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Sample records for earth space radar

  1. Earth-Space Link Attenuation Estimation via Ground Radar Kdp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolen, Steven M.; Benjamin, Andrew L.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of predicting attenuation on microwave Earth/spacecraft communication links, over wide areas and under various atmospheric conditions, has been developed. In the area around the ground station locations, a nearly horizontally aimed polarimetric S-band ground radar measures the specific differential phase (Kdp) along the Earth-space path. The specific attenuation along a path of interest is then computed by use of a theoretical model of the relationship between the measured S-band specific differential phase and the specific attenuation at the frequency to be used on the communication link. The model includes effects of rain, wet ice, and other forms of precipitation. The attenuation on the path of interest is then computed by integrating the specific attenuation over the length of the path. This method can be used to determine statistics of signal degradation on Earth/spacecraft communication links. It can also be used to obtain real-time estimates of attenuation along multiple Earth/spacecraft links that are parts of a communication network operating within the radar coverage area, thereby enabling better management of the network through appropriate dynamic routing along the best combination of links.

  2. Ground Radar Polarimetric Observations of High-Frequency Earth-Space Communication Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.; Benjamin, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Strategic roadmaps for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS) enterprise support near-term high-frequency communication systems that provide moderate to high data rates with dependable service. Near-earth and human planetary exploration will baseline Ka-Band, but may ultimately require the use of even higher frequencies. Increased commercial demand on low-frequency earth-space bands has also led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like K u - and K,- band. Data is taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), which operates at 13.8 GHz, and the true radar reflectivity profile is determined along the PR beam via low-frequency ground based polarimetric observations. The specific differential phase (Kdp) is measured along the beam and a theoretical model is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k). This technique, called the k-Kdp method, uses a Fuzzy-Logic model to determine the hydrometeor type along the PR beam from which the appropriate k-Kdp relationship is used to determine k and, ultimately, the total path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on PR measurements. Measurements from PR and the NCAR S-POL radar were made during the TEFLUN-B experiment that took place near Melbourne, FL in 1998, and the TRMM-LBA campaign near Ji-Parana, Brazil in 1999.

  3. Estimation of High-Frequency Earth-Space Radio Wave Signals via Ground-Based Polarimetric Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.

    2002-01-01

    Expanding human presence in space, and enabling the commercialization of this frontier, is part of the strategic goals for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. Future near-Earth and planetary missions will support the use of high-frequency Earth-space communication systems. Additionally, increased commercial demand on low-frequency Earth-space links in the S- and C-band spectra have led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like Ku and Ka-band. Attenuation of high-frequency signals, due to a precipitating medium, can be quite severe and can cause considerable disruptions in a communications link that traverses such a medium. Previously, ground radar measurements were made along the Earth-space path and compared to satellite beacon data that was transmitted to a ground station. In this paper, quantitative estimation of the attenuation along the propagation path is made via inter-comparisons of radar data taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and ground-based polarimetric radar observations. Theoretical relationships between the expected specific attenuation (k) of spaceborne measurements with ground-based measurements of reflectivity (Zh) and differential propagation phase shift (Kdp) are developed for various hydrometeors that could be present along the propagation path, which are used to estimate the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on the PR return echo. Resolution volume matching and alignment of the radar systems is performed, and a direct comparison of PR return echo with ground radar attenuation estimates is made directly on a beam-by-beam basis. The technique is validated using data collected from the TExas and Florida UNderflights (TEFLUN-B) experiment and the TRMM large Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) campaign. Attenuation estimation derived from this method can be used for strategiC planning of communication systems for

  4. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  5. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  6. Space Radar Laboratory photos taken at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-18

    S94-30393 (23 Nov 1993) --- In the south level IV stand of the Operations and Checkout Building low bay, the Space Radar Laboratory -1 (SRL-1) antenna is being placed atop a pallet which holds the antenna electronics. SRL-1 is scheduled to fly on Space Shuttle mission STS-59 next year. It is comprised of two different imaging radars, the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and the X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR). These radars are the most advanced of their kind to fly in space to date, and will allow scientists to make highly detailed studies of the Earth's surface on a global scale. An Interface Verification Test of the antenna and a Mission Sequence Test will be performed on the fully assembled SRL-1 later this month.

  7. Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  8. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  9. Observation of the Earth by radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques and applications of radar observation from Earth satellites are discussed. Images processing and analysis of these images are discussed. Also discussed is radar imaging from aircraft. Uses of this data include ocean wave analysis, surface water evaluation, and topographic analysis.

  10. Space Radar Image of Raco Biomass Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This biomass map of the Raco, Michigan, area was produced from data acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour. Biomass is the amount of plant material on an area of Earth's surface. Radar can directly sense the quantity and organizational structure of the woody biomass in the forest. Science team members at the University of Michigan used the radar data to estimate the standing biomass for this Raco site in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Detailed surveys of 70 forest stands will be used to assess the accuracy of these techniques. The seasonal growth of terrestrial plants, and forests in particular, leads to the temporary storage of large amounts of carbon, which could directly affect changes in global climate. In order to accurately predict future global change, scientists need detailed information about current distribution of vegetation types and the amount of biomass present around the globe. Optical techniques to determine net biomass are frustrated by chronic cloud-cover. Imaging radar can penetrate through cloud-cover with negligible signal losses. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German

  11. Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

  12. Space Radar Image of Belgrade, Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Belgrade, Serbia, illustrates the variety of land use patterns that can be observed with a multiple wavelength radar system. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia and former capital of Yugoslavia, is the bright area in the center of the image. The Danube River flows from the top to the bottom of the image, and the Sava River flows into the Danube from the left. Agricultural fields appear in shades of dark blue, purple and brown in outlying areas. Vegetated areas along the rivers appear in light blue-green, while dense forests in hillier areas in the lower left appear in a darker shade of green. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is centered at 44.5 degrees north latitude and 20.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 36 kilometers by 32 kilometers 22 miles by 20 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  13. Radar observations of near-Earth asteroids from Arecibo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano Marin, Luisa Fernanda; Virkki, Anne; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida

    2016-10-01

    The Arecibo S-Band (2.38 GHz, 12.6 cm, 1 MW) planetary radar system at the 305-m William E. Gordon Telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico is the most active and most sensitive planetary radar facility in the world. Since October 2015, we have detected 56 near-Earth asteroids, of which 17 are classified as potentially hazardous to Earth and 22 are compliant with the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Target Study (NHATS) as possible future robotic- or human-mission destinations. We will present a sampling of the asteroid zoo observed by the Arecibo radar since the 2015 DPS meeting. This includes press-noted asteroids 2015 TB145, the so-called "Great Pumpkin", and 2003 SD220, the so-called "Christmas Eve asteroid".

  14. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  15. Space Radar Image of Ubar Optical/Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-28

    This pair of images from space shows a portion of the southern Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula in the country of Oman. On the left is a radar image of the region around the site of the fabled Lost City of Ubar, discovered in 1992 with the aid of remote sensing data. On the right is an enhanced optical image taken by the shuttle astronauts. Ubar existed from about 2800 BC to about 300 AD. and was a remote desert outpost where caravans were assembled for the transport of frankincense across the desert. The actual site of the fortress of the Lost City of Ubar, currently under excavation, is too small to show in either image. However, tracks leading to the site, and surrounding tracks, show as prominent, but diffuse, reddish streaks in the radar image. Although used in modern times, field investigations show many of these tracks were in use in ancient times as well. Mapping of these tracks on regional remote sensing images provided by the Landsat satellite was a key to recognizing the site as Ubar. The prominent magenta colored area is a region of large sand dunes. The green areas are limestone rocks, which form a rocky desert floor. A major wadi, or dry stream bed, runs across the scene and appears as a white line. The radar images, and ongoing field investigations, will help shed light on an early civilization about which little in known. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) and is centered at 18 degrees North latitude and 53 degrees East longitude. The image covers an area about 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United

  16. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of San Francisco, California, taken on October 3,1994. The image is about 40 kilometers by 55 kilometers (25 miles by 34 miles) with north toward the upper right. Downtown San Francisco is visible in the center of the image with the city of Oakland east (to the right) across San Francisco Bay. Also visible in the image is the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) and the Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and Oakland. North of the Bay Bridge is Treasure Island. Alcatraz Island appears as a small dot northwest of Treasure Island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 56. The image is centered at 37 degrees north latitude, 122degrees west longitude. This single-frequency SIR-C image was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) radar channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this image appear very dark as do other smooth surfaces such as airport runways. Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of San Francisco, appear as lighter gray. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as those seen in the downtown areas, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the radar flight track. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes

  17. Space Radar Image of Samara, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image shows the city of Samara, Russia in pink and light green right of center. Samara is at the junction of the Volga and Samara Rivers approximately 800 kilometers (500 miles) southeast of Moscow. The wide river in the center of the image is the Volga. Samara, formerly Kuybyshev, is a busy industrial city known for its chemical, mechanical and petroleum industries. Northwest of the Volga (upper left corner of the image) are deciduous forests of the Samarskaya Luka National Park. Complex patterns in the floodplain of the Volga are caused by 'cut-off' lakes and channels from former courses of the meandering river. The three radar frequencies allow scientists to distinguish different types of agricultural fields in the lower right side of the image. For example, fields which appear light blue are short grass or cleared fields. Purple and green fields contain taller plants or rough plowed soil. Scientists hope to use radar data such as these to understand the environmental consequences of industrial, agricultural and natural preserve areas coexisting in close proximity. This image is 50 kilometers by 26 kilometers (31 by 16 miles) and is centered at 53.2 degrees north latitude, 50.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 1, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  18. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint

  19. Space Radar Image of Owens Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Owens Valley, near the town of Bishop, California that was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southeast along the eastern edge of Owens Valley. The White Mountains are in the center of the image, and the Inyo Mountains loom in the background. The high peaks of the White Mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The runways of the Bishop airport are visible at the right edge of the image. The meandering course of the Owens River and its tributaries appear light blue on the valley floor. Blue areas in the image are smooth, yellow areas are rock outcrops, and brown areas near the mountains are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar data were taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is

  20. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  1. Space Radar Image of Boston, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of the area surrounding Boston, Mass., shows how a spaceborne radar system distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. The bright white area at the right center of the image is downtown Boston. The wide river below and to the left of the city is the Charles River in Boston's Back Bay neighborhood. The dark green patch to the right of the Back Bay is Boston Common. A bridge across the north end of Back Bay connects the cities of Boston and Cambridge. The light green areas that dominate most of the image are the suburban communities surrounding Boston. The many ponds that dot the region appear as dark irregular spots. Many densely populated urban areas show up as red in the image due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. North is toward the upper left. The image was acquired on October 9, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. This area is centered at 42.4 degrees north latitude, 71.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 37 km by 18 km (23 miles by 11 miles). Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a cooperative mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  2. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  3. Space Radar Image of Los Angeles, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the massive urbanization of Los Angeles, California. The image extends from the Santa Monica Bay at the left to the San Gabriel Mountains at the right. Downtown Los Angeles is in the center of the image. The runways of the Los Angeles International Airport appear as black strips at the left center of the image. The waterways of Marina del Rey are seen just above the airport. The San Gabriel Mountains and the city of Pasadena are at the right center of the image. Black areas on the mountains on the right are fire scars from the 1993 Altadena fire. The Rose Bowl is shown as a small circle near the right center. The complex freeway system is visible as dark lines throughout the image. Some city areas, such as Santa Monica in the upper left, appear red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 34.04 degrees North latitude and 118.2 degrees West longitude with North pointing toward the upper right. The area shown measures 40 kilometers by 50 kilometers (25 miles by 31 miles).

  4. Space Radar Image of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The summit of the Mount Etna volcano on the island of Sicily, Italy, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, is shown near the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of purple, green, yellow and pink surrounding the four small craters at the summit. Etna is one of the best-studied volcanoes in the world and scientists are using this radar image to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. Etna has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history, with the most recent significant eruption in 1991-1993. Scientists are studying Etna as part of the international "Decade Volcanoes" project, because of its high level of activity and potential threat to local populations. This image was acquired on October 11, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 37.8 degrees North latitude and 15.1 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 51.2 kilometers by 22.6 kilometers (31.7 miles by 14.0 miles). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01776

  5. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those

  6. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this image are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate radar wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the image are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the image and the blue circular structures in the center of the image are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This image is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission

  7. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City image is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The image was produced using three channels of SIR-C radar data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the image. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red

  8. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Data acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 4, 1994 from the X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour were used to generate interferometric fringes, which were overlaid on the X-SAR image of Kilauea. The volcano is centered in this image at 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. The image covers about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.6 miles by 8 miles). The X-band fringes correspond clearly to the expected topographic image. The yellow line indicates the area below which was used for the three-dimensional image using altitude lines. The yellow rectangular frame fences the area for the final topographic image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo Componenti Elettronici (IRECE) at the University of Naples was a partner in interferometry analysis.

  9. Space Radar Image of Randonia Rain Cell

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This multi-frequency space radar image of a tropical rainforest in western Brazil shows rapidly changing land use patterns and it also demonstrates the capability of the different radar frequencies to detect and penetrate heavy rainstorms.

  10. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface.

  11. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  12. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    .8 degrees North latitude, 156.4 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is the difference of the C-band and L-band channels. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  13. Space Radar Image of North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    -C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01799

  14. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-dimensional image of the volcano Kilauea was generated based on interferometric fringes derived from two X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data takes on April 13, 1994 and October 4, 1994. The altitude lines are based on quantitative interpolation of the topographic fringes. The level difference between neighboring altitude lines is 20 meters (66 feet). The ground area covers 12 kilometers by 4 kilometers (7.5 miles by 2.5 miles). The altitude difference in the image is about 500 meters (1,640 feet). The volcano is located around 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo Componenti Elettronici (IRECE) at the University of Naples was a partner in the interferometry analysis.

  15. Space Radar Image of Pishan, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image is centered near the small town of Pishan in northwest China, about 280 km (174 miles) southeast of the city of Kashgar along the ancient Silk Route in the Taklamakan desert of the Xinjiang Province. Geologists are using this radar image as a map to study past climate changes and tectonics of the area. The irregular lavender branching patterns in the center of the image are the remains of ancient alluvial fans, gravel deposits that have accumulated at the base of the mountains during times of wetter climate. The subtle striped pattern cutting across the ancient fans are caused by thrusting of the Kun Lun Mountains north. This motion is caused by the continuing plate-tectonic collision of India with Asia. Modern fans show up as large lavender triangles above the ancient fan deposits. Yellow areas on the modern fans are vegetated oases. The gridded pattern results from the alignment of poplar trees that have been planted as wind breaks. The reservoir at the top of the image is part of a sophisticated irrigation system that supplies water to the oases. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour in April 1994. This image is centered at 37.4 degrees north latitude, 78.3 degrees east longitude and shows an area approximately 50 km by 100 km (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01796

  16. Space Radar Image of Pishan, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image is centered near the small town of Pishan in northwest China, about 280 km (174 miles) southeast of the city of Kashgar along the ancient Silk Route in the Taklamakan desert of the Xinjiang Province. Geologists are using this radar image as a map to study past climate changes and tectonics of the area. The irregular lavender branching patterns in the center of the image are the remains of ancient alluvial fans, gravel deposits that have accumulated at the base of the mountains during times of wetter climate. The subtle striped pattern cutting across the ancient fans are caused by thrusting of the Kun Lun Mountains north. This motion is caused by the continuing plate-tectonic collision of India with Asia. Modern fans show up as large lavender triangles above the ancient fan deposits. Yellow areas on the modern fans are vegetated oases. The gridded pattern results from the alignment of poplar trees that have been planted as wind breaks. The reservoir at the top of the image is part of a sophisticated irrigation system that supplies water to the oases. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour in April 1994. This image is centered at 37.4 degrees north latitude, 78.3 degrees east longitude and shows an area approximately 50 km by 100 km (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  17. Space Radar Image of Tuva, Central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows part of the remote central Asian region of Tuva, an autonomous republic of the Russian Federation. Tuva is a mostly mountainous region that lies between western Mongolia and southern Siberia. This image shows the area just south of the republic's capital of Kyzyl. Most of the red, pink and blue areas in the image are agricultural fields of a large collective farming complex that was developed during the era of the Soviet Union. Traditional agricultural activity in the region, still active in remote areas, revolves around practices of nomadic livestock herding. White areas on the image are north-facing hillsides, which develop denser forests than south-facing slopes. The river in the upper right is one of the two major branches of the Yenesey River. Tuva has received some notoriety in recent years due to the intense interest of the celebrated Caltech physicist Dr. Richard Feynman, chronicled in the book 'Tuva or Bust' by Ralph Leighton. The image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band SyntheticAperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour onOctober 1, 1994. The image is 56 kilometers by 74 kilometers (35 miles by 46 miles) and is centered at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar fequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted andreceived; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and verticallyreceived. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to PlanetEarth program.

  18. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the image. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The image is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  19. Space Radar Image of Victoria, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency spaceborne radar image shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia. The three radar frequencies help to distinguish different land use patterns. The bright pink areas are suburban regions, the brownish areas are forested regions, and blue areas are agricultural fields or forest clear-cuts. Founded in 1843 as a fur trading post, Victoria has grown to become one of western Canada's largest commercial centers. In the upper right is San Juan Island, in the state of Washington. The Canada/U.S. border runs through Haro Strait, on the right side of the image, between San Juan Island and Vancouver Island. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 6, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 37 kilometers by 42 kilometers (23 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 123.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  20. Space Radar Image of Canberra, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Australia's capital city, Canberra, is shown in the center of this spaceborne radar image. Images like this can help urban planners assess land use patterns. Heavily developed areas appear in bright patchwork patterns of orange, yellow and blue. Dense vegetation appears bright green, while cleared areas appear in dark blue or black. Located in southeastern Australia, the site of Canberra was selected as the capital in 1901 as a geographic compromise between Sydney and Melbourne. Design and construction of the city began in 1908 under the supervision of American architect Walter Burley-Griffin. Lake Burley-Griffin is located above and to the left of the center of the image. The bright pink area is the Parliament House. The city streets, lined with government buildings, radiate like spokes from the Parliament House. The bright purple cross in the lower left corner of the image is a reflection from one of the large dish-shaped radio antennas at the Tidbinbilla, Canberra Deep Space Network Communication Complex, operated jointly by NASA and the Australian Space Office. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is 28 kilometers by 25 kilometers (17 miles by 15 miles) and is centered at 35.35 degrees south latitude, 149.17 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth.

  1. Space Radar Image of Oil Slicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of an offshore drilling field about 150 km (93 miles) west of Bombay, India, in the Arabian Sea. The dark streaks are extensive oil slicks surrounding many of the drilling platforms, which appear as bright white spots. Radar images are useful for detecting and measuring the extent of oil seepages on the ocean surface, from both natural and industrial sources. The long, thin streaks extending from many of the platforms are spreading across the sea surface, pushed by local winds. The larger dark patches are dispersed slicks that were likely discharged earlier than the longer streaks, when the winds were probably from a different direction. The dispersed oil will eventually spread out over the more dense water and become a layer which is a single molecule thick. Many forms of oil, both from biological and from petroleum sources, smooth out the ocean surface, causing the area to appear dark in radar images. There are also two forms of ocean waves shown in this image. The dominant group of large waves (upper center) are called internal waves. These waves are formed below the ocean surface at the boundary between layers of warm and cold water and they appear in the radar image because of the way they change the ocean surface. Ocean swells, which are waves generated by winds, are shown throughout the image but are most distinct in the blue area adjacent to the internal waves. Identification of waves provide oceanographers with information about the smaller scale dynamic processes of the ocean. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C

  2. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    site is covered by glaciers. Corner reflectors are set up for calibration. Five corner reflectors can be seen on the Gepatschferner and two can be seen on the Vernagtferner. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  3. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    swiftly than is currently possible. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  4. NASA Radar Captures Earth Deformation from 2010 Baja Calif. Quake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    This radar image from NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar UAVSAR shows the deformed Earth caused by a 7.2 earthquake in Mexico state of Baja California and parts of the American Southwest on April 4, 2010.

  5. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image of San Francisco, California shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market, called the SOMA district in San Francisco, appear bright red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. Various bridges in the area are also visible including the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) at the opening of San Francisco Bay, the Bay Bridge (right center) connecting San Francisco and Oakland, and the San Mateo Bridge (bottom center). All the dark areas on the image are relatively smooth water: the Pacific Ocean to the left, San Francisco Bay in the center, and various reservoirs. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen in the lower left of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east. The image is about 42 kilometers by 58 kilometers (26 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. This area is centered at 37.83 degrees north latitude, 122.38 degrees east longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  6. Space Radar Image of Harvard Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the area surrounding the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts that has been operated as a ecological research facility by Harvard University since 1907. At the center of the image is the Quabbin Reservoir, and the Connecticut River is at the lower left of the image. The Harvard Forest itself is just above the reservoir. Researchers are comparing the naturally occurring physical disturbances in the forest and the recent and projected chemical disturbances and their effects on the forest ecosystem. Agricultural land appears dark blue/purple, along with low shrub vegetation and some wetlands. Urban development is bright pink; the yellow to green tints are conifer-dominated vegetation with the pitch pine sand plain at the middle left edge of the image appearing very distinctive. The green tint may indicate pure pine plantation stands, and deciduous broadleaf trees appear gray/pink with perhaps wetter sites being pinker. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 42.50 degrees North latitude and 72.33 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 53 kilometers 63 by kilometers (33 miles by 39 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received.

  7. Space Radar Image of Los Angeles, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image shows the massive urbanization of Los Angeles, California. The image extends from the Santa Monica Bay at the left to the San Gabriel Mountains at the right. Downtown Los Angeles is in the center of the image. The runways of the Los Angeles International Airport appear as black strips at the left center of the image. The waterways of Marina del Rey are seen just above the airport. The San Gabriel Mountains and the city of Pasadena are at the right center of the image. Black areas on the mountains on the right are fire scars from the 1993 Altadena fire. The Rose Bowl is shown as a small circle near the right center. The complex freeway system is visible as dark lines throughout the image. Some city areas, such as Santa Monica in the upper left, appear red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 34.04 degrees North latitude and 118.2 degrees West longitude with North pointing toward the upper right. The area shown measures 40 kilometers by 50 kilometers (25 miles by 31 miles). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01789

  8. Space Radar Image of Florence, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01795

  9. Space Radar Image of Harvard Forest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a radar image of the area surrounding the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts that has been operated as a ecological research facility by Harvard University since 1907. At the center of the image is the Quabbin Reservoir, and the Connecticut River is at the lower left of the image. The Harvard Forest itself is just above the reservoir. Researchers are comparing the naturally occurring physical disturbances in the forest and the recent and projected chemical disturbances and their effects on the forest ecosystem. Agricultural land appears dark blue/purple, along with low shrub vegetation and some wetlands. Urban development is bright pink; the yellow to green tints are conifer-dominated vegetation with the pitch pine sand plain at the middle left edge of the image appearing very distinctive. The green tint may indicate pure pine plantation stands, and deciduous broadleaf trees appear gray/pink with perhaps wetter sites being pinker. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 42.50 degrees North latitude and 72.33 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 53 kilometers 63 by kilometers (33 miles by 39 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01788

  10. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  11. Space Radar Image of Houston, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    -C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  12. Space Radar Image of Altona, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    the magenta indicate differences in the degree of soil moisture change and differences in surface roughness. This seasonal composite demonstrates the sensitivity of radar to changes in agricultural surface conditions such as soil moisture, tillage, cropping and harvesting. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  13. Space Radar Image of Mississippi Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the Mississippi River Delta where the river enters into the Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Louisiana. This multi-frequency image demonstrates the capability of the radar to distinguish different types of wetlands surfaces in river deltas. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1995. The image is centered on latitude 29.3 degrees North latitude and 89.28 degrees West longitude. The area shown is approximately 63 kilometers by 43 kilometers (39 miles by 26 miles). North is towards the upper right of the image. As the river enters the Gulf of Mexico, it loses energy and dumps its load of sediment that it has carried on its journey through the mid-continent. This pile of sediment, or mud, accumulates over the years building up the delta front. As one part of the delta becomes clogged with sediment, the delta front will migrate in search of new areas to grow. The area shown on this image is the currently active delta front of the Mississippi. The migratory nature of the delta forms natural traps for oil and the numerous bright spots along the outside of the delta are drilling platforms. Most of the land in the image consists of mud flats and marsh lands. There is little human settlement in this area due to the instability of the sediments. The main shipping channel of the Mississippi River is the broad red stripe running northwest to southeast down the left side of the image. The bright spots within the channel are ships. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is X-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  14. Space Radar Image of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the famous 'hook' of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The Cape, which juts out into the Atlantic Ocean about 100 kilometers (62 miles) southeast of Boston, actually consists of sandy debris left behind by the great continental ice sheets when they last retreated from southern New England about 20,000 years ago. Today's landscape consists of sandy forests, fields of scrub oak and other bushes and grasses, salt marshes, freshwater ponds, as well as the famous beaches and sand dunes. In this image, thickly forested areas appear green, marshes are dark blue, ponds and sandy areas are black, and developed areas are mostly pink. The dark L-shape in the lower center is the airport runways in Hyannis, the Cape's largest town. The dark X-shape left of the center is Otis Air Force Base. The Cape Cod Canal, above and left of center, connects Buzzards Bay on the left with Cape Cod Bay on the right. The northern tip of the island of Martha's Vineyard is seen in the lower left. The tip of the Cape, in the upper right, includes the community of Provincetown, which appears pink, and the protected National Seashore areas of sand dunes that parallel the Atlantic coast east of Provincetown. Scientists are using radar images like this one to study delicate coastal environments and the effects of human activities on the ecosystem and landscape. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. The image is 81.7 kilometers by 43.1 kilometers (50.7 miles by 26.7 miles) and is centered at 41.8 degrees north latitude, 70.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. SIR

  15. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. http

  16. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's "plumbing" system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  17. Space Radar Image of Colorado River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image illustrates the recent rapid urban development occurring along the lower Colorado River at the Nevada/Arizona state line. Lake Mojave is the dark feature that occupies the river valley in the upper half of the image. The lake is actually a reservoir created behind Davis Dam, the bright white line spanning the river near the center of the image. The dam, completed in 1953, is used both for generating electric power and regulating the river's flow downstream. Straddling the river south of Davis Dam, shown in white and bright green, are the cities of Laughlin, Nevada (west of the river) and Bullhead City, Arizona (east of the river). The runway of the Laughlin, Bullhead City Airport is visible as a dark strip just east of Bullhead City. The area has experienced rapid growth associated with the gambling industry in Laughlin and on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation to the south. The community of Riviera is the bright green area in a large bend of the river in the lower left part of the image. Complex drainage patterns and canyons are the dark lines seen throughout the image. Radar is a useful tool for studying these patterns because of the instrument's sensitivity to roughness, vegetation and subtle topographic differences. This image is 50 kilometers by 35 kilometers (31 miles by 22 miles) and is centered at 35.25 degrees north latitude, 114.67 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 13, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of

  18. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    mature in Kamchatka's 120-day growing season. The forest industry is managing these forests and practicing selective cutting to allow younger trees time to grow and reseed. X-SAR images will aid in mapping these deforested areas and in encouraging further recultivation efforts. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  19. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    flanks of the volcano. Paths of these flows can be seen as thin lines in various shades of blue and green on the north flank in the center of the image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  20. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetzal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Innsbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Oetztal is a SIR-C/X-SAR hydrology supersite. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The summits of the main peaks reach elevations between 3,500 and 3,768 meters (11,500 and 12,362 feet) above sea level. The tongues of the glaciers are descending from elevated plateaus down into narrow valleys which were formed during the last ice age. This color image was produced in C-band using multi-polarization information (red=CHV, green=CVV,blue=CVV/CHV). The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. There is 30 to 50 centimeters (12 to 20 inches) of dry, fresh snow on the glaciers, and about 10 centimeters (4 inches) in the valley at the city of Vent, Austria (center). At these data were taken, the weather was cold, with snow and thick fog. The entire area would appear white to an optical sensor because it is all covered under a winter snowpack. Researchers are interested in Oetztal because knowing how glaciers shrink and grow over time is an important indication of climatic change. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The radars illuminate Earth with

  1. Space Radar Image of Flevoland, Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the radar signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the image. This false-color image was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be

  2. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  3. Space radar image of Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This image of the Mauna Loa volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii shows the capability of imaging radar to map lava flows and other volcanic structures. Mauna Loa has erupted more than 35 times since the island was first visited by westerners in the early 1800s. The large summit crater, called Mokuaweoweo Caldera, is clearly visible near the center of the image. Leading away from the caldera (towards top right and lower center) are the two main rift zones shown here in orange. Rift zones are areas of weakness within the upper part of the volcano that are often ripped open as new magma (molten rock) approaches the surface at the start of an eruption. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in March and April 1984, when segments of the northeast rift zones were active. If the height of the volcano was measured from its base on the ocean floor instead of from sea level, Mauna Loa would be the tallest mountain on Earth. Its peak (center of the image) rises more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the ocean floor. The South Kona District, known for cultivation of macadamia nuts and coffee, can be seen in the lower left as white and blue areas along the coast. North is toward the upper left. The area shown is 41.5 by 75 kilometers (25.7 by 46.5 miles), centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.6 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 36th orbit on October 2, 1994. The radar illumination is from the left of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). The resulting color combinations in this radar image are caused by differences in surface roughness of the lava flows. Smoother flows

  4. Earth study from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  5. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  6. Space Radar Image of Sudan Collision Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour in April 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  7. Space Radar Image of Teide Volcano

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image shows the Teide volcano on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The Canary Islands, part of Spain, are located in the eastern Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Morocco. Teide has erupted only once in the 20th Century, in 1909, but is considered a potentially threatening volcano due to its proximity to the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, shown in this image as the purple and white area on the lower right edge of the island. The summit crater of Teide, clearly visible in the left center of the image, contains lava flows of various ages and roughnesses that appear in shades of green and brown. Different vegetation zones, both natural and agricultural, are detected by the radar as areas of purple, green and yellow on the volcano's flanks. Scientists are using images such as this to understand the evolution of the structure of Teide, especially the formation of the summit caldera and the potential for collapse of the flanks. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 11, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 28.3 degrees North latitude and 16.6 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The area shown measures 90 kilometers by 54.5 kilometers (55.8 miles by 33.8 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01779

  8. Space Radar Image of Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mt. Vesuvius, one of the best known volcanoes in the world primarily for the eruption that buried the Roman city of Pompeii, is shown in the center of this radar image. The central cone of Vesuvius is the dark purple feature in the center of the volcano. This cone is surrounded on the northern and eastern sides by the old crater rim, called Mt. Somma. Recent lava flows are the pale yellow areas on the southern and western sides of the cone. Vesuvius is part of a large volcanic zone which includes the Phalagrean Fields, the cluster of craters seen along the left side of the image. The Bay of Naples, on the left side of the image, is separated from the Gulf of Salerno, in the lower left, by the Sorrento Peninsula. Dense urban settlement can be seen around the volcano. The city of Naples is above and to the left of Vesuvius; the seaport of the city can be seen in the top of the bay. Pompeii is located just below the volcano on this image. The rapid eruption in 79 A.D. buried the victims and buildings of Pompeii under several meters of debris and killed more than 2,000 people. Due to the violent eruptive style and proximity to populated areas, Vesuvius has been named by the international scientific community as one of fifteen Decade Volcanoes which are being intensively studied during the 1990s. The image is centered at 40.83 degrees North latitude, 14.53 degrees East longitude. It shows an area 100 kilometers by 55 kilometers (62 miles by 34 miles.) This image was acquired on April 15, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  9. Arecibo Radar Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Virkki, Anne; Saran Bhiravarasu, Sriram; Venditti, Flaviane; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa Fernanda; Aponte-Hernandez, Betzaida

    2017-10-01

    The Arecibo S-Band (2.38 GHz, 12.6 cm; 1 MW) planetary radar system at the 305-m William E. Gordon Telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico is the most active, most powerful, and most sensitive planetary radar facility in the world. As such, Arecibo is vital for post-discovery characterization and orbital refinement of near-Earth asteroids. Since August 2016, the program has observed 100 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), of which 38 are classified as potentially hazardous to Earth and 31 are compliant with the NASA Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Arecibo observations are critical for identifying NEAs that may be on a collision course with Earth in addition to providing detailed physical characterization of the objects themselves in terms of size, shape, spin, and surface properties, which are valuable for assessing impact mitigation strategies. Here, we will present a sampling of the asteroid zoo observed by Arecibo, including press-noted asteroids 2014 JO25 and the (163693) Atira binary system.

  10. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Estaciais, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR system have validated the interpretation of the radar images. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  11. Space Radar Image of Karisoke & Virunga Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    vegetation maps of the area to aid in their studies of the last 650 mountain gorillas in the world. The faint lines above the bamboo forest are the result of agricultural terracing by the people who live in the region. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  12. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the image. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the image, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  13. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The image on the left is a false-color composite of the Mammoth Mountain area in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains centered at 37.6 degrees north, 119.0 degrees west. It was acquired on-board the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. In the image on the left, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-band HH-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-band VV-polarization to C-band HV-polarization. On the right is a classification map of the surface features which was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The area is about 23 by 46 kilometers (14 by 29 miles). In the classification image, the colors represent the following surfaces: White snow Red frozen lake, covered by snow Brown bare ground Blue lake (open water) Yellow short vegetation (mainly brush) Green sparse forest Dark green dense forest Maps like this one are helpful to scientists studying snow wetness and snow water equivalent in the snow pack. Across the globe, over major portions of the middle and high latitudes, and at high elevations in the tropical latitudes, snow and alpine glaciers are the largest contributors to run-off in rivers and to ground-water recharge. Snow hydrologists are using radar in an attempt to estimate both the quantity of water held by seasonal snow packs and the timing of snow melt. Snow and ice also play important roles in regional climates; understanding the processes in seasonal snow cover is also important for studies of the chemical balance of alpine drainage basins. SIR-C/X-SAR is a powerful tool because it is sensitive to most snow pack conditions and is less influenced by weather conditions than other remote sensing instruments, such as the Landsat satellite. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth

  14. Space Radar Image of Taal Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 'Decade Volcanoes' that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the image is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth

  15. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This color composite C-band and L-band image of the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Hilo can be seen at the top. The image shows the different types of lava flows around the crater Pu'u O'o. Ash deposits which erupted in 1790 from the summit of Kilauea volcano show up as dark in this image, and fine details associated with lava flows which erupted in 1919 and 1974 can be seen to the south of the summit in an area called the Ka'u Desert. In addition, the other historic lava flows created in 1881 and 1984 from Mauna Loa volcano (out of view to the left of this image) can be easily seen despite the fact that the surrounding area is covered by forest. Such information will be used to map the extent of such flows, which can pose a hazard to the subdivisions of Hilo. Highway 11 is the linear feature running from Hilo to the Kilauea volcano. The Kilauea volcano has been almost continuously active for more than the last 11 years. Field teams that were on the ground specifically to support these radar observations report that there was vigorous surface activity about 400 meters (one-quarter mile) inland from the coast. A moving lava flow about 200 meters (660 feet) in length was observed at the time of the shuttle overflight, raising the possibility that subsequent images taken during this mission will show changes in the landscape. This image is centered at 19.2 degrees north latitude and 155.2 degrees west longitude. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific

  16. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  17. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar: Current status and future directions. A report to the Committee on Earth Sciences, Space Studies Board, National Research Council

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. L. (Editor); Apel, J.; Arvidson, R.; Bindschadler, R.; Carsey, F.; Dozier, J.; Jezek, K.; Kasischke, E.; Li, F.; Melack, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a context in which questions put forth by NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMPTE) regarding the next steps in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) science and technology can be addressed. It summarizes the state-of-the-art in theory, experimental design, technology, data analysis, and utilization of SAR data for studies of the Earth, and describes potential new applications. The report is divided into five science chapters and a technology assessment. The chapters summarize the value of existing SAR data and currently planned SAR systems, and identify gaps in observational capabilities needing to be filled to address the scientific questions. Cases where SAR provides complementary data to other (non-SAR) measurement techniques are also described. The chapter on technology assessment outlines SAR technology development which is critical not only to NASA's providing societally relevant geophysical parameters but to maintaining competitiveness in SAR technology, and promoting economic development.

  18. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This false-color L-band image of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar SIR-C/X-SAR aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 46 of the mission.

  19. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This color composite C-band and L-band image of the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii was acquired by NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar SIR-C/X-SAR flying on space shuttle Endeavour.

  20. Space Radar Image of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is

  1. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  2. A digital beamforming processor for the joint DoD/NASA space based radar mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischman, Mark A.; Le, Charles; Rosen, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Based Radar (SBR) program includes a joint technology demonstration between NASA and the Air Force to design a low-earth orbiting, 2x50 m L-band radar system for both Earth science and intelligence related observations.

  3. Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific

  4. Space Radar Image of Samara, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency space radar image shows the city of Samara, Russia in pink and light green right of center. Samara is at the junction of the Volga and Samara Rivers approximately 800 kilometers 500 miles southeast of Moscow.

  5. Space Radar Image of Mt. Rainer, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    White River, and the river leaving the mountain at the bottom right of the image (south) is the Nisqually River, which flows out of the Nisqually glacier on the mountain. The river leaving to the left of the mountain is the Carbon River, leading west and north toward heavily populated regions near Tacoma. The dark patch at the top right of the image is Bumping Lake. Other dark areas seen to the right of ridges throughout the image are radar shadow zones. Radar images can be used to study the volcanic structure and the surrounding regions with linear rock boundaries and faults. In addition, the recovery of forested lands from natural disasters and the success of reforestation programs can also be monitored. Ultimately this data may be used to study the advance and retreat of glaciers and other forces of global change. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), the C-band (6 cm) and the X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  6. Applications review for a Space Program Imaging Radar (SPIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The needs, applications, user support, research, and theoretical studies of imaging radar are reviewed. The applications of radar in water resources, minerals and petroleum exploration, vegetation resources, ocean radar imaging, and cartography are discussed. The advantages of space imaging radar are presented, and it is recommended that imaging radar be placed on the space shuttle.

  7. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    indicates areas of canopy burn and mixed burn with a biomass of between 12 to 20 tons per hectare; light green is mixed burn and on-burn forest with a biomass of 20 to 35 tons per hectare; and green is non-burned forest with a biomass of greater than 35 tons per hectare. Forest recovery from the fire seems to depend on fire intensity and soil conditions. In areas of severe canopy burn and poor soil conditions, crown biomass was still low in 1994 (indicated by the brown areas at the center left), whereas in areas of mixed burn with nutrient-rich soils, seen west of Yellowstone Lake, crown biomass has increased significantly in six years (indicated by the yellow and light green areas). Imaging fire-affected regions with spaceborne radar illustrates SIR-C/X-SAR's keen abilities to monitor regrowth after a fire. Knowing the amount of carbon accumulated in the atmosphere by regenerating forest in the 20 to 50 years following a fire disturbance is also a significant factor in understanding the global carbon cycle. Measuring crown biomass is necessary to evaluate the effects of past and future fires in specific regions. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm), and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes that are caused by nature and those changes that are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche

  8. Space Radar Image of Safsaf, North Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ratio --or some combination of all three -- respond to the roughness of the radar backscattering surface. Using this coloring scheme, areas that appear bright at both L-band and C-band are colored yellow, while areas that appear brighter at L-band than C-band appear more blue. Detailed analysis of this scene indicates that the separate C-band and L-band images used to produce this color composite have a very similar overall appearance. This suggests that the C-band and the L-band signals are both easily penetrating the thin 1- to 12-centimeter (0.5- to 5-inch) 'average' surface cover of loose windblown sand, and are commonly 'seeing' similar interfaces just below that cover. This radar interface may be at the scattered rocky outcrops on the ground surface, but is more likely to be the shallow underlying surfaces of river gravel or bedrock, which are generally covered by only a few inches of windblown sand. Virtually everything visible on this radar composite image cannot be seen, either when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as the United States' Landsat or the French SPOT satellite. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency

  9. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    -greenish areas are young jack pine trees, 3 to 5 meters (10 to 16 feet) in height and 11 to 16 years old. The green areas are due to the relative high intensity of the HV channel which is strongly correlated with the amount of biomass. L-band HV channel shows the biomass variations over the entire region. Most of the green areas, when compared to the forest cover maps are identified as black spruce trees. The dark blue and dark purple colors show recently harvested or regrowth areas respectively. SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  10. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119.0 degrees west longitude. The area is approximately 11.5 kilometers by 78.3 kilometers (7.2 by 48.7 miles) in size. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 40th orbit, April 11, 1994. The city of Mammoth Lakes is visible in the bottom right portion of the scene. In this color representation, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-band VV-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-band VV to C-band HV. Blue areas are lakes or slopes facing away from the radar illumination. Yellow represents areas of dry, old snow as well as slopes facing directly the radar illumination. At the time of the SIR-C overflight, the sky conditions were partially cloudy, with low and cold air temperatures. Total snow depth is about 1 to 1.5 meters (3 to 5 feet). The current snow accumulation is only about 40 percent of the average for the season. The most recent snowfall in the area covered the entire area with about 30 centimeters (14 inches) of fresh dry snow. Above 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) elevation the snowpack is dry. Below that elevation, the snowpack has a layered structure. Snow hydrologists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data to determine both the quantity of water held by seasonal snowpack and the amount of snow melting. SIR-C/X-SAR radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm)and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, in conjunction with aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those

  11. Space Radar Image of Long Island Optical/Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This pair of images of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a radar image (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The image at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both images show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical image is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since radar is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the radar image shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this image, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band radar signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly

  12. Space Radar Image of Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    Mt. Vesuvius, one of the best known volcanoes in the world primarily for the eruption that buried the Roman city of Pompeii, is shown in the center of this radar image. The central cone of Vesuvius is the dark purple feature in the center of the volcano. This cone is surrounded on the northern and eastern sides by the old crater rim, called Mt. Somma. Recent lava flows are the pale yellow areas on the southern and western sides of the cone. Vesuvius is part of a large volcanic zone which includes the Phalagrean Fields, the cluster of craters seen along the left side of the image. The Bay of Naples, on the left side of the image, is separated from the Gulf of Salerno, in the lower left, by the Sorrento Peninsula. Dense urban settlement can be seen around the volcano. The city of Naples is above and to the left of Vesuvius; the seaport of the city can be seen in the top of the bay. Pompeii is located just below the volcano on this image. The rapid eruption in 79 A.D. buried the victims and buildings of Pompeii under several meters of debris and killed more than 2,000 people. Due to the violent eruptive style and proximity to populated areas, Vesuvius has been named by the international scientific community as one of fifteen Decade Volcanoes which are being intensively studied during the 1990s. The image is centered at 40.83 degrees North latitude, 14.53 degrees East longitude. It shows an area 100 kilometers by 55 kilometers (62 miles by 34 miles.) This image was acquired on April 15, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01780

  13. Geologic interpretation of space shuttle radar images of Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Sabing, F.F.

