Science.gov

Sample records for earth station applications

  1. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... earth station applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System... transmitting earth stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service may file on FCC Form 312EZ if all of the following... band; (ii) The earth station(s) will not be installed or operated on ships, aircraft, or other moving...

  2. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., except that such earth station applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau... transmitting earth station facilities are required to file on Form 312EZ, to the extent that form is available, in the following cases: (i) The earth station will transmit in the 3700-4200 MHz and 5925-6425 MHz...

  3. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., except that such earth station applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau... transmitting earth station facilities are required to file on Form 312EZ, to the extent that form is available, in the following cases: (i) The earth station will operate in the 3700-4200 MHz and 5925-6425 MHz...

  4. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., except that such earth station applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau... transmitting earth station facilities are required to file on Form 312EZ, to the extent that form is available, in the following cases: (i) The earth station will transmit in the 3700-4200 MHz and 5925-6425 MHz...

  5. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., except that such earth station applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau... transmitting earth station facilities are required to file on Form 312EZ, to the extent that form is available, in the following cases: (i) The earth station will transmit in the 3700-4200 MHz and 5925-6425 MHz...

  6. Earth Science and Applications attached payloads on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wicks, Thomas G.; Arnold, Ralph R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Office of Space Science and Applications' process for Attached Payloads on Space Station Freedom from development through on-orbit operations. Its primary objectives are to detail the sequential steps of the attached payload methodology by tracing in particular the selected Earth Science and Applications' payloads through this flow and relate the integral role of Marshall Space Flight Center's Science Utilization Management function of integration and operations.

  7. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... communications with the U.S. earth station will originate or terminate. The applicant bears the burden of showing... under the World Trade Organization Basic Telecommunications Agreement. (b) Earth station applicants, or... addressed in this paragraph must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System...

  8. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... communications with the U.S. earth station will originate or terminate. The applicant bears the burden of showing... under the World Trade Organization Basic Telecommunications Agreement. (b) Earth station applicants, or... addressed in this paragraph must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System...

  9. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... communications with the U.S. earth station will originate or terminate. The applicant bears the burden of showing... paragraph (a) of this section must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations...

  10. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... communications with the U.S. earth station will originate or terminate. The applicant bears the burden of showing... paragraph (a) of this section must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations...

  11. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... communications with the U.S. earth station will originate or terminate. The applicant bears the burden of showing... under the World Trade Organization Basic Telecommunications Agreement. (b) Earth station applicants, or... addressed in this paragraph must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System...

  12. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    NASA's Earth Dome is seen at Union Station, Monday, April 22, 2013 in Washington. The Earth Dome housed two of NASA's Science Gallery exhibits as part of a NASA-sponsored Earth Day event at Union Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    Jennifer Brennan, NASA EOSDIS Outreach Lead at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center, speaks to participants at a NASA Earth Day sponsored exhibit about satellite earth imagery, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license. [73 FR 4480, Jan. 25, 2008] ...

  15. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license. [73 FR 4480, Jan. 25, 2008] ...

  16. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license. [73 FR 4480, Jan. 25, 2008] ...

  17. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license. [73 FR 4480, Jan. 25, 2008] ...

  18. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license. [73 FR 4480, Jan. 25, 2008] ...

  19. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to the...

  20. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to the...

  1. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to the...

  2. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to the...

  3. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to the...

  4. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    Dr. Thomas Wagner, NASA Program Scientist for the cryosphere, gives a presentation on observing the Earth's Poles in front of the Hyperwall at at a NASA-sponsored Earth Day event at Union Station, Monday April 22, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    Holli Riebeek, Education and Public Outreach Lead for NASA/Landsat Mission at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center, is seen speaking to students at NASA's Earth Day Science Gallery Exhibit, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    A participant at NASA's Earth Day Science Gallery Exhibit calculates his carbon footprint at the Carbon Footprint Estimator, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    Holli Riebeek, Education and Public Outreach Lead for NASA/Landsat Mission at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center, holds up Landsat maps NASA's Earth Day Science Gallery Exhibit, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  9. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  10. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  11. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  12. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  13. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    Students assemble balloon race cars and Alka-Seltzer film canister rockets to demonstrate Newton's third Law of motion at the NASA Science Gallery at Union Station, Monday, April 22, 2013 in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    Michael Meyer, lead scientist for NASA's Mars Exploration Program at NASA Headquarters speaks in front of the Hyperwall at a NASA-sponsored Earth Day event at Union Station, Monday April 22, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    Izolda Trakhtenberg, Science Educator at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, conducts an experiment with students to create a cloud in a bottle, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Earth Day at Union Station

    2013-04-22

    Todd Toth, Science Educator at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, conducts an experiment with students to create a cloud in a bottle, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. A DTN-ready application for the real-time dissemination of Earth Observation data received by Direct Readout stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paronis, Dimitris; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Tsigkanos, Antonis; Ghita, Bogdan; Evans, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The majority of Earth observation satellites operate in low Earth sun-synchronous orbit and transmit data captured by a variety of sensors. The effective dissemination of satellite data in real-time is a crucial parameter for disaster monitoring in particular. Generally, a spacecraft collects data and then stores it on-board until it passes over dedicated ground stations to transmit the data. Additionally, some satellites (e.g. Terra, Aqua, Suomi-NPP, NOAA series satellites) have the so-called Direct Broadcast (DB) capability, which is based on a real-time data transmission sub-system. Compatible Direct Readout (DR) stations in direct line of sight are able to receive these transmissions. To date data exchange between DR stations have not been fully exploited for real-time data dissemination. Stations around the world store data locally, which is then disseminated on demand via Internet gateways based on the standard TCP-IP protocols. On the other hand, Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), which deliver data by enabling store-and-forward transmission in order to cope with link failures, service disruptions and network congestion, could prove as an alternative/complementary transmission mechanism for the efficient dissemination of data. The DTN architecture allows for efficient utilization of the network, using in-network storage and taking advantage of the network availability among the interconnected nodes. Although DTNs were originally developed for high-propagation delay, challenged connectivity environments such as deep space, the broader research community has investigated possible architectural enhancements for various emerging applications (e.g., terrestrial infrastructure, ground-to-air communications, content retrieval and dissemination). In this paper, a scheme for the effective dissemination of DB data is conceptualized, designed and implemented based on store-and-forward transmission capabilities provided by DTNs. For demonstration purposes, a set-up has

  18. Advanced modulation technology development for earth station demodulator applications. Coded modulation system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Susan P.; Kappes, J. Mark; Layer, David H.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1990-01-01

    A jointly optimized coded modulation system is described which was designed, built, and tested by COMSAT Laboratories for NASA LeRC which provides a bandwidth efficiency of 2 bits/s/Hz at an information rate of 160 Mbit/s. A high speed rate 8/9 encoder with a Viterbi decoder and an Octal PSK modem are used to achieve this. The BER performance is approximately 1 dB from the theoretically calculated value for this system at a BER of 5 E-7 under nominal conditions. The system operates in burst mode for downlink applications and tests have demonstrated very little degradation in performance with frequency and level offset. Unique word miss rate measurements were conducted which demonstrate reliable acquisition at low values of Eb/No. Codec self tests have verified the performance of this subsystem in a stand alone mode. The codec is capable of operation at a 200 Mbit/s information rate as demonstrated using a codec test set which introduces noise digitally. The measured performance is within 0.2 dB of the computer simulated predictions. A gate array implementation of the most time critical element of the high speed Viterbi decoder was completed. This gate array add-compare-select chip significantly reduces the power consumption and improves the manufacturability of the decoder. This chip has general application in the implementation of high speed Viterbi decoders.

  19. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  20. 47 CFR 25.130 - Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... such earth station license applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.130 Filing... with § 25.203 shall be provided for earth stations transmitting in the frequency bands shared with...

  1. 47 CFR 25.130 - Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... such earth station license applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.130 Filing... in accordance with § 25.203 shall be provided for earth stations transmitting in the frequency bands...

  2. 47 CFR 25.130 - Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... such earth station license applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.130 Filing... in accordance with § 25.203 shall be provided for earth stations transmitting in the frequency bands...

  3. 47 CFR 25.130 - Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... such earth station license applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.130 Filing... with § 25.203 shall be provided for earth stations transmitting in the frequency bands shared with...

  4. 47 CFR 25.130 - Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... such earth station license applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.130 Filing... with § 25.203 shall be provided for earth stations transmitting in the frequency bands shared with...

  5. Compact earth stations, hubs for energy industry expanding

    SciT

    Shimabukuro, T.

    1992-02-01

    That paper reports that advances in gallium arsenide (GaAs) technology, monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) and large scale integrated (VLSF) circuits, have contributed to the mass production of very reliable small aperture terminals (VSATs). Less publicized, but equally important to multinational energy organizations, are recent developments in compact earth station design and solid-state hubs for VSAT networks made possible by the new technology. Many applications are suited for the energy industry that involve compact earth station terminals and hubs. The first group of applications describes the use of GTE's ACES earth station for the Zaire Gulf Oil Co. in Zairemore » and for AMOCO in Trinidad. The second group of applications describes the compact hub for VSAT networks, which could potentially have a number of data communication uses in the energy industry, such as, IBM/SNA, X.25, or supervisory control an data acquisition (SCADA) applications.« less

  6. 47 CFR 25.131 - Filing requirements and registration for receive-only earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... receive-only earth stations. 25.131 Section 25.131 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25..., subpart Y of this chapter. (b) Receive-only earth stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service that operate...

  7. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... earth station operations. (a)(1) The requirements in this section apply to earth station applications of... analog video earth stations that are ineligible for routine licensing under § 25.211(d). (2) The... submit the certifications listed in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iv) of this section. The...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board fixed...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board fixed...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board fixed...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board fixed...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board fixed...

  13. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. 154(i), 154(j), 157(a), 302(a), 303(c), 303(e), 303(f), 303(g... Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service...-orbit space stations operating in the 10.95-11.2 GHz, 11.45-11.7 GHz, 11.7-12.2 GHz and 14.0-14.5 GHz...

  14. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication, radiodetermination...

  15. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication operations and...

  16. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication, radiodetermination...

  17. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication operations and...

  18. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication, radiodetermination...

  19. 47 CFR 25.131 - Filing requirements for receive-only earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.131 Filing... in §§ 25.130(a)(1) through 25.130(a)(5). All such earth station license applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System (IBFS) in accordance with the applicable provisions...

  20. 47 CFR 25.131 - Filing requirements for receive-only earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.131 Filing... in §§ 25.130(a)(1) through 25.130(a)(5). All such earth station license applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System (IBFS) in accordance with the applicable provisions...

  1. 47 CFR 25.131 - Filing requirements for receive-only earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.131 Filing... in §§ 25.130(a)(1) through 25.130(a)(5). All such earth station license applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System (IBFS) in accordance with the applicable provisions...

  2. 47 CFR 25.131 - Filing requirements for receive-only earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.131 Filing... in §§ 25.130(a)(1) through 25.130(a)(5). All such earth station license applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System (IBFS) in accordance with the applicable provisions...

  3. 47 CFR 25.132 - Verification of earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Verification of earth station antenna... Verification of earth station antenna performance standards. (a)(1) All applications for transmitting earth... pursuant to § 2.902 of this chapter from the manufacturer of each antenna that the results of a series of...

  4. 47 CFR 25.132 - Verification of earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Verification of earth station antenna... Verification of earth station antenna performance standards. (a)(1) All applications for transmitting earth... pursuant to § 2.902 of this chapter from the manufacturer of each antenna that the results of a series of...

  5. 47 CFR 25.132 - Verification of earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Verification of earth station antenna... Verification of earth station antenna performance standards. (a)(1) All applications for transmitting earth... pursuant to § 2.902 of this chapter from the manufacturer of each antenna that the results of a series of...

  6. 47 CFR 25.132 - Verification of earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Verification of earth station antenna... Verification of earth station antenna performance standards. (a)(1) Except for applications for 20/30 GHz earth... the antenna manufacturer on representative equipment in representative configurations, and the test...

  7. Practical Applications of a Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The potential uses of a special station for civil and commercial applications is examined. Five panels of experts representing user-oriented communities, and a sixth panel which dealth with system design considerations, based their studies on the assumption that the station would be a large platform, capable of housing a wide array of diverse instruments, and could be either manned or unmanned. The Earth's Resources Panel dealt with applications of remote sensing for resource assessment. The Earth's Environment Panel dealt with the Earth's atmosphere and its impact on society. The Ocean Operations Panel looked at both science and applications. The Satellite Communications Panel assessed the potential role of a space station in the evolution of commercial telecommunication services up to the year 2000. The Materials Science and Engineering panel focused on the utility of a space station environment for materials processing.

  8. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for fewer...

  9. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for fewer...

  10. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for fewer...

  11. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for fewer...

  12. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for fewer...

  13. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and 17/24 GHz BSS feeder link applications in which the proposed earth station operations do not fall... certifications listed in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iv) of this section. The applicant will be... subject non-conforming earth station with its satellite(s) has the potential to receive interference from...

  14. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and 17/24 GHz BSS feeder link applications in which the proposed earth station operations do not fall... certifications listed in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iv) of this section. The applicant will be... subject non-conforming earth station with its satellite(s) has the potential to receive interference from...

  15. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., ESAA and 17/24 GHz BSS feeder link applications in which the proposed earth station operations do not... the certifications listed in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iv) of this section. The applicant... subject non-conforming earth station with its satellite(s) has the potential to receive interference from...

  16. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and 17/24 GHz BSS feeder link applications in which the proposed earth station operations do not fall...) through (d)(1)(iv) of this section. The applicant will be authorized to transmit only to the satellite... operator acknowledging that the proposed operation of the subject non-conforming earth station with its...

  17. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Analog video earth station applications, and (3) Applications for feeder-link earth stations in the 17/24...BW/4 kHz For 9.2° 18 dBW/4 kHz For 48° 18 dBW/4 kHz For 48° <θ ≤85° −8 dBW/4 k...

  18. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile-Satellite Service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication...

  19. The role of the space station in earth science research

    SciT

    Kaye, Jack A.

    1999-01-22

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to be a valuable platform for earth science research. By virtue of its being in a mid-inclination orbit (51.5 deg.), ISS provides the opportunity for nadir viewing of nearly 3/4 of the Earth's surface, and allows viewing to high latitudes if limb-emission or occultation viewing techniques are used. ISS also provides the opportunity for viewing the Earth under a range of lighting conditions, unlike the polar sun-synchronous satellites that are used for many earth observing programs. The ISS is expected to have ample power and data handling capability to support Earth-viewing instruments,more » provide opportunities for external mounting and retrieval of instruments, and be in place for a sufficiently long period that long-term data records can be obtained. On the other hand, there are several questions related to contamination, orbital variations, pointing knowledge and stability, and viewing that are of concern in consideration of ISS for earth science applications. The existence of an optical quality window (the Window Observational Research Facility, or WORF), also provides the opportunity for Earth observations from inside the pressurized part of ISS. Current plans by NASA for earth science research from ISS are built around the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) instrument, planned for launch in 2002.« less

  20. Intelsat's small earth stations - Impact on the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougal, Patrick

    1986-12-01

    This article offers a brief historical look at the progress in the use of small earth stations in the developing world, and a present status report on Intelsat's new service offerings, especially in the use of smaller earth station technology. Three experiments or series of experiments are discussed: those conducted on NASA's ATS (Applications Technology Satellite) series of satellites, India's SITE (Satellite Instructional Television Experiment), and the Rural Satellite Project sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Intelsat's contributions to the growth of telecommunications in the developing world include: domestic leases, VISTA and INTELNET services, Project SHARE, and some new strategies for the financing of telecommunications projects. The article concludes that it is only recently that some of the true benefits of satellite communications have been realized in the developing countries because of improvements in technology, reduction in costs, and diversity of service offerings.

  1. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses for a selfie after a quick rap performance by some young professionals during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project on New England water resources during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  4. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    Lisa Waldron and Justin Roberts-Pierel present their project on Texas health and air quality during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  5. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    Michael Gao presents his project on Southeast Asian disasters during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  6. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden asks young professionals about their projects after posing for a group photo during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  7. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they are...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they are...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they are...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they are...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they are...

  12. A technique for measurement of earth station antenna G/T by radio stars and Applications Technology Satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochevar, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    A new technique has been developed to accurately measure the G/T of a small aperture antenna using geostationary satellites and the well established radio star method. A large aperture antenna having the capability of accurately measuring its G/T by using a radio star of known power density is used to obtain an accurate G/T to use as a reference. The CNR of both the large and small aperture antennas are then measured using an Applications Technology Satellite (ATS). After normalizing the two C/N ratios to the large antenna system noise temperature the G/T or the gain G of the small aperture antenna can then be determined.

  13. 47 CFR 25.209 - Earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.209 Earth station antenna performance standards. (a) The gain of any antenna to be employed in transmission from an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service shall lie below the envelope defined in paragraphs (a)(1) through (4) of this section: (1...

  14. 75 FR 1285 - Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Earth Stations (VMES) AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final Rule; announcement of...-Mounted Earth Stations in Certain Frequency Bands Allocated to the Fixed-Satellite Service, IB Docket No...(i), 4(j), 7(a), 301, 303(c), 303(f), 303(g), 303(r), 303(y) and 308 of the Communications Act of...

  15. 47 CFR 25.209 - Earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.209 Earth station antenna performance standards... transmission from an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service shall lie below the relevant envelope defined in paragraphs (a)(1) through (4) of this section: (1) In the plane of the geostationary satellite...

  16. LBR-2 Earth stations for the ACTS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, Michael; Jirberg, Russell; Spisz, Ernie

    1990-01-01

    The Low Burst Rate-2 (LBR-2) earth station being developed for NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) is described. The LBR-2 is one of two earth station types that operate through the satellite's baseband processor. The LBR-2 is a small earth terminal (VSAT)-like earth station that is easily sited on a user's premises, and provides up to 1.792 megabits per second (MBPS) of voice, video, and data communications. Addressed here is the design of the antenna, the rf subsystems, the digital processing equipment, and the user interface equipment.

  17. Tether applications for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobles, W.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of space station applications for tethers were reviewed. Many will affect the operation of the station itself while others are in the category of research or scientific platforms. One of the most expensive aspects of operating the space station will be the continuing shuttle traffic to transport logistic supplies and payloads to the space station. If a means can be found to use tethers to improve the efficiency of that transportation operation, it will increase the operating efficiency of the system and reduce the overall cost of the space station. The concept studied consists of using a tether to lower the shuttle from the space station. This results in a transfer of angular momentum and energy from the orbiter to the space station. The consequences of this transfer is studied and how beneficial use can be made of it.

  18. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the master...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the master...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the master...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the master...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the master...

  3. Photovoltaic power system for satellite Earth stations in remote areas: Project status and design description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system which will be installed at a remote location in Indonesia to provide power for a satellite Earth station and a classroom for video and audio teleconferences are described. The Earth station may also provide telephone service to a nearby village. The use of satellite communications for development assistance applications and the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic engine generator power system for remote satellite Earth stations are demonstrated. The Indonesian rural satellite project is discussed and the photovoltaic power system is described.

  4. 47 CFR 25.223 - Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. 25.223 Section 25.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL....223 Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) This section applies to all applications for earth station licenses in the 17/24 GHz BSS frequency...

  5. 47 CFR 25.223 - Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. 25.223 Section 25.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL....223 Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) This section applies to all applications for earth station licenses in the 17/24 GHz BSS frequency...

  6. 47 CFR 25.223 - Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. 25.223 Section 25.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL....223 Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) This section applies to all applications for earth station licenses in the 17/24 GHz BSS frequency...

  7. 75 FR 7975 - Procedures to Govern the Use of Satellite Earth Stations on Board Vessels in the 5925-6425 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Govern the Use of Satellite Earth Stations on Board Vessels in the 5925-6425 MHz/3700-4200 MHz Bands and... on Reconsideration, In the Matter of Procedures to Govern the Use of Satellite Earth Stations on...: December 31, 2012. Title: Earth Stations on Board Vessels (ESV). Form No.: Not applicable. Type of Review...

  8. 47 CFR 25.223 - Alternative licensing rules for feeder-link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. 25.223 Section 25.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Alternative licensing rules for feeder-link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) This section applies to license applications for earth stations that transmit to 17/24 GHz Broadcasting-Satellite Service space...

  9. 47 CFR 25.223 - Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. 25.223 Section 25.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL....223 Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) This section applies to all applications for earth station licenses in the 17/24 GHz BSS frequency...

  10. Simulation of interference between Earth stations and Earth-orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    It is often desirable to determine the potential for radio frequency interference between earth stations and orbiting spacecraft. This information can be used to select frequencies for radio systems to avoid interference or it can be used to determine if coordination between radio systems is necessary. A model is developed that will determine the statistics of interference between earth stations and elliptical orbiting spacecraft. The model uses orbital dynamics, detailed antenna patterns, and spectral characteristics to obtain accurate levels of interference at the victim receiver. The model is programmed into a computer simulation to obtain long-term statistics of interference. Two specific examples are shown to demonstrate the model. The first example is a simulation of interference from a fixed-satellite earth station to an orbiting scatterometer receiver. The second example is a simulation of interference from earth-exploration satellites to a deep-space earth station.

  11. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non... systems shall not transmit communications to or from user transceivers in the United States unless such communications are authorized under a service contract with the holder of a pertinent FCC blanket license or...

  12. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non... systems shall not transmit communications to or from user transceivers in the United States unless such communications are authorized under a service contract with the holder of a pertinent FCC blanket license or...

  13. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non... systems shall not transmit communications to or from user transceivers in the United States unless such communications are authorized under a service contract with the holder of a pertinent FCC blanket license or...

  14. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non... systems shall not transmit communications to or from user transceivers in the United States unless such communications are authorized under a service contract with the holder of a pertinent FCC blanket license or...

  15. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP density envelopes for FSS earth stations transmitting in certain frequency bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... applications, and (2) Analog video earth station applications. (b) Earth station applications subject to this...Hz For 7° 18 dBW/4 kHz For 48° 18 dBW/4 kHz For 48° <θ ≤85° −8 dBW/4 kHz For 85° <θ ≤180° where θ is defined in paragraph (c)(2) of...

  16. Artist's concept of Skylab space station cluster in Earth's orbit

    1971-10-01

    S71-52192 (1971) --- An artist's concept of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth's orbit. The cutaway view shows astronaut activity in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The Skylab cluster is composed of the OWS, Airlock Module (AM), Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), and the Command and Service Module (CSM). Photo credit: NASA

  17. The Earth Based Ground Stations Element of the Lunar Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Fatig, Curtis; Schier, James; Lee, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) is responsible for developing a concept for building and supporting a lunar outpost with several exploration capabilities such as rovers, colonization, and observatories. The lunar outpost is planned to be located at the Moon's South Pole. The LAT Communications and Navigation Team (C&N) is responsible for defining the network infrastructure to support the lunar outpost. The following elements are needed to support lunar outpost activities: A Lunar surface network based on industry standard wireless 802.xx protocols, relay satellites positioned 180 degrees apart to provide South Pole coverage for the half of the lunar 28-day orbit that is obscured from Earth view, earth-based ground stations deployed at geographical locations 120 degrees apart. This paper will focus on the Earth ground stations of the lunar architecture. Two types of ground station networks are discussed. One provides Direct to Earth (DTE) support to lunar users using Kaband 23/26Giga-Hertz (GHz) communication frequencies. The second supports the Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) that will be using Ka-band 40/37GHz (Q-band). This paper will discuss strategies to provide a robust operational network in support of various lunar missions and trades of building new antennas at non-NASA facilities, to improve coverage and provide site diversification for handling rain attenuation.

  18. Service offerings and interfaces for the ACTS network of earth stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, T. A.; Dobyns, T. R.; Chitre, D. M.; Lindstrom, R.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) will use a network of about 20 earth stations to operate as a Mode 1 network. This network will support two ACTS program objectives: to verify the technical performance of ACTS Mode 1 operation in GEO and to demonstrate the types and quality of services that can be provided by an ACTS Mode 1 communications system. The terrestrial interface design is a critical element in assuring that these network earth stations will meet the objectives. In this paper, the applicable terrestrial interface design requirements, the resulting interface specifications, and the associated terrestrial input/output hardware are discussed. A functional block diagram of a network earth station is shown.

  19. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) ESV and VMES applications, (2) Analog video earth station applications, (3) Applications for feeder... ≤ 7° 0 dBW/4 kHz For 7° 18 dBW/4 kHz For 48° 18 dBW/4 kHz For 48° < θ ≤ 85° −8 dBW/4 kHz For 85° < θ ≤ 180° where θ is defined in...

  20. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) ESV and VMES applications, (2) Analog video earth station applications, (3) Applications for feeder... ≤ 7° 0 dBW/4 kHz For 7° 18 dBW/4 kHz For 48° 18 dBW/4 kHz For 48° < θ ≤ 85° −8 dBW/4 kHz For 85° < θ ≤ 180° where θ is defined in...

  1. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) ESV and VMES applications, (2) Analog video earth station applications, (3) Applications for feeder... ≤ 7° 0 dBW/4 kHz For 7° 18 dBW/4 kHz For 48° 18 dBW/4 kHz For 48° < θ ≤ 85° −8 dBW/4 kHz For 85° < θ ≤ 180° where θ is defined in...

  2. 47 CFR 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preemption of local zoning of earth stations... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS General § 25.104 Preemption of local zoning of earth stations. (a) Any... reception by satellite earth station antennas, or imposes more than minimal costs on users of such antennas...

  3. 47 CFR 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preemption of local zoning of earth stations... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS General § 25.104 Preemption of local zoning of earth stations. (a) Any... reception by satellite earth station antennas, or imposes more than minimal costs on users of such antennas...

  4. 47 CFR 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preemption of local zoning of earth stations... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS General § 25.104 Preemption of local zoning of earth stations. (a) Any... reception by satellite earth station antennas, or imposes more than minimal costs on users of such antennas...

  5. 47 CFR 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preemption of local zoning of earth stations... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS General § 25.104 Preemption of local zoning of earth stations. (a) Any... reception by satellite earth station antennas, or imposes more than minimal costs on users of such antennas...

  6. 47 CFR 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preemption of local zoning of earth stations... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS General § 25.104 Preemption of local zoning of earth stations. (a) Any... reception by satellite earth station antennas, or imposes more than minimal costs on users of such antennas...

  7. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... also contain the formal waiver required by section 304 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. 304. The... electronically through the International Bureau Filing System (IBFS) in accordance with the applicable provisions... proposed service, details of the link noise budget, typical or baseline earth station parameters...

  8. Computer programs for plotting spot-beam coverages from an earth synchronous satellite and earth-station antenna elevation angle contours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Singh, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A description and listings of computer programs for plotting geographical and political features of the world or a specified portion of it, for plotting spot-beam coverages from an earth-synchronous satellite over the computer generated mass, and for plotting polar perspective views of the earth and earth-station antenna elevation contours for a given satellite location are presented. The programs have been prepared in connection with a project on Application of Communication Satellites to Educational Development.

  9. Earth resources instrumentation for the Space Station Polar Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Martin J.; Vane, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    The spacecraft and payloads of the Space Station Polar Platform program are described in a brief overview. Present plans call for one platform in a descending morning-equator-crossing orbit at 824 km and two or three platforms in ascending afternoon-crossing orbits at 542-824 km. The components of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) and NOAA payloads are listed in tables and briefly characterized, and data-distribution requirements and the mission development schedule are discussed. A drawing of the platform, a graph showing the spectral coverage of the EOS instruments, and a glossary of acronyms are provided.

  10. Earth Observations from the International Space Station: Benefits for Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for observation of the Earth's land surface, oceans, and atmosphere. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted active and passive remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to autonomous, sun-synchronous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. Beginning in May 2012, NASA ISS sensor systems have been available to respond to requests for data through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, also known as the "International Disaster Charter" or IDC. Data from digital handheld cameras, multispectral, and hyperspectral imaging systems has been acquired in response to IDC activations and delivered to requesting agencies through the United States Geological Survey. The characteristics of the ISS for Earth observation will be presented, including past, current, and planned NASA, International Partner, and commercial remote sensing systems. The role and capabilities of the ISS for humanitarian benefit, specifically collection of remotely sensed disaster response data, will be discussed.

