g/cubic cm. Projectile incidence angles examined included 0 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg from normal to the plane of the target. Elastomer compounds impacted include Parker's S0383-70 and Esterline's ELA-SA-401 in the as received condition, or after an atomic oxygen treatment. Bare, anodized and nickel coated aluminum targets were tested simulating the candidate mating seal surface materials. After impact, seals and aluminum plates were leak tested: damaged seals were tested against an undamaged aluminum plate; and undamaged seals were placed at various locations over craters in aluminum plates. It has been shown that silicone elastomer seals can withstand an impressive level of damage before leaking beyond allowable limits. In general on the tests performed to date, the diameter of the crater in

  6. Sealing performance of a magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Kano, Kentaro; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya; Higuchi, Taka-Aki

    2009-09-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) for a rotary blood pump seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and, hence, has excellent durability. The performance of a MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We have developed a MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Under the condition of continuous flow, the MF seal remained in perfect condition against a pressure of 298 mm Hg (pump flow rate: 3.96 L/min). The seal was also perfect against a pressure of 170 mm Hg in a continuous flow of 3.9 L/min for 275 days. We have developed a MF seal that works in liquid against clinically used pressures. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  7. Biological and Organic Chemical Decomposition of Silicates. Chapter 7.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    The weathering of silicate rocks and minerals, an important concern of geologists and geochemists for many years, traditionally has been approached from strictly physical and chemical points of view. Biological effects were either unrecognized, ignored, or were mentioned in passing to account for such phenomena as the accumulation of organic matter in sediments or the generation of reducing environments. A major exception occurred in soil science where agricultural scientists, studying the factors important in the development of soils and their ability to nourish and sustain various crops, laid the foundation for much of what is known of the biological breakdown of silicate rocks and minerals. The advent of the space age accelerated the realization that many environmental problems and geochemical processes on Earth can only be understood in terms of ecosystems. This in turn, spurred renewed interest and activity among modem biologists, geologists and soil scientists attempting to unravel the intimate relations between biology and the weathering of silicate rocks and minerals of the earth's surface.

  8. Biological and Organic Chemical Decomposition of Silicates. Chapter 7.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    The weathering of silicate rocks and minerals, an important concern of geologists and geochemists for many years, traditionally has been approached from strictly physical and chemical points of view. Biological effects were either unrecognized, ignored, or were mentioned in passing to account for such phenomena as the accumulation of organic matter in sediments or the generation of reducing environments. A major exception occurred in soil science where agricultural scientists, studying the factors important in the development of soils and their ability to nourish and sustain various crops, laid the foundation for much of what is known of the biological breakdown of silicate rocks and minerals. The advent of the space age accelerated the realization that many environmental problems and geo- chemical processes on Earth can only be understood in terms of ecosystems. This in turn, spurred renewed interest and activity among modem biologists, geologists and soil scientists attempting to unravel the intimate relations between biology and the weathering of silicate rocks and minerals of the earth surface.

  9. Characterizing Amorphous Silicates in Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Wang, A.; Krawczynski, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous silicates are common in extraterrestrial materials. They are seen in the matrix of carbonaceous chondrites as well as in planetary materials. Tagish Lake is one of the most primitive carbonaceous meteorites in which TEM and XRD analyses found evidence for poorly crystalline phyllosilicate-like species; Raman spectra revealed amorphous silicates with variable degree of polymerization and low crystallinity. On Mars, CheMin discovered amorphous phases in all analyzed samples, and poorly crystalline smectite in mudstone samples. These discoveries pose questions on the crystallinity of phyllosilicates found by remote sensing on Mars, which is directly relevant to aqueous alteration during geologic history of Mars. Our goal is to use spectroscopy to better characterize amorphous silicates. We use three approaches: (1) using silicate glasses synthesized with controlled chemistry to study the effects of silicate polymerization and (2) using phyllosilicates synthesized with controlled hydrothermal treatment to study the effect of crystallinity on vibrational spectroscopy, finally (3) to use the developed correlations in above two steps to study amorphous phases in meteorites, and those found in future missions to Mars. In the 1st step, silicate glasses were synthesized from pure oxides in a range of NBO/T ratios (from 0 to 4). Depending on the targeted NBO/T and composition of mixed oxides, temperatures for each experiment fell in a range from 1260 to 1520 °C, run for ~ 4 hrs. The melt was quenched in liquid N2 or water. Homogeneity of glass was checked under optical microscopy. Raman spectra were taken over 100 spots on small chips free of bubbles and crystals. We have observed that accompanying an increase of NBO/T, there is a strengthening and a position shift of the Raman peak near 1000 cm-1 (Si-Onon-bridging stretching mode), and the weakening of broad Raman peaks near 500 cm-1 (ring breathing mode) and 700cm-1 (Si-Obridging-Si mode). We are building the

  10. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100 C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changed suddenly.