    1983-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space shuttle mission in November 1981 acquired images of parts of the earth with a synthetic aperture radar system at a wavelength of 23.5 cm (9.3 in.) and spatial resolution of 38 m (125 ft). This report describes the geologic interpretation of 1:250,000-scale images of Irian Jaya and eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, where the all-weather capability of radar penetrates the persistent cloud cover. The inclined look direction of radar enhances subtle topographic features that may be the expression of geologic structures. On the Indonesian images, the following terrain categories are recognizable for geologic mapping:more » carbonate, clastic, volcanic, alluvial and coastal, melange, and metamorphic, as well as undifferentiated bedrock. Regional and local geologic structures are well expressed on the images.« less

  14. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

  15. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01754

  16. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, Seasonal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01733

  17. Alternatives for Military Space Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    transmitted microwaves to produce images of the Earth’s surface (somewhat akin to photographs produced by optical imaging).2 By providing their own...microwaves for illumination (rather than sunlight, as in an optical imaging system). By providing their own illu- mination, radars can produce...carry a variety of payloads, including electro- optical , infrared, and SAR imagers; a film camera; and signals- intelligence equipment. The aircraft’s

  18. Space Radar Image of Wadi Kufra, Libya

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-14

    The ability of a sophisticated radar instrument to image large regions of the world from space, using different frequencies that can penetrate dry sand cover, produced the discovery in this image: a previously unknown branch of an ancient river, buried under thousands of years of windblown sand in a region of the Sahara Desert in North Africa. This area is near the Kufra Oasis in southeast Libya, centered at 23.3 degrees north latitude, 22.9 degrees east longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 60th orbit on October 4, 1994. This SIR-C image reveals a system of old, now inactive stream valleys, called "paleodrainage systems, http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01310

  19. Space Radar Image of Long Island Optical/Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This pair of images of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a radar image (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The image at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both images show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical image is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since radar is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the radar image shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this image, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band radar signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly

  20. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01749

  1. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  2. Space Radar Image of Colorado River

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This space radar image illustrates the recent rapid urban development occurring along the lower Colorado River at the Nevada/Arizona state line. Lake Mojave is the dark feature that occupies the river valley in the upper half of the image.

  3. Radar Discovery and Characterization of Binary Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margot, J. L.; Nolan, M. C.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Giorgini, J. D.; Slade, M. A.; Howell, E. S.; Campbell, D. B.

    2002-01-01

    The radar instruments at Arecibo and Goldstone recently provided the first confirmed discoveries of binary asteroids in the near-Earth population. The physical and orbital properties of four near-Earth binary systems are described in detail. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii - interferometry 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This X-band image of the volcano Kilauea was taken on October 4, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The area shown is about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.5 miles by 8 miles) and is centered at about 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. This image and a similar image taken during the first flight of the radar instrument on April 13, 1994 were combined to produce the topographic information by means of an interferometric process. This is a process by which radar data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle is overlaid to obtain elevation information. Three additional images are provided showing an overlay of radar data with interferometric fringes; a three-dimensional image based on altitude lines; and, finally, a topographic view of the region. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo

  5. Planning for VRM: Radar and sonar studies of volcanic terrains on Earth, Venus and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Gaddis, L. R.; Blake, P. L.; Fryer, P.; Ferrall, C.

    1985-01-01

    Venera 15 and 16 radar images of Venus, together with Earth based data from the Arecibo Observatory, indicate that volcanism has played an important role in the evolution of the Venusian landscape. At the end of this decade, NASA's Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) spacecraft will return near global information that will further constrain the planet's geologic history. Due to the diversity of volcano/tectonic features that have already been identified on Venus, and the intrinsic differences between radar images and conventional photography, additional expertise is being developed with which to interpret the VRM images of this unusual environment. Several attempts to better understand the physical characteristics of volcanic terrains are described here. Pioneer Venus radar altimeter measurements of topographic variability and surface roughness are compared with Goldstone radar measurements of volcanic terrains on Mars. Synthetic aperture radar images obtained by the SIR-B Space Shuttle experiment over Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, are employed to investigate the differences in radar returns from pahoehoe, aa and sheet lava flows. Four polarization, multiple incidence angle, aircraft radar images of the Medicine Lake area of N. California are used to address the unusually high cross-polarization ratio of lobate flows around Beta Regio on Venus, as measured by the Arecibo radar.

  6. Space sickness on earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooij, S. A. E.; Bos, J. E.; Groen, E. L.; Bles, W.; Ockels, W. J.

    2007-09-01

    During the first days in space, i.e., after a transition from 1G to 0G, more than 50% of the astro- (and cosmonauts) suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS).The symptoms of SAS, like nausea and dizziness, are especially provoked by head movements. Astronauts have mentioned close similarities between the symptoms of SAS and the symptoms they experienced after a 1 hour centrifuge run on Earth, i.e., after a transition from 3G to 1G (denoted by Sickness Induced by Centrifugation, SIC). During several space missions, we related susceptibility to SAS and to SIC in 11 astronauts and found 4 of them being susceptible to both SIC and SAS, and 7 being not susceptible to SIC nor to SAS. This correspondence in susceptibility suggests that SIC and SAS share the same underlying mechanism. To further study this mechanism, several vestibular parameters have been investigated (e.g. postural stability, vestibularly driven eye movements, subjective vertical). We found some striking changes in individual cases that are possibly due to the centrifuge run. However, the variability between subjects generally is very large, making physiological links to SIC and SAS still hard to find.

  7. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a radar image of San Francisco, California, taken on October 3,1994. The image is about 40 kilometers by 55 kilometers (25 miles by 34 miles) with north toward the upper right. Downtown San Francisco is visible in the center of the image with the city of Oakland east (to the right) across San Francisco Bay. Also visible in the image is the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) and the Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and Oakland. North of the Bay Bridge is Treasure Island. Alcatraz Island appears as a small dot northwest of Treasure Island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 56. The image is centered at 37 degrees north latitude, 122degrees west longitude. This single-frequency SIR-C image was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) radar channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this image appear very dark as do other smooth surfaces such as airport runways. Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of San Francisco, appear as lighter gray. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as those seen in the downtown areas, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the radar flight track. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01751

  8. EROS: A space program for Earth resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, G.G.; Wiepking, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Within the technology of the space age lies a key to increased knowledge about the resources and environment of the Earth. This key is remote sensing detecting the nature of an object without actually touching it. Although the photographic camera is the most familiar remote-sensing device, other instrument systems, such as scanning radiometers and radar, also can produce photographs and images. On the basis of the potential of this technology, and in response to the critical need for greater knowledge of the Earth and its resources, the Department of the Interior established the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program to gather and use remotely sensed data collected by satellite and aircraft of natural and manmade features on the Earth's surface.

  9. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right. The Rhine, one of the largest and most used waterways in central Europe, winds its way through five countries from the Swiss-Austrian Alps to the North Sea coast of the Netherlands. The river valley is densely populated, as seen in this image, which shows the French city of Strasbourg, the light blue and orange area in the upper left center; and the German cities of Kehl, across the river from Strasbourg and Offenburg, the bright area in right center. The fertile valley is famous for its wine production and most of the agricultural areas in the image, shown in purple patches, are vineyards. The light green areas are forest. Scientists can use radar images like this one to monitor the effects of urban and agricultural development on sensitive ecosystems such as the Rhine River valley. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is 34.2 kilometers by 33.2 kilometers (21.2 miles by 20.6 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 7.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  10. Space Radar Image of Niya ruins, Taklamakan desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image is of an area thought to contain the ruins of the ancient settlement of Niya. It is located in the southwestern corner of the Taklamakan Desert in China's Sinjiang Province. This oasis was part of the famous Silk Road, an ancient trade route from one of China's earliest capitols, Xian, to the West. The image shows a white linear feature trending diagonally from the upper left to the lower right. Scientists believe this newly discovered feature is a man-made canal which presumably diverted river waters toward the settlement of Niya for irrigation purposes. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 106th orbit on April 16, 1994, and is centered at 37.78 degrees north latitude and 82.41 degrees east longitude. The false-color radar image was created by displaying the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red, the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in green, and the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in blue. Areas in mottled white and purple are low-lying floodplains of the Niya River. Dark green and black areas between river courses are higher ridges or dunes confining the water flow. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by

  11. Space Radar Image Isla Isabela in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional view of Isabela, one of the Galapagos Islands located off the western coast of Ecuador, South America. This view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) image on a digital elevation map produced by TOPSAR, a prototype airborne interferometric radar which produces simultaneous image and elevation data. The vertical scale in this image is exaggerated by a factor of 1.87. The SIR-C/X-SAR image was taken on the 40th orbit of space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles)west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii and reflect the volcanic processes that occur where the ocean floor is created. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been more than 60 recorded eruptions on these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. Vertical exaggeration of relief is a common tool scientists use to detect relationships between structure (for example, faults, and fractures) and topography. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data

  12. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR Scan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by "scanning" the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  13. Space radar image of Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This radar image of the area surrounding the Galeras volcano in southern Colombia shows the ability of a multi-frequency radar to map volcanic structures that can be dangerous to study on the ground. Galeras has erupted more than 20 times since the area was first visited by European explorers in the 1500s. Volcanic activity levels have been high in the last five years, including an eruption in January 1993 that killed nine people on a scientific expedition to the volcano summit. Galeras is the light green area near the center of the image. The active cone, with a small summit pit, is the red feature nestled against the lower right edge of the caldera (crater) wall. The city of Pasto, with a population of 300,000, is shown in orange near the bottom of the image, just 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the volcano. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 96th orbit on April 15, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 49.1 by 36.0 kilometers (30.5 by 22.3 miles), centered at 1.2 degrees north latitude and 77.4 degrees west longitude. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The false colors in this image were created using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Galeras is one of 15 volcanoes worldwide that are being monitored by the scientific community as an 'International Decade Volcano' because of the hazard that it represents to the local population.

  14. Space Radar Image of Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-25

    This image was produced during radar observations taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar as it flew over the Gulf Stream, Florida, and past the Atlantic Ocean on October 7, 1994. The data were produced using the X-band radar frequency. Knowing ahead of time that this region would be included in a regularly scheduled radar pass, the Kennedy Space Center team, who assembled and integrated the SIR-C/X-SAR equipment with the Spacelab pallet system, designed a set of radar reflectors from common construction materials and formed the letters "KSC" on the ground adjacent to the main headquarters building at the entrance to the Cape Canaveral launch facility. The point of light formed by the bright return from these reflectors are visible in the image. Other more diffuse bright spots are reflections from building faces, roofs and other large structures at the Kennedy Space Center complex. This frame covers an area of approximately 6 kilometers by 8 kilometers (4 miles by 5 miles), which was just a small portion of the data taken on this particular pass. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01747

  15. Space Radar Image of Washington D.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The city of Washington, D.C., is shown is this space radar image. Images like these are useful tools for urban planners and managers, who use them to map and monitor land use patterns. Downtown Washington is the bright area between the Potomac (upper center to lower left) and Anacostia (middle right) rivers. The dark cross shape that is formed by the National Mall, Tidal Basin, the White House and Ellipse is seen in the center of the image. Arlington National Cemetery is the dark blue area on the Virginia (left) side of the Potomac River near the center of the image. The Pentagon is visible in bright white and red, south of the cemetery. Due to the alignment of the radar and the streets, the avenues that form the boundary between Washington and Maryland appear as bright red lines in the top, right and bottom parts of the image, parallel to the image borders. This image is centered at 38.85 degrees north latitude, 77.05 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is approximately 29 km by 26 km (18 miles by 16 miles). Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is the L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is the L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is the C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  16. Bistatic Space Borne Radar for Early Warning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    bandwidth of about 1.2 MHz. hr ht RX TX z x α α α α αr αt y R30 R10 R31 R11 vRx vTx P Bistatic Space Borne Radar for Early Warning...B V R == (12) where VRX is the receiver velocity and BA is the Doppler chirp bandwidth defined by equation (5). The time necessary to obtain

  17. Space radar image of New York City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This radar image of the New York city metropolitan area. The island of Manhattan appears in the center of the image. The green-colored rectangle on Manhattan is Central Park. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 75.0 kilometers by 48.8 kilometers (46.5 miles by 30.2 miles). The image is centered at 40.7 degrees north latitude and 73.8 degrees west longitude. In general, light blue areas correspond to dense urban development, green areas to moderately vegetated zones and black areas to bodies of water. The Hudson River is the black strip that runs from the left edge to the upper right corner of the image. It separates New Jersey, in the upper left of the image, from New York. The Atlantic Ocean is at the bottom of the image where two barrier islands along the southern shore of Long Island are also visible. John F. Kennedy International Airport is visible above these islands. Long Island Sound, separating Long Island from Connecticut, is the dark area right of the center of the image. Many bridges are visible in the image, including the Verrazano Narrows, George Washington and Brooklyn bridges. The radar illumination is from the left of the image; this causes some urban zones to appear red because the streets are at a perpendicular angle to the radar pulse. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Radar images like this one could be used as a tool for city planners and resource managers to map and monitor land use patterns. The radar imaging systems can clearly detect the variety of landscapes in the area, as well as the density of urban

  18. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01712

  19. Space Radar Image of the Yucatan Impact Crater Site

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a radar image of the southwest portion of the buried Chicxulub impact crater in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The radar image was acquired on orbit 81 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The image is centered at 20 degrees north latitude and 90 degrees west longitude. Scientists believe the crater was formed by an asteroid or comet which slammed into the Earth more than 65 million years ago. It is this impact crater that has been linked to a major biological catastrophe where more than 50 percent of the Earth's species, including the dinosaurs, became extinct. The 180-to 300-kilometer-diameter (110- to 180-mile) crater is buried by 300 to 1,000 meters (1,000 to 3,000 feet) of limestone. The exact size of the crater is currently being debated by scientists. This is a total power radar image with L-band in red, C-band in green, and the difference between C-band L-band in blue. The 10-kilometer-wide (6-mile) band of yellow and pink with blue patches along the top left (northwestern side) of the image is a mangrove swamp. The blue patches are islands of tropical forests created by freshwater springs that emerge through fractures in the limestone bedrock and are most abundant in the vicinity of the buried crater rim. The fracture patterns and wetland hydrology in this region are controlled by the structure of the buried crater. Scientists are using the SIR-C/X-SAR imagery to study wetland ecology and help determine the exact size of the impact crater. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01723

  20. Space Radar Image of Patagonian Ice Fields

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This pair of images illustrates the ability of multi-parameter radar imaging sensors such as the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture radar to detect climate-related changes on the Patagonian ice fields in the Andes Mountains of Chile and Argentina. The images show nearly the same area of the south Patagonian ice field as it was imaged during two space shuttle flights in 1994 that were conducted five-and-a-half months apart. The images, centered at 49.0 degrees south latitude and 73.5degrees west longitude, include several large outlet glaciers. The images were acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR on board the space shuttle Endeavour during April and October 1994. The top image was acquired on April 14, 1994, at 10:46 p.m. local time, while the bottom image was acquired on October 5,1994, at 10:57 p.m. local time. Both were acquired during the 77th orbit of the space shuttle. The area shown is approximately 100 kilometers by 58 kilometers (62 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. The colors in the images were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); blue represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The overall dark tone of the colors in the central portion of the April image indicates that the interior of the ice field is covered with thick wet snow. The outlet glaciers, consisting of rough bare ice, are the brightly colored yellow and purple lobes which terminate at calving fronts into the dark waters of lakes and fiords. During the second mission the temperatures were colder and the corresponding change in snow and ice conditions is readily apparent by comparing the images. The interior of the ice field is brighter because of increased radar return from the dryer snow. The distinct green/orange boundary on the ice field indicates an abrupt change in the structure of the snowcap

  1. Space Radar Image of New Orleans, Louisiana

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-14

    This image of the area surrounding the city of New Orleans, Louisiana in the southeastern United States demonstrates the ability of multi-frequency imaging radar to distinguish different types of land cover. The dark area in the center is Lake Pontchartrain. The thin line running across the lake is a causeway connecting New Orleans to the city of Mandeville. Lake Borgne is the dark area in the lower right of the image. The Mississippi River appears as a dark, wavy line in the lower left. The white dots on the Mississippi are ships. The French Quarter is the brownish square near the left center of the image. Lakefront Airport, a field used mostly for general aviation, is the bright spot near the center, jutting out into Lake Pontchartrain. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) during orbit 39 of space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The area is located at 30.10 degrees north latitude and 89.1 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 100 kilometers (60 miles) by 50 kilometers (30 miles). The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received); blue represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received). The green areas are primarily vegetation consisting of swamp land and swamp forest (bayou) growing on sandy soil, while the pink areas are associated with reflections from buildings in urban and suburban areas. Different tones and colors in the vegetation areas will be studied by scientists to see how effective imaging radar data is in discriminating between different types of wetlands. Accurate maps of coastal wetland areas are important to ecologists studying wild fowl and the coastal environment. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01300

  2. Space Radar Image of Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This false-color composite radar image of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on October 3, 1994. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119.0 degrees west longitude. The area is about 39 kilometers by 51 kilometers (24 miles by 31 miles). North is toward the bottom, about 45 degrees to the right. In this image, red was created using L-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; green was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; and blue was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. Crawley Lake appears dark at the center left of the image, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The purple areas at the higher elevations in the upper part of the scene are discontinuous patches of snow cover from a September 28 storm. New, very thin snow was falling before and during the second space shuttle pass. In parallel with the operational SIR-C data processing, an experimental effort is being conducted to test SAR data processing using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's massively parallel supercomputing facility, centered around the Cray Research T3D. These experiments will assess the abilities of large supercomputers to produce high throughput Synthetic Aperture Radar processing in preparation for upcoming data-intensive SAR missions. The image released here was produced as part of this experimental effort. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01746

  3. Space Radar Image of the Yucatan Impact Crater Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the southwest portion of the buried Chicxulub impact crater in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The radar image was acquired on orbit 81 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The image is centered at 20 degrees north latitude and 90 degrees west longitude. Scientists believe the crater was formed by an asteroid or comet which slammed into the Earth more than 65 million years ago. It is this impact crater that has been linked to a major biological catastrophe where more than 50 percent of the Earth's species, including the dinosaurs, became extinct. The 180-to 300-kilometer-diameter (110- to 180-mile)crater is buried by 300 to 1,000 meters (1,000 to 3,000 feet) of limestone. The exact size of the crater is currently being debated by scientists. This is a total power radar image with L-band in red, C-band in green, and the difference between C-band L-band in blue. The 10-kilometer-wide (6-mile) band of yellow and pink with blue patches along the top left (northwestern side) of the image is a mangrove swamp. The blue patches are islands of tropical forests created by freshwater springs that emerge through fractures in the limestone bedrock and are most abundant in the vicinity of the buried crater rim. The fracture patterns and wetland hydrology in this region are controlled by the structure of the buried crater. Scientists are using the SIR-C/X-SAR imagery to study wetland ecology and help determine the exact size of the impact crater. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community

  4. Space Radar Image of Weddell Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    Two radar images are shown in this composite to compare the size of a standard spaceborne radar image small inset to the image that is created when the radar instrument is used in the ScanSAR mode large image.

  5. Space Radar Image of Colima Volcano, Jalisco, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Colima volcano in Jalisco, Mexico, a vigorously active volcano that erupted as recently as July 1994. The eruption partially destroyed a lava dome at the summit and deposited a new layer of ash on the volcano's southern slopes. Surrounding communities face a continuing threat of ash falls and volcanic mudflows from the volcano, which has been designated one of 15 high-risk volcanoes for scientific study during the next decade. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 24th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image is centered at 19.4 degrees north latitude, 103.7 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 35.7 kilometers by 37.5 kilometers (22 miles by 23 miles). This single-frequency, multi-polarized SIR-C image shows: red as L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green as L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue as the ratio of the two channels. The summit area appears orange and the recent deposits fill the valleys along the south and southwest slopes. Observations from space are helping scientists understand the behavior of dangerous volcanoes and will be used to mitigate the effects of future eruptions on surrounding populations. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), the C-band (6 cm) and the X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature

  6. Earth and Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    1999-01-01

    Workshop for middle and high school teachers to enhance their knowledge of the Earth as a system. NASA data and materials developed by teachers (all available via the Internet) will be used to engage participants in hands-on, investigative approaches to the Earth system. All materials are ready to be applied in pre-college classrooms. Remotely-sensed data will be used in combination with familiar resources, such as maps, to examine global climate change.

  7. Space Radar Image of Giza Egypt - with Enlargement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image shows the area west of the Nile River near Cairo, Egypt. The Nile River is the dark band along the right side of the image and it flows approximately due North from the bottom to the right. The boundary between dense urbanization and the desert can be clearly seen between the bright and dark areas in the center of the image. This boundary represents the approximate extent of yearly Nile flooding which played an important part in determining where people lived in ancient Egypt. This land usage pattern persists to this day. The pyramids at Giza appear as three bright triangles aligned with the image top just at the boundary of the urbanized area. They are also shown enlarged in the inset box in the top left of the image. The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) is the northern most of the three Giza pyramids. The side-looking radar illuminates the scene from the top, the two sides of the pyramids facing the radar reflect most of the energy back to the antenna and appear radar bright; the two sides away from the radar reflect less energy back and appear dark Two additional pyramids can be seen left of center in the lower portion of the image. The modern development in the desert on the left side of the image is the Sixth of October City, an area of factories and residences started by Anwar Sadat to relieve urban crowding. The image was taken on April 19, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered on latitude 29.72 degrees North latitude and 30.83 degrees East longitude. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 30 kilometers. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C

  8. Space Radar Image of Giza Egypt - with enlargement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the area west of the Nile River near Cairo, Egypt. The Nile River is the dark band along the right side of the image and it flows approximately due North from the bottom to the right. The boundary between dense urbanization and the desert can be clearly seen between the bright and dark areas in the center of the image. This boundary represents the approximate extent of yearly Nile flooding which played an important part in determining where people lived in ancient Egypt. This land usage pattern persists to this day. The pyramids at Giza appear as three bright triangles aligned with the image top just at the boundary of the urbanized area. They are also shown enlarged in the inset box in the top left of the image. The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) is the northern most of the three Giza pyramids. The side-looking radar illuminates the scene from the top, the two sides of the pyramids facing the radar reflect most of the energy back to the antenna and appear radar bright; the two sides away from the radar reflect less energy back and appear dark Two additional pyramids can be seen left of center in the lower portion of the image. The modern development in the desert on the left side of the image is the Sixth of October City, an area of factories and residences started by Anwar Sadat to relieve urban crowding. The image was taken on April 19, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered on latitude 29.72 degrees North latitude and 30.83 degrees East longitude. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 30 kilometers. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C

  9. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a digital elevation model that was geometrically coded directly onto an X-band seasonal change image of the Oetztal supersite in Austria. The image is centered at 46.82 degrees north latitude and 10.79 degrees east longitude. This image is located in the Central Alps at the border between Switzerland, Italy and Austria, 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of Innsbruck. It was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 and on October 5, 1994. It was produced by combining data from these two different data sets. Data obtained in April is green; data obtained in October appears in red and blue, and was used as an enhancement based on the ratio of the two data sets. Areas with a decrease in backscatter from April to October appear in light blue (cyan), such as the large Gepatschferner glacier seen at the left of the image center, and most of the other glaciers in this view. A light blue hue is also visible at the east border of the dark blue Lake Reschensee at the upper left side. This shows a significant rise in the water level. Magenta represents areas with an increase of backscatter from April 10 to October 5. Yellow indicates areas with high radar signal response during both passes, such as the mountain slopes facing the radar. Low radar backscatter signals refer to smooth surface (lakes) or radar grazing areas to radar shadow areas, seen in the southeast slopes. The area is approximately 29 kilometers by 21 kilometers (18 miles by 13.5 miles). The summit of the main peaks reaches elevations of 3,500 to 3,768 meters (xx feet to xx feet) above sea level. The test site's core area is the glacier region of Venter Valley, which is one of the most intensively studied areas for glacier research in the world. Research in Venter Valley (below center) includes studies of glacier dynamics, glacier-climate regions, snowpack conditions and glacier hydrology. About 25 percent of the core test

  10. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar Developments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, Seung Kuk; Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Perrine, Martin; Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, Guoqing; Deshpande, Manohar; Beck, Jaclyn; hide

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Digital Beamforming (DBF) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology is an area of research and development pursued at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Advanced SAR architectures enhances radar performance and opens a new set of capabilities in radar remote sensing. DBSAR-2 and EcoSAR are two state-of-the-art radar systems recently developed and tested. These new instruments employ multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) architectures characterized by multi-mode operation, software defined waveform generation, digital beamforming, and configurable radar parameters. The instruments have been developed to support several disciplines in Earth and Planetary sciences. This paper describes the radars advanced features and report on the latest SAR processing and calibration efforts.

  11. Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Kenneth; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    This software enables easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. The software was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground based Sand C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite s Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument. The software is also applicable to other ground-based and space-based radars. The ground and space radar volume matching and comparison software was developed in response to requirements defined by the Ground Validation System (GVS) of Goddard s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) project. This software innovation is specifically concerned with simplifying the comparison of ground- and spacebased radar measurements for the purpose of GPM algorithm and data product validation. This software is unique in that it provides an operational environment to routinely create comparison products, and uses a direct geometric approach to derive common volumes of space- and ground-based radar data. In this approach, spatially coincident volumes are defined by the intersection of individual space-based Precipitation Radar rays with the each of the conical elevation sweeps of the ground radar. Thus, the resampled volume elements of the space and ground radar reflectivity can be directly compared to one another.

  12. Space Radar Image of Craters of the Moon, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Ancient lava flows dating back 2,000 to 15,000 years are shown in light green and red on the left side of this space radar image of the Craters of the Moon National Monument area in Idaho. The volcanic cones that produced these lava flows are the dark points shown within the light green area. Craters of the Moon National Monument is part of the Snake River Plain volcanic province. Geologists believe this area was formed as the North American tectonic plate moved across a 'hot spot' which now lies beneath Yellowstone National Park. The irregular patches, shown in red, green and purple in the lower half of the image are lava flows of different ages and surface roughnesses. One of these lava flows is surrounded by agricultural fields, the blue and purple geometric features, in the right center of the image. The town of Arco, Idaho is the bright yellow area on the right side of the agricultural area. The peaks along the top of the image are the White Knob Mountains. The Big Lost River flows out of the canyon at the top right of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. This image is centered at 43.58 degrees north latitude, 113.42 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 33 kilometers by 48 kilometers 20.5 miles by 30 miles). Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is the L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is the L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is the C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  13. Space Radar Image of Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image shows the rugged topography of Santa Cruz Island, part of the Channel Islands National Park in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Santa Barbara and Ventura, Calif. Santa Cruz, the largest island of the national park, is host to hundreds of species of plants, animals and birds, at least eight of which are known nowhere else in the world. The island is bisected by the Santa Cruz Island fault, which appears as a prominent line running from the upper left to the lower right in this image. The fault is part of the Transverse Range fault system, which extends eastward from this area across Los Angeles to near Palm Springs, Calif. Color variations in this image are related to the different types of vegetation and soils at the surface. For example, grass-covered coastal lowlands appear gold, while chaparral and other scrub areas appear pink and blue. The image is 35 kilometers by 32 kilometers (22 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 33.8 degrees north latitude, 119.6 degrees west longitude. North is toward upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  14. Space Radar Image of Pinacate Volcanic Field, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Pinacate Volcanic Field in the state of Sonora, Mexico, about 150 kilometers (93 miles) southeast of Yuma, Arizona. The United States/Mexico border runs across the upper right corner of the image. More than 300 volcanic vents occur in the Pinacate field, including cinder cones that experienced small eruptions as recently as 1934. The larger circular craters seen in the image are a type of volcano known as a 'maar', which erupts violently when rising magma encounters groundwater, producing highly pressurized steam that powers explosive eruptions. The highest elevations in the volcanic field, about 1200 meters (4000 feet), occur in the 'shield volcano' structure shown in bright white, occupying most of the left half of the image. Numerous cinder cones dot the flanks of the shield. The yellow patches to the right of center are newer, rough-textured lava flows that strongly reflect the long wavelength radar signals. Along the left edge of the image are sand dunes of the Gran Desierto. The dark areas are smooth sand and the brighter brown and purple areas have vegetation on the surface. Radar data provide a unique means to study the different types of lava flows and wind-blown sands. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 57 kilometers by 48 kilometers (35 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 31.7 degrees north latitude, 113.4 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  15. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a "natural oil" like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  16. X-SAR: The X-band synthetic aperture radar on board the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Marian U.

    1993-01-01

    The X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR) is the German/Italian contribution to the NASA/JPL Shuttle Radar Lab missions as part of the preparation for the Earth Observation System (EOS) program. The Shuttle Radar Lab is a combination of several radars: an L-band (1.2 GHz) and a C-band (5.3 GHz) multipolarization SAR known as SIR-C (Shuttle Imaging Radar); and an X-band (9.6 GHz) vertically polarized SAR which will be operated synchronously over the same target areas to deliver calibrated multifrequency and multipolarization SAR data at multiple incidence angles from space. A joint German/Italian project office at DARA (German Space Agency) is responsible for the management of the X-SAR project. The space hardware has been developed and manufactured under industrial contract by Dornier and Alenia Spazio. Besides supporting all the technical and scientific tasks, DLR, in cooperation with ASI (Agencia Spaziale Italiano) is responsible for mission operation, calibration, and high precision SAR processing. In addition, DLR developed an airborne X-band SAR to support the experimenters with campaigns to prepare for the missions. The main advantage of adding a shorter wavelength (3 cm) radar to the SIR-C radars is the X-band radar's weaker penetration into vegetation and soil and its high sensitivity to surface roughness and associated phenomena. The performance of each of the three radars is comparable with respect to radiometric and geometric resolution.

  17. Space Radar Image of Great Wall of China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    These radar images show two segments of the Great Wall of China in a desert region of north-central China, about 700 kilometers (434 miles) west of Beijing. The wall appears as a thin orange band, running from the top to the bottom of the left image, and from the middle upper-left to the lower-right of the right image. These segments of the Great Wall were constructed in the 15th century, during the Ming Dynasty. The wall is between 5 and 8 meters high (16 to 26 feet) in these areas. The entire wall is about 3,000 kilometers (1,864 miles) long and about 150 kilometers (93 miles) of the wall appear in these two images. The wall is easily detected from space by radar because its steep, smooth sides provide a prominent surface for reflection of the radar beam. Near the center of the left image, two dry lake beds have been developed for salt extraction. Rectangular patterns in both images indicate agricultural development, primarily wheat fields. The images were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The left image is centered at 37.7 degrees North latitude and 107.5 degrees East longitude. The right image is centered at 37.5 degrees North latitude and 108.1 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. Each area shown measures 25 kilometers by 75 kilometers (15.5 miles by 45.5 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01794

  18. Space Radar Image of Houston, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This image of Houston, Texas, shows the amount of detail that is possible to obtain using spaceborne radar imaging. Images such as this -- obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavor last fall -- can become an effective tool for urban planners who map and monitor land use patterns in urban, agricultural and wetland areas. Central Houston appears pink and white in the upper portion of the image, outlined and crisscrossed by freeways. The image was obtained on October 10, 1994, during the space shuttle's 167th orbit. The area shown is 100 kilometers by 60 kilometers (62 miles by 38 miles) and is centered at 29.38 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The pink areas designate urban development while the green-and blue-patterned areas are agricultural fields. Black areas are bodies of water, including Galveston Bay along the right edge and the Gulf of Mexico at the bottom of the image. Interstate 45 runs from top to bottom through the image. The narrow island at the bottom of the image is Galveston Island, with the city of Galveston at its northeast (right) end. The dark cross in the upper center of the image is Hobby Airport. Ellington Air Force Base is visible below Hobby on the other side of Interstate 45. Clear Lake is the dark body of water in the middle right of the image. The green square just north of Clear Lake is Johnson Space Center, home of Mission Control and the astronaut training facilities. The black rectangle with a white center that appears to the left of the city center is the Houston Astrodome. The colors in this image were obtained using the follow radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); green represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received). http

  19. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar SIR-C/X-SAR. The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations of Colombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01722

  20. Space Radar Image of Altona, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Altona test site in Manitoba, Canada, about 80 kilometers (50 miles) south of Winnipeg. The image is centered at approximately 49 degrees north latitude and 97.5 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 2, 1994, during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 11, 1994; green represents data acquired on October 2, 1994; blue represents the ratio of the two data sets. The test site is located in the Red River Basin and is characterized by rich farmland where a variety of crops are grown, including wheat, barley, canola, corn, sunflowers and sugar beets. This SIR-C/X-SAR research site is applying radar remote sensing to study the characteristics of vegetation and soil moisture. The seasonal comparison between the April and October 1994 data show the dramatic differences between surface conditions on the two dates. At the time of the April acquisition, almost all agricultural fields were bare and soil moisture levels were high. In October, however, soils were drier and while most crops had been harvested, some standing vegetation was still present. The areas which are cyan in color are dark in April and bright in October. These represent fields of standing biomass (amount of vegetation in a specified area) and the differences in brightness within these cyan fields represent differences in vegetation type. The very bright fields in October represent standing broadleaf crops such as corn, which had not yet been harvested. Other standing vegetation which has less biomass, such as hay and grain fields, are less bright. The magenta indicates bare soil surfaces which were wetter (brighter) in April than in October. The variations in brightness of

  1. Space Radar Image of Mississippi Delta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a radar image of the Mississippi River Delta where the river enters into the Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Louisiana. This multi-frequency image demonstrates the capability of the radar to distinguish different types of wetlands surfaces in river deltas. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1995. The image is centered on latitude 29.3 degrees North latitude and 89.28 degrees West longitude. The area shown is approximately 63 kilometers by 43 kilometers (39 miles by 26 miles). North is towards the upper right of the image. As the river enters the Gulf of Mexico, it loses energy and dumps its load of sediment that it has carried on its journey through the mid-continent. This pile of sediment, or mud, accumulates over the years building up the delta front. As one part of the delta becomes clogged with sediment, the delta front will migrate in search of new areas to grow. The area shown on this image is the currently active delta front of the Mississippi. The migratory nature of the delta forms natural traps for oil and the numerous bright spots along the outside of the delta are drilling platforms. Most of the land in the image consists of mud flats and marsh lands. There is little human settlement in this area due to the instability of the sediments. The main shipping channel of the Mississippi River is the broad red stripe running northwest to southeast down the left side of the image. The bright spots within the channel are ships. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is X-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01784

  2. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of a false-color image of the eastern part of the Big Island of Hawaii. It was produced using all three radar frequencies -- X-band, C-band and L-band -- from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the space shuttle Endeavour, overlaid on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. Visible in the center of the image in blue are the summit crater (Kilauea Caldera) which contains the smaller Halemaumau Crater, and the line of collapse craters below them that form the Chain of Craters Road. The image was acquired on April 12, 1994 during orbit 52 of the space shuttle. The area shown is approximately 34 by 57 kilometers (21 by 35 miles) with the top of the image pointing toward northwest. The image is centered at about 155.25 degrees west longitude and 19.5 degrees north latitude. The false colors are created by displaying three radar channels of different frequency. Red areas correspond to high backscatter at L-HV polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at C-HV polarization. Finally, blue shows high return at X-VV polarization. Using this color scheme, the rain forest appears bright on the image, while the green areas correspond to lower vegetation. The lava flows have different colors depending on their types and are easily recognizable due to their shapes. The flows at the top of the image originated from the Mauna Loa volcano. Kilauea volcano has been almost continuously active for more than the last 11 years. Field teams that were on the ground specifically to support these radar observations report that there was vigorous surface activity about 400 meters (one-quartermile) inland from the coast. A moving lava flow about 200 meters (650 feet) in length was observed at the time of the shuttle overflight, raising the possibility that subsequent images taken during this mission will show changes in the landscape. Currently, most of the lava that is

  3. Space Radar Image of Calcutta, West Bengal, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Calcutta, India, illustrates different urban land use patterns. Calcutta, the largest city in India, is located on the banks of the Hugli River, shown as the thick, dark line in the upper portion of the image. The surrounding area is a flat swampy region with a subtropical climate. As a result of this marshy environment, Calcutta is a compact city, concentrated along the fringes of the river. The average elevation is approximately 9 meters (30 feet) above sea level. Calcutta is located 154 kilometers (96 miles) upstream from the Bay of Bengal. Central Calcutta is the light blue and orange area below the river in the center of the image. The bridge spanning the river at the city center is the Howrah Bridge which links central Calcutta to Howrah. The dark region just below the river and to the left of the city center is Maidan, a large city park housing numerous cultural and recreational facilities. The international airport is in the lower right of the image. The bridge in the upper right is the Bally Bridge which links the suburbs of Bally and Baranagar. This image is 30 kilometers by 10 kilometers (19 miles by 6 miles)and is centered at 22.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 5, 1994, onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  4. Space Radar Image of Sakura-Jima Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The active volcano Sakura-Jima on the island of Kyushu, Japan is shown in the center of this radar image. The volcano occupies the peninsula in the center of Kagoshima Bay, which was formed by the explosion and collapse of an ancient predecessor of today's volcano. The volcano has been in near continuous eruption since 1955. Its explosions of ash and gas are closely monitored by local authorities due to the proximity of the city of Kagoshima across a narrow strait from the volcano's center, shown below and to the left of the central peninsula in this image. City residents have grown accustomed to clearing ash deposits from sidewalks, cars and buildings following Sakura-jima's eruptions. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international 'Decade Volcano' program. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 31.6 degrees North latitude and 130.6 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper left. The area shown measures 37.5 kilometers by 46.5 kilometers (23.3 miles by 28.8 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received.

  5. Space Radar Image of Sakura-Jima Volcano, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The active volcano Sakura-Jima on the island of Kyushu, Japan is shown in the center of this radar image. The volcano occupies the peninsula in the center of Kagoshima Bay, which was formed by the explosion and collapse of an ancient predecessor of today's volcano. The volcano has been in near continuous eruption since 1955. Its explosions of ash and gas are closely monitored by local authorities due to the proximity of the city of Kagoshima across a narrow strait from the volcano's center, shown below and to the left of the central peninsula in this image. City residents have grown accustomed to clearing ash deposits from sidewalks, cars and buildings following Sakura-jima's eruptions. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international "Decade Volcano" program. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 31.6 degrees North latitude and 130.6 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper left. The area shown measures 37.5 kilometers by 46.5 kilometers (23.3 miles by 28.8 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01777

  6. Space Radar Image of Karakax Valley, China 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective of the remote Karakax Valley in the northern Tibetan Plateau of western China was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are helpful to scientists because they reveal where the slopes of the valley are cut by erosion, as well as the accumulations of gravel deposits at the base of the mountains. These gravel deposits, called alluvial fans, are a common landform in desert regions that scientists are mapping in order to learn more about Earth's past climate changes. Higher up the valley side is a clear break in the slope, running straight, just below the ridge line. This is the trace of the Altyn Tagh fault, which is much longer than California's San Andreas fault. Geophysicists are studying this fault for clues it may be able to give them about large faults. Elevations range from 4000 m (13,100 ft) in the valley to over 6000 m (19,700 ft) at the peaks of the glaciated Kun Lun mountains running from the front right towards the back. Scale varies in this perspective view, but the area is about 20 km (12 miles) wide in the middle of the image, and there is no vertical exaggeration. The two radar images were acquired on separate days during the second flight of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The interferometry technique provides elevation measurements of all points in the scene. The resulting digital topographic map was used to create this view, looking northwest from high over the valley. Variations in the colors can be related to gravel, sand and rock outcrops. This image is centered at 36.1 degrees north latitude, 79.2 degrees east longitude. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: Red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted

  7. Space Radar Image of Manaus region of Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR system have validated the interpretation of the radar images. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  8. Space Radar Image of Rabaul Volcano, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    the image. Ashfall and subsequent rains caused the collapse of most buildings in the town of Rabaul. Mudflows and flooding continue to pose serious threats to the town and surrounding villages. Volcanologists and local authorities expect to use data such as this radar image to assist them in identifying the mechanisms of the eruption and future hazardous conditions that may be associated with the vigorously active volcano. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  9. Space Radar Image of Mt. Rainer, Washington

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a radar image of Mount Rainier in Washington state. The volcano last erupted about 150 years ago and numerous large floods and debris flows have originated on its slopes during the last century. Today the volcano is heavily mantled with glaciers and snowfields. More than 100,000 people live on young volcanic mudflows less than 10,000 years old and, consequently, are within the range of future, devastating mudslides. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area shown in the image is approximately 59 kilometers by 60 kilometers (36.5 miles by 37 miles). North is toward the top left of the image, which was composed by assigning red and green colors to the L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically, and the L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue indicates the C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. In addition to highlighting topographic slopes facing the space shuttle, SIR-C records rugged areas as brighter and smooth areas as darker. The scene was illuminated by the shuttle's radar from the northwest so that northwest-facing slopes are brighter and southeast-facing slopes are dark. Forested regions are pale green in color; clear cuts and bare ground are bluish or purple; ice is dark green and white. The round cone at the center of the image is the 14,435-foot (4,399-meter) active volcano, Mount Rainier. On the lower slopes is a zone of rock ridges and rubble (purple to reddish) above coniferous forests (in yellow/green). The western boundary of Mount Rainier National Park is seen as a transition from protected, old-growth forest to heavily logged private land, a mosaic of recent clear cuts (bright purple/blue) and partially regrown timber plantations (pale blue). The prominent river seen curving away from the mountain at the top of the image (to the northwest) is the

  10. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an image of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the image. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the image, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01731

  11. Space Radar Image of Taal Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an image of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 "Decade Volcanoes" that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the image is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01768

  12. Space Radar Image of Raco, Michigan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This image is a false-color composite of Raco, Michigan, centered at 46.39 degrees north latitude, 84.88 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its sixth orbit and during the first full-capability test of the instrument on April 9, 1994. This image was produced using both L-band and C-band data. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). Raco is located at the eastern end of Michigan's upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. The site is located at the boundary between the boreal forests and the northern temperate forests, a transitional zone that is expected to be ecologically sensitive to anticipated global changes resulting from climatic warming. On any given day, there is a 60 percent chance that this area will be obscured to some extent by cloud clover which makes it difficult to image using optical sensors. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01700

  13. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the

  14. Space Radar Image of Weddell Sea Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is the first calibrated, multi-frequency, multi-polarization spaceborne radar image of the seasonal sea-ice cover in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The multi-channel data provide scientists with details about the ice pack they cannot see any other way and indicates that the large expanse of sea-ice is, in fact, comprised of many smaller rounded ice floes, shown in blue-gray. These data are particularly useful in helping scientists estimate the thickness of the ice cover which is often extremely difficult to measure with other remote sensing systems. The extent, and especially thickness, of the polar ocean's sea-ice cover together have important implications for global climate by regulating the loss of heat from the ocean to the cold polar atmosphere. The image was acquired on October 3, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. This image is produced by overlaying three channels of radar data in the following colors: red (C-band, HH-polarization), green (L-band HV-polarization), and blue (L-band, HH-polarization). The image is oriented almost east-west with a center location of 58.2 degrees South and 21.6 degrees East. Image dimensions are 45 kilometers by 18 kilometers (28 miles by 11 miles). Most of the ice cover is composed of rounded, undeformed blue-gray floes, about 0.7 meters (2 feet) thick, which are surrounded by a jumble of red-tinged deformed ice pieces which are up to 2 meters (7 feet) thick. The winter cycle of ice growth and deformation often causes this ice cover to split apart, exposing open water or "leads." Ice growth within these openings is rapid due to the cold, brisk Antarctic atmosphere. Different stages of new-ice growth can be seen within the linear leads, resulting from continuous opening and closing. The blue lines within the leads are open water areas in new fractures which are roughened by wind. The bright red lines are an intermediate stage of new

  15. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Maly Semlyachik volcano, which is part of the Karymsky volcano group on Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The image is centered at 54.2 degrees north latitude and 159.6 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on September 30, 1994, during the second flight. The image channels have been assigned the following colors: red corresponds to data acquired on April 9; green corresponds to data acquired on September 30; and blue corresponds to the ratio between data from April 9 and September 30, 1994. Kamchatka is twice as large as England, Scotland and Wales combined and is home to approximately 470,000 residents. The region is characterized by a chain of volcanoes stretching 800 kilometers (500 miles) across the countryside. Many of the volcanoes, including the active Maly Semlyachik volcano in this image, have erupted during this century. But the most active period in creating the three characteristic craters of this volcano goes back 20,000, 12,000 and 2,000 years ago. The highest summit of the oldest crater reaches about 1,560 meters (1,650 feet). The radar images reveal the geological structures of craters and lava flows in order to improve scientists' knowledge of these sometimes vigorously active volcanoes. This seasonal composite also highlights the ecological differences that have occurred between April and October 1994. In April the whole area was snow-covered and, at the coast, an ice sheet extended approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) into the sea. The area shown surrounding the volcano is covered by low vegetation much like scrub. Kamchatka also has extensive forests, which belong to the northern frontier of Taiga, the boreal forest ecosystem. This region plays an important role in the world's carbon cycle. Trees require 60 years to

  16. Space Radar Image of Dublin, Ireland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of Dublin, Ireland, shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. In the center of the image is the city natural harbor along the Irish Sea.