  11. 47 CFR 25.129 - Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment authorization for portable earth... Requirements § 25.129 Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers. (a) Except as expressly... earth-station transceivers subject to regulation under part 25. This requirement does not apply, however...

  12. 47 CFR 25.129 - Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment authorization for portable earth... Requirements § 25.129 Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers. (a) Except as expressly... earth-station transceivers subject to regulation under part 25. This requirement does not apply, however...

  13. 47 CFR 25.129 - Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment authorization for portable earth... Requirements § 25.129 Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers. (a) Except as expressly... earth-station transceivers subject to regulation under part 25. This requirement does not apply, however...

  14. 47 CFR 25.129 - Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment authorization for portable earth... Requirements § 25.129 Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers. (a) Except as expressly... earth-station transceivers subject to regulation under part 25. This requirement does not apply, however...

  15. Crew Earth Observations: Twelve Years of Documenting Earth from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Stefanov, William L.; Willis, Kimberley; Runco, Susan; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Dawson, Melissa; Trenchard, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload was one of the initial experiments aboard the International Space Station, and has been continuously collecting data about the Earth since Expedition 1. The design of the experiment is simple: using state-of-the-art camera equipment, astronauts collect imagery of the Earth's surface over defined regions of scientific interest and also document dynamic events such as storms systems, floods, wild fires and volcanic eruptions. To date, CEO has provided roughly 600,000 images of Earth, capturing views of features and processes on land, the oceans, and the atmosphere. CEO data are less rigorously constrained than other remote sensing data, but the volume of data, and the unique attributes of the imagery provide a rich and understandable view of the Earth that is difficult to achieve from the classic remote sensing platforms. In addition, the length-of-record of the imagery dataset, especially when combined with astronaut photography from other NASA and Russian missions starting in the early 1960s, provides a valuable record of changes on the surface of the Earth over 50 years. This time period coincides with the rapid growth of human settlements and human infrastructure.

  16. ACTS Ka-Band Earth Stations: Technology, Performance, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Struharik, Steven J.; Diamond, John J.; Stewart, David

    2000-01-01

    stations successfully demonstrated many services and applications at Ka-band in three different modes of operation: circuit switched TDMA using the satellite on-board processor, satellite switched SS-TDMA applications using the on-board Microwave Switch Matrix (MSM), and conventional transponder (bent-pipe) operation. Data rates ranged from 4.8 kbps up to 622 Mbps. Experiments included: 1) low rate (4.8- 1 00's kbps) remote data acquisition and control using small earth stations, 2) moderate rate (1-45 Mbps) experiments included full duplex voice and video conferencing and both full duplex and asymmetric data rate protocol and network evaluation using mid-size ground stations, and 3) link characterization experiments and high data rate (155-622 Mbps) terrestrial and satellite interoperability application experiments conducted by a consortium of experimenters using the large transportable ground stations.

  17. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 4: Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The earth observations capability of the space station and space shuttle program definition is discussed. The stress in the functional program element has been to update the sensor specifications and to shift some of the emphasis from sensors to experiments to be done aboard the facility. The earth observations facility will include provisions for data acquisition, sensor control and display, data analysis, and maintenance and repair. The facility is research and development in nature with a potential for operational applications.

  18. Science and applications on the space station: A strategic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The central themes relating to science and applications on the Space Station for fiscal year 1989 are discussed. Materials science research is proposed in a wide variety of subfields including protein crystal growth, metallurgy, and properties of fluids. Also proposed are the U.S. Polar Platform, an Extended Duration Crew Operations Project, and a long-range Space Biology Research Project to investigate plant and animal physiology, gravitational biology, life support systems, and exobiology. The exterior of the Space Station will provide attachment points for payloads to study subjects such as the earth and its environment, the sun, other bodies in the solar system, and cosmic objects. Examples of such attached payloads are given. They include a plasma interaction monitoring system, observation of solar features and properties, studies of particle radiation from the sun, cosmic dust collection and analysis, surveys of various cosmic and solar rays, measurements of rainfall and wind and the study of global changes on earth.

  19. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... telephone number of the applicant; (2) The location and geographical coordinates of the proposed station; (3... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations... for offshore stations. Applications for new Offshore Radiotelephone Service stations must contain an...

  20. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... telephone number of the applicant; (2) The location and geographical coordinates of the proposed station; (3... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations... for offshore stations. Applications for new Offshore Radiotelephone Service stations must contain an...

  1. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... telephone number of the applicant; (2) The location and geographical coordinates of the proposed station; (3... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations... for offshore stations. Applications for new Offshore Radiotelephone Service stations must contain an...

  2. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... telephone number of the applicant; (2) The location and geographical coordinates of the proposed station; (3... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations... for offshore stations. Applications for new Offshore Radiotelephone Service stations must contain an...

  3. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in... receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) Notwithstanding § 25.209(c) of this part, receive-only earth stations operating in the 17/24 GHz broadcasting-satellite service can claim no greater...

  4. 47 CFR 25.216 - Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations... Technical Standards § 25.216 Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation-satellite service. (a) The e.i.r.p. density of emissions from mobile earth stations placed in...

  5. 47 CFR 25.216 - Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations... Technical Standards § 25.216 Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation-satellite service. (a) The e.i.r.p. density of emissions from mobile earth stations placed in...

  6. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in... receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) Notwithstanding § 25.209(c) of this part, receive-only earth stations operating in the 17/24 GHz broadcasting-satellite service can claim no greater...

  7. 47 CFR 25.216 - Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations... Technical Standards § 25.216 Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation-satellite service. (a) The e.i.r.p. density of emissions from mobile earth stations placed in...

  8. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in... receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) Notwithstanding § 25.209(c) of this part, receive-only earth stations operating in the 17/24 GHz broadcasting-satellite service can claim no greater...

  9. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in... receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) Notwithstanding § 25.209(c) of this part, receive-only earth stations operating in the 17/24 GHz broadcasting-satellite service can claim no greater...

  10. 47 CFR 25.216 - Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations... Technical Standards § 25.216 Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation-satellite service. (a) The e.i.r.p. density of emissions from mobile earth stations placed in...

  11. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in... receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) Notwithstanding § 25.209(c) of this part, receive-only earth stations operating in the 17/24 GHz broadcasting-satellite service can claim no greater...

  12. Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory (EVAL). Instrument catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    There were 87 instruments described that are used in earth observation, with an additional 51 instruments containing references to programs and their major functions. These instruments were selected from such sources as: (1) earth observation flight program, (2) operational satellite improvement programs, (3) advanced application flight experiment program, (4) shuttle experiment definition program, and (5) earth observation aircraft program.

  13. Direct solar heating for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Early investigations have shown that a large percentage of the power generated on the Space Station will be needed in the form of high-temperature thermal energy. The most efficient method of satisfying this requirement is through direct utilization of available solar energy. A system concept for the direct use of solar energy on the Space Station, including its benefits to customers, technologists, and designers of the station, is described. After a brief discussion of energy requirements and some possible applications, results of selective tradeoff studies are discussed, showing area reduction benefits and some possible configurations for the practical use of direct solar heating. Following this is a description of system elements and required technologies. Finally, an assessment of available contributive technologies is presented, and a Space Shuttle Orbiter flight experiment is proposed.

  14. Russian-Cuban Colocation Station for Radio Astronomical Observation and Monitoring of Near-Earth Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, D. V.; Uratsuka, M.-R.; Ipatov, A. V.; Marshalov, D. A.; Shuygina, N. V.; Vasilyev, M. V.; Gayazov, I. S.; Ilyin, G. N.; Bondarenko, Yu. S.; Melnikov, A. E.; Suvorkin, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    The article presents the main possibilities of using the projected Russian-Cuban geodynamic colocation station on the basis of the Institute of Geophysics and Astronomy of the Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment of the Republic of Cuba to carry out radio observations and monitoring the near-Earth space. Potential capabilities of the station are considered for providing various observational programs: astrophysical observations; observations by space geodesy methods using radio very long baselines interferometers, global navigation satellite systems, laser rangers, and various Doppler systems, as well as monitoring of artificial and natural bodies in the near-Earth and deep space, including the ranging of asteroids approaching the Earth. The results of modeling the observations on the planned station are compared with that obtained on the existing geodynamic stations. The efficiency of the projected Russian-Cuban station for solving astronomical tasks is considered.

  15. Earth Observations Capabilities of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Scott, Karen P.

    The International Space Station (ISS) is presently being assembled through the joint efforts of the United States, Russia, Canada, Japan, the European Space Agency and Brazil, and will be an orbiting, multi-use facility expected to remain on-orbit into the next decade. The orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees allows the ISS to overfly approximately 75% of the Earth's land area and approximately 95% of the Earth's population. Due to the westward precession of orbit tracks, the ISS will overfly the same location approximately every three days, with the identical lighting conditions being repeated every three months. The ISS has two basic capabilities for Earth observations: a fused silica window in the Destiny laboratory, and sites on the external truss and partner modules that accommodate external payloads. The Destiny laboratory has a window port built into its nadir facing side. The window consists of 3 panes of Corning 7940 fused silica which are approximately 56 cm in diameter, providing an approximately 51 cm clear aperture. In 1996, the ISS Program agreed to upgrade the glass in the Destiny window to a set of stringent optical performance requirements. The window has a wavefront error of 1/15 wavelength peak-to-valley over a 15.2 cm aperture relative to a reference wavelength of 632.8 nm, which will allow up to a 30 cm telescope to be flown. The flight article window was radiometrically calibrated in May of 2000, indicating that the window had better than 95% transmittance in the visible region, with a steep drop-off in the ultraviolet and a gradual drop-off in the infrared from the visible through the near and short wave infrared spectra. Utilization of the optical performance of the Destiny window requires the use of the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF). The WORF is essentially an Express rack with a 0.8 m^3 payload volume centered on the Destiny window. The payload volume provides mounting surfaces for window payload hardware, including a stiff

  16. Analysis of Delay Fluctuations on Two-Way Time Transfer Earth Stations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer ( TWSTFT ) has become one of the major techniques to compare atomic time scales and primary clocks over...the result of TWSTFT . On the TL’s earth station, the most of the equipment is located outside, including the up- and down-converters, solid-state...light/shade, wind speed, humidity, and thermal circulation, may affect the TWSTFT earth station. These conditions may cause both the change of path

  17. Station coordinates, baselines, and earth rotation from Lageos laser ranging - 1976-1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Eanes, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The orbit of the Lageos satellite is well suited as a reference frame for studying the rotation of the earth and the relative motion of points on the earth's crust. The satellite laser measurements can determine the location of a set of tracking stations in an appropriate terrestrial coordinate system. The motion of the earth's rotation axis relative to this system can be studied on the basis of the established tracking station locations. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of 7.7 years of Lageos laser ranging data. In the first solution considered, the entire data span was used to adjust a single set of station positions simultaneously with orbit and earth rotation parameters. Attention is given to the accuracy of earth rotation parameters which are determined as an inherent part of the solution process.

  18. Sally Ride EarthKAM: 15 Years of STEM Education and Outreach from Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, T.; Griffin, R.; Klug, T.; Harbour, S.; Au, B.; Graves, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Sally Ride EarthKAM @ Space Camp is a digital camera payload on board the International Space Station (ISS) that allows students from around the globe to request photos of the Earth from space. Since its launch to the ISS in 2001, approximately 110,000 images have been requested by students from over 90 countries. EarthKAM provides the ultimate platform for STEM engagement in both formal and informal educational settings, as it is currently the only earth observation science payload on station completely controlled by students. Images are requested and accessed through a web portal and can be used by educators in a multitude of ways to promote interest in geosciences, math, physics, and numerous other fields. EarthKAM is currently operated out of the US Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama and is incorporated into many Space Camp programs. Space Camp hosts nearly 25,000 students and 500 educators each year, vastly improving EarthKAM exposure. Future concepts currently in development include the ability to collect new data products such as night-time and near-infrared imagery, additional science curricula in the form of focused lesson plans and image applications, and a redesigned graphical user interface for requesting photos. The EarthKAM project, a NASA educational outreach program, is currently managed by the US Space and Rocket Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and Teledyne Brown Engineering, Inc.

  19. Earth resources applications of the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite (SEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. S.; Cook, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a four month study to define earth resource applications which are uniquely suited to data collection by a geosynchronous satellite. While such a satellite could also perform many of the functions of ERTS, or its low orbiting successors, those applications were considered in those situations where requirements for timely observation limit the capability of ERTS or EOS. Thus, the application presented could be used to justify a SEOS.

  20. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 [IB Docket No. 12-376; FCC 12-161] Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal...

  1. Space Station Astronauts Return Safely to Earth on This Week @NASA – December 11, 2015

    2015-12-11

    On Dec. 11 aboard the International Space Station, NASA’s Kjell Lindgren, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and Kimiya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, bid farewell to crew members remaining on the station -- including Commander Scott Kelly, NASA’s one-year mission astronaut. The returning members of Expedition 45 then climbed aboard their Soyuz spacecraft for the trip back to Earth. They safely touched down hours later in Kazakhstan – closing out a 141-day stay in space. Also, Next space station crew prepares for launch, Supply mission arrives at space station, Quantum computing lab and more!

  2. Recent Research applications at the Athens Neutron Monitor Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromichalaki, H.; Gerontidou, M.; Paschalis, P.; Papaioannou, A.; Paouris, E.; Papailiou, M.; Souvatzoglou, G.

    2015-08-01

    The ground based neutron monitor measurements play a key role in the field of space physics, solar-terrestrial relations, and space weather applications. The Athens cosmic ray group has developed several research applications such as an optimized automated Ground Level Enhancement Alert (GLE Alert Plus) and a web interface, providing data from multiple Neutron Monitor stations (Multi-Station tool). These services are actually available via the Space Weather Portal operated by the European Space Agency (http://swe.ssa.esa.int). In addition, two simulation tools, based on Geant4, have also been implemented. The first one is for the simulation of the cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere (DYASTIMA) and the second one is for the simulation of the 6NM-64 neutron monitor. The contribution of the simulation tools to the calculations of the radiation dose received by air crews and passengers within the Earth's atmosphere and to the neutron monitor study is presented as well. Furthermore, the accurate calculation of the barometric coefficient and the primary data processing by filtering algorithms, such as the well known Median Editor and the developed by the Athens group ANN Algorithm and Edge Editor which contribute to the provision of high quality neutron monitor data are also discussed. Finally, a Space Weather Forecasting Center which provides a three day geomagnetic activity report on a daily basis has been set up and has been operating for the last two years at the Athens Neutron Monitor Station.

  3. Circumlunar Free-Return Cycler Orbits for a Manned Earth-Moon Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Aldrin, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple free-return circumlunar cycler orbits were designed to allow regular travel between the Earth and Moon by a manned space station. The presented cycler orbits contain circumlunar free-return "figure-8" segments and yield lunar encounters every month. Smaller space "taxi" vehicles can rendezvous with (and depart from) the cycling Earth-Moon space station to enter lunar orbit (and/or land on the lunar surface), return to Earth, or reach destinations including Earth-Moon L1 and L2 halo orbits, near-Earth objects (NEOs), Venus, and Mars. To assess the practicality of the selected orbits, relevant cycler characteristics (including (Delta)V maintenance requirements) are presented and compared.

  4. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  5. View of Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit from CSM

    1974-02-08

    SL4-143-4707 (8 Feb. 1974) --- An overhead view of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit as photographed from the Skylab 4 Command and Service Modules (CSM) during the final fly-around by the CSM before returning home. The space station is contrasted against a cloud-covered Earth. Note the solar shield which was deployed by the second crew of Skylab and from which a micrometeoroid shield has been missing since the cluster was launched on May 14, 1973. The OWS solar panel on the left side was also lost on workshop launch day. Photo credit: NASA

  6. 47 CFR 25.138 - Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. 25.138 Section 25.138 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

  7. 47 CFR 25.138 - Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. 25.138 Section 25.138 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

  8. 47 CFR 25.138 - Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. 25.138 Section 25.138 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

  9. 47 CFR 25.138 - Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. 25.138 Section 25.138 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

  10. 47 CFR 25.138 - Licensing requirements for GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing requirements for GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. 25.138 Section 25.138 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

  11. A probabilistic framework for single-station location of seismicity on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böse, M.; Clinton, J. F.; Ceylan, S.; Euchner, F.; van Driel, M.; Khan, A.; Giardini, D.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Locating the source of seismic energy from a single three-component seismic station is associated with large uncertainties, originating from challenges in identifying seismic phases, as well as inevitable pick and model uncertainties. The challenge is even higher for planets such as Mars, where interior structure is a priori largely unknown. In this study, we address the single-station location problem by developing a probabilistic framework that combines location estimates from multiple algorithms to estimate the probability density function (PDF) for epicentral distance, back azimuth, and origin time. Each algorithm uses independent and complementary information in the seismic signals. Together, the algorithms allow locating seismicity ranging from local to teleseismic quakes. Distances and origin times of large regional and teleseismic events (M > 5.5) are estimated from observed and theoretical body- and multi-orbit surface-wave travel times. The latter are picked from the maxima in the waveform envelopes in various frequency bands. For smaller events at local and regional distances, only first arrival picks of body waves are used, possibly in combination with fundamental Rayleigh R1 waveform maxima where detectable; depth phases, such as pP or PmP, help constrain source depth and improve distance estimates. Back azimuth is determined from the polarization of the Rayleigh- and/or P-wave phases. When seismic signals are good enough for multiple approaches to be used, estimates from the various methods are combined through the product of their PDFs, resulting in an improved event location and reduced uncertainty range estimate compared to the results obtained from each algorithm independently. To verify our approach, we use both earthquake recordings from existing Earth stations and synthetic Martian seismograms. The Mars synthetics are generated with a full-waveform scheme (AxiSEM) using spherically-symmetric seismic velocity, density and attenuation models of

  12. Low Earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the Photovoltaic Power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the Photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized.

  13. Earth Survey Applications Division. [a bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments of research and data analysis conducted to study physical parameters and processes inside the Earth and on the Earth's surface, to define techniques and systems for remotely sensing the processes and measuring the parameters of scientific and applications interest, and the transfer of promising operational applications techniques to the user community of Earth resources monitors, managers, and decision makers are described. Research areas covered include: geobotany, magnetic field modeling, crustal studies, crustal dynamics, sea surface topography, land resources, remote sensing of vegetation and soils, and hydrological sciences. Major accomplishments include: production of global maps of magnetic anomalies using Magsat data; computation of the global mean sea surface using GEOS-3 and Seasat altimetry data; delineation of the effects of topography on the interpretation of remotely-sensed data; application of snowmelt runoff models to water resources management; and mapping of snow depth over wheat growing areas using Nimbus microwave data.

  14. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  15. 47 CFR 73.3573 - Processing FM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FM broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for FM broadcast stations are divided into two... community of license or any change in frequency other than to a first-, second-, or third-adjacent channel... frequency or community of license which is not in accord with its current assignment, except for the...

  16. 47 CFR 73.3573 - Processing FM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FM broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for FM broadcast stations are divided into two... community of license or any change in frequency other than to a first-, second-, or third-adjacent channel... frequency or community of license which is not in accord with its current assignment, except for the...

  17. 47 CFR 73.3573 - Processing FM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FM broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for FM broadcast stations are divided into two... community of license or any change in frequency other than to a first-, second-, or third-adjacent channel... frequency or community of license which is not in accord with its current assignment, except for the...

  18. 47 CFR 73.3573 - Processing FM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 307(b) of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (47 U.S.C. 307(b)); (2) The facilities... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing FM broadcast station applications... applications for licenses and all other changes in the facilities of authorized stations. (b)(1) The FCC may...

  19. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... application by the Commission. (b) [Reserved] (c) Applications for modification of earth station... station and space station modification applications must be filed electronically through the International... 25.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  20. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... application by the Commission. (b) [Reserved] (c) Applications for modification of earth station... station and space station modification applications must be filed electronically through the International... 25.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  1. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... application by the Commission. (b) [Reserved] (c) Applications for modification of earth station... station and space station modification applications must be filed electronically through the International... 25.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  2. View of Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit from CSM

    2008-08-18

    SL4-143-4706 (8 Feb. 1974) --- An overhead view of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit as photographed from the Skylab 4 Command and Service Modules (CSM) during the final fly-around by the CSM before returning home. The space station is contrasted against a cloud-covered Earth. Note the solar shield which was deployed by the second crew of Skylab and from which a micro meteoroid shield has been missing since the cluster was launched on May 14, 1973. The Orbital Workshop (OWS) solar panel on the left side was also lost on workshop launch day. Inside the Command Module (CM) when this picture was made were astronaut Gerald P. Carr, commander; scientist-astronaut Edward G. Gibson, science pilot; and astronaut William R. Pogue, pilot. The crew used a 70mm hand-held Hasselblad camera to take this photograph. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Application of Ontologies for Big Earth Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Boening, C.

    2014-12-01

    Connected data is smarter data! Earth Science research infrastructure must do more than just being able to support temporal, geospatial discovery of satellite data. As the Earth Science data archives continue to expand across NASA data centers, the research communities are demanding smarter data services. A successful research infrastructure must be able to present researchers the complete picture, that is, datasets with linked citations, related interdisciplinary data, imageries, current events, social media discussions, and scientific data tools that are relevant to the particular dataset. The popular Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies is a collection of ontologies and concepts designed to improve discovery and application of Earth Science data. The SWEET ontologies collection was initially developed to capture the relationships between keywords in the NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). Over the years this popular ontologies collection has expanded to cover over 200 ontologies and 6000 concepts to enable scalable classification of Earth system science concepts and Space science. This presentation discusses the semantic web technologies as the enabling technology for data-intensive science. We will discuss the application of the SWEET ontologies as a critical component in knowledge-driven research infrastructure for some of the recent projects, which include the DARPA Ontological System for Context Artifact and Resources (OSCAR), 2013 NASA ACCESS Virtual Quality Screening Service (VQSS), and the 2013 NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) projects. The presentation will also discuss the benefits in using semantic web technologies in developing research infrastructure for Big Earth Science Data in an attempt to "accommodate all domains and provide the necessary glue for information to be cross-linked, correlated, and discovered in a semantically rich manner." [1] [1] Savas Parastatidis: A platform for all that we know

  4. 47 CFR 63.65 - Closure of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closure of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will continue service. 63.65 Section 63.65 Telecommunication... of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will continue service...

  5. 47 CFR 63.65 - Closure of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closure of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will continue service. 63.65 Section 63.65 Telecommunication... of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will continue service...

  6. 47 CFR 63.65 - Closure of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closure of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will continue service. 63.65 Section 63.65 Telecommunication... of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will continue service...

  7. 47 CFR 63.65 - Closure of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closure of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will continue service. 63.65 Section 63.65 Telecommunication... of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will continue service...

  8. 47 CFR 63.65 - Closure of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closure of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will continue service. 63.65 Section 63.65 Telecommunication... of public toll station where another toll station of applicant in the community will continue service...

  9. Earth Observation Satellites and Chinese Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.

    In this talk existing and future Earth observation satellites are briefly described These satellites include meteorological satellites ocean satellites land resources satellites cartographic satellites and gravimetric satellites The Chinese government has paid and will pay more attention to and put more effort into enhancing Chinese earth observation satellite programs in the next fifteen years The utilization of these satellites will effectively help human beings to solve problems it faces in areas such as population natural resources and environment and natural hazards The author will emphasize the originality of the scientific and application aspects of the Chinese program in the field of Earth observations The main applications include early warning and prevention of forest fires flooding and drought disaster water and ocean ice disasters monitoring of landslides and urban subsidence investigation of land cover change and urban expansion as well as urban and rural planning The author introduces the most up-to-date technology used by Chinese scientists including fusion and integration of multi-sensor multi-platform optical and SAR data of remote sensing Most applications in China have obtained much support from related international organizations and universities around the world These applications in China are helpful for economic construction and the efficient improvement of living quality

  10. Nodes packaging option for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station nodes packaging analyses are presented relative to moving environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment from the habitability (HAB) module to node 4, in order to provide more living space and privacy for the crew, remove inherently noisy equipment from the crew quarter, retain crew waste collection and processing equipment in one location, and keep objectionable odor away from the living quarters. In addition, options for moving external electronic equipment from the Space Station truss to pressurized node 3 were evaluated in order to reduce the crew extravehicular-activity time required to install and maintain the equipment. Node size considered in this analysis is 3.66 m in diameter and 5.38 m long. The analysis shows that significant external electronic equipment could be relocated from the Space Station truss structure to node 3, and nonlife critical ECLSS HAB module equipment could be moved to node 4.

  11. Vision requirements for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Problems which will be encountered by computer vision systems in Space Station operations are discussed, along with solutions be examined at Johnson Space Station. Lighting cannot be controlled in space, nor can the random presence of reflective surfaces. Task-oriented capabilities are to include docking to moving objects, identification of unexpected objects during autonomous flights to different orbits, and diagnoses of damage and repair requirements for autonomous Space Station inspection robots. The approaches being examined to provide these and other capabilities are television IR sensors, advanced pattern recognition programs feeding on data from laser probes, laser radar for robot eyesight and arrays of SMART sensors for automated location and tracking of target objects. Attention is also being given to liquid crystal light valves for optical processing of images for comparisons with on-board electronic libraries of images.

  12. 47 CFR 73.3573 - Processing FM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3573 Processing... antenna location which would not continue to provide a 1 mV/m service to some portion of its previously authorized 1 mV/m service area. In the case of a Class D station, a major facility change is any change in...

  13. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... If the space station can vary channel bandwidth in a particular frequency band with on-board... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications for space station authorizations. 25.114 Section 25.114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...

  14. 47 CFR 73.4017 - Application processing: Commercial FM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application processing: Commercial FM stations. 73.4017 Section 73.4017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... processing: Commercial FM stations. See Report and Order, MM Docket 84-750, FCC 85-125, adopted March 4, 1985...

  15. 47 CFR 73.4017 - Application processing: Commercial FM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application processing: Commercial FM stations. 73.4017 Section 73.4017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... processing: Commercial FM stations. See Report and Order, MM Docket 84-750, FCC 85-125, adopted March 4, 1985...

  16. Techniques to minimize adjacent band emissions from Earth Exploration Satellites to protect the Space Research (Category B) Earth Stations in the 8400-8450 MHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles C.; Sue, Miles K.; Manshadi, Farzin

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Exploration Satellites operating in the 8025-8400 MHz band can have strong adjacent band emissions on the8400-8450 MHz band which is allocated for Space Research (Category-B). The unwanted emission may exceed the protection criterion establish by the ITU-R for the protection of the Space Research (Category B) earth stations, i.e., deep-space earth stations. An SFCG Action Item (SF 23/14) was created during the 23rd SFCG meeting to explore technical and operational techniques to reduce the adjacent band emissions. In response to this action item, a study was conducted and results are presented in this document.

  17. Earth Science Observations from the International Space Station: An Overview (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique and valuable platform for observing the Earth. With its mid-inclination (~51 degree) orbit, it provides the opportunity to view most of the Earth, with data acquisition possible over a full range of local times, in an orbit that nicely complements the polar sun-synchronous orbits used for much of space-based Earth observation, and can draw on a heritage of mid-inclination observations from both free flying satellites and the Space Shuttle program. The ISS, including its component observing modules supplied by NASA's international partners, can provide needed resources and viewing opportunities by a broad range of Earth-viewing scientific instruments. In this talk, the overall picture of Earth viewing from ISS will be presented, with examples from a range of past, current, and projected sensors being shared; talks on the ISS implementation for a subset of current and projected payload will be presented in individual talks presented by their their respective teams.