  11. Experimental, in-situ carbon solution mechanisms and isotope fractionation in and between (C-O-H)-saturated silicate melt and silicate-saturated (C-O-H) fluid to upper mantle temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2017-02-01

    Our understanding of materials transport processes in the Earth relies on characterizing the behavior of fluid and melt in silicate-(C-O-H) systems at high temperature and pressure. Here, Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine structure of and carbon isotope partitioning between melts and fluids in alkali aluminosilicate-C-O-H systems. The experimental data were recorded in-situ while the samples were at equilibrium in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell at temperatures and pressures to 825 °C and >1300 MPa, respectively. The carbon solution equilibrium in both (C-O-H)-saturated melt and coexisting, silicate-saturated (C-O-H) fluid is 2CO3 + H2O + 2Qn + 1 = 2HCO3 + 2Qn. In the Qn-notation, the superscript, n, is the number of bridging oxygen in silicate structural units. At least one oxygen in CO3 and HCO3 groups likely is shared with silicate tetrahedra. The structural behavior of volatile components described with this equilibrium governs carbon isotope fractionation factors between melt and fluid. For example, the ΔH equals 3.2 ± 0.7 kJ/mol for the bulk 13C/12C exchange equilibrium between fluid and melt. From these experimental data, it is suggested that at deep crustal and upper mantle temperatures and pressures, the δ13C-differences between coexisting silicate-saturated (C-O-H) fluid and (C-O-H)-saturated silicate melts may change by more than 100‰ as a function of temperature in the range of magmatic processes. Absent information on temperature and pressure, the use of carbon isotopes of mantle-derived magma to derive isotopic composition of magma source regions in the Earth's interior, therefore, should be exercised with care.

  12. Partitioning of Mo, P and other siderophile elements (Cu, Ga, Sn, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, V, and W) between metal and silicate melt as a function of temperature and silicate melt composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L.; Lee, Cin-Ty

    2010-03-01

    Metal-silicate partition coefficients can provide information about the earliest differentiation histories of terrestrial planets and asteroids. Systematic studies of the effects of key parameters such as temperature and melt composition are lacking for many elements. In particular, data for Mo is scarce, but given its refractory nature, is of great value in interpreting metal-silicate equilibrium. Two series of experiments have been carried out to study Mo and P partitioning between Fe metallic liquid and basaltic to peridotitic silicate melt, at 1 GPa and temperatures between 1500 and 1900 °C. Because the silicate melt utilized was natural basalt, there are also measurable quantities of 9 other siderophile elements (Ni, Co, W, Sn, Cu, Mn, V, Cr, Ga and Zn). The Ni and Co data can be used to assess consistency with previous studies. In addition, the new data also allow a first systematic look at the temperature dependence of Cu, Ga, Sn, Cr, Mn V and W for basaltic to peridotitic melts. Many elements exhibit an increase in siderophile behavior at higher temperature, contrary to popular belief, but consistent with predictions from thermodynamics. Using these new data we examine DMomet/sil and DPmet/sil in detail and show that increasing temperature causes a decrease in the former and an increase in the latter, whereas both increase with MgO content of the silicate melt. The depletions of Mo and P in the mantle of the Earth can be explained by metal-silicate equilibrium at magma ocean conditions — both elements are satisfied at PT conditions of an intermediate depth magma ocean for the Earth 22.5 GPa and 2400 °C.

  13. MTA and F-doped MTA cements used as sealers with warm gutta-percha. Long-term study of sealing ability.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, M G; Prati, C

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the long-term sealing ability (up to 6 months) of two experimental calcium silicate MTA cements used as root canal sealers in association with warm gutta-percha. Calcium silicate (MTA) and calcium-fluoro-silicate powders were prepared. Sodium fluoride was included in FMTA (Fluoride-doped Mineral Trioxide Aggregate) as an expansive and retardant agent. Single-rooted teeth were instrumented with NiTi rotary instruments, filled with warm gutta-percha in association with one of the experimental sealers or with AH Plus as a control (n = 20 for each sealer) and stored at 37 °C. Sealing was assessed at 24, 48 h, 1, 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6 months by a fluid filtration method. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis (SEM/EDX) was used to study the dentine/sealer interface of roots stored for 6 months and the surface of cement disks stored for 24 h. All sealers revealed a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fluid filtration after the first 2 weeks. No statistically significant differences were observed between FMTA and AH Plus at all analysis times. At short times (24, 48-h), no statistically significant differences were found between the experimental cements and AH Plus. At long-term evaluations (1, 3, 6 months), FMTA and AH Plus sealed significantly better (P < 0.05) than MTA. FMTA was associated with lower fluid filtration rates, and the seal was stable from 48 h to 6 months, thus proving the most effective material. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of root sections filled with calcium silicate sealers revealed the formation of a blend layer of gutta-percha and cement consequent to the warm gutta-percha condensation technique. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of 24-h-stored disks identified a Ca-rich coating on the outer surface consisting of globular particles (calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate), and a deeper internal Ca- and Si-rich region consisting of needle

  14. Turbine Seal Research at NASA GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Low-leakage, long-life turbomachinery seals are important to both Space and Aeronautics Missions. (1) Increased payload capability (2) Decreased specific fuel consumption and emissions (3) Decreased direct operating costs. NASA GRC has a history of significant accomplishments and collaboration with industry and academia in seals research. NASA's unique, state-of-the-art High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Facility is an asset to the U.S. Engine / Seal Community. Current focus is on developing experimentally validated compliant, non-contacting, high temperature seal designs, analysis, and design methodologies to enable commercialization.