  17. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Valley Island of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds.

  18. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow

  19. Space Radar Image of the Lost City of Ubar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

  20. Radar error statistics for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Radar error statistics of C-band and S-band that are recommended for use with the groundtracking programs to process space shuttle tracking data are presented. The statistics are divided into two parts: bias error statistics, using the subscript B, and high frequency error statistics, using the subscript q. Bias errors may be slowly varying to constant. High frequency random errors (noise) are rapidly varying and may or may not be correlated from sample to sample. Bias errors were mainly due to hardware defects and to errors in correction for atmospheric refraction effects. High frequency noise was mainly due to hardware and due to atmospheric scintillation. Three types of atmospheric scintillation were identified: horizontal, vertical, and line of sight. This was the first time that horizontal and line of sight scintillations were identified.

  1. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    Data acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 4, 1994 from the X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour were used to generate interferometric fringes, which were overlaid on the X-SAR image of Kilauea. The volcano is centered in this image at 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. The image covers about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.6 miles by 8 miles). The X-band fringes correspond clearly to the expected topographic image. The yellow line indicates the area below which was used for the three-dimensional image using altitude lines. The yellow rectangular frame fences the area for the final topographic image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01762

  2. Space Radar Image of San Rafael Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    means. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm), and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes that are caused by nature and those changes that are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  3. SRTM Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height/EarthKam Optical Honolulu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These two images of the eastern part of the island of Oahu, Hawaii provide information on regional topography and show the relationship between urban development and sensitive ecosystems. On the left is a topographic radar image collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM.) On the right is an optical image acquired by a digital camera on the Space Shuttle Endeavour, which carried SRTM. Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano at the lower center), Waikiki Beach (just left of Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetery (another extinct volcano, at the foot of the Koolau Mountains), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu airport (lower left of center), and Pearl Harbor (at the left edge.)

    The topography shows the steep, high central part of the island surrounded by flatter coastal areas. The optical image shows the urban areas and a darker, forested region on the mountain slopes. The clouds in the optical image and the black areas on the topographic image are both a result of the steep topography. In this tropical region, high mountain peaks are usually covered in clouds. These steep peaks also cause shadows in the radar data, resulting in missing data 'holes.' A second pass over the island was obtained by SRTM and will be used to fill in the holes.

    The left image combines two types of SRTM data. Brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation. Each color cycle (from pink through blue and back to pink) represents 400 meters (1,300 feet) of elevation difference, like the contour lines on a topographic map. This image contains about 2,400 meters (8,000 feet) of total relief. The optical image was acquired by the Shuttle Electronic Still Camera with a lens focal length of 64 millimeters (2.5 inches) for the Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students (EarthKAM) project. EarthKAM has flown on five space shuttle missions since 1996. Additional

  4. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    These two false-color images of the Manaus region of Brazil in South America were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at left was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the image at right was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (at top) and the Rio Solimoes (at bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The false colors were created by displaying three L-band polarization channels: red areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and received, while green areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue areas show low returns at vertical transmit/receive polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces can be seen. Using this color scheme, green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest or floating meadows. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image and appears to follow the 10-meter (33-foot) annual rise and fall of the Amazon River. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish, and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. These images demonstrate the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies block monitoring of flooding. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas

  5. Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01752

  6. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  7. Space Radar Image of Raco, Michigan, ecological test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    global changes resulting from climatic warming. Baseline studies of vegetation are essential in monitoring these expected changes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  8. Space Radar Image of Sunbury, Pennsylvania

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-14

    Scientists are using this radar image of the area surrounding Sunbury, Pennsylvania to study the geologic structure and land use patterns in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge province. This image was collected on October 6, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/ X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on orbit 102 of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered on latitude 40.85 degrees North latitude and 76.79 degrees West longitude. The area shown is approximately 30.5 km by 38 km. (19 miles by 24 miles). North is towards the upper right of the image. The Valley and Ridge province occurs in the north-central Appalachians, primarily in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. It is an area of adjacent valleys and ridges that formed when the Appalachian mountain were created some 370 to 390 million years ago. During the continental collision that formed the Appalachians, the rocks in this area were pushed from the side and buckled much like a rug when pushed from one end. Subsequent erosion has produced the landscape we see in this image. The more resistant rocks, such as sandstone, form the tops of the ridges which appear as forested greenish areas on this image. The less resistant rocks, such as limestone, form the lower valleys which are cleared land and farm fields and are purple in this image. Smaller rivers and streams in the area flow along the valleys and in places cut across the ridges in "water gaps." In addition to defining the geography of this region, the Valley and Ridge province also provides this area with natural resources. The valleys provide fertile farmland and the folded mountains form natural traps for oil and gas accumulation; coal deposits are also found in the mountains. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the SIR-C radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally

  9. Space Debris Measurements using the Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolls, M.

    The Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR) is a modular, mobile UHF phased-array radar facility developed and used for scientific studies of the ionosphere. The radars are completely remotely operated and allow for pulse-to-pulse beam steering over the field-of-view. A satellite and debris tracking capability fully interleaved with scientific operations has been developed, and the AMISR systems are now used to routinely observe LEO space debris, with the ability to simultaneously track and detect multiple objects. The system makes use of wide-bandwidth radar pulses and coherent processing to detect objects as small as 5-10 cm in size through LEO, achieving a range resolution better than 20 meters for LEO targets. The interleaved operations allow for ionospheric effects on UHF space debris measurements, such as dispersion, to be assessed. The radar architecture, interleaved operations, and impact of space weather on the measurements will be discussed.

  10. Space Radar Image of Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    These two false-color composite images of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Calif., show significant seasonal changes in snow cover. The image at left was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119 degrees west longitude. The area is about 36 kilometers by 48 kilometers (22 miles by 29 miles). In this image, red is L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization data; green is C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization data; and blue is C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. The image at right was acquired on October 3, 1994, on the space shuttle Endeavour's 67th orbit of the second radar mission. Crowley Lake appears dark at the center left of the image, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The changes in color tone at the higher elevations (e.g. the Mammoth Mountain ski area) from green-blue in April to purple in September reflect changes in snow cover between the two missions. The April mission occurred immediately following a moderate snow storm. During the mission the snow evolved from a dry, fine-grained snowpack with few distinct layers to a wet, coarse-grained pack with multiple ice inclusions. Since that mission, all snow in the area has melted except for small glaciers and permanent snowfields on the Silver Divide and near the headwaters of Rock Creek. On October 3, 1994, only discontinuous patches of snow cover were present at very high elevations following the first snow storm of the season on September 28, 1994. For investigations in hydrology and land-surface climatology, seasonal snow

  11. SPace Radar Image of Fort Irwin, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-SAR image spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the imaging radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the image. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of image) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01750

  12. Space Radar Image of Hong Kong, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-SAR image spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the imaging radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the image. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of image) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01750

  13. Space Radar Image of Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Salt Lake City, Utah, illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in the Utah Valley. Salt Lake City lies between the shores of the Great Salt Lake (the dark area on the left side of the image) and the Wasatch Front Range (the mountains in the upper half of the image). The Salt Lake City area is of great interest to urban planners because of the combination of lake, valley and alpine environments that coexist in the region. Much of the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake is a waterfowl management area. The green grid pattern in the right center of the image is Salt Lake City and its surrounding communities. The Salt Lake City airport is visible as the brown rectangle near the center of the image. Interstate Highway 15 runs from the middle right edge to the upper left of the image. The bright white patch east of Interstate 15 is the downtown area, including Temple Square and the state capitol. The University of Utah campus is the yellowish area that lies at the base of the mountains, east of Temple Square. The large reservoir in the lower left center is a mine tailings pond. The semi-circular feature in the mountains at the bottom edge of the image is the Kennecott Copper Mine. The area shown is 60 kilometers by 40 kilometers (37 miles by 25 miles) and is centered at 40.6 degrees north latitude, 112.0 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  14. Space Radar Image of Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of Salt Lake City, Utah, illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in the Utah Valley. Salt Lake City lies between the shores of the Great Salt Lake (the dark area on the left side of the image) and the Wasatch Front Range (the mountains in the upper half of the image). The Salt Lake City area is of great interest to urban planners because of the combination of lake, valley and alpine environments that coexist in the region. Much of the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake is a waterfowl management area. The green grid pattern in the right center of the image is Salt Lake City and its surrounding communities. The Salt Lake City airport is visible as the brown rectangle near the center of the image. Interstate Highway 15 runs from the middle right edge to the upper left of the image. The bright white patch east of Interstate 15 is the downtown area, including Temple Square and the state capitol. The University of Utah campus is the yellowish area that lies at the base of the mountains, east of Temple Square. The large reservoir in the lower left center is a mine tailings pond. The semi-circular feature in the mountains at the bottom edge of the image is the Kennecott Copper Mine. The area shown is 60 kilometers by 40 kilometers (37 miles by 25 miles) and is centered at 40.6 degrees north latitude, 112.0 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. http

  15. Space Radar Image of Mount Pinatubo Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  16. Mathematical modeling and simulation of the space shuttle imaging radar antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. W.; Melick, K. E.; Coffey, E. L., III

    1978-01-01

    Simulations of space shuttle synthetic aperture radar antennas under the influence of space environmental conditions were carried out at L, C, and X-band. Mathematical difficulties in modeling large, non-planar array antennas are discussed, and an approximate modeling technique is presented. Results for several antenna error conditions are illustrated in far-field profile patterns, earth surface footprint contours, and summary graphs.

  17. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km 19 miles east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry.

  18. Space Radar Image of Dnieper River, Ukraine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the intensive agricultural development in central Ukraine, along the Dnieper River. The area shown lies about 320 kilometers 198 miles southeast of Kiev and about 360 kilometers 223 miles northeast of Odessa.

  19. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground.

  20. Ground radar detection of meteoroids in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J.; Landry, P. M.; Gabbard, J. R.; Moran, J. L. T.

    1980-01-01

    A special test to lower the detection threshold for satellite fragments potentially dangerous to spacecraft was carried out by NORAD for NASA, using modified radar software. The Perimeter Acquisition Radar Attack Characterization System, a large, planar face, phased radar, operates at a nominal 430 MHz and produces 120 pulses per second, 45 of which were dedicated to search. In a time period of 8.4 hours of observations over three days, over 6000 objects were detected and tracked of which 37 were determined to have velocities greater than escape velocity. Six of these were larger objects with radar cross sections greater than 0.1 sq m and were probably orbiting satellites. A table gives the flux of both observed groups.

  1. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Space Radar Image of Victoria, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency spaceborne radar image shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia.

  3. Space Radar Image of Reunion Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image shows the volcanic island of Reunion, about 700 km 434 miles east of Madagascar in the southwest Indian Ocean. The southern half of the island is dominated by the active volcano, Piton de la Fournaise.

  4. Space Radar Image of Tuva, Central Asia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows part of the remote central Asian region of Tuva, an autonomous republic of the Russian Federation. Tuva is a mostly mountainous region that lies between western Mongolia and southern Siberia.

  5. Space Radar Image of Taipei, Taiwan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The northern end of the island country of Taiwan, including the capital city of Taipei, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. Taipei is the bright blue and red area in the lower center of the image.

  6. Space Radar Image of Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Ruiz-Tolima volcanic region in central Colombia, about 150 kilometers 93 miles west of Bogata. The town of Manizales, Colombia, is the pinkish area in the upper right of the image.

  7. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image.

  8. SPACE: Enhancing Life on Earth. Proceedings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobden, Alan (Editor); Hobden, Beverly (Editor); Bagley, Larry E. (Editor); Bolton, Ed (Editor); Campaigne, Len O. (Editor); Cole, Ron (Editor); France, Marty (Editor); Hand, Rich (Editor); McKinley, Cynthia (Editor); Zimkas, Chuck (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 12th National Space Symposium on Enhancing Life on Earth is presented. Technological areas discussed include: Space applications and cooperation; Earth sensing, communication, and navigation applications; Global security interests in space; and International space station and space launch capabilities. An appendices that include featured speakers, program participants, and abbreviation & acronyms glossary is also attached.

  9. Center for Space and Earth Science

    Science.gov Websites

    Search Site submit Los Alamos National LaboratoryCenter for Space and Earth Science Part of the Partnerships NSEC » CSES Center for Space and Earth Science High quality, cutting-edge science in the areas of astrophysics, space physics, solid planetary geoscience, and Earth systems Contact Director Reiner Friedel (505

  10. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii - Interferometry 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This X-band image of the volcano Kilauea was taken on October 4, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The area shown is about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.5 miles by 8 miles) and is centered at about 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. This image and a similar image taken during the first flight of the radar instrument on April 13, 1994 were combined to produce the topographic information by means of an interferometric process. This is a process by which radar data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle is overlaid to obtain elevation information. Three additional images are provided showing an overlay of radar data with interferometric fringes; a three-dimensional image based on altitude lines; and, finally, a topographic view of the region. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01763

  11. Space Radar Image of Jerusalem and the Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image shows the area surrounding the Dead Sea along the West Bank between Israel and Jordan. This region is of major cultural and historical importance to millions of Muslims, Jews and Christians who consider it the Holy Land. The yellow area at the top of the image is the city of Jericho. A portion of the Dead Sea is shown as the large black area at the top right side of the image. The Jordan River is the white line at the top of the image which flows into the Dead Sea. Jerusalem, which lies in the Judaean Hill Country, is the bright, yellowish area shown along the left center of the image. Just below and to the right of Jerusalem is the town of Bethlehem. The city of Hebron is the white, yellowish area near the bottom of the image. The area around Jerusalem has a history of more than 2,000 years of settlement and scientists are hoping to use these data to unveil more about this region's past. The Jordan River Valley is part of an active fault and rift system that extends from southern Turkey and connects with the east African rift zone. This fault system has produced major earthquakes throughout history and some scientists theorize that an earthquake may have caused the fall of Jericho's walls. The Dead Sea basin is formed by active earthquake faulting and contains the lowest place on the Earth's surface at about 400 meters (1,300 feet) below sea level. It was in caves along the northern shore of the Dead Sea that the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in 1947. The blue and green areas are generally regions of undeveloped hills and the dark green areas are the smooth lowlands of the Jordan River valley. This image is 73 kilometers by 45 kilometers (45 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 31.7 degrees north latitude, 35.4 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; green is L-band, horizontally

  12. Space Shuttle radar investigations of Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary interpretation of structure and lithology from selected Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) images of Borneo, collected in October 1984, is presented. The SIR-B images, obtained at depression angles that ranged from 40 to 50 deg, were interpreted by using the approaches suggested by Sabins (1983). On the basis of radar signatures, six terrain categories; coastal and alluvial plains, and carbonate, clastic, volcanic, and melange, rocks, were defined in east, central, and south Kalimantan, and in the Malaysian state of Sarawak.

  13. Distress detection, location, and communications using advanced space technology. [satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a concept for low-cost, global, day-night, all-weather disaster warning and assistance. Evolving, advanced space technology with passive radio frequency reflectors in conjunction with an imaging synthetic aperture radar is employed to detect, identify, locate, and provide passive communication with earth users in distress. This concept evolved from a broad NASA research on new global search and rescue techniques. Appropriate airborne radar test results from this research are reviewed and related to potential disaster applications. The analysis indicates the approach has promise for disaster communications relative to floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms.

  14. Space shuttle search and rescue experiment using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Larson, R. W.; Zelenka, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of a synthetic aperture radar for search and rescue applications was demonstrated with aircraft experiments. One experiment was conducted using the ERIM four-channel radar and several test sites in the Michigan area. In this test simple corner-reflector targets were successfully imaged. Results from this investigation were positive and indicate that the concept can be used to investigate new approaches focused on the development of a global search and rescue system. An orbital experiment to demonstrate the application of synthetic aperture radar to search and rescue is proposed using the space shuttle.

  15. Ultrasound: From Earth to Space

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jennifer; Macbeth, Paul. B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a versatile imaging modality that offers many advantages over radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. On Earth, the use of ultrasound has become standard in many areas of medicine including diagnosis of medical and surgical diseases, management of obstetric and gynecologic conditions, assessment of critically ill patients, and procedural guidance. Advances in telecommunications have enabled remotely-guided ultrasonography for both geographically isolated populations and astronauts aboard the International Space Station. While ultrasound has traditionally been used in spaceflight to study anatomical and physiological adaptations to microgravity and evaluate countermeasures, recent years have seen a growth of applications adapted from terrestrial techniques. Terrestrial, remote, and space applications for ultrasound are reviewed in this paper. PMID:22399873

  16. Ultrasound: from Earth to space.

    PubMed

    Law, Jennifer; Macbeth, Paul B

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasonography is a versatile imaging modality that offers many advantages over radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. On Earth, the use of ultrasound has become standard in many areas of medicine including diagnosis of medical and surgical diseases, management of obstetric and gynecologic conditions, assessment of critically ill patients, and procedural guidance. Advances in telecommunications have enabled remotely-guided ultrasonography for both geographically isolated populations and astronauts aboard the International Space Station. While ultrasound has traditionally been used in spaceflight to study anatomical and physiological adaptations to microgravity and evaluate countermeasures, recent years have seen a growth of applications adapted from terrestrial techniques. Terrestrial, remote, and space applications for ultrasound are reviewed in this paper.

  17. Space Radar Image of North Ecuador

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    A family of dormant volcanoes dominates the landscape in this radar image of the Andes Mountains in northern Ecuador. The city of Otavalo, shown in pink, and Lake Otavalo lie within the triangle formed by three volcanoes in the upper part of the image.

  18. Space Radar Image of Oil Slicks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a radar image of an offshore drilling field about 150 km 93 miles west of Bombay, India, in the Arabian Sea. The dark streaks are extensive oil slicks surrounding many of the drilling platforms, which appear as bright white spots.

  19. Space shuttle radar images of Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, Floyd F.; Ford, John P.

    1986-01-01

    Sabins (1983) interpreted Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR)-A images of Indonesia; Sabins and Ford (1985) interpreted SIR-B images. These investigations had the following major results: (1) major lithologic assemblages are recognizable by their terrain characteristics in the SIR images, and (2) both local and regional geologic structures are mappable. These results are summarized.

  20. Space Radar Image of St. Louis, Missouri

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a spaceborne radar image of the area surrounding St. Louis, Missouri, where the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers come together. The city of St. Louis is the bright gold area within a bend in the Mississippi River at the lower center of the image.

  1. Ecology of Near-Earth Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghosyan, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    The technical achievements of our civilization are accompanied by certain negative consequences affect the near-Earth space. The problem of clogging of near-Earth space by "space debris" as purely theoretical arose essentially as soon as the first artificial satellite in 1957 was launched. Since then, the rate of exploitation of outer space has increased very rapidly. As a result, the problem of clogging of near-Earth space ceased to be only theoretical and transformed into practical. Presently, anthropogenic factors of the development of near-Earth space are divided into several categories: mechanical, chemical, radioactive and electromagnetic pollution.

  2. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada, seasonal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    -C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  3. Arecibo Radar Observation of Near-Earth Asteroids: Expanded Sample Size, Determination of Radar Albedos, and Measurements of Polarization Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejoly, Cassandra; Howell, Ellen S.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Springmann, Alessondra; Virkki, Anne; Nolan, Michael C.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.

    2017-10-01

    The Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population ranges in size from a few meters to more than 10 kilometers. NEAs have a wide variety of taxonomic classes, surface features, and shapes, including spheroids, binary objects, contact binaries, elongated, as well as irregular bodies. Using the Arecibo Observatory planetary radar system, we have measured apparent rotation rate, radar reflectivity, apparent diameter, and radar albedos for over 350 NEAs. The radar albedo is defined as the radar cross-section divided by the geometric cross-section. If a shape model is available, the actual cross-section is known at the time of the observation. Otherwise we derive a geometric cross-section from a measured diameter. When radar imaging is available, the diameter was measured from the apparent range depth. However, when radar imaging was not available, we used the continuous wave (CW) bandwidth radar measurements in conjunction with the period of the object. The CW bandwidth provides apparent rotation rate, which, given an independent rotation measurement, such as from lightcurves, constrains the size of the object. We assumed an equatorial view unless we knew the pole orientation, which gives a lower limit on the diameter. The CW also provides the polarization ratio, which is the ratio of the SC and OC cross-sections.We confirm the trend found by Benner et al. (2008) that taxonomic types E and V have very high polarization ratios. We have obtained a larger sample and can analyze additional trends with spin, size, rotation rate, taxonomic class, polarization ratio, and radar albedo to interpret the origin of the NEAs and their dynamical processes. The distribution of radar albedo and polarization ratio at the smallest diameters (≤50 m) differs from the distribution of larger objects (>50 m), although the sample size is limited. Additionally, we find more moderate radar albedos for the smallest NEAs when compared to those with diameters 50-150 m. We will present additional trends we

  4. Deep Space Earth Observations from DSCOVR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, A.; Herman, J.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) at Sun-Earth L1 orbit observes the full sunlit disk of Earth. There are two Earth science instruments on board DSCOVR — EPIC and NISTAR. We discuss if EPIC and NISAR-like instruments can be used in Deep Space Gateway.

  5. Radar Evaluation of Optical Cloud Constraints to Space Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.; Short, David A.; Ward, Jennifer G.

    2005-01-01

    Weather constraints to launching space vehicles are designed to prevent loss of the vehicle or mission due to weather hazards (See, e.g., Ref 1). Constraints include Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) designed to avoid natural and triggered lightning. The LLCC currently in use at most American launch sites including the Eastern Range and Kennedy Space Center require the Launch Weather Officer to determine the height of cloud bases and tops, the location of cloud edges, and cloud transparency. The preferred method of making these determinations is visual observation, but when that isn't possible due to darkness or obscured vision, it is permissible to use radar. This note examines the relationship between visual and radar observations in three ways: A theoretical consideration of the relationship between radar reflectivity and optical transparency. An observational study relating radar reflectivity to cloud edge determined from in-situ measurements of cloud particle concentrations that determine the visible cloud edge. An observational study relating standard radar products to anvil cloud transparency. It is shown that these three approaches yield results consistent with each other and with the radar threshold specified in Reference 2 for LLCC evaluation.

  6. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California was created from data taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This image was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C radar image on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process by which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The interferometry data were acquired on April 13,1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR instrument. The color composite radar image was taken in October and was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the image are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is the large dark feature in the foreground. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01769

  7. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California - 3-D view

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C image on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process by which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle and, which then, are compared to obtain elevation information. The data were acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR radar instrument. The color composite radar image was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the image are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is off the image to the left. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01757

  8. IoSiS: a radar system for imaging of satellites in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirousek, M.; Anger, S.; Dill, S.; Schreiber, E.; Peichl, M.

    2017-05-01

    Space debris nowadays is one of the main threats for satellite systems especially in low earth orbit (LEO). More than 700,000 debris objects with potential to destroy or damage a satellite are estimated. The effects of an impact often are not identifiable directly from ground. High-resolution radar images are helpful in analyzing a possible damage. Therefor DLR is currently developing a radar system called IoSiS (Imaging of Satellites in Space), being based on an existing steering antenna structure and our multi-purpose high-performance radar system GigaRad for experimental investigations. GigaRad is a multi-channel system operating at X band and using a bandwidth of up to 4.4 GHz in the IoSiS configuration, providing fully separated transmit (TX) and receive (RX) channels, and separated antennas. For the observation of small satellites or space debris a highpower traveling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) is mounted close to the TX antenna feed. For the experimental phase IoSiS uses a 9 m TX and a 1 m RX antenna mounted on a common steerable positioner. High-resolution radar images are obtained by using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) techniques. The guided tracking of known objects during overpass allows here wide azimuth observation angles. Thus high azimuth resolution comparable to the range resolution can be achieved. This paper outlines technical main characteristics of the IoSiS radar system including the basic setup of the antenna, the radar instrument with the RF error correction, and the measurement strategy. Also a short description about a simulation tool for the whole instrument and expected images is shown.

  9. Characterization of steel rebar spacing using synthetic aperture radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Tang, Qixiang; Twumasi, Jones Owusu; Yu, Tzuyang

    2018-03-01

    Steel rebars is a vital component in reinforced concrete (RC) and prestressed concrete structures since they provide mechanical functions to those structures. Damages occurred to steel rebars can lead to the premature failure of concrete structures. Characterization of steel rebars using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) offers engineers and decision makers important information for effective/good repair of aging concrete structures. Among existing NDE techniques, microwave/radar NDE has been proven to be a promising technique for surface and subsurface sensing of concrete structures. The objective of this paper is to use microwave/radar NDE to characterize steel rebar grids in free space, as a basis for the subsurface sensing of steel rebars inside RC structures. A portable 10-GHz radar system based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging was used in this paper. Effect of rebar grid spacing was considered and used to define subsurface steel rebar grids. Five rebar grid spacings were used; 12.7 cm (5 in.), 17.78 cm (7 in.), 22.86 cm (9 in.), 27.94 cm (11 in.), and 33.02 cm (13 in.) # 3 rebars were used in all grid specimens. All SAR images were collected inside an anechoic chamber. It was found that SAR images can successfully capture the change of rebar grid spacing and used for quantifying the spacing of rebar grids. Empirical models were proposed to estimate actual rebar spacing and contour area using SAR images.

  10. Space Radar Image of Death Valley in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This picture is a three-dimensional perspective view of Death Valley, California. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. The SIR-C image is centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude and 117.069 degrees west longitude. We are looking at Stove Pipe Wells, which is the bright rectangle located in the center of the picture frame. Our vantage point is located atop a large alluvial fan centered at the mouth of Cottonwood Canyon. In the foreground on the left, we can see the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells. In the background on the left, the Valley floor gradually falls in elevation toward Badwater, the lowest spot in the United States. In the background on the right we can see Tucki Mountain. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the Valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help the answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information

  11. Application of non-attenuating frequency radars for prediction of rain attenuation and space diversity performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1979-01-01

    In order to establish transmitter power and receiver sensitivity levels at frequencies above 10 GHz, the designers of earth-satellite telecommunication systems are interested in cumulative rain fade statistics at variable path orientations, elevation angles, climatological regions, and frequencies. They are also interested in establishing optimum space diversity performance parameters. In this work are examined the many elements involved in the employment of single non-attenuating frequency radars for arriving at the desired information. The elements examined include radar techniques and requirements, phenomenological assumptions, path attenation formulations and procedures, as well as error budgeting and calibration analysis. Included are the pertinent results of previous investigators who have used radar for rain attenuation modeling. Suggestions are made for improving present methods.

  12. Space Radar Image of Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The summits of two large volcanoes in Central Java, Indonesia are shown in the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of green and yellow surrounding the summit of Mt. Merbabu (mid-center) and Mt. Merapi (lower center). Mt. Merapi erupted on November 28, 1994 about six weeks after this image was taken. The eruption killed more than 60 people and forced the evacuation of more than 6,000 others. Thousands of other residents were put on alert due to the possibility of volcanic debris mudflows, called lahars, that threatened nearby towns. Mt. Merapi is located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) north of Yogyakarta, the capital of Central Java. The older volcano at the top of the image is unnamed. Lake Rawapening is the dark blue feature in the upper right. The light blue area southeast of the lake is the city of Salatiga. Directly south of Salatiga and southeast of Mt. Merapi is the city of Boyolali. Scientists are studying Mt. Merapi as part of the international "Decade Volcanoes" project, because of its recent activity and potential threat to local populations. The radar data are being used to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01782

  13. Arecibo Radar Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids: A Study in Heterogeneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Margot J.-L.; Ostro, S. J; Benner, L. A. M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Campbell, D. B.

    2002-01-01

    Characterization of the rotation state and structure of near-Earth asteroids through radar observations using the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radar systems shows the remarkable variety of these objects, and suggests variety of formation and modification mechanisms. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Tropical rain mapping radar on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Li, Fuk

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design for a tropical rain mapping radar for flight on the manned Space Station is discussed. In this design the radar utilizes a narrow, dual-frequency (9.7 GHz and 24.1 GHz) beam, electronically scanned antenna to achieve high spatial (4 km) and vertical (250 m) resolutions and a relatively large (800 km) cross-track swath. An adaptive scan strategy will be used for better utilization of radar energy and dwell time. Such a system can detect precipitation at rates of up to 100 mm/hr with accuracies of roughly 15 percent. With the proposed space-time sampling strategy, the monthly averaged rainfall rate can be estimated to within 8 percent, which is essential for many climatological studies.

  15. An optimal beam alignment method for large-scale distributed space surveillance radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Dongya; Xia, Shuangzhi

    2018-06-01

    Large-scale distributed space surveillance radar is a very important ground-based equipment to maintain a complete catalogue for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris. However, due to the thousands of kilometers distance between each sites of the distributed radar system, how to optimally implement the Transmitting/Receiving (T/R) beams alignment in a great space using the narrow beam, which proposed a special and considerable technical challenge in the space surveillance area. According to the common coordinate transformation model and the radar beam space model, we presented a two dimensional projection algorithm for T/R beam using the direction angles, which could visually describe and assess the beam alignment performance. Subsequently, the optimal mathematical models for the orientation angle of the antenna array, the site location and the T/R beam coverage are constructed, and also the beam alignment parameters are precisely solved. At last, we conducted the optimal beam alignment experiments base on the site parameters of Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS). The simulation results demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of our novel method, which can significantly stimulate the construction for the LEO space debris surveillance equipment.

  16. Experimental validation of a millimeter wave radar technique to remotely sense atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Bradford, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments with a millimeter wave radar operating on the NASA CV-990 aircraft which validate the technique for remotely sensing atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface are described. Measurements show that the precise millimeter wave observations needed to deduce pressure from space with an accuracy of 1 mb are possible, that sea surface reflection properties agree with theory and that the measured variation of differential absorption with altitude corresponds to that expected from spectroscopic models.

  17. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function for the space shuttle. [(pulse radar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results are discussed of a study to define a radar and antenna system which best suits the space shuttle rendezvous requirements. Topics considered include antenna characteristics and antenna size tradeoffs, fundamental sources of measurement errors inherent in the target itself, backscattering crosssection models of the target and three basic candidate radar types. Antennas up to 1.5 meters in diameter are within specified installation constraints, however, a 1 meter diameter paraboloid and a folding, four slot backfeed on a two gimbal mount implemented for a spiral acquisition scan is recommended. The candidate radar types discussed are: (1) noncoherent pulse radar (2) coherent pulse radar and (3) pulse Doppler radar with linear FM ranging. The radar type recommended is a pulse Doppler with linear FM ranging. Block diagrams of each radar system are shown.

  18. Operational Use of Civil Space-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Donald R. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a remote-sensing technology which uses the motion of the aircraft or spacecraft carrying the radar to synthesize an antenna aperture larger than the physical antenna to yield a high-spatial resolution imaging capability. SAR systems can thus obtain high-spatial resolution geophysical measurements of the Earth over wide surface areas, under all-weather, day/night conditions. This report was prepared to document the results of a six-month study by an Ad Hoc Interagency Working Group on the Operational Use of Civil (i.e., non-military) Space-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The Assistant Administrator of NOAA for Satellite and Information Services convened this working group and chaired three meetings of the group over a six-month period. This action was taken in response to a request by the Associate Administrator of NASA for Mission to Planet Earth for an assessment of operational applications of SAR to be accomplished in parallel with a separate study requested of the Committee on Earth Studies of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council on the scientific results of SAR research missions. The representatives of participating agencies are listed following the Preface. There was no formal charter for the working group or long term plans for future meetings. However, the working group may be reconstituted in the future as a coordination body for multiagency use of operational SAR systems.

  19. Space Radar Image of Raco, Michigan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    These are two false-color composites of Raco, Michigan, located at the eastern end of Michigan upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. The two images (centered at 46.39 degrees north latitude, 84.88 degrees west longitude) show significant seasonal changes in the mid-latitude region of mixed deciduous and coniferous forests. The images were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the shuttle Endeavour on the sixth orbit of each mission. In these images, red is L-band (23 cm) with horizontal/vertical polarization; green is C-band (6 cm) with horizontal/vertical polarization; blue is C-band with horizontal/horizontal polarization. The region shown is largely forested and includes a large portion of Hiawatha National Forest, as well as an agricultural region near the bottom of each image. In early April, the area was snow-covered with up to 50 centimeters (19.5 inches) of snow in forest clearings and agricultural fields. Buds had not yet broken on deciduous trees, but the trees were not frozen and sap was generally flowing. Lake Superior, in the upper right, and the small inland lakes were frozen and snow-covered on April 9, 1994. By the end of September, deciduous trees were just beginning to change color after a relatively wet period. Leaf loss was estimated at about 30 percent, depending on the species, and the soil was moist to wet after a heavy rainfall on September 28, 1994. Most agricultural fields were covered with grasses of up to 60 centimeters (23 inches) in height. In the two images the colors are related to the types of land cover (i.e. vegetation type) and the brightness is related to the amount of plant material and its relative moisture content. Significant seasonal changes between early spring and early fall are illustrated by this pair of images. For the agricultural region near the bottom of the images, the change from snow-cover to moist soil

  20. Space Radar Image of Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar color composite shows a portion of the Weddell Sea, which is adjacent to the continent of Antarctica. The image shows extensive coverage of first-year sea ice mixtures and patches of open water inside the ice margin. The image covers a 100 kilometer by 30 kilometer (62 mile by 18.5 mile) region of the southern ocean, centered at approximately 57 degrees south latitude and 3 degrees east longitude, which was acquired on October 3, 1994. Data used to create this image were obtained using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in green; and the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in blue. The sea ice, which appears rust-brown in the image, is composed of loosely packed floes from approximately 1 meter to 2 meters (3 feet to 6.5 feet) thick and ranging from 1 meter to 20 meters (3 feet to 65.5 feet) in diameter. Large patches of open water, shown as turquoise blue, are scattered throughout the area, which is typical for ice margins experiencing off-ice winds. The thin, well-organized lines clearly visible in the ice pack are caused by radar energy reflected by floes riding the crest of ocean swells. The wispy, black features seen throughout the image represent areas where new ice is forming. Sea ice, because it acts as an insulator, reduces the loss of heat between the relatively warm ocean and cold atmosphere. This interaction is an important component of the global climate system. Because of the unique combination of winds, currents and temperatures found in this region, ice can extend many hundreds of kilometers north of Antarctica each winter, which classifies the Weddell Sea as one of nature's greatest ice-making engines. During the formation of sea ice, great quantities of salt are expelled from the frozen water. The salt increases the density of the upper layer of sea water, which then sinks to great depths

  1. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This three-dimensional image of the volcano Kilauea was generated based on interferometric fringes derived from two X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data takes on April 13, 1994 and October 4, 1994. The altitude lines are based on quantitative interpolation of the topographic fringes. The level difference between neighboring altitude lines is 20 meters (66 feet). The ground area covers 12 kilometers by 4 kilometers (7.5 miles by 2.5 miles). The altitude difference in the image is about 500 meters (1,640 feet). The volcano is located around 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01761

  2. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This image of San Francisco, California shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market, called the SOMA district in San Francisco, appear bright red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. Various bridges in the area are also visible including the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) at the opening of San Francisco Bay, the Bay Bridge (right center) connecting San Francisco and Oakland, and the San Mateo Bridge (bottom center). All the dark areas on the image are relatively smooth water: the Pacific Ocean to the left, San Francisco Bay in the center, and various reservoirs. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen in the lower left of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east. The image is about 42 kilometers by 58 kilometers (26 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. This area is centered at 37.83 degrees north latitude, 122.38 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01791

  3. Space Radar Image of Jerusalem and the Dead Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This space radar image shows the area surrounding the Dead Sea along the West Bank between Israel and Jordan. This region is of major cultural and historical importance to millions of Muslims, Jews and Christians who consider it the Holy Land.

  4. The NASA Space Shuttle Earth Observations Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfert, Michael R.; Wood, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Space Shuttle Earth Observations Office conducts astronaut training in earth observations, provides orbital documentation for acquisition of data and catalogs, and analyzes the astronaut handheld photography upon the return of Space Shuttle missions. This paper provides backgrounds on these functions and outlines the data constraints, organization, formats, and modes of access within the public domain.

  5. Microwave remote sensing from space for earth resource surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The concepts of radar remote sensing and microwave radiometry are discussed and their utility in earth resource sensing is examined. The direct relationship between the character of the remotely sensed data and the level of decision making for which the data are appropriate is considered. Applications of active and a passive microwave sensing covered include hydrology, land use, mapping, vegetation classification, environmental monitoring, coastal features and processes, geology, and ice and snow. Approved and proposed microwave sensors are described and the use of space shuttle as a development platform is evaluated.

  6. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  7. The bistatic radar capabilities of the Medicina radiotelescopes in space debris detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Pluchino, S.; di Martino, M.

    2010-03-01

    An accurate measurement of the position and trajectory of the space debris fragments is of primary importance for the characterization of the orbital debris environment. The Medicina Radioastronomical Station is a radio observation facility that is here proposed as receiving part of a ground-based space surveillance system for detecting and tracking space debris at different orbital regions (from Low Earth Orbits up to Geostationary Earth Orbits). The proposed system consists of two bistatic radars formed by the existing Medicina receiving antennas coupled with appropriate transmitters. This paper focuses on the current features and future technical development of the receiving part of the observational setup. Outlines of possible transmitting systems will also be given together with the evaluation of the observation strategies achievable with the proposed facilities.

  8. Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. The focus was on scientists' data requirements, as well as constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival systems. The workshop consisted of several invited papers; two described information systems for space and Earth science data, four depicted analysis scenarios for extracting information of scientific interest from data collected by Earth orbiting and deep space platforms, and a final one was a general tutorial on image data compression.

  9. Earth Orbital Science, Space in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is part of the "Space in the Seventies" series and reviews the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) earth orbital scientific research programs in progress and those to be pursued in the coming decade. Research in space physics is described in Part One in these areas: interplanetary monitoring platforms, small…

  10. Studying the Earth from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1977-01-01

    Pictures of the Earth's surface obtained from satellites are providing scientists with new tools to investigate the Earth and its environment. At the same time, a growing population and an ever-expanding technology place unprecedented demands on natural resources. Man can no longer treat his resources strictly according to immediate economic dictates; a balance must be struck between the short-term demands of technological and industrial development and the long-term effects on the environment. Intelligent development, management, and conservation of resources are goals that represent a challenge in the acquisition and use of information.

  11. Studying the Earth from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1974-01-01

    Pictures of the Earth's surface obtained from satellites are providing scientists with new tools to investigate tne Earth and its environment. A growing population and an everexpanding technology place demands on our natural resources. However, man can no longer treat his resources strictly according to immediate economic dictates; a balance must be struck between the short-term demands of technological and industrial development and the long-term effects on the environment. Intelligent development, management, and conservation of resources are goals that represent an unprecedented challenge in the acquisition and use of information.

  12. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California -Interferometry/Topography

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    These four images of the Long Valley region of east-central California illustrate the steps required to produced three dimensional data and topographics maps from radar interferometry. All data displayed in these images were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour during its two flights in April and October, 1994. The image in the upper left shows L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) SIR-C radar image data for an area 34 by 59 kilometers (21 by 37 miles). North is toward the upper right; the radar illumination is from the top of the image. The bright areas are hilly regions that contain exposed bedrock and pine forest. The darker gray areas are the relatively smooth, sparsely vegetated valley floors. The dark irregular patch near the lower left is Lake Crowley. The curving ridge that runs across the center of the image from top to bottom is the northeast rim of the Long Valley Caldera, a remnant crater from a massive volcanic eruption that occurred about 750,000 years ago. The image in the upper right is an interferogram of the same area, made by combining SIR-C L-band data from the April and October flights. The colors in this image represent the difference in the phase of the radar echoes obtained on the two flights. Variations in the phase difference are caused by elevation differences. Formation of continuous bands of phase differences, known as interferometric "fringes," is only possible if the two observations were acquired from nearly the same position in space. For these April and October data takes, the shuttle tracks were less than 100 meters (328 feet) apart. The image in the lower left shows a topographic map derived from the interferometric data. The colors represent increments of elevation, as do the thin black contour lines, which are spaced at 50-meter (164-foot) elevation intervals. Heavy contour lines show 250-meter intervals (820-foot). Total relief in

  13. Radar Imaging of Europa's Subsurface Properties and Processes: The View from Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenship, D. D.; Moore, W. B.; Young, D. A.; Peters, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    A primary objective of future Europa studies will be to characterize the distribution of shallow subsurface water as well as to identify any ice-ocean interface. Another objective will be to understand the formation of surface and subsurface features associated with interchange processes between any ocean and the surface. Achieving these objectives will require either direct or inferred knowledge of the position of any ice/water interfaces as well as any brine or layer pockets. We will review the hypothesized processes that control the thermal, compositional and structural (TCS) properties, and therefore the dielectric character, of the subsurface of Europa's icy shell. Our approach will be to extract the TCS properties for various subsurface processes thought to control the formation of major surface (e.g., ridges/bands, lenticulae, chaos, cratering...) and subsurface (e.g., rigid shell eutectics, diapirs, accretionary lenses ...) features on Europa. We will then assess the spectrum of analog processes and TCS properties represented by Earth's cryosphere including both Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and valley glaciers. There are few complete analogs over the full TCS space but, because of the wide range of ice thickness, impurities and strain rates for Earth's cryosphere, there are many more analogs than many Earth and planetary researchers might imagine for significant portions of this space (e.g., bottom crevasses, marine ice shelf/subglacial lake accretion, surging polythermal glaciers...).Our ultimate objective is to use these Earth analog studies to define the radar imaging approach for Europa's subsurface that will be most useful for supporting/refuting the hypotheses for the formation of major surface/subsurface features as well as for "pure" exploration of Europa's icy shell and its interface with the underlying ocean.