  18. Vibro-acoustics for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Bofilios, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed to study noise generation in a double wall and single wall cylindrical shell due to mechanical point loads. The objective of this study is to develop theoretical procedures for parametetric evaluation of noise generation andd noise transmission for the habitability modules of the proposed Space Station operation. The solutions of the governing acoustic-structural equations are obtained utilizing modal decomposition. The numerical results include modal frequencies, deflection response spectral densities and interior noise sound pressure levels.

  19. Magnetorheological Fluids-Earth Applications Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Principal investigator Alice Gast describes magnetorheological (MR) fluids and how they differ from other fluids, such as blood or milk. Gast is the principal investigator for Investigating the structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions (InSPACE), which was conducted by the Expedition 6 crew onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The goal of inSPACE is to determine the true three-dimensional (3-D) low energy (equilibrium) structure of the MR fluids in a periodically interrupted magnetic field. Applications for MR fluids could include electrical clutches, brakes, robotic devices, seat suspension systems, and shock absorbers.

  20. ACTS Ka-Band Earth Stations: Technology, Performance, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Struharik, Steven J.; Diamond, John J.; Stewart, David

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project invested heavily in prototype Ka-band satellite ground terminals to conduct an experiments program with ACTS. The ACTS experiments program proposed to validate Ka-band satellite and ground-station technology, demonstrate future telecommunication services, demonstrate commercial viability and market acceptability of these new services, evaluate system networking and processing technology, and characterize Ka-band propagation effects, including development of techniques to mitigate signal fading. This paper will present a summary of the fixed ground terminals developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners, emphasizing the technology and performance of the terminals and the lessons learned throughout their 6-year operation, including the inclined orbit phase-of-operations. The fixed ground stations used for experiments by government, academic, and commercial entities used reflector-based offset-fed antenna systems with antennas ranging in size from 0.35 to 3.4 in. in diameter. Gateway earth stations included two systems referred to as the NASA Ground Station (NGS) and the Link Evaluation Terminal (LET).

  1. Accommodations for earth-viewing payloads on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B.; Eppler, D. B.

    The design of the International Space Station (ISS) includes payload locations that are external to the pressurized environment. These external or attached payload accommodation locations will allow direct access to the space environment at the ISS orbit and direct viewing of the earth and space. NASA sponsored payloads will have access to several different types of standard external locations; the S3 Truss Sites, the Columbus External Payload Facility (EPF), and the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). As the ISS Program develops, it may also be possible to locate external payloads at the P3 Truss Sites or at non-standard locations similar to the handrail-attached payloads that were flown during the MIR Program. Earth-viewing payloads may also be located within the pressurized volume of the US Lab in the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF). Payload accommodations at each of the locations will be described, as well as transport to and retrieval from the site.

  2. Technology thrusts for future Earth science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2001-02-01

    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  3. Technology Thrust for Future Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Traditionally, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, weight and volume. These missions have taken much longer implementation due to technology development time and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large-size spacecraft. NASA is also facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific goals have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall life cycle by infusing technologies that are being developed independently of any planned mission's implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, and allow for more frequent missions or earth science measurements to occur. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  4. Technology Thrusts for Future Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  5. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... application by the Commission. (b) Both earth station and space station modification applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System (IBFS) in accordance with the... earth station or space station authorization, must include a verified statement from the applicant: (1...

  6. Biomedical and Human Factors Requirements for a Manned Earth Orbiting Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helvey, W.; Martell, C.; Peters, J.; Rosenthal, G.; Benjamin, F.; Albright, G.

    1964-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to determine which biomedical and human factors measurements must be made aboard a space station to assure adequate evaluation of the astronaut's health and performance during prolonged space flights. The study has employed, where possible, a medical and engineering systems analysis to define the pertinent life sciences and space station design parameters and their influence on a measurement program. The major areas requiring evaluation in meeting the study objectives include a definition of the space environment, man's response to the environment, selection of measurement and data management techniques, experimental program, space station design requirements, and a trade-off analysis with final recommendations. The space environment factors that are believed to have a significant effect on man were evaluated. This includes those factors characteristic of the space environment (e. g. weightlessness, radiation) as well as those created within the space station (e. g. toxic contaminants, capsule atmosphere). After establishing the general features of the environment, an appraisal was made of the anticipated response of the astronaut to each of these factors. For thoroughness, the major organ systems and functions of the body were delineated, and a determination was made of their anticipated response to each of the environmental categories. A judgment was then made on the medical significance or importance of each response, which enabled a determination of which physiological and psychological effects should be monitored. Concurrently, an extensive list of measurement techniques and methods of data management was evaluated for applicability to the space station program. The various space station configurations and design parameters were defined in terms of the biomedical and human factors requirements to provide the measurements program. Research design of experimental programs for various station configurations, mission

  7. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  8. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  9. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, T C; Brown, H D; Irbe, R M; Pierson, D L

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space. Images PMID:1690529

  10. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for Earth-to-space...

  11. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for Earth-to-space...

  12. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for Earth-to-space...

  13. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for Earth-to-space...

  14. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for Earth-to-space...

  15. Service offerings and interfaces for the ACTS network of Earth stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, Thom A.

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Satellite (ACTS) is capable of two modes of communication. Mode 1 is a mesh network of Earth stations using baseband-switched, time-division multiple-access (BBS-TDMA) and hopping beams. Mode 2 is a mesh network using satellite-switched, time-division multiple-access (SS-TDMA) and fixed (or hopping) beams. The purpose of this paper is to present the functional requirements and the design of the ACTS Mode 1 Earth station terrestrial interface. Included among the requirements are that: (1) the interface support standard telecommunications service offerings (i.e., voice, video and data at rates ranging from 9.6 kbps to 44 Mbps); (2) the interface support the unique design characteristics of the ACTS communications systems (e.g., the real time demand assignment of satellite capacity); and (3) the interface support test hardware capable of validating ACTS communications processes. The resulting interface design makes use of an appropriate combination of T1 or T3 multiplexers and a small central office (maximum capacity 56 subscriber lines per unit).

  16. International two-way satellite time transfers using INTELSAT space segment and small Earth stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veenstra, Lester B.

    1990-01-01

    The satellite operated by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) provides new and unique capabilities for the coordinates of international time scales on a world wide basis using the two-way technique. A network of coordinated clocks using small earth stations collocated with the scales is possible. Antennas as small as 1.8 m at K-band and 3 m at C-band transmitting powers of less than 1 W will provide signals with time jitters of less than 1 ns existing spread spectrum modems. One way time broadcasting is also possible, under the INTELSAT INTELNET system, possibly using existing international data distribution (press and financial) systems that are already operating spread spectrum systems. The technical details of the satellite and requirements on satellite earth stations are given. The resources required for a regular operational international time transfer service are analyzed with respect to the existing international digital service offerings of the INTELSAT Business Service (IBS) and INTELNET. Coverage areas, typical link budgets, and a summary of previous domestic and international work using this technique are provided. Administrative procedures for gaining access to the space segment are outlined. Contact information for local INTELSAT signatories is listed.

  17. [Preliminary application of scripting in RayStation TPS system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yun

    2013-07-01

    Discussing the basic application of scripting in RayStation TPS system. On the RayStation 3.0 Platform, the programming methods and the points should be considered during basic scripting application were explored with the help of utility scripts. The typical planning problems in the field of beam arrangement and plan outputting were used as examples by ironprthon language. The necessary properties and the functions of patient object for script writing can be extracted from RayStation system. With the help of NET controls, planning functions such as the interactive parameter input, treatment planning control and the extract of the plan have been realized by scripts. With the help of demo scripts, scripts can be developed in RayStation, as well as the system performance can be upgraded.

  18. Perspectives on energy storage wheels for space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Several of the issues of the workshop are addressed from the perspective of a potential Space Station developer and energy wheel user. Systems' considerations are emphasized rather than component technology. The potential of energy storage wheel (ESW) concept is discussed. The current status of the technology base is described. Justification for advanced technology development is also discussed. The study concludes that energy storage in wheels is an attractive concept for immediate technology development and future Space Station application.

  19. Impact of orbit modeling on DORIS station position and Earth rotation estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Rodriguez-Solano, Carlos Javier; Hugentobler, Urs; Filler, Vratislav

    2014-04-01

    The high precision of estimated station coordinates and Earth rotation parameters (ERP) obtained from satellite geodetic techniques is based on the precise determination of the satellite orbit. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impact of different orbit parameterizations on the accuracy of station coordinates and the ERPs derived from DORIS observations. In a series of experiments the DORIS data from the complete year 2011 were processed with different orbit model settings. First, the impact of precise modeling of the non-conservative forces on geodetic parameters was compared with results obtained with an empirical-stochastic modeling approach. Second, the temporal spacing of drag scaling parameters was tested. Third, the impact of estimating once-per-revolution harmonic accelerations in cross-track direction was analyzed. And fourth, two different approaches for solar radiation pressure (SRP) handling were compared, namely adjusting SRP scaling parameter or fixing it on pre-defined values. Our analyses confirm that the empirical-stochastic orbit modeling approach, which does not require satellite attitude information and macro models, results for most of the monitored station parameters in comparable accuracy as the dynamical model that employs precise non-conservative force modeling. However, the dynamical orbit model leads to a reduction of the RMS values for the estimated rotation pole coordinates by 17% for x-pole and 12% for y-pole. The experiments show that adjusting atmospheric drag scaling parameters each 30 min is appropriate for DORIS solutions. Moreover, it was shown that the adjustment of cross-track once-per-revolution empirical parameter increases the RMS of the estimated Earth rotation pole coordinates. With recent data it was however not possible to confirm the previously known high annual variation in the estimated geocenter z-translation series as well as its mitigation by fixing the SRP parameters on pre-defined values.

  20. 47 CFR 17.5 - Commission consideration of applications for station authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station authorization. 17.5 Section 17.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... of applications for station authorization. (a) Applications for station authorization, excluding... required, the registrant must supply the structure's registration number upon request by the Commission. (c...

  1. 47 CFR 17.5 - Commission consideration of applications for station authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station authorization. 17.5 Section 17.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... of applications for station authorization. (a) Applications for station authorization, excluding... required, the registrant must supply the structure's registration number upon request by the Commission. (c...

  2. 47 CFR 17.5 - Commission consideration of applications for station authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station authorization. 17.5 Section 17.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... of applications for station authorization. (a) Applications for station authorization, excluding... required, the registrant must supply the structure's registration number upon request by the Commission. (c...

  3. 47 CFR 17.5 - Commission consideration of applications for station authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station authorization. 17.5 Section 17.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... of applications for station authorization. (a) Applications for station authorization, excluding... required, the registrant must supply the structure's registration number upon request by the Commission. (c...

  4. 47 CFR 17.5 - Commission consideration of applications for station authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station authorization. 17.5 Section 17.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... of applications for station authorization. (a) Applications for station authorization, excluding... required, the registrant must supply the structure's registration number upon request by the Commission. (c...

  5. Observations of Earth space by self-powered stations in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, S. B.; Rachelson, W.; Sterling, R.; Frey, H. U.; Harris, S. E.; McBride, S.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Detrick, D.; Doolittle, J. L.; Engebretson, M.; Inan, U.; Labelle, J. W.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Coupling of the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily through the high latitude regions, and there are distinct advantages in making remote sensing observations of these regions with a network of ground-based observatories over other techniques. The Antarctic continent is ideally situated for such a network, especially for optical studies, because the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south enables optical observations at a larger range of magnetic latitudes during the winter darkness. The greatest challenge for such ground-based observations is the generation of power and heat for a sizable ground station that can accommodate an optical imaging instrument. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, we have developed suitable automatic observing platforms, the Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) for a network of six autonomous stations on the Antarctic plateau. Each station housed a suite of science instruments including a dual wavelength intensified all-sky camera that records the auroral activity, an imaging riometer, fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers, and ELF/VLF and LM/MF/HF receivers. Originally these stations were powered by propane fuelled thermoelectric generators with the fuel delivered to the site each Antarctic summer. A by-product of this power generation was a large amount of useful heat, which was applied to maintain the operating temperature of the electronics in the stations. Although a reasonable degree of reliability was achieved with these stations, the high cost of the fuel air lift and some remaining technical issues necessitated the development of a different type of power unit. In the second phase of the project we have developed a power generation system using renewable energy that can operate automatically in the Antarctic winter. The most reliable power system consists of a type of wind turbine using a simple permanent magnet rotor and a new type of power

  6. Observations of Earth space by self-powered stations in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mende, S B; Rachelson, W; Sterling, R; Frey, H U; Harris, S E; McBride, S; Rosenberg, T J; Detrick, D; Doolittle, J L; Engebretson, M; Inan, U; Labelle, J W; Lanzerotti, L J; Weatherwax, A T

    2009-12-01

    Coupling of the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily through the high latitude regions, and there are distinct advantages in making remote sensing observations of these regions with a network of ground-based observatories over other techniques. The Antarctic continent is ideally situated for such a network, especially for optical studies, because the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south enables optical observations at a larger range of magnetic latitudes during the winter darkness. The greatest challenge for such ground-based observations is the generation of power and heat for a sizable ground station that can accommodate an optical imaging instrument. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, we have developed suitable automatic observing platforms, the Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) for a network of six autonomous stations on the Antarctic plateau. Each station housed a suite of science instruments including a dual wavelength intensified all-sky camera that records the auroral activity, an imaging riometer, fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers, and ELF/VLF and LM/MF/HF receivers. Originally these stations were powered by propane fuelled thermoelectric generators with the fuel delivered to the site each Antarctic summer. A by-product of this power generation was a large amount of useful heat, which was applied to maintain the operating temperature of the electronics in the stations. Although a reasonable degree of reliability was achieved with these stations, the high cost of the fuel air lift and some remaining technical issues necessitated the development of a different type of power unit. In the second phase of the project we have developed a power generation system using renewable energy that can operate automatically in the Antarctic winter. The most reliable power system consists of a type of wind turbine using a simple permanent magnet rotor and a new type of power

  7. 47 CFR 80.55 - Application for a fleet station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for a fleet station license. 80.55... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.55 Application for a fleet station license. (a) An applicant may apply for licenses for two or more radiotelephone stations aboard...

  8. 47 CFR 80.55 - Application for a fleet station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for a fleet station license. 80.55... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.55 Application for a fleet station license. (a) An applicant may apply for licenses for two or more radiotelephone stations aboard...

  9. 47 CFR 80.55 - Application for a fleet station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for a fleet station license. 80.55... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.55 Application for a fleet station license. (a) An applicant may apply for licenses for two or more radiotelephone stations aboard...

  10. 47 CFR 80.55 - Application for a fleet station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for a fleet station license. 80.55... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.55 Application for a fleet station license. (a) An applicant may apply for licenses for two or more radiotelephone stations aboard...

  11. 47 CFR 80.55 - Application for a fleet station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for a fleet station license. 80.55... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.55 Application for a fleet station license. (a) An applicant may apply for licenses for two or more radiotelephone stations aboard...

  12. 47 CFR 74.1233 - Processing FM translator and booster station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Processing FM translator and booster station... SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1233 Processing FM translator and booster station applications. (a) Applications for FM translator and booster stations are...

  13. 47 CFR 74.1233 - Processing FM translator and booster station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Processing FM translator and booster station... SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1233 Processing FM translator and booster station applications. (a) Applications for FM translator and booster stations are...

  14. 47 CFR 74.1233 - Processing FM translator and booster station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing FM translator and booster station... SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1233 Processing FM translator and booster station applications. (a) Applications for FM translator and booster stations are...

  15. 47 CFR 74.1233 - Processing FM translator and booster station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Processing FM translator and booster station... SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1233 Processing FM translator and booster station applications. (a) Applications for FM translator and booster stations are...

  16. 47 CFR 74.1233 - Processing FM translator and booster station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing FM translator and booster station... SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1233 Processing FM translator and booster station applications. (a) Applications for FM translator and booster stations are...

  17. UK technical activities associated with the return to Earth of the MIR space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, Richard; Tremayne-Smith, Richard

    2002-11-01

    The British National Space Centre (BNSC) acts as the focus in the United Kingdom (UK) for space-related activities. With the anticipated return to Earth of the MIR space station, BNSC established a group of technical experts to consider the associated implications for the UK, and to address both national and international activities relating to the planned de-orbit. In particular, the risk to the UK of an uncontrolled re-entry was considered in contingency planning and the means for the provision of accurate information to the public and media were established to ensure balanced view of the potential hazards that MIR posed to persons and property on the ground. The MIR de-orbit was exemplary, both in terms of the technical activities of the Rosaviakosmos and the safe disposal of MIR in the Pacific, and in relation to the open and effective communication between agencies and the positive reporting by the media.

  18. Space solar power stations. Problems of energy generation and using its on the earth surface and nearest cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkevich, OA; Gerasimov, DN; Glazkov, VV

    2017-11-01

    Three important physical and technical problems for solar power stations (SPS) are considered: collection of solar energy and effective conversion of this energy to electricity in space power stations, energy transportation by the microwave beam to the Earth surface and direct utilization of the microwave beam energy for global environmental problems. Effectiveness of solar energy conversion into electricity in space power stations using gas and steam turbines plants, and magneto-hydrodynamic generator (MHDG) are analyzed. The closed cycle MHDG working on non-equilibrium magnetized plasmas of inert gases seeded with the alkaline metal vapors are considered. The special emphases are placed on MHDG and gas-turbine installations that are operating without compressor. Also opportunities for using the produced by space power stations energy for ecological needs on Earth and in Space are discussed.

  19. Study of robotics systems applications to the space station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of robotics systems to potential uses of the Space Station as an assembly facility, and secondarily as a servicing facility, are considered. A typical robotics system mission is described along with the pertinent application guidelines and Space Station environmental assumptions utilized in developing the robotic task scenarios. A functional description of a supervised dual-robot space structure construction system is given, and four key areas of robotic technology are defined, described, and assessed. Alternate technologies for implementing the more routine space technology support subsystems that will be required to support the Space Station robotic systems in assembly and servicing tasks are briefly discussed. The environmental conditions impacting on the robotic configuration design and operation are reviewed.

  20. Earth aeolian wind streaks: Comparison to wind data from model and stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Zada, A. L.; Maman, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2017-05-01

    Wind streak is a collective term for a variety of aeolian features that display distinctive albedo surface patterns. Wind streaks have been used to map near-surface winds and to estimate atmospheric circulation patterns on Mars and Venus. However, because wind streaks have been studied mostly on Mars and Venus, much of the knowledge regarding the mechanism and time frame of their formation and their relationship to the atmospheric circulation cannot be verified. This study aims to validate previous studies' results by a comparison of real and modeled wind data with wind streak orientations as measured from remote-sensing images. Orientations of Earth wind streaks were statistically correlated to resultant drift direction (RDD) values calculated from reanalysis and wind data from 621 weather stations. The results showed good agreement between wind streak orientations and reanalysis RDD (r = 0.78). A moderate correlation was found between the wind streak orientations and the weather station data (r = 0.47); a similar trend was revealed on a regional scale when the analysis was performed by continent, with r ranging from 0.641 in North America to 0.922 in Antarctica. At sites where wind streak orientations did not correspond to the RDDs (i.e., a difference of 45°), seasonal and diurnal variations in the wind flow were found to be responsible for deviation from the global pattern. The study thus confirms that Earth wind streaks were formed by the present wind regime and they are indeed indicative of the long-term prevailing wind direction on global and regional scales.

  1. Capturing the Value: Earth Applications of Space Human Factors Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper details how the Space Human Factors/Life Sciences program at Ames Research Center (ARC) has provided, and continues to provide, a variety of Earth-based benefits. These benefits will be considered under five categories: aeronautics, space-like environments, general applications, human/automation interaction, and methodology. The human factors work at ARC includes a range of activities whose products serve the aerospace community. Some areas of research focus specifically on aeronautical requirements; others are driven by space needs. However, the symbiosis between these two domains allows a sharing of resources, and the insights and experimental results gathered in one domain can often be applied in the other. Aeronautics is an industry whose survival is generally viewed as critical to American competitiveness, and where benefits can result in a very high payoff. The ability to apply space-initiated research to aeronautical requirements represents one example of bringing space benefits down to Earth. The second-order value of space human factors research goes well beyond the aerospace community. Spaceflight shares with a number of other activities certain environmental characteristics that drive human factors engineering design and procedural specification. Spaceflight is an isolated activity, conducted under severely confined conditions, with a high level of risk, and where provisions are restricted and opportunities for outside help are limited. A number of Earth-based activities including submarines and other naval vessels, oil rigs, remote weather stations, and scientific and polar expeditions, share many of these characteristics. These activities serve as testbeds for space-related research and, in turn, space-related research provides beneficial insight to the conduct of these activities.

  2. Inertial energy storage for advanced space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Tassel, K. E.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Because the NASA Space Station will spend approximately one-third of its orbital time in the earth's shadow, depriving it of solar energy and requiring an energy storage system to meet system demands, attention has been given to flywheel energy storage systems. These systems promise high mechanical efficiency, long life, light weight, flexible design, and easily monitored depth of discharge. An assessment is presently made of three critical technology areas: rotor materials, magnetic suspension bearings, and motor-generators for energy conversion. Conclusions are presented regarding the viability of inertial energy storage systems and of problem areas requiring further technology development efforts.

  3. Observations of the Earth's magnetic field from the Space Station: Measurement at high and extremely low altitude using Space Station-controlled free-flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W., Jr.; Frawley, J. J.; Stefanik, M.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation studies established that the main (core), crustal and electrojet components of the Earth's magnetic field can be observed with greater resolution or over a longer time-base than is presently possible by using the capabilities provided by the space station. Two systems are studied. The first, a large lifetime, magnetic monitor would observe the main field and its time variation. The second, a remotely-piloted, magnetic probe would observe the crustal field at low altitude and the electrojet field in situ. The system design and the scientific performance of these systems is assessed. The advantages of the space station are reviewed.

  4. Workshop on Fuzzy Control Systems and Space Station Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aisawa, E. K. (Compiler); Faltisco, R. M. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Workshop on Fuzzy Control Systems and Space Station Applications was held on 14-15 Nov. 1990. The workshop was co-sponsored by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company and NASA Ames Research Center. Proceedings of the workshop are presented.

  5. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations. 22.1037 Section 22.1037 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... the channels listed in § 22.1007(b), no third-order intermodulation interference would be caused to...

  6. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... space station that will be used to provide video programming directly to consumers in the United States... application a technical analysis demonstrating that providing video programming service to consumers in Alaska and Hawaii that is comparable to the video programming service provided to consumers in the 48...

  7. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... space station that will be used to provide video programming directly to consumers in the United States... application a technical analysis demonstrating that providing video programming service to consumers in Alaska and Hawaii that is comparable to the video programming service provided to consumers in the 48...

  8. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... space station that will be used to provide video programming directly to consumers in the United States... application a technical analysis demonstrating that providing video programming service to consumers in Alaska and Hawaii that is comparable to the video programming service provided to consumers in the 48...

  9. Transitioning Unmanned Technologies for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Douglas, J.

    2008-12-01

    Development of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has progressed dramatically in recent years along with miniaturization of sensor technology. This confluence of development paths has resulted in greater capability in smaller, less expensive platforms allowing research to be performed where manned airborne platforms are impractical or dangerous. Recent applications include small UAS for studies involving hurricanes, volcanic activity, sea ice changes, glacier melt, biological monitoring of land and sea species, wildfire monitoring, and others. However, the majority of UAS employed in these investigations were originally developed for non-civilian applications and many of the required interfaces are locked behind proprietary specifications, requiring expensive customization by the manufacturer to transform a military UAS into one suitable for civilian work. A small UAS for scientific research should be standards-based, low-cost, user friendly, field serviceable, and be designed to accept a range of payloads. The AV8R UAS is one example of an unmanned system that has been developed for specific application to earth observation missions. This system is designed to be operated by the user with difficult environmental conditions and field logistics in mind. Numerous features and innovations that advance this technology as a research tool as well as its planned science missions will be presented. Most importantly, all interfaces to the system required for successful design and integration of various payloads will be openly available. The environment of open, standards based development allow the small technologies companies that serve as the backbone for much of the technology development to participate in the rapid development of industry capabilities. This is particularly true with UAS technologies. Programs within the USA such as the STTR foster collaborations with small businesses and university researchers. Other innovations related to autonomous unmanned systems

  10. Extensometric observation of Earth tides and local tectonic processes at the Vyhne station, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimich, Ladislav; Bednárik, Martin; Bezák, Vladimír; Kohút, Igor; Bán, Dóra; Eper-Pápai, Ildikó; Mentes, Gyula

    2016-06-01

    The Vyhne Tidal Station of the Earth Science Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences is located in the former mining gallery of St. Anthony of Padua in the Vyhne valley, Štiavnické vrchy Mts., Central Slovakia. It is equipped with a 20.5 metre long quartz-tube extensometer measuring Earth's tides, and long-term tectonic deformations of the Earth's crust. Data between 2001 and 2015 with some diverse gaps were digitally collected, processed and analysed. The effects of the local conditions, such as structure of the observatory, cavity effect, topography and geological features of the surrounding rocks, were investigated in detail and these effects were taken into consideration during the interpretation of the results of the data analysis. Tidal analysis of the extensometric data between 2005 and 2015 revealed that the measured tidal amplitudes are close to the theoretical values. The tidal transfer of the observatory was also investigated by coherence analysis between the theoretical and the measured extensometric data. The coherence is better than 0.9 both in the diurnal and semidiurnal band. The effect of the free core nutation resonance was also investigated in the case of the K1 and P1 tidal components. Since the K1/O1 ratio was about the theoretical value 0.8, than the P1/O1 was between 1.0 and 1.15 instead of the theoretical value of 0.9. The rate of the long-term strain rate was also investigated and the obtained -0.05 μstr/y shows a good agreement with the strain rate inferred from GPS measurements in the Central European GPS Reference Network.

  11. International Space Station as a Base Camp for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Hoffman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The idea for using the International Space Station (ISS) as platform for exploration has matured in the past year and the concept continues to gain momentum. ISS provides a robust infrastructure which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. A small part of ISS called an Exploration Platform (ISS-EP) can be placed at Earth-Moon Libration point 1 (EML1) providing immediate benefits and flexibility for future exploration missions. We will show how ISS and the ISS-EP can be used to reduce risk and improve the operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit. Life support systems and other technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the ISS-EP and other exploration spacecraft. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Commercial companies who are introducing transportation and other services will benefit with opportunities to contribute to the mission since ISS will serve as a focal point for the commercialization of low earth orbit services. Finally, we will show how use of ISS provides immediate benefits to the scientific community because its capabilities are available today and certain critical aspects of exploration missions can be simulated.

  12. Advanced modulation technology development for earth station demodulator applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. C.; Wernlund, J. V.; Gann, J. A.; Roesch, J. F.; Wright, T.; Crowley, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to develop a high rate (200 Mbps), bandwidth efficient, modulation format using low cost hardware, in 1990's technology. The modulation format chosen is 16-ary continuous phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK). The implementation of the modulation format uses a unique combination of a limiter/discriminator followed by an accumulator to determine transmitted phase. An important feature of the modulation scheme is the way coding is applied to efficiently gain back the performance lost by the close spacing of the phase points.

  13. Earth resources survey applications of the space shuttle sortie mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, R. D.; Smith, W. L.; Thomson, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the shuttle sortie mode for earth observation applications was investigated and its feasibility for applied research and instrument development was appraised. The results indicate that the shuttle sortie missions offer unique advantages and that specific aspects of earth applications are particularly suited to the sortie mode.