  15. Alternate seal configuration for lithium primary cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of glass degradation in the glass-to-metal seals in lithium/sulfur dioxide cells is discussed. The glass degradation mechanism is attributed to lithium reacting with glass which is a result of deposition of lithium at the glass/metal/electrolyte interface. The worst degradation was observed when cells were stored in the inverted position. Alternate sealing methods were examined and a modified Ziegler seal is considered to be one of the best possible methods. The seal consists of a crimp type soft seal using a plastic annulus and a metal tube. Results of degradation tests are presented.

  16. Energy conversion device with improved seal

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Gerald R.; Virkar, Anil V.

    1980-01-01

    An energy conversion device comprising an improved sealing member adapted to seal a cation-permeable casing to the remainder of the device. The sealing member comprises a metal substrate which (i) bears a nonconductive and corrosion resistant coating on the major surface to which said casing is sealed, and (ii) is corrugated so as to render it flexible, thereby allowing said member to move relative to said casing without cracking the seal therebetween. Corrugations may be circumferential, radial, or both radial and circumferential so as to form dimples. The corrugated member may be in form of a bellows or in a substantially flat form, such as a disc.

  17. Experimental rotordynamic coefficient results for honeycomb seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.; Childs, Dara W.

    1988-01-01

    Test results (leakage and rotordynamic coefficients) are presented for seven honeycomb-stator smooth-rotor seals. Tests were carried out with air at rotor speeds up to 16,000 cpm and supply pressures up to 8.2 bars. Test results for the seven seals are compared, and the most stable configuration is identified based on the whirl frequency ratio. Results from tests of a smooth-rotor/smooth-stator seal, a teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal, and the most stable honeycomb seal are compared.

  18. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Potassium Silicate, Sodium Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate combine metal cations with silica to form inorganic salts used as corrosion inhibitors in cosmetics. Sodium Metasilicate also functions as a chelating agent and Sodium Silicate as a buffering and pH adjuster. Sodium Metasilicate is currently used in 168 formulations at concentrations ranging from 13% to 18%. Sodium Silicate is currently used in 24 formulations at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 55%. Potassium Silicate and Sodium Silicate have been reported as being used in industrial cleaners and detergents. Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) food ingredient. Aqueous solutions of Sodium Silicate species are a part of a chemical continuum of silicates based on an equilibrium of alkali, water, and silica. pH determines the solubility of silica and, together with concentration, determines the degree of polymerization. Sodium Silicate administered orally is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of these silicates has been related to the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O and the concentration being used. The Sodium Metasilicate acute oral LD50 ranged from 847 mg/kg in male rats to 1349.3 mg/kg in female rats and from 770 mg/kg in female mice to 820 mg/kg in male mice. Gross lesions of variable severity were found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lungs, and kidneys of dogs receiving 0.25 g/kg or more of a commercial detergent containing Sodium Metasilicate; similar lesions were also seen in pigs administered the same detergent and dose. Male rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1000 and 2150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. Dogs fed 2.4 g/kg/day of Sodium Silicate for 4 weeks had gross renal lesions but no impairment of renal function. Dermal irritation of Potassium Silicate, Sodium

  19. Method for producing a fuel cell manifold seal

    DOEpatents

    Grevstad, Paul E.; Johnson, Carl K.; Mientek, Anthony P.

    1982-01-01

    A manifold-to-stack seal and sealing method for fuel cell stacks. This seal system solves the problem of maintaining a low leak rate manifold seal as the fuel cell stack undergoes compressive creep. The seal system eliminates the problem of the manifold-to-stack seal sliding against the rough stack surface as the stack becomes shorter because of cell creep, which relative motion destroys the seal. The seal system described herein utilizes a polymer seal frame firmly clamped between the manifold and the stack such that the seal frame moves with the stack. Thus, as the stack creeps, the seal frame creeps with it, and there is no sliding at the rough, tough to seal, stack-to-seal frame interface. Here the sliding is on a smooth easy to seal location between the seal frame and the manifold.

  20. Polymer Layered Silicate Nanocomposites: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vikas

    2009-01-01

    This review aims to present recent advances in the synthesis and structure characterization as well as the properties of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites. The advent of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites has revolutionized research into polymer composite materials. Nanocomposites are organic-inorganic hybrid materials in which at least one dimension of the filler is less than 100 nm. A number of synthesis routes have been developed in the recent years to prepare these materials, which include intercalation of polymers or pre-polymers from solution, in-situ polymerization, melt intercalation etc. The nanocomposites where the filler platelets can be dispersed in the polymer at the nanometer scale owing to the specific filler surface modifications, exhibit significant improvement in the composite properties, which include enhanced mechanical strength, gas barrier, thermal stability, flame retardancy etc. Only a small amount of filler is generally required for the enhancement in the properties, which helps the composite materials retain transparency and low density.