  14. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  15. Space Radar Image of Niya Ruins, Taklamakan Desert

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This radar image is of an area thought to contain the ruins of the ancient settlement of Niya. It is located in the southwestern corner of the Taklamakan Desert in China Sinjiang Province. This oasis was part of the famous Silk Road, an ancient trade route from one of China's earliest capitols, Xian, to the West. The image shows a white linear feature trending diagonally from the upper left to the lower right. Scientists believe this newly [sic] discovered feature is a man-made canal which presumably diverted river waters toward the settlement of Niya for irrigation purposes. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 106th orbit on April 16, 1994, and is centered at 37.78 degrees north latitude and 82.41 degrees east longitude. The false-color radar image was created by displaying the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red, the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in green, and the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in blue. Areas in mottled white and purple are low-lying floodplains of the Niya River. Dark green and black areas between river courses are higher ridges or dunes confining the water flow. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01725

  16. Near-Earth Space Radiation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; O'Brien, T. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Review of models of the near-Earth space radiation environment is presented, including recent developments in trapped proton and electron, galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event models geared toward spacecraft electronics applications.

  17. Four dimensional studies in earth space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A system of reference which is directly related to observations, is proposed for four-dimensional studies in earth space. Global control network and polar wandering are defined. The determination of variations in the earth's gravitational field with time also forms part of such a system. Techniques are outlined for the unique definition of the motion of the geocenter, and the changes in the location of the axis of rotation of an instantaneous earth model, in relation to values at some epoch of reference. The instantaneous system referred to is directly related to a fundamental equation in geodynamics. The reference system defined would provide an unambiguous frame for long period studies in earth space, provided the scale of the space were specified.

  18. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano,Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This photograph of the eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia was taken by space shuttle Endeavour astronauts during the early hours of the eruption on September 30, 1994. The ash plume, which reached heights of more than 18 kilometers (50,000 feet), is emerging from a vent on the north flank of Kliuchevskoi, partially hidden by the plume and its shadow in this view. The photograph is oriented with north toward the bottom, for comparison with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) image (P-44823) that was acquired a few days later. Near the center of the photo, a small whitish steam plume may be seen emanating from the growing lava dome of a companion volcano, Bezymianny. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01766

  19. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano,Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This photograph of the eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia was taken by space shuttle Endeavour astronauts during the early hours of the eruption on September 30, 1994. The ash plume, which reached heights of more than 18 kilometers (50,000 feet), is emerging from a vent on the north flank of Kliuchevskoi, partially hidden by the plume and its shadow in this view. The photograph is oriented with north toward the bottom, for comparison with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) image (P-44823) that was acquired a few days later. Near the center of the photo, a small whitish steam plume may be seen emanating from the growing lava dome of a companion volcano, Bezymianny.

  20. Space Radar Image of the Silk route in Niya, Taklamak, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This composite image is of an area thought to contain the ruins of the ancient settlement of Niya. It is located in the southwest corner of the Taklamakan Desert in China's Sinjiang Province. This region was part of some of China's earliest dynasties and from the third century BC on was traversed by the famous Silk Road. The Silk Road, passing east-west through this image, was an ancient trade route that led across Central Asia's desert to Persia, Byzantium and Rome. The multi-frequency, multi-polarized radar imagery was acquired on orbit 106 of the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The image is centered at 37.78 degrees north latitude and 82.41 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 35 kilometers by 83 kilometers (22 miles by 51 miles). The image is a composite of an image from an Earth-orbiting satellite called Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT)and a SIR-C multi-frequency, multi-polarized radar image. The false-color radar image was created by displaying the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red, the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in green, and the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in blue. The prominent east/west pink formation at the bottom of the image is most likely a ridge of loosely consolidated sedimentary rock. The Niya River -- the black feature in the lower right of the French satellite image -- meanders north-northeast until it clears the sedimentary ridge, at which point it abruptly turns northwest. Sediment and evaporite deposits left by the river over millennia dominate the center and upper right of the radar image (in light pink). High ground, ridges and dunes are seen among the riverbed meanderings as mottled blue. Through image enhancement and analysis, a new feature probably representing a man-made canal has been discovered and mapped. Spaceborne Imaging Radar

  1. Looking at Earth from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This vendor equipment list was developed with NASA funding by the Dallas Remote Imaging Group (DRIG) and the Maryland Pilot Earth Science and Technology Education Network (MAPS-NET) project as a reference guide to low-cost ground station equipment for direct readout, the capability to acquire information directly from environmental satellites. Products were tested with the following standards in mind: ease of use; user friendliness and completeness of manual and instructions; total system cost for computer, geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES), and automatic picture transmission (APT) capability under $4000; and vendor stability in the industry.

  2. Earth Observation from Space: Competition or Cooperation?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    or remote sensing from space (2). Earth observations or remote sensing includes all forms of observation by sensors borne by a space object including...3). The capabilities of remote sensing are as varied as the sensors that are built and put in orbit, but =- • I •1 capabilities fall into two...adversary or ally. For example, the ability of one nation to observe and study another through space-borne sensors permits strategic assessment of a

  3. VenSAR on EnVision: Taking earth observation radar to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghail, Richard C.; Hall, David; Mason, Philippa J.; Herrick, Robert R.; Carter, Lynn M.; Williams, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Venus should be the most Earth-like of all our planetary neighbours: its size, bulk composition and distance from the Sun are very similar to those of Earth. How and why did it all go wrong for Venus? What lessons can be learned about the life story of terrestrial planets in general, in this era of discovery of Earth-like exoplanets? Were the radically different evolutionary paths of Earth and Venus driven solely by distance from the Sun, or do internal dynamics, geological activity, volcanic outgassing and weathering also play an important part? EnVision is a proposed ESA Medium class mission designed to take Earth Observation technology to Venus to measure its current rate of geological activity, determine its geological history, and the origin and maintenance of its hostile atmosphere, to understand how Venus and Earth could have evolved so differently. EnVision will carry three instruments: the Venus Emission Mapper (VEM); the Subsurface Radar Sounder (SRS); and VenSAR, a world-leading European phased array synthetic aperture radar that is the subject of this article. VenSAR will obtain images at a range of spatial resolutions from 30 m regional coverage to 1 m images of selected areas; an improvement of two orders of magnitude on Magellan images; measure topography at 15 m resolution vertical and 60 m spatially from stereo and InSAR data; detect cm-scale change through differential InSAR, to characterise volcanic and tectonic activity, and estimate rates of weathering and surface alteration; and characterise of surface mechanical properties and weathering through multi-polar radar data. These data will be directly comparable with Earth Observation radar data, giving geoscientists unique access to an Earth-sized planet that has evolved on a radically different path to our own, offering new insights on the Earth-sized exoplanets across the galaxy.

  4. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a false-color radar image of Central Africa, showing the Virunga Volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. This C-band L-band image was acquired on April 12, 1994, on orbit 58 of space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The area is centered at about 1.75 degrees south latitude and 29.5 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 58 kilometers by 178 kilometers (48 miles by 178 miles). The false-color composite is created by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HH return in blue. The dark area in the bottom of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the left) and Rwanda (to the right). The airport at Goma, Zaire is shown as a dark line just above the lake in the bottom left corner of the image. Volcanic flows from the 1977 eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo are shown just north of the airport. Mt. Nyiragongo is not visible in this image because it is located just to the left of the image swath. Very fluid lava flows from the 1977 eruption killed 70 people. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01724

  5. Catalogs of Space Shuttle earth observations photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of postflight cataloging and indexing activities of mission data obtained from Space Shuttle earth observations photography. Each Space Shuttle mission acquires 1300-4400 photographs of the earth that are reviewed and interpreted by a team of photointerpreters and cataloging specialists. Every photograph's manual and electronic set of plots is compared for accuracy of its locational coordinates. This cataloging activity is a critical and principal part of postflight activity and ensures that the database is accurate, updated and consequently made meaningful for further utilization in the applications and research communities. A final product in the form of a Catalog of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Handheld Photography is published for users of this database.

  6. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J

    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overallmore » concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.« less

  7. A novel data association scheme for LEO space debris surveillance based on a double fence radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Hu, Weidong; Xin, Qin; Guo, Weiwei

    2012-12-01

    The increasing amount of space debris threatens to seriously deteriorate and damage space-based instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environments. Therefore, LEO space debris surveillance systems must be developed to provide situational awareness in space and issue warnings of collisions with LEO space debris. In this paper, a double fence radar system is proposed as an emerging paradigm for LEO space debris surveillance. This system exhibits several unique and promising characteristics compared with existing surveillance systems. In this paper, we also investigate the data association scheme for LEO space debris surveillance based on a double fence radar system. We also perform a theoretical analysis of the performance of our proposed scheme. The superiority and the effectiveness of our novel data association scheme is demonstrated by experimental results. The data used in our experiments is the LEO space debris catalog produced by the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) up to 2009, especially for scenarios with high densities of LEO space debris, which were primarily produced by the collisions between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251. We hope that our work will stimulate and benefit future work on LEO space debris surveillance approaches and enable construction of the double fence radar system.

  8. Earth observation photo taken by JPL with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Earth observation photo taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A). This image shows the Los Angeles basin. The area's freeways are visible as dark lines. The Los Angles harbor breakwater off Long Beach is seen as a bright line. Vessels in the harbor show as bright points.

  9. Earth observation photo taken by JPL with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Photos of earth observations taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A). This image shows Lake Okeechobee (right) and Lake Istokopoga (left) in Central Florida. Lake Okeechobee is bounded on the east by rectangular agricultural fields and to the south and west by swamps and wetlands which appear as bright features.

  10. Radar Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids 2000 UG11 and 2000 UK11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, M. C.; Margot, J.-L.; Howell, E. S.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Giorgini, J. D.; Campbell, D. B.

    2001-01-01

    Two small near-Earth asteroids, 2000 UG11 and 2000 UK11 were observed using the Arecibo and Goldstone radars a week after their discovery. 2000 UK11 is a rapidly rotating (3 min) approximately 30 m solid body. 2000 UG11 is two bodies separated by at least 300 m Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract..

  11. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color radar image of Central Africa, showing the Virunga Volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. This C-band L-band image was acquired on April 12, 1994, on orbit 58 of space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The area is centered at about 1.75 degrees south latitude and 29.5 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 58 kilometers by 178 kilometers (48 miles by 178 miles). The false-color composite is created by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HH return in blue. The dark area in the bottom of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the left) and Rwanda (to the right). The airport at Goma, Zaire is shown as a dark line just above the lake in the bottom left corner of the image. Volcanic flows from the 1977 eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo are shown just north of the airport. Mt. Nyiragongo is not visible in this image because it is located just to the left of the image swath. Very fluid lava flows from the 1977 eruption killed 70 people. Mt. Nyiragongo is currently erupting (August 1994) and will be a target of observation during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The large volcano in the center of the image is Mt. Karisimbi (4,500 meters or 14,800 feet). This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation and volcanic flows of the region. The faint lines shown in the purple regions are believed to be the result of agriculture terracing by the people who live in the region. The vegetation types are an important factor in the habitat of the endangered mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce vegetation maps of the area to aid in their study of the remaining 650 gorillas in the region. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet

  12. The role of space borne imaging radars in environmental monitoring: Some shuttle imaging radar results in Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M.; Vermillion, C.

    1986-01-01

    The synoptic view afforded by orbiting Earth sensors can be extremely valuable for resource evaluation, environmental monitoring and development planning. For many regions of the world, however, cloud cover has prevented the acquisition of remotely sensed data during the most environmentally stressful periods of the year. This paper discusses how synthetic aperture imaging radar can be used to provide valuable data about the condition of the Earth's surface during periods of bad weather. Examples are given of applications using data from the Shuttle Imaging Radars (SIR) A and B for agriculture land use and crop condition assessment, monsoon flood boundary and flood damage assessment, water resource monitoring and terrain modeling, coastal forest mapping and vegetation penetration, and coastal development monitoring. Recent SIR-B results in Bangladesh are emphasized, radar system basics are reviewed and future SAR systems discussed.

  13. The role of space borne imaging radars in environmental monitoring: Some shuttle imaging radar results in Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Vermillion, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    The synoptic view afforded by orbiting Earth sensors can be extremely valuable for resource evaluation, environmental monitoring and development planning. For many regions of the world, however, cloud cover has prevented the acquisition of remotely sensed data during the most environmentally stressful periods of the year. How synthetic aperture imaging radar can be used to provide valuable data about the condition of the Earth's surface during periods of bad weather is discussed. Examples are given of applications using data from the Shuttle Imaging Radars (SIR) A and B for agricultural land use and crop condition assessment, monsoon flood boundary and flood damage assessment, water resource monitoring and terrain modeling, coastal forest mapping and vegetation penetration, and coastal development monitoring. Recent SIR-B results in Bangladesh are emphasized, radar system basics are reviewed and future SAR systems are discussed.

  14. Space Radar Image of Manaus Region of Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    These L-band images of the Manaus region of Brazil were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The left image was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the middle image was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (top) and the Rio Solimoes (bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The differences in brightness between the images reflect changes in the scattering of the radar channel. In this case, the changes are indicative of flooding. A flooded forest has a higher backscatter at L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) than an unflooded river. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image, and corresponds to the annual, 10-meter (33-foot) rise and fall of the Amazon River. A third image at right shows the change in the April and October images and was created by determining which areas had significant decreases in the intensity of radar returns. These areas, which appear blue on the third image at right, show the dramatic decrease in the extent of flooded forest, as the level of the Amazon River falls. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. This demonstrates the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies obscure monitoring of floods. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas Estaciais, during

  15. Space Radar Image of Rabaul Volcano, New Guinea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a radar image of the Rabaul volcano on the island of New Britain, Papua, New Guinea taken almost a month after its September 19, 1994, eruption that killed five people and covered the town of Rabaul and nearby villages with up to 75 centimeters (30 inches) of ash. More than 53,000 people have been displaced by the eruption. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 173rd orbit on October 11, 1994. This image is centered at 4.2 degrees south latitude and 152.2 degrees east longitude in the southwest Pacific Ocean. The area shown is approximately 21 kilometers by 25 kilometers (13 miles by 15.5 miles). North is toward the upper right. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Most of the Rabaul volcano is underwater and the caldera (crater) creates Blanche Bay, the semi-circular body of water that occupies most of the center of the image. Volcanic vents within the caldera are visible in the image and include Vulcan, on a peninsula on the west side of the bay, and Rabalanakaia and Tavurvur (the circular purple feature near the mouth of the bay) on the east side. Both Vulcan and Tavurvur were active during the 1994 eruption. Ash deposits appear red-orange on the image, and are most prominent on the south flanks of Vulcan and north and northwest of Tavurvur. A faint blue patch in the water in the center of the image is a large raft of floating pumice fragments that were ejected from Vulcan during the eruption and clog the inner bay. Visible on the east side of the bay are the grid-like patterns of the streets of Rabaul and an airstrip, which appears as a dark northwest-trending band at the right-center of

  16. Space Radar Image of Colima Volcano, Jalisco, Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an image of the Colima volcano in Jalisco, Mexico, a vigorously active volcano that erupted as recently as July 1994. The eruption partially destroyed a lava dome at the summit and deposited a new layer of ash on the volcano's southern slopes. Surrounding communities face a continuing threat of ash falls and volcanic mudflows from the volcano, which has been designated one of 15 high-risk volcanoes for scientific study during the next decade. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 24th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image is centered at 19.4 degrees north latitude, 103.7 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 35.7 kilometers by 37.5 kilometers (22 miles by 23 miles). This single-frequency, multi-polarized SIR-C image shows: red as L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green as L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue as the ratio of the two channels. The summit area appears orange and the recent deposits fill the valleys along the south and southwest slopes. Observations from space are helping scientists understand the behavior of dangerous volcanoes and will be used to mitigate the effects of future eruptions on surrounding populations. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01739

  17. NEXRAD-In-Space: A Geostationary Orbiting Doppler Radar for Hurricane Monitoring and Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Fang, Houfei; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Under NASA's Earth Science Technology Program, a novel mission concept has been developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms from a geostationary orbit: "NEXRAD in Space" (NIS). By operating in the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), NIS would enable rapid-update sampling (less than or equal to 1 hour cadence) of three dimenional fields of 35 GHz (Ka-band) radar reflectivity factor (Z) and line-of-sight Doppler velocity (VD) profiles, at mesoscale horizontal resolutions (approx. 10 km) over a circular Earth region of approximately 5300 km in diameter (equivalent to much of an oceanic basin, such as the Atlantic). NIS GEO-radar concept was chosen as one of only four potential post-2020 missions for the Weather Focus area in the 2007-2016 NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Plan. The results of the first project aiming at developing the NIS concept highlighted the enormous potential of such mission, and the technological challenges presented by it. In essence, it is because of its rapid-cadence capability that NIS science planning is focusing on hurricane monitoring and prediction. Hurricanes, or generically tropical cyclones (TCs), have always been among the most devastating natural phenomena. This has been painfully reiterated in recent years with a number of powerful TCs landfalling in North America and elsewhere. In April 2007, the first NIS Science Workshop was convened at the University of Miami to galvanize the scientific community's interest in NIS's measurement capabilities for improved TC monitoring and prediction. The general consensus of the workshop was that a GEO Doppler radar would provide a major breakthrough in regards to the observation of TCs, and, when combined with cloud-resolving numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This paper presents brief summaries of the instrument concept, the current technology status, the anticipated impacts on hurricane monitoring and model prediction, and the future science

  18. A space necklace about the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyakov, G.

    1977-01-01

    A space elevator is forecasted for the first quarter of the 21st century, that will consist of a cable attached at the earth's equator, suspended in space by an artificial satellite in geosynchronous orbit. It is stated that such a transport system will supplement rockets as the railway supplements aircraft. Specific aspects of the system are examined, including provisions for artificial gravity, the development special composite construction materials exhibiting high strength and low mass, and spacecraft launching from the elevator.

  19. SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar). Earth observing system. Volume 2F: Instrument panel report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The scientific and engineering requirements for the Earth Observing System (EOS) imaging radar are provided. The radar is based on Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C), and would include three frequencies: 1.25 GHz, 5.3 GHz, and 9.6 GHz; selectable polarizations for both transmit and receive channels; and selectable incidence angles from 15 to 55 deg. There would be three main viewing modes: a local high-resolution mode with typically 25 m resolution and 50 km swath width; a regional mapping mode with 100 m resolution and up to 200 km swath width; and a global mapping mode with typically 500 m resolution and up to 700 km swath width. The last mode allows global coverage in three days. The EOS SAR will be the first orbital imaging radar to provide multifrequency, multipolarization, multiple incidence angle observations of the entire Earth. Combined with Canadian and Japanese satellites, continuous radar observation capability will be possible. Major applications in the areas of glaciology, hydrology, vegetation science, oceanography, geology, and data and information systems are described.

  20. How to Study the Earth From Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert E.

    This booklet is one in a series of instructional aids designed for use by elementary and secondary school science teachers. It reviews how the various forms of remote sensing can provide invaluable knowledge about the earth as the need for environmental information continues to increase. Remote sensing involves space photography, infrared imagery,…

  1. Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

    2003-12-01

    In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

  2. Space radar image of Western Pacific rain clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This radar image shows the ocean surface in a portion of the Western Pacific Ocean. Scientists are using images like this to study the occurrence, distribution and activity of tropical rain squalls and to understand the exchange of heat between the atmosphere and ocean and the upper layer mixing in the tropical oceans, which are critical factors for understanding the driving forces which produce the El Nino phenomenon. The white, curved area at the top of the image is a portion of the Ontong Java Atoll, part of the Solomon Islands group. The yellowish green area near the bottom of the image is an intense rain cell. This image is centered near 5.5 degrees South latitude and 159.5 degrees East longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 21 kilometers (31 miles by 13 miles). This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 13th orbit on April 10, 1994. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the SIR-C radar as follows: Red is C-band horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received and blue is L-band horizontally transmitted and received. The large rain cell is about 15 kilometers by 15 kilometers (9 miles by 9 miles) and contains two dark regions, one circular and one rectangular, inside it. Two smaller reddish cells are visible closer to the atoll. The red areas may be caused by reflection from ice particles in the colder, upper portion of the storm cell and not from the ocean surface at all. This provides direct evidence that it is raining within this storm cell, valuable information which is usually very difficult to measure over more remote regions of the ocean away from coastal-based weather systems. The dark holes in the middle of the cell are thought to be areas of very heavy rainfall which actually smooth out the ocean surface and result in lower radar returns. The

  3. Radar Performance Improvement. Angle Tracking Modification to Fire Control Radar System for Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The AN/APQ-153 fire control radar modified to provide angle tracking was evaluated for improved performance. The frequency agile modifications are discussed along with the range-rate improvement modifications, and the radar to computer interface. A parametric design and comparison of noncoherent and coherent radar systems are presented. It is shown that the shuttle rendezvous range and range-rate requirements can be made by a Ku-Band noncoherent pulse radar.

  4. Evidence for Crater Ejecta on Venus Tessera Terrain from Earth-Based Radar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Campbell, Donald B.; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Nolan, Michael C.; Chandler, John F.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Earth-based radar maps of Venus from the 1988 and 2012 inferior conjunctions, which had similar viewing geometries. Processing of both datasets with better image focusing and co-registration techniques, and summing over multiple looks, yields maps with 1-2 km spatial resolution and improved signal to noise ratio, especially in the weaker same-sense circular (SC) polarization. The SC maps are unique to Earth-based observations, and offer a different view of surface properties from orbital mapping using same-sense linear (HH or VV) polarization. Highland or tessera terrains on Venus, which may retain a record of crustal differentiation and processes occurring prior to the loss of water, are of great interest for future spacecraft landings. The Earth-based radar images reveal multiple examples of tessera mantling by impact ''parabolas'' or ''haloes'', and can extend mapping of locally thick material from Magellan data by revealing thinner deposits over much larger areas. Of particular interest is an ejecta deposit from Stuart crater that we infer to mantle much of eastern Alpha Regio. Some radar-dark tessera occurrences may indicate sediments that are trapped for longer periods than in the plains. We suggest that such radar information is important for interpretation of orbital infrared data and selection of future tessera landing sites.

  5. Earth Studies Using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    L-band SAR has played an important role in studies of the Earth by revealing the nature of the larger-scale (decimeter) surface features. JERS-1, by supplying multi-seasonal coverage of the much of the earth, has demonstrated the importance of L-band SARs. Future L-band SARs such as ALOS and LightSAR will pave the way for science missions that use SAR instruments. As technology develops to enable lower cost SAR instruments, missions will evolve to each have a unique science focus. International coordination of multi-parameter constellations and campaigns will maximize science return.

  6. Modelling a C-Band Space Surveillance Radar using Systems Tool Kit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    directly) or ‘Calculate’ by selecting to use: Earth, Sun, Atmosphere, Rain, Clouds & Fog, Tropo Scintillation, and/or Cosmic Background noise in the...OVERVIEW OF THE RADAR.......................................................................................... 2 2.1 Background ...performance described in previous work [1]. UNCLASSIFIED 1 UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TN-1164 2. Overview of the Radar 2.1 Background The AN/FPQ-14 is a

  7. High Resolution Radar for NASA and Space Situational Awareness for Observation and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldzahler, B.; D'Addario, L.; Ott, M.; Birr, R.; Woods, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-09-01

    NASA has embarked on a series of demonstrations that will enable the implementation of a high power, high resolution X/Ka-band radar system using a phased array of widely spaced 12m antennas to better track and characterize near Earth objects and orbital debris. This radar system also has applications for cost effective space situational awareness. Ka band can provide 5cm ranging resolution, and, with arrays in the western United States and Australia used in an astrometric mode, ? 10 cm resolution at GEO. Here we report the results of a successful X-band demonstration of coherent uplink arraying with real time compensation for atmospheric phase fluctuations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using a system simplified from work previously undertaken. The X-band system is a prelude to the Ka-band work currently underway. The target satellites were components of the DSCS and WGS systems. KSC was chosen for the demonstration site because [a] of reduced implementation costs, [b] there is a lot of water vapor in the air (not Ka-band friendly), and [c] some of the test satellites have low elevations thereby adding more attenuation and turbulence to the demonstration. When Ka-band coherent uplink arraying is demonstrated to work at KSC, it will work and can be deployed anywhere.

  8. Space Radar Image of San Rafael Glacier, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    A NASA radar instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This image, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. Velocity has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two images is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in

  9. Earth from Space: The Power of Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalati, W.

    2016-12-01

    Throughout history, humans have always valued the view from above, seeking high ground to survey the land, find food, assess threats, and understand their immediate environment. The advent of aircraft early in the 20th century took this capability literally to new levels, as aerial photos of farm lands, hazards, military threats, etc. provided new opportunities for security and prosperity. And in 1960, with the launch of the first weather satellite, TIROS, we came to know our world in ways that were not possible before, as we saw the Earth as a system of interacting components. In the decades since, our ability to understand the Earth System and its dynamic components has been transformed profoundly and repeatedly by satellite observations. From examining changes in sea level, to deformation of the Earth surface, to ozone depletion, to the Earth's energy balance, satellites have helped us understand our changing planet in ways that would not have otherwise been possible. The challenge moving forward is to continue to evolve beyond watching Earth processes unfold and understanding the underlying mechanisms of change, to anticipating future conditions, more comprehensively than we do today, for the benefit of society. The capabilities to do so are well within our reach, and with appropriate investments in observing systems, research, and activities that support translating observations into societal value, we can realize the full potential of this tremendous space-based perspective. Doing so will not just change our views of the Earth, but will improve our relationship with it.

  10. Space Radar Image of Lozere Department, Mende, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the central part of Lozere Departement situated south of the Massif Central in France. The image is 10 kilometers by 25 kilometers (6 miles by 15.5 miles) and is centered at approximately 44.3 degrees north latitude and 3 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994 and on October 6, 1994. The image channels have the following color assignments: red was acquired in April; green was acquired in October; and blue is the ratio of the two data sets combined. Seasonal differences in the vegetation are visible in pink, which are heaths growing in the spring. This research area features two large limestone plateaus cut by the famous Gorges du Tarn, standing in parallel with the granite mountain range known as the Cevennes Mountains nearby. Land-use consists mainly of grasslands, heaths and forests. Forest types seen in the images are Austrian pines,Scots pines, spruce, fir and beech trees. Most forests were planted at the end of the 19th century through a national reforestation program aimed at reducing the strong erosion risks in these areas. This program was so successful that today the forests are exploited for forest pulpwood and sawlogs, but also remain protected as conservation regions. The study being performed in this area will assess the potential of spaceborne radar remote sensing for temperate forest type mapping and forest resource monitoring. The combination of X-band SAR data with lower frequency data (such as the SIR-C L-band data) allows scientists to distinguish forest tree species and biomass, or areas of ground vegetation. The lessons learned from the radar images of these controlled forest regions can be applied to larger areas and naturally grown forests to help ecologists protect and maintain them. The SIR-C/X-SAR images will be investigated by scientists from the remote sensing laboratory

  11. Space Radar Image of the Lost City of Ubar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a radar image of the region around the site of the lost city of Ubar in southern Oman, on the Arabian Peninsula. The ancient city was discovered in 1992 with the aid of remote sensing data. Archeologists believe Ubar existed from about 2800 B.C. to about 300 A.D. and was a remote desert outpost where caravans were assembled for the transport of frankincense across the desert. This image was acquired on orbit 65 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The SIR-C image shown is centered at 18.4 degrees north latitude and 53.6 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area about 50 by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The image is constructed from three of the available SIR-C channels and displays L-band, HH (horizontal transmit and receive) data as red, C-band HH as blue, and L-band HV (horizontal transmit, vertical receive) as green. The prominent magenta colored area is a region of large sand dunes, which are bright reflectors at both L-and C-band. The prominent green areas (L-HV) are rough limestone rocks, which form a rocky desert floor. A major wadi, or dry stream bed, runs across the middle of the image and is shown largely in white due to strong radar scattering in all channels displayed (L and C HH, L-HV). The actual site of the fortress of the lost city of Ubar, currently under excavation, is near the Wadi close to the center of the image. The fortress is too small to be detected in this image. However, tracks leading to the site, and surrounding tracks, appear as prominent, but diffuse, reddish streaks. These tracks have been used in modern times, but field investigations show many of these tracks were in use in ancient times as well. Mapping of these tracks on regional remote sensing images was a key to recognizing the site as Ubar in 1992. This image, and ongoing field investigations, will help shed light on a little known early civilization. http

  12. A Phased Array of Widely Separated Antennas for Space Communication and Planetary Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldzahler, B.; Bershad, C.; Brown, R.; Cox, R.; Hoblitzell, R.; Kiriazes, J.; Ledford, B.; Miller, M.; Woods, G.; Cornish, T.; D'Addario, L.; Davarian, F.; Lee, D.; Morabito, D.; Tsao, P.; Soloff, J.; Church, K.; Deffenbaugh, P.; Abernethy, K.; Anderson, W.; Collier, J.; Wellen, G.

    NASA has successfully demonstrated coherent uplink arraying with real time compensation for atmospheric phase fluctuations at 7.145-7.190 GHz (X-band) and is pursuing a similar demonstration 30-31 GHz (Ka-band) using three 12m diameter COTS antennas separated by 60m at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In addition, we have done the same demonstration with up to three 34m antennas separated by 250m at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex in California at X-band 7.1 GHz. We have begun to infuse the capability at Goldstone into the Deep Space Network to provide a quasi-operational system. Such a demonstration can enable NASA to design and establish a high power (10 PW) high resolution (<10 cm), 24/7 availability radar system for (a) tracking and characterizing observations of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), (b) tracking, characterizing and determining the statistics of small-scale (≤10cm) orbital debris, (c) incorporating the capability into its space communication and navigation tracking stations for emergency spacecraft commanding in the Ka band era which NASA is entering, and (d) fielding capabilities of interest to other US government agencies. We present herein the results of our phased array uplink combining at near 7.17 and 8.3 GHz using widely separated antennas demonstrations, our moderately successful attempts to rescue the STEREO-B spacecraft (distance 2 astronomical units (185,000,000 miles), the first two attempts at imaging and ranging of near Earth asteroids, and progress in developing telescopes that are fully capable at radio and optical frequencies. And progress toward the implementation of our vision for going forward in implementing a high performance, low lifecycle cost multi-element radar array.

  13. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a three-dimensional perspective of Mammoth Mountain, California. This view was constructed by overlaying a NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map.

  14. Looking at Earth from Space: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The Maryland Pilot Earth Science and Technology Education Network (MAPS-NET) project was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to enrich teacher preparation and classroom learning in the area of Earth system science. This publication includes a teacher's guide that replicates material taught during a graduate-level…

  15. Constraining Bulk Densities of Near-Earth Asteroid Surfaces from Radar Observations Using Laboratory Measurements of Permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickson, D. C.; Boivin, A.; Daly, M. G.; Ghent, R. R.; Nolan, M. C.; Tait, K.; Cunje, A.; Tsai, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary radar is widely used to survey the Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population and can provide insight into target shapes, sizes, and spin states. The dual-polarization reflectivity is sensitive to surface roughness as well as material properties, specifically the real part of the complex permittivity, or dielectric constant. Knowledge of the behavior of the dielectric constant of asteroid regolith analogue material with environmental parameters can be used to inversely solve for such parameters, such as bulk density, from radar observations. In this study laboratory measurements of the complex permittivity of powdered aluminum oxide and dunite samples are performed in a low-pressure environment chamber using a coaxial transmission line from roughly 1 GHz to 8.5 GHz. The bulk densities of the samples are varied across the measurements by incrementally adding silica aerogel, a low-density material with a very low dielectric constant. This allows the alteration of the proportions of void space to solid particle grains to achieve microgravity-relevant porosities without significantly altering the dielectric properties of the powder sample. The data are then modeled using various electromagnetic mixing equations to characterize the change in dielectric constant with increasing volume fractions of void space (decreasing bulk density). Using spectral analogues as constraints on the composition of NEAs allows us to calculate the range in bulk densities in the near surface of NEAs that have been observed by planetary radar. Utilizing existing radar data from Arecibo Observatory we calculate the bulk density in the near-surface on (101955) Bennu, the target of NASA's OSIRIS-Rex mission, to be ρ = 1.27 ± 0.33 g cm-3 based on an average of the likely range in particle density and dielectric constant of the regolith material.

  16. Early Earth(s) Across Time and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojzsis, S.

    2014-04-01

    The geochemical and cosmochemical record of our solar system is the baseline for exploring the question: "when could life appear on a world similar to our own?" Data arising from direct analysis of the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals from the first 500 Myr of Earth history - termed the Hadean Eon - inform us about the timing for the establishment of a habitable silicate world. Liquid water is the key medium for life. The origin of water, and its interaction with the crust as revealed in the geologic record, guides our exploration for a cosmochemically Earth-like planets. From the time of primary planetary accretion to the start of the continuous rock record on Earth at ca. 3850 million years ago, our planet experienced a waning bolide flux that partially or entirely wiped out surface rocks, vaporized oceans, and created transient serpentinizing atmospheres. Arguably, "Early Earths" across the galaxy may start off as ice planets due to feeble insolation from their young stars, occasionally punctuated by steam atmospheres generated by cataclysmic impacts. Alternatively, early global environments conducive to life spanned from a benign surface zone to deep into crustal rocks and sediments. In some scenarios, nascent biospheres benefit from the exogenous delivery of essential bio-elements via leftovers of accretion, and the subsequent establishment of planetary-scale hydrothermal systems. If what is now known about the early dynamical regime of the Earth serves as any measure of the potential habitability of worlds across space and time, several key boundary conditions emerge. These are: (i) availability and long-term stability of liquid water; (ii) presence of energy resources; (iii) accessibility of organic raw materials; (iv) adequate inventory of radioisotopes to drive internal heating; (v) gross compositional parameters such as mantle/core mass ratio, and (vi) P-T conditions at or near the surface suitable for sustaining biological activity. Life could

  17. Macular Bioaccelerometers on Earth and in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Cutler, L.; Meyer, G.; Vazin, P.; Lam, T.

    1991-01-01

    Space flight offers the opportunity to study linear bioaccelerometers (vestibular maculas) in the virtual absence of a primary stimulus, gravitational acceleration. Macular research in space is particularly important to NASA because the bioaccelerometers are proving to be weighted neural networks in which information is distributed for parallel processing. Neural networks are plastic and highly adaptive to new environments. Combined morphological-physiological studies of maculas fixed in space and following flight should reveal macular adaptive responses to microgravity, and their time-course. Ground-based research, already begun, using computer-assisted, 3-dimensional reconstruction of macular terminal fields will lead to development of computer models of functioning maculas. This research should continue in conjunction with physiological studies, including work with multichannel electrodes. The results of such a combined effort could usher in a new era in understanding vestibular function on Earth and in space. They can also provide a rational basis for counter-measures to space motion sickness, which may prove troublesome as space voyager encounter new gravitational fields on planets, or must re-adapt to 1 g upon return to earth.

  18. Inflatable Space Structures Technology Development for Large Radar Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Helms, Richard G.; Willis, Paul B.; Mikulas, M. M.; Stuckey, Wayne; Steckel, Gary; Watson, Judith

    2004-01-01

    There has been recent interest in inflatable space-structures technology for possible applications on U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) missions because of the technology's potential for high mechanical-packaging efficiency, variable stowed geometry, and deployment reliability. In recent years, the DOD sponsored Large Radar Antenna (LRA) Program applied this new technology to a baseline concept: a rigidizable/inflatable (RI) perimeter-truss structure supporting a mesh/net parabolic reflector antenna. The program addressed: (a) truss concept development, (b) regidizable materials concepts assessment, (c) mesh/net concept selection and integration, and (d) developed potential mechanical-system performance estimates. Critical and enabling technologies were validated, most notably the orbital radiation durable regidized materials and the high modulus, inflatable-deployable truss members. These results in conjunction with conclusions from previous mechanical-packaging studies by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Special Program Office (SPO) were the impetus for the initiation of the DARPA/SPO Innovative Space-based Antenna Technology (ISAT) Program. The sponsor's baseline concept consisted of an inflatable-deployable truss structure for support of a large number of rigid, active radar panels. The program's goal was to determine the risk associated with the application of these new RI structures to the latest in radar technologies. The approach used to define the technology maturity level of critical structural elements was to: (a) develop truss concept baseline configurations (s), (b) assess specific inflatable-rigidizable materials technologies, and (c) estimate potential mechanical performance. The results of the structures portion of the program indicated there was high risk without the essential materials technology flight experiments, but only moderate risk if the appropriate on-orbit demonstrations were performed. This paper covers both

  19. Space Radar Image of the Silk Route in Niya, Taklamak, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This composite image is of an area thought to contain the ruins of the ancient settlement of Niya. It is located in the southwest corner of the Taklamakan Desert in China Sinjiang Province. This region was part of some of China's earliest dynasties and from the third century BC on was traversed by the famous Silk Road. The Silk Road, passing east-west through this image, was an ancient trade route that led across Central Asia's desert to Persia, Byzantium and Rome. The multi-frequency, multi-polarized radar imagery was acquired on orbit 106 of the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The image is centered at 37.78 degrees north latitude and 82.41 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 35 kilometers by 83 kilometers (22 miles by 51 miles). The image is a composite of an image from an Earth-orbiting satellite called Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) and a SIR-C multi-frequency, multi-polarized radar image. The false-color radar image was created by displaying the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red, the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in green, and the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in blue. The prominent east/west pink formation at the bottom of the image is most likely a ridge of loosely consolidated sedimentary rock. The Niya River -- the black feature in the lower right of the French satellite image -- meanders north-northeast until it clears the sedimentary ridge, at which point it abruptly turns northwest. Sediment and evaporite deposits left by the river over millennia dominate the center and upper right of the radar image (in light pink). High ground, ridges and dunes are seen among the riverbed meanderings as mottled blue. Through image enhancement and analysis, a new feature probably representing a man-made canal has been discovered and mapped. http

  20. An earth remote sensing satellite- 1 Synthetic Aperture Radar Mosaic of the Tanana River Basin in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wivell, Charles E.; Olmsted, Coert; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Taylor, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Because the pixel location in a line of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image data is directly related to the distance the pixel is from the radar, terrain elevations cause large displacement errors in the geo-referenced location of the pixel. This is especially true for radar systems with small angles between the nadir and look vectors. Thus, to geo-register a SAR image accurately, the terrain of the area must be taken into account. (Curlander et al., 1987; Kwok et al., 1987, Schreier et al., 1990; Wivell et al., 1992). As part of the 1992 National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Version 0 activities, a prototype SAR geocod-. ing and terrain correction system was developed at the US. Geological Survey's (USGS) E~os Data Center (EDC) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Using this system with 3-arc-second digital elevation models (DEMs) mosaicked at the ED^ Alaska Field Office, 21 ERS-I s.4~ scenes acquired at the Alaska SAR Facility were automatically geocoded, terrain corrected, and mosaicked. The geo-registered scenes were mosaicked using a simple concatenation.

  1. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  2. Population trends of binary near-Earth asteroids based on radar and lightcurves observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovic, Marina; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Busch, Michael W.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Springmann, Alessondra; Giorgini, Jon D.; Shepard, Michael K.; Magri, Christopher; Richardson, James E.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano Marin, Luisa Fernanda

    2016-10-01

    The Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars are invaluable instruments for the discovery and characterization of binary and triple asteroids in the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. To date, 41 out of 56 known binaries and triples (~73% of the objects) have been discovered by radar and 49 of these multiple systems have been detected by radar. Their absolute magnitudes range from 12.4 for (1866) Sisyphus to 22.6 for 2015 TD144 and have a mean and rms dispersion of 18.1+-2.0. There is a pronounced decrease in the abundance of binaries for absolute magnitudes H>20. One of the smallest binaries, 1994 CJ1, with an absolute magnitude H=21.4, is also the most accessible binary for a spacecraft rendezvous. Among 365 NEAs with H<22 (corresponding to diameters larger than ~ 140 m) detected by radar since 1999, ~13% have at least one companion. Two triple systems are known, (15391) 2001 SN263 and (136617) 1994 CC, but this is probably an underestimate due to low signal to noise ratios (SNRs) for many of the binary radar detections. Taxonomic classes have been reported for 41 out of 56 currently known multiple systems and some trends are starting to emerge: at least 50% of multiple asteroid systems are S, Sq, Q, or Sk, and at least 20% are optically dark (C, B, P, or U). Thirteen V-class NEAs have been observed by radar and six of them are binaries. Curiously, a comparable number of E-class objects have been detected by radar, but none is known to be a binary.

  3. Arecibo and Goldstone radar images of near-Earth Asteroid (469896) 2005 WC1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Ostro, Steven J.; Jao, Joseph S.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Slade, Martin A.; Jurgens, Raymond F.; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Taylor, Patrick A.

    2018-01-01

    We report radar observations of near-Earth asteroid (469896) 2005 WC1 that were obtained at Arecibo (2380 MHz, 13 cm) and Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5 cm) on 2005 December 14-15 during the asteroid's approach within 0.020 au The asteroid was a strong radar target. Delay-Doppler images with resolutions as fine as 15 m/pixel were obtained with 2 samples per baud giving a correlated pixel resolution of 7.5 m. The radar images reveal an angular object with 100 m-scale surface facets, radar-dark regions, and an estimated diameter of 400 ± 50 m. The rotation of the facets in the images gives a rotation period of ∼2.6 h that is consistent with the estimated period of 2.582 h ± 0.002 h from optical lightcurves reported by Miles (private communication). 2005 WC1 has a circular polarization ratio of 1.12 ± 0.05 that is one of the highest values known, suggesting a structurally-complex near-surface at centimeter to decimeter spatial scales. It is the first asteroid known with an extremely high circular polarization ratio, relatively low optical albedo, and high radar albedo.

  4. Simulation of Space-borne Radar Observation from High Resolution Cloud Model - for GPM Dual frequency Precipitation Radar -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Meneghini, R.; Jones, J.; Liao, L.