  14. New Earth-Observing Instrument Installed on the International Space Station

    2017-12-08

    In January 2013, a new Earth-observing instrument was installed on the International Space Station (ISS). ISERV Pathfinder consists of a commercial camera, a telescope, and a pointing system, all positioned to look through the Earth-facing window of ISS’s Destiny module. ISERV Pathfinder is intended as an engineering exercise, with the long-term goal of developing a system for providing imagery to developing nations as they monitor natural disasters and environmental concerns. The image above is the “first light” from the new ISERV camera system, taken at 1:44 p.m. local time on February 16, 2013. It shows the Rio San Pablo as it empties into the Golfo de Montijo in Veraguas, Panama. It is an ecological transition zone, changing from agriculture and pastures to mangrove forests, swamps, and estuary systems. The area has been designated a protected area by the National Environmental Authority (ANAM) of Panama and is listed as a “wetland of international importance” under the Ramsar Convention. (Note that the image is rotated so that north is to the upper right.) “ISERV’s full potential is yet to be seen, but we hope it will really make a difference in people’s lives,” said principal investigator Burgess Howell of NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. “For example, if an earthen dam gives way in Bhutan, we want to be able to show officials where the bridge is out or where a road is washed out or a power substation is inundated. This kind of information is critical to focus and speed rescue efforts.” The instrument will be controlled from NASA Marshall in Huntsville, Alabama, in collaboration with researchers at hubs in Central America, East Africa, and the Hindu Kush–Himalaya region. They will rely on positioning software to know where the space station is at each moment and to calculate the next chance to view a particular area on the ground. If there's a good viewing opportunity, the SERVIR team will instruct the camera to take high

  15. Earth Observation from the International Space Station -Remote Sensing in Schools-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Johannes; Rienow, Andreas; Graw, Valerie; Heinemann, Sascha; Selg, Fabian; Menz, Gunter

    2016-04-01

    Since spring 2014, the NASA High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) mission at the International Space Station (ISS) is online. HDEV consists of four cameras mounted at ESA's Columbus laboratory and is recording the earth 24/7. The educational project 'Columbus Eye - Live-Imagery from the ISS in Schools' has published a learning portal for earth observation from the ISS (www.columbuseye.uni-bonn.de). Besides a video live stream, the portal contains an archive providing spectacular footage, web-GIS and an observatory with interactive materials for school lessons. Columbus Eye is carried out by the University of Bonn and funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) Space Administration. Pupils should be motivated to work with the footage in order to learn about patterns and processes of the coupled human-environment system like volcano eruptions or deforestation. The material is developed on the experiences of the FIS (German abbreviation for "Remote Sensing in Schools") project and its learning portal (http://www.fis.uni-bonn.de). Based on the ISS videos three different teaching material types are developed. The simplest teaching type are provided by worksheets, which have a low degree of interactivity. Alongside a short didactical commentary for teachers is included. Additionally, videos, ancillary information, maps, and instructions for interactive school experiments are provided. The observatory contains the second type of the Columbus Eye teaching materials. It requires a high degree of self-organisation and responsibility of the pupils. Thus, the observatory provides the opportunity for pupils to freely construct their own hypotheses based on a spatial analysis tool similar to those provided by commercial software. The third type are comprehensive learning and teaching modules with a high degree of interactivity, including background information, interactive animations, quizzes and different analysis tools (e.g. change detection, classification, polygon or NDVI

  16. NASA uses Eclipse RCP Applications for Experiments on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    Eclipse is going to space for the first time in 2013! The International Space Station (ISS) is used as a site for experiments any software developed as part of these experiments has to comply with extensive and strict user interface guidelines. NASA Ames Research Center's Intelligent Robotics Group is doing 2 sets of experiments, both with astronauts using Eclipse RCP applications to remotely control robots. One experiment will control SPHERES with an Android Smartphone on the ISS the other experiment will control a K10 rover on Earth.

  17. Automated delay measurement system for an Earth station for Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, Gerrit; Polderman, Michel C.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of the difference of the transmit and receive delays of the signals in a Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) Earth station is crucial for its nanosecond time transfer capability. Also, the monitoring of the change of this delay difference with time, temperature, humidity, or barometric pressure is important for improving the TWSTFT capabilities. An automated system for this purpose has been developed from the initial design at NMi-VSL. It calibrates separately the transmit and receive delays in cables, amplifiers, upconverters and downconverters, and antenna feeds. The obtained results can be applied as corrections to the TWSTFT measurement when, before and after a measurement session, a calibration session is performed. Preliminary results obtained at NMi-VSL will be shown. Also, if available, the results of a manual version of the system that is planned to be circulated in Sept. 1994 together with a USNO portable station on a calibration trip to European TWSTFT Earth stations.

  18. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  19. Optical property degradation of anodic coatings in the Space Station low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Kaia E.; Babel, Hank W.

    1992-01-01

    The anodic coatings and optical properties to be used for passive thermal control of the SSF are studied. Particular attention is given to the beginning-of-life optical properties for aluminum alloys suitable for structural and radiator applications, the statistical variation in the beginning-of-life properties, and estimates of the end-of-life properties of the alloys based on ultraviolet radiation testing and flight test results. It is concluded that anodic coatings can be used for thermal control of long life, low earth orbit spacecraft. Some use restrictions are defined for specific cases. Anodic coatings have been selected as baseline thermal control coating for large portions of the SSF.

  20. Solar F10.7 radiation - A short term model for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is described for statistically modeling the F10.7 component of solar radiation for 91-day intervals. The resulting model represents this component of the solar flux as a quasi-exponentially correlated, Weibull distributed random variable, and thereby demonstrates excellent agreement with observed F10.7 data. Values of the F10.7 flux are widely used in models of the earth's upper atmosphere because of its high correlation with density fluctuations due to solar heating effects. Because of the direct relation between atmospheric density and drag, a realistic model of the short term fluctuation of the F10.7 flux is important for the design and operation of Space Station Freedom. The method of modeling this flux described in this report should therefore be useful for a variety of Space Station applications.

  1. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  2. International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million

  3. 78 FR 39200 - Federal Earth Stations-Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... stations comply with the Commission's rules for operating in the frequency bands. 11. The Commission seeks... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 [ET Docket No. 13-115; RM-11341; FCC 13-65... Launch Operations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This...

  4. Evaluation of Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Reed, Charles K.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control coatings were exposed to simulated low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental conditions to determine effects on optical properties. In one test, samples of the white paint coating Z-93P were coated with outgassed products from Tefzel(R) (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer) power cable insulation as-may occur on ISS. These samples were then exposed, along with an uncontaminated Z-93P witness sample, to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation to determine solar absorptance degradation. The Z-93P samples coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products experienced greater increases in solar absorptance than witness samples not coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products. In another test, samples of second surface silvered Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), SiO. (where x=2)-coated silvered Teflon(R) FEP, and Z-93P witness samples were exposed to the combined environments of atomic oxygen and VLTV radiation to determine optical properties changes due to these simulated ISS environmental effects. This test verified the durability of these materials in the absence of contaminants.

  5. Evaluation of Low-Earth-Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft thermal control coatings in low Earth orbit (LEO) can be affected by solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. Ultraviolet radiation can darken some polymers and oxides commonly used in thermal control materials. Atomic oxygen can erode polymer materials, but it may reverse the ultraviolet-darkening effect on oxides. Maintaining the desired solar absorptance for thermal control coatings is important to assure the proper operating temperature of the spacecraft. Thermal control coatings to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) were evaluated for their performance after exposure in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen-Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure (AO-VUV) facility. This facility simulated the LEO environments of solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation (wavelength range, 115 to 200 nanometers (nm)) and VUV combined with atomic oxygen. Solar absorptance was measured in vacuo to eliminate the "bleaching" effects of ambient oxygen on VUV-induced degradation. The objective of these experiments was to determine solar absorptance increases of various thermal control materials due to exposure to simulated LEO conditions similar to those expected for ISS. Work was done in support of ISS efforts at the requests of Boeing Space and Defense Systems and Lockheed Martin Vought Systems.

  6. International Space Station as a Platform for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Woodcock, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has established a new model for the achievement of the most difficult engineering goals in space: international collaboration at the program level with competition at the level of technology. This strategic shift in management approach provides long term program stability while still allowing for the flexible evolution of technology needs and capabilities. Both commercial and government sponsored technology developments are well supported in this management model. ISS also provides a physical platform for development and demonstration of the systems needed for missions beyond low earth orbit. These new systems at the leading edge of technology require operational exercise in the unforgiving environment of space before they can be trusted for long duration missions. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. We will describe representative mission profiles showing how ISS can support exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. Example missions would include humans to lunar surface and return, and humans to Mars orbit as well as Mars surface and return. ISS benefits include: international access from all major launch sites; an assembly location with crew and tools that could help prepare departing expeditions that involve more than one launch; a parking place for reusable vehicles; and the potential to add a propellant depot.

  7. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  8. Grid Technology as a Cyber Infrastructure for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how grids and grid service technologies can be used to develop an infrastructure for the Earth Science community. This cyberinfrastructure would be populated with a hierarchy of services, including discipline specific services such those needed by the Earth Science community as well as a set of core services that are needed by most applications. This core would include data-oriented services used for accessing and moving data as well as computer-oriented services used to broker access to resources and control the execution of tasks on the grid. The availability of such an Earth Science cyberinfrastructure would ease the development of Earth Science applications. With such a cyberinfrastructure, application work flows could be created to extract data from one or more of the Earth Science archives and then process it by passing it through various persistent services that are part of the persistent cyberinfrastructure, such as services to perform subsetting, reformatting, data mining and map projections.

  9. 47 CFR 25.222 - Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations on Vessels (ESVs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... on Vessels (ESVs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) frequency bands and transmitting in the 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.222 Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations on...

  10. 47 CFR 25.227 - Blanket licensing provisions for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAAs) receiving in the 10.95-11...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Aboard Aircraft (ESAAs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), and 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) frequency bands and transmitting in the 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.227 Blanket licensing provisions for Earth Stations Aboard...

  11. 47 CFR 25.222 - Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations on Vessels (ESVs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on Vessels (ESVs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) frequency bands and transmitting in the 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.222 Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations on...

  12. 47 CFR 25.227 - Blanket licensing provisions for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAAs) receiving in the 10.95-11...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Aboard Aircraft (ESAAs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), and 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) frequency bands and transmitting in the 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.227 Blanket licensing provisions for Earth Stations Aboard...

  13. 47 CFR 25.222 - Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations on Vessels (ESVs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... on Vessels (ESVs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) frequency bands and transmitting in the 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.222 Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations on...

  14. The Role of Anchor Stations in the Validation of Earth Observation Satellite Data and Products. The Valencia and the Alacant Anchor Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar

    Space technology facilitates humanity and science with a global revolutionary view of the Earth through the acquisition of Earth Observation satellite data. Satellites capture information over different spatial and temporal scales and assist in understanding natural climate processes and in detecting and explaining climate change. Accurate Earth Observation data is needed to describe climate processes by improving the parameterisations of different climate elements. Algorithms to produce geophysical parameters from raw satellite observations should go through selection processes or participate in inter-comparison programmes to ensure performance reliability. Geophysical parameter datasets, obtained from satellite observations, should pass a quality control before they are accepted in global databases for impact, diagnostic or sensitivity studies. Calibration and Validation, or simply "Cal/Val", is the activity that endeavours to ensure that remote sensing products are highly consistent and reproducible. This is an evolving scientific activity that is becoming increasingly important as more long-term studies on global change are undertaken, and new satellite missions are launched. Calibration is the process of quantitatively defining the system responses to known, controlled signal inputs. Validation refers to the process of assessing, by independent means, the quality of the data products derived from the system outputs. These definitions are generally accepted and most often used in the remote sensing context to refer specifically and respectively to sensor radiometric calibration and geophysical parameter validation. Anchor Stations are carefully selected locations at which instruments measure quantities that are needed to run, calibrate or validate models and algorithms. These are needed to quanti-tatively evaluate satellite data and convert it into geophysical information. The instruments collect measurements of basic quantities over a long timescale

  15. Undergraduate Earth System Science Education: Project-Based Learning, Land-Atmosphere Interaction, and a Newly Established Student Weather Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.

    2004-12-01

    Undergraduate students conducted a semester-long research project as part of a special topics course that launched the Austin College Weather Station in spring 2001. The weather station is located on restored prairie roughly 100 km north of Dallas, Texas. In addition to standard meteorological observations, the Austin College Weather Station measures surface quantities such as soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation, infrared radiation, and soil heat flux. These additional quantities are used to calculate the surface energy balance using the Bowen ratio method. Thus, the Austin College Weather Station provides valuable information on land-atmosphere interaction in a prairie environment. This project provided a remarkable learning experience for the students. Each student supervised two instruments on the weather station. Students skillfully learned instrumentation details and the physical phenomena measured by the instruments. Team meetings were held each week to discuss issues such as station location, power requirements, telecommunication options, and data acquisition. Students made important decisions during the meetings. They would then work collaboratively on specific tasks that needed to be accomplished before the next meeting. Students also assessed the validity of their measurements after the weather station came on-line. With this approach, students became the experts. They utilized the scientific method to think critically and to solve problems. For at least a semester, students became Earth system scientists.

  16. Earth's gravity field to the eighteenth degree and geocentric coordinates for 104 stations from satellite and terrestrial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    Geodetic parameters describing the earth's gravity field and the positions of satellite-tracking stations in a geocentric reference frame were computed. These parameters were estimated by means of a combination of five different types of data: routine and simultaneous satellite observations, observations of deep-space probes, measurements of terrestrial gravity, and surface-triangulation data. The combination gives better parameters than does any subset of data types. The dynamic solution used precision-reduced Baker-Nunn observations and laser range data of 25 satellites. Data from the 49-station National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration BC-4 network, the 19-station Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Baker-Nunn network, and independent camera stations were employed in the geometrical solution. Data from the tracking of deep-space probes were converted to relative longitudes and distances to the earth's axis of rotation of the tracking stations. Surface-gravity data in the form of 550-km squares were derived from 19,328 1 deg X 1 deg mean gravity anomalies.

  17. A simple 5-DOF walking robot for space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.; Friedman, Mark B.; Kanade, Takeo

    1991-01-01

    Robots on the NASA space station have a potential range of applications from assisting astronauts during EVA (extravehicular activity), to replacing astronauts in the performance of simple, dangerous, and tedious tasks; and to performing routine tasks such as inspections of structures and utilities. To provide a vehicle for demonstrating the pertinent technologies, a simple robot is being developed for locomotion and basic manipulation on the proposed space station. In addition to the robot, an experimental testbed was developed, including a 1/3 scale (1.67 meter modules) truss and a gravity compensation system to simulate a zero-gravity environment. The robot comprises two flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with a 2 degree of freedom wrist joints and grippers at each end. The grippers screw into threaded holes in the nodes of the space station truss, and enable it to walk by alternately shifting the base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. Present efforts are focused on mechanical design, application of sensors, and development of control algorithms for lightweight, flexible structures. Long-range research will emphasize development of human interfaces to permit a range of control modes from teleoperated to semiautonomous, and coordination of robot/astronaut and multiple-robot teams.

  18. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... application by the Commission. (b) Both earth station and space station modification applications must be filed electronically through the International Bureau Filing System (IBFS) in accordance with the... 25.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  19. 47 CFR 25.221 - Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations on Vessels (ESVs) receiving in the 3700-4200 MHz...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... on Vessels (ESVs) receiving in the 3700-4200 MHz (space-to-Earth) band and transmitting in the 5925-6425 MHz (Earth-to-space) band, operating with GSO Satellites in the Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.221... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.221 Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations on...

  20. Earth impedance model for through-the-earth communication applications with electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataller, Vanessa; MuñOz, Antonio; Gaudó, Pilar Molina; Mediano, Arturo; Cuchí, José A.; Villarroel, José L.

    2010-12-01

    Through-the-earth (TTE) communications are relevant in applications such as caving, tunnel and cave rescue, mining, and subsurface radiolocation. The majority of the TTE communication systems use ground electrodes as load antenna. Wires, electrode contact, and earth impedances are the major contributors to the impedance observed by the transmitter. In this paper, state-of-art models found in the literature are reviewed, and an improved method to measure the earth impedance is presented. The paper also proposes an optimal circuit model for earth impedance between electrodes as a function of frequency, as a consequence of the particular conditions of the application. The model is validated with measurements for different soil conditions, showing a good agreement between empirical data and the simulation results.

  1. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  2. Steerable Space Fed Lens Array for Low-Cost Adaptive Ground Station Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Popovic, Zoya; Rondineau, Sebastien; Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Fed Lens Array (SFLA) is an alternative to a phased array antenna that replaces large numbers of expensive solid-state phase shifters with a single spatial feed network. SFLA can be used for multi-beam application where multiple independent beams can be generated simultaneously with a single antenna aperture. Unlike phased array antennas where feed loss increases with array size, feed loss in a lens array with more than 50 elements is nearly independent of the number of elements, a desirable feature for large apertures. In addition, SFLA has lower cost as compared to a phased array at the expense of total volume and complete beam continuity. For ground station applications, both of these tradeoff parameters are not important and can thus be exploited in order to lower the cost of the ground station. In this paper, we report the development and demonstration of a 952-element beam-steerable SFLA intended for use as a low cost ground station for communicating and tracking of a low Earth orbiting satellite. The dynamic beam steering is achieved through switching to different feed-positions of the SFLA via a beam controller.

  3. Application of China-Brazil Earth resources satellite in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yuliang; Zhao, Shangmin; Zhen, Liu; Bei, Jia

    2009-03-01

    The launch and successful operation of Chinese-Brazil Earth resources satellite (CBERS-1) in China has accelerated the application of space technology in China. These applications include agriculture, forestry, water conservation, land resources, city planning, environment protection and natural hazards monitoring and so on. The result of these applications provides a scientific basis for government decision making and has created great economic and social benefits in Chinese national economy construction. In this paper we present examples and provide auxiliary documentation of additional applications of the data from Earth resource monitoring.

  4. Results of the Calibration of the Delays of Earth Stations for TWSTFT Using the VSL Satellite Simulator Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJong, Gerrit; Kirchner, Dieter; Ressler, Hubert; Hetzel, Peter; Davis, John; Pears, Peter; Powell, Bill; McKinley, Angela Davis; Klepczynski, Bill; DeYoung, James; hide

    1996-01-01

    Two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) is the most accurate and precise method of comparing two remote clocks or time scales. The accuracy obtained is dependent on the accuracy of the determination of the non-reciprocal delays of the transmit and the receive paths. When the same transponders in the satellite at the same frequencies are used, then the non-reciprocity in the Earth stations is the limiting factor for absolute time transfer.

  5. Automated Delay Measurement System for an Earth Station for Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    important for improving the TWSTFT capabilities. An automnted system for this purpose has been developed from the initial design at NMi-VSL. It...September 1994 together with a USNO portable station on a calibration trip to European TWSTFT earth staions. 1. Introduction The Two-Way Satellite...Time and Frequency Transfer ( TWSTFT ) method (Fig. I) is used to compare two clocks or time scales which are often located at great distances from each

  6. Small format digital photogrammetry for applications in the earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke-Zapp, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Small format digital photogrammetry for applications in the earth sciences Photogrammetry is often considered one of the most precise and versatile surveying techniques. The same camera and analysis software can be used for measurements from sub-millimetre to kilometre scale. Such a measurement device is well suited for application by earth scientists working in the field. In this case a small toolset and a straight forward setup best fit the needs of the operator. While a digital camera is typically already part of the field equipment of an earth scientist the main focus of the field work is often not surveying. Lack in photogrammetric training at the same time requires an easy to learn, straight forward surveying technique. A photogrammetric method was developed aimed primarily at earth scientists for taking accurate measurements in the field minimizing extra bulk and weight of the required equipment. The work included several challenges. A) Definition of an upright coordinate system without heavy and bulky tools like a total station or GNS-Sensor. B) Optimization of image acquisition and geometric stability of the image block. C) Identification of a small camera suitable for precise measurements in the field. D) Optimization of the workflow from image acquisition to preparation of images for stereo measurements. E) Introduction of students and non-photogrammetrists to the workflow. Wooden spheres were used as target points in the field. They were more rugged and available in different sizes than ping pong balls used in a previous setup. Distances between three spheres were introduced as scale information in a photogrammetric adjustment. The distances were measured with a laser distance meter accurate to 1 mm (1 sigma). The vertical angle between the spheres was measured with the same laser distance meter. The precision of the measurement was 0.3° (1 sigma) which is sufficient, i.e. better than inclination measurements with a geological compass. The upright

  7. Earth benefits from NASA research and technology. Life sciences applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document provides a representative sampling of examples of Earth benefits in life-sciences-related applications, primarily in the area of medicine and health care, but also in agricultural productivity, environmental monitoring and safety, and the environment. This brochure is not intended as an exhaustive listing, but as an overview to acquaint the reader with the breadth of areas in which the space life sciences have, in one way or another, contributed a unique perspective to the solution of problems on Earth. Most of the examples cited were derived directly from space life sciences research and technology. Some examples resulted from other space technologies, but have found important life sciences applications on Earth. And, finally, we have included several areas in which Earth benefits are anticipated from biomedical and biological research conducted in support of future human exploration missions.

  8. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., low power, and booster stations. 74.780 Section 74.780 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations. The following rules are applicable to...

  9. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., low power, and booster stations. 74.780 Section 74.780 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations. The following rules are applicable to...

  10. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., low power, and booster stations. 74.780 Section 74.780 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations. The following rules are applicable to...

  11. Connecting NASA science and engineering with earth science applications

    The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. This Editorial reports the efforts of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to integrate applications with science and engineering i...

  12. Development and application of earth system models.

    PubMed

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  13. Development and application of earth system models

    PubMed Central

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important “systems” problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981–2000 to 2091–2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether “climate engineering” is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better. PMID:22706645

  14. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY... geostationary satellites in the fixed-satellite service on a primary basis. This proposed footnote would grant... licensees and operators, and thus are unable to estimate the number of geostationary space station licensees...

  15. Laser Photonic Propulsion Force for Station-Keeping Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Andres Dono; Yang, Fan Yang; Foster, Cyrus; Faber, Nicolas; Jonsson, Jonas; Stupl, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Small satellites, e.g. cubesats, do not tend to incorporate propulsion subsystems that can compensate for perturbation forces, which causes orbital decay. Cubesats are especially susceptible to the phenomenon of orbital decay, which limits their potential performance, since these effects are more noticeable in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). We postulate that a network of ground-based lasers could extend the operational lifetimes of these satellites by applying a photonic force onto their surfaces. This boosting force would help to counteract the degrading force, which is mainly produced by the drag of the atmosphere. This solution may present an advantage for low cost missions, in that it would enable longer mission durations without the need to incorporate a propulsion system, which comprises a large part of the mass budget and the power constraints of a satellite. This poster presents an analysis of the trade space for both the required network of laser ground stations and the satellite orbits. The analysis is based on simulations of the orbital decay of model satellites.

  16. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using Crew Earth Observation Imagery from the International Space Station to Facilitate Student-Led Authentic Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2012-01-01

    Student-led authentic research in the classroom helps motivate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related subjects. Classrooms benefit from activities that provide rigor, relevance, and a connection to the real world. Those real world connections are enhanced when they involve meaningful connections with NASA resources and scientists. Using the unique platform of the International Space Station (ISS) and Crew Earth Observation (CEO) imagery, the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program provides an exciting way to enable classrooms in grades 5-12 to be active participants in NASA exploration, discovery, and the process of science. EEAB was created by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This Earth and planetary science education program has created a framework enabling students to conduct authentic research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons using the captivating CEO images being taken by astronauts onboard the ISS. The CEO payload has been a science payload onboard the ISS since November 2000. ISS crews are trained in scientific observation of geological, oceanographic, environmental, and meteorological phenomena. Scientists on the ground select and periodically update a series of areas to be photographed as part of the CEO science payload.

  17. Recent advances in rare earth doped alkali-alkaline earth borates for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Shefali; Verma, Kartikey; Kumar, Deepak; Chaudhary, Babulal; Som, Sudipta; Sharma, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2018-04-01

    As a novel class of inorganic phosphor, the alkali-alkaline earth borate phosphors have gained huge attention due to their charming applications in solid-state lighting (SSL) and display devices. The current research drive shows that phosphors based on the alkali-alkaline earth borates have transformed the science and technology due to their high transparency over a broad spectral range, their flexibility in structure and durability for mechanical and high-laser applications. Recent advances in various aspects of rare-earth (RE) doped borate based phosphors and their utilizations in SSL and light emitting diodes are summarized in this review article. Moreover, the present status and upcoming scenario of RE-doped borate phosphors were reviewed in general along with the proper credential from the existing literature. It is believed that this review is a sole compilation of crucial information about the RE-doped borate phosphors in a single platform.

  18. Google Earth and Geo Applications: A Toolset for Viewing Earth's Geospatial Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuxen-Bettman, K.

    2016-12-01

    Earth scientists measure and derive fundamental data that can be of broad general interest to the public and policy makers. Yet, one of the challenges that has always faced the Earth science community is how to present their data and findings in an easy-to-use and compelling manner. Google's Geo Tools offer an efficient and dynamic way for scientists, educators, journalists and others to both access data and view or tell stories in a dynamic three-dimensional geospatial context. Google Earth in particular provides a dense canvas of satellite imagery on which can be viewed rich vector and raster datasets using the medium of Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Through KML, Google Earth can combine the analytical capabilities of Earth Engine, collaborative mapping of My Maps, and storytelling of Tour Builder and more to make Google's Geo Applications a coherent suite of tools for exploring our planet.https://earth.google.com/https://earthengine.google.com/https://mymaps.google.com/https://tourbuilder.withgoogle.com/https://www.google.com/streetview/

  19. 47 CFR 25.226 - Blanket licensing provisions for domestic, U.S. Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMESs) receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of VMESs in the 14.47-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space) frequency band in the vicinity of radio astronomy... location, and the applicable coordination zone. Table 1—Applicable Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) Facilities... Astronomical Research Institute, Rosman, NC 35°11′59″ 82°52′19″ 160. U of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory...

  20. 47 CFR 25.226 - Blanket licensing provisions for domestic, U.S. Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMESs) receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of VMESs in the 14.47-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space) frequency band in the vicinity of radio astronomy... location, and the applicable coordination zone. Table 1—Applicable Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) Facilities... Astronomical Research Institute, Rosman, NC 35°11′59″ 82°52′19″ 160. U of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory...

  1. 47 CFR 25.226 - Blanket licensing provisions for domestic, U.S. Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMESs) receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of VMESs in the 14.47-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space) frequency band in the vicinity of radio astronomy... location, and the applicable coordination zone. Table 1—Applicable Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) Facilities... Astronomical Research Institute, Rosman, NC 35°11′59″ 82°52′19″ 160. U of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory...

  2. Communicating Earth Science Applications through Virtual Poster Sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.

    2013-12-01

    The DEVELOP National Program addresses environmental and public policy issues through interdisciplinary research projects that apply the lens of NASA Earth observations to community concerns around the globe. Part of NASA's Applied Sciences' Capacity Building Program, DEVELOP bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society, building capacity in both participants and partner organizations to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Teams of DEVELOP participants partner with decision makers to conduct rapid feasibility projects that highlight fresh applications of NASA's suite of Earth observing sensors, cultivate advanced skills, and increase understanding of NASA Earth Science data and technology. Part of this process involves the creation of short introductory videos that demonstrate the environmental concerns, project methodologies and results, and an overview of how this work will impact decision makers. These videos are presented to the public three times a year in 'virtual poster sessions' (VPS) that provide an interactive way for individuals from around the globe to access the research, understand the capabilities and applications of NASA's Earth science datasets, and interact with the participants through blogging and dialogue sessions. Virtual poster sessions have allowed DEVELOP to introduce NASA's Earth science assets to thousands of viewers around the world. For instance, one fall VPS had over 5,000 visitors from 89 different countries during the two week session. This presentation will discuss lessons learned and statistics related to the series of nine virtual poster sessions that DEVELOP has conducted 2011-2013.

  3. Exposing NASA's Earth Observations to the Applications Community and Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N. N.; Thompson, C. K.; Schmaltz, J. E.; King, B. A.; Wong, M. M.; Rice, Z.; Gunnoe, T.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J.; De Luca, A. P.; King, J.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) generates a wealth of data products which are generally intended for scientific research. In recent years, however, this data has also become more accessible to the applications community and public through the Worldview app and Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). These mapping interfaces provide historical and near real-time access to NASA's Earth observations for a wide range of uses. This presentation will focus on how the applications community, public, and media use these interfaces for decision-making, leisure, and anything in between.

  4. Exposing NASA's Earth Observations to the Applications Community and Public

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boller, R.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N.; Thompson, C.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Wong, M.; King, B.; Rice, Z.; Sprague, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) generates a wealth of data products which are generally intended for scientific research. In recent years, however, this data has also become more accessible to the applications community and public through the Worldview app and Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). These mapping interfaces provide historical and near real time access to NASA's Earth observations for a wide range of uses. This presentation will focus on how the applications community, public, and media use these interfaces for decision-making, leisure, and anything in between.

  5. Applications of the International Space Station Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Warren; Lutomski, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Recently the International Space Station (ISS) has incorporated more Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) in the decision making process for significant issues. Future PRAs will have major impact to ISS and future spacecraft development and operations. These PRAs will have their foundation in the current complete ISS PRA model and the current PRA trade studies that are being analyzed as requested by ISS Program stakeholders. ISS PRAs have recently helped in the decision making process for determining reliability requirements for future NASA spacecraft and commercial spacecraft, making crew rescue decisions, as well as making operational requirements for ISS orbital orientation, planning Extravehicular activities (EVAs) and robotic operations. This paper will describe some applications of the ISS PRA model and how they impacted the final decision. This paper will discuss future analysis topics such as life extension, requirements of new commercial vehicles visiting ISS.

  6. NASA Earth Science Research and Applications Using UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Enterprise sponsored the UAV Science Demonstration Project, which funded two projects: the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) and the UAV Coffee Harvest Optimization experiment. These projects were intended to begin a process of integrating UAVs into the mainstream of NASA s airborne Earth Science Research and Applications programs. The Earth Science Enterprise is moving forward given the positive science results of these demonstration projects to incorporate more platforms with additional scientific utility into the program and to look toward a horizon where the current piloted aircraft may not be able to carry out the science objectives of a mission. Longer duration, extended range, slower aircraft speed, etc. all have scientific advantages in many of the disciplines within Earth Science. The challenge we now face are identifying those capabilities that exist and exploiting them while identifying the gaps. This challenge has two facets: the engineering aspects of redesigning or modifying sensors and a paradigm shift by the scientists.

  7. Analysis of Station Quality Issues from EarthScope's Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, C.; Barstow, N.; Busby, R.; Hafner, K.

    2008-12-01

    160 of the first 400 Earthscope USARRY transportable array (TA) stations have completed their first two-year deployment and are being moved to their next locations. Over the past 4 years the majority of stations have run with few interruptions in the transfer of real time data to the Array Network Facility (ANF) at the Univ of CA San Diego and near real time data to the IRIS Data Management System (DMS). The combination of telemetered data and dedicated people reviewing the waveforms and state of health data have revealed several conditions that can affect the data quality or cause loss of data. The data problems fall into three broad categories; station power, equipment malfunction, and communication failures. Station power issues have been implicated in several types of noise seen in the seismic data (as well as causing station failures and resultant data gaps). The most common type of equipment problem that has been found to degrade data quality is caused by sensor problems, and has affected all 3 types of sensors used in the TA to varying degrees. While communication problems can cause real time data loss, they do not cause a degradation of the quality of the data, and any gaps in the real time data due solely to communications problems are filled in later with the continuous data recorded to disk at each TA station. Over the past 4 years the TA team has recognized a number of noise sources and have made several design changes to minimize the effects on data quality. Design/procedural changes include: stopping water incursion into the stations, power conditioning, changing mass re-center voltage thresholds. Figures that demonstrate examples are provided. Changes have created better data quality and improved the station performance. Vigilance and deployment of service teams to reestablish communications, replace noisy sensors, and troubleshoot problems is also key to maintaining the high-quality TA network.

  8. The 136 MHZ/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program for RAE-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Fee, J. J.; Chin, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low noise periods. Antenna noise temperatures will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. Telemetry data acquisition will be at 400 MHz; tracking support at 136 MHz will be provided by the Goddard Range and Range Rate (RARR) stations. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973.

  9. Application of shock wave data to earth and planetary science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that shock wave data for: (1) low temperature condensable gases H2 and He, (2) H2O, CH4, NH3, CO, CO2, and N2 ices, and (3) silicates, metals, oxides and sulfides have many applications in geophysics and planetary science. The present paper is concerned with such applications. The composition of planetary interiors is discussed, taking into account the division of the major constituent of the planets in three groups on the basis of 'cosmic abundance' arguments, the H-He mixtures in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, shock wave data for hydrogen, and constraints on the internal structure of Uranus and Neptune. Attention is also given to the earth's mantle, shock wave data for mantle materials, the earth's core, impacts on planetary surfaces, elastic wave velocities as a function of pressure along the Hugoniot of iron, and reactions which yield the CO2 bearing atmospheres for Venus, earth, and Mars.

  10. High-Definition Television (HDTV) Images for Earth Observations and Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Holland, S. Douglas; Runco, Susan K.; Pitts, David E.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Andrefouet, Serge M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of Detailed Test Objective 700-17A, astronauts acquired Earth observation images from orbit using a high-definition television (HDTV) camcorder, Here we provide a summary of qualitative findings following completion of tests during missions STS (Space Transport System)-93 and STS-99. We compared HDTV imagery stills to images taken using payload bay video cameras, Hasselblad film camera, and electronic still camera. We also evaluated the potential for motion video observations of changes in sunlight and the use of multi-aspect viewing to image aerosols. Spatial resolution and color quality are far superior in HDTV images compared to National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) video images. Thus, HDTV provides the first viable option for video-based remote sensing observations of Earth from orbit. Although under ideal conditions, HDTV images have less spatial resolution than medium-format film cameras, such as the Hasselblad, under some conditions on orbit, the HDTV image acquired compared favorably with the Hasselblad. Of particular note was the quality of color reproduction in the HDTV images HDTV and electronic still camera (ESC) were not compared with matched fields of view, and so spatial resolution could not be compared for the two image types. However, the color reproduction of the HDTV stills was truer than colors in the ESC images. As HDTV becomes the operational video standard for Space Shuttle and Space Station, HDTV has great potential as a source of Earth-observation data. Planning for the conversion from NTSC to HDTV video standards should include planning for Earth data archiving and distribution.

  11. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J Eric; Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M; Douglass, Anne R; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided.

  12. 47 CFR 74.431 - Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... damaged, stations licensed under Subpart D may be used to provide temporary circuits for a period not... SERVICES Remote Pickup Broadcast Stations § 74.431 Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations. (a..., frequency coordination, establishing microwave links, and operational communications. Operational...

  13. 47 CFR 74.431 - Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... damaged, stations licensed under Subpart D may be used to provide temporary circuits for a period not... SERVICES Remote Pickup Broadcast Stations § 74.431 Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations. (a..., frequency coordination, establishing microwave links, and operational communications. Operational...

  14. 47 CFR 74.431 - Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... damaged, stations licensed under Subpart D may be used to provide temporary circuits for a period not... SERVICES Remote Pickup Broadcast Stations § 74.431 Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations. (a..., frequency coordination, establishing microwave links, and operational communications. Operational...

  15. 47 CFR 74.431 - Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... damaged, stations licensed under Subpart D may be used to provide temporary circuits for a period not... SERVICES Remote Pickup Broadcast Stations § 74.431 Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations. (a..., frequency coordination, establishing microwave links, and operational communications. Operational...

  16. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States. [63 FR 68956, Dec. 14, 1998] ...

  17. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States. [63 FR 68956, Dec. 14, 1998] ...

  18. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States. [63 FR 68956, Dec. 14, 1998] ...

  19. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States. [63 FR 68956, Dec. 14, 1998] ...

  20. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States. [63 FR 68956, Dec. 14, 1998] ...

  1. 47 CFR 73.870 - Processing of LPFM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Notice a window filing period for applications for new LPFM stations and major modifications in the... authorized LPFM stations will be accepted only during the appropriate window. Applications submitted prior to the window opening date identified in the Public Notice will be returned as premature. Applications...

  2. 47 CFR 24.815 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.815 Section 24.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... describe a number of general technical requirements. (b) Each application (except applications for initial...

  3. 47 CFR 24.415 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.415 Section 24.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... number of general technical requirements. (b) Each application (except applications for initial licenses...

  4. 47 CFR 24.415 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.415 Section 24.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... number of general technical requirements. (b) Each application (except applications for initial licenses...

  5. 47 CFR 24.415 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.415 Section 24.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... number of general technical requirements. (b) Each application (except applications for initial licenses...

  6. 47 CFR 24.415 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.415 Section 24.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... number of general technical requirements. (b) Each application (except applications for initial licenses...

  7. 47 CFR 24.815 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.815 Section 24.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... describe a number of general technical requirements. (b) Each application (except applications for initial...

  8. 47 CFR 24.815 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.815 Section 24.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... describe a number of general technical requirements. (b) Each application (except applications for initial...

  9. 47 CFR 24.415 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.415 Section 24.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... number of general technical requirements. (b) Each application (except applications for initial licenses...

  10. 47 CFR 24.815 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.815 Section 24.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... describe a number of general technical requirements. (b) Each application (except applications for initial...

  11. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast regulations applicable to translators... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations. The following rules are applicable to...

  12. Earth Observation

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  13. Space Station Freedom - Optimized to support microgravity research and earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.; Herman, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is reviewed, with particular attention given to the Space Station configuration, program elements description, and utilization accommodation. Since plans call for the assembly of the initial SSF configuration over a 3-year time span, it is NASA's intention to perform useful research on it during the assembly process. The research will include microgravity experiments and observational sciences. The specific attributes supporting these attempts are described, such as maintainance of a very low microgravity level and continuous orientation of the vehicle to maintain a stable, accurate local-vertical/local-horizontal attitude.

  14. Testing impact of the strategy of VLBI data analysis on the estimation of Earth Orientation Parameters and station coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgosz, Agata; Tercjak, Monika; Brzeziński, Aleksander

    2016-06-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the only space geodetic technique capable to realise the Celestial Reference Frame and tie it with the Terrestrial Reference Frame. It is also the only technique, which measures all the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) on a regular basis, thus the role of VLBI in determination of the universal time, nutation and polar motion and station coordinates is invaluable. Although geodetic VLBI has been providing observations for more than 30 years, there are no clear guidelines how to deal with the stations or baselines having significantly bigger post-fit residuals than the other ones. In our work we compare the common weighting strategy, using squared formal errors, with strategies involving exclusion or down-weighting of stations or baselines. For that purpose we apply the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS with necessary additional procedures. In our analysis we focus on statistical indicators that might be the criterion of excluding or down-weighting the inferior stations or baselines, as well as on the influence of adopted strategy on the EOP and station coordinates estimation. Our analysis shows that in about 99% of 24-hour VLBI sessions there is no need to exclude any data as the down-weighting procedure is sufficiently efficient. Although results presented here do not clearly indicate the best algorithm, they show strengths and weaknesses of the applied methods and point some limitations of automatic analysis of VLBI data. Moreover, it is also shown that the influence of the adopted weighting strategy is not always clearly reflected in the results of analysis.

  15. How Are We Able to See the International Space Station from the Earth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of a British astronaut on the International Space Station will have caused many people in Britain to take interest in seeing it pass overhead. This article explains why it can only be seen for brief times and when conditions are suitable.

  16. Earth rotation, station coordinates and orbit determination from satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Masaaki

    The Project MERIT, a special program of international colaboration to Monitor Earth Rotation and Intercompare the Techniques of observation and analysis, has come to an end with great success. Its major objective was to evaluate the ultimate potential of space techniques such as VLBI and satellite laser ranging, in contrast with the other conventional techniques, in the determination of rotational dynamics of the earth. The National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) has officially participated in the project as an associate analysis center for satellite laser technique for the period of the MERIT Main Campaign (September 1983-October 1984). In this paper, the NAL analysis center results are presented.

  17. Two-way laser ranging and time transfer experiments between LOLA and an Earth-based satellite laser ranging station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Neumann, G. A.; Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E. M.; Hoffman, E.; Zagwodzki, T. W.; Torrence, M. H.; Mcgarry, J.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) has established time-of-flight measurements with mm precision to targets orbiting the Earth and the Moon using single-ended round-trip laser ranging to passive optical retro-reflectors. These high-precision measurements enable advances in fundamental physics, solar system dynamics. However, the received signal strength suffers from a 1/R4 decay, which makes it impractical for measuring distances beyond the Moon's orbit. On the other hand, for a two-way laser transponder pair, where laser pulses are both transmitted to and received from each end of the laser links, the signal strength at both terminals only decreases by 1/R2, thus allowing a greater range of distances to be covered. The asynchronous transponder concept has been previously demonstrated by a test in 2005 between the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) aboard the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft and NASA's Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) at a distance of ˜0.16 AU. In October 2013, regular two-way transponder-type range measurements were obtained over 15 days between the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and NASA's ground station at White Sands, NM. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) provides us a unique capability to test time-transfer beyond near Earth orbit. Here we present results from two-way transponder-type experiments between LOLA and GGAO conducted in March 2014 and 2017. As in the time-transfer by laser link (T2L2) experiments between a ground station and an earth-orbiting satellite, LOLA and GGAO ranged to each other simultaneously in these two-way tests at lunar distance. We measured the time-of-flight while cross-referencing the spacecraft clock to the ground station time. On May 4th, 2017, about 20 minutes of two-way measurements were collected. The

  18. 47 CFR 25.226 - Blanket Licensing provisions for domestic, U.S. Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMESs) receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in the 14.47-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space) frequency band in the vicinity of radio astronomy service (RAS... coordination zone. Table 1—Applicable Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) Facilities and Associated Coordination..., Rosman, NC 35°11′59″ 82°52′19″ 160. U of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, Stinchfield Woods, MI 42...

  19. Space Station WP-2 application of LDEF MLI results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles A.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Jones, Cherie A.

    1993-01-01

    The Cascaded Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment, which was developed by Michael Grote of McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Company, was located in Tray F-9 of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it received atomic oxygen almost normal to its surface. The majority of the tray was covered by aluminized Kapton polyimide multilayer insulation (MLI), which showed substantial changes from atomic oxygen erosion. Most of the outermost Kapton layer of the MLI and the polyester scrim cloth under it were lost, and there was evidence of contaminant deposition which discolored the edges of the MLI blanket. Micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MM/OD) hits caused small rips in the MLI layers, and in some cases left cloudy areas where the vapor plume caused by a hit condensed on the next layer. The MLI was bent gradually through 90 deg at the edges to enclose the experiment, and the Kapton that survived along the curved portion showed the effects of atomic oxygen erosion at oblique angles. In spite of space environment effects over the period of the LDEF mission, the MLI blanket remained functional. The results of the analysis of LDEF MLI were used in developing the standard MLI blanket for Space Station Work Package-2 (WP-2). This blanket is expected to last 30 years when exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment constituents of atomic oxygen and MM/OD, which are the most damaging to MLI materials. The WP-2 standard blanket consists of an outer cover made from Beta-cloth glass fiber fabric which is aluminized on the interior surface, and an inner cover of 0.076-mm (0.003-in) double-side-aluminized perforated Kapton. The inner reflector layers are 0.0076-mm (0.0003-in) double-side aluminized, perforated Kapton separated by layers of Dacron polyester fabric. The outer cover was selected to be resistant to the LEO environment and durable enough to survive in orbit for 30 years. This paper describes the analyses of the LDEF MLI results, and how these

  20. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  1. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions. PMID:22573992

  2. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model

    PubMed Central

    Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Douglass, Anne R.; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D.; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E.; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Abstract NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near‐real‐time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)‐based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided. PMID:29497478

  3. 47 CFR 87.47 - Application for a portable aircraft station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... license. 87.47 Section 87.47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.47 Application for a portable aircraft station license. A person may apply for a portable aircraft radio station license if the need...

  4. Potential applications of expert systems and operations research to space station logistics functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippiatt, Thomas F.; Waterman, Donald

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of operations research, artificial intelligence, and expert systems to logistics problems for the space station were assessed. Promising application areas were identified for space station logistics. A needs assessment is presented and a specific course of action in each area is suggested.

  5. 47 CFR 1.572 - Processing TV broadcast and translator station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing TV broadcast and translator station applications. 1.572 Section 1.572 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND... and translator station applications. See § 73.3572. ...

  6. 47 CFR 1.573 - Processing FM broadcast and translator station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing FM broadcast and translator station applications. 1.573 Section 1.573 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND... and translator station applications. See § 73.3573. ...

  7. Space station user's handbook (Revised)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A modular space station concept that furnishes facilities which may be used for experimentation and application during earth orbit missions is described in a user's handbook. The subjects discussed are: (1) overall profile and mission activities for five year on-orbit program, (2) electromagnetic energy transmission through earth atmosphere, (3) effects of atmosphere in limiting resolution, and (4) the hydrological cycle as these subjects apply to the space station data acquisition function.

  8. Rare-Earth Activated Nitride Phosphors: Synthesis, Luminescence and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto; Li, Yuanqiang; Takeda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Nitridosilicates are structurally built up on three-dimensional SiN4 tetrahedral networks, forming a very interesting class of materials with high thermomechanical properties, hardness, and wide band gap. Traditionally, nitridosilicates are often used as structural materials such as abrasive particles, cutting tools, turbine blade, etc. Recently, the luminescence of rare earth doped nitridosilicates has been extensively studied, and a novel family of luminescent materials has been developed. This paper reviews the synthesis, luminescence and applications of nitridosilicate phosphors, with emphasis on rare earth nitrides in the system of M-Si-Al-O-N (M = Li, Ca, Sr, Ba, La) and their applications in white LEDs. These phosphors exhibit interesting luminescent properties, such as red-shifted excitation and emission, small Stokes shift, small thermal quenching, and high conversion efficiency, enabling them to use as down-conversion luminescent materials in white LEDs with tunable color temperature and high color rendering index.

  9. Earth Science Markup Language: Transitioning From Design to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) research is to transition from design to application. The resulting schema and prototype software will foster community acceptance for the "define once, use anywhere" concept central to ESML. Supporting goals include: 1. Refinement of the ESML schema and software libraries in cooperation with the user community. 2. Application of the ESML schema and software libraries to a variety of Earth science data sets and analysis tools. 3. Development of supporting prototype software for enhanced ease of use. 4. Cooperation with standards bodies in order to assure ESML is aligned with related metadata standards as appropriate. 5. Widespread publication of the ESML approach, schema, and software.

  10. Application of flywheel battery in mobile power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinggui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Xiaoying; Sun, Xiaojing

    2013-03-01

    The flywheel battery is used to the mobile station for continuous power supply, once the commercial power or other independent power supply is outage or failure, the flywheel battery will provide uninterrupted power supply during the switch to the commercial power and the diesel generator sets, ensuring the power supply system is continuous and maintaining the performance and parameters of the power supply which will not influence or discontinuous change because of commercial power failure. Simulation results show that the flywheel battery used to the mobile station can effectively improve the performance of the mobile power station system.

  11. Earth observations taken from Mir Space Station during NASA 7 mission

    2016-08-29

    NASA7-726-049 (May 1998) --- This view of a sunrise was taken as the Russia's Mir Space Station was on a descending track toward Johnston Island, in the central Pacific (18.1 degrees north latitude and 176.6 degrees west longitude). Sunrises and sunsets are seen by the astronauts and cosmonauts approximately every 45 minutes and differ in structure, since the tropopause altitude and atmospheric lamina temperatures vary with time of day, season, and latitude. From accounts by the astronauts, true replication of human vision is not possible using present film. Some have said there are many more layers in the atmosphere than what the film is recording.

  12. Application of a space station to communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramler, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The economic benefits of a space station relative to communications satellites are discussed in terms of technology experiments, spacecraft checkout, repair, servicing, and refurbishment (RSR), and mating an OTV with satellites for boost to GEO. The zero gravity, vacuum conditions, and atmosphere free long ranges are environmental features that can be used for testing large, flexible antennas and laser communications devices. Some resistance might be encountered to checkout in LEO due to the substantial success of launches to GEO without LEO checkout. However, new generations of larger, more complex satellites may warrant the presence of a space station to verify performance of new spacecraft. One RSR positive aspect for a space station is as a storage site for propellant, as well as for reusable OTV booster engines. Also, the space station can serve as a base for manned or unmanned repair spacecraft which will travel to GEO to fix malfunctions in geostationary satellites.

  13. Evolution of telemedicine in the space program and earth applications.

    PubMed

    Nicogossian, A E; Pober, D F; Roy, S A

    2001-01-01

    Remote monitoring of crew, spacecraft, and environmental health has always been an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) operations. Crew safety and mission success face a number of challenges in outerspace, including physiological adaptations to microgravity, radiation exposure, extreme temperatures and vacuum, and psychosocial reactions to space flight. The NASA effort to monitor and maintain crew health, system performance, and environmental integrity in space flight is a sophisticated and coordinated program of telemedicine combining cutting-edge engineering with medical expertise. As missions have increased in complexity, NASA telemedicine capabilities have grown apace, underlying its role in the field. At the same time, the terrestrial validation of telemedicine technologies to bring healthcare to remote locations provides feedback, improvement, and enhancement of the space program. As NASA progresses in its space exploration program, astronauts will join missions lasting months, even years, that take them millions of miles from home. These long-duration missions necessitate further technological breakthroughs in tele-operations and autonomous technology. Earth-based monitoring will no longer be real-time, requiring telemedicine capabilities to advance with future explorers as they travel deeper into space. The International Space Station will serve as a testbed for the telemedicine technologies to enable future missions as well as improve the quality of healthcare delivery on Earth.

  14. Evolution of telemedicine in the space program and earth applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pober, D. F.; Roy, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Remote monitoring of crew, spacecraft, and environmental health has always been an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) operations. Crew safety and mission success face a number of challenges in outerspace, including physiological adaptations to microgravity, radiation exposure, extreme temperatures and vacuum, and psychosocial reactions to space flight. The NASA effort to monitor and maintain crew health, system performance, and environmental integrity in space flight is a sophisticated and coordinated program of telemedicine combining cutting-edge engineering with medical expertise. As missions have increased in complexity, NASA telemedicine capabilities have grown apace, underlying its role in the field. At the same time, the terrestrial validation of telemedicine technologies to bring healthcare to remote locations provides feedback, improvement, and enhancement of the space program. As NASA progresses in its space exploration program, astronauts will join missions lasting months, even years, that take them millions of miles from home. These long-duration missions necessitate further technological breakthroughs in tele-operations and autonomous technology. Earth-based monitoring will no longer be real-time, requiring telemedicine capabilities to advance with future explorers as they travel deeper into space. The International Space Station will serve as a testbed for the telemedicine technologies to enable future missions as well as improve the quality of healthcare delivery on Earth.

  15. Are rare-earth nanoparticles suitable for in vivo applications?

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyan; Hou, Yi; Gao, Mingyuan

    2014-10-29

    Rare earth (RE) nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their unique optical and magnetic properties associated with f-electrons. The recent accomplishments in RE nanoparticle synthesis have aroused great interest of scientists to further explore their biomedical applications. This Research News summarizes recent achievements in controlled synthesis of magnetic and luminescent RE nanoparticles, surface modification, and toxicity studies of RE nanomaterials, and highlights state-of-the-art in in vivo applications of RE nanoparticles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The 136 MHz/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program documentation for RAE-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simulation study to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods is described. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low-noise periods. Antenna-noise temperatures at 136 MHz and 400 MHz will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973. The RAE-B mission will be expecially susceptible to SNR degradation during the two eclipses of the Sun occurring in this period.

  17. Ionosphere Plasma State Determination in Low Earth Orbit from International Space Station Plasma Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic package is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The system - a Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) - is used by NASA to monitor the electrical floating potential of the vehicle to assure astronaut safety during extravehicular activity. However, data from the unit also reflects the ionosphere state and seems to represent an unutilized scientific resource in the form of an archive of scientific plasma state data. The unit comprises a Floating Potential probe and two Langmuir probes. There is also an unused but active plasma impedance probe. The data, at one second cadence, are collected, typically for a two week period surrounding extravehicular activity events. Data is also collected any time a visiting vehicle docks with ISS and also when any large solar events occur. The telemetry system is unusual because the package is mounted on a television camera stanchion and its data is impressed on a video signal that is transmitted to the ground and streamed by internet to two off center laboratory locations. The data quality has in the past been challenged by weaknesses in the integrated ground station and distribution systems. These issues, since mid-2010, have been largely resolved and the ground stations have been upgraded. Downstream data reduction has been developed using physics based modeling of the electron and ion collecting character in the plasma. Recursive algorithms determine plasma density and temperature from the raw Langmuir probe current voltage sweeps and this is made available in real time for situational awareness. The purpose of this paper is to describe and record the algorithm for data reduction and to show that the Floating probe and Langmuir probes are capable of providing long term plasma state measurement in the ionosphere. Geophysical features such as the Appleton anomaly and high latitude modulation at the edge of the Auroral zones are regularly observed in the nearly circular, 51 deg inclined, 400 km

  18. Solar dynamic power for Earth orbital and lunar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, James E.; Dustin, Miles O.; Secunde, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    Development of solar dynamic (SD) technologies for space over the past 25 years by NASA Lewis Research Center brought SD power to the point where it was selected in the design phase of Space Station Freedom Program as the power source for evolutionary growth. More recent studies showed that large cost savings are possible in establishing manufacturing processes at a Lunar Base if SD is considered as a power source. Technology efforts over the past 5 years have made possible lighter, more durable, SD components for these applications. A review of these efforts and respective benefits is presented.

  19. Kwf-Grid workflow management system for Earth science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, V.; Hluchy, L.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present workflow management tool for Earth science applications in EGEE. The workflow management tool was originally developed within K-wf Grid project for GT4 middleware and has many advanced features like semi-automatic workflow composition, user-friendly GUI for managing workflows, knowledge management. In EGEE, we are porting the workflow management tool to gLite middleware for Earth science applications K-wf Grid workflow management system was developed within "Knowledge-based Workflow System for Grid Applications" under the 6th Framework Programme. The workflow mangement system intended to - semi-automatically compose a workflow of Grid services, - execute the composed workflow application in a Grid computing environment, - monitor the performance of the Grid infrastructure and the Grid applications, - analyze the resulting monitoring information, - capture the knowledge that is contained in the information by means of intelligent agents, - and finally to reuse the joined knowledge gathered from all participating users in a collaborative way in order to efficiently construct workflows for new Grid applications. Kwf Grid workflow engines can support different types of jobs (e.g. GRAM job, web services) in a workflow. New class of gLite job has been added to the system, allows system to manage and execute gLite jobs in EGEE infrastructure. The GUI has been adapted to the requirements of EGEE users, new credential management servlet is added to portal. Porting K-wf Grid workflow management system to gLite would allow EGEE users to use the system and benefit from its avanced features. The system is primarly tested and evaluated with applications from ES clusters.

  20. Biomedical and Human Factors Requirements for a Manned Earth Orbiting Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, F.; Helvey, W. M.; Martell, C.; Peters, J.; Rosenthal, G.

    1964-01-01

    This report is the result of a study conducted by Republic Aviation Corporation in conjunction with Spacelabs, Inc.,in a team effort in which Republic Aviation Corporation was prime contractor. In order to determine the realistic engineering design requirements associated with the medical and human factors problems of a manned space station, an interdisciplinary team of personnel from the Research and Space Divisions was organized. This team included engineers, physicians, physiologists, psychologists, and physicists. Recognizing that the value of the study is dependent upon medical judgments as well as more quantifiable factors (such as design parameters) a group of highly qualified medical consultants participated in working sessions to determine which medical measurements are required to meet the objectives of the study. In addition, various Life Sciences personnel from NASA (Headquarters, Langley, MSC) participated in monthly review sessions. The organization, team members, consultants, and some of the part-time contributors are shown in Figure 1. This final report embodies contributions from all of these participants.

  1. 47 CFR 63.504 - Contents of applications to close a public toll station where no other such toll station of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of applications to close a public toll station where no other such toll station of the applicant in the community will continue service and where telephone toll service is not otherwise available to the public through a telephone exchange connected with the toll lines of a carrier....