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive space-borne radar simulator has been developed to support active microwave sensor satellite missions. The two major objectives of this study are: 1) to develop a radar simulator optimized for the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (KuPR and KaPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission satellite (GPM-DPR) and 2) to generate the synthetic test datasets for DPR algorithm development. This simulator consists of two modules: a DPR scanning configuration module and a forward module that generates atmospheric and surface radar observations. To generate realistic DPR test data, the scanning configuration module specifies the technical characteristics of DPR sensor and emulates the scanning geometry of the DPR with a inner swath of about 120 km, which contains matched-beam data from both frequencies, and an outer swath from 120 to 245 km over which only Ku-band data will be acquired. The second module is a forward model used to compute radar observables (reflectivity, attenuation and polarimetric variables) from input model variables including temperature, pressure and water content (rain water, cloud water, cloud ice, snow, graupel and water vapor) over the radar resolution volume. Presently, the input data to the simulator come from the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) and Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) models where a constant mass density is assumed for each species with a particle size distribution given by an exponential distribution with fixed intercept parameter (N0) and a slope parameter (Λ) determined from the equivalent water content. Although the model data do not presently contain mixed phase hydrometeors, the Yokoyama-Tanaka melting model is used along with the Bruggeman effective dielectric constant to replace rain and snow particles, where both are present, with mixed phase particles while preserving the snow/water fraction. For testing one of the DPR retrieval algorithms, the Surface Reference Technique (SRT), the simulator uses

  5. Space-to-earth power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Schuh, R.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was conducted to establish the requirements of a space-to-earth microwave power transmission system. The need for accurate phase control on the transmitter was established and methods for assessing the impact of power density and thermal constraints on system performance were demonstrated. Potential radio frequency interference was considered. The sensitivity of transmission system scale to variations in power source, transportation and orbital fabrication and assembly costs was also determined.

  6. Depolarization on Earth-space paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Sources of depolarization effects on the propagation paths of orthogonally-polarized information channels are considered. The main sources of depolarization at millimeter wave frequencies are hydrometeor absorption and scattering in the troposphere. Terms are defined. Mathematical formulations for the effects of the propagation medium characteristics and antenna performance on signals in dual polarization Earth-space links are presented. Techniques for modeling rain and ice depolarization are discussed.

  7. Earth benefits from space life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Griffiths, L.

    1990-01-01

    Contributions of space exploration which are widely recognized are those dealing with the impact of space technology on public health and medical services in both urban and remote rural areas. Telecommunications, image enhancement, 3-dimensional image reconstructions, miniaturization, automation, and data analysis, have transformed the delivery of medical care and have brought about a new impetus to the field of biomedicine. Many areas of medical care and biological research have been affected. These include technological breakthroughs in such areas as: (1) diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, (2) new approaches to the understanding of osteoporosis, (3) early detection of genetic birth defects, (4) emergency medical care, and (5) treatment of chronic metabolic disorders. These are but a few examples where technology originally developed to support space medicine or space research has been applied to solving medical and health care delivery problems on Earth.

  8. Bringing Space Weather Down to Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.

    2005-05-01

    Most of the public has no idea what Space Weather is, but a number of innovative programs, web sites, magazine articles, TV shows and planetarium shows have taken space weather from an unknown quantity to a much more visible field. This paper reviews new developments, including the new Space Weather journal, the very popular spaceweather.com website, new immersive planetarium shows that can go "on the road", and well-publicized Sun-Earth Day activities. Real-time data and reasonably accurate spaceweather forecasts are available from several websites, with many subscribers. Even the renaissance of amateur radio because of Homeland Security brings a new generation of learners to wonder what is going on in the Sun today. The NSF Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling has a dedicated team to reach both the public and a greater diversity of new scientists.

  9. Radar investigations of near-Earth asteroids at Arecibo and Goldstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovic, M.; Nolan, M.; Benner, L.; Busch, M.; Howell, E.; Taylor, P.; Springmann, A.; Giorgini, J.; Margot, J.; Magri, C.; Sheppard, M.; Naidu, S.

    2014-07-01

    Radar observations are a powerful technique to study near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). The Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars can provide delay-Doppler images that can directly resolve surface features such as concavities, hills, ridges, and boulders. Goldstone's 3.75-m resolution capability is invaluable when attempting to image NEAs with diameters smaller than 50 m. To date, over 430 near-Earth asteroids and 136 main-belt asteroids have been observed with radar. 80 % of the radar-detected NEAs have been observed within the last 10 years. The radar detection rate in the last three years has tripled relative to the average in the previous decade due to an increase in funding and greater scheduling flexibility. Currently, ˜400 observing hours per year at Goldstone and ˜600 observing hours per year at Arecibo are devoted to observing asteroids. We strive to observe all strong and moderately strong imaging targets, Yarkovsky drift candidates, NEOWISE targets, asteroids with very low perihelia that can be used to measure solar oblateness, and as many other detectable asteroids as resources allow. We also regularly attempt to observe any asteroid that is flagged by the Near-Earth Object Human Spaceflight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) list (http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/nhats/). To date, we have observed more than 60 NHATS objects at Arecibo and Goldstone. In the past three years, ˜1/3 of the detected asteroids were targets of opportunity (TOOs), some of which we observed within 24 h from when the discoveries were announced. Many TOOs are small, rapidly moving objects that are detectable by radar only within few lunar distances. Radar astrometry is particularly important for these asteroids because they are too faint to be followed for long with optical telescopes. A radar-range measurement often secures their orbit for decades or centuries, where otherwise the object would be lost and require rediscovery. In one of the extreme cases, two delay and two Doppler

  10. Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George

    2003-01-01

    The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.

  11. Classification of earth terrain using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. H.; Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.; Van Zyl, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Supervised and unsupervised classification techniques are developed and used to classify the earth terrain components from SAR polarimetric images of San Francisco Bay and Traverse City, Michigan. The supervised techniques include the Bayes classifiers, normalized polarimetric classification, and simple feature classification using discriminates such as the absolute and normalized magnitude response of individual receiver channel returns and the phase difference between receiver channels. An algorithm is developed as an unsupervised technique which classifies terrain elements based on the relationship between the orientation angle and the handedness of the transmitting and receiving polariation states. It is found that supervised classification produces the best results when accurate classifier training data are used, while unsupervised classification may be applied when training data are not available.

  12. Space Radar Image of Raco, Michigan, Ecological Test Site

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band image of seasonal changes at the ecological test site of Raco, Michigan, located south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. The image is centered at about 46 degrees north latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10th, 1994, and on October 1, 1994. The areas shown in red correspond to the April 10th data; the areas in blue correspond to data acquired on October 1, 1994; green indicates the ratio of data acquired on April 10 and October 1, 1994. The area shown is 22.7 kilometers by 53 kilometers (14 miles by 33 miles). Lake Superior in the upper right was frozen in April and had small waves (ripples) on its surface in October. The land area contains mostly forests and, to a lesser extent, agricultural regions. In April the area was covered in wet snow. By October, there agricultural areas were covered with grass. Vegetation and soils were moist due to rainfalls three days before the data was acquired on October 1, 1994. The bright light green/yellow tones in the lower half of the image show the stronger reflections of the snow-covered agricultural fields. The pinkish color corresponds to the coniferous and deciduous forests. The green area represents red pines. These trees are smaller than the surrounding forest cover and allow more radar penetration. The area is green because the radar is sensing the surface, which undergoes great change from snow to grass and fern undergrowth between April and October. The bright green triangle in the upper half of the image is an old airstrip, while the modern airport can be seen on the bottom right side of the image. The Raco site is an important location for monitoring seasonal changes and future global change because it is situated at the ecological transition zone between the boreal forests and the northern temperate forests. This transitional zone is expected to be ecologically sensitive to anticipated

  13. Space Radar Image of Karakax Valley, China 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-dimensional perspective of the remote Karakax Valley in the northern Tibetan Plateau of western China was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are helpful to scientists because they reveal where the slopes of the valley are cut by erosion, as well as the accumulations of gravel deposits at the base of the mountains. These gravel deposits, called alluvial fans, are a common landform in desert regions that scientists are mapping in order to learn more about Earth's past climate changes. Higher up the valley side is a clear break in the slope, running straight, just below the ridge line. This is the trace of the Altyn Tagh fault, which is much longer than California's San Andreas fault. Geophysicists are studying this fault for clues it may be able to give them about large faults. Elevations range from 4000 m (13,100 ft) in the valley to over 6000 m (19,700 ft) at the peaks of the glaciated Kun Lun mountains running from the front right towards the back. Scale varies in this perspective view, but the area is about 20 km (12 miles) wide in the middle of the image, and there is no vertical exaggeration. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01800

  14. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program for the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Frank

    1992-01-01

    A visiting scientist program was conducted in the space and earth sciences at GSFC. Research was performed in the following areas: astronomical observations; broadband x-ray spectral variability; ground-based spectroscopic and photometric studies; Seyfert galaxies; active galactic nuclei (AGN); massive stellar black holes; the differential microwave radiometer (DMR) onboard the cosmic background explorer (COBE); atmospheric models; and airborne and ground based radar observations. The specific research efforts are detailed by tasks.

  15. Vexcel Spells Excellence for Earth and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With assistance from Stennis Space Center, Vexcel was able to strengthen the properties of its Apex Ground Station(TM), an affordable, end-to-end system that comes complete with a tracking antenna that permits coverage within an approximate 2,000-kilometer radius of its location, a high speed direct-to-disk data acquisition system that can download information from virtually any satellite, and data processing software for virtually all synthetic aperture radar and optical satellite sensors. Vexcel is using an Apex system linked to the Terra satellite to help scientists and NASA personnel measure land and ocean surface temperatures, detect fires, monitor ocean color and currents, produce global vegetation maps and data, and assess cloud characteristics and aerosol concentrations. In addition, Vexcel is providing NASA with close-range photogrammetry software for the International Space Station. The technology, commercially available as FotoG(TM), was developed with SBIR funding and support from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Commercially, FotoG is used for demanding projects taken on by engineering firms, nuclear power plants, oil refineries, and process facilities. A version of Vexcel's close-range photo measurement system was also used to create virtual 3-D backdrops for a high-tech science fiction film.

  16. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  17. Space Radar Image of Mount Pinatubo Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    These are color composite radar images showing the area around Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. The images were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 (left image) and October 5,1994 (right image). The images are centered at about 15 degrees north latitude and 120.5 degrees east longitude. Both images were obtained with the same viewing geometry. The color composites were made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in green; and the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in blue. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 65 kilometers (25 miles by 40 miles). The main volcanic crater on Mount Pinatubo produced by the June 1991 eruptions and the steep slopes on the upper flanks of the volcano are easily seen in these images. Red on the high slopes shows the distribution of the ash deposited during the 1991 eruption, which appears red because of the low cross-polarized radar returns at C and L bands. The dark drainages radiating away from the summit are the smooth mudflows, which even three years after the eruptions continue to flood the river valleys after heavy rain. Comparing the two images shows that significant changes have occurred in the intervening five months along the Pasig-Potrero rivers (the dark area in the lower right of the images). Mudflows, called "lahars," that occurred during the 1994 monsoon season filled the river valleys, allowing the lahars to spread over the surrounding countryside. Three weeks before the second image was obtained, devastating lahars more than doubled the area affected in the Pasig-Potrero rivers, which is clearly visible as the increase in dark area on the lower right of the images. Migration of deposition to the east (right) has affected many communities. Newly affected areas included the community

  18. Comparison of Meteoroid Flux Models for Near Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drolshagen, G.; Liou, J.-C.; Dikarev, V.; Landgraf, M.; Krag, H.; Kuiper, W.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade several new models for the sporadic interplanetary meteoroid flux have been developed. These include the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM), the Divine-Staubach model and the Interplanetary Meteoroid Engineering Model (IMEM). They typically cover mass ranges from 10-12 g (or lower) to 1 g and are applicable for model specific sun distance ranges between 0.2 A.U. and 10 A.U. Near 1 A.U. averaged fluxes (over direction and velocities) for all these models are tuned to the well established interplanetary model by Gr?n et. al. However, in many respects these models differ considerably. Examples are the velocity and directional distributions and the assumed meteoroid sources. In this paper flux predictions by the various models to Earth orbiting spacecraft are compared. Main differences are presented and analysed. The persisting differences even for near Earth space can be seen as surprising in view of the numerous ground based (optical, radar) and in-situ (captured IDPs, in-situ detectors and analysis of retrieved hardware) measurements and simulations. Remaining uncertainties and potential additional studies to overcome the existing model discrepancies are discussed.

  19. Millimetron and Earth-Space VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, S.

    2014-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the Millimetron mission operating in Space VLBI (SVLBI) mode will be the exploration of compact radio sources with extremely high angular resolution (better than one microsecond of arc). The space-ground interferometer Millimetron has an orbit around L2 point of the Earth - Sun system and allows operating with baselines up to a hundred Earth diameters. SVLBI observations will be accomplished by space and ground-based radio telescopes simultaneously. At the space telescope the received baseband signal is digitized and then transferred to the onboard memory storage (up to 100TB). The scientific and service data transfer to the ground tracking station is performed by means of both synchronization and communication radio links (1 GBps). Then the array of the scientific data is processed at the correlation center. Due to the (u,v) - plane coverage requirements for SVLBI imaging, it is necessary to propose observations at two different frequencies and two circular polarizations simultaneously with frequency switching. The total recording bandwidth (2x2x4 GHz) defines of the on-board memory size. The ground based support of the Millimetron mission in the VLBI-mode could be Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), Pico Valletta (Spain), Plateau de Bure interferometer (France), SMT telescope in the US (Arizona), LMT antenna (Mexico), SMA array, (Mauna Kea, USA), as well as the Green Bank and Effelsberg 100 m telescopes (for 22 GHz observations). We will present simulation results for Millimetron-ALMA interferometer. The sensitivity estimate of the space-ground interferometer will be compared to the requirements of the scientific goals of the mission. The possibility of multi-frequency synthesis (MFS) to obtain high quality images will also be considered.

  20. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  1. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  2. Dishwasher For Earth Or Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tromble, Jon D.

    1991-01-01

    Dishwashing machine cleans eating utensils in either Earth gravity or zero gravity of outer space. Cycle consists of three phases: filling, washing, and draining. Rotation of tub creates artificial gravity aiding recirculation of water during washing phase in absence of true gravity. Centrifugal air/water separator helps system function in zero gravity. Self-cleaning filter contains interdigitating blades catching solid debris when water flows between them. Later, blades moved back and forth in scissor-like manner to dislodge debris, removed by backflow of water.

  3. Earth-Space Propagation Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper, designed for the newcomer rather than the expert, will take a rather broad view of what is meant by 'propagation data bases' in that it will take the term to mean both the actual measurements and models of Earth-space paths. The text will largely be drawn from International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) reports, now annexed to the Recommendations of the International Telecommunications Union-R Study Group 3, plus some experience with a course taught at the University of Colorado.

  4. Environmental Constraints in Earth-Space Propagaton.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-20

    medium. The earth-space refractivity may be written N(s) - (n-l) x 106 - Nt + NJ 77.6 [p(s) + 81O e (s) 1 - 4o.28 x o-6 Ne(s) () T(s) [" T(s) f- 2 where...T(s) is the aIr temperature (OK), p(s) is the atmospheric pressure (mb), e (s) is the partial vapor pressure (mb , f is the radiofrequency (MHz), Ne is...to Predict the Total Atmospheric Bending of Radiowaves at Small Angles", Proc. IRE 45, 145-6. BEAN B. R. and R. E . MCGAVIN, 1965, "A Review of

  5. MARSIS data and simulation exploited using array databases: PlanetServer/EarthServer for sounding radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantini, Federico; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Orosei, Roberto; Baumann, Peter; Misev, Dimitar; Oosthoek, Jelmer; Beccati, Alan; Campalani, Piero; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    MARSIS is an orbital synthetic aperture radar for both ionosphere and subsurface sounding on board ESA's Mars Express (Picardi et al. 2005). It transmits electromagnetic pulses centered at 1.8, 3, 4 or 5 MHz that penetrate below the surface and are reflected by compositional and/or structural discontinuities in the subsurface of Mars. MARSIS data are available as a collection of single orbit data files. The availability of tools for a more effective access to such data would greatly ease data analysis and exploitation by the community of users. For this purpose, we are developing a database built on the raster database management system RasDaMan (e.g. Baumann et al., 1994), to be populated with MARSIS data and integrated in the PlanetServer/EarthServer (e.g. Oosthoek et al., 2013; Rossi et al., this meeting) project. The data (and related metadata) are stored in the db for each frequency used by MARSIS radar. The capability of retrieving data belonging to a certain orbit or to multiple orbit on the base of latitute/longitude boundaries is a key requirement of the db design, allowing, besides the "classical" radargram representation of the data, and in area with sufficiently hight orbit density, a 3D data extraction, subset and analysis of subsurface structures. Moreover the use of the OGC WCPS (Web Coverage Processing Service) standard can allow calculations on database query results for multiple echoes and/or subsets of a certain data product. Because of the low directivity of its dipole antenna, MARSIS receives echoes from portions of the surface of Mars that are distant from nadir and can be mistakenly interpreted as subsurface echoes. For this reason, methods have been developed to simulate surface echoes (e.g. Nouvel et al., 2004), to reveal the true origin of an echo through comparison with instrument data. These simulations are usually time-consuming, and so far have been performed either on a case-by-case basis or in some simplified form. A code for

  6. Design and Efficiency Analysis of Operational Scenarios for Space Situational Awareness Radar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, E. J.; Cho, S.; Jo, J. H.; Park, J.; Chung, T.; Park, J.; Jeon, H.; Yun, A.; Lee, Y.

    In order to perform the surveillance and tracking of space objects, optical and radar sensors are the technical components for space situational awareness system. Especially, space situational awareness radar system in combination with optical sensors network plays an outstanding role for space situational awareness. At present, OWL-Net(Optical Wide Field patrol Network) optical system, which is the only infra structures for tracking of space objects in Korea is very limited in all-weather and observation time. Therefore, the development of radar system capable of continuous operation is becoming an essential space situational awareness element. Therefore, for an efficient space situational awareness at the current state, the strategy of the space situational awareness radar development should be considered. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of radar system for detection and tracking of space objects. The detection capabilities are limited to an altitude of 2,000 km with debris size of 1 m2 in radar cross section (RCS) for the radar operating frequencies of L, S, C, X, and Ku-band. The power budget analysis results showed that the maximum detection range of 2,000km can be achieved with the transmitted power of 900 kW, transmit and receive antenna gains of 40 dB and 43 dB, respectively, pulse width of 2 ms, and a signal processing gain of 13.3dB, at frequency of 1.3GHz. The required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was assumed to be 12.6 dB for probability of detection of 80% with false alarm rate 10-6. Through the efficiency analysis and trade-off study, the key parameters of the radar system are designed. As a result, this research will provide the guideline for the conceptual design of space situational awareness system.

  7. Consistency analysis and correction of ground-based radar observations using space-borne radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Yiqing; Wang, Zhenhui; Wang, Yadong

    2018-04-01

    The lack of an accurate determination of radar constant can introduce biases in ground-based radar (GR) reflectivity factor data, and lead to poor consistency of radar observations. The geometry-matching method was applied to carry out spatial matching of radar data from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite to observations from a GR deployed at Nanjing, China, in their effective sampling volume, with 250 match-up cases obtained from January 2008 to October 2013. The consistency of the GR was evaluated with reference to the TRMM PR, whose stability is established. The results show that the below-bright-band-height data of the Nanjing radar can be split into three periods: Period I from January 2008 to March 2010, Period II from March 2010 to May 2013, and Period III from May 2013 to October 2013. There are distinct differences in overall reflectivity factor between the three periods, and the overall reflectivity factor in period II is smaller by a factor of over 3 dB than in periods I and III, although the overall reflectivity within each period remains relatively stable. Further investigation shows that in period II the difference between the GR and PR observations changed with echo intensity. A best-fit relation between the two radar reflectivity factors provides a linear correction that is applied to the reflectivity of the Nanjing radar, and which is effective in improving its consistency. Rain-gauge data were used to verify the correction, and the estimated precipitation based on the corrected GR reflectivity data was closer to the rain-gauge observations than that without correction.

  8. Nutrition in Space: Benefits on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    History has often proven the criticality for adequate nutrition to ensure expedition success. Space exploration will be no different, with the exception of the certainty that food will not be found along the journey. Ensuring the health and safety of astronauts is critical and nutrition will serve several functions to that end. Nutritional assessment of International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers not only serves to evaluate the nutritional health of individuals, but also allows a better understanding of how space flight affects nutritional requirements, and how nutrition can serve in mitigating the negative effects of weightlessness on the human. Available data suggest that the nutritional status of astronauts is compromised during and after flight. Inadequate dietary intake and subsequent weight loss are often considered hallmarks of space flight, although exceptions to this do exist, and provide hope. However, beyond energy intake, specific nutrient issues also exist. Several vitamins, including D and folate, are affected in space travelers. Hematological and antioxidant defense systems are impacted, with increased iron storage, and increased markers of oxidative damage. Bone loss during space flight remains a critical challenge. Ground-based studies have proven that nutrition is a potent modulator of the bone response to simulated weightlessness. Protein and sodium are two nutrients which tend to exacerbate bone resorption and loss, likely mediated through acid base balance. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health. Both flight and ground-based research provide a unique situation, one where healthy individuals are put in a unique and challenging environment. A full understanding of the role of nutrition during space flight will not only enhance crew health and safety during flight, but will also expand our understanding of the role of

  9. New developments in ground probing radar for Earth resource mapping and planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattermole, P. J.; Junkin, G.; Finkelstein, M. I.; Kingsley, S. P.

    1992-07-01

    Ground probing radar is a well established technique for locating buried objects and has found application in resource mapping. The development of this technology for the Mars exploration programme has lead to lightweight systems with potential applications for investigating shallow geological structures on Earth, Mars and Venus. Recent advances in ground probing radar technology for planetary exploration include the development of single-antenna systems with improved beam focussing into the ground and a move to lower frequencies which considerably extends the depth penetration in dry ground. These systems are designed for mobility and could form the basis of autonomous mapping systems for terrestrial exploration. Such systems would be particularly valuable for water resource surveying in arid and semi-arid regions, where there is a need to have lightweight instrumentation that can be moved into sometimes inhospitable terrain.

  10. Shuttle imaging radar views the Earth from Challenger: The SIR-B experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Cimino, J. B.; Holt, B.; Ruzek, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    In October 1984, SIR-B obtained digital image data of about 6.5 million km2 of the Earth's surface. The coverage is mostly of selected experimental test sites located between latitudes 60 deg north and 60 deg south. Programmed adjustments made to the look angle of the steerable radar antenna and to the flight attitude of the shuttle during the mission permitted collection of multiple-incidence-angle coverage or extended mapping coverage as required for the experiments. The SIR-B images included here are representative of the coverage obtained for scientific studies in geology, cartography, hydrology, vegetation cover, and oceanography. The relations between radar backscatter and incidence angle for discriminating various types of surfaces, and the use of multiple-incidence-angle SIR-B images for stereo measurement and viewing, are illustrated with examples. Interpretation of the images is facilitated by corresponding images or photographs obtained by different sensors or by sketch maps or diagrams.

  11. The application of airborne imaging radars (L and X-band) to earth resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.; Shuchman, R. A.; Bryan, M. L.; Larson, R. W.; Liskow, C. L.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    A multiplexed synthetic aperture Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) that simultaneously images the terrain with X-band (3.2 cm) and L-band (23.0 cm) radar wavelengths was developed. The Feasibility of using multiplexed SLAR to obtain useful information for earth resources purposes. The SLAR imagery, aerial photographs, and infrared imagery are examined to determine the qualitative tone and texture of many rural land-use features imaged. The results show that: (1) Neither X- nor L-band SLAR at moderate and low depression angles can directly or indirectly detect pools of water under standing vegetation. (2) Many of the urban and rural land-use categories present in the test areas can be identified and mapped on the multiplexed SLAR imagery. (3) Water resources management can be done using multiplexed SLAR. (4) Drainage patterns can be determined on both the X- and L-band imagery.

  12. Space and Earth Observations from Stratospheric Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterzen, Steven; Ubertini, Pietro; Masi, Silvia; Ibba, Roberto; Ivano, Musso; Cardillo, Andrea; Romeo, Giovanni; Dragøy, Petter; Spoto, Domenico

    Stratospheric balloons are rapidly becoming the vehicle of choice for near space investigations and earth observations by a variety of science disciplines. With the ever increasing research into climatic change, instruments suspended from stratospheric balloons offer the science team a unique, stable and reusable platform that can circle the Earth in the polar region or equatorial zone for thirty days or more. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range (Andenes, Norway) has opened access in the far northern latitudes above 78o N from Longyearbyen, Svalbard. In 2006 the first Italian UltraLite Long Duration Balloon was launched from Baia Terra Nova, Mario Zuchelli station in Antarctica and now ASI is setting up for the their first equatorial stratospheric launch from their satellite receiving station and rocket launch site in Malindi, Kenya. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennal oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds. Maintaining these launch sites offer the science community 3 point world coverage for heavy lift balloons as well as the rapidly deployed Ultralight payloads and TM system ASI developed to use for test platforms, micro experiments, as well as a comprehensive student pilot program

  13. High-resolution Earth-based lunar radar studies: Applications to lunar resource assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, N. J. S.; Campbell, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    The lunar regolith will most likely be a primary raw material for lunar base construction and resource extraction. High-resolution radar observations of the Moon provide maps of radar backscatter that have intensity variations generally controlled by the local slope, material, and structural properties of the regolith. The properties that can be measured by the radar system include the dielectric constant, density, loss tangent, and wavelength scale roughness. The radar systems currently in operation at several astronomical observatories provide the ability to image the lunar surface at spatial resolutions approaching 30 m at 3.8 cm and 12.6 cm wavelengths and approximately 500 m at 70 cm wavelength. The radar signal penetrates the lunar regolith to a depth of 10-20 wavelengths so the measured backscatter contains contributions from the vacuum-regolith interface and from wavelength-scale heterogeneities in the electrical properties of the subsurface material. The three wavelengths, which are sensitive to different scale structures and scattering volumes, provide complementary information on the regolith properties. Aims of the previous and future observations include (1) analysis of the scattering properties associated with fresh impact craters, impact crater rays, and mantled deposits; (2) analysis of high-incidence-angle observations of the lunar mare to investigate measurement of the regolith dielectric constant and hence porosity; (3) investigation of interferometric techniques using two time-delayed observations of the same site, observations that require a difference in viewing geometry less than 0.05 deg and, hence, fortuitous alignment of the Earth-Moon system when visible from Arecibo Observatory.

  14. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  15. A crisis in the NASA space and earth sciences programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis, J.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.; Black, David C.; Baker, D. James; Banks, Peter M.; Bretherton, Francis; Brown, Robert A.; Burke, Kevin C.; Burns, Joseph A.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1987-01-01

    Problems in the space and earth science programs are examined. Changes in the research environment and requirements for the space and earth sciences, for example from small Explorer missions to multispacecraft missions, have been observed. The need to expand the computational capabilities for space and earth sciences is discussed. The effects of fluctuations in funding, program delays, the limited number of space flights, and the development of the Space Station on research in the areas of astronomy and astrophysics, planetary exploration, solar and space physics, and earth science are analyzed. The recommendations of the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee on the development and maintenance of effective space and earth sciences programs are described.

  16. (abstract) The Evolving Spaceborne Radar Data Support to Earth Science and Operations at the Alaska SAR Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    The Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) has been receiving, processing, archiving, and distributing data for Earth scientists and operations since it began receiving data in 1991. Four radar satellites are now being handled. Recent developments have served to increase the level of services of ASF to the Earth science community considerably. These developments are discussed.

  17. Doublet Pulse Coherent Laser Radar for Tracking of Resident Space Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    based laser systems can be limited by the effects of tumbling, extremely accurate Doppler measurement is possible using a doublet coherent laser ...Doublet pulse coherent laser radar for tracking of resident space objects Narasimha S. Prasad *1 , Van Rudd 2 , Scott Shald 2 , Stephan...Doublet Pulse Coherent Laser Radar for Tracking of Resident Space Objects 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  18. Utilizing Weather RADAR for Rapid Location of Meteorite Falls and Space Debris Re-Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This activity utilizes existing NOAA weather RADAR imagery to locate meteorite falls and space debris falls. The near-real-time availability and spatial accuracy of these data allow rapid recovery of material from both meteorite falls and space debris re-entry events. To date, at least 22 meteorite fall recoveries have benefitted from RADAR detection and fall modeling, and multiple debris re-entry events over the United States have been observed in unprecedented detail.

  19. An Airborne Radar Model For Non-Uniformly Spaced Antenna Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Department of Defense, or the United States Government . AFIT-GE-ENG-06-58 An Airborne Radar Model For Non-Uniformly Spaced Antenna Arrays THESIS Presented...different circular arrays, one containing 24 elements and one containing 15 elements. The circular array per- formance is compared to that of a 6 × 6...model and compared to the radar model of [5, 6, 13]. The two models are mathematically equivalent when the uniformly spaced array is linear. The two

  20. Space Radar of Image Aorounga Impact Crater, Chad

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The impact of an asteroid or comet several hundred million years ago left scars in the landscape that are still visible in this spaceborne radar image of an area in the Sahara Desert of northern Chad.

  1. Space Radar Image of Possible String of Impact Creaters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The impact of an asteroid or comet several hundred million years ago left scars in the landscape that are still visible in this spaceborne radar image of an area in the Sahara Desert of northern Chad.

  2. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right.

  3. Space Radar Image of Pinacate Volcanic Field, Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Pinacate Volcanic Field in the state of Sonora, Mexico, about 150 kilometers 93 miles southeast of Yuma, Arizona. The United States/Mexico border runs across the upper right corner of the image.

  4. Space life sciences: closed ecological systems: earth and space applications.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    This issue contains peer-reviewed papers from a workshop on Closed Ecological Systems: Earth and Space Applications at the 35th COSPAR General Assembly in Paris, France, convened in July 2004. The contributions reflected the wide range of international work in the field, especially Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States. The papers are arranged according to four main themes: 1) Methods of evaluation and theory of closed ecological systems; 2) Reports from recent experiments in closed ecological system facilities; 3) Bioregenerative technologies to advance degree of closure and cycling; and 4) Laboratory studies of small closed ecological systems.

  5. Earth observation photo taken by JPL with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Earth observation photo taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A). This image shows a 50 by 120 kilometer (30 by 75 mile) area of the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern coast of Central Sardinia (left). The city of Arbatose is seen as a bright area along the coast in the lower part of the image, and the star-like spot off the coast is a ship's reflection. The Gulf of Orsei is near the top of the image. Bright, mottled features in the sea (right) represent surface choppiness.

  6. Earth observation photo taken by JPL with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Earth observation photo taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A). This image shows a 50 by 100 kilometer (30 by 60 mile) area of the Imperial Valley in Southern California and neighboring Mexico. The checkered patterns represent agricultural fields where different types of crops in different stages of growth are cultivated. The very bright areas are (top left to lower right) the U.S. towns of Brawley, Imperial, El Centro, Calexico and the Mexican city of Mexicali. The bright L-shaped line (upper right) is the All-American water canal.

  7. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada, seasonal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a comparison of images over Prince Albert, produced by NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on April 10, 1994. The area is centered at 53.91 degrees north latitude and 104.69 degrees west longitude and is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of Candle Lake, between the gravel highway of 120 and west of highway 106. The area imaged is near the southern limit of the boreal forest. The boreal forest of North America is a continuous vegetation belt at high latitudes stretching across the continent from the Atlantic shoreline of central Labrador and then westward across Canada to the interior mountains and central coastal plains of Alaska. The forest is also part of a larger northern hemisphere circumpolar boreal forest belt. Coniferous trees dominate the entire forest but deciduous trees are also present. During the month of April, the forest experiences seasonal changes from a frozen condition to a thawed condition. The trees are completely frozen over the winter season and the forest floor is covered by snow. As the average temperature rises in the spring, the trees are thawed and the snow melts. This transition has an impact on the rate of moisture evaporation and release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In late September and early October, the boreal forest experiences a relatively different seasonal change. At this time, the leaves on deciduous trees start changing color and dropping off. The soil and trees are quite often moist due to frequent rainfall and cloud cover. The evaporation of moisture and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere also diminishes at this time. SIR-C/X-SAR is sensitive to the moisture of soil and vegetation and can sense this freeze-thaw cycle and the summer-fall seasonal transition over forested areas in

  8. STS-4 earth observations from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    STS-4 earth observations from space. Views include both Florida coasts, with Cape Canaveral visible at the center of the frame. The photo was exposed through the aft window on the flight deck of the Columbia. The vertical tail and both orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pods are visible in the foreground. Other features on the Earth which are visible include Tampa Bay and several lakes, including Apopka, Tohopekaliga, East Tahopekaliga, Harris, Cypress and a number of small reservoirs (33223); This is a north-easterly looking view toward California's Pacific Coast. The coastal area covered includes San Diego northward to Pismo Beach. Los Angeles is near center. The arc of the Temblor-Tehachapi-Sierra Nevada surrounds the San Joaquin Valley at left. The Mojave desert lies between the San Andres and Garlock Faults (33224); Mexico's Baja California and Sonora state are visible in the STS-4 frame. The islands of Angel de la Guardia and Tiburon stand out above and right of center. Low clouds

  9. ISS EarthKam: Taking Photos of the Earth from Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haste, Turtle

    2008-01-01

    NASA is involved in a project involving the International Space Station (ISS) and an Earth-focused camera called EarthKam, where schools, and ultimately students, are allowed to remotely program the EarthKAM to take images. Here the author describes how EarthKam was used to help middle school students learn about biomes and develop their…

  10. Performance of Scattering Matrix Decomposition and Color Spaces for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Color Spaces and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Multicolor Imaging. 15 2.3.1 Colorimetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3.2...III. Decomposition Techniques on SAR Polarimetry and Colorimetry applied to SAR Imagery...space polarimetric SAR systems. Colorimetry is also introduced in this chapter, presenting the fundamentals of the RGB and CMY color spaces, defined for

  11. Wide area coverage radar imaging satellite for earth applications. [surveillance and mapping of ice on Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Ramler, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of a radar imaging satellite for earth applications. A side-looking synthetic-aperture radar was considered and the feasibility of obtaining a wide area coverage to reduce the time required to image a given area was investigated. Two basic approaches were examined; low altitude sun-synchronous orbits using a multibeam/multifrequency radar system and equatorial orbits up to near-synchronous altitude using a single beam system. Surveillance and mapping of ice on the Great Lakes was used as a typical application to focus the study effort.

  12. Radar evidence for diverse shapes of the primaries among binary near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovic, Marina; Benner, Lance; Ford, Thomas; Springmann, Alessondra; Taylor, Patrick; Shepard, Michael; Margot, Jean-Luc; Naidu, Shantanu; Nolan, Michael; Howell, Ellen; Busch, Michael; Giorgini, Jon; Magri, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars have been exceptionally valuable instruments for the discovery of binary and triple asteroids in the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. To date, 34 out of 46 known binaries and two ternaries 71% objects total) have been discovered by radar. One of the first discovered and most well studied binary systems is (66391) 1999 KW4 (Ostro et al., 2006). This was the first system with radar evidence for a prominent equatorial bulge, sloped hemispheres, and polar flattening. 1999 KW4 Alpha became a “canonical shape model” for many theoretical studies and numerical simulations on the nature of the binary systems. As the number of binaries detected by radar grew, evidence mounted that not all primaries look like 1999 KW4 Alpha. In fact, (276049) 2002 CE26 (Shepard et al., 2006) and (285263) 1998 QE2 (Springmann et al., 2014) have very rounded shapes without an obvious presence of equatorial ridges. Furthermore, (164121) 2003 YT1 (Nolan et al., in prep.), (1862) Apollo (Ford et al., in prep.), and (363599) 2006 VV2 all have irregular, moderately elongated shapes that show the presence of a bulge at only selected longitudes. All three objects also show elongations of 1.2-1.3, which is still smaller than the mean elongation of ~1.5 in the NEA radar sample. Nevertheless, numerous other primaries have KW4-like shapes such as (185851) 2000 DP107 (Naidu et al., 2011), (311066) 2004 DC (Taylor et al, 2008), and (175706) 1996 FG3 (Benner et al., in prep.). We estimate the abundance of KW4-like objects to be at least 40% of the multiple system population, based on the 41 radar-detected cases. Our results only give the lower bound because not all the dataset have the sufficient SNRs and/or the rotational coverage. Recent Goldstone delay-Doppler images of 2013 WT44 were obtained at nearly pole-on subradar latitude and clearly show evidence of an equatorial bulge, sloped hemispheres, and polar flattening. This has provided one of the

  13. Regional tectonic analysis of Venus equatorial highlands and comparison with Earth-based Magellan radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Wetherill, George

    1993-01-01

    Research on regional tectonic analysis of Venus equatorial highlands and comparison with earth-based and Magellan radar images is presented. Over the past two years, the tectonic analysis of Venus performed centered on global properties of the planet, in order to understand fundamental aspects of the dynamics of the mantle and lithosphere of Venus. These include studies pertaining to the original constitutive and thermal character of the planet, as well as the evolution of Venus through time, and the present day tectonics. Parameterized convection models of the Earth and Venus were developed. The parameterized convection code was reformulated to model Venus with an initially hydrous mantle to determine how the cold-trap could affect the evolution of the planet.

  14. Radar Astrometry of Asteroid 99942 (2004 MN4): Predicting the 2029 Earth Encounter and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, J. D.; Benner, L. A. M.; Nolan, M. C.; Ostro, S. J.

    2005-08-01

    Asteroid 2004 MN4 is expected to pass 4.6 (+/- 1.6) Earth-radii above the surface of the Earth on 2029-Apr-13. Such close approaches by objects as large as 2004 MN4 (D ≳ 0.3 km) are thought to occur at ≳ 1000-year intervals on average. 2004 MN4 is expected to reach 3rd magnitude and thus be visible to the unaided eye. With a disk 2-4 arcseconds across, it may be resolved by ground-based telescopes. Arecibo (2380-MHz) delay-Doppler radar astrometry, obtained in late January 2005, significantly corrected 2004 MN4's orbit by revealing a 1.4 arcsecond bias in pre-discovery optical measurements. Doppler-shifted echoes were acquired 4.8σ (176.4 mm/s) away from the predicted frequency on Jan 27. Range on Jan 29 was found to be 747 km (2.8σ ) closer to Earth than the pre-radar orbit predicted. Incorporation of these delay-Doppler measurements into a new weighted least-squares orbit solution moved the 2029-Apr-13 encounter prediction 5σ closer to the Earth, illustrating the problematic nature of prediction and statistical analysis with single-apparition optical data-sets. Without delay-Doppler data, the bias was not apparent, even when optical measurements spanned a full orbit period. The current combined data-set does not permit reliable trajectory propagation to encounters beyond 2029; Monte Carlo analysis shows that, by 2036, the 3σ confidence region wraps >300 degrees of heliocentric longitude around the Sun, with some sections of this statistical region experiencing low-probability encounters with the Earth in the 2030's, gravitationally scattering some possible trajectories inward to the orbit of Venus, or outward toward Mars. Future measurements from radar opportunities in August 2005 and May 2006 (SNR ≈5-10) have the potential to eliminate statistical encounters in the 2030's. Delay-Doppler astrometry from 2013 (SNR ≈30) should permit deterministic encounter prediction through 2070, shrinking the along-track uncertainty in 2036 by two orders of magnitude

  15. Imaging of near-Earth space plasma.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cathryn N

    2002-12-15

    This paper describes the technique of imaging the ionosphere using tomographic principles. It reports on current developments and speculates on the future of this research area. Recent developments in computing and ionospheric measurement, together with the sharing of data via the internet, now allow us to envisage a time when high-resolution, real-time images and 'movies' of the ionosphere will be possible for radio communications planning. There is great potential to use such images for improving our understanding of the physical processes controlling the behaviour of the ionosphere. While real-time images and movies of the electron concentration are now almost possible, forecasting of ionospheric morphology is still in its early stages. It has become clear that the ionosphere cannot be considered as a system in isolation, and consequently new research projects to link together models of the solar-terrestrial system, including the Sun, solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere, are now being proposed. The prospect is now on the horizon of assimilating data from the entire solar-terrestrial system to produce a real-time computer model and 'space weather' forecast. The role of tomography in imaging beyond the ionosphere to include the whole near-Earth space-plasma realm is yet to be realized, and provides a challenging prospect for the future. Finally, exciting possibilities exist in applying such methods to image the atmospheres and ionospheres of other planets.

  16. Magnetic monitoring of earth and space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    For centuries, navigators of the world’s oceans have been familiar with an effect of Earth’s magnetic field: It imparts a directional preference to the needle of a compass. Although in some settings magnetic orientation remains important, the modern science of geomagnetism has emerged from its romantic nautical origins and developed into a subject of great depth and diversity. The geomagnetic field is used to explore the dynamics of Earth’s interior and its surrounding space environment, and geomagnetic data are used for geophysical mapping, mineral exploration, risk mitigation, and other practical applications. A global distribution of ground-based magnetic observatories supports those pursuits by providing accurate records of the magnetic-field direction and intensity at fixed locations and over long periods of time.Magnetic observatories were first established in the early 19th century in response to the influence of Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Friedrich Gauss. Since then, magnetic measurement has advanced significantly, progressing from simple visual readings of magnetic survey instruments to include automatic photographic measurement and modern electronic acquisition. To satisfy the needs of the scientific community, observatories are being upgraded to collect data that meet ever more stringent standards, to achieve higher acquisition frequencies, and to disseminate data in real time.To appreciate why data from magnetic observatories can be used for so many purposes, one needs only to recall that the geomagnetic field is a continuum, connecting the different parts of Earth to each other and to nearby space. Beneath our feet and above our heads, electric currents generate magnetic fields that contribute to the totality of the geomagnetic field measured at an observatory on Earth’s surface. The many physical processes that operate in each geophysical domain give rise to a complicated field that exhibits a wide variety of time-dependent behavior.1 In

  17. Space-borne polarimetric SAR sensors or the golden age of radar polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, E.