  2. Data-driven Applications for the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in observational and data mining techniques allow extracting information from the large volume of Sun-Earth observational data that can be assimilated into first principles physical models. However, equations governing Sun-Earth phenomena are typically nonlinear, complex, and high-dimensional. The high computational demand of solving the full governing equations over a large range of scales precludes the use of a variety of useful assimilative tools that rely on applied mathematical and statistical techniques for quantifying uncertainty and predictability. Effective use of such tools requires the development of computationally efficient methods to facilitate fusion of data with models. This presentation will provide an overview of various existing as well as newly developed data-driven techniques adopted from atmospheric and oceanic sciences that proved to be useful for space physics applications, such as computationally efficient implementation of Kalman Filter in radiation belts modeling, solar wind gap-filling by Singular Spectrum Analysis, and low-rank procedure for assimilation of low-altitude ionospheric magnetic perturbations into the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetospheric model. Reduced-order non-Markovian inverse modeling and novel data-adaptive decompositions of Sun-Earth datasets will be also demonstrated.

  3. Performance measures in the earth observations commercialization applications program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1996-03-01

    Performance measures in the Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP) are key to its success and include net profitability; enhancements to industry productivity through generic innovations in industry practices, standards, and protocols; and documented contributions to public policy governing the newly developing remote sensing industry. Because EOCAP requires company co-funding, both parties to the agreement (the government and the corporate partner) have incentives to pursue these goals. Further strengthening progress towards these goals are requirements for business plans in the company's EOCAP proposal, detailed scrutiny given these plans during proposal selection, and regularly documented progress reports during project implementation.

  4. The use of multisensor images for Earth Science applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Stromberg, B.

    1983-01-01

    The use of more than one remote sensing technique is particularly important for Earth Science applications because of the compositional and textural information derivable from the images. The ability to simultaneously analyze images acquired by different sensors requires coregistration of the multisensor image data sets. In order to insure pixel to pixel registration in areas of high relief, images must be rectified to eliminate topographic distortions. Coregistered images can be analyzed using a variety of multidimensional techniques and the acquired knowledge of topographic effects in the images can be used in photogeologic interpretations.

  5. Space life sciences: closed ecological systems: earth and space applications.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    This issue contains peer-reviewed papers from a workshop on Closed Ecological Systems: Earth and Space Applications at the 35th COSPAR General Assembly in Paris, France, convened in July 2004. The contributions reflected the wide range of international work in the field, especially Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States. The papers are arranged according to four main themes: 1) Methods of evaluation and theory of closed ecological systems; 2) Reports from recent experiments in closed ecological system facilities; 3) Bioregenerative technologies to advance degree of closure and cycling; and 4) Laboratory studies of small closed ecological systems.

  6. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  7. Thin-Film Solar Array Earth Orbit Mission Applicability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2002-01-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the applicability and spacecraft-level impact of using very lightweight thin-film solar arrays with relatively large deployed areas for representative Earth orbiting missions. The most and least attractive features of thin-film solar arrays are briefly discussed. A simple calculation is then presented illustrating that from a solar array alone mass perspective, larger arrays with less efficient but lighter thin-film solar cells can weigh less than smaller arrays with more efficient but heavier crystalline cells. However, a proper spacecraft-level systems assessment must take into account the additional mass associated with solar array deployed area: the propellant needed to desaturate the momentum accumulated from area-related disturbance torques and to perform aerodynamic drag makeup reboost. The results for such an assessment are presented for a representative low Earth orbit (LEO) mission, as a function of altitude and mission life, and a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) mission. Discussion of the results includes a list of specific mission types most likely to benefit from using thin-film arrays. NASA Glenn's low-temperature approach to depositing thin-film cells on lightweight, flexible plastic substrates is also briefly discussed to provide a perspective on one approach to achieving this enabling technology. The paper concludes with a list of issues to be addressed prior to use of thin-film solar arrays in space and the observation that with their unique characteristics, very lightweight arrays using efficient, thin-film cells on flexible substrates may become the best array option for a subset of Earth orbiting missions.

  8. Application of Risk-Based Inspection method for gas compressor station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Liang, Wei; Qiu, Zeyang; Lin, Yang

    2017-05-01

    According to the complex process and lots of equipment, there are risks in gas compressor station. At present, research on integrity management of gas compressor station is insufficient. In this paper, the basic principle of Risk Based Inspection (RBI) and the RBI methodology are studied; the process of RBI in the gas compressor station is developed. The corrosion loop and logistics loop of the gas compressor station are determined through the study of corrosion mechanism and process of the gas compressor station. The probability of failure is calculated by using the modified coefficient, and the consequence of failure is calculated by the quantitative method. In particular, we addressed the application of a RBI methodology in a gas compressor station. The risk ranking is helpful to find the best preventive plan for inspection in the case study.

  9. UF/RO applications at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station

    SciT

    Palino, G.F.; Sailor, W.C.; Sawochka, S.G.

    1981-04-01

    In June 1979, NWT was contracted by TVA to review the applicability of reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane treatment technology at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station. Specific program tasks are described and results presented.

  10. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  11. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  12. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  13. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  14. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  15. Applicability of NASA Polar Technologies to British Antarctic Survey Halley VI Research Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    From 1993 through 1997 NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF), developed a variety of environmental infrastructure technologies for use at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The objective of this program was to reduce the cost of operating the South Pole Station, reduce the environmental impact of the Station, and to increase the quality of life for Station inhabitants. The result of this program was the development of a set of sustainability technologies designed specifically for Polar applications. In the intervening eight years many of the technologies developed through this program have been commercialized and tested in extreme environments and are now available for use throughout Antarctica and circumpolar north. The objective of this document is to provide information covering technologies that might also be applicable to the British Antarctic Survey s (BAS) proposed new Halley VI Research Station. All technologies described are commercially available.

  16. A comparison of Frequency Domain Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) approaches to satellite service for low data rate Earth stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G.

    1983-01-01

    A technological and economic assessment is made of providing low data rate service to small earth stations by satellite at Ka-band. Various Frequency Domain Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) scenarios are examined and compared on the basis of cost to the end user. Very small stations (1 to 2 meters in diameter) are found not to be viable alternatives to available terrestrial services. However, medium size (3 to 5 meters) earth stations appear to be very competitive if a minimum throughput of about 1.5 Mbs is maintained. This constrains the use of such terminals to large users and shared use by smaller users. No advantage was found to the use of FDMA. TDMA had a slight advantage from a total system viewpoint and a very significant advantage in the space segment (about 1/3 the required payload weight for an equivalent capacity).

  17. Geocam Space: Enhancing Handheld Digital Camera Imagery from the International Space Station for Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lee, Yeon Jin; Dille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Handheld astronaut photography of the Earth has been collected from the International Space Station (ISS) since 2000, making it the most temporally extensive remotely sensed dataset from this unique Low Earth orbital platform. Exclusive use of digital handheld cameras to perform Earth observations from the ISS began in 2004. Nadir viewing imagery is constrained by the inclined equatorial orbit of the ISS to between 51.6 degrees North and South latitude, however numerous oblique images of land surfaces above these latitudes are included in the dataset. While unmodified commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras provide only visible wavelength, three-band spectral information of limited quality current cameras used with long (400+ mm) lenses can obtain high quality spatial information approaching 2 meters/ground pixel resolution. The dataset is freely available online at the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth site (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov), and now comprises over 2 million images. Despite this extensive image catalog, use of the data for scientific research, disaster response, commercial applications and visualizations is minimal in comparison to other data collected from free-flying satellite platforms such as Landsat, Worldview, etc. This is due primarily to the lack of fully-georeferenced data products - while current digital cameras typically have integrated GPS, this does not function in the Low Earth Orbit environment. The Earth Science and Remote Sensing (ESRS) Unit at NASA Johnson Space Center provides training in Earth Science topics to ISS crews, performs daily operations and Earth observation target delivery to crews through the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) Facility on board ISS, and also catalogs digital handheld imagery acquired from orbit by manually adding descriptive metadata and determining an image geographic centerpoint using visual feature matching with other georeferenced data, e.g. Landsat, Google Earth, etc. The lack of full geolocation

  18. Rare earth doped III-nitride semiconductors for spintronic and optoelectronic applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palai, Ratnakar

    2016-10-01

    Since last four decades the information and communication technologies are relying on the semiconductor materials. Currently a great deal of attention is being focused on adding spin degree-of-freedom into semiconductor to create a new area of solid-state electronics, called spintronics. In spintronics not only the current but also its spin state is controlled. Such materials need to be good semiconductors for easy integration in typical integrated circuits with high sensitivity to the spin orientation, especially room temperature ferromagnetism being an important desirable property. GaN is considered to be the most important semiconductor after silicon. It is widely used for the production of green, blue, UV, and white LEDs in full color displays, traffic lights, automotive lightings, and general room lighting using white LEDs. GaN-based systems also show promise for microwave and high power electronics intended for radar, satellite, wireless base stations and spintronic applications. Rare earth (Yb, Eu, Er, and Tm) doped GaN shows many interesting optoelectronic and magnetoptic properties e. g. sharp emission from UV through visible to IR, radiation hardness, and ferromagnetism. The talk will be focused on fabrication, optoelectronic (photoluminescence, cathodeluminescence, magnetic, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) properties of some rare earth doped GaN and InGaN semiconductor nanostructures grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and future applications.

  19. Chemical Potency and Degradation Products of Medications Stored Over 550 Earth Days at the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2016-01-01

    Medications degrade over time, and degradation is hastened by extreme storage conditions. Current procedures ensure that medications aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are restocked before their expiration dates, but resupply may not be possible on future long-duration exploration missions. For this reason, medications stored on the ISS were returned to Earth for analysis. This was an opportunistic, observational pilot-scale investigation to test the hypothesis that ISS-aging does not cause unusual degradation. Nine medications were analyzed for active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content and degradant amounts; results were compared to 2012 United States Pharmacopeia (USP) requirements. The medications were two sleep aids, two antihistamines/decongestants, three pain relievers, an antidiarrheal, and an alertness medication. Because the samples were obtained opportunistically from unused medical supplies, each medication was available at only 1 time point and no control samples (samples aged for a similar period on Earth) were available. One medication met USP requirements 5 months after its expiration date. Four of the nine (44% of those tested) medications tested met USP requirements 8 months post expiration. Another three medications (33%) met USP guidelines 2-3 months before expiration. One compound, a dietary supplement used as a sleep aid, failed to meet USP requirements at 11 months post expiration. No unusual degradation products were identified. Limited, evidence-based extension of medication shelf-lives may be possible and would be useful in preparation for lengthy exploration missions. Only analysis of flight-aged samples compared to appropriately matched ground controls will permit determination of the spaceflight environment on medication stability.

  20. Bidirectional Reflectance Functions for Application to Earth Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manalo-Smith, N.; Tiwari, S. N.; Smith, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    Reflected solar radiative fluxes emerging for the Earth's top of the atmosphere are inferred from satellite broadband radiance measurements by applying bidirectional reflectance functions (BDRFs) to account for the anisotropy of the radiation field. BDRF's are dependent upon the viewing geometry (i.e. solar zenith angle, view zenith angle, and relative azimuth angle), the amount and type of cloud cover, the condition of the intervening atmosphere, and the reflectance characteristics of the underlying surface. A set of operational Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) BDRFs is available which was developed from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) scanner data for a three-angle grid system, An improved set of bidirectional reflectance is required for mission planning and data analysis of future earth radiation budget instruments, such as the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), and for the enhancement of existing radiation budget data products. This study presents an analytic expression for BDRFs formulated by applying a fit to the ERBE operational model tabulations. A set of model coefficients applicable to any viewing condition is computed for an overcast and a clear sky scene over four geographical surface types: ocean, land, snow, and desert, and partly cloudy scenes over ocean and land. The models are smooth in terms of the directional angles and adhere to the principle of reciprocity, i.e., they are invariant with respect to the interchange of the incoming and outgoing directional angles. The analytic BDRFs and the radiance standard deviations are compared with the operational ERBE models and validated with ERBE data. The clear ocean model is validated with Dlhopolsky's clear ocean model. Dlhopolsky developed a BDRF of higher angular resolution for clear sky ocean from ERBE radiances. Additionally, the effectiveness of the models accounting for anisotropy for various viewing directions is tested with the ERBE along tract data. An area

  1. Applications of surface analytical techniques in Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Gujie; Li, Yubiao; Gerson, Andrea R.

    2015-03-01

    This review covers a wide range of surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM), photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), dynamic and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM). Others that are relatively less widely used but are also important to the Earth Sciences are also included: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). All these techniques probe only the very top sample surface layers (sub-nm to several tens of nm). In addition, we also present several other techniques i.e. Raman microspectroscopy, reflection infrared (IR) microspectroscopy and quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN) that penetrate deeper into the sample, up to several μm, as all of them are fundamental analytical tools for the Earth Sciences. Grazing incidence synchrotron techniques, sensitive to surface measurements, are also briefly introduced at the end of this review. (Scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) is a special case that can be applied to characterisation of mineralogical and geological sample surfaces. Since TEM/STEM is such an important technique for Earth Scientists, we have also included it to draw attention to the capability of TEM/STEM applied as a surface-equivalent tool. While this review presents most of the important techniques for the Earth Sciences, it is not an all-inclusive bibliography of those analytical techniques. Instead, for each technique that is discussed, we first give a very brief introduction about its principle and background, followed by a short section on approaches to sample preparation that are important for researchers to appreciate prior to the actual sample analysis. We then use examples from publications (and also some of our known unpublished results) within the Earth Sciences

  2. 47 CFR 87.47 - Application for a portable aircraft station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for a portable aircraft station license. 87.47 Section 87.47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.47 Application for a portable...

  3. Rapid toxicity detection in water quality control utilizing automated multispecies biomonitoring for permanent space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, E. L.; Young, R. C.; Smith, M. D.; Eagleson, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate proposed design characteristics and applications of automated biomonitoring devices for real-time toxicity detection in water quality control on-board permanent space stations. Simulated tests in downlinking transmissions of automated biomonitoring data to Earth-receiving stations were simulated using satellite data transmissions from remote Earth-based stations.

  4. Installing the earth station of Ka-band satellite frequency in Malaysia: conceptual framework for site decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, M. R.; Reba, M. N. M.; Jaw, S. W.; Arsyad, A.; Ibrahim, M. A. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper developed a conceptual framework in determining the suitable location in installing the earth station for Ka-band satellite communication in Malaysia. This current evolution of high throughput satellites experienced major challenge due to Malaysian climate. Because Ka-band frequency is highly attenuated by the rainfall; it is an enormous challenge to define the most appropriate site for the static communication. Site diversity, a measure to anticipate this conflict by choosing less attenuated region and geographically change the transmission strategy on season basis require accurate spatio-temporal information on the geographical, environmental and hydro-climatology at local scale. Prior to that request, this study developed a conceptual framework to cater the needs. By using the digital spatial data, acquired from site measurement and remote sensing, the proposed framework applied a multiple criteria analysis to perform the tasks of site selection. With the advancement of high resolution remotely sensed data, site determination can be conducted as in Malaysia; accommodating a new, fast, and effective satellite communication. The output of this study is one of the pioneer contributions to create a high tech-society.

  5. The DNA of Bacteria of the World Ocean and the Earth in Cosmic Dust at the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Grebennikova, T. V.; Syroeshkin, A. V.; Shubralova, E. V.; Eliseeva, O. V.; Kostina, L. V.; Kulikova, N. Y.; Latyshev, O. E.; Morozova, M. A.; Yuzhakov, A. G.; Chichaeva, M. A.; Tsygankov, O. S.

    2018-01-01

    Cosmic dust samples from the surface of the illuminator of the International Space Station (ISS) were collected by a crew member during his spacewalk. The sampler with tampon in a vacuum container was delivered to the Earth. Washouts from the tampon's material and the tampon itself were analyzed for the presence of bacterial DNA by the method of nested PCR with primers specific to DNA of the genus Mycobacteria, DNA of the strains of capsular bacteria Bacillus, and DNA encoding 16S ribosomal RNA. The results of amplification followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of the bacteria of the genus Mycobacteria and the extreme bacterium of the genus Delftia in the samples of cosmic dust. It was shown that the DNA sequence of one of the bacteria of the genus Mycobacteria was genetically similar to that previously observed in superficial micro layer at the Barents and Kara seas' coastal zones. The presence of the wild land and marine bacteria DNA on the ISS suggests their possible transfer from the stratosphere into the ionosphere with the ascending branch of the global electric circuit. Alternatively, the wild land and marine bacteria as well as the ISS bacteria may all have an ultimate space origin. PMID:29849510

  6. The DNA of Bacteria of the World Ocean and the Earth in Cosmic Dust at the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Grebennikova, T V; Syroeshkin, A V; Shubralova, E V; Eliseeva, O V; Kostina, L V; Kulikova, N Y; Latyshev, O E; Morozova, M A; Yuzhakov, A G; Zlatskiy, I A; Chichaeva, M A; Tsygankov, O S

    2018-01-01

    Cosmic dust samples from the surface of the illuminator of the International Space Station (ISS) were collected by a crew member during his spacewalk. The sampler with tampon in a vacuum container was delivered to the Earth. Washouts from the tampon's material and the tampon itself were analyzed for the presence of bacterial DNA by the method of nested PCR with primers specific to DNA of the genus Mycobacteria , DNA of the strains of capsular bacteria Bacillus , and DNA encoding 16S ribosomal RNA. The results of amplification followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of the bacteria of the genus Mycobacteria and the extreme bacterium of the genus Delftia in the samples of cosmic dust. It was shown that the DNA sequence of one of the bacteria of the genus Mycobacteria was genetically similar to that previously observed in superficial micro layer at the Barents and Kara seas' coastal zones. The presence of the wild land and marine bacteria DNA on the ISS suggests their possible transfer from the stratosphere into the ionosphere with the ascending branch of the global electric circuit. Alternatively, the wild land and marine bacteria as well as the ISS bacteria may all have an ultimate space origin.

  7. 47 CFR 1.1107 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) (per system) 312 & 159 180.00 CGV 7. Mobile Satellite Earth Stations: a. Initial Applications of... Satellite Transmit/Receive Earth Stations: a. Initial Application (per station) 312 Main & Schedule B & 159...) 312 Main & 159 180.00 CGX 4. Fixed Satellite transmit/receive Earth Stations (2 meters or less...

  8. 47 CFR 1.1107 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) (per system) 312 & 159 180.00 CGV 7. Mobile Satellite Earth Stations: a. Initial Applications of... Satellite Transmit/Receive Earth Stations: a. Initial Application (per station) 312 Main & Schedule B & 159...) 312 Main & 159 180.00 CGX 4. Fixed Satellite transmit/receive Earth Stations (2 meters or less...

  9. 47 CFR 1.1107 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) (per system) 312 & 159 180.00 CGV 7. Mobile Satellite Earth Stations: a. Initial Applications of.../Receive Earth Stations: a. Initial Application (per station) 312 Main & Schedule B & 159 2,615.00 BAX b... 180.00 CGX 4. Fixed Satellite transmit/receive Earth Stations (2 meters or less operating in the 4/6...

  10. Cloud-Based Computational Tools for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, A. A.; Fatland, R.; Howe, B.

    2015-12-01

    Earth scientists are increasingly required to think across disciplines and utilize a wide range of datasets in order to solve complex environmental challenges. Although significant progress has been made in distributing data, researchers must still invest heavily in developing computational tools to accommodate their specific domain. Here we document our development of lightweight computational data systems aimed at enabling rapid data distribution, analytics and problem solving tools for Earth science applications. Our goal is for these systems to be easily deployable, scalable and flexible to accommodate new research directions. As an example we describe "Ice2Ocean", a software system aimed at predicting runoff from snow and ice in the Gulf of Alaska region. Our backend components include relational database software to handle tabular and vector datasets, Python tools (NumPy, pandas and xray) for rapid querying of gridded climate data, and an energy and mass balance hydrological simulation model (SnowModel). These components are hosted in a cloud environment for direct access across research teams, and can also be accessed via API web services using a REST interface. This API is a vital component of our system architecture, as it enables quick integration of our analytical tools across disciplines, and can be accessed by any existing data distribution centers. We will showcase several data integration and visualization examples to illustrate how our system has expanded our ability to conduct cross-disciplinary research.

  11. Metaheuristic Optimization and its Applications in Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-05-01

    A common but challenging task in modelling geophysical and geological processes is to handle massive data and to minimize certain objectives. This can essentially be considered as an optimization problem, and thus many new efficient metaheuristic optimization algorithms can be used. In this paper, we will introduce some modern metaheuristic optimization algorithms such as genetic algorithms, harmony search, firefly algorithm, particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing. We will also discuss how these algorithms can be applied to various applications in earth sciences, including nonlinear least-squares, support vector machine, Kriging, inverse finite element analysis, and data-mining. We will present a few examples to show how different problems can be reformulated as optimization. Finally, we will make some recommendations for choosing various algorithms to suit various problems. References 1) D. H. Wolpert and W. G. Macready, No free lunch theorems for optimization, IEEE Trans. Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 1, 67-82 (1997). 2) X. S. Yang, Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithms, Luniver Press, (2008). 3) X. S. Yang, Mathematical Modelling for Earth Sciences, Dunedin Academic Press, (2008).

  12. 47 CFR 25.140 - Further requirements for license applications for geostationary space stations in the Fixed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for geostationary space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service and the 17/24 GHz Broadcasting... Further requirements for license applications for geostationary space stations in the Fixed-Satellite... § 25.114, applicants for geostationary-orbit FSS space stations must provide an interference analysis...

  13. Earth Observation

    2014-06-02

    ISS040-E-006817 (2 June 2014) --- Intersecting the thin line of Earth's atmosphere, International Space Station solar array wings are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  14. Earth Observation

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  15. Investigation of biowaste resistojets for space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbach, C. R.; Page, R. J.; Mccaughey, O. J.; Short, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of using electrically conducting ceramics to heat biowaste propellants to 2000 K in resistojet thrustors was demonstrated. These thrustors are being developed for use on the space station. Among the candidate ceramic heater materials, zirconia and thoria are chemically resistant to the biopropellants, and they are also sufficiently conductive at high temperatures to make them suitable for the heater elements in these thrustors. A proof of concept thrustor design is presented, incorporating a multiple passage cylindrical heater made of zirconia ceramic which is capable of operating at 2000 K wall temperature with CO2 and H2O biopropellants. For the 25 mlb size thrustor, specific impulses of 200 seconds for CO2 and 275 seconds for H2O biopropellants are predicted.

  16. Thermal management system technology development for space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, J. G.; Marshall, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    A short discussion of the history to date of the NASA thermal management system technology development program is presented, and the current status of several ongoing studies and hardware demonstration tasks is reported. One element of technology that is required for long-life, high-power orbital platforms/stations that is being developed is heat rejection and a space-constructable radiator system. Aspects of this project include high-efficiency fin concepts, a heat pipe quick-disconnect device, high-capacity heat pipes, and an alternate interface heat exchanger design. In the area of heat acquisition and transport, developments in a pumped two-phase transport loop, a capillary pumped transport loop using the concept of thermal utility are reported. An example of a thermal management system concept is provided.

  17. Applications of liquid state physics to the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    New results derived for application to the earth's outer core using the modern theory of liquids and the hard-sphere model of liquid structure are presented. An expression derived in terms of the incompressibility and pressure is valid for a high-pressure liquid near its melting point, provided that the pressure is derived from a strongly repulsive pair potential; a relation derived between the melting point and density leads to a melting curve law of essentially the same form as Lindemann's law. Finally, it is shown that the 'core paradox' of Higgins and Kennedy (1971) can occur only if the Gruneisen parameter is smaller than 2/3, and this constant is larger than this value in any liquid for which the pair potential is strongly repulsive.

  18. Application of high-precision two-way ranging to Galileo Earth-1 encounter navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollmeier, V. M.; Thurman, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    The application of precision two-way ranging to orbit determination with relatively short data arcs is investigated for the Galileo spacecraft's approach to its first Earth encounter (December 8, 1990). Analysis of previous S-band (2.3-GHz) ranging data acquired from Galileo indicated that under good signal conditions submeter precision and 10-m ranging accuracy were achieved. It is shown that ranging data of sufficient accuracy, when acquired from multiple stations, can sense the geocentric angular position of a distant spacecraft. A range data filtering technique, in which explicit modeling of range measurement bias parameters for each station pass is utilized, is shown to largely remove the systematic ground system calibration errors and transmission media effects from the Galileo range measurements, which would otherwise corrupt the angle-finding capabilities of the data. The accuracy of the Galileo orbit solutions obtained with S-band Doppler and precision ranging were found to be consistent with simple theoretical calculations, which predicted that angular accuracies of 0.26-0.34 microrad were achievable. In addition, the navigation accuracy achieved with precision ranging was marginally better than that obtained using delta-differenced one-way range (delta DOR), the principal data type that was previously used to obtain spacecraft angular position measurements operationally.

  19. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74... applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations (except § 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual...

  20. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74... applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations (except § 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual...

  1. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74... applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations (except § 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual...

  2. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74... applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations (except § 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual...

  3. Earth horizon modeling and application to static Earth sensors on TRMM spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keat, J.; Challa, M.; Tracewell, D.; Galal, K.

    1995-01-01

    Data from Earth sensor assemblies (ESA's) often are used in the attitude determination (AD) for both spinning and Earth-pointing spacecraft. The ESA's on previous such spacecraft for which the ground-based AD operation was performed by the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) used the Earth scanning method. AD on such spacecraft requires a model of the shape of the Earth disk as seen from the spacecraft. AD accuracy requirements often are too severe to permit Earth oblateness to be ignored when modeling disk shape. Section 2 of this paper reexamines and extends the methods for Earth disk shape modeling employed in AD work at FDD for the past decade. A new formulation, based on a more convenient Earth flatness parameter, is introduced, and the geometric concepts are examined in detail. It is shown that the Earth disk can be approximated as an ellipse in AD computations. Algorithms for introducing Earth oblateness into the AD process for spacecraft carrying scanning ESA's have been developed at FDD and implemented into the support systems. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) will be the first spacecraft with AD operation performed at FDD that uses a different type of ESA - namely, a static one - containing four fixed detectors D(sub i) (i = 1 to 4). Section 3 of this paper considers the effect of Earth oblateness on AD accuracy for TRMM. This effect ideally will not induce AD errors on TRMM when data from all four D(sub i) are present. When data from only two or three D(sub i) are available, however, a spherical Earth approximation can introduce errors of 0.05 to 0.30 deg on TRMM. These oblateness-induced errors are eliminated by a new algorithm that uses the results of Section 2 to model the Earth disk as an ellipse.

  4. 47 CFR 73.3571 - Processing of AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (47 U.S.C. 307(b)); (2) The daytime facilities specified by... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing of AM broadcast station applications... petitioners under the procedure specified in § 73.30. (b)(1) The FCC may, after acceptance of an application...

  5. 47 CFR 73.3571 - Processing of AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (47 U.S.C. 307(b)); (2) The daytime facilities specified by... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Processing of AM broadcast station applications... petitioners under the procedure specified in § 73.30. (b)(1) The FCC may, after acceptance of an application...

  6. 47 CFR 73.3571 - Processing of AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (47 U.S.C. 307(b)); (2) The daytime facilities specified by... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Processing of AM broadcast station applications... petitioners under the procedure specified in § 73.30. (b)(1) The FCC may, after acceptance of an application...

  7. 47 CFR 73.3571 - Processing of AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (47 U.S.C. 307(b)); (2) The daytime facilities specified by... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Processing of AM broadcast station applications... petitioners under the procedure specified in § 73.30. (b)(1) The FCC may, after acceptance of an application...