    2010-06-01

    SAR Polarimetry represents an active area of research in Active Earth Remote Sensing. This interest is clearly supported by the fact that nowadays there exists, or there will exist in a very next future, a non negligible quantity of launched Polarimetric SAR Spaceborne sensors. The ENVISAT satellite, developed by ESA, was launched on March 2002, and was the first Spaceborne sensor offering an innovative dualpolarization Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) system operating at C-band. The second Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor is ALOS, a Japanese Earth-Observation satellite, developed by JAXA and was launched in January 2006. This mission includes an active L-band polarimetric radar sensor (PALSAR) whose highresolution data may be used for environmental and hazard monitoring. The third Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor is TerraSAR-X, a new German radar satellite, developed by DLR, EADS-Astrium and Infoterra GmbH, was launched on June 2007. This sensor carries a dual-polarimetric and high frequency X-Band SAR sensor that can be operated in different modes and offers features that were not available from space before. At least, the Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor, developed by CSA and MDA, and named RADARSAT-2 was launched in December 2007 The Radarsat program was born out the need for effective monitoring of Canada’s icy waters, and some Radarsat-2 capabilities that benefit sea- and river ice applications are the multi-polarization options that will improve ice-edge detection, ice-type discrimination and structure information. The many advances in these different Polarimetric Spaceborne platforms were developed to respond to specific needs for radar data in environmental monitoring applications around the world, like : sea- and river-ice monitoring, marine surveillance, disaster management, oil spill detection, snow monitoring, hydrology, mapping, geology, agriculture, soil characterisation, forestry applications (biomass, allometry, height…), urban mapping etc

  18. The Synthetic Aperture Radar Science Data Processing Foundry Concept for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hua, H.; Norton, C. D.; Little, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and the Advanced Information Systems Technology Program have invested in two technology evolutions to meet the needs of the community of scientists exploiting the rapidly growing database of international synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. JPL, working with the science community, has developed the InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE), a next-generation interferometric SAR processing system that is designed to be flexible and extensible. ISCE currently supports many international space borne data sets but has been primarily focused on geodetic science and applications. A second evolutionary path, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) science data system, uses ISCE as its core science data processing engine and produces automated science and response products, quality assessments and metadata. The success of this two-front effort has been demonstrated in NASA's ability to respond to recent events with useful disaster support. JPL has enabled high-volume and low latency data production by the re-use of the hybrid cloud computing science data system (HySDS) that runs ARIA, leveraging on-premise cloud computing assets that are able to burst onto the Amazon Web Services (AWS) services as needed. Beyond geodetic applications, needs have emerged to process large volumes of time-series SAR data collected for estimation of biomass and its change, in such campaigns as the upcoming AfriSAR field campaign. ESTO is funding JPL to extend the ISCE-ARIA model to a "SAR Science Data Processing Foundry" to on-ramp new data sources and to produce new science data products to meet the needs of science teams and, in general, science community members. An extension of the ISCE-ARIA model to support on-demand processing will permit PIs to leverage this Foundry to produce data products from accepted data sources when they need them. This paper will describe each of the elements of the SAR SDP Foundry and describe their

  19. Rings of earth. [orbiting bands of space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Richard M.; Randolph, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Small particles moving at an orbital velocity of 7.6 kilometers per second can present a considerable hazard to human activity in space. For astronauts outside of the protective shielding of their space vehicles, such particles can be lethal. The powerful radar at NASA's Goldstone Deep Communications Complex was used to monitor such orbital debris. This radar can detect metallic objects as small as 1.8 mm in diameter at 600 km altitude. The results of the preliminary survey show a flux (at 600 km altitude) of 6.4 objects per square kilometer per day of equivalent size of 1.8 mm or larger. Forty percent of the observed particles appear to be concentrated into two orbits. An orbital ring with the same inclination as the radar (35.1 degrees) is suggested. However, an orbital band with a much higher inclination (66 degrees) is also a possibility.

  20. Radar cross section measurements of a scale model of the space shuttle orbiter vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    A series of microwave measurements was conducted to determine the radar cross section of the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle at a frequency and at aspect angles applicable to re-entry radar acquisition and tracking. The measurements were performed in a microwave anechoic chamber using a 1/15th scale model and a frequency applicable to C-band tracking radars. The data were digitally recorded and processed to yield statistical descriptions useful for prediction of orbiter re-entry detection and tracking ranges.

  1. Life on Earth: From Chemicals in Space?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses experimental evidence for the existence of organic material in the solar system prior to the earth's formation. Indicates that the earth could have received much of its organic compounds from meteors falling on its primitive surface. (CC)

  2. Rendezvous radar modification and evaluation. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to continue the implementation and evaluation of the changes necessary to add the non-cooperative mode capability with frequency diversity and a doppler filter bank to the Apollo Rendezvous Radar while retaining the cooperative mode capability.

  3. Energy Efficient Cryogenics on Earth and in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for energy-efficient cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  4. Earth From Space: "Beautiful Earth's" Integration of Media Arts, Earth Science, and Native Wisdom in Informal Learning Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasanto, V.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Rock, J.; Markus, T.

    2015-12-01

    "Beautiful Earth: Experiencing and Learning Science in an Engaging Way" was a 3-year project funded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science. An outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA performance, Beautiful Earth fostered a new approach to teaching by combining live music, data visualizations and Earth science with indigenous perspectives, and hands-on workshops for K-12 students at 5 science centers. Inspired by the "Overview Effect," described by many astronauts who were awestruck by seeing the Earth from space and their realization of the profound interconnectedness of Earth's life systems, Beautiful Earth leveraged the power of multimedia performance to serve as a springboard to engage K-12 students in hands-on Earth science and Native wisdom workshops. Results will be presented regarding student perceptions of Earth science, environmental issues, and indigenous ways of knowing from 3 years of evaluation data.

  5. Young Children's Ideas about the Earth in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John G.

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed 7-year-olds' ideas about the Earth in space, focusing on their ideas about shape and their ability to represent and describe land masses or other surface features, Earth's size relative to the sun and moon, and its nature as a planet. Found that focusing on the Earth's shape and gravity alone has underestimated youngsters' learning…

  6. Advanced Precipitation Radar Antenna to Measure Rainfall From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Lin, John; Huang, John; Im, Eastwood; Lou, Michael; Lopez, Bernardo; Durden, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    To support NASA s planned 20-year mission to provide sustained global precipitation measurement (EOS-9 Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)), a deployable antenna has been explored with an inflatable thin-membrane structure. This design uses a 5.3 5.3-m inflatable parabolic reflector with the electronically scanned, dual-frequency phased array feeds to provide improved rainfall measurements at 2.0-km horizontal resolution over a cross-track scan range of up to 37 , necessary for resolving intense, isolated storm cells and for reducing the beam-filling and spatial sampling errors. The two matched radar beams at the two frequencies (Ku and Ka bands) will allow unambiguous retrieval of the parameters in raindrop size distribution. The antenna is inflatable, using rigidizable booms, deployable chain-link supports with prescribed curvatures, a smooth, thin-membrane reflecting surface, and an offset feed technique to achieve the precision surface tolerance (0.2 mm RMS) for meeting the low-sidelobe requirement. The cylindrical parabolic offset-feed reflector augmented with two linear phased array feeds achieves dual-frequency shared-aperture with wide-angle beam scanning and very low sidelobe level of -30 dB. Very long Ku and Ka band microstrip feed arrays incorporating a combination of parallel and series power divider lines with cosine-over-pedestal distribution also augment the sidelobe level and beam scan. This design reduces antenna mass and launch vehicle stowage volume. The Ku and Ka band feed arrays are needed to achieve the required cross-track beam scanning. To demonstrate the inflatable cylindrical reflector with two linear polarizations (V and H), and two beam directions (0deg and 30deg), each frequency band has four individual microstrip array designs. The Ku-band array has a total of 166x2 elements and the Ka-band has 166x4 elements with both bands having element spacing about 0.65 lambda(sub 0). The cylindrical reflector with offset linear array feeds

  7. A study of 35-ghz radar-assisted orbital maneuvering vehicle/space telescope docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of measuring range and range rate information from a complex radar target (a one-third scale model of the Edwin P. Hubble Space Telescope). The radar ranging system was a 35-GHz frequency-modulated continuous wave unit developed in the Communication Systems Branch of the Information and Electronic Systems Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Cneter. Measurements were made over radar-to-target distances of 5 meters to 15 meters to simulate the close distance realized in the final stages of space vehicle docking. The Space Telescope model target was driven by an antenna positioner through a range of azimuth and elevation (pitch) angles to present a variety of visual aspects of the aft end to the radar. Measurements were obtained with and without a cube corner reflector mounted in the center of the aft end of the model. The results indicate that range and range rate measurements are performed significantly more accurately with the cooperative radar reflector affixed. The results further reveal that range rate (velocity) can be measured accurately enough to support the required soft docking with the Space Telescope.

  8. Monitoring Strategies of Earth Dams by Ground-Based Radar Interferometry: How to Extract Useful Information for Seismic Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Andrea; Nico, Giovanni; Pitullo, Alfredo; Prezioso, Giuseppina

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this paper is to describe how ground-based radar interferometry can provide displacement measurements of earth dam surfaces and of vibration frequencies of its main concrete infrastructures. In many cases, dams were built many decades ago and, at that time, were not equipped with in situ sensors embedded in the structure when they were built. Earth dams have scattering properties similar to landslides for which the Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBSAR) technique has been so far extensively applied to study ground displacements. In this work, SAR and Real Aperture Radar (RAR) configurations are used for the measurement of earth dam surface displacements and vibration frequencies of concrete structures, respectively. A methodology for the acquisition of SAR data and the rendering of results is described. The geometrical correction factor, needed to transform the Line-of-Sight (LoS) displacement measurements of GBSAR into an estimate of the horizontal displacement vector of the dam surface, is derived. Furthermore, a methodology for the acquisition of RAR data and the representation of displacement temporal profiles and vibration frequency spectra of dam concrete structures is presented. For this study a Ku-band ground-based radar, equipped with horn antennas having different radiation patterns, has been used. Four case studies, using different radar acquisition strategies specifically developed for the monitoring of earth dams, are examined. The results of this work show the information that a Ku-band ground-based radar can provide to structural engineers for a non-destructive seismic assessment of earth dams.

  9. Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft are examined to determine system requirements for a 300 kWe space nuclear reactor power system. The spacecraft configuration and its orbit, launch vehicle, and propulsion are described. Mission profiles are addressed, and storage in assembly orbit is considered. Dynamics and attitude control and the problems of nuclear and thermal radiation are examined.

  10. The Revolution in Earth and Space Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barstow, Daniel; Geary, Ed; Yazijian, Harvey

    2002-01-01

    Explains the changing nature of earth and space science education such as using inquiry-based teaching, how technology allows students to use satellite images in inquiry-based investigations, the consideration of earth and space as a whole system rather than a sequence of topics, and increased student participation in learning opportunities. (YDS)

  11. Earth & Space Science PhDs, Class of 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudy, Nicholas; Henly, Megan; Migdalski, Chet

    This study documents the employment patterns and demographic characteristics of recent PhDs in earth and space science. It summarizes the latest annual survey of recent earth and space science PhDs conducted by the American Geological Institute, the American Geophysical Union, and the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of…

  12. New Millenium Program Serving Earth and Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk

    1999-01-01

    A cross-Enterprise program is to identify and validate flight breakthrough technologies that will significantly benefit future space science and earth science missions. The breakthrough technologies are: enable new capabilities to meet earth and space science needs and reducing costs of future missions. The flight validation are: mitigates risks to first users and enables rapid technology infusion into future missions.

  13. Cross-evaluation of reflectivity from the space-borne precipitation radar and multi-type ground-based weather radar network in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lingzhi; Yang, Rongfang; Wen, Yixin; Chen, Lin; Gou, Yabin; Li, Ruiyi; Zhou, Qing; Hong, Yang

    2017-11-01

    China operational weather radar network consists of more than 200 ground-based radars (GR(s)). The lack of unified calibrators often result in poor mosaic products as well as its limitation in radar data assimilation in numerical models. In this study, radar reflectivity and precipitation vertical structures observed from space-borne TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) PR (precipitation radar) and GRs are volumetrically matched and cross-evaluated. It is found that observation of GRs is basically consistent with that of PR. For their overlapping scanning regions, the GRs are often affected by the beam blockage for complex terrain. The statistics show the better agreement among S band A type (SA) radars, S band B type (SB) radars and PR, as well as poor performance of S band C type (SC) radars. The reflectivity offsets between GRs and PR depend on the reflectivity magnitudes: They are positive for weak precipitation and negative for middle and heavy precipitation, respectively. Although the GRs are quite consistent with PR for large sample, an individual GR has its own fluctuated biases monthly. When the sample number is small, the bias statistics may be determined by a single bad GR in a group. Results from this study shed lights that the space-borne precipitation radars could be used to quantitatively calibrate systematic bias existing in different GRs in order to improve the consistency of ground-based weather radar network across China, and also bears the promise to provide a robust reference even form a space and ground constellation network for the dual-frequency precipitation radars onboard the satellites anticipated in the near future.

  14. Space-Time Adaptive Processing for Airborne Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-13

    horizontal plane Uniform linear antenna array (possibly columns of a planar array) Identical element patterns 13 14 15 9 7 7,33 7 7 Target Model ...Parameters for Example Scenario 31 3 Assumptions Made for Radar System and Signal Model 52 4 Platform and Interference Scenario for Baseline Scenario. 61 5...pulses, is addressed first. Fully adaptive STAP requires the solution to a system of linear equations of size MN, where N is the number of array

  15. Space Radar Image of Namib Desert in Southern Namib

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a C-band, VV polarization radar image of the Namib desert in southern Namibia, near the coast of South West Africa. The image is centered at about 25 degrees South latitude, 15.5 degrees East longitude. This image was one of the first acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) when it was taken on orbit 4 from the shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The area shown is approximately 78 kilometers by 20 kilometers. The dominant features in the image are complex sand dune patterns formed by the prevailing winds in this part of the Namib desert. The Namib desert is an extremely dry area formed largely because of the influence of the cold Benguela ocean current that flows northward along the coast of Namibia. The bright areas at the bottom of the image are exposed outcrops of Precambrian rocks. This extremely barren area is a region rich in diamonds that through the centuries have washed down from the mountains. The town of Luderitz is located just to the south of the area shown. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01720

  16. Ground penetrating radar antenna system analysis for prediction of earth material properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Wright, D.L.; Powers, M.H.; Olhoeft, G.

    2005-01-01

    The electrical properties of the ground directly beneath a ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna very close to the earth's surface (ground-coupled) must be known in order to predict the antenna response. In order to investigate changing antenna response with varying ground properties, a series of finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were made for a bi-static (fixed horizontal offset between transmitting and receiving antennas) antenna array over a homogeneous ground. We examine the viability of using an inversion algorithm based on the simulated received waveforms to estimate the material properties of the earth near the antennas. Our analysis shows that, for a constant antenna height above the earth, the amplitude of certain frequencies in the received signal can be used to invert for the permittivity and conductivity of the ground. Once the antenna response is known, then the wave field near the antenna can be determined and sharper images of the subsurface near the antenna can be made. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  17. Magellan radar image compared to high resolution Earth-based image of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A strip of a Magellan radar image (left) is compared to a high resolution Earth-based radar image of Venus, obtained by the U.S. National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center's Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. The small white box in the Arecibo image corresponds to the Magellan image. This portion of the Magellan imagery shows a small region on the east flank of a major volcanic upland called Beta Regio. The image is centered at 23 degrees north latitude and 286.7 degrees east longitude. The ridge and valley network in the middle part of the image is formed by intersecting faults which have broken the Venusian crust into a complex deformed type of surface called tessera, the Latin word for tile. The parallel mountains and valleys resemble the Basin and Range Province in the western United States. The irregular dark patch near the top of the image is a smooth surface, probably formed, according to scientists, by lava flows in a region about 10 kilometers (6 miles) across. Similar dark sur

  18. Earth observation photo taken by JPL with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Earth observation photo taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A). Image of California's coast from Point Concepcion (far left) to Ventura (right). The city of Santa Barbara is visible as a bright region (center). The row of bright spots in the ocean are oil drilling platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel, while the random points of brightness in the channel are vessels. Lakes Cachuma (left) and Casitas (right) are seen as large dark areas. Folded sedimentary rock layers are visible in the Santa Ynez Mountain Range which stretches down the coastline; the stratification terminates at the Santa Ynez fault on the island side of the mountains.

  19. Space Science in Action: Earth [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording explains the factors that allow life to flourish on Earth, including our position within the solar system, the water cycle, and the composition of the planet. A hands-on activity demonstrates the earth's water cycle. Contents include a teacher's guide designed to help science teachers in grades 5-8 by providing a brief…

  20. Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1988-01-01

    The SP-100 Project was established to develop and demonstrate feasibility of a space reactor power system (SRPS) at power levels of 10's of kilowatts to a megawatt. To help determine systems requirements for the SRPS, a mission and spacecraft were examined which utilize this power system for a space-based radar to observe moving objects. Aspects of the mission and spacecraft bearing on the power system were the primary objectives of this study; performance of the radar itself was not within the scope. The study was carried out by the Systems Design Audit Team of the SP-100 Project.

  1. Design of a large dual polarized Ku band reflectarray for space borne radar altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Richard E.; Zawadzki, Mark

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design of a large dual-beam, dual polarized reflectarray designed for a space-based radar altimeter. This application requires a 2.16 X 0.35 m aperture that can be folded for launch stowage. Low mass and >50% efficiency are also required. A reflectarray antenna offers the best approach but also presents unique technical challenges since a reflectarry has never been used in a space based radar application. In what follows, we describe the design, analysis and measurements of a breadboard test array built to demonstrate the reflectarray concept.

  2. Ionizing radiation in earth's atmosphere and in space near earth.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-05-01

    The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute of the FAA is charged with identifying health hazards in air travel and in : commercial human space travel. This report addresses one of these hazards ionizing radiation. : Ionizing radiation is a subatomic p...

  3. Radar Imaging and Characterization of the Binary Near-Earth Asteroid (185851) 2000 DP107

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, S. P.; Margot, J. L.; Taylor, P. A.; Nolan, M. C.; Busch, M. W.; Benner, L. A. M.; Brozovic, M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Jao, J. S.; Magri, C.

    2015-08-01

    The potentially hazardous asteroid (185851) 2000 DP107 was the first binary near-Earth asteroid to be imaged. Radar observations in 2000 provided images at 75 m resolution that revealed the shape, orbit, and spin-up formation mechanism of the binary. The asteroid made a more favorable flyby of the Earth in 2008, yielding images at 30 m resolution. We used these data to obtain shape models for the two components and to improve the estimates of the mutual orbit, component masses, and spin periods. The primary has a sidereal spin period of 2.7745 ± 0.0007 hr and is roughly spheroidal with an equivalent diameter of 863 m +/- 5%. It has a mass of 4.656+/- 0.43× {10}11 kg and a density of 1381 ± 244 kg m-3. It exhibits an equatorial ridge similar to the (66391) 1999 KW4 primary; however, the equatorial ridge in this case is not as regular and has a ˜300 m diameter concavity on one side. The secondary has a sidereal spin period of 1.77 ± 0.02 days commensurate with the orbital period. The secondary is slightly elongated and has overall dimensions of 377× 314× 268 m (6% uncertainties). Its mass is 0.178+/- 0.021× {10}11 kg and its density is 1047 ± 230 kg m-3. The mutual orbit has a semimajor axis of 2.659 ± 0.08 km, an eccentricity of 0.019 ± 0.01, and a period of 1.7556 ± 0.0015 days. The normalized total angular momentum of this system exceeds the amount required for the expected spin-up formation mechanism. An increase of angular momentum from non-gravitational forces after binary formation is a possible explanation. The two components have similar radar reflectivity, suggesting a similar composition consistent with formation by spin-up. The secondary appears to exhibit a larger circular polarization ratio than the primary, suggesting a rougher surface or subsurface at radar wavelength scales.

  4. RFI and Remote Sensing of the Earth from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Johnson, J. T.; Piepmeier, J.

    2016-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing of the Earth from space provides information essential for understanding the Earth's environment and its evolution. Parameters such as soil moisture, sea surface temperature and salinity, and profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity are measured at frequencies determined by the physics (e.g. sensitivity to changes in desired parameters) and by the availability of suitable spectrum free from interference. Interference from manmade sources (radio frequency interference) is an impediment that in many cases limits the potential for accurate measurements from space. A review is presented here of the frequencies employed in passive microwave remote sensing of the Earth from space and the associated experience with RFI.

  5. Evaluation of SIR-A space radar for geologic interpretation: United States, Panama, Colombia, and New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Waite, W. P.; Kaupp, V. H.; Bridges, L. C.; Storm, M.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons between LANDSAT MSS imagery, and aircraft and space radar imagery from different geologic environments in the United States, Panama, Colombia, and New Guinea demonstrate the interdependence of radar system geometry and terrain configuration for optimum retrieval of geologic information. Illustrations suggest that in the case of space radars (SIR-A in particular), the ability to acquire multiple look-angle/look-direction radar images of a given area is more valuable for landform mapping than further improvements in spatial resolution. Radar look-angle is concluded to be one of the most important system parameters of a space radar designed to be used for geologic reconnaissance mapping. The optimum set of system parameters must be determined for imaging different classes of landform features and tailoring the look-angle to local topography.

  6. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  7. Nonlinear inversion of borehole-radar tomography data to reconstruct velocity and attenuation distribution in earth materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, C.; Liu, L.; Lane, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    A nonlinear tomographic inversion method that uses first-arrival travel-time and amplitude-spectra information from cross-hole radar measurements was developed to simultaneously reconstruct electromagnetic velocity and attenuation distribution in earth materials. Inversion methods were developed to analyze single cross-hole tomography surveys and differential tomography surveys. Assuming the earth behaves as a linear system, the inversion methods do not require estimation of source radiation pattern, receiver coupling, or geometrical spreading. The data analysis and tomographic inversion algorithm were applied to synthetic test data and to cross-hole radar field data provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The cross-hole radar field data were acquired at the USGS fractured-rock field research site at Mirror Lake near Thornton, New Hampshire, before and after injection of a saline tracer, to monitor the transport of electrically conductive fluids in the image plane. Results from the synthetic data test demonstrate the algorithm computational efficiency and indicate that the method robustly can reconstruct electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity and attenuation distribution in earth materials. The field test results outline zones of velocity and attenuation anomalies consistent with the finding of previous investigators; however, the tomograms appear to be quite smooth. Further work is needed to effectively find the optimal smoothness criterion in applying the Tikhonov regularization in the nonlinear inversion algorithms for cross-hole radar tomography. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Space Shuttle Columbia views the world with imaging radar: The SIR-A experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Cimino, J. B.; Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    Images acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) in November 1981, demonstrate the capability of this microwave remote sensor system to perceive and map a wide range of different surface features around the Earth. A selection of 60 scenes displays this capability with respect to Earth resources - geology, hydrology, agriculture, forest cover, ocean surface features, and prominent man-made structures. The combined area covered by the scenes presented amounts to about 3% of the total acquired. Most of the SIR-A images are accompanied by a LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) or SEASAT synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) image of the same scene for comparison. Differences between the SIR-A image and its companion LANDSAT or SEASAT image at each scene are related to the characteristics of the respective imaging systems, and to seasonal or other changes that occurred in the time interval between acquisition of the images.

  9. Space shuttle Ku-band integrated rendezvous radar/communications system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of work performed on the Space Shuttle Ku-Band Integrated Rendezvous Radar/Communications System Study. The recommendations and conclusions are included as well as the details explaining the results. The requirements upon which the study was based are presented along with the predicted performance of the recommended system configuration. In addition, shuttle orbiter vehicle constraints (e.g., size, weight, power, stowage space) are discussed. The tradeoffs considered and the operation of the recommended configuration are described for an optimized, integrated Ku-band radar/communications system. Basic system tradeoffs, communication design, radar design, antenna tradeoffs, antenna gimbal and drive design, antenna servo design, and deployed assembly packaging design are discussed. The communications and radar performance analyses necessary to support the system design effort are presented. Detailed derivations of the communications thermal noise error, the radar range, range rate, and angle tracking errors, and the communications transmitter distortion parameter effect on crosstalk between the unbalanced quadriphase signals are included.

  10. Low cost realization of space-borne synthectic aperture radar - MicroSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, D.; Hall, C.

    Spaceborne Earth Observation data has been used for decades in the areas of meteorology and optical imaging. The systems and satellites have, in the main, been owned and operated by a few government institutions and agencies. More recently industrial organizations in North America have joined the list. Few of these, however, include Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)., although the additional utility in terms of all weather, 24 hour measurement capability over the Earth's surface is well recognized. Three major factors explain this:1) Relationships between the SAR measurements of radar backscatter and images to the specific information needs have not been seen as sufficiently well understood or robust2) Availability of suitable sources, at the relevant performance and data quality have been inadequate to provide service assurance that is necessary to sustain commercial businesses3) Costs associated with building, launching and operating spaceborne SAR have not been low enough as to achieve an acceptable return of investment. A significant amount of research and development has been undertaken throughout the World to establish reliable and robust algorithms for information extraction from SAR data. Much of this work has been carried out utilizing airborne systems over localized and carefully controlled regions. In addition, an increasing number of pilot services have been offered by geo-information providers. This has allowed customer confidence to grow. With the status of spaceborne SAR being effectively in the development phase, commercial funding has been scarce, and there has been need to rely on government and institutional budgets. Today the increasing maturity of the technology of SAR and its applications is beginning to attract the commercial sector. This is the funding necessary to realize sufficient assets to be able to provide a robust supply of SAR data to the geo-information providers and subsequently a reliable service to customers. Reducing the costs

  11. Earth and Space Science. A Guide for Secondary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolles, William H.; And Others

    Designed for use in Pennsylvania secondary school science classes, this guide is intended to provide fundamental information in each of the various disciplines of the earth sciences. Some of the material contained in the guide is intended as background material for teachers. Five units are presented: The Earth, The Oceans, The Space Environment,…

  12. GEMINI-6 - EARTH-SKY - CANARY ISLANDS - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63150 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Eddies in stratocumulus clouds over the Canary Islands as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 14th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  13. New Millennium Program: Servicing Earth and Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, F.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has exciting plans for space science and Earth observations during the next decade. A broad range of advanced spacecraft and measurement technologies will be needed to support these plans within the existing budget and schedule constraints.

  14. The Near-Earth Space Radiation for Electronics Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; LaBel, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of: a) charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics, b) the nature and distribution of trapped and transiting radiation, and c) their effect on electronic components.

  15. Near Earth space sporadic radio emission busts occurring during sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudnik, A. V.; Zaljubovsky, I. I.; Kartashev, V. M.; Lasarev, A. V.; Shmatko, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    During the period of low solar activity at sunrise the effect of sporadic high frequency near Earth space radio emission was experimentally discovered at middle latitudes. The possible mechanism of its origin is discussed.

  16. Combined Industry, Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, Aaron B. (Editor); Renner, Robert L. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The sixth annual Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop and the third annual Data Compression Industry Workshop were held as a single combined workshop. The workshop was held April 4, 1996 in Snowbird, Utah in conjunction with the 1996 IEEE Data Compression Conference, which was held at the same location March 31 - April 3, 1996. The Space and Earth Science Data Compression sessions seek to explore opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection, analysis, and retrieval of space and earth science data. Of particular interest is data compression research that is integrated into, or has the potential to be integrated into, a particular space or earth science data information system. Preference is given to data compression research that takes into account the scien- tist's data requirements, and the constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution and archival systems.

  17. Looking at Earth from Space: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen (Editor); Steele, Colleen; Ryan, William F.

    1995-01-01

    The Maryland Pilot Earth Science and Technology Education Network (MAPS-NET) project was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to enrich teacher preparation and classroom learning in the area of Earth system science. This publication includes a teacher's guide that replicates material taught during a graduate-level course of the project and activities developed by the teachers. The publication was developed to provide teachers with a comprehensive approach to using satellite imagery to enhance science education. The teacher's guide is divided into topical chapters and enables teachers to expand their knowledge of the atmosphere, common weather patterns, and remote sensing. Topics include: weather systems and satellite imagery including mid-latitude weather systems; wave motion and the general circulation; cyclonic disturbances and baroclinic instability; clouds; additional common weather patterns; satellite images and the internet; environmental satellites; orbits; and ground station set-up. Activities are listed by suggested grade level and include the following topics: using weather symbols; forecasting the weather; cloud families and identification; classification of cloud types through infrared Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) imagery; comparison of visible and infrared imagery; cold fronts; to ski or not to ski (imagery as a decision making tool), infrared and visible satellite images; thunderstorms; looping satellite images; hurricanes; intertropical convergence zone; and using weather satellite images to enhance a study of the Chesapeake Bay. A list of resources is also included.

  18. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion, and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S.-Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using eiectrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  19. Results of the Irkutsk Incoherent Scattering Radar for space debris studies in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Valentin; Kushnarev, Dmitriy; Nevidimov, Nikolay

    We present result of space object (SO) registration received on the Irkutsk Incoherent Scattering Radar (IISR) in June 2013 during regular ionospheric measurement. Diagnostic the of the radar for definition of the SO characteristics: range, beam velocity, azimuth angle, elevation, and signal amplitude were improved after the carried-out technological modernization and SO we have possibility of simultaneous measurement of parameters of parameters ionosphere and SO. Now the IISR new hardware-software complex allows to operate in a mode of ionospheric measurements up to 1000 SO flights per day, and to register objects of 10 cm in size at range of 800-900 km.

  20. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using electrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  1. Radar studies related to the earth resources program. [remote sensing programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, J.

    1972-01-01

    The radar systems research discussed is directed toward achieving successful application of radar to remote sensing problems in such areas as geology, hydrology, agriculture, geography, forestry, and oceanography. Topics discussed include imaging radar and evaluation of its modification, study of digital processing for synthetic aperture system, digital simulation of synthetic aperture system, averaging techniques studies, ultrasonic modeling of panchromatic system, panchromatic radar/radar spectrometer development, measuring octave-bandwidth response of selected targets, scatterometer system analysis, and a model Fresnel-zone processor for synthetic aperture imagery.

  2. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function. [systems engineering of pulse radar for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The investigations for a rendezvous radar system design and an integrated radar/communication system design are presented. Based on these investigations, system block diagrams are given and system parameters are optimized for the noncoherent pulse and coherent pulse Doppler radar modulation types. Both cooperative (transponder) and passive radar operation are examined including the optimization of the corresponding transponder design for the cooperative mode of operation.

  3. On Study of Air/Space-borne Dual-Wavelength Radar for Estimates of Rain Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a framework is discussed to apply air/space-borne dual-wavelength radar for the estimation of characteristic parameters of hydrometeors. The focus of our study is on the Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) precipitation radar, a dual-wavelength radar that operates at Ku (13.8 GHz) and Ka (35 GHz) bands. As the droplet size distributions (DSD) of rain are expressed as the Gamma function, a procedure is described to derive the median volume diameter (D(sub 0)) and particle number concentration (N(sub T)) of rain. The correspondences of an important quantity of dual-wavelength radar, defined as deferential frequency ratio (DFR), to the D(sub 0) in the melting region are given as a function of the distance from the 0 C isotherm. A self-consistent iterative algorithm that shows a promising to account for rain attenuation of radar and infer the DSD without use of surface reference technique (SRT) is examined by applying it to the apparent radar reflectivity profiles simulated from the DSD model and then comparing the estimates with the model (true) results. For light to moderate rain the self-consistent rain profiling approach converges to unique and correct solutions only if the same shape factors of Gamma functions are used both to generate and retrieve the rain profiles, but does not converges to the true solutions if the DSD form is not chosen correctly. To further examine the dual-wavelength techniques, the self-consistent algorithm, along with forward and backward rain profiling algorithms, is then applied to the measurements taken from the 2nd generation Precipitation Radar (PR-2) built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is found that rain profiles estimated from the forward and backward approaches are not sensitive to shape factor of DSD Gamma distribution, but the self-consistent method is.

  4. Radar transponder antenna pattern analysis for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radcliff, Roger

    1989-01-01

    In order to improve tracking capability, radar transponder antennas will soon be mounted on the Shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRB). These four antennas, each being identical cavity-backed helices operating at 5.765 GHz, will be mounted near the top of the SRB's, adjacent to the intertank portion of the external tank. The purpose is to calculate the roll-plane pattern (the plane perpendicular to the SRB axes and containing the antennas) in the presence of this complex electromagnetic environment. The large electrical size of this problem mandates an optical (asymptotic) approach. Development of a specific code for this application is beyond the scope of a summer fellowship; thus a general purpose code, the Numerical Electromagnetics Code - Basic Scattering Code, was chosen as the computational tool. This code is based on the modern Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, and allows computation of scattering of bodies composed of canonical problems such as plates and elliptic cylinders. Apertures mounted on a curved surface (the SRB) cannot be accomplished by the code, so an antenna model consisting of wires excited by a method of moments current input was devised that approximated the actual performance of the antennas. The improvised antenna model matched well with measurements taken at the MSFC range. The SRB's, the external tank, and the shuttle nose were modeled as circular cylinders, and the code was able to produce what is thought to be a reasonable roll-plane pattern.

  5. Surveying the earth's resources from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pecora, William T.

    1967-01-01

    Two developments, aerial photography and airborne geophysical surveying techniques, have already increased the rate at which new knowledge of the world's resources can be acquired. But even with far wider use of the tools and techniques already available, the problems that face us are greater than our current ability to solve them. Fortunately, some of the further acceleration required can be obtained through use of remote-sensing devices mounted in high-flying aircraft and earth-orbiting satellites.

  6. Phase partitioning in space and on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Alstine, James M.; Karr, Laurel J.; Snyder, Robert S.; Matsos, Helen C.; Curreri, Peter A.; Harris, J. Milton; Bamberger, Stephan B.; Boyce, John; Brooks, Donald E.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of gravity on the efficiency and quality of the impressive separations achievable by bioparticle partitioning is investigated by demixing polymer phase systems in microgravity. The study involves the neutral polymers dextran and polyethylene glycol, which form a two-phase system in aqueous solution at low concentrations. It is found that demixing in low-gravity occurs primarily by coalescence, whereas on earth the demixing occurs because of density differences between the phases.

  7. A Dynamic Earth: 50 Years of Observations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the surface of the Earth began more than a half century ago with the earliest space missions. The global geopolitical environment at the beginning of the space age fueled advances in rocketry and human exploration, but also advances in remote sensing. At the same time that space-based Earth Observations were developing, global investments in infrastructure that were initiated after World War II accelerated large projects such as the construction of highways, the expansion of cities and suburbs, the damming of rivers, and the growth of big agriculture. These developments have transformed the Earth s surface at unprecedented rates. Today, we have a remarkable library of 50 years of observations of the Earth taken by satellite-based sensors and astronauts, and these images and observations provide insight into the workings of the Earth as a system. In addition, these observations record the footprints of human activities around the world, and illustrate how our activities contribute to the changing face of the Earth. Starting with the iconic "Blue Marble" image of the whole Earth taken by Apollo astronauts, we will review a timeline of observations of our planet as viewed from space.

  8. Earth Reflectivity from Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) Earth Polychromatic Camera (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Wen, G.; Marshak, A.; Yan, G.; Mu, X.; Park, T.; Chen, C.; Xu, B.; Myneni, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Earth reflectivity, which is also specified as Earth albedo or Earth reflectance, is defined as the fraction of incident solar radiation reflected back to space at the top of the atmosphere. It is a key climate parameter that describes climate forcing and associated response of the climate system. Satellite is one of the most efficient ways to measure earth reflectivity. Conventional polar orbit and geostationary satellites observe the Earth at a specific local solar time or monitor only a specific area of the Earth. For the first time, the NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) collects simultaneously radiance data of the entire sunlit earth at 8 km resolution at nadir every 65 to 110 min. It provides reflectivity images in backscattering direction with the scattering angle between 168º and 176º at 10 narrow spectral bands in ultraviolet, visible, and near-Infrared (NIR) wavelengths. We estimate the Earth reflectivity using DSCOVR EPIC observations and analyze errors in Earth reflectivity due to sampling strategy of polar orbit Terra/Aqua MODIS and geostationary Goddard Earth Observing System-R series missions. We also provide estimates of contributions from ocean, clouds, land and vegetation to the Earth reflectivity. Graphic abstract shows enhanced RGB EPIC images of the Earth taken on July-24-2016 at 7:04GMT and 15:48 GMT. Parallel lines depict a 2330 km wide Aqua MODIS swath. The plot shows diurnal courses of mean Earth reflectance over the Aqua swath (triangles) and the entire image (circles). In this example the relative difference between the mean reflectances is +34% at 7:04GMT and -16% at 15:48 GMT. Corresponding daily averages are 0.256 (0.044) and 0.231 (0.025). The relative precision estimated as root mean square relative error is 17.9% in this example.

  9. Space Geodesy: The Cross-Disciplinary Earth science (Vening Meinesz Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, C. K.

    2012-04-01

    Geodesy during the onset of the 21st Century is evolving into a transformative cross-disciplinary Earth science field. The pioneers before or after the discipline Geodesy was defined include Galileo, Descartes, Kepler, Newton, Euler, Bernoulli, Kant, Laplace, Airy, Kelvin, Jeffreys, Chandler, Meinesz, Kaula, and others. The complicated dynamic processes of the Earth system manifested by interactions between the solid Earth and its fluid layers, including ocean, atmosphere, cryosphere and hydrosphere, and their feedbacks are linked with scientific problems such as global sea-level rise resulting from natural and anthropogenic climate change. Advances in the precision and stability of geodetic and fundamental instrumentations, including clocks, satellite or quasar tracking sensors, altimetry and lidars, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), InSAR altimetry, gravimetry and gradiometry, have enabled accentuate and transformative progress in cross-disciplinary Earth sciences. In particular, advances in the measurement of the gravity with modern free-fall methods have reached accuracies of 10-9 g (~1 μGal or 10 nm/s2) or better, allowing accurate measurements of height changes at ~3 mm relative to the Earth's center of mass, and mass transports within the Earth interior or its geophysical fluids, enabling global quantifications of climate-change signals. These contemporary space geodetic and in situ sensors include, but not limited to, satellite radar and laser altimetry/lidars, GNSS/SLR/VLBI/DORIS, InSAR, spaceborne gravimetry from GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment twin-satellite mission) and gradiometry from GOCE (Global Ocean Circulation Experiment), tide gauges, and hydrographic data (XBT/MBT/Argo). The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) study, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), substantially narrowed the discrepancy between observation and the known geophysical causes of sea-level rise, but significant uncertainties

  10. A Submillimeter Wavelength Space-Based Imaging Radar.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-31

    4th Intl. Symposium on Gyrotrons and FEL’s; Bejing , China . June 1987. 10. K. Kreischer and R. Temkin, Phvs. Rev. Lett. 59, 547 (1987). 11. S. Spira...a concern exists about space-based opera - S tion. In the space environment, these voltages could cause breakdown and arcing unless the system is...emission. This experiment will operaic in a TE 61 mode, will use a Bragg resonator to provide longitudinal mode selectivity, and is designed to

  11. Structural analysis of three extensional detachment faults with data from the 2000 Space-Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The Space-Shuttle Radar Topography Mission provided geologists with a detailed digital elevation model of most of Earth's land surface. This new database is used here for structural analysis of grooved surfaces interpreted to be the exhumed footwalls of three active or recently active extensional detachment faults. Exhumed fault footwalls, each with an areal extent of one hundred to several hundred square kilometers, make up much of Dayman dome in eastern Papua New Guinea, the western Gurla Mandhata massif in the central Himalaya, and the northern Tokorondo Mountains in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Footwall curvature in profile varies from planar to slightly convex upward at Gurla Mandhata to strongly convex upward at northwestern Dayman dome. Fault curvature decreases away from the trace of the bounding detachment fault in western Dayman dome and in the Tokorondo massif, suggesting footwall flattening (reduction in curvature) following exhumation. Grooves of highly variable wavelength and amplitude reveal extension direction, although structural processes of groove genesis may be diverse.

  12. Robotics in near-earth space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The areas of space exploration in which robotic devices will play a part are identified, and progress to date in the space agency plans to acquire this capability is briefly reviewed. Roles and functions on orbit for robotic devices include well known activities, such as inspection and maintenance, assembly, docking, berthing, deployment, retrieval, materials handling, orbital replacement unit exchange, and repairs. Missions that could benefit from a robotic capability are discussed.

  13. Photos of earth observations taken by JPL with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Photos of earth observations taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A). The first image show northern Peloponnesia and part of southern Greece. The Corinthian Canal is visible as a bright line cutting across the narrow Corinth Isthmus (upper center). Black area to the right is the Aegian Sea; on the left, the Gulf of Corinth. Islands to the right, starting at the top, are Salamis, Aegene and Angistrion, and the Peninsula of Methana. Southwest of the canal on the gulf coast is the city of Corinth, appearing as bright, white spots (40244); This image shows the Hamersley mountain range in Western Australia. A circular pattern of eroded folds surround a prominent granite dome, remnants of a volcanic past, is seen in the center of the photograph. The Hardey River is seen running vertically to the right of the center circular dome, and the small town of Paraburdoo appears as a patch of tiny bright rectangles in the lower right corner (40245).

  14. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space & Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shutts, Stacy; Ewert, Mike; Bacon, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion converts organic waste into methane gas and fertilizer effluent. The ICA-developed prototype system is designed for planetary surface operation. It uses passive hydrostatic control for reliability, and is modular and redundant. The serpentine configuration accommodates tight geometric constraints similar to the ISS ECLSS rack architectures. Its shallow, low-tilt design enables (variable) lower-g convection than standard Earth (1 g) digesters. This technology will reuse and recycle materials including human waste, excess food, as well as packaging (if biodegradable bags are used).

  15. Space colonies and energy supply to the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    It is pointed out that a space manufacturing facility may be economically more effective than alternative industries on the earth for the construction of products which are to be used in geosynchronous or higher orbits. The suggestion is made to construct solar power stations at a space colony and relocate them in geosynchronous orbit to supply energy to the earth. Attention is given to energy problems and approaches for solving them, taking into account environmental effects and economic factors. Economic aspects of space manufacturing are discussed in some detail.

  16. Radar activities of the DFVLR Institute for Radio Frequency Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keydel, W.

    1983-01-01

    Aerospace research and the respective applications microwave tasks with respect to remote sensing, position finding and communication are discussed. The radar activities are directed at point targets, area targets and volume targets; they center around signature research for earth and ocean remote sensing, target recognition, reconnaissance and camouflage and imaging and area observation radar techniques (SAR and SLAR). The radar activities cover a frequency range from 1 GHz up to 94 GHz. The radar program is oriented to four possible application levels: ground, air, shuttle orbits and satellite orbits. Ground based studies and measurements, airborne scatterometers and imaging radars, a space shuttle radar, the MRSE, and follow on experiments are considered.

  17. Native iron in the Earth and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Kuzina, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe studies of native iron in the terrestrial upper-mantle hyperbasites (xenoliths in basalts), Siberian traps, and oceanic basalts are carried out. The results are compared to the previous data on native iron in sediments and meteorites. It is established that in terms of the composition and grain size and shape, the particles of native iron in the terrestrial rocks are close to each other and to the extraterrestrial iron particles from sediments and meteorites. This suggests that the sources of the origin of these particles were similar; i.e., the formation conditions in the Earth were close to the conditions in the meteorites' parent bodies. This similarity is likely to be due to the homogeneity of the gas and dust cloud at the early stage of the solar system. The predominance of pure native iron in the sediments can probably be accounted for by the fact that interstellar dust is mostly contributed by the upper-mantle material of the planets, whereas the lower-mantle and core material falls on the Earth mainly in the form of meteorites. A model describing the structure of the planets in the solar system from the standpoint of the distribution of native iron and FeNi alloys is proposed.

  18. Planetarium Inversum -- a space vision for Earth education.

    PubMed

    Lotsch, B

    2003-01-01

    In a planetarium, the visitor is sitting on Earth and looking into an imaginary space. The Planetarium Inversum is the opposite: visitors are sitting in a space station, looking down on Mother Earth. It is a scientifically-based information show with visitors involvement, its elements being partially virtual (Earth in space has to be projected with highest possible resolution) but also containing real structures, such as the visitors' Earth observatory with adjacent biological systems (plant cultures and other ecological life support components). Its main message concerns the limits and the vulnerability of our home planet, its uniqueness, beauty and above all, its irreplaceableness: Earth does not have an emergency exit. The Earth observatory is part of a ring shaped, rotating space station of the type designed by Wernher von Braun decades ago. Visitors are told that gravity is being substituted by centrifugal force. Both types of life support systems are being demonstrated--self regenerative life based ones and technical ones as a backup (solar electric splitting of water and chemical absorption of respiratory CO2). c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bringing Space Crisis Stability Down to Earth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    President Hu Jintao agreed during one of their first meetings that “the two countries have common interests in promoting the peaceful use of outer...linked, and they are linked not only for the United States, but also in- creasingly for China and other countries that rely on space systems to

  20. Earth Science and Applications attached payloads on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wicks, Thomas G.; Arnold, Ralph R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Office of Space Science and Applications' process for Attached Payloads on Space Station Freedom from development through on-orbit operations. Its primary objectives are to detail the sequential steps of the attached payload methodology by tracing in particular the selected Earth Science and Applications' payloads through this flow and relate the integral role of Marshall Space Flight Center's Science Utilization Management function of integration and operations.