  8. Application of the GNSS-R in tomographic sounding of the Earth atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaberi Shafei, Milad; Mashhadi-Hossainali, Masoud

    2018-07-01

    Reflected GNSS signals offer a great opportunity for detecting and monitoring of water level variation, land surface roughness and the atmosphere around the Earth. The application type intensely depends on satellites' geometry and the topography of study area. GNSS-R can be used in sounding the water vapor as one of the most important parameters in troposphere. In view of temporal and spatial changes, retrieval of this parameter is complicated. GNSS tomography is a common approach for this purpose. Considering the dependency of this inverse approach to the number of stations and satellites' coverage at study area, tomographic reconstruction of water vapor is an ill-posed problem. Additional constraints are usually used to find a solution. In this research reflected signals known as GNSS-R are offered for the first time to resolve the rank deficiency of this problem. This has been implemented to a tomographic model which has been already developed for modeling the water vapor in the North West of Iran. In view of low number of GPS stations in this area, the design matrix of the model is rank deficient. Simulated results demonstrate that the rank deficiency of this matrix can be reduced by implementing appropriate number of GNSS-R stations when the spatial resolution of model is optimized. Resolution matrix is used as a measure for analyzing the efficiency of the proposed method. Results from DOY 300 and 301 in year 2011 show that the applied method can even remedy the rank deficiency of the design matrix. The satellites' constellation and the time response of the model are the effective parameters in this respect. On average the rank deficiency of the design matrix is improved more than 90% when the reflected signals are used. This is easily seen in terms of the resolution matrix of the model. Here, the mean bias and RMSE of reconstructed image are 0.2593 and 1.847 ppm, respectively.

  9. Manual for obscuration code with space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marhefka, R. J.; Takacs, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Obscuration Code, referred to as SHADOW, is a user-oriented computer code to determine the case shadow of an antenna in a complex environment onto the far zone sphere. The surrounding structure can be composed of multiple composite cone frustums and multiply sided flat plates. These structural pieces are ideal for modeling space station configurations. The means of describing the geometry input is compatible with the NEC-BASIC Scattering Code. In addition, an interactive mode of operation has been provided for DEC VAX computers. The first part of this document is a user's manual designed to give a description of the method used to obtain the shadow map, to provide an overall view of the operation of the computer code, to instruct a user in how to model structures, and to give examples of inputs and outputs. The second part is a code manual that details how to set up the interactive and non-interactive modes of the code and provides a listing and brief description of each of the subroutines.

  10. Earth

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  11. Inverse Problems in Complex Models and Applications to Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The inference of the subsurface earth structure and properties requires the integration of different types of data, information and knowledge, by combined processes of analysis and synthesis. To support the process of integrating information, the regular concept of data inversion is evolving to expand its application to models with multiple inner components (properties, scales, structural parameters) that explain multiple data (geophysical survey data, well-logs, core data). The probabilistic inference methods provide the natural framework for the formulation of these problems, considering a posterior probability density function (PDF) that combines the information from a prior information PDF and the new sets of observations. To formulate the posterior PDF in the context of multiple datasets, the data likelihood functions are factorized assuming independence of uncertainties for data originating across different surveys. A realistic description of the earth medium requires modeling several properties and structural parameters, which relate to each other according to dependency and independency notions. Thus, conditional probabilities across model components also factorize. A common setting proceeds by structuring the model parameter space in hierarchical layers. A primary layer (e.g. lithology) conditions a secondary layer (e.g. physical medium properties), which conditions a third layer (e.g. geophysical data). In general, less structured relations within model components and data emerge from the analysis of other inverse problems. They can be described with flexibility via direct acyclic graphs, which are graphs that map dependency relations between the model components. Examples of inverse problems in complex models can be shown at various scales. At local scale, for example, the distribution of gas saturation is inferred from pre-stack seismic data and a calibrated rock-physics model. At regional scale, joint inversion of gravity and magnetic data is applied

  12. Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

  13. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  14. Separation of the Galactic Cosmic Rays and Inner Earth Radiation Belt Contributions to the Daily Dose Onboard the International Space Station in 2005-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The DB-8 detectors of the ISS radiation monitoring system (RMS) have operated almost continuously onboard the ISS service module since August 2001 till December 2014. The RMS data obtained were used for the daily monitoring of the radiation environment aboard the station. This paper considers the technique of RMS data analysis that allows one to distinguish the contributions of galactic cosmic rays and the Earth's inner radiation belt to the daily dose based on the dosimetry data obtained as a result of the station's passage in areas of the highest geomagnetic latitudes. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the dosimetry data based on this technique for 2005-2011, as well as a comparison with similar results the authors obtained previously using the technique based on an analysis of the dosimetry data obtained during station passages in the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  15. Basic research and data analysis for the national geodetic satellite program and for the earth and ocean physics applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Activities related to the National Geodetic Satellite Program are reported and include a discussion of Ohio State University's OSU275 set of tracking station coordinates and transformation parameters, determination of network distortions, and plans for data acquisition and processing. The problems encountered in the development of the LAGEOS satellite are reported in an account of activities related to the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program. The LAGEOS problem involves transmission and reception of the laser pulse designed to make accurate determinations of the earth's crustal and rotational motions. Pulse motion, ephemeris, arc range measurements, and accuracy estimates are discussed in view of the problem. Personnel involved in the two programs are also listed, along with travel activities and reports published to date.

  16. Research on Application of Automatic Weather Station Based on Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianyun, Chen; Yunfan, Sun; Chunyan, Lin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the Internet of Things is briefly introduced, and then its application in the weather station is studied. A method of data acquisition and transmission based on NB-iot communication mode is proposed, Introduction of Internet of things technology, Sensor digital and independent power supply as the technical basis, In the construction of Automatic To realize the intelligent interconnection of the automatic weather station, and then to form an automatic weather station based on the Internet of things. A network structure of automatic weather station based on Internet of things technology is constructed to realize the independent operation of intelligent sensors and wireless data transmission. Research on networking data collection and dissemination of meteorological data, through the data platform for data analysis, the preliminary work of meteorological information publishing standards, networking of meteorological information receiving terminal provides the data interface, to the wisdom of the city, the wisdom of the purpose of the meteorological service.

  17. [Physiological effects of rare earth elements and their application in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lanping; Xiao, Wenjuan; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao; Shi, Xin'gang; Dan, Staerk

    2012-08-01

    The process in the studies on physiological effects of rare earth elements in plants and their action mechanisms were summarized in the aspects of seed germination, photosynthesis, mineral metabolism and stress resistance. And the applications of rare earth elements in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in recent years were also overviewed, which will provide reference for further development and application of rare earth elements in TCM.

  18. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) Applications for the NASA Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering models of the atmosphere are used extensively by the aerospace community for design issues related to vehicle ascent and descent. The Earth Global Reference Atmosphere Model version 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) is the latest in this series and includes a number of new features. Like previous versions, Earth-GRAM07 provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0 km to 27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. For altitudes between 20 km and 120 km, the model uses data from the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP). Above 120 km, EarthGRAM07 now provides users with a choice of three thermosphere models: the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-2007) model; the Jacchia-Bowman 2006 thermosphere model (JB2006); and the Naval Research Labs Mass Spectrometer, Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRL MSIS E-OO) with the associated Harmonic Wind Model (HWM-93). In place of these datasets, Earth-GRAM07 has the option of using the new 2006 revised Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data, the earlier (1983) RRA data, or the user may also provide their own data as an auxiliary profile. Refinements of the perturbation model are also discussed which include wind shears more similar to those observed at the Kennedy Space Center than the previous version Earth-GRAM99.

  19. 78 FR 47800 - License Renewal Application for Byron Station, Units 1 and 2; Exelon Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Application for Byron Station, Units 1 and 2; Exelon Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., Units 1 and 2 (Byron). Byron Station is located in Byron, Illinois. The current operating license for Byron Station, Unit 1, expires on October 31, 2024, and Unit 2, expires on November 6, 2026. DATES: The...

  20. Near Real-­Time Applications of Earth Remote Sensing for Response to Meteorological Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Bell, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous on-orbit satellites provide a wide range of spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions supporting the use of their resulting imagery in assessments of disasters that are meteorological in nature. This presentation will provide an overview of recent use of Earth remote sensing by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in response to disaster activities in 2012 and 2013, along with case studies supporting ongoing research and development. The SPoRT Center, with support from NASA's Applied Sciences Program, has explored a variety of new applications of Earth-observing sensors to support disaster response. In May 2013, the SPoRT Center developed unique power outage composites representing the first clear sky view of damage inflicted upon Moore and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma following the devastating EF-5 tornado that occurred on May 20. Subsequent ASTER, MODIS, Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 imagery help to identify the damaged area. Higher resolution imagery of Moore, Oklahoma were provided by commercial satellites and the recently available International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) instrument. New techniques are being explored by the SPoRT team in order to better identify damage visible in high resolution imagery, and to monitor ongoing recovery for Moore, Oklahoma. Other applications are being developed to refine light source detections with the VIIRS day-night band and to map hail during the growing season through combination of available satellite and radar imagery. The aforementioned products and support are not useful unless they are distributed in a timely manner and within an appropriate decision support system. This presentation will provide an update on ongoing activities to support inclusion of these data sets within the NOAA National Weather Service Damage Assessment Toolkit, which allows meteorologists in the field to consult available satellite imagery while performing

  1. Near Real-Time Applications of Earth Remote Sensing for Response to Meteorological Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Bell, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous on-orbit satellites provide a wide range of spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions supporting the use of their resulting imagery in assessments of disasters that are meteorological in nature. This presentation will provide an overview of recent use of Earth remote sensing by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in response to disaster activities in 2012 and 2013, along with case studies supporting ongoing research and development. The SPoRT Center, with support from NASA's Applied Sciences Program, has explored a variety of new applications of Earth-observing sensors to support disaster response. In May 2013, the SPoRT Center developed unique power outage composites representing the first clear sky view of damage inflicted upon Moore and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma following the devastating EF-5 tornado that occurred on May 20. Subsequent ASTER, MODIS, Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 imagery help to identify the damaged area. Higher resolution imagery of Moore, Oklahoma were provided by commercial satellites and the recently available International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) instrument. New techniques are being explored by the SPoRT team in order to better identify damage visible in high resolution imagery, and to monitor ongoing recovery for Moore, Oklahoma. Other applications are being developed to refine light source detections with the VIIRS day-night band and to map hail during the growing season through combination of available satellite and radar imagery. The aforementioned products and support are not useful unless they are distributed in a timely manner and within an appropriate decision support system. This presentation will provide an update on ongoing activities to support inclusion of these data sets within the NOAA National Weather Service Damage Assessment Toolkit, which allows meteorologists in the field to consult available satellite imagery while performing

  2. Investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.; Bayma, R. W.; Evans, M. B.; Zelenka, J. S.; Doss, H. W.; Ferris, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources was conducted during the period from June 1971 to November 1972. The objective of this investigation has been to verify the feasibility of an orbital microwave holographic radar experiment. The primary advantage of microwave hologram radar (MHR) over the side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) is that of aspect or viewing angle; the MHR has a viewing angle identical with that of photography and IR systems. The combination of these systems can thus extend the multispectral analysis concept to span optical through microwave wavelengths. Another advantage is the capacity of the MHR system to generate range contours by operating in a two-frequency mode. It should be clear that along-track resolution of an MHR can be comparable with SLAR systems, but cross-track resolution will be approximately an order of magnitude coarser than the range resolution achievable with an arbitrary SLAR system. An advantage of the MHR over the SLAR is that less average transmitter power is required. This reduction in power results from the much larger receiving apertures associated with MHR systems.

  3. Fast Demand Forecast of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations for Cell Phone Application

    SciT

    Majidpour, Mostafa; Qiu, Charlie; Chung, Ching-Yen

    This paper describes the core cellphone application algorithm which has been implemented for the prediction of energy consumption at Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Stations at UCLA. For this interactive user application, the total time of accessing database, processing the data and making the prediction, needs to be within a few seconds. We analyze four relatively fast Machine Learning based time series prediction algorithms for our prediction engine: Historical Average, kNearest Neighbor, Weighted k-Nearest Neighbor, and Lazy Learning. The Nearest Neighbor algorithm (k Nearest Neighbor with k=1) shows better performance and is selected to be the prediction algorithm implemented for themore » cellphone application. Two applications have been designed on top of the prediction algorithm: one predicts the expected available energy at the station and the other one predicts the expected charging finishing time. The total time, including accessing the database, data processing, and prediction is about one second for both applications.« less

  4. SPACE: Enhancing Life on Earth. Proceedings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobden, Alan (Editor); Hobden, Beverly (Editor); Bagley, Larry E. (Editor); Bolton, Ed (Editor); Campaigne, Len O. (Editor); Cole, Ron (Editor); France, Marty (Editor); Hand, Rich (Editor); McKinley, Cynthia (Editor); Zimkas, Chuck (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 12th National Space Symposium on Enhancing Life on Earth is presented. Technological areas discussed include: Space applications and cooperation; Earth sensing, communication, and navigation applications; Global security interests in space; and International space station and space launch capabilities. An appendices that include featured speakers, program participants, and abbreviation & acronyms glossary is also attached.

  5. INTEGRATED EARTH OBSERVATIONS: APPLICATION TO AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 2005, ministers from 60 countries and the European Commission met in Brussels, Belgium to endorse the 10-year plan for a Global Earth Observation System of Systems(GEOSS) prepared by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), a partnership of nations and international org...

  6. New Approaches in estimating Dust Devil Parameters, Trajectories and Populations from Single-Station Measurements on Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    A Monte-Carlo modeling approach (Lorenz, J. Atm. Sci., 2014) using a power law population function and empirical correlations between diameter and longevity can be used to reconcile single-station pressure records of vortex close-approaches with visual counts of dust devils and Large Eddy Simulations (LES). That work suggests that on Earth, the populations can be reconciled if dust-lifting occurs with a typical threshold corresponding to core pressure drop of 0.8 mb, a little higher than the ~0.3 mb estimated in laboratory experiments. A similar analysis can be conducted at Mars. The highest vortex production rates in LES, indicated from field encounters, and extrapolated from visual counts, appear to be of the order of 1000 per km2 per day.Recent field experiments at a playa near Goldstone, CA (Lorenz et al., Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, in press) show that dust devils cause a ground tilt, due to the negative pressure load of the vortex on the elastic ground, that can be detected with a broadband seismometer like that on InSight. Dust devils therefore can serve as a ‘seismic source’ to characterize the shallow subsurface.Observations of the InSight landing area in Elysium by Reiss and Lorenz (Icarus, submitted) show that dust devil trails are abundant, but smaller in diameter than those at Gusev. This may indicate a shallower Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) at this site and season : Fenton and Lorenz (Icarus, 2015) found that observed dust devil height and spacing in Amazonis relates to the PBL thickness.Quantitative assessment of dust devil effects (e.g. electrical and magnetic signatures) requires knowledge of encounter geometry, notably miss distance. A recent heuristic approach has been developed (Lorenz, Icarus, submitted) to fit an analytic vortex model to pressure, windspeed and direction histories to recover this geometry. Some ambiguities exist, but can be constrained with camera images and/or the azimuth history estimated from

  7. 47 CFR 25.216 - Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-1587.42 MHz. The e.i.r.p. of discrete emissions of less than 700 Hz bandwidth generated by such....i.r.p. of discrete emissions of less than 700 Hz bandwidth generated by such stations shall not... discrete emissions of less than 700 Hz bandwidth from such stations shall not exceed −80 dBW, averaged over...

  8. 47 CFR 73.3545 - Application for permit to deliver programs to foreign stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for permit to deliver programs to foreign stations. 73.3545 Section 73.3545 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... must, however, contain a description of the nature and character of the programming proposed, together...

  9. 47 CFR 73.3545 - Application for permit to deliver programs to foreign stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for permit to deliver programs to foreign stations. 73.3545 Section 73.3545 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... must, however, contain a description of the nature and character of the programming proposed, together...

  10. Space Station Common Berthing Mechanism, a multi-body simulation application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searle, Ian

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses an application of multi-body dynamic analysis conducted at the Boeing Company in connection with the Space Station (SS) Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM). After introducing the hardware and analytical objectives we will focus on some of the day-to-day computational issues associated with this type of analysis.

  11. 78 FR 75579 - License Renewal Application for Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-416; NRC-2011-0262] License Renewal Application for Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft supplemental....S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment a draft, plant-specific...

  12. 47 CFR 73.3544 - Application to obtain a modified station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application to obtain a modified station license. 73.3544 Section 73.3544 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Washington, DC, Attention: Audio Division (radio) or Video Services Division (television), Media Bureau, to...

  13. Spatiotemporal stochastic models for earth science and engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaochun

    1998-12-01

    Spatiotemporal processes occur in many areas of earth sciences and engineering. However, most of the available theoretical tools and techniques of space-time daft processing have been designed to operate exclusively in time or in space, and the importance of spatiotemporal variability was not fully appreciated until recently. To address this problem, a systematic framework of spatiotemporal random field (S/TRF) models for geoscience/engineering applications is presented and developed in this thesis. The space-tune continuity characterization is one of the most important aspects in S/TRF modelling, where the space-time continuity is displayed with experimental spatiotemporal variograms, summarized in terms of space-time continuity hypotheses, and modelled using spatiotemporal variogram functions. Permissible spatiotemporal covariance/variogram models are addressed through permissibility criteria appropriate to spatiotemporal processes. The estimation of spatiotemporal processes is developed in terms of spatiotemporal kriging techniques. Particular emphasis is given to the singularity analysis of spatiotemporal kriging systems. The impacts of covariance, functions, trend forms, and data configurations on the singularity of spatiotemporal kriging systems are discussed. In addition, the tensorial invariance of universal spatiotemporal kriging systems is investigated in terms of the space-time trend. The conditional simulation of spatiotemporal processes is proposed with the development of the sequential group Gaussian simulation techniques (SGGS), which is actually a series of sequential simulation algorithms associated with different group sizes. The simulation error is analyzed with different covariance models and simulation grids. The simulated annealing technique honoring experimental variograms, is also proposed, providing a way of conditional simulation without the covariance model fitting which is prerequisite for most simulation algorithms. The proposed

  14. Ambient Seismic Source Inversion in a Heterogeneous Earth: Theory and Application to the Earth's Hum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermert, Laura; Sager, Korbinian; Afanasiev, Michael; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    The sources of ambient seismic noise are extensively studied both to better understand their influence on ambient noise tomography and related techniques, and to infer constraints on their excitation mechanisms. Here we develop a gradient-based inversion method to infer the space-dependent and time-varying source power spectral density of the Earth's hum from cross correlations of continuous seismic data. The precomputation of wavefields using spectral elements allows us to account for both finite-frequency sensitivity and for three-dimensional Earth structure. Although similar methods have been proposed previously, they have not yet been applied to data to the best of our knowledge. We apply this method to image the seasonally varying sources of Earth's hum during North and South Hemisphere winter. The resulting models suggest that hum sources are localized, persistent features that occur at Pacific coasts or shelves and in the North Atlantic during North Hemisphere winter, as well as South Pacific coasts and several distinct locations in the Southern Ocean in South Hemisphere winter. The contribution of pelagic sources from the central North Pacific cannot be constrained. Besides improving the accuracy of noise source locations through the incorporation of finite-frequency effects and 3-D Earth structure, this method may be used in future cross-correlation waveform inversion studies to provide initial source models and source model updates.

  15. Earth Surface Monitoring with COSI-Corr, Techniques and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leprince, S.; Ayoub, F.; Avouac, J.

    2009-12-01

    Co-registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) is a software package developed at the California Institute of Technology (USA) for accurate geometrical processing of optical satellite and aerial imagery. Initially developed for the measurement of co-seismic ground deformation using optical imagery, COSI-Corr is now used for a wide range of applications in Earth Sciences, which take advantage of the software capability to co-register, with very high accuracy, images taken from different sensors and acquired at different times. As long as a sensor is supported in COSI-Corr, all images between the supported sensors can be accurately orthorectified and co-registered. For example, it is possible to co-register a series of SPOT images, a series of aerial photographs, as well as to register a series of aerial photographs with a series of SPOT images, etc... Currently supported sensors include the SPOT 1-5, Quickbird, Worldview 1 and Formosat 2 satellites, the ASTER instrument, and frame camera acquisitions from e.g., aerial survey or declassified satellite imagery. Potential applications include accurate change detection between multi-temporal and multi-spectral images, and the calibration of pushbroom cameras. In particular, COSI-Corr provides a powerful correlation tool, which allows for accurate estimation of surface displacement. The accuracy depends on many factors (e.g., cloud, snow, and vegetation cover, shadows, temporal changes in general, steadiness of the imaging platform, defects of the imaging system, etc...) but in practice, the standard deviation of the measurements obtained from the correlation of mutli-temporal images is typically around 1/20 to 1/10 of the pixel size. The software package also includes post-processing tools such as denoising, destriping, and stacking tools to facilitate data interpretation. Examples drawn from current research in, e.g., seismotectonics, glaciology, and geomorphology will be presented. COSI-Corr is

  16. 47 CFR 1.544 - Application for broadcast station to conduct field strength measurements and for experimental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for broadcast station to conduct field strength measurements and for experimental operation. 1.544 Section 1.544 Telecommunication... General Filing Requirements § 1.544 Application for broadcast station to conduct field strength...

  17. 47 CFR 25.120 - Application for special temporary authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (c) Each application proposing construction of one or more earth station antennas or alteration of the overall height of one or more existing earth station antenna structures, where FAA notification... Antenna Structure Registration Number(s) for the affected satellite earth station antenna(s). If no such...

  18. 47 CFR 25.120 - Application for special temporary authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (c) Each application proposing construction of one or more earth station antennas or alteration of the overall height of one or more existing earth station antenna structures, where FAA notification... Antenna Structure Registration Number(s) for the affected satellite earth station antenna(s). If no such...

  19. 47 CFR 25.120 - Application for special temporary authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (c) Each application proposing construction of one or more earth station antennas or alteration of the overall height of one or more existing earth station antenna structures, where FAA notification... Antenna Structure Registration Number(s) for the affected satellite earth station antenna(s). If no such...

  20. 47 CFR 25.120 - Application for special temporary authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (c) Each application proposing construction of one or more earth station antennas or alteration of the overall height of one or more existing earth station antenna structures, where FAA notification... Antenna Structure Registration Number(s) for the affected satellite earth station antenna(s). If no such...

  1. 47 CFR 25.120 - Application for special temporary authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Each application proposing construction of one or more earth station antennas or alteration of the overall height of one or more existing earth station antenna structures, where FAA notification... Antenna Structure Registration Number(s) for the affected satellite earth station antenna(s). If no such...

  2. Linear genetic programming application for successive-station monthly streamflow prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danandeh Mehr, Ali; Kahya, Ercan; Yerdelen, Cahit

    2014-09-01

    In recent decades, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been pronounced as a branch of computer science to model wide range of hydrological phenomena. A number of researches have been still comparing these techniques in order to find more effective approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability. In this study, we examined the ability of linear genetic programming (LGP) technique to model successive-station monthly streamflow process, as an applied alternative for streamflow prediction. A comparative efficiency study between LGP and three different artificial neural network algorithms, namely feed forward back propagation (FFBP), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), and radial basis function (RBF), has also been presented in this study. For this aim, firstly, we put forward six different successive-station monthly streamflow prediction scenarios subjected to training by LGP and FFBP using the field data recorded at two gauging stations on Çoruh River, Turkey. Based on Nash-Sutcliffe and root mean squared error measures, we then compared the efficiency of these techniques and selected the best prediction scenario. Eventually, GRNN and RBF algorithms were utilized to restructure the selected scenario and to compare with corresponding FFBP and LGP. Our results indicated the promising role of LGP for successive-station monthly streamflow prediction providing more accurate results than those of all the ANN algorithms. We found an explicit LGP-based expression evolved by only the basic arithmetic functions as the best prediction model for the river, which uses the records of the both target and upstream stations.

  3. Rare earth fluoride nano-/microstructures: hydrothermal synthesis, luminescent properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Xu, Zhenhe; Sun, Yaguang

    2014-02-01

    Rare earth fluoride materials have attracted wide interest and come to the forefront in nanophotonics due to their distinct electrical, optical and magnetic properties as well as their potential applications in diverse fields such as optical telecommunication, lasers, biochemical probes, infrared quantum counters, and medical diagnostics. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the flourishing field of rare earth fluorides materials in the past decade. We summarize the recent research progress on the preparation, morphology, luminescent properties and application of rare earth fluoride-based luminescent materials by hydrothermal systems. Various rare earth fluoride materials are obtained by fine-tuning of experimental conditions, such as capping agents, fluoride source, acidity, temperature and reaction time. The controlled morphology, luminescent properties and application of the rare earth fluorides are briefly discussed with typical examples.

  4. A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, Sally

    1991-01-01

    Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

  5. An Earth-Moon Transfer Trajectory Design and Analysis Considering Spacecraft's Visibility from Daejeon Ground Station at TLI and LOI Maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jin; Song, Young-Joo; Park, Sang-Young; Kim, Hae-Dong; Sim, Eun-Sup

    2010-09-01

    The optimal Earth-Moon transfer trajectory considering spacecraft's visibility from the Daejeon ground station visibility at both the trans lunar injection (TLI) and lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuvers is designed. Both the TLI and LOI maneuvers are assumed to be impulsive thrust. As the successful execution of the TLI and LOI maneuvers are crucial factors among the various lunar mission parameters, it is necessary to design an optimal lunar transfer trajectory which guarantees the visibility from a specified ground station while executing these maneuvers. The optimal Earth-Moon transfer trajectory is simulated by modifying the Korean Lunar Mission Design Software using Impulsive high Thrust Engine (KLMDS-ITE) which is developed in previous studies. Four different mission scenarios are established and simulated to analyze the effects of the spacecraft's visibility considerations at the TLI and LOI maneuvers. As a result, it is found that the optimal Earth-Moon transfer trajectory, guaranteeing the spacecraft's visibility from Daejeon ground station at both the TLI and LOI maneuvers, can be designed with slight changes in total amount of delta-Vs. About 1% difference is observed with the optimal trajectory when none of the visibility condition is guaranteed, and about 0.04% with the visibility condition is only guaranteed at the time of TLI maneuver. The spacecraft's mass which can delivered to the Moon, when both visibility conditions are secured is shown to be about 534 kg with assumptions of KSLV-2's on-orbit mass about 2.6 tons. To minimize total mission delta-Vs, it is strongly recommended that visibility conditions at both the TLI and LOI maneuvers should be simultaneously implemented to the trajectory optimization algorithm.

  6. Grid systems for Earth radiation budget experiment applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial coordinate transformations are developed for several global grid systems of interest to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. The grid boxes are defined in terms of a regional identifier and longitude-latitude indexes. The transformations associate longitude with a particular grid box. The reverse transformations identify the center location of a given grid box. Transformations are given to relate the rotating (Earth-based) grid systems to solar position expressed in an inertial (nonrotating) coordinate system. The FORTRAN implementations of the transformations are given, along with sample input and output.

  7. Rare-Earth Metals and Their Applications in Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    metals are not as common as iron and steel which are visible everywhere, yet they are not unfamiliar to us. We often encounter them in everyday life...the flint of a lighter. It is an alloy of rare-earth metal and iron . It contains about 30% iron and the remainder is a composite rare-earth alloy...used to manufacture the detonators of bullets and shells as well as the pyrophoric alloys of firing devices. This type of alloy has a 49.5% content of

  8. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

  9. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 7-1: Data book. Science and applications missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    User requirements for space station use are presented for the following areas: space environments, astrophysics, Earth observations, and life science. Also included are a summary of study tasks and final reports, a topical cross reference, key team members, and acronyms and abbreviations.

  10. Reference Earth Orbital Research and Applications Investigations (Blue Book). Volume 2: Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Representative astronomy objectives, experiments, facilities, and instruments for use in the space station are discussed. The specific program elements describe a coordinated multiwavelength, multisensor approach needed to locate, observe, and interpret radiation from extragalactic, galactic, solar, and planetary sources in the different parts of the spectrum with spectral, angular, and temporal resolution not achievable from earth sites. Items of astronomy equipment are identified for the experiments to be conducted.

  11. Space Station

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth, illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station featured a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  12. Space Station

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth; illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station features a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  13. Applications of formal simulation languages in the control and monitoring subsystems of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    The notions, benefits, and drawbacks of numeric simulation are introduced. Two formal simulation languages, Simpscript and Modsim are introduced. The capabilities of each are discussed briefly, and then the two programs are compared. The use of simulation in the process of design engineering for the Control and Monitoring System (CMS) for Space Station Freedom is discussed. The application of the formal simulation language to the CMS design is presented, and recommendations are made as to their use.

  14. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Mabee, B.; Wulf Tregar, S.

    2017-12-01

    National and international organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal and economic benefits that can be derived from applications of Earth observations, yet improvements are needed to connect to the decision processes that produce actions with direct societal benefits. There is a need to substantiate the benefits of Earth science applications in socially and economically meaningful terms in order to demonstrate return on investment and to prioritize investments across data products, modeling capabilities, and information systems. However, methods and techniques for quantifying the value proposition of Earth observations are currently not fully established. Furthermore, it has been challenging to communicate the value of these investments to audiences beyond the Earth science community. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES), a cooperative agreement between Resources for the Future (RFF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has the goal of advancing methods for the valuation and communication of the applied benefits linked with Earth observations. The VALUABLES Consortium will focus on three pillars: (a) a research pillar that will apply existing and innovative methods to quantify the socioeconomic benefits of information from Earth observations; (b) a capacity building pillar to catalyze interdisciplinary linkages between Earth scientists and social scientists; and (c) a communications pillar that will convey the value of Earth observations to stakeholders in government, universities, the NGO community, and the interested public. In this presentation, we will describe ongoing and future activities of the VALUABLES Consortium, provide a brief overview of frameworks to quantify the socioeconomic value of Earth observations, and describe how Earth scientists and social scientist can get involved in the Consortium's activities.

  15. Broken-Plane Maneuver Applications for Earth to Mars Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abilleira, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Optimization techniques are critical when investigating Earth to Mars trajectories since they have the potential of reducing the total (delta)V of a mission. A deep space maneuver (DSM) executed during the cruise may improve a trajectory by reducing the total mission V. Nonetheless, DSMs not only may improve trajectory performance (from an energetic point of view) but also open up new families of trajectories that would satisfy very specific mission requirements not achievable with ballistic trajectories. In the following pages, various specific examples showing the potential advantages of the usage of broken plane maneuvers will be introduced. These examples correspond to possible scenarios for Earth to Mars trajectories during the next decade (2010-2020).

  16. Space Station: Key to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The possible applications, advantages and features of an advanced space station to be developed are considered in a non-technical manner in this booklet. Some of the areas of application considered include the following: the detection of large scale dynamic earth processes such as changes in snow pack, crops, and air pollution levels; the…

  17. Grids for Dummies: Featuring Earth Science Data Mining Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas H.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the concept and advantages of linking computers together into data grids, an emerging technology for managing information across institutions, and potential users of data grids. The logistics of access to a grid, including the use of the World Wide Web to access grids, and security concerns are also discussed. The potential usefulness of data grids to the earth science community is also discussed, as well as the Global Grid Forum, and other efforts to establish standards for data grids.

  18. SiPM application for a detector for UHE neutrinos tested at Sphinx station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iori, M.; Atakisi, I. O.; Chiodi, G.; Denizli, H.; Ferrarotto, F.; Kaya, M.; Yilmaz, A.; Recchia, L.; Russ, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present the preliminary test results of the prototype detector, working at Sphinx Observatory Center, Jungfraujoch (~3800 m a.s.l.) HFSJG - Switzerland. This prototype detector is designed to measure large zenith angle showers produced by high energy neutrino interactions in the Earth crust. This station provides us an opportunity to understand if the prototype detector works safely (or not) under hard environmental conditions (the air temperature changes between -25 °C and -5 °C). The detector prototype is using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) produced by SensL and DRS4 chip as read-out part. Measurements at different temperature at fixed bias voltage (~29.5 V) were performed to reconstruct tracks by Time Of Flight.

  19. Alternatives to Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Energy Harvesting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Direct-drive permanent magnet generators (DDPMGs) offer increased reliability and efficiency over the more commonly used geared doubly-fed induction generator, yet are only employed in less than 1 percent of utility scale wind turbines in the U.S. One major barrier to increased deployment of DDPMGs in the U.S. wind industry is NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs), which contain critical rare earth elements Nd and Dy. To allow for the use of rare earth free PMs, the magnetic loading, defined as the average magnetic flux density over the rotor surface, must be maintained. Halbach cylinders are employed in 3.5kW Halbach PMGs (HPMGs) of varying slot-to-pole ratio to concentrate the magnetic flux output by a lower energy density PM over the rotor surface. We found that for high pole and slot number, the increase in magnetic loading is sufficient to allow for the use of strontium iron oxide hard ferrite PMs and achieved rated performance. Joule losses in the stator windings were found to increase for the hard ferrite PMs due to increased inductance in the stator windings. However, for scaling of the HPMG designs to 3MW, rated performance and high efficiency were achieved, demonstrating the potential for elimination for rare earth PMs in commercial scale wind turbines. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1069283 and a Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at Iowa State University.

  20. Space Station Application of Simulator-Developed Aircrew Coordination and Performance Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Miles

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study in progress at NASA/Ames Research Center to develop measures of aircrew coordination and decision-making factors and to relate them to flight task performance, that is, to crew and system performance measures. The existence of some similar interpersonal process and task performance requirements suggests a potential application of these methods in space station crew research -- particularly research conducted in ground-based mock-ups. The secondary objective of this study should also be of interest: to develop information on crew process and performance for application in developing crew training programs.

  1. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

  2. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... power television and television translator stations. 74.789 Section 74.789 Telecommunication FEDERAL... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.789 Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator...

  3. Estimation of Remote Microclimates from Weather Station Data with Applications to Landscape Architecture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert Douglas

    Several components of a system for quantitative application of climatic statistics to landscape planning and design (CLIMACS) have been developed. One component model (MICROSIM) estimated the microclimate at the top of a remote crop using physically-based models and inputs of weather station data. Temperatures at the top of unstressed, uniform crops on flat terrain within 1600 m of a recording weather station were estimated within 1.0 C 96% of the time for a corn crop and 92% of the time for a soybean crop. Crop top winds were estimated within 0.4 m/s 92% of the time for corn and 100% of the time for soybean. This is of sufficient accuracy for application in landscape planning and design models. A physically-based model (COMFA) was developed for the determination of outdoor human thermal comfort from microclimate inputs. Estimated versus measured comfort levels in a wide range of environments agreed with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. Using these components, the CLIMACS concept has been applied to a typical planning example. Microclimate data were generated from weather station information using MICROSIM, then input to COMFA and to a house energy consumption model called HOTCAN to derive quantitative climatic justification for design decisions.

  4. Simulation of the geomagnetic field experienced by the International Space Station in its revolution around the Earth: Effects on psychophysiological responses to affective picture viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Seppia, C.; Mezzasalma, L.; Messerotti, M.; Cordelli, A.; Ghione, S.

    2006-02-01

    There is evidence suggesting that exposure to an abnormal magnetic environment may produce psychophysiological effects related to abnormalities in responses to stress. This may be of relevance for space medicine where astronauts are exposed to a magnetic field different from that exerted by the Earth. Aim of this study was to assess how the exposure of the head to a magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the International Space Station (ISS) during a single orbit (90 min) around the Earth affects the cardiovascular and psychophysiological parameters. Twenty-four human volunteers were studied double blindly in random order under sham and magnetic exposure. During exposure, the persons were shown a set of pictures of different emotional content while subjective self-rating, skin conductance (SC), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, BP, HR, and tooth pain threshold were assessed before and after exposure. While subjects were under magnetic exposure, skin conductance was strongly differentiated (F|2,36 = 22.927; p = 0.0001), being high during emotionally involving (positive and negative) pictures and low during neutral pictures. Conversely, when subjects were under sham exposure, no significant differences were observed. There was, however, a trend for higher heart rate during picture viewing under magnetic exposure as compared to sham exposure. No effects were found for the other variables. These results suggest that an abnormal magnetic field that simulates the one encountered by ISS orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli.

  5. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  6. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  7. Overview of the EarthCARE simulator and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zadelhoff, G.; Donovan, D. P.; Lajas, D.

    2011-12-01

    The EarthCARE Simulator (ECSIM) was initially developed in 2004 as a scientific tool to simulate atmospheric scenes, radiative transfer and instrument models for the four instruments of the EarthCARE mission. ECSIM has subsequently been significantly further enhanced and is evolving into a tool for both mission performance assessment and L2 retrieval development. It is an ESA requirement that all L2 retrieval algorithms foreseen for the ground segment will be integrated and tested in ECSIM. It is furthermore envisaged, that the (retrieval part of) ECSIM will be the tool for scientists to work with on updates and new L2 algorithms during the EarthCARE Commissioning phase and beyond. ECSIM is capable of performing 'end to end' simulations of single, or any combination of the EarthCARE instruments. That is, ECSIM starts with an input atmospheric ``scene'', then uses various radiative transfer and instrument models in order to generate synthetic observations which can be subsequently inverted. The results of the inversions may then be compared to the input "truth". ECSIM consists of a modular general framework populated by various models. The models within ECSIM are grouped according to the following scheme: 1) Scene creation models (3D atmospheric scene definition) 2) Orbit models (orbit and orientation of the platform as it overflies the scene) 3) Forward models (calculate the signal impinging on the telescope/antenna of the instrument(s) in question) 4) Instrument models (calculate the instrument response to the signals calculated by the Forward models) 5) Retrieval models (invert the instrument signals to recover relevant geophysical information) Within the default ECSIM models crude instrument specific parameterizations (i.e. empirically based radar reflectivity vs. IWC relationships) are avoided. Instead, the radiative transfer forward models are kept separate (as possible) from the instrument models. In order to accomplish this, the atmospheric scenes are

  8. Determination of hot-spot susceptibility of multistring photovoltaic modules in a central-station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Weaver, R. W.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Spencer, R.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA) includes a program to improve module and array reliability. A collaborative activity with industry dealing with the problem of hot-spot heating due to the shadowing of photovoltaic cells in modules and arrays containing several paralleled cell strings is described. The use of multiparallel strings in large central-station arrays introduces the likelihood of unequal current sharing and increased heating levels. Test results that relate power dissipated, current imbalance, cross-strapping frequency, and shadow configuration to hot-spot heating levels are presented. Recommendations for circuit design configurations appropriate to central-station applications that reduce the risk of hot-spot problems are offered. Guidelines are provided for developing hot-spot tests for arrays when current imbalance is a threat.

  9. Application of enhanced modern structured analysis techniques to Space Station Freedom electric power system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biernacki, John; Juhasz, John; Sadler, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    A team of Space Station Freedom (SSF) system engineers are in the process of extensive analysis of the SSF requirements, particularly those pertaining to the electrical power system (EPS). The objective of this analysis is the development of a comprehensive, computer-based requirements model, using an enhanced modern structured analysis methodology (EMSA). Such a model provides a detailed and consistent representation of the system's requirements. The process outlined in the EMSA methodology is unique in that it allows the graphical modeling of real-time system state transitions, as well as functional requirements and data relationships, to be implemented using modern computer-based tools. These tools permit flexible updating and continuous maintenance of the models. Initial findings resulting from the application of EMSA to the EPS have benefited the space station program by linking requirements to design, providing traceability of requirements, identifying discrepancies, and fostering an understanding of the EPS.

  10. Mechanical design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biss, M. S.; Hsu, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study and conceptual design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application with approximately a 100 kW power requirement. The baseline design calls for a multiple series of inverted, truncated, pyramidal optical elements with a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of 6. It also calls for low life cycle cost, simple on-orbit maintainability, 1984 technology readiness date, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) of silicon (Si) solar cell interchangeability. Due to the large area needed to produce the amount of power required for the baseline space station, a symmetrical wing design, making maximum use of the commonality of parts approach, was taken. This paper will describe the mechanical and structural design of a mass-producible solar array that is very easy to tailor to the needs of the individual user requirement.

  11. DESDynI Lidar for Solid Earth Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Hofton, Michelle; Bruhn, Ronald; Lutchke, Scott; Blair, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA's DESDynI mission, global elevation profiles from contiguous 25 m footprint Lidar measurements will be made. Here we present results of a performance simulation of a single pass of the multi-beam Lidar instrument over uplifted marine terraces in southern Alaska. The significance of the Lidar simulations is that surface topography would be captured at sufficient resolution for mapping uplifted terraces features but it will be hard to discern I-2m topographic change over features less than tens of meters in width. Since Lidar would penetrate most vegetation, the accurate bald Earth elevation profiles will give new elevation information beyond the standard 30-m OEM.

  12. Geocoded data structures and their applications to Earth science investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M.

    1984-01-01

    A geocoded data structure is a means for digitally representing a geographically referenced map or image. The characteristics of representative cellular, linked, and hybrid geocoded data structures are reviewed. The data processing requirements of Earth science projects at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the basic tools of geographic data processing are described. Specific ways that new geocoded data structures can be used to adapt these tools to scientists' needs are presented. These include: expanding analysis and modeling capabilities; simplifying the merging of data sets from diverse sources; and saving computer storage space.

  13. Earth Observation

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  14. Earth Observation

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. On crewmember's Flickr page - Look straight down into an aurora.

  15. Earth Observation

    2014-06-07

    ISS040-E-008174 (7 June 2014) --- Layers of Earth's atmosphere, brightly colored as the sun rises, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  16. Earth Observation

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  17. Earth Observation

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  18. Earth Observation

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  19. Earth Observation

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  20. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  1. Sensor Web and Intelligent Sensors for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2002-01-01

    There is a significant interest in the Earth Science remote sensing community in substantially increasing the number of observations relative to the current frequency of collection. The obvious reason for such a push is to improve the temporal and surface coverage of measurements. However, there is little analysis available in terms of benefits, costs and optimized set of sensors needed to make these necessary observations. This is a complex problem that should be carefully studied and balanced over many boundaries. For example, the question of technology maturity versus users' desire for obtaining additional measurements is noncongruent. This is further complicated by the limitations of the laws of physics and the economic conditions. With the advent of advanced technology, it is anticipated that developments in spacecraft technology will enable advanced capabilities to become more affordable. However, specialized detector subsystems, and precision flying techniques may still require substantial innovation, development time and cost. Additionally, the space deployment scheme should also be given careful attention because of the high associated expense. Nonetheless, it is important to carefully examine the science priorities and steer the development efforts that can commensurate with the tangible requirements. This presentation will focus on a possible set of architectural concepts beneficial for future Earth science studies and research its and potential benefits.

  2. Ted Madden's Network Methods: Applications to the Earth's Schumann Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. R.; Yu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ted Madden made clever use of electrical circuit concepts throughout his long career in geophysical research: induced polarization, DC resistivity, magnetotellurics, Schumann resonances, the transport properties of rocks and even elasticity and the brittle failure of stressed rocks. The general methods on network analogies were presented in a terse monograph (Madden, 1972) which came to be called "The Grey Peril" by his students, named more for the challenge of deciphering the material as for the color of its cover. This talk will focus on Ted's first major use of the transmission line analogy in treating the Earth's Schumann resonances. This approach in Madden and Thompson (1965) provided a greatly simplified two-dimensional treatment of an electromagnetic problem with a notable three-dimensional structure. This skillful treatment that included the role of the Earth's magnetic field also led to predictions that the Schumann resonance energy would leak into space, predictions that have been verified nearly 50 years later in satellite observations. An extension of the network analogy by Nelson (1967) using Green's function methods provides a means to treat the inverse problem for the background Schumann resonances for the global lightning activity. The development of Madden's methods will be discussed along with concrete results based on them for the monitoring of global lightning.

  3. Dream project: Applications of earth observations to disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, G.; Gill, S.; Davies, R.; Betorz, F.; Andalsvik, Y.; Cackler, J.; Dos Santos, W.; Dunlop, K.; Ferreira, I.; Kebe, F.; Lamboglia, E.; Matsubara, Y.; Nikolaidis, V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, S.; Sakita, M.; Verstappen, N.

    2011-01-01

    The field of disaster risk management is relatively new and takes a structured approach to managing uncertainty related to the threat of natural and man-made disasters. Disaster risk management consists primarily of risk assessment and the development of strategies to mitigate disaster risk. This paper will discuss how increasing both Earth observation data and information technology capabilities can contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in Belize. The paper presents the results and recommendations of a project conducted by an international and interdisciplinary team of experts at the 2009 session of the International Space University in NASA Ames Research Center (California, USA). The aim is to explore the combination of current, planned and potential space-aided, airborne, and ground-based Earth observation tools, the emergence of powerful new web-based and mobile data management tools, and how this combination can support and improve the emerging field of disaster risk management. The starting point of the project was the World Bank's Comprehensive Approach to Probabilistic Risk Assessment (CAPRA) program, focused in Central America. This program was used as a test bed to analyze current space technologies used in risk management and develop new strategies and tools to be applied in other regions around the world.

  4. International Space Station: becoming a reality.

    PubMed

    David, L

    1999-07-01

    An overview of the development of the International Space Station (ISS) is presented starting with a brief history of space station concepts from the 1960's to the decision to build the present ISS. Other topics discussed include partnerships with Japan, Canada, ESA countries, and Russia; design changes to the ISS modules, the use of the ISS for scientific purposes and the application of space research to medicine on Earth; building ISS modules on Earth, international funding for Russian components, and the political aspects of including Russia in critical building plans. Sidebar articles examine commercialization of the ISS, multinational efforts in the design and building of the ISS, emergency transport to Earth, the use of robotics in ISS assembly, application of lessons learned from the Skylab project to the ISS, initial ISS assembly in May 1999, planned ISS science facilities, and an overview of space stations in science fiction.

  5. [Application of digital earth technology in research of traditional Chinese medicine resources].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.

  6. Application of Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, Robert E.; De Grave, Eddy

    Iron being the fourth most abundant element in the earth crust, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy has become a suitable additional technique for the characterization of all kind of soil materials and minerals. However, for that purpose a good knowledge of the spectral behavior of the various minerals is indispensable. In this chapter a review of the most important soil materials and rock-forming minerals is presented. It starts with a description of the Mössbauer spectroscopic features of the iron oxides and hydroxides, which are essentially present in soils and sediments. Further, the Mössbauer spectra from sulfides, sulfates and carbonates are briefly considered. Finally, the Mössbauer features of the typical and most common silicate and phosphate minerals are reported. The chapter ends with some typical examples, illustrating the use and power of Mössbauer spectroscopy in the characterization of minerals.

  7. Artificial intelligence applications concepts for the remote sensing and earth science community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Roelofs, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    The following potential applications of AI to the study of earth science are described: (1) intelligent data management systems; (2) intelligent processing and understanding of spatial data; and (3) automated systems which perform tasks that currently require large amounts of time by scientists and engineers to complete. An example is provided of how an intelligent information system might operate to support an earth science project.

  8. Computer Programs for Plotting Spot-Beam Coverages from an Earth-Synchronous Satellite and Earth-Station Antenna Elevation Angle Contours. Memorandum Number 72/4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; Singh, Jai P.

    Computer programs prepared in connection with a project on Application of Communication Satellites to Educational Development (see EM 010 449) are described and listed in this memorandum. First, the data tape containing a digitized map of the world which was used for the programs is described. Then the first program, WORLDMAP, which plots the tape…

  9. Results of Joint Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere by Juno and a Network of Earth-Based Observing Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Glenn; Momary, Thomas; Bolton, Scott; Levin, Steven; Hansen, Candice; Janssen, Michael; Adriani, Alberto; Gladstone, G. Randall; Bagenal, Fran; Ingersoll, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The Juno mission has promoted and coordinated a network of Earth-based observations, including both Earth-proximal and ground-based facilities, to extend and enhance observations made by the Juno mission. The spectral region and timeline of all of these observations are summarized in the web site: https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations. Among the earliest of these were observation of Jovian auroral phenomena at X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths and measurements of Jovian synchrotron radiation from the Earth simultaneously with the measurement of properties of the upstream solar wind. Other observations of significance to the magnetosphere measured the mass loading from Io by tracking its observed volcanic activity and the opacity of its torus. Observations of Jupiter's neutral atmosphere included observations of reflected sunlight from the near-ultraviolet through the near-infrared and thermal emission from 5 μm through the radio region. The point of these measurements is to relate properties of the deep atmosphere that are the focus of Juno's mission to the state of the "weather layer" at much higher atmospheric levels. These observations cover spectral regions not included in Juno's instrumentation, provide spatial context for Juno's often spatially limited coverage of Jupiter, and they describe the evolution of atmospheric features in time that are measured only once by Juno. We will summarize the results of measurements during the approach phase of the mission that characterized the state of the atmosphere, as well as observations made by Juno and the supporting campaign during Juno's perijoves 1 (2016 August 27), 3 (2016 December 11), 4 (2017 February 2) and possibly "early" results from 5 (2017 March 27). Besides a global network of professional astronomers, the Juno mission also benefited from the enlistment of a network of dedicated amateur astronomers who provided a quasi-continuous picture of the evolution of features observed by

  10. Accommodation requirements for microgravity science and applications research on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, M. L.; Holland, L. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1985-01-01

    Scientific research conducted in the microgravity environment of space represents a unique opportunity to explore and exploit the benefits of materials processing in the virtual abscence of gravity induced forces. NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. A study is performed to define from the researchers' perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. The accommodation requirements focus on the microgravity science disciplines including combustion science, electronic materials, metals and alloys, fluids and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, and polymer science. User requirements have been identified in eleven research classes, each of which contain an envelope of functional requirements for related experiments having similar characteristics, objectives, and equipment needs. Based on these functional requirements seventeen items of experiment apparatus and twenty items of core supporting equipment have been defined which represent currently identified equipment requirements for a pressurized laboratory module at the initial operating capability of the NASA space station.

  11. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health: Moving from Research to Operational End Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, J.; Estes, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Health providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate NASA's applied science programs efforts to transition from research to operations to benefit society. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the health research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in health research and the transition to operational end users.

  12. Infrared fiber-optic fire sensors - Concepts and designs for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Porter, Alan R.

    1990-01-01

    Various design configurations used for testing IR fiber-optic (IFO) fire-sensor concepts are presented. Responsibility measurements conducted to select the best concept are reviewed. The results indicate that IFO fire-sensor systems based on distributed fiber sensors are feasible for future aerospace applications. For Space Station Freedom, these systems offer alternative fire detectors for monitoring areas within equipment or stage compartments where the ventilation may be inadequate for proper operation of smoke detectors. They also allow a large number of areas to be monitored by a single central detector unit, which reduces the associated cost and weight.

  13. Space Station

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  14. Heat-physical properties of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avduyevskiy, V. S.; Anfimov, N. A.; Marov, M. Y.; Treskin, Y. A.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ekonomov, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    Density, specific heat capacity, and coefficient of thermal conductivity were studied on a sample of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. The study was carried out in a helium-filled chamber. The density of the surface material when freely heaped was 1.2 g/cu cm, and when shaken down -- 1.7 g/cu cm. The specific heat capacity was 0.177 + or - 0.010 cal x g/1 x deg/1. The coefficient of thermal conductivity in the material was 4.8 x 10/6 + or - 1.2 x 10/6 cal x cm/1 x sec/1 x deg/1.

  15. NASA Applied Sciences Program. Overview Presentation; Discovering and Demonstrating Innovative and Practical Applications of Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Goal 1: Enhance Applications Research Advance the use of NASA Earth science in policy making, resource management and planning, and disaster response. Key Actions: Identify priority needs, conduct applied research to generate innovative applications, and support projects that demonstrate uses of NASA Earth science. Goal 2: Increase Collaboration Establish a flexible program structure to meet diverse partner needs and applications objectives. Key Actions: Pursue partnerships to leverage resources and risks and extend the program s reach and impact. Goal 3:Accelerate Applications Ensure that NASA s flight missions plan for and support applications goals in conjunction with their science goals, starting with mission planning and extending through the mission life cycle. Key Actions: Enable identification of applications early in satellite mission lifecycle and facilitate effective ways to integrate end-user needs into satellite mission planning

  16. Micromorphological features of the fine earth and skeletal fractions of soils of West Antarctica in the areas of Russian Antarctic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E. V.; Gagarina, E. I.; Sapega, V. F.; Vlasov, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    Micromorphological features of the fine earth and skeletal fractions of soils of West Antarctica forming under different conditions of pedogenesis have been studied in the areas of Russian Antarctic stations. The processes of mineral weathering and alteration of rock fragments are more pronounced in the Subantarctic soils with better developed humification and immobilization of iron compounds under conditions of surface overmoistening. The biogenic accumulative processes in the soils of King George Island result in the appearance of initial forms of humic plasma that have not been detected in the Antarctic soils in the areas of the Russkaya and Leningradskaya stations. Humus films on mineral grains are present in the soils of King George Island, and organic plasmic material is present in the ornithogenic soils under penguin guano on Lindsey Island. High-latitude Antarctic soils may contain surface concentrations of organic matter; rock fragments are covered by iron oxides and soluble salts. The formation of amorphous organic plasma takes place in the ornithogenic soils of Lindsey Island. The microprobe analysis indicates the presence of local concentrations of organic matter and pedogenic compounds not only on the surface of rock fragments but also in the fissures inside them. This analysis has also proved the translocation of guano-derived organic substances inside rock fragments through a system of fissures in the soils of Lindsey Island and the development of a network of pores inside rock fragments in the soils of King George Island.

  17. Application of high precision two-way S-band ranging to the navigation of the Galileo Earth encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollmeier, Vincent M.; Kallemeyn, Pieter H.; Thurman, Sam W.

    1993-01-01

    The application of high-accuracy S/S-band (2.1 GHz uplink/2.3 GHz downlink) ranging to orbit determination with relatively short data arcs is investigated for the approach phase of each of the Galileo spacecraft's two Earth encounters (8 December 1990 and 8 December 1992). Analysis of S-band ranging data from Galileo indicated that under favorable signal levels, meter-level precision was attainable. It is shown that ranginging data of sufficient accuracy, when acquired from multiple stations, can sense the geocentric angular position of a distant spacecraft. Explicit modeling of ranging bias parameters for each station pass is used to largely remove systematic ground system calibration errors and transmission media effects from the Galileo range measurements, which would otherwise corrupt the angle finding capabilities of the data. The accuracy achieved using the precision range filtering strategy proved markedly better when compared to post-flyby reconstructions than did solutions utilizing a traditional Doppler/range filter strategy. In addition, the navigation accuracy achieved with precision ranging was comparable to that obtained using delta-Differenced One-Way Range, an interferometric measurement of spacecraft angular position relative to a natural radio source, which was also used operationally.

  18. 47 CFR 25.226 - Blanket Licensing provisions for domestic, U.S. Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMESs) receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vicinity of radio astronomy service (RAS) observatories observing in the 14.47-14.5 GHz band are subject to... RAS site, its location, and the applicable coordination zone. Table 1—Applicable Radio Astronomy... Radio Astronomy Observatory, Stinchfield Woods, MI 42°23′56″ 83°56′11″ 160. Very Long Baseline Array...

  19. NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory - Seventeen years of using remotely sensed satellite data in land applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cashion, Kenneth D.; Whitehurst, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    The activities of the Earth Resources Laboratoy (ERL) for the past seventeen years are reviewed with particular reference to four typical applications demonstrating the use of remotely sensed data in a geobased information system context. The applications discussed are: a fire control model for the Olympic National Park; wildlife habitat modeling; a resource inventory system including a potential soil erosion model; and a corridor analysis model for locating routes between geographical locations. Some future applications are also discussed.

  20. 47 CFR 1.1107 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Assignments or transfers (all services) Corres & 159 1,015.00 CUT 3. Fixed Satellite Transmit/Receive Earth... 175.00 CGX 4. Fixed Satellite transmit/receive Earth Stations (2 meters or less operating in the 4/6... Only Earth Stations: a. Initial Applications for Registration or License (per station) 312 Main...