  1. NASA's Space Lidar Measurements of Earth and Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.

    2010-01-01

    A lidar instrument on a spacecraft was first used to measure planetary surface height and topography on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon in 1971, The lidar was based around a flashlamp-pumped ruby laser, and the Apollo 15-17 missions used them to make a few thousand measurements of lunar surface height from orbit. With the advent of diode pumped lasers in the late 1980s, the lifetime, efficiency, resolution and mass of lasers and space lidar all improved dramatically. These advances were utilized in NASA space missions to map the shape and surface topography of Mars with > 600 million measurements, demonstrate initial space measurements of the Earth's topography, and measured the detailed shape of asteroid. NASA's ICESat mission in Earth orbit just completed its polar ice measurement mission with almost 2 billion measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, and demonstrated measurements to Antarctica and Greenland with a height resolution of a few em. Space missions presently in cruise phase and in operation include those to Mercury and a topographic mapping mission of the Moon. Orbital lidar also have been used in experiments to demonstrate laser ranging over planetary distances, including laser pulse transmission from Earth to Mars orbit. Based on the demonstrated value of the measurements, lidar is now the preferred measurement approach for many new scientific space missions. Some missions planned by NASA include a planetary mission to measure the shape and dynamics of Europa, and several Earth orbiting missions to continue monitoring ice sheet heights, measure vegetation heights, assess atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and to map the Earth surface topographic heights with 5 m spatial resolution. This presentation will give an overview of history, ongoing work, and plans for using space lidar for measurements of the surfaces of the Earth and planets.

  2. Musculoskeletal adaptation to mechanical forces on Earth and in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of the US and Russian space programs is the health and safety of astronauts and cosmonauts. One of the areas receiving the most attention has been the effects of long duration space flight on the musculoskeletel system. After three decades of space flight and research, questions continue. Can exercise in space maintain musculoskeletal tissue mass and function in an adult? The objective of this paper is to address this question in a way that hopefully provides a rational basis for quantifying and evaluating the influnence of daily activities on muscle and bone on Earth and in space.

  3. Preservation of Near-Earth Space for Future Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, John A.

    2007-05-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Introduction J. A. Simpson; Part II. Defining the Problem: 2. The Earth satellite population: official growth and constituents Nicholas L. Johnson; 3. The current and future environment: an overall assessment Donald J. Kessler; 4. The current and future space debris environment as assessed in Europe Dietrich Rex; 5. Human survivability issues in the low Earth orbit space debris environment Bernard Bloom; 6. Protecting the space environment for astronomy Joel R. Primack; 7. Effects of space debris on commercial spacecraft - the RADARSAT example H. Robert Warren and M. J. Yelle; 8. Potential effects of the space debris environment on military space systems Albert E. Reinhardt; Part III. Mitigation of and Adaptation to the Space Environment: Techniques and Practices: 9. Precluding post-launch fragmentation of delta stages Irvin J. Webster and T. Y. Kawamura; 10. US international and interagency cooperation in orbital debris Daniel V. Jacobs; 11. ESA concepts for space debris mitigation and risk reduction Heiner Klinkrad; 12. Space debris: how France handles mitigation and adaptation Jean-Louis Marcé; 13. Facing seriously the issue of protection of the outer space environment Qi Yong Liang; 14. Space debris - mitigation and adaptation U. R. Rao; 15. Near Earth space contamination and counteractions Vladimir F. Utkin and S. V. Chekalin; 16. The current and future space debris environment as assessed in Japan Susumu Toda; 17. Orbital debris minimization and mitigation techniques Joseph P. Loftus Jr, Philip D. Anz-Meador and Robert Reynolds; Part IV. Economic Issues: 18. In pursuit of a sustainable space environment: economic issues in regulating space debris Molly K. Macauley; 19. The economics of space operations: insurance aspects Christopher T. W. Kunstadter; Part V. Legal Issues: 20. Environmental treatymaking: lessons learned for controlling pollution of outer space Winfried Lang; 21. Regulation of orbital

  4. Earth Observation from Space - The Issue of Environmental Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrieu, Sylvie; Nelson, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing scientists work under assumptions that should not be taken for granted and should, therefore, be challenged. These assumptions include the following: 1. Space, especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will always be available to governmental and commercial space entities that launch Earth remote sensing missions. 2. Space launches are benign with respect to environmental impacts. 3. Minimization of Type 1 error, which provides increased confidence in the experimental outcome, is the best way to assess the significance of environmental change. 4. Large-area remote sensing investigations, i.e. national, continental, global studies, are best done from space. 5. National space missions should trump international, cooperative space missions to ensure national control and distribution of the data products. At best, all of these points are arguable, and in some cases, they're wrong. Development of observational space systems that are compatible with sustainability principles should be a primary concern when Earth remote sensing space systems are envisioned, designed, and launched. The discussion is based on the hypothesis that reducing the environmental impacts of thedata acquisition step,which is at the very beginning of the information streamleading to decision and action, will enhance coherence in the information streamand strengthen the capacity of measurement processes to meet their stated functional goal, i.e. sustainable management of Earth resources. We suggest that unconventional points of view should be adopted and when appropriate, remedial measures considered that could help to reduce the environmental footprint of space remote sensing and of Earth observation and monitoring systems in general. This article discusses these five assumptions inthe contextof sustainablemanagementof Earth's resources. Takingeachassumptioninturn,we find the following: (1) Space debris may limit access to Low Earth Orbit over the next decades. (2) Relatively speaking, given

  5. Satellite Formation Design for Space Based Radar Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-30

    communications. While the Clohessy - Wiltshire Hills (CWH) equations have been in existence for sometime, it is more recently that they have been... Clohessy - Wiltshire equations. To get the state transition matrix for relative position and velocity, these differential equations are integrated to...Practical Guidance Methodology for Relative Motion of LEO Spacecraft Based on the Clohessy - Wiltshire Equations,” AAS Paper 04-252, AAS/AIAA Space

  6. Earth benefits from space life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Griffiths, L.

    1988-01-01

    The applications to medicine of various results from space exploration are examined. Improvements have been made in the management of cardiovascular disease, in particular the use of the ultrasonic scanner to image arteries in three dimensions, the use of excimer lasers to disrupt arterial plaques in coronary blood vessels, and the use of advanced electrodes for cardiac monitoring. A bone stiffness analyzer has helped to diagnose osteoporosis and aid in its treatment. An automated light microscope system is used for chromosome analysis, and an X-ray image intensifier called Lixiscope is used in emergency medical care. An advanced portable defibrillator has been developed for the heart, and an insulin delivery system has been derived from space microminiaturization techniques.

  7. Darwin 101 (Enhanced): From Earth to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Charles Darwin was a modest man, yet one of the great revolutionaries of intellectual history. Born into a culture wedded to Genesis, he brought biology into the realm of natural world. The implications range from of the "why" questions of biology, to our view societies to our ability to combat AIDS. In our era of genomics and space exploration, these insights are being applied to the age-old question: are we alone?

  8. Shuttle synthetic aperture radar implementation study, volume 1. [flight instrument and ground data processor system for collecting raw imaged radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlis, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Results of an implementation study for a synthetic aperture radar for the space shuttle orbiter are described. The overall effort was directed toward the determination of the feasibility and usefulness of a multifrequency, multipolarization imaging radar for the shuttle orbiter. The radar is intended for earth resource monitoring as well as oceanographic and marine studies.

  9. Electric fields in Earth orbital space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, W. P.; Pfitzer, K. A.; Scotti, S. J.

    1982-05-01

    This is a report of progress during the past year. The work was performed in three areas with a long term goal understanding the formation and maintenance of electrostatic fields in the earth's magnetosphere. The entry of low energy charged particles into a magnetically closed magnetosphere has been examined in some detail. Entry is permitted because of the non-uniform nature of the magnetic field over the magnetopause surface. Electrostatic fields may be formed across the tail of the magnetosphere because fo the different 'entry efficiencies ' of protons and electrons. The consequences of this particle entry mechanism for the plasma sheet, plasma mantle, and boundary plasmas in the magnetosphere are examined. The mathematics of particle entry was investigated in a one-dimensional boundary using both kinetic theory and bulk MHD parameters. From our participation in the 6th Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop, we have determined that at least during disturbed magnetic conditions, currents persist near geosynchronous orbit in the nightime region which are presently not included in our dynamic magnetic field models. These currents are probably associated with the field aligned currents which close in the ionosphere near auroral latitudes.

  10. The Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document is the proceedings from a Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop, which was held on March 27, 1992, at the Snowbird Conference Center in Snowbird, Utah. This workshop was held in conjunction with the 1992 Data Compression Conference (DCC '92), which was held at the same location, March 24-26, 1992. The workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. The workshop consisted of eleven papers presented in four sessions. These papers describe research that is integrated into, or has the potential of being integrated into, a particular space and/or Earth science data information system. Presenters were encouraged to take into account the scientists's data requirements, and the constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival system.

  11. The 1994 Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document is the proceedings from the fourth annual 'Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop,' which was held on April 2, 1994, at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah. This workshop was held in cooperation with the 1994 Data Compression Conference, which was held at Snowbird, Utah, March 29-31 1994. The Workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. It consisted of 13 papers presented in 4 sessions. The papers focus on data compression research that is integrated into, or has the potential to be integrated into, a particular space and/or Earth science data information system. Presenters were encouraged to take into account the scientist's data requirements, and the constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival system.

  12. Graviceptor development in jellyfish ephyrae in space and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, D. B.; Jernigan, T.; Philput, C.; Lowe, B.

    1994-01-01

    Graviceptor (rhopalium) development in Aurelia aurita ephyrae which developed on Earth and in space during the nine-day NASA SLS-1 mission was compared. The space-developed ephyrae made graviceptors which were morphologically similar to those of their ground-based controls. Rhopalia of both groups developed statocysts with statoliths, ocelli, ciliated mechanoreceptor cells, and immature touch-plates with one type of hair cell. The number of rhopalia formed per arm of ephyrae of both groups revealed no significant differences. The number of statoliths formed per rhopalium was statistically higher in ephyrae which were induced to form in space with iodine than in L(Launch)+8h controls. Statolith numbers were not significantly different between Earth-formed control ephyrae and those formed from polyps induced on Earth and then sent into space 24h and 48h later. Statolith loss from rhopalia was significantly enhanced in the space-maintained ephyrae in artificial sea water (ASW) as compared to their controls. Ephyrae formed through thyroxine treatment and those maintained in thyroxine in space had statolith numbers comparable to thyroxine-treated controls. Pulsing abnormalitities seen in some space-developed ephyrae suggest that some space-formed ephyrae may have developed abnormal rhopalia because normal rhopalia development and function is necessary for normal pulsing.

  13. Bringing space technology down to earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, E. Z.

    1974-01-01

    The direct transfer of space technology to terrestial applications is demonstrated by the use of fuel cells to augment existing electric power-generation facilities. The role of NASA's Technology Utilization Program is discussed in regard to indirect transfer of technology. The Tech Brief program for identifying and reporting innovations, the regional dissemination centers, and the Applications Teams working with other government agencies and the medical community are described. Projects discussed include the development of a lightweight breathing apparatus for firemen, a practical method for separating nonferrous metals from automobile scrap, and a rechargeable heart pacemaker.

  14. Heat pipes in space and on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of heat pipes used in the thermal control system of spacecraft such as OAO-III and ATS-6 is discussed, and applications of heat pipes to permafrost stabilization on the Alaska Pipeline and to heat recovery systems are described. Particular attention is given to the ATS-6, launched in 1974, which employs 55 heat pipes to carry solar and internal power loads to radiator surfaces. In addition, experiments involving radiative cooling based on cryogenic heat pipes have been planned for the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft and for Spacelab. The role of heat pipes in Space Shuttle heat rejection services is also mentioned.

  15. Distributed Arrays and Signal Processing for the TechSat21 Space-Based Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    lIlustrating the derivation of minimum aperture size and coherent integration time ............. 25 B 4. Global coordinate system and satellite-based...work of Dr. Robert Mailloux. Dr. Peter Franchi . and Dr. Scott Santarelli. VII Summary The TechSat2l space-based radar concept, suggested by AFRUVS...Linearization for small motions around a reference point in a global circular orbit leads to the Hill equations, derived in 1878, and alternatively named

  16. Estimation of Cardiopulmonary Parameters From Ultra Wideband Radar Measurements Using the State Space Method.

    PubMed

    Naishadham, Krishna; Piou, Jean E; Ren, Lingyun; Fathy, Aly E

    2016-12-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) Doppler radar has many biomedical applications, including remote diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, triage and real-time personnel tracking in rescue missions. It uses narrow pulses to probe the human body and detect tiny cardiopulmonary movements by spectral analysis of the backscattered electromagnetic (EM) field. With the help of super-resolution spectral algorithms, UWB radar is capable of increased accuracy for estimating vital signs such as heart and respiration rates in adverse signal-to-noise conditions. A major challenge for biomedical radar systems is detecting the heartbeat of a subject with high accuracy, because of minute thorax motion (less than 0.5 mm) caused by the heartbeat. The problem becomes compounded by EM clutter and noise in the environment. In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm based on the state space method (SSM) for the extraction of cardiac and respiration rates from UWB radar measurements. SSM produces range-dependent system poles that can be classified parametrically with spectral peaks at the cardiac and respiratory frequencies. It is shown that SSM produces accurate estimates of the vital signs without producing harmonics and inter-modulation products that plague signal resolution in widely used FFT spectrograms.

  17. The role of the space station in earth science research

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, Jack A.

    1999-01-22

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to be a valuable platform for earth science research. By virtue of its being in a mid-inclination orbit (51.5 deg.), ISS provides the opportunity for nadir viewing of nearly 3/4 of the Earth's surface, and allows viewing to high latitudes if limb-emission or occultation viewing techniques are used. ISS also provides the opportunity for viewing the Earth under a range of lighting conditions, unlike the polar sun-synchronous satellites that are used for many earth observing programs. The ISS is expected to have ample power and data handling capability to support Earth-viewing instruments,more » provide opportunities for external mounting and retrieval of instruments, and be in place for a sufficiently long period that long-term data records can be obtained. On the other hand, there are several questions related to contamination, orbital variations, pointing knowledge and stability, and viewing that are of concern in consideration of ISS for earth science applications. The existence of an optical quality window (the Window Observational Research Facility, or WORF), also provides the opportunity for Earth observations from inside the pressurized part of ISS. Current plans by NASA for earth science research from ISS are built around the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) instrument, planned for launch in 2002.« less

  18. Space Shuttle Radar Images of Terrestrial Impact Structures: SIR-C/X-SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHone, J. F.; Blumberg, D. G.; Greeley, R.; Underwood, J. R., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    The Spaceborne Radar Laboratory (SRL) orbited Earth in April and October of 1994 operating two imaging radars: X-SAR, an X-band (3 cm lambda) instrument, and the polarimetric SIR-C, a combination L-band/C-band (24 cm and 5.6 cm lambda). More than 150 terrestrial meteorite craters and astroblemes are presently known. Three of these, Wolfe Creek in Australia; Roter Kamm in Namibia; and Zhamanshin in Kazakhstan, were planned targets and were imaged successfully with multiple passes and look directions. Several other impact sites were fortuitously imaged while radar data were being collected for other purposes. These sites include B.P. and Oasis structures in Libya, Aourounga multi-ring feature in Chad, Amguid crater in Algeria, and the Spider astrobleme and Henbury crater field in Australia. Wolfe Creek (19 degrees 10'S; 127 degrees 47'E; 875 m dia) Both the elevated rim and the inner floor of this crater appear as radar bright features. Strong radar returns are due to blocky rubble textures in the rim and desert vegetation within the central bowl. Associated linear sand dunes show differential penetration properties in the various radar wavelengths and polarization. Roter Kamm (27 degrees 46'S; 016 degrees 18'E; 2.5 km dia) This bowl-shaped crater is mostly buried by wind-blown sands. Comparison of differential radar penetration patterns due to changes in wavelength and look direction reveal concealed target rocks and a buried possible ejecta unit. Zhamanshin (48 degrees 24'N; 060 degrees 48'E; 14 km dia) This unusual impact structure, first detected by the presence of glassy impact melt products [1], has very little topographic relief and is nearly invisible on survey-quality radar imagery. Fully processed images, however, enhance subtle vegetation patterns which highlight regional streams. These drainage patterns are now being analyzed in detail to better delineate boundaries and internal structure of this feature. B.P. Structure (25 degrees 19'N; 024 degrees 20'E

  19. Latent Virus Reactivation: From Space to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of latent viruses is a recognized consequence of decreased immunity. More recently viral reactivation has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. Viral reactivation can be determined quickly and easily by the presence of virus in saliva and other body fluids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific molecular method to detect the presence of specific viral DNA. Studies in astronauts demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate at rates above normal during and after spaceflight in response to moderately decreased T-cell immunity. This technology was expanded to patients on Earth beginning with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) immuno-compromised patients. The HIV patients shed EBV in saliva at rates 9-fold higher than observed in astronauts demonstrating that the level of EBV shedding reflects the severity of impaired immunity. Whereas EBV reactivation is not expected to produce serious effects in astronauts on missions of 6 months or less, VZV reactivation in astronauts could produce shingles. Reactivation of live, infectious VZV in astronauts with no symptoms was demonstrated in astronauts during and after spaceflight. We applied our technology to study VZV-induced shingles in patients. In a study of 54 shingles patients, we showed salivary VZV was present in every patient on the day antiviral (acyclovir) treatment was initiated. Pain and skin lesions decreased with antiviral treatment. Corresponding decreases in levels of VZV were also observed and accompanied recovery. Although the level of VZV in shingles patients before the treatment was generally higher than those found in astronauts, lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients overlapped with astronaut s levels. This suggests a potential risk of shingles to astronauts resulting from reactivation of VZV. In

  20. Earth-orbit mission considerations and Space Tug requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The reusable Space Tug is a major system planned to augment the Space Shuttle's capability to deliver, retrieve, and support automated payloads. The Space Tug will be designed to perform round-trip missions from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Space Tug goals and requirements are discussed together with the characteristics of the full capability Tug. The Tug is to be operated in an unmanned 'teleoperator' fashion. Details of potential teleoperator applications are considered, giving attention to related systems studies, candidate Tug mission applications, Tug 'end-effector' alternatives, technical issues associated with Tug payload retrieval, and Tug/payload accommodations.

  1. A review of the application of nonattenuating frequency radars for estimating rain attenuation and space-diversity performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1979-01-01

    Cumulative rain fade statistics are used by space communications engineers to establish transmitter power and receiver sensitivities for systems operating under various geometries, climates, and radio frequencies. Space-diversity performance criteria are also of interest. This work represents a review, in which are examined the many elements involved in the employment of single nonattenuating frequency radars for arriving at the desired information. The elements examined include radar techniques and requirements, phenomenological assumptions, path attenuation formulations and procedures, as well as error budgeting and calibration analysis. Included are the pertinent results of previous investigators who have used radar for rain-attenuation modeling. Suggestions are made for improving present methods.

  2. The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) List of Near-Earth Asteroids: Identifying Potential Targets for Future Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Adamo, D. R.; Alberding, C. M.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-10-01

    Introduction: Much attention has recently been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Detailed planning for deep space exploration and identification of potential NEA targets for human space flight requires selecting objects from the growing list of known NEAs. NASA therefore initiated the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Target Study (NHATS), which uses dynamical trajectory performance constraints to identify potentially accessible NEAs. Accessibility Criteria: Future NASA human space flight capability is being defined while the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System are under development. Velocity change and mission duration are two of the most critical factors in any human spaceflight endeavor, so the most accessible NEAs tend to be those with orbits similar to Earth’s. To be classified as NHATS-compliant, a NEA must offer at least one round-trip trajectory solution satisfying purposely inclusive constraints, including total mission change in velocity ≤ 12 km/s, mission duration ≤ 450 days (with at least 8 days at the NEA), Earth departure between Jan 1, 2015 and Dec 31, 2040, Earth departure C3 ≤ 60 km2/s2, and Earth return atmospheric entry speed ≤ 12 km/s. Monitoring and Updates: The NHATS list of potentially accessible targets is continuously updated as NEAs are discovered and orbit solutions for known NEAs are improved. The current list of accessible NEAs identified as potentially viable for future human exploration under the NHATS criteria is available to the international community via a website maintained by NASA’s NEO Program Office (http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/nhats/). This website also lists predicted optical and radar observing opportunities for each NHATS-compliant NEA to facilitate acquisition of follow-up observations. Conclusions: This list of NEAs will be useful for analyzing robotic mission opportunities, identifying optimal round trip human space flight trajectories, and

  3. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.; Clark, P. E.; Goldstein, R. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Slade, M. A.; Thompson, T. W.; Saunders, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Information is provided about physical nature planetary surfaces and their topography as well as dynamical properties such as orbits and spin states using ground based radar as a remote sensing tool. Accessible targets are the terrestrial planets: the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, the outer planets rings and major moons, and many transient objects such as asteroids and comets. Data acquisition utilizes the unique facilities of the Goldstone Deep Space Network, occasionally the Arecibo radar, and proposed use of the VLA (very large array).

  4. JPL-19811112-SIRAf-0001-AVC2002151 Shuttle Imaging Radar A Launches

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-11-12

    Launch of the first flight of Shuttle Imaging Radar aboard the Space Shuttle. Using radar pulses rather than optical light, imaging radar can "see" through desert sands, for example, to detect the remnants of ancient riverbeds. Earth was mapped from approximately 60° N latitude to 60° S latitude.

  5. JPL-19841005-SIRBf-0001-AVC2002151 Shuttle Imaging Radar B Launches

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-05

    Launch of the second flight of Shuttle Imaging Radar aboard the Space Shuttle. Using radar pulses rather than optical light, imaging radar can "see" through desert sands, for example, to detect the remnants of ancient riverbeds. Earth was mapped from approximately 60° N latitude to 60° S latitude.

  6. GEMINI-6 - EARTH-SKY - ETHIOPIA - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63162 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Central area of Ethiopia, south of Addis Ababa, showing Lakes Zwai, Langana, and Shala, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 14th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  7. Artist's concept of Skylab space station cluster in Earth's orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-10-01

    S71-52192 (1971) --- An artist's concept of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth's orbit. The cutaway view shows astronaut activity in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The Skylab cluster is composed of the OWS, Airlock Module (AM), Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), and the Command and Service Module (CSM). Photo credit: NASA

  8. Comparison of Magnetorheological Fluids on Earth and in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are video microscope images of magnetorheological (MR) fluids, illuminated with a green light. Those on Earth, left, show the MR fluid forming columns or spikes structures. On the right, the fluids in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS), formed broader columns.

  9. Down to Earth with an electric hazard from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Schultz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    In reaching across traditional disciplinary boundaries, solid-Earth geophysicists and space physicists are forging new collaborations to map magnetic-storm hazards for electric-power grids. Future progress in evaluation storm time geoelectric hazards will come primarily through monitoring, surveys, and modeling of related data.

  10. Earth rotation excitation mechanisms derived from geodetic space observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göttl, F.; Schmidt, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earth rotation variations are caused by mass displacements and motions in the subsystems of the Earth. Via the satellite Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field variations can be identified which are caused by mass redistribution in the Earth system. Therefore time variable gravity field models (GFZ RL04, CSR RL04, JPL RL04, ITG-Grace03, GRGS, ...) can be used to derive different impacts on Earth rotation. Furthermore satellite altimetry provides accurate information on sea level anomalies (AVISO, DGFI) which are caused by mass and volume changes of seawater. Since Earth rotation is solely affected by mass variations and motions the volume (steric) effect has to be reduced from the altimetric observations in order to infer oceanic contributions to Earth rotation variations. Therefore the steric effect is estimated from physical ocean parameters such as temperature and salinity changes in the oceans (WOA05, Ishii). In this study specific individual geophysical contributions to Earth rotation variations are identified by means of a multitude of accurate geodetic space observations in combination with a realistic error propagation. It will be shown that due to adjustment of altimetric and/or gravimetric solutions the results for polar motion excitations can be improved.

  11. Integrating Satellite, Radar and Surface Observation with Time and Space Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Y.; Weber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) from Unidata is a Java™-based software framework for analyzing and visualizing geoscience data. It brings together the ability to display and work with satellite imagery, gridded data, surface observations, balloon soundings, NWS WSR-88D Level II and Level III RADAR data, and NOAA National Profiler Network data, all within a unified interface. Applying time and space matching on the satellite, radar and surface observation datasets will automatically synchronize the display from different data sources and spatially subset to match the display area in the view window. These features allow the IDV users to effectively integrate these observations and provide 3 dimensional views of the weather system to better understand the underlying dynamics and physics of weather phenomena.

  12. Space-based radar for the United Nations's international satellite monitoring agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantafio, L. J.

    1984-12-01

    A session of the United Nations General Assembly was held in May and June 1978 with the objective to discuss questions related to disarmament. It was decided to consider the establishment of an international Satellite Monitoring Agency (ISMA). The arising questions were studied, and two reports were prepared concerning such a monitoring agency. One report contained preliminary conclusions on the technical, legal, and financial implications of establishing an ISMA, while the second report contained an in-depth study. It was found that from a technical point of view the project appeared possible and feasible, and that there were no provisions in the international law prohibiting the proposed activities. The present investigation has been conducted under the assumption that an ISMA will be estabished. Attention is given to the requirements for the ISMA, the space-based radar design, radar system tradeoff data, critical technologies, and system weight, cost and schedule.

  13. Trading Space for Time in Design Storm Estimation Using Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberlandt, U.; Berndt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves are frequently used for the derivation of design storms. These curves are usually estimated from rain gauges and are valid for extreme rainfall at local observed points. Two common problems are involved. Regionalization of rainfall statistics for unobserved locations and the use of areal reduction factors (ARF) for the adjustment to larger catchments are required. Weather radar data are available with large spatial coverage and high resolution in space and could be used for a direct derivation of areal design storms for any location and catchment size. However, one problem with radar data is the relatively short observation period for the estimation of extreme events. This study deals with the estimation of area-intensity-duration-frequency (AIDF) curves and areal-reduction-factors (ARF) directly from weather radar data. The main objective is to answer the question if it is possible to trade space for time in the estimation of both characteristics to compensate for the short radar observation periods. In addition, a stratification of the temporal sample according to annual temperature indices is tried to distinguish "colder" and "warmer" climate years. This might eventually show a way for predicting future changes in AIDF curves and ARFs. First, radar data are adjusted with rainfall observations from the daily station network. Thereafter, AIDF curves and ARFs are calculated for different spatial and temporal sample sizes. The AIDF and ARFs are compared regarding their temporal and spatial variability considering also the temperature conditions. In order to reduce spatial variability a grouping of locations according to their climatological and physiographical characteristics is carried out. The data used for this study cover about 20 years of observations from the radar device located near Hanover in Northern Germany and 500 non-recording rain gauges as well as a set of 8 recording rain gauges for validation. AIDF curves

  14. Space environment effects on polymers in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, E.; Gouzman, I.

    2003-08-01

    Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. The low earth orbit (LEO) space environment includes hazards such as atomic oxygen, UV radiation, ionizing radiation (electrons, protons), high vacuum, plasma, micrometeoroids and debris, as well as severe temperature cycles. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The high vacuum induces material outgassing (e.g. low-molecular weight residues, plasticizers and additives) and consequent contamination of nearby surfaces. The present work reviews the LEO space environment constituents and their interactions with polymers. Examples of degradation of materials exposed in ground simulation facilities are presented. The issues discussed include the erosion mechanisms of polymers, formation of contaminants and their interaction with the space environment, and protection of materials from the harsh space environment.

  15. Comparing Goldstone Solar System Radar Earth-based Observations of Mars with Orbital Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Larsen, K. W.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has collected a self-consistent set of delay-Doppler near-nadir radar echo data from Mars since 1988. Prior to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) global topography for Mars, these radar data provided local elevation information, along with radar scattering information with global coverage. Two kinds of GSSR Mars delay-Doppler data exist: low 5 km x 150 km resolution and, more recently, high (5 to 10 km) spatial resolution. Radar data, and non-imaging delay-Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. Interpretation of these parameters, while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars. In this presentation we want to demonstrate how to compare GSSR delay-Doppler data to other Mars datasets, including some idiosyncracies of the radar data. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  16. Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR induced modifications of the high latitude (78°N) ionosphere observed by both coherent and incoherent radars (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddeley, L. J.; Haggstrom, I.; Wright, D. M.; Isham, B.; Gallop, P.

    2010-12-01

    The SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar) system, which is the newest operational heating facility, is located on Svalbard at 78°N (75° CGM) latitude and, as such, is the highest latitudinally located heating system. The unique geomagnetic location of SPEAR also allows it to be inside the Polar Cap at all local times. It is co-located with several facilities, including the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar. The system is also inside the fields of view of several SuperDARN Coherent Scatter Radars. An overview of the SPEAR system, specific operating modes, as well as data from new, currently undergoing and planned experiments conducted in 2010 will be presented and discussed. Procedures for any future collaborative experiments will also be presented.

  17. State-space adjustment of radar rainfall and skill score evaluation of stochastic volume forecasts in urban drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Löwe, Roland; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rasmussen, Michael R; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Merging of radar rainfall data with rain gauge measurements is a common approach to overcome problems in deriving rain intensities from radar measurements. We extend an existing approach for adjustment of C-band radar data using state-space models and use the resulting rainfall intensities as input for forecasting outflow from two catchments in the Copenhagen area. Stochastic grey-box models are applied to create the runoff forecasts, providing us with not only a point forecast but also a quantification of the forecast uncertainty. Evaluating the results, we can show that using the adjusted radar data improves runoff forecasts compared with using the original radar data and that rain gauge measurements as forecast input are also outperformed. Combining the data merging approach with short-term rainfall forecasting algorithms may result in further improved runoff forecasts that can be used in real time control.

  18. Soyuz 22: New contribution to earth study from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedeshin, L. A.; Ivanov, V. V.; Sulidi-Kondratyev, Y. D.

    1977-01-01

    The mission of space flight Soyuz-22 was to develop new and improved methods and means for finding tthe Earth's natural resources from outer space to aid the economy. With the help of the new multispectral space camera, MKF-6, the cosmonauts were able to photograph selected areas of U.S.S.R. and the German Democratic Republic in 4 visible and 2 infrared regions of the spectrum. The MKF-6 can simultaneously photograph areas in 6 spectral regions and register both the natural electromagnetic radiation of surface objects and the solar radiation reflected by them.

  19. Charged dust phenomena in the near-Earth space environment.

    PubMed

    Scales, W A; Mahmoudian, A

    2016-10-01

    Dusty (or complex) plasmas in the Earth's middle and upper atmosphere ultimately result in exotic phenomena that are currently forefront research issues in the space science community. This paper presents some of the basic criteria and fundamental physical processes associated with the creation, evolution and dynamics of dusty plasmas in the near-Earth space environment. Recent remote sensing techniques to probe naturally created dusty plasma regions are also discussed. These include ground-based experiments employing high-power radio wave interaction. Some characteristics of the dusty plasmas that are actively produced by space-borne aerosol release experiments are discussed. Basic models that may be used to investigate the characteristics of such dusty plasma regions are presented.

  20. A Concept for Differential Absorption Lidar and Radar Remote Sensing of the Earth's Atmosphere and Ocean from NRHO Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Marshak, A.; Omar, A.; Lin, B.; Baize, R.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a concept that will put microwave and laser transmitters on the Deep Space Gateway platform for measurements of the Earth's atmosphere and ocean. Receivers will be placed on the ground, buoys, Argo floats, and cube satellites.

  1. Monitoring Earth's reservoir and lake dynamics from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchyts, G.; Eilander, D.; Schellekens, J.; Winsemius, H.; Gorelick, N.; Erickson, T.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2016-12-01

    Reservoirs and lakes constitute about 90% of the Earth's fresh surface water. They play a major role in the water cycle and are critical for the ever increasing demands of the world's growing population. Water from reservoirs is used for agricultural, industrial, domestic, and other purposes. Current digital databases of lakes and reservoirs are scarce, mainly providing only descriptive and static properties of the reservoirs. The Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database contains almost 7000 entries while OpenStreetMap counts more than 500 000 entries tagged as a reservoir. In the last decade several research efforts already focused on accurate estimates of surface water dynamics, mainly using satellite altimetry, However, currently they are limited only to less than 1000 (mostly large) water bodies. Our approach is based on three main components. Firstly, a novel method, allowing automated and accurate estimation of surface area from (partially) cloud-free optical multispectral or radar satellite imagery. The algorithm uses satellite imagery measured by Landsat, Sentinel and MODIS missions. Secondly, a database to store reservoir static and dynamic parameters. Thirdly, a web-based tool, built on top of Google Earth Engine infrastructure. The tool allows estimation of surface area for lakes and reservoirs at planetary-scale at high spatial and temporal resolution. A prototype version of the method, database, and tool will be presented as well as validation using in-situ measurements.

  2. Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain

    2005-01-01

    We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

  3. Evolution of telemedicine in the space program and earth applications.

    PubMed

    Nicogossian, A E; Pober, D F; Roy, S A

    2001-01-01

    Remote monitoring of crew, spacecraft, and environmental health has always been an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) operations. Crew safety and mission success face a number of challenges in outerspace, including physiological adaptations to microgravity, radiation exposure, extreme temperatures and vacuum, and psychosocial reactions to space flight. The NASA effort to monitor and maintain crew health, system performance, and environmental integrity in space flight is a sophisticated and coordinated program of telemedicine combining cutting-edge engineering with medical expertise. As missions have increased in complexity, NASA telemedicine capabilities have grown apace, underlying its role in the field. At the same time, the terrestrial validation of telemedicine technologies to bring healthcare to remote locations provides feedback, improvement, and enhancement of the space program. As NASA progresses in its space exploration program, astronauts will join missions lasting months, even years, that take them millions of miles from home. These long-duration missions necessitate further technological breakthroughs in tele-operations and autonomous technology. Earth-based monitoring will no longer be real-time, requiring telemedicine capabilities to advance with future explorers as they travel deeper into space. The International Space Station will serve as a testbed for the telemedicine technologies to enable future missions as well as improve the quality of healthcare delivery on Earth.

  4. Evolution of telemedicine in the space program and earth applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pober, D. F.; Roy, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Remote monitoring of crew, spacecraft, and environmental health has always been an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) operations. Crew safety and mission success face a number of challenges in outerspace, including physiological adaptations to microgravity, radiation exposure, extreme temperatures and vacuum, and psychosocial reactions to space flight. The NASA effort to monitor and maintain crew health, system performance, and environmental integrity in space flight is a sophisticated and coordinated program of telemedicine combining cutting-edge engineering with medical expertise. As missions have increased in complexity, NASA telemedicine capabilities have grown apace, underlying its role in the field. At the same time, the terrestrial validation of telemedicine technologies to bring healthcare to remote locations provides feedback, improvement, and enhancement of the space program. As NASA progresses in its space exploration program, astronauts will join missions lasting months, even years, that take them millions of miles from home. These long-duration missions necessitate further technological breakthroughs in tele-operations and autonomous technology. Earth-based monitoring will no longer be real-time, requiring telemedicine capabilities to advance with future explorers as they travel deeper into space. The International Space Station will serve as a testbed for the telemedicine technologies to enable future missions as well as improve the quality of healthcare delivery on Earth.

  5. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  6. Capturing the Value: Earth Applications of Space Human Factors Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper details how the Space Human Factors/Life Sciences program at Ames Research Center (ARC) has provided, and continues to provide, a variety of Earth-based benefits. These benefits will be considered under five categories: aeronautics, space-like environments, general applications, human/automation interaction, and methodology. The human factors work at ARC includes a range of activities whose products serve the aerospace community. Some areas of research focus specifically on aeronautical requirements; others are driven by space needs. However, the symbiosis between these two domains allows a sharing of resources, and the insights and experimental results gathered in one domain can often be applied in the other. Aeronautics is an industry whose survival is generally viewed as critical to American competitiveness, and where benefits can result in a very high payoff. The ability to apply space-initiated research to aeronautical requirements represents one example of bringing space benefits down to Earth. The second-order value of space human factors research goes well beyond the aerospace community. Spaceflight shares with a number of other activities certain environmental characteristics that drive human factors engineering design and procedural specification. Spaceflight is an isolated activity, conducted under severely confined conditions, with a high level of risk, and where provisions are restricted and opportunities for outside help are limited. A number of Earth-based activities including submarines and other naval vessels, oil rigs, remote weather stations, and scientific and polar expeditions, share many of these characteristics. These activities serve as testbeds for space-related research and, in turn, space-related research provides beneficial insight to the conduct of these activities.

  7. Requirements for a near-earth space tug vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for a small but powerful space tug, which will be capable of autonomous orbital rendezvous, docking and translating cargos between near-earth orbits by the end of this decade to support the growing national and international space infrastructure focused near the Space Station Freedom, is described. An aggregate of missions drives the need for a space tug including reboosting decaying satellites back to their operational altitudes, retrieving failed or exhausted satellites to Shuttle or SSF for on-orbit refueling or repair, and transporting a satellite servicer system with an FTS to ailing satellites for supervised in-place repair. It is shown that the development and operation of a space tug to perform such numerous missions is more cost effective than separate module and satellite systems to perform the same tasks.

  8. When Earth Songs Filled the Void of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Before the late 50's we had the planets, our Sun, the stars, galaxies, spectacular clouds of dust and very little else in our universe. There was evidence for a highly tenuous "sea" of dust in interstellar space, but little else. Space was empty above the ionized gases of our upper atmosphere, a little like there was no color in the world before the 40's. The clues were there to think otherwise, however, and in the late 50's and early 60's a few researchers dared to challenge the conventional ideas about space. It was a time of discovery and, with our new ability to fly in space, a time that launched a new science. Today that science makes it possible to literally see some of the plasmas that populate near-Earth space, which are now known to exist everywhere.

  9. Planetary Radar Imaging with the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Uplink Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Tsao, P.; Lee, D.; Cornish, T.; Jao, J.; Slade, M.

    2011-01-01

    A coherent uplink array consisting of up to three 34-meter antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network has been developed for the primary purpose of increasing EIRP at the spacecraft. Greater EIRP ensures greater reach, higher uplink data rates for command and configuration control, as well as improved search and recovery capabilities during spacecraft emergencies. It has been conjectured that Doppler-delay radar imaging of lunar targets can be extended to planetary imaging, where the long baseline of the uplink array can provide greater resolution than a single antenna, as well as potentially higher EIRP. However, due to the well known R-4 loss in radar links, imaging of distant planets is a very challenging endeavor, requiring accurate phasing of the Uplink Array antennas, cryogenically cooled low-noise receiver amplifiers, and sophisticated processing of the received data to extract the weak echoes characteristic of planetary radar. This article describes experiments currently under way to image the planets Mercury and Venus, highlights improvements in equipment and techniques, and presents planetary images obtained to date with two 34 meter antennas configured as a coherently phased Uplink Array.

  10. Planetary Radar Imaging with the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Uplink Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor; Tsao, P.; Lee, D.; Cornish, T.; Jao, J.; Slade, M.

    2011-01-01

    A coherent Uplink Array consisting of two or three 34-meter antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network has been developed for the primary purpose of increasing EIRP at the spacecraft. Greater EIRP ensures greater reach, higher uplink data rates for command and configuration control, as well as improved search and recovery capabilities during spacecraft emergencies. It has been conjectured that Doppler-delay radar imaging of lunar targets can be extended to planetary imaging, where the long baseline of the uplink array can provide greater resolution than a single antenna, as well as potentially higher EIRP. However, due to the well known R4 loss in radar links, imaging of distant planets is a very challenging endeavor, requiring accurate phasing of the Uplink Array antennas, cryogenically cooled low-noise receiver amplifiers, and sophisticated processing of the received data to extract the weak echoes characteristic of planetary radar. This article describes experiments currently under way to image the planets Mercury and Venus, highlights improvements in equipment and techniques, and presents planetary images obtained to date with two 34 meter antennas configured as a coherently phased Uplink Array.

  11. Haystack Ultrawideband Satellite Imaging Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Haystack Ultrawideband Satellite Imaging Radar 5a...www.ll.mit.edu September 2014 Since the launch of satellites into Earth orbits more than 50 years ago, space has become crowded. Commercial and military... satellites , both active and defunct, share the space environment with an assort- ment of space debris, such as remnants of damaged spacecraft and

  12. Predictability of GNSS signal observations in support of Space Situational Awareness using passive radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, M. S.; Lambert, A.; Benson, C.

    2015-07-01

    GNSS signals have been proposed as emitters of opportunity to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA) by tracking small items of space debris using bistatic radar. Although the scattered GNSS signal levels from small items of space debris are incredibly low, the dynamic disturbances of the observed object are very small, and the phase of the scattered signals is well behaved. It is therefore plausible that coherent integration periods on the order of many minutes could be achieved. However, even with long integration periods, very large receiver arrays with extensive, but probably viable, processing are required to recover the scattered signal. Such large arrays will be expensive, and smaller more affordable arrays will collect insufficient signal power to detect the small objects (relative to wavelength) that are necessary to maintain the necessary phase coherency. The investments necessary to build a large receiver array are unlikely without substantial risk reduction. Pini and Akos have previously reported on use of very large radio telescopes to analyse the short-term modulation performance of GNSS satellite signals. In this work we report on tracking of GPS satellites with a radio-astronomy VLBI antenna system to assess the stability of the observed GPS signal over a time period indicative of that proposed for passive radar. We also confirm some of the processing techniques that may be used in both demonstrations and the final system. We conclude from the limited data set that the signal stability when observed by a high-gain tracking antenna and compared against a high quality, low phase-noise clock is excellent, as expected. We conclude by framing further works to reduce risk for a passive radar SSA capability using GNSS signals. http://www.ignss.org/Conferences/PastConferencePapers/2015ConferencePastPapers/2015PeerReviewedPapers/tabid/147/Default.aspx

  13. Spaced-antenna wind estimation using an X-band active phased-array weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Vijay

    Over the past few decades, several single radar methods have been developed to probe the kinematic structure of storms. All these methods trade angular-resolution to retrieve the wind-field. To date, the spaced-antenna method has been employed for profiling the ionosphere and the precipitation free lower atmosphere. This work focuses on applying the spaced-antenna method on an X-band active phased-array radar for high resolution horizontal wind-field retrieval from precipitation echoes. The ability to segment the array face into multiple displaced apertures allows for flexible spaced-antenna implementations. The methodology employed herein comprises of Monte-Carlo simulations to optimize the spaced-antenna system design and analysis of real data collected with the designed phased-array system. The contribution that underpins this dissertation is the demonstration of qualitative agreement between spaced-antenna and Doppler beam swinging retrievals based on real data. First, simulations of backscattered electric fields at the antenna array elements are validated using theoretical expressions. Based on the simulations, the degrees of freedom in the spaced-antenna system design are optimized for retrieval of mean baseline wind. We show that the designed X-band spaced-antenna system has lower retrieval uncertainty than the existing S-band spaced-antenna implementation on the NWRT. This is because of the flexibility to synthesize small overlapping apertures and the ability to obtain statistically independent samples at a faster rate at X-band. We then demonstrate a technique to make relative phase-center displacement measurements based on simulations and real data from the phased-array spaced-antenna system. This simple method uses statistics of precipitation echoes and apriori beamwidth measurements to make field repeatable phase-center displacement measurements. Finally, we test the hypothesis that wind-field curvature effects are common to both the spaced-antenna and

  14. Search for Dormant Comets in Near-Earth Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoonyoung

    2013-06-01

    It is considered that comets have been injected into near-Earth space from outer region (e.g. Kuiper-belt region), providing rich volatile and organic compounds to the earth. Some comets are still active while most of them are dormant with no detectable tails and comae. Here we propose to make a multi-band photometric observation of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with comet-like orbits. We select our targets out of infrared asteroidal catalogs based on AKARI and WISE observations. With a combination of taxonomic types by Subaru observation and albedos by AKARI or WISE, we aim to dig out dormant comet candidates among NEOs. Our results will provide valuable information to figure out the dynamical evolution and fate of comets. We would like to emphasize that this is the first taxonomic survey of dormant comets to utilize the infrared data archive with AKARI and WISE.

  15. Near-Earth Asteroid 2005 CR37: Radar Images and Photometry of a Candidate Contact Binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Lance A. M.; Nolan, Michael C.; Ostro, Steven J.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Pray, Donald P.; Harris, Alan W.; Magri, Christopher; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Arecibo (2380 MHz, 13 cm) radar observations of 2005 CR37 provide detailed images of a candidate contact binary: a 1.8-km-long, extremely bifurcated object. Although the asteroid's two lobes are round, there are regions of modest topographic relief, such as an elevated, 200-m-wide facet, that suggest that the lobes are geologically more complex than either coherent fragments or homogeneous rubble piles. Since January 1999, about 9% of NEAs larger than approx.200 m imaged by radar can be described as candidate contact binaries.

  16. Crew Earth Observations: Twelve Years of Documenting Earth from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Stefanov, William L.; Willis, Kimberley; Runco, Susan; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Dawson, Melissa; Trenchard, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload was one of the initial experiments aboard the International Space Station, and has been continuously collecting data about the Earth since Expedition 1. The design of the experiment is simple: using state-of-the-art camera equipment, astronauts collect imagery of the Earth's surface over defined regions of scientific interest and also document dynamic events such as storms systems, floods, wild fires and volcanic eruptions. To date, CEO has provided roughly 600,000 images of Earth, capturing views of features and processes on land, the oceans, and the atmosphere. CEO data are less rigorously constrained than other remote sensing data, but the volume of data, and the unique attributes of the imagery provide a rich and understandable view of the Earth that is difficult to achieve from the classic remote sensing platforms. In addition, the length-of-record of the imagery dataset, especially when combined with astronaut photography from other NASA and Russian missions starting in the early 1960s, provides a valuable record of changes on the surface of the Earth over 50 years. This time period coincides with the rapid growth of human settlements and human infrastructure.

  17. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-29 - Discovery's voyage to the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael; Whitehead, Victor; Amsbury, David; Coats, Michael; Blaha, John; Buchli, James; Springer, Robert; Bagian, James

    1989-01-01

    The environmental, geologic, meteorologic, and oceanographic phenomena documented by earth photography during the Space Shuttle STS-29 mission are reviewed. A map of the nadir point positions of earth-viewing photographs from the mission is given and color photographs of various regions are presented. The mission photographs include atmospheric dust and smoke over parts of Africa and Asia, Sahelian water sites, center pivot irrigation fields in the Middle East, urban smog over Mexico City, isolated burning in the Bolivian Amazon, and various ocean features and cloud formations.

  18. Earth Observations from the International Space Station: Benefits for Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for observation of the Earth's land surface, oceans, and atmosphere. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted active and passive remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to autonomous, sun-synchronous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. Beginning in May 2012, NASA ISS sensor systems have been available to respond to requests for data through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, also known as the "International Disaster Charter" or IDC. Data from digital handheld cameras, multispectral, and hyperspectral imaging systems has been acquired in response to IDC activations and delivered to requesting agencies through the United States Geological Survey. The characteristics of the ISS for Earth observation will be presented, including past, current, and planned NASA, International Partner, and commercial remote sensing systems. The role and capabilities of the ISS for humanitarian benefit, specifically collection of remotely sensed disaster response data, will be discussed.

  19. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Space Shuttle earth observations photography - Data listing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh

    1992-01-01

    The data listing process of the electronic data base of the Catalogs of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Photography is described. Similar data are recorded for each frame in each role from the mission. At the end of each roll, a computer printout is checked for mistakes, glitches, and typographical errors. After the roll and frames have been corrected, the data listings are ready for transfer to the data base and for development of the catalog.

  1. GEMINI-6 - EARTH-SKY VIEW - AUSTRALIA - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63136 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Shark Bay area on the western coast of Western Australia as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 16th revolution of Earth. City of Carnarven, where NASA has a tracking station, is located near the bottom of picture in lower left corner, near mouth of stream. Indian Ocean is body of water at upper right. South is toward top of picture. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  2. Space Mobile Network: A Near Earth Communication and Navigation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, Dave J.; Heckler, Greg; Menrad, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a Space Mobile Network architecture, the result of a recently completed NASA study exploring architectural concepts to produce a vision for the future Near Earth communications and navigation systems. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) incorporates technologies, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and optical communications, and new operations concepts, such as User Initiated Services, to provide user services analogous to a terrestrial smartphone user. The paper will describe the SMN Architecture, envisioned future operations concepts, opportunities for industry and international collaboration and interoperability, and technology development areas and goals.

  3. Detecting Interplanetary Dust Particles with Radars to Study the Dynamics at the Edge of the Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janches, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's mesosphere is the region of the atmosphere between approximately 60-120 km altitude, where the transition from hydrodynamic flow to molecular diffusion occurs. It is highly dynamic region where turbulence by wave braking is produced and energy is deposited from sources from both, below and above this altitude range. Because aircraft and nearly all balloons reach altitudes below approximately 50 km and orbital spacecrafts are well above approximately 400 km, the mesosphere has only been accessed through the use of sounding rockets or remote sensing techniques, and as a result, it is the most poorly understood part of the atmosphere. In addition, millions of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) enter the atmosphere. Within the mesosphere most of these IDPs melt or vaporize as a result of collisions with the air particles producing meteors that can be detected with radars. This provides a mean to study the dynamics of this region. In this lecture the basic principles of the utilization of meteor radars to study the dynamics of the mesosphere will be presented. A system overview of these systems will be provided as well as discuss the advantages/disadvantages of these systems, provide details of the data processing methodology and give a brief overview of the current status of the field as well as the vision for the next decade.

  4. A space-time multifractal analysis on radar rainfall sequences from central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licznar, Paweł; Deidda, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall downscaling belongs to most important tasks of modern hydrology. Especially from the perspective of urban hydrology there is real need for development of practical tools for possible rainfall scenarios generation. Rainfall scenarios of fine temporal scale reaching single minutes are indispensable as inputs for hydrological models. Assumption of probabilistic philosophy of drainage systems design and functioning leads to widespread application of hydrodynamic models in engineering practice. However models like these covering large areas could not be supplied with only uncorrelated point-rainfall time series. They should be rather supplied with space time rainfall scenarios displaying statistical properties of local natural rainfall fields. Implementation of a Space-Time Rainfall (STRAIN) model for hydrometeorological applications in Polish conditions, such as rainfall downscaling from the large scales of meteorological models to the scale of interest for rainfall-runoff processes is the long-distance aim of our research. As an introduction part of our study we verify the veracity of the following STRAIN model assumptions: rainfall fields are isotropic and statistically homogeneous in space; self-similarity holds (so that, after having rescaled the time by the advection velocity, rainfall is a fully homogeneous and isotropic process in the space-time domain); statistical properties of rainfall are characterized by an "a priori" known multifractal behavior. We conduct a space-time multifractal analysis on radar rainfall sequences selected from the Polish national radar system POLRAD. Radar rainfall sequences covering the area of 256 km x 256 km of original 2 km x 2 km spatial resolution and 15 minutes temporal resolution are used as study material. Attention is mainly focused on most severe summer convective rainfalls. It is shown that space-time rainfall can be considered with a good approximation to be a self-similar multifractal process. Multifractal

  5. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  6. Analysis of Radar and Optical Space Borne Data for Large Scale Topographical Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2015-03-01

    Normally, in order to provide high resolution 3 Dimension (3D) geospatial data, large scale topographical mapping needs input from conventional airborne campaigns which are in Indonesia bureaucratically complicated especially during legal administration procedures i.e. security clearance from military/defense ministry. This often causes additional time delays besides technical constraints such as weather and limited aircraft availability for airborne campaigns. Of course the geospatial data quality is an important issue for many applications. The increasing demand of geospatial data nowadays consequently requires high resolution datasets as well as a sufficient level of accuracy. Therefore an integration of different technologies is required in many cases to gain the expected result especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. Another important issue in this context is the fast delivery of relevant data which is expressed by the term "Rapid Mapping". In this paper we present first results of an on-going research to integrate different data sources like space borne radar and optical platforms. Initially the orthorectification of Very High Resolution Satellite (VHRS) imagery i.e. SPOT-6 has been done as a continuous process to the DEM generation using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data. The role of Ground Control Points (GCPs) from GNSS surveys is mandatory in order to fulfil geometrical accuracy. In addition, this research aims on providing suitable processing algorithm of space borne data for large scale topographical mapping as described in section 3.2. Recently, radar space borne data has been used for the medium scale topographical mapping e.g. for 1:50.000 map scale in Indonesian territories. The goal of this on-going research is to increase the accuracy of remote sensing data by different activities, e.g. the integration of different data sources (optical and radar) or the usage of the GCPs in both, the optical and the radar satellite data

  7. Space-based infrared near-Earth asteroid survey simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Muinonen, Karri; Price, Stephan D.

    2000-08-01

    We demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of using a satellite-based sensor with visual and infrared focal plane arrays to search for that subclass of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) with orbits largely interior to the Earth's orbit. A space-based visual-infrared system could detect approximately 97% of the Atens and 64% of the IEOs (the, as yet hypothetical, objects with orbits entirely Interior to Earth's Orbit) with diameters greater than 1 km in a 5-year mission and obtain orbits, albedos and diameters for all of them; the respective percentages with diameters greater than 500 m are 90% and 60%. Incidental to the search for Atens and IEOs, we found that 70% of all Earth-Crossing Asteroids (ECAs) with diameters greater than 1 km, and 50% of those with diameters greater than 500 m, would also be detected. These are the results of a feasibility study; optimizing the concept presented would result in greater levels of completion. The cost of such a space-based system is estimated to be within a factor of two of the cost of a ground-based system capable of about 21st magnitude, which would provide only orbits and absolute magnitudes and require decades to reach these completeness levels. In addition to obtaining albedos and diameters for the asteroids discovered in the space-based survey, a space-based visual-infrared system would obtain the same information on virtually all NEOs of interest. A combined space-based and ground-based survey would be highly synergistic in that each can concentrate on what it does best and each complements the strengths of the other. The ground-based system would discover the majority of Amors and Apollos and provide long-term follow-up on all the NEOs discovered in both surveys. The space-based system would discover the majority of Atens and IEOs and provide albedos and diameters on all the NEOs discovered in both surveys and most previously discovered NEOs as well. Thus, an integrated ground- and space-based system could accomplish

  8. Modelling the near-Earth space environment using LDEF data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Dale R.; Coombs, Cassandra R.; Crowell, Lawrence B.; Watts, Alan J.

    1992-01-01

    Near-Earth space is a dynamic environment, that is currently not well understood. In an effort to better characterize the near-Earth space environment, this study compares the results of actual impact crater measurement data and the Space Environment (SPENV) Program developed in-house at POD, to theoretical models established by Kessler (NASA TM-100471, 1987) and Cour-Palais (NASA SP-8013, 1969). With the continuing escalation of debris there will exist a definite hazard to unmanned satellites as well as manned operations. Since the smaller non-trackable debris has the highest impact rate, it is clearly necessary to establish the true debris environment for all particle sizes. Proper comprehension of the near-Earth space environment and its origin will permit improvement in spacecraft design and mission planning, thereby reducing potential disasters and extreme costs. Results of this study directly relate to the survivability of future spacecraft and satellites that are to travel through and/or reside in low Earth orbit (LEO). More specifically, these data are being used to: (1) characterize the effects of the LEO micrometeoroid an debris environment on satellite designs and components; (2) update the current theoretical micrometeoroid and debris models for LEO; (3) help assess the survivability of spacecraft and satellites that must travel through or reside in LEO, and the probability of their collision with already resident debris; and (4) help define and evaluate future debris mitigation and disposal methods. Combined model predictions match relatively well with the LDEF data for impact craters larger than approximately 0.05 cm, diameter; however, for smaller impact craters, the combined predictions diverge and do not reflect the sporadic clouds identified by the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) aboard LDEF. The divergences cannot currently be explained by the authors or model developers. The mean flux of small craters (approximately 0.05 cm diameter) is

  9. Neurovestibular and Sensorimotor Studies in Space and Earth Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Gilles; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes what has been learned from studies of human neurovestibular system in weightless conditions, including balance and locomotion, gaze control, vestibular-autonomic function and spatial orientation, and gives some examples of the potential Earth benefits of this research. Results show that when astronauts and cosmonauts return from space flight, both the peripheral and central neural processes are physiologically and functionally altered. There are clear distinctions between the virtually immediate adaptive compensations to weightlessness and those that require longer periods of time to adapt. However, little is known to date about the adaptation of sensory-motor functions to long-duration space missions in weightlessness and to the transitions between various reduced gravitational levels, such as on the Moon and Mars. Results from neurovestibular research in space have substantially enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms and characteristics of postural, gaze, and spatial orientation deficits, analogous to clinical cases of labyrinthine-defective function. Also, space neurosciences research has participated in the development and application of significant new technologies, such as video recording and processing of three-dimensional eye movements and posture, hardware for the unencumbered measurement of head and body movement, and procedures for investigating otolith function on Earth. In particular, devices such as centrifugation or off-vertical axis rotation could enhance clinical neurological testing because it provides linear acceleration which specifically stimulates the otolith organs in a frequency range close to natural head and body movement.

  10. Neurovestibular and sensorimotor studies in space and Earth benefits.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott

    2005-08-01

    This review summarizes what has been learned from studies of human neurovestibular system in weightless conditions, including balance and locomotion, gaze control, vestibular-autonomic function and spatial orientation, and gives some examples of the potential Earth benefits of this research. Results show that when astronauts and cosmonauts return from space flight both the peripheral and central neural processes are physiologically and functionally altered. There are clear distinctions between the virtually immediate adaptive compensations to weightlessness and those that require longer periods of time to adapt. However, little is known to date about the adaptation of sensory-motor functions to long-duration space missions in weightlessness and to the transitions between various reduced gravitational levels, such as on the Moon and Mars. Results from neurovestibular research in space have substantially enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms and characteristics of postural, gaze, and spatial orientation deficits, analogous to clinical cases of labyrinthine-defective function. Also, space neurosciences research has participated in the development and application of significant new technologies, such as video recording and processing of three-dimensional eye movements and posture, hardware for the unencumbered measurement of head and body movement, and procedures for investigating otolith function on Earth. In particular, devices such as centrifugation or off-vertical axis rotation could enhance clinical neurological testing because it provides linear acceleration which specifically stimulates the otolith organs in a frequency range close to natural head and body movement.

  11. Experimental evaluation of battery cells for space-based radar application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskell, Craig A.; Metcalfe, John R.

    1994-01-01

    A test program was conducted to characterize five space-quality nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery cells. A subset of those tests was also done on five commercial nickel-cadmium (NiCd) cells, for correlation to the characteristics of an Energy Storage Unit Simulator. The test program implemented the recommendations of a 1991 study, as reported to IECEC-92. The findings of the tests are summarized, and expected impacts on the performance of the electrical power system (EPS) of a large space-based radar (SBR) surveillance satellite are derived. The main characteristics examined and compared were terminal voltage (average and transient) and capacity through discharge, equivalent series resistance, derived inductance and capacitance, charge return efficiency, and inter-pulse charge effectiveness.

  12. Cluster spacecraft observations of a ULF wave enhanced by Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badman, S. V.; Wright, D. M.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Fear, R. C.; Robinson, T. R.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-09-01

    Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR) is a high-latitude ionospheric heating facility capable of exciting ULF waves on local magnetic field lines. We examine an interval from 1 February 2006 when SPEAR was transmitting a 1 Hz modulation signal with a 10 min on-off cycle. Ground magnetometer data indicated that SPEAR modulated currents in the local ionosphere at 1 Hz, and enhanced a natural field line resonance with a 10 min period. During this interval the Cluster spacecraft passed over the heater site. Signatures of the SPEAR-enhanced field line resonance were present in the magnetic field data measured by the magnetometer on-board Cluster-2. These are the first joint ground- and space-based detections of field line tagging by SPEAR.

  13. The New Millenium Program: Serving Earth and Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2000-01-01

    NASA has exciting plans for space science and Earth observations during the next decade. A broad range of advanced spacecraft and measurement technologies will be needed to support these plans within the existing budget and schedule constraints. Many of these technology needs are common to both NASA's Office of Earth Science (OES) and Office of Space Sciences (OSS). Even though some breakthrough technologies have been identified to address these needs, project managers have traditionally been reluctant to incorporate them into flight programs because their inherent development risk. To accelerate the infusion of new technologies into its OES and OSS missions, NASA established the New Millennium Program (NMP). This program analyzes the capability needs of these enterprises, identifies candidate technologies to address these needs, incorporates advanced technology suites into validation flights, validates them in the relevant space environment, and then proactively infuses the validated technologies into future missions to enhance their capabilities while reducing their life cycle cost. The NMP employs a cross-enterprise Science Working Group, the NASA Enterprise science and technology roadmaps to define the capabilities needed by future Earth and Space science missions. Additional input from the science community is gathered through open workshops and peer-reviewed NASA Research Announcement (NRAs) for advanced measurement concepts. Technology development inputs from the technology organizations within NASA, other government agencies, federally funded research and development centers (FFRDC's), U.S. industry, and academia are sought to identify breakthrough technologies that might address these needs. This approach significantly extends NASA's technology infrastructure. To complement other flight test programs that develop or validate of individual components, the NMP places its highest priority on system-level validations of technology suites in the relevant space

  14. Physiological principles of vestibular function on earth and in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, L. B.

    1998-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular function have important implications for our ability to understand, predict, and modify balance processes during and after spaceflight. The microgravity environment of space provides many unique opportunities for studying the effects of changes in gravitoinertial force on structure and function of the vestibular system. Investigations of basic vestibular physiology and of changes in reflexes occurring as a consequence of exposure to microgravity have important implications for diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders in human beings. This report reviews physiological principles underlying control of vestibular processes on earth and in space. Information is presented from a functional perspective with emphasis on signals arising from labyrinthine receptors. Changes induced by microgravity in linear acceleration detected by the vestibulo-ocular reflexes. Alterations of the functional requirements for postural control in space are described. Areas of direct correlation between studies of vestibular reflexes in microgravity and vestibular disorders in human beings are discussed.

  15. Rainfall measurement from opportunistic use of earth-space link in Ku Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthès, L.; Mallet, C.

    2013-02-01

    The present study deals with the development of a low cost microwave device devoted to measure average rain rate observed along earth - satellite links. The principle is to use rain atmospheric attenuation along Earth - space links in Ku-band to deduce the path averaged rain rate. These links are characterized by a path length of a few km through the troposphere. Ground based power measurements are carried out by receiving TV channels from different geostationary satellites in Ku-band. The major difficulty in this study is to retrieve rain characteristics among many fluctuations of the received signal which are due to atmospheric scintillations, changes in the composition of the atmosphere (water vapour concentration, cloud water content) or satellite features (variation of the emitted power, satellite motions). In order to perform a feasibility study of such a device, a measurement campaign has been performed for five months near Paris. This paper proposes an algorithm based on an artificial neural network to identify drought and rainy periods and to suppress the variability of the received signal due to no-rain effects. Taking into account the height of the rain layer, rain attenuation is then inverted to obtain path averaged rain rate. Obtained rainfall rates are compared with co-located rain gauges and radar measurements on the whole experiment period, then the most significant rainy events are analyzed.

  16. Concept of a space optoelectronic system for environmental monitoring of the near-earth space, atmosphere, and earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltsov, Anatoli V.; Karasev, Vladimir I.; Kolotkov, Vjacheslav V.; Kondranin, Timothy V.

    1997-06-01

    The sharp increase of the man-induced pressure on the environment and hence the need to predict and monitor natural anomalies makes global monitoring of the ecosphere of planet Earth an issue of vital importance. The notion of the ecosphere covers three basic shells closely interacting with each other: the near-Earth space, the atmosphere and the Earth surface. In the near-Earth space (covering 100 to 2000 km altitudes) the primary objects of monitoring are: functioning artificial space objects, the fragments of their constructions or space rubbish (which by estimation amounts to 3.5 million pieces including 30,000 to 70,000 objects having dimensions sufficient for heavy damaging or even destroying functioning space objects) and objects of space origin (asteroids, meteorites and comets) whose trajectories come closely enough to the Earth. Maximum concentrations of space rubbish observed on orbits with altitudes of 800, 1000 and 1500 km and inclinations of 60 to 100 deg. are related in the first place to spacecraft launch requirements. Taking into account the number of launches implemented by different countries in the framework of their own space programs the probability of collision of functioning spacecraft with space rubbish may be estimation increase from (1.5 - 3.5)% at present to (15 - 40)% by 2020. Besides, registration of space radiation flow intensity and the solar activity is no less important in this space area. Subject to control in the atmosphere are time and space variations in temperature fields, humidity, tracing gas concentrations, first of all ozone and greenhouse gases, the state of the cloud cover, wind velocity, etc. The range of objects to be under environmental management of Earth surface is just as diverse and essentially should include the state of the surface and the near-surface layer of seas and oceans, internal reservoirs, the cryosphere and the land surface along with vegetation cover, natural resources and human activities. No matter

  17. Preliminary Global Topographic Model of Mars Based on MOLA Altimetry, Earth-Based Radar, and Viking, Mariner and MGS Occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    The recent altimetry data acquired by MOLA over the northern hemisphere of Mars have been combined with the Earth-based radar data obtained between 1971 and 1982, and occultation measurements of the Viking 1 and 2 Orbiters, Mariner 9, and MGS to derive a global model of the shape and topography of Mars. This preliminary model has a horizontal resolution of about 300 km. Vertical accuracy is on average a few hundred meters in the region of the data. Datasets: The altimetry and radar datasets were individually binned in 1.25 degree grids and merged with the occultation data. The Viking and Mariner occultation data in the northern hemisphere were excluded from the combined dataset where MOLA altimetry were available. The laser altimetry provided extensive and almost complete coverage of the northern hemisphere north of latitude 30 while the radar provided longitudinal coverage at several latitude bands between 23N and 23S. South of this region the only data were occultations. The majority of the occultations were obtained from Mariner 9, and the rest from Viking 1 & 2, and MGS. Earlier studies had shown that the Viking and Mariner occultations were on average only accurate to 500 meters. The recent MGS occultations are accurate to a few tens of meters. However, the highest southern latitude reached by the MGS occultations is only about 64S and data near the target region for the Mars 98 lander is limited to a few Viking and Mariner observations of relatively poor quality. In addition to the above datasets the locations of the Viking 1, Viking 2, and Pathfinder landers, obtained from the radio tracking of their signals, were included.

  18. Specification of the near-Earth space environment with SHIELDS

    DOE PAGES

    Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Henderson, Michael Gerard; ...

    2017-11-26

    Here, predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure is one example of “space weather” and a big space physics challenge. A project recently funded through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program aims at developing a new capability to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. The project goals are to understand the dynamics of the surface charging environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- andmore » micro-scale. Important physics questions related to particle injection and acceleration associated with magnetospheric storms and substorms, as well as plasma waves, are investigated. These challenging problems are addressed using a team of world-class experts in the fields of space science and computational plasma physics, and state-of-the-art models and computational facilities. A full two-way coupling of physics-based models across multiple scales, including a global MHD (BATS-R-US) embedding a particle-in-cell (iPIC3D) and an inner magnetosphere (RAM-SCB) codes, is achieved. New data assimilation techniques employing in situ satellite data are developed; these provide an order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy in the simulation of the SCE. SHIELDS also includes a post-processing tool designed to calculate the surface charging for specific spacecraft geometry using the Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell (CPIC) code that can be used for reanalysis of satellite failures or for satellite design.« less

  19. Specification of the near-Earth space environment with SHIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Henderson, Michael Gerard

    Here, predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure is one example of “space weather” and a big space physics challenge. A project recently funded through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program aims at developing a new capability to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. The project goals are to understand the dynamics of the surface charging environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- andmore » micro-scale. Important physics questions related to particle injection and acceleration associated with magnetospheric storms and substorms, as well as plasma waves, are investigated. These challenging problems are addressed using a team of world-class experts in the fields of space science and computational plasma physics, and state-of-the-art models and computational facilities. A full two-way coupling of physics-based models across multiple scales, including a global MHD (BATS-R-US) embedding a particle-in-cell (iPIC3D) and an inner magnetosphere (RAM-SCB) codes, is achieved. New data assimilation techniques employing in situ satellite data are developed; these provide an order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy in the simulation of the SCE. SHIELDS also includes a post-processing tool designed to calculate the surface charging for specific spacecraft geometry using the Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell (CPIC) code that can be used for reanalysis of satellite failures or for satellite design.« less

  20. New Center Links Earth, Space, and Information Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2004-05-01

    Broad-based geoscience instruction melding the Earth, space, and information technology sciences has been identified as an effective way to take advantage of the new jobs created by technological innovations in natural resources management. Based on this paradigm, the University of Hyderabad in India is developing a Centre of Earth and Space Sciences that will be linked to the university's super-computing facility. The proposed center will provide the basic science underpinnings for the Earth, space, and information technology sciences; develop new methodologies for the utilization of natural resources such as water, soils, sediments, minerals, and biota; mitigate the adverse consequences of natural hazards; and design innovative ways of incorporating scientific information into the legislative and administrative processes. For these reasons, the ethos and the innovatively designed management structure of the center would be of particular relevance to the developing countries. India holds 17% of the world's human population, and 30% of its farm animals, but only about 2% of the planet's water resources. Water will hence constitute the core concern of the center, because ecologically sustainable, socially equitable, and economically viable management of water resources of the country holds the key to the quality of life (drinking water, sanitation, and health), food security, and industrial development of the country. The center will be focused on interdisciplinary basic and pure applied research that is relevant to the practical needs of India as a developing country. These include, for example, climate prediction, since India is heavily dependent on the monsoon system, and satellite remote sensing of soil moisture, since agriculture is still a principal source of livelihood in India. The center will perform research and development in areas such as data assimilation and validation, and identification of new sensors to be mounted on the Indian meteorological

  1. The Pulkovo Cooperation for Radar and Optical Observations of Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotov, I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Tuccari, G.; Falkovich, I.; Nechaeva, M.; Kiladze, R.; Titenko, V.; Agapov, V.; Khutorovsky, Z. N.; Sukhov, P. P.; Burtsev, Yu.; Sochilina, A.; Abalakin, V.; et al.

    The Pulkovo observatory is arranging the cooperation of optical and radio telescopes for space debris studies in two main research directions, i.e. the precise tracking of the GEO-objects for development of the dynamical control method and the barrier method study of small fragments produced by GEO-object explosions.Radar experiments are being carried out a few times per year by using the Evpatoria RT-70 transmitter and the receiving radio telescopes in Bear Lakes (Russia), Simeiz (Ukraine), Noto (Italy), and Urumqi (China). The data processing centers are located in N. Novgorod and Noto, and integrated into the Low Frequency VLBI Network (LFVN). The adjustment of the coordinated radar VLBI measurements has been completed, and the technique of beam-track searching has been tested. The program of the LFVN modernizations is in progress The Pulkovo cooperation of optical observers (PULCOO) includes observatories and observation stations of the former Soviet Union around the world, and is to provide the routine tracking of the GEO-objects. The adjustment has been carried out for the method to search for GEO-fragments in the barriers predicted on basis of the Pulkovo "LAPLACE" theory of motion. The refurbishment program for telescopes, which cooperate with the PULCOO, is in progress.

  2. Nuclear reactor power for a space-based radar. SP-100 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey; Heller, Jack; Jaffe, Leonard; Beatty, Richard; Bhandari, Pradeep; Chow, Edwin; Deininger, William; Ewell, Richard; Fujita, Toshio; Grossman, Merlin

    1986-01-01

    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft, using a 300 kWe nuclear reactor power system, has been examined, with emphasis on aspects affecting the power system. The radar antenna is a horizontal planar array, 32 X 64 m. The orbit is at 61 deg, 1088 km. The mass of the antenna with support structure is 42,000 kg; of the nuclear reactor power system, 8,300 kg; of the whole spacecraft about 51,000 kg, necessitating multiple launches and orbital assembly. The assembly orbit is at 57 deg, 400 km, high enough to provide the orbital lifetime needed for orbital assembly. The selected scenario uses six Shuttle launches to bring the spacecraft and a Centaur G upper-stage vehicle to assembly orbit. After assembly, the Centaur places the spacecraft in operational orbit, where it is deployed on radio command, the power system started, and the spacecraft becomes operational. Electric propulsion is an alternative and allows deployment in assembly orbit, but introduces a question of nuclear safety.

  3. SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar): New Developments and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddeley, L. J.; Oksavik, K.

    2009-12-01

    The SPEAR heating facility is located on Svalbard at 75° CGM latitude and as such is 10° closer to a geomagnetic pole than any current ionospheric heating facility. It thus has the unique ability to perform heating experiments inside the polar cap at all local times. It is co-located with several facilities, including the EISCAT Svalbard Radar, the SOUZY radar and the Kjell Henriksen Observatory. After much speculation regarding the operational future of the SPEAR facility, UNIS has taken ownership of the system, with a 3 year research and operational grant from the Norwegian Research Council. The facility has a detailed and successful research history, with results having already been presented at international scientific conferences and appeared in 13 peer-review papers in international journals. Successful experiments have been carried out using both X and O mode polarisation in conjunction with both ground and space based instrumentation. Additionally, the operational frequency the facility (4.45 - 5.825 MHz) means that its scientific capabilities will increase towards the next solar activity maximum in 2012. Future plans, both experimentally and logistically will be discussed in additional to possibilities for future experimental collaborations

  4. Forecasting slope failures from space-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasowski, J.; Bovenga, F.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Chiaradia, M. T.; Tijani, K.; Morea, A.

    2017-12-01

    New space-borne radar sensors enable multi-scale monitoring of potentially unstable slopes thanks to wide-area coverage (tens of thousands km2), regular long-term image acquisition schedule with increasing re-visit frequency (weekly to daily), and high measurement precision (mm). In particular, the recent radar satellite missions e.g., COSMO-SkyMed (CSK), Sentinel-1 (S-1) and improved multi-temporal interferometry (MTI) processing techniques allow timely delivery of information on slow ground surface displacements. Here we use two case study examples to show that it is possible to capture pre-failure slope strains through long-term MTI-based monitoring. The first case is a retrospective investigation of a huge 500ML m3 landslide, which occurred in Sept. 2016 in a large, active open-cast coal mine in central Europe. We processed over 100 S-1 images acquired since Fall 2014. The MTI results showed that the slope that failed had been unstable at least since 2014. Importantly, we detected consistent displacement trends and trend changes, which can be used for slope failure forecasting. Specifically, we documented significant acceleration in slope surface displacement in the two months preceding the catastrophic failure. The second case of retrospectively captured pre-failure slope strains regards our earlier study of a small 50 m long landslide, which occurred on Jan. 2014 and caused the derailment of a train on the railway line connecting NW Italy to France. We processed 56 CSK images acquired from Fall 2008 to Spring 2014. The MTI results revealed pre-failure displacements of the engineering structures on the slope subsequently affected by the 2014 slide. The analysis of the MTI time series further showed that the displacements had been occurring since 2009. This information could have been used to forewarn the railway authority about the slope instability hazard. The above examples indicate that more frequent and consistent image acquisitions by the new radar

  5. Earth resources instrumentation for the Space Station Polar Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Martin J.; Vane, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    The spacecraft and payloads of the Space Station Polar Platform program are described in a brief overview. Present plans call for one platform in a descending morning-equator-crossing orbit at 824 km and two or three platforms in ascending afternoon-crossing orbits at 542-824 km. The components of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) and NOAA payloads are listed in tables and briefly characterized, and data-distribution requirements and the mission development schedule are discussed. A drawing of the platform, a graph showing the spectral coverage of the EOS instruments, and a glossary of acronyms are provided.

  6. Earth observations from space: History, promise, and reality. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this report the Committee on Earth Studies (CES), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board (SSB) within the National Research Council (NRC), reviews the recent history (nominally from 1981 to 1995) of the U.S. earth observations programs that serve civilian needs. The principal observations programs examined are those of NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The Air Force' s Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is discussed, but only from the perspective of its relationship to civil needs and the planned merger with the NOAA polar-orbiting system. The report also reviews the interfaces between the earth observations satellite programs and the major national and international environmental monitoring and research programs. The monitoring and research programs discussed are the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), related international scientific campaigns, and operational programs for the sharing and application of environmental data. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad historical review and commentary based on the views of the CES members, with particular emphasis on tracing the lengthy record of advisory committee recommendations. Any individual topic could be the subject of an extended report in its own right. Indeed, extensive further reviews are already under way to that end. If the CES has succeeded in the task it has undertaken. This report will serve as a useful starting point for any such more intensive study. The report is divided into eight chapters: ( I ) an introduction, (2) the evolution of the MTPE, (3) its relationship to the USGCRP, (4) applications of earth observations data, (5) the role that smaller satellites can play in research and operational remote sensing, (6) earth system modeling and information systems, (7) a number of associated activities that contribute to the MTPE

  7. Debris Flux Comparisons From The Goldstone Radar, Haystack Radar, and Hax Radar Prior, During, and After the Last Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokely, C. L.; Stansbery, E. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    The continual monitoring of low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment using highly sensitive radars is essential for an accurate characterization of these dynamic populations. Debris populations are continually evolving since there are new debris sources, previously unrecognized debris sources, and debris loss mechanisms that are dependent on the dynamic space environment. Such radar data are used to supplement, update, and validate existing orbital debris models. NASA has been utilizing radar observations of the debris environment for over a decade from three complementary radars: the NASA JPL Goldstone radar, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) Long Range Imaging Radar (known as the Haystack radar), and the MIT/LL Haystack Auxiliary radar (HAX). All of these systems are highly sensitive radars that operate in a fixed staring mode to statistically sample orbital debris in the LEO environment. Each of these radars is ideally suited to measure debris within a specific size region. The Goldstone radar generally observes objects with sizes from 2 mm to 1 cm. The Haystack radar generally measures from 5 mm to several meters. The HAX radar generally measures from 2 cm to several meters. These overlapping size regions allow a continuous measurement of cumulative debris flux versus diameter from 2 mm to several meters for a given altitude window. This is demonstrated for all three radars by comparing the debris flux versus diameter over 200 km altitude windows for 3 nonconsecutive years from 1998 through 2003. These years correspond to periods before, during, and after the peak of the last solar cycle. Comparing the year to year flux from Haystack for each of these altitude regions indicate statistically significant changes in subsets of the debris populations. Potential causes of these changes are discussed. These analysis results include error bars that represent statistical sampling errors, and are detailed in this paper.

  8. Launch vehicles of the future - Earth to near-earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyworth, G. A., II

    Attention is given to criteria for launch vehicles of the future, namely, cost, flexibility of payload size, and routine access to space. The National Aerospace Plane (NASP), an airplane designed to achieve hypersonic speeds using a sophisticated air-breathing engine, is argued to meet these criteria. Little additional oxygen is needed to enter low-earth orbit, and it will return to an airport runway under powered flight. Cost estimates for a NASP-derived vehicle are two to five million dollars for a payload of 20,000 to 30,000 pounds to orbit. For the Shuttle, a comparable payload is nominally about 150 million dollars. NASP estimates for the new single-stage-to-orbit designs are substantially lower than existing launch costs. The NASP also offers fast turnaround and minimal logistics. Access to virtually all near-earth orbits will be provided as well.

  9. Data compression for near Earth and deep space to Earth transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Daniel E.

    1991-01-01

    Key issues of data compression for near Earth and deep space to Earth transmission discussion group are briefly presented. Specific recommendations as made by the group are as follows: (1) since data compression is a cost effective way to improve communications and storage capacity, NASA should use lossless data compression wherever possible; (2) NASA should conduct experiments and studies on the value and effectiveness of lossy data compression; (3) NASA should develop and select approaches to high ratio compression of operational data such as voice and video; (4) NASA should develop data compression integrated circuits for a few key approaches identified in the preceding recommendation; (5) NASA should examine new data compression approaches such as combining source and channel encoding, where high payoff gaps are identified in currently available schemes; and (6) users and developers of data compression technologies should be in closer communication within NASA and with academia, industry, and other government agencies.

  10. From Earth to Mars, Radiation Intensities in Interplanetary Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Keran

    2007-10-01

    The radiation field in interplanetary space between Earth and Mars is rather intense. Using a modified version of the ATROPOS Monte Carlo code combined with a modified version of the deterministic code, PLOTINUS, the effective dose rate to crew members in space craft hull shielded with a shell of 2 g/cm^2 of aluminum and 20 g/cm^2 of polyethylene was calculated to be 51 rem/y. The total dose during the solar-particle event of September 29, 1989, GLE 42, was calculated to be 50 rem. The dose in a ``storm cellar'' of 100 g/cm^2 of polyethylene equivalent during this time was calculated to be 5 rem. The calculations were for conditions corresponding to a recent solar minimum.

  11. Strides made in understanding space weather at Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonsanto, M. J.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

    Disturbances on the Sun can produce dramatic effects in the space environment surrounding the Earth. Energetic particle effects become more intense and pose a hazard to astronauts and damage spacecraft electronics; satellite lifetimes are shortened by increased atmospheric drag, and communications and navigation are disrupted by the changing plasma environment.“Space weather” has become the modern idiom for these effects, and periods of high activity are called geomagnetic storms. During a storm the ionosphere can be severely altered. A typical episode may reveal either a large decrease (negative phase) or increase (positive phase) in the normal daily peak ion density (NmF2) or total electron content (TEC). These changes in ion density are sometimes called ionospheric storms, and often persist for more than a day after a period of high geomagnetic activity.

  12. Space Shuttle Exhaust Modifications of the Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Plasma As Diagnosed By Ground Based Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P. J.; Bhatt, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines have been used since the early days of the STS program for active ionospheric modification experiments designed to be viewed by ground based ionospheric radar systems. In 1995, the Naval Research Laboratory initiated the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) Program using dedicated Space Shuttle OMS burns scheduled through the US Department of Defense's Space Test Program. SIMPLEX objectives include generation of localized ion-acoustic turbulence and the formation of ionospheric density irregularities for injections perpendicular to the local magnetic field, creating structures which can scatter incident UHF radar signals. We discuss radar observations made during several recent SIMPLEX mid-latitude experiments conducted over the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar system in Westford, Massachusetts. OMS engine firings release 10 kg/s of CO2, H2, H2O, and N2 molecules which charge exchange with ambient O+ ions in the F region, producing molecular ions and long lived electron density depletions as recombination occurs with ambient electrons. Depending on the magnetic field angle, the high velocity of the injected reactive exhaust molecules relative to the background ionosphere can create longitudinal propagating ion acoustic waves with amplitudes well above normal thermal levels and stimulate a wide variety of plasma instability processes. These effects produce high radar cross section targets readily visible to the Millstone Hill system, a high power large aperture radar designed to measure very weak scatter from the quiescent background ionosphere. We will survey the plasma instability parameter space explored to date and discuss plans for future SIMPLEX observations.

  13. Tiny Ultraviolet Polarimeter for Earth Stratosphere from Space Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivakhiv, O.; Geraimchuk, M.; Zbrutskyi, O.

    2015-09-01

    One of the reasons for climate change (i.e., stratospheric ozone concentrations) is connected with the variations in optical thickness of aerosols in the upper sphere of the atmosphere (at altitudes over 30 km). Therefore, aerosol and gas components of the atmosphere are crucial in the study of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing upon the Earth. Moreover, a scrupulous study of aerosol components of the Earth atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km (i.e., stratospheric aerosol), such as the size of particles, the real part of refractive index, optical thickness and its horizontal structure, concentration of ozone or the upper border of the stratospheric ozone layer is an important task in the research of the Earth climate change. At present, the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine, the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI"and the Lviv Polytechnic National University are engaged in the development of methodologies for the study of stratospheric aerosol by means of ultraviolet polarimeter using a microsatellite. So fare, there has been created a sample of a tiny ultraviolet polarimeter (UVP) which is considered to be a basic model for carrying out space experiments regarding the impact of the changes in stratospheric aerosols on both global and local climate.

  14. Space technology for directly imaging and characterizing exo-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crill, Brendan P.; Siegler, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    The detection of Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of their stars, and their spectroscopic characterization in a search for biosignatures, requires starlight suppression that exceeds the current best ground-based performance by orders of magnitude. The required planet/star brightness ratio of order 10-10 at visible wavelengths can be obtained by blocking stellar photons with an occulter, either externally (a starshade) or internally (a coronagraph) to the telescope system, and managing diffracted starlight, so as to directly image the exoplanet in reflected starlight. Coronagraph instruments require advancement in telescope aperture (either monolithic or segmented), aperture obscurations (obscured by secondary mirror and its support struts), and wavefront error sensitivity (e.g. line-of-sight jitter, telescope vibration, polarization). The starshade, which has never been used in a science application, benefits a mission by being decoupled from the telescope, allowing a loosening of telescope stability requirements. In doing so, it transfers the difficult technology from the telescope system to a large deployable structure (tens of meters to greater than 100 m in diameter) that must be positioned precisely at a distance of tens of thousands of kilometers from the telescope. We describe in this paper a roadmap to achieving the technological capability to search for biosignatures on an Earth-like exoplanet from a future space telescope. Two of these studies, HabEx and LUVOIR, include the direct imaging of Earth-sized habitable exoplanets as a central science theme.

  15. Comparison of different methods to compute a preliminary orbit of Space Debris using radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hélène; Gronchi, Giovanni F.

    2014-07-01

    We advertise a new method of preliminary orbit determination for space debris using radar observations, which we call Infang †. We can perform a linkage